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Scientific chart of the International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening: Secretary General of the Conference: Dr. Ali Akbar Velayati Scientific secretary of the Conference: Dr. Abdullah Mobini Members of the Scientific Committee:

Dr. Ibrahim Motaqi/ Dr. Manouchehr Mohammadi/ Dr. Seyyed Mohammad Raees-Zadeh/ Mohammad Ruivaran/ Ali Mohammad Fouladi/ Dr. Hamid Reza Akhavan-Fard/ Dr. Asghar Qaedan/ Dr. Mustafa Malakootian/ Dr. Hossein Sharifi Taraz-Karami/ Dr. Saeed Tavakoli/ Dr. Abdulhamid Sahrayi/ Ali Sabet/ Dr. Nabiollahi Rouhi/ Seyyed Mehdi Hosseini/ Dr. Niazi/ Dr. Reza Kalhor/ Dr. Hojjatollah Izadi/ Dr. Mostafa Izadi

Papers of the International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Compiled by the scientific committee of conference Editors: Seyed Mehdi Hosseini, Tahereh Zare, Seyed Kamaloddin Rafiee, Seyyed Hossein Hosseini, Maryam Golbaz Layout: Rouholamini Institute Cover design: Abna’ Institute Translators: Abna’ Institute Publisher: Abna’ Institute First published in January 2012 (Bahman 1390) Circulation: 2000


02. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious revolution and its formation and continuation 30. Challenges facing the Islamic Awakening and role of youth in dealing with them 60. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions and Speculating on How to Implement It in Order to Maintain the Islamic Awakening Achievements 80. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of Islamic Awakening on the Basis of the Comments of the Leader of Iran’s Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khamenei 116. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the Islamic

Awareness as viewed by the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei 136. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian Supreme Leader’s Thoughts on Muslim Youth 184. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni (Harbinger of Islamic awakening in the 20th century) 206. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the Islamic Awakening Process 226. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING THE MUSLIM YOUTH

249. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a Model for the Youth in the Islamic Awakening 284. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental framework of the Islamic awakening and the youth: Explanation of the factors of authenticity, preservation and survival of the Islamic Awakening 319. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience, Execute Fears, Unite, Plan and Organize to Achieve Victory

An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...

An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious revolution and its formation and continuation Mostafa Malakootian PhDูก


Introduction: Revolutions have broken out with different natures. However, no theorist in the field of revolution or revolutionary leader can claim that a revolution has occurred only for political, financial, or social state of a country. The main factor in the occurrence of a revolution is the societyโ€บs opinion, thought, cause, and will (Seyed Mohammad Bagher Sadr, Traditions of History in the Holy Quran). The emergence and representation is more evident and obvious in religious revolutions. In the writing, after discussing some issues about the philosophy of revolution, which include some key questions, types of revolutions and some western theories about revolution, we will explain what a revolution is and how a religious revolution forms and finally we will open a discussion about the experiences of the Islamic Revolution for continuation of religious revolutions. Considering that the Islamic Revolution of Iran is an ideal religious revolution, in the research we will utilize the revolution to prove the contents. Key questions about the phenomenon of revolution What is confined in the field of revolution is not out of the 1.Associate professor, Tehran University, the Faculty of Political Sciences

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening following questions: 1. What is a revolution? - The answer to the question involves the meaning, concept, and features of a revolution and recounts the differences between the phenomenon and relevant concepts such as movement, reform, civil war, coup-dݎtat, etc. and various types of revolution. In reply to the above question, different views, according to their philosophies and standpoints, have not reached a consensus of opinion about the meaning of revolution and proposed various definitions. Considering the turmoil of definitions about the phenomenon of revolution, the writer intends to open a discussion on the common features of revolutions and believes that in any credible definition of revolution, the features should be considered. The features will be mentioned in the writing. 2. Why does a revolution occur? - Most revolutionary theories have been put forward to answer the above question. In order to answer the question, any theory concludes with several key factors and conditions after its examination. In other words, after exploring for the reason behind the occurrence of a revolution, researcher finds the emergence of several factors which have caused the occurrence of the revolution. For example, Structural-Functionalism theory, after a sociological examination of variables like social systems, recounts three conditions for occurrence of a revolution: the decline of power or imbalance (value-environmental), the dissension among governing elite and accelerating factors. The conclusion recounts the reasons behind the occurrence


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... of a revolution from this viewpoint. (Chalmers Johnson 1984 pp 9-134)


3. How does a revolution occur? - Sometimes differentiating between the two questions, why and how a revolution occurs, is difficult in action. However, by saying how the revolutions occur two issues are raised, first, how the conditions that was mentioned in the second question — why does a revolution occur? — are created and second, after the creation of such conditions the continuation of the developments that is how and by what means the victory or defeat of the rebellions occurs. In other words, we should refer to the history of a country in which a revolution has broken out to find how the revolution occurred. And by finding a point, in which we can surely say that the government had enough legitimacy, acceptability, authority, and stability, we should follow the events that occurred after the point and caused the government lose the legitimacy and stability, the events that caused the emergence of main and fundamental reasons behind the occurrence of the revolution, which were mentioned in the answer to the second question, and made the revolution inevitable. We should also take into account the conditions and events that caused the victory or defeat of the rebellions. It should be remembered that understanding how a revolution occurs is more difficult than why it occurs, and in historic analysis of revolutions, we will find numerous ways in which revolutions have occurred. Therefore, although we can find the main reasons behind the revolution in an easier way, summarizing the discussions concerning how a revolution occurs and proposing a theory is not that easy because of

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening the variety of historic routes of different revolutions. 4. What impacts and effects does a revolution have on the country, in which it occurs, region and the world? What methods have foreign states used to confront a revolution which has threatened their colonialist interests? The works and writings about the phenomenon of revolution are mainly in the area of the first three questions mentioned above and the analyses of the fourth question have relatively been rare. However, the internal effects of revolutions are numerous and at most times they have been historic. In an article titled «Revolution and International Relations,» Holiday criticizes western authors› ignorance of the international effects of revolutions and comments on the campaigns of the world›s powers against the revolutions. He also recounts the different aspects of revolutions› influence over mutual or international relations and proposes some writings in this field. However, Holiday himself did not examine the subject perfectly. This research is centered on questions 1 and 2, i.e. why and how religious revolutions occur. Varieties of revolutions: Considering its long record, the phenomenon of revolution has emerged with various faces up to now. Authors have classified the phenomenon as following: A. The classification of revolutions according to the rate and type of changes caused by them From this view, revolutions have been classified into two groups: political and social revolution (large and great)


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


In the political revolutions changes are mostly social rather than political and in the worst state, the type of political regime changes. In these revolutions, the power of governmental structures may change and the political regime remains unchanged with the same name and form. Of course, there is no political revolution that does not cause any social changes. For example the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1906 is a political revolution. In the social revolutions, in addition to political changes, evident changes occur in the official culture, economic and political structures as well as foreign relations of a country. Revolutions in France (1789), Russia (1917), China (1949) and the Islamic revolution of Iran are instances of social or large revolutions. Of course, the Islamic Revolution of Iran, which can correctly be named great revolution, has had tremendous influences at national and international levels compared with other contemporary revolutions. At the national level, the revolution caused the formation of a government based on divine causes with reliance upon the people›s votes. The revolution proceeded to make serious efforts to achieve quickly self-sufficiency and development in various areas. At the international level, the nature of the revolution and its leadership, the similarity between the political cultural situation of the Muslim world and that of Iran before the Islamic Revolution, the importance and strategic position of Iran and some other reasons caused the emergence of an exclusive model of reflection of a revolution on the regional and international issues. B. Geographical-Cultural classification One of the authors in the 20th century has divided the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening revolutions into two groups: Eastern revolutions and Western revolutions. In this classification which is mostly geographical and to some extent cultural, the priority of three issues is different. The three issues are as follows: 1. The breakup of power 2. The revolutionaries› entrance to the scene 3. The foundation of new political order Western revolutions 1. The breakup of power (governing system) 2. The revolutionaries› entrance to the scene 3. The institutionalization of new political order

Eastern revolutions 1. The revolutionaries› entrance to the scene 2. The institutionalization of new political order 3. The breakup of power (governing system)

According to the author, in the western revolutions, everyone at once find that the government has no power and its political, military and managing power is declining. At this juncture, revolutionaries, who are mostly moderate, enter the scene and then move away because of their inability to meet the revolutionaries› demands and hand over the power to the radicals. And then the new political order is institutionalized. While in the Eastern revolutions, due to the power of government which has not collapsed, rebellions who are not generally moderate, take actions against the government from jungles and mountains and if they occupy a place, they will institutionalize the new political order and when they capture the capital, the governing system collapses (Samuel Huntington 1991).


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... Revolutions in France (1789), Russia (1917), China (1911), are among Western revolutions, and revolutions in China (1949), Cuba (1959), Vietnam (1975), and Algeria (1962) are among Eastern revolutions. As you see, the classification is geographical at first sight. But a revolution can occur in the East on the basis of a Western model, and a revolution in the West on the basis of an Eastern model. The Islamic revolution of Iran, which is a religious revolution, cannot be placed in those classifications, because at the time of its occurrence the government had not collapsed, and did not begin by the entrance of revolutionaries to the scene (moves in jungles and mountains).


C. The classification of revolutions according to the nature of revolutionaries› demands From the viewpoint of the nature of the revolutionaries› demands and requests, revolutions have divided into three groups: political revolution, economic revolution, and ideological (religious) revolution (Morteza Motahari, the surroundings of the Islamic Revolution, pp 23-43). For example the revolution occurred in France in 1789 is a political revolution due to its emphasis on liberalism and the revolution occurred in 1917 in Russia is economic due to its emphasis on the element of economics and the Islamic revolution of Iran, which occurred with an emphasis on the role of religion which itself includes political, economic, cultural, and social elements, is an ideological (religious) revolution. In this classification, the nature of revolutionaries›

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening demands is the criterion for placing revolutions in one of the three groups and an ideological (religious) revolution means a revolution in which leaders and the masses intend to put their religious beliefs into practice rather than insisting on only achieving freedom or equality like a number of previous contemporary revolutions. In addition, their cause has a political, social and economic nature. The classification of revolutionary theories Considering the multiplicity of the revolutionary theories, some theorists have classified revolutions according to their scientific approach or time of occurrence and recounted famous examples for them. Two classifications are mentioned as follows: 1. Stan taylor has divided the theories about the occurrence of revolutions into four groups: sociological, psychological, economic and political. In the sociological theories there is an emphasis on sociological factors like social classes and stratifications, for instance, Structural-Functionalism theory by Chalmers Johnson. In psychological theories there is emphasis on the psychological factors like personality of individuals, the mental conditions of society and issues like an increase in the expectations or feeling deprivation, for instance, ‚J-curve› theory by James Chowning Davies and Relative deprivation theory by Ted Robert Gurr. In the economic theories and in the Marxists› ideas, the economy is considered foundation or is a key factor, and finally in the political theories there is an emphasis on the political factors, for instance, Resource mobilization theory by Charles Tilly.


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


The Islamic Revolution of Iran as a genuine religious revolution was a challenge for theories about revolutions because the roles of cultural factors were outstanding compared with social, political and economic factors. Cultural factors like the clerics and mosques had independent, conceptual and coordinator roles in the revolution. 2. In the other famous classification, Jack Goldstone has divided theories about revolutions in the 20th century into three generations and after the Islamic Revolution of Iran and other revolutions in late 20th century proposed the fourth generation. A. First generation includes years between 1900 and 1940 and persons like Pitirim Sorokin, Crane Brinton, Samuel P. Huntington, Charles A. Ellwood. What was important to the generation was description of a revolutionary process and explanation of the signs of a revolutionary situation (Goldstone, 1980: 425-427). The theorists focused on the description of past famous revolutions like the French Revolution and did not make any effort to provide a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of revolution. B. Second generation theorists sought to develop detailed theories of why and when revolutions arise, grounded in more complex social behavior theories. They can be divided into three major approaches: psychological, sociological and political. The works of Ted Robert Gurr, Ivo K. Feierbrand, Rosalind L. Feierbrand, James A. Geschwender, David C. Schwartz and Denton E. Morrison fall into the first category. They followed theories of cognitive psychology and frustrationaggression theory and saw the cause of revolution in the state of mind of the masses, and while they varied in their

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening approach as to what exactly caused the people to revolt (e.g. modernization, recession or discrimination), they agreed that the primary cause for revolution was the widespread frustration with socio-political situation. The second group, composed of academics such as Chalmers Johnson, Neil Smelser, Bob Jessop, Mark Hart, Edward A. Tiryakian, Mark Hagopian, followed in the footsteps of Talcott Parsons and the structural-functionalist theory in sociology; they saw society as a system in equilibrium between various resources, demands and subsystems (political, cultural, etc.). As in the psychological school, they differed in their definitions of what causes disequilibrium, but agreed that it is a state of a severe disequilibrium that is responsible for revolutions. Finally, the third group, which included writers such as Charles Tilly, Samuel P. Huntington, Peter Ammann and Arthur L. Stinchcombe followed the path of political sciences and looked at pluralist theory and interest group conflict theory. Those theories see events as outcomes of a power struggle between competing interest groups. (Ibid, 428-429). C. Third generation of theories was formed in mid-1970s and with writers such as Theda Skocpol, Barrington Moore, Jeffrey Paige and others expanding on the old Marxist class conflict approach, turning their attention to rural agrarianstate conflicts, state conflicts with autonomous elites and the impact of interstate economic and military competition on domestic political change. Particularly Skocpol›s States and Social Revolutions became one of the most widely recognized works of the third generation; (Eisenstadt, 1978: 86/ Godstone, 1980: 435-437)


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


The 1970s was a decade during which the third generation became prevalent. Between the years 1970 and 1990 a number of revolutions occurred which were indicative of the fact that the theories had serious problems. In the Iranian and Nicaraguan Revolutions of 1979, multi-class coalitions toppled dictators that were backed by Western superpowers. In Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union big changes occurred in the systems on the basis of public demonstrations and protests rather than class struggle, and dictatorial regimes were overthrown. None of them could be explained by theories based on the few occasions in the history of Europe and China (Geldstone,2001/ Farhi, 1990). The occurrence of the Islamic Revolution questioned the theory of Skocpol in her book titled “States and Social Revolutions” in such a way that in 1982 in an article titled “Rentier State and Shi›a Islam in the Iranian Revolution,” she retracted her words that said revolutions are not made; they happen, and wrote that if there was only one revolution in the world that was made by a conscious revolutionary movement, the Iranian Revolution would be that revolution, and in this way emphasized the roles of leadership and the causes (Skocpol 205-206, 189-190). Problems of third generation theories in analyzing new revolutions, paved the way for the fourth generation of theories which are now in the making. Undoubtedly, the Islamic Revolution of Iran was one of the most important revolutions that challenged the third generation theories. The significant role of culture, leadership and the cause in the Islamic Revolution is the most important addition to the discussions over revolutions. The Islamic Revolution of Iran also challenged the enlightened theories of wisdom

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening (the spread of liberal freedom). Not using weapons in the Islamic Revolution and moving through protests, rallies and public protests dissociate the revolution from other revolutions. In the new situation, Jack Goldstone, who divided theories about revolutions into three generations, talked about the eruption of the fourth generation of theories in scientific and academic circles in a paper titled ÂŤTowards a Fourth Generation of Revolutionary TheoryÂť. Goldstone says it seems that the third generation of revolutionary theories is over; however the dominance of the fourth generation has not occurred yet. The generation has regarded stability as the main issue and focused on the conditions that regimes preserve over time. The generation proves the significant role of issues on identity, ideology, gender, networks and leadership and regards the revolutionary processes and output data as the outcome of interaction among multilateral actors (Goldstone: 2001, 175-176). According to Foran, the two revolutions occurred in Iran and Nicaragua prepared the way for the emergence of the fourth generation. A generation which dissociates itself from sheer structural and determinism viewpoints and values the roles of culture, ideology, mobilization of resources, unbalanced development and so on (Moshirzadeh 34 -1995, Foran 1993). Nature of a religious revolution Professor Morteza Motahari has defined revolution as a revolt and rebellion against governing system to create a favorable system which is associated with the sense


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


of oppression, aggression and the spirit of rejection of oppression and unfavorable situation. According to his words, the orientation of divine movements is toward the deprived but its origin is not only the deprived. In this regard, he wrote that the Islam addresses all social classes and groups, whether the haves or the haves-not, because within each Pharaoh, there is a good human in shackles, of course, the poor usually say yes to God›s invitation, because the oppressor should give back the poor’s rights and ignore their own interests if they say yes to God›s invitation, but the poor by doing this say yes to their nature and also gain something. On the features of an Islamic revolution, Professor Motahari says «We know that Islam is not pure spirituality, as the westerners’ notion about religion. This fact not only applies to the current revolution (the Islamic Revolution of Iran), but it also applies to the revolution of early Islam. The revolution of early Islam was a political and religious revolution. While it was a spiritual and political revolution it was also an economic and financial one. It means that there are the concepts of freedom, justice, the absence of discrimination among social classes and social gaps in the context of Islamic teachings. It was thanks to the replacement of these concepts in the minds of the masses that our recent movements became epidemic and comprehensive. The movement was both rural and urban. Urban and rural, rich and poor, workers and farmers, open-minded and ignorant, all and all, participated in this movement. And it was also thanks to the Islamic nature of the movement that all groups joined together. The more important fact than the coordination is that our

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening movement could tell people that they have their own school and independent thought and that they can stand on their own feet, and rely only on themselves.Âť If we suppose that the following features of a society can lead to the occurrence of a revolution, all the features will have a religious origin in a religious revolution: 1. The alienation of society from current situation 2. The spread of new alternative causes 3. The leadership role and its structures 4. The role of the masses 5. The spread of the revolutionary spirit and the sense of aggression 6. The change in cultural political and economic conditions Because: 1. Considering the intellectual contents of a religious society, dissatisfaction with the current situation occurs when individuals find that what occurs in the political, social and economic areas in their community are in consistent with their thoughts and intellectual contents which are the product of the religious culture of their country. 2. In a religious society, people are generally and rapidly attracted by those revolutionary causes that are more compatible with them which are religious causes. 3. In these communities, religious leaders occupy the role of leadership of revolutionary movements and pave the way for the victory of the revolution with less casualties and damages through devising special strategies. 4. In a religious society, religion plays a substantial role in the formation of revolutionary causes, and its contents like


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


opposing to oppression, seeking martyrdom, and complying with religious duties play important roles in creating the revolutionary spirit and leading the revolutionary movement toward its victory. 5. Religious revolution has the support of religious people who are ready to devote themselves to their causes. The purpose of these revolutions is not only political or financial, but people want to put their religious causes into practice which has also political and economic dimensions. At this juncture, the elements of religion and faith create an astonishing power which pushes aside the political power and its foreign supporters and prevent them to pursue any initiative. The situation was evident during the occurrence of the Islamic revolution which could achieve victory despite the enormous power of Pahlavi regime. In summary we can say that a religious revolution - that has a historical-religious culture, religious causes, religious leadership and faithful people – is possible to occur at the time of the regime’s contempt for the people and its antireligious behaviors in cultural, political and economic areas, the backwardness of the country, and so on. The conditions are currently seen in the Arab Middle East countries. Formation and success of the religious revolutions For the formation of a religious revolution with the mentioned features some issues are necessary. What has been seen in every revolution is the bipolarization of the society, i.e. a conflict between two forces and the impossibility of resolving the conflict: political power and social (revolutionary) power (Manouchehr Mohammadi 1986 – pp 71-72)

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening In addition, the total power of a society should be much more than that of political power in order that a revolution achieves victory. Of course, by power here we do not mean only the material and tangible factors such as number of partners in power, military power, economic power and or external support. The intangible factors of power like the power of faith and the cause, influence and leadership strategies and competencies, and depth of the revolutionary spirit, etc. should be taken into account in examining the power. 1. The role of political power’s features and measures A dependent, authoritarian and inefficient political power takes some social, cultural and political measures which are not accepted by the society and in this way lead the community into bipolarization. The sense of alienation from the current situation in a religious revolution is much more than that sense in a secular revolution. In a secular revolution, demands, which mostly relate to wealth, prosperity, and participation in political power and the like, may end in reformist compromise after the withdrawal of the government. And possibly even secular triumphed revolutions, accept to return to previous conditions after the revolution due to accepting the global rules and lack of vigilance against pseudo-friends. In a religious revolution, the national humiliation, political, cultural, economic dependencies, wide gaps between social classes and westernization of the government are much more outstanding thanks to the religious cultural and historical public views. Of course, the role of the revolutionary leaders at this stage is crucial, in such a way that it is dangerous to trust


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


demagoguery and efforts of the enemies. 2. The role of social power’s features and measures Social power in religious revolutions includes the causes of religious revolution, leadership of religious revolution, and faithful people. The combination of the three elements, which have the same origin, causes unity and a tremendous power in a revolutionary situation, and can lead to the victory of the revolution. The causes of a religious revolution, which are combined with the element of religious faith, are genuine and their holders rarely give up to the worldly promises of dependent regimes. Similarly, religious leaders prefer to achieve spiritual objectives rather than worldly affairs due to their piety. When the religious masses are added to the two elements, and when the concepts martyrdom seeking, sacrifice and the sense of religious duty enters the revolutionary movement, political power is weakened and becomes feeble facing the revolution. In religious revolutions (or any other revolution) the best result will be achieved only when the leadership has unity within itself and exude self-confidence as well as a strong will, and choose right strategies based on the current situation. 3. Counterrevolutionary measures of foreign powers As soon as a revolution occurs, especially a religious one, the hegemonistic powers begin to make every effort to preserve their colonialist interests according to the current situation. As we can see in the Islamic awakening current, in the Arab revolutions occurring in the North Africa and the littoral states in the Persian Gulf region, the efforts

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening by the foreign powers include a range of measures from military intervention for seemingly humanitarian reasons (such as in Libya, the powers entered the political game in order to preserve their interests) to the measures like asking the leaders of a country to assign the power to the military forces (such as in Egypt and Tunisia in order to have time for making changes in favor of themselves) as well as measures like paving the way for military interventions of neighbor countries (such as in Bahrain and Yemen). The foreign domineering powers facing the revolutions may also take other measures like direct military intervention if national and international conditions allow them to do so, for instance the direct military intervention of the United States in Vietnam (1965-1975) which ended in infamous failure. They also make efforts to penetrate weak elements among revolutionaries, to impose economic sanctions after the victory revolutions and so on, although they mostly fail. The failures, especially in the religious revolutions, are broader and more intense, because there is no element of faith in their political terminology, and they are unaware of its power. 4. The experiences of the Islamic Revolution for continuation of religious revolutions The Islamic Revolution of Iran as an excellent model of religious revolutions, which is unique in the features mentioned for revolutions, has been able to preserve its dynamics, remove the enemies› masks and witness their growing weakness with its ever-increasing power. Considering the history of developments after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, It can be said that the key factors of the victories of the revolution are as follows, excluding


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


the prominent role of the powerful leaders of the revolution over the past 33 years: 1. Writing and adopting a religion-oriented constitution After the victory of a revolution, writing a constitution is one of the first measures of the revolutionaries. Obviously the ideals and causes of a religious revolution can be achieved only through a religious constitution, and any effort by revolutionaries to evade the issue may prepare the ground for a return to the previous conditions and the surrender to the hegemonistic powers. 2. Establishment of revolutionary institutions In order to mange affairs during the occurrence of a revolution, avoid returning the previous conditions, and achieve the causes and objectives of the revolution, it is necessary to establish revolutionary institutions. For instance, Imam Khomeini (RA) stated that if the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps did not exist, the country would not exist either. Generally, in a religious revolution, the future of the revolution should be guaranteed though establishing such institutions as circumstances may allow. 3. Maintaining and sustaining the objectives and slogans of the revolution Constant attention to the slogans means enlivening the revolution and preparing the ground for achieving objectives. Among the slogans, the slogan of the role of religion in government and the slogan of independence is very important and vital. Countries that have lost their independence after their revolutions had no significant progress. The religious revolutions have global messages. In case of ignorance to the principle of Export of revolution, find

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening themselves surrounded by the global counter-revolution. The revolutions, which have gained their driving force from unity based on religious causes, if move toward dissension, will face serious problems in promoting and preserving the revolution. 4. Making efforts to build an advanced and self-sufficient society Advances in science, technology and industry and having developed and self-sufficient economy are an authentic religious value. Islam has advised Muslims to avoid affairs causing the dominance of infidels and polytheists over them. The Islamic Revolution of Iran proved that it is possible to withstand pressures and imposed sanctions and to prepare the grounds for being at the height of your success and self-confidence with reliance upon your independence and capabilities. Conclusion: From the four questions concerning the phenomenon of revolution, the analysis focused on two questions: what is a religious revolution? And why does occur? The writing also regarded a religious revolution as a great revolution in which the leaders and the masses are seeking to put their religious thoughts and ideas into practice. In the research, the Islamic Revolution of Iran, whose occurrence challenged the revolutionary theories and changed their generations, was also regarded as an excellent model of religious revolutions. Recounting the conditions which lead to the occurrence of a revolution, the research highlighted the religious


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... nature of the conditions in a religious revolution. On the formation of a religious revolution, It also explained that bipolarization of society and dispute between social power and political power is the main condition for the occurrence of a revolution and the superiority of social power (tangible and intangible) over the political power is the reason behind the victory of revolution. It also emphasized that the power of faith can create a complete unity among the forces. In the end, the writing proposed four examples of the most important experiences of the Islamic Revolution to serve as strategies for sustaining religious revolutions. References:


1. Skocpol. Theda, States and Social Revolutions, translated by Seyed Majid Rointan, Tehran, Soroush, 1997. 2. Johnson. Chalmers, Revolutionary Change, translated by Hamid Eliasi, Tehran, Amir Kabir, 1984. 3. Sadr. Seyed Mohammad Bagher, Traditions of History in the Holy Quran, translated by Seyed Jamal Mousavi, Qom, Islamic Publications office, Bita 4. Green. Gerald, «Mobilizing the Opposition in Iran,» Comparative, Theoretical Historical Studies on Revolution, Jack Goldstone (Editor), translated by Mohammad Taghi Delafrooz, Tehran, Kavir, 2006. 5. Mohaamadi. Manouchehr, an Analysis of the Islamic Revolution, Tehran, Amir Kabir, 1986. 6. Moshirzadeh. Homeira, «A Brief Look at the Revolutionary Theories in Social Sciences,» series on the Islamic Revolution and its roots, Qom. 7- Motahari. Morteza, the Surroundings of the Islamic Revolution, Qom, Islamic Publications Office, Bita 8 - Malakootian. Mostafa, «Revolution from Beginning to End; Review of Seven Common Features of Revolution», Journal of Law and Political Science, No. 57, October 2002. 9- Eisenstadt, Revolution and the Transformation of Societies, New York: Free Press, 1978. 10- Farhi. F, States and Urban - based Revolution: Iran and Nicaragua,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Urbana & Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 1990. 11- Foran. John, «Theories of Revolution Revisited: Toward Fourth Generation?» Social Theory, 11, 1993. 12- Goldstone. Jack, «Theories of Revolution: The Third Generation», World Politics, 32, 1980. 13- Goldstone. Jack, «Toward a Fourth Generation of Revolutionary Theory», Annu. Rev Sci: 2001, 4:XX, Copyright 2001, by Annual Reviews.


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Challenges facing the Islamic Awakening and role of youth in dealing with them By Salman Karamian Ismail Hemmatian Introduction and significance of the problem: Emergence of the Islamic awakening wave, triggered by nations’ will and guided by committed Islamic intellectuals, has caused a tremendous evolution among international governing systems in the early 21st century. Islamic awakening, which had previously led to weaken world powers and had caused great movements in Islamic world, has entered into a new phase of evolvement and growth now. It is of an Islamic, cultural, social and political nature that on the one hand has developed fundamental changes in international, regional and global equations and on the other hand, its reflection has led to new Islamic movements coming out in the region as well as all over the world. The influence has been so much that a new literature, named theory of Islamic awakening, has been created. This is not a political or nominal theory, but a multidimensional, precise, scientific which is one based on facts and functions as a serious reaction against Western colonialism. The Islamic and revolutionary nature of Islamic awakening wave will lead to fundamental changes in future structure of international system. The spread’s moving forward and picturing its future desirable perspectives is so difficult as the influences of these revolutions are enormous. In the awakening movement and its deconstructionist directionality, we can observe recognition of colonialism,


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


moving away from modern political culture and approaching a new political culture. Therefore, identifying challenges and newly emerged problems in national, regional and global context is essential. In such situation, a new discourse is needed to present solutions and create revolutionary directions at the appropriate time. The process of determining challenges, with which Islamic awakening movement is faced, has been done through identifying weak points and strong points in domestic context, foreign opportunities and treats and ultimately considering them altogether as well as the effect of social, cultural, political and economical stimulants. This process is evolved by developing a strategic management, picturing a desirable future perspective, recognizing the influences of the awakening movement and having a thorough knowledge of its capacities. So in this paper, the most important problem is identifying challenges with which Islamic awakening movement is faced. We will introduce these challenges and will present some solutions for them. Challenges encountering Islamic awakening movement: The third wave of Islamic awakening is a result of Marxism and liberalism inefficiency and empowerment of Islamic groups. As supreme leader of Islamic revolution says,” Talking of Islamic awakening was previously regarded as a kind of exaggeration and judged as out of reach, but today it is not surprising because of all Moslems’ being awakened and substantial deficiencies of world powers being revealed.” He has pointed out somewhere else that,” Islamic awakening will lead to developing an Islamic and

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening international government which is one of the important features of future third wave of awakening.” In his point of view, the third wave of Islamic awakening in the world occurred after Islamic revolution of Iran and thereby gave hope to Moslem people in the region. It collapsed the false idea of United States and Soviet Union, two superpowers in the world, being unbeatable and showed people that they can stand against them independent from Western or Eastern blocs. Hence, after first wave of Islamic awakening, the next waves subsequently happened. At the present condition, we see the third wave of Islamic awakening which is a result of strengthening theoretical basis and developing Islamic groups in the region. As we move forward from the first move to the third one, three main issues in theoretical and practical context manifest themselves more: ● Increase in power of Islamic groups ● Emerging movements calling for Islam in the region ● Elimination of rival ideologies i.e. Marxism, liberalism, etc. The abovementioned issues become intensified with Islamic movements moving forward. However, since Islamic awakening wave has challenged all equations of colonial powers in the region, it has been considered as a serious threat to world powers and we will deal with the most important challenges encountered in Islamic awakening movement. • Cultural invasion of the foreign and identity crisis After collapsing Soviet Union regime and subsequent stopping cold war between west and East blocs, Western countries, having six years of military experience in all over the world, changed their tactics in order to reach


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


their strategic goals. They knew that after collapsing the communist Soviet, it is the power of Islam that stand against their wills, because this power had increased after Islamic revolution of Iran. Western countries focused on finding a way to standing against Islamic movements in Middle East region and Islamic world. Western countries, United States in particular, that regarded themselves as the absolute superpowers on the world adopted a policy of military and weaponry blockage as well as cultural war. The latter, named cultural invasion by supreme leader became the most important strategy of them. It refers to software-related measures with the aid of hardware such as media in order to gain the dominant culture of the world and prevent noble cultures such as Islamic culture to enter international arena. So Western world has tried to gain cultural dominancy based on its military power (NATO) with the aim of: firstly to restrain noble cultures (Islamic culture) and secondly introducing Western culture as the superior and dominant culture of the world. Undoubtedly, their primary tactic to stand against Islamic awakening wave in intellectual dimensions was cultural invasion, as named by supreme leader, and making use of Moslems’ ignorance. However, gradually and after power of Islam being revealed in West and East, cultural ‌ has turned to a phenomenon which is no longer evident and tangible. It refers to a series of policies adopted by West, especially United States, which aim is to oppose against Islamic awakening movement and the Islamic nature of recent movements. They attempt to annihilate the youth identity and neutralize their influence on the movement. Therefore, the most important challenge encountered

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening in Islamic awakening movement is cultural invasion of imperialist powers and lack of a strong strategy on an Islamic basis with an interacting approach to culture. In this regard, the most important aims of enemies are as follows: ●annihilation of national identities of freedom-seeking nations, particularly Islamic countries, and weakening their hope in becoming independent ●strengthening global Zionism and at the same time weakening Moslems and Islamic awakening wave ●expansion of false religions and sects such as Vahabiat and other made up heresies in Islamic countries in order to … among them ●intellectual and moral deviation of youth through importing ruinous and unethical products ●strengthening Western capitalist system through contemptuous means and behaviors towards Moslems ●distorting religion and pushing Moslems away from noble and pure knowledge of Islam ●presenting Western astray models in individual and social contexts ●intellectual and cultural permutation 2. Making Islamic movements democrat Increasing changes in the region as well as the world, which has started since two or three decades ago, has been accelerated by occurrence of Islamic awakening wave in Moslem countries. Meanwhile, domination-seeking of imperialist powers has increased. Avarice of world arrogance and international Zionism with the aim of making Islamic movements democrat, is one of their strategic and long-term policies to annihilate Islamic principles. Therefore, the importance and necessity of studying and


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


following these changes has been reminded repeatedly by supreme leader. As he says,” one of the new concepts in political discourse of imperialist powers dominating international system is wealthy power-seeking stratum’s attempt to take control of vital and economical resources of the world which is a preface to ultramodern colonialism.” He points out somewhere else that,” The very important issue is increasing dominance of United States on Islamic countries’ political, economical and even military reserves. This cruel and dominance-seeking superpower, after collapsing of Soviet Union and elimination of this powerful rival, aims to turn all over the world and also rich region of Islamic countries to its own absolute arena.” So we should notice that colonialism and imperialism goals have so far demonstrated that they have many clear and hidden faces tangled with all dimensions of subaltern societies. In most cases, these faces are philanthropic, peace-seeking, and freedom-seeking and promotion of prosperity in surface which are truly snarls in the way of nations. It is crystal clear that by being aware of the appearance of these tricks we can release from these snarls and by following efficient and provident policies we can make keep colonial countries away from reaching their goals. As one of the methods of ultramodern colonialism is constant and indirect occupation with passing political governors by and without protest of people. Now because of spread of Islamic awakening wave and inclinations toward political and revolutionary Islam, many of colonial structures in the region and in also in the world have undergone drastic changes. Islamic awakening, i.e. revival of true Islam which is one of the earlier outcomes

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening of revolutions happened in the region, create basis for emergence of Islamic movements after a period of inactivity and quietness. Intellectual-political streams are happening in an unknown and surprising condition. So there are various interpretations in recognizing and analyzing the phenomenon of Islamic revolutions and the way to treat them. Thus, strategic and policy-making centers in powerful governments have presented various and changing solutions and have tried to conceal their failure in standing against Islamic awakening and its consequences as well as their concerns about drastic changes in the structure of imperialist system and international exploitation. Besides they have attempted to make a new complicated policy in the post-Cold War era and follow it intensively in order to develop global modern discipline. Reviewing Western colonialism history in both old and modern colonial era indicates that colonialism has followed the way to reach its goals in economical, political, cultural, social, confidential and scientific dimensions and has had influences on other societies. Knowing ultramodern colonialism necessitates a comprehensive look at ultramodern methods applied by possessors of power and wealth in the world. So we can say that this kind of colonialism, which has started with a sense of domination of liberalist ideology on other ideologies, is a new all-embracing structure that seriously threatens intellectual and structural dimension of Islamic world. Dimensions of this structure are threatening, devastating, widespread and various. Imperialism seeks its dominance and superiority on Islamic world and tries to achieve this goal in any possible way. For this goal to


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


be achieved it needs to eliminate its rivals and enemies. It has found the main cause of its problems in Middle East region and Islamic world; thus with occurrence of Islamic movements in the region, their influence on global equations increases. Consequently, Imperialism , in order to reach dominance over Islamic movements, apply methods some of which are as follows: ●priority of cultural dominance over military dominance ●infiltrating Western agents to temporary transitional governments ●inspiring inefficiency of religious democratic system in controlling Islamic countries’ affairs ● creating social and cultural crisis as well as individual and cultural alienation ●making standards and presenting Western models ●creating more inequity and more social, ethnic and religious gaps ●focusing on new capitalist centers in Islamic nations for realization of colonialism ●increasing individualistic activities, seclusion of influential figures and minimizing social participation of committed elites ●creating economical dependence and expansion of market in Islamic awakening wave countries ●changing people taste and making them consume more ●managing public thoughts and changing their direction towards the benefits of Imperialism 3. stopping, deviating or slackening the Islamic awakening movement Onset of Islamic movements in north Africa and Southwest Asia, their passing from emergence phase to

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening reach stability and establishing temporary transitional governments, is indicative of the profoundness of Islamic thoughts and noble nature of revolutions made by people in the region. Continuity of these movements, their influence on outside geographical area of Islamic world and other freedom-seeking societies following this trend leads to fomenting fear of Islamic awakening wave among other puppet regimes and governments representing Imperialism and Western liberal-democracy in the region. Hence, endangering situation and benefits of imperialist systems in the region (and their supporters/ counterparts) has led to adoption of preventing and defensive policies in order to impede the accelerated movement of Islamic awakening wave. Hence, imperialism is trying to impede the awakening movement through hidden and apparent measures, propaganda, sanctions (economical, military, political, etc), military operations, enticing and persuading former dictator regimes remaining in the region, subversion and entering to vital infrastructures of countries. As supreme leader says,� Their main goal is to assassinate influential figures of us. They want to seclude Islamic values and suppress the Islam-seeking wave. The United States and other imperialist countries are using all their propaganda opportunities to delay, or suppress if possible, Islamic awakening movement.� But since these revolutions are derived from intellectual values and aware nature of freedom-seeking Moslems who are subjects of cruelty and injustice, it is impossible to stop it. It will be accelerated and intensified. , committed intellectuals, politicians and all influential figures in Islamic movements should be


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


cognizant in order to guide the movement properly and manage it in its right path. 4. Creating ethnic, racial, religious and tribal gaps One of the influential challenges encountering Islamic awakening wave is creating ethnic, racial, religious and tribal gaps done by imperialist powers to make divisions and alter Islamic integrity among different groups in Islamic countries. Religious identity, history and civilization and national honors all are ultra-national identities that affect individual identities of warriors and prepare a ground to unite Islamic world in its movements on the basis of religious, intellectual, cultural, political, revolutionary identity. Undoubtedly it is not ignored by imperial analysts and as supreme leader points out,� Quran pays attention to integrity and warns us that if we lose our integrity, we will lose our respect and identity too. Unfortunately, this problem exists in Islamic world today. There are lots of conspiracies against Moslems and it show that they are afraid of Islamic awakening wave and integrity among Islamic world.� Imperial theorists and analysts attempt to alter the essence of movements happened in the region and show their nature something apart from Islamic identity and thereby create ethnic quarrels among Islamic groups. They try to achieve their goal through presenting Islamophobia and Iranophobia projects, exaggerating the danger of fundamentalism and making Moslems despondent in their movement. Therefore, all social classes, tribes and ethnicities in Islamic societies should understand the sensitivity of the present condition and forget about their differences and personal benefits to incorporate in continuity and success

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening of Islamic awakening wave and maintenance of national benefits. 5. Provoking differences and making the influential figures of the movement want their own share Islamic awakening wave, which is based on evaluative, intellectual and revolutionary ideology, has turned into the main discourse of Moslems and has changed the faces of the countries involved which were previously captives in poverty, corruption and discrimination of their apparently everlasting governors. The role of people in these movements is undeniable; because Islamic movements are rooted in presence and will of people. The eternal and main asset of a democratic society is the presence of people in different arenas of revolution. Because it is under this condition that happening revolutions will be immune from interventions of aliens. We should bear in mind that the supreme leader asks people to be present and influential in managing the country; because it is their presence that is considered as the main power of system in eliminating problems and barriers. Therefore, the integrity among people in Islamic revolutions is one of the serious concerns of regional countries. Undoubtedly, agreement on defined goals and intellectual grounds as well as considering national benefit of the system not only will lead to achieve national goals, but also will affect global equations very much. Therefore, differences and divisions and also influential figures’ demanding their own share will impede desirable acting in international arena. So the benefits should be organized and common wishes have to be inspired among people in the following ways:


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


●trying to ignore sectarian and individual benefits for the sake of national benefits of Islamic movements ●moving public thoughts towards national benefits and away from individualism ●trying to reduce the gaps between influential groups in the society on the basis of mutual respect and rejection of suppression ●creating a sense of welcoming criticism and allowing thoughts to flourish to the extent that it doesn’t damage the system principles and national benefit ●making people aware of enemies’ tricks to stop Islamic awakening movements and deviate people ●strengthening the ties between people, groups, streams and transitional government ●commitment of all groups, wings and parties to noble Islamic principles as a common criterion 6. Lack of a organizing and uniting leadership Emergence of Islamic awakening wave in the 21st century world which escapes from religion and fight against it, is indicative of a new crisis in the dominant trend of secularization of people individual and social life. Though the most important influence of such movements is making change in political system and establishing temporary transitional governments, no need to mention that without firm intellectual grounds their happening was impossible. In other words, recent Islamic movements in the region are prefaces to revolution of other Moslem countries against corrupt and dictator regimes. One of the main challenges encountering Islamic awakening wave is lack of a uniting and organizing leadership. An organizing leadership is the major basis for ruling

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Islamic countries and thereby revolutions happened in the region can annihilate false grandeur of imperialism, unite people in standing against its invasion and bring prosperity to Islamic societies. As Imam Khomeini made all impossible possible in the period of Islamic revolution of Iran, the youth duty is to keep Islamic awakening wave immune from deviation with the aid of clergymen and religious men. Violating leadership’s orders and eliminating committed clergymen from the system is a sinister plan of West and a country without leadership is like a country without physicians. It is worth-mentioning that Islamic principles and thoughts are not just religious insights, but a state system of which political and legal theory has been carried out in different ways. In other words, the idea of Islamic government is a theocracy and a religious-political theory based on the fact that religious governing is the only legitimate governing and the right law is what Prophet had stated. According to this theory, religious and politics as well as government and clergymen are not separated from each other and divine laws should be applied in the society. “Application of this theory in contemporary era means integrity of politics and religion which was followed by Seyyed Jamal al-din Asadabadi and later by Modarres. It has been resurrected in recent decades and the main figure involved was Imam Khomeini in late decades of 20th century.� 7. provoking intellectual extremism and solidity of thought among influential figures It is a long time that studying Islamic awakening movement and analyzing its dimensions has been a concern of international powers. They try to identify the challenges


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


and weak points and thereby stop or seclude it. They aim to keep societies way from noble Islamic principles through altering its messages, spoiling people spirit and happiness and presenting false and extremist ideas instead of evaluative ones (such as justice, freedom, etc.). “Enemies have believed that their passage to survival is eliminating Islam from the societies or having a nominal Islam. Though they have been unsuccessful in achieving the first goal, they have managed to achieve the second.”, Imam Khomeini says. Examining extremism and sanctimoniousness is very essential in understanding Islamic awakening and its challenges. Imam Khomeini considers knowing provokers of extremism and ignorance as well as standing against them as being essential in expansion of Islam and maintains that,” United States and world arrogance have agents everywhere. I have warned you repeatedly that they have sanctimonious agents in universities that are supporters of religion in appearance, but they have hypocrisy and it ruins Islam and revolution.” Studying this issue shows that such people has caused hugest losses and damages to Islam throughout the history and now they want to repeat it in Islamic awakening wave. Because this wave is a phase in flourishing noble Islam by which freedom-seeking and aware nations find their right path in standing against manifestations of deviation and extremism. Consequently, it is the duty of committed intellectuals and thinkers to distinguish intellectuality criteria from Western theories and to introduce noble Islamic principles as an appropriate model to societies and have concerns regarding alienation, seclusion and ignorance.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening 8. Undermining the presence of committed religious intellectuals Establishment of Islamic movements in recent century has been an ascendant procedure and committed intellectuals and clergymen could guide the movements properly. Their role in preventing deviation from primary goals and hence victory of movements is undeniable; as they have had an important role through acquiring spiritual and political power, infiltrating to thoughts and beliefs of people and awakening their revolutionary nature. They have proved that whenever they have fought against corrupt powers, the governing political system has failed and has surrendered the political power. Committed intellectuals and clergymen have power because of enjoying social and political bases and living among people. Their power is not comparable to the power of non-religious leaders and this fact provokes the politicians’ jealousy and betrayal towards them. Therefore, imperialist leaders are aware of the importance of committed intellectuals and clergymen and try to remove them from the Islamic awakening context and its influences on the future world. With emergence of Islamic awakening movements in the region, the duties of committed intellectuals and clergymen have become more. As supreme leader points out,” Fortunately, there has been created a widespread awakening in Islamic world and it is the task of clergymen and Moslem intellectuals to guide it towards a right direction. They should act in a way that this awakening lead to governing and domination.” Another important duty of them is to solve problems of people. It is not a minor task. It’s a fundamental


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


issue related to an Islamic society. Here some functions and responsibilities of committed intellectuals and clergymen are presented: ●standing against cruel and corrupt regimes and their remaining agents in temporary transitional governments ●exercising liberality and intellectuality with people in order to make them know that intellectual deviations are injected in the form of Islamic principles ●establishing deep ties with people and accompanying them in different arenas ●presenting solutions based on Islamic principles in order to eradicate encountering challenges 9. Brain drain in countries involved in Islamic awakening wave Two centuries of dictatorship and political, social, economical and military dominance of corrupt governments in countries involved in Islamic awakening wave has led to emergence of a sense of alienation among elites, thinkers and their indifference towards their countries and remaining inactive in the process of progressing. Their not participating in managing a country and domination of a dictatorship atmosphere caused activating imperialist intelligence services in order to recognize and invite them to Western countries and International Zionism. As Tailor believes,” Persuading propaganda of United States has caused immigration of thousands of Islamic countries’ elites and genius thinkers to America.” Joseph Nay also emphasizes that,” more than half of the talented university students in America are from Islamic countries; they never return to their own countries or if they return, they have acquired secular positions.” Imperialist countries prepare

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening grounds and opportunities for these students, strengthen a sense of alienation among them, use them in key positions in scientific fields and provide them with financial resources and thereby decrease their interests to their countries and annihilate their will to return there. Through this procedure which is a pre-planned sinister program, world powers cause a lack of committed and expert human sources in Islamic countries. Therefore, the politicians in temporary transitional governments have to carefully consider strategic variables in international context and remember that efficient and revolutionary elites play a crucial role in compensating scientific, social and economical lags in their societies. So we should prepare attractive grounds for elites to return and resurrect noble Islamic thoughts in them to prevent empowering secular and western agents whose way of thinking is not flexible. 10. A weak perspective for future harmonious with global changes One of the fundamental challenges encountering Islamic awakening wave is globalization which is happening as main variable in modern global discipline theory proposed by economical and political powers. This variable is not a natural process; but a planned one. It is, in fact, the hegemony of Western liberal capitalist system to dominate the world, especially the world of Islam. Since recent movements in Islamic world has led to alteration in global equations and establishment of new political discourses of which influences have gone beyond the region, this theory is regarded as a fundamental and promoter theory by colonial theorists. It is followed by them in different branches;


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


however their main concerns are economy, politics and culture. In the field of economy, globalization refers to domination of Western capitalist companies over sources and capacities of Islamic world and also changing people taste and making them consume their products more. In the fields of politics it refers to political domination of them over all other countries. In the field of culture, it refers to making people consumption-driven, diversity-seeking and enjoyment-seeking. Globalization, in its third meaning, is spreading under the title of “modernist culture�. It is imposed on Islamic countries and imperialist powers aim to globalize their own values and human rights. The globalization project in the fields of economy, culture and politics proposed by imperialist system aims to cultural and economical domination over countries. Globalization necessitates elimination of geographical borders between common-wealth societies and other societies. So Islamic countries should understand the false hegemony of Western democracy and picture a perspective based on reality for themselves to act influentially in the international environments. Recommended solutions: Undoubtedly, Islamic awakening wave is one of the unique events happened in contemporary history. Recent events have had great influence on domestic equations of countries as well as international equations and have resurrected the Islamic identity and originality among Moslems. As supreme leader says,� With the will of God a new movement is starting in the region. It is the movement of nations and Islamic world under the title of Islam aiming

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Islamic goals. It is indicative of public awareness and God has guarantied the absolute victory of such movements.� Islamic awakening wave was established based on the fact that the only way to solve existing problems is returning to noble Islamic concepts and principles. This wave has passed from the phase of emergence and crisis to stability; where free elections, with all people participating, are held and Islamic groups win. Since the future perspective of the countries involved in Islamic awakening wave is in contrary to benefits and goals of international Zionism and imperialism, imperialist countries do all that they can to intervene in the occurring events and deviate freedomseeking people. Regarding this fact, young generation act as promoter motor and motivator in continuity of Islamic awakening movement. They should understand the sensitivities of present time and stand against avarice of imperialists and Zionists and thereby help to realize the ideals of their revolutions. They play a crucial role and their acting at appropriate time will guarantee the Islamic movement. They should learn from the youth in early Islam, Islamic revolution in Iran, Hezbollah groups in Lebanon and resisting groups of Moghavemat in Palestine. So we should carefully examine occurring events to overcome probable problems and challenges encountering revolutions. Some recommended solutions that can move Islamic revolutions in the region towards stability are as follows: • Demanding establishment of a new political system based on renewal of Islamic respect Now that Islamic awakening wave has happened in an era in which postmodernism is entering into a new phase,


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


Islamic revolutions in the region try to pay attention to people demands and return their sense of originality. Therefore, it is necessary that in the era, which is named “era of spirituality”, a system based on new evaluative atmosphere be created and introduced to the world. Supreme leader of Islamic revolution has repeatedly reminded influential leaders to establish such system. Now that Islamic awakening wave has endangered all theories of making global systems, it should propose a new discourse which answers all human demands. In this regard, following consideration should be met: ●preparing a perspective for political system according to the mentioned models ●not separating the new political system from noble religious principles ●structuring the system on the basis of cosmopolitan principle and its generalization to other political systems ●considering the principle of gaining political power based on justice ●considering standing against cruelty and defending the suppressed (e.g. Palestinian people) ●emphasizing on influential leadership as the ideological center of political system ●considering the principle of nation independencereadiness to defend the country ●aiming to a new political system on the basis of Islamicrevolutionary principles and avoiding application of laic, liberal, nationalist or Marxist stereotypes in the structures of new government 2. Gaining cultural independence and standing against cultural invasion

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening One of the important concerns which plays a key role in guarantying prosperity of societies and realizing their future perspectives is gaining independence and cultural identity. As Imam Khomeini, the founder of Islamic revolution, pointed out,” If a society has a dependent culture which is feed by opposition cultures, other dimensions of the society will move towards the opposite direction too and finally the society will lose its identity in all dimensions. Independence and identity of any society is derived from independence in its culture and it is naive to think that it is possible to gain independence while being culturally dependant. That’s why the main goal of colonials is to invade the culture of subaltern societies.” And the supreme leader also maintains that,” Independence of a nation is not achieved unless through independence in political, economical and cultural fields. If the culture and morality and beliefs of alien countries is prevalent in a society, it can not demand independence; because the real domination of powers is cultural domination. Some solutions are presented here: ●preparing a cultural perspective based on Islamic values ●developing and presenting religious models in cultural and social arenas ●identifying cultural measures taken by enemies and planning to neutralize them ●learning from cultural achievements of Islamic revolution in Iran ●having active, continuous and effective presence in media to stand against media imperialism ●generating variable cultural products in accordance with


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


Moslems’ needs 3. Designing a model of development based on Quran and religion In this regard, supreme leader says,” Nations, whether Moslem or not, need Islamic orders today. It is because of being away from Islam that some countries are suppressed. Islamic awakening will save nations and that’s why the alertest people in different countries have turned towards Islam which is the way the holy Quran shows us; the way to survival and prosperity.” He adds somewhere else that,” The main issues that imperialist powers emphasize on them are: cultural, economical and scientific domination. That is enough for them not to allow the subaltern country to reach independence, progress and believing in itself.” Considering supreme leader’s point of view, the countries involved in Islamic awakening wave can prepare a perspective to act upon through adopting following approaches: ●designing domestic and Islamic models in order to eradicate economical, military, cultural and scientific dependence on aliens ●promoting productivity ●lessening class gaps ●promoting Islamic revolution ideals in cultural, economical and political dimensions ●eradicating poverty and deprivation; and development of the country ●making the country’s culture and economic efficient ●eradicating scientific, economical, political, military, cultural and social dependence through jehad-like measures 4. Preventing religious, ethnic and racial differences to become significant and relying on religion as a criterion

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Now that Islam-seeking wave has turned into one of the main discourses in global theories and has violated all international equations and Zionism’ benefits, the only possible way for enemies to deviate this trend is to create ethnic and religious quarrels among people. So the young generation in the Islamic countries should maintain the achievements of happened revolutions through following measures: ●aknowledgement of ethnic and religious differences ●managing existing differences ●maintaining integrity on the basis of religion ●maintaining integrity on the basis of saving country from the barraters 5. identifying rival models in the region as well as international arena It can be concluded form supreme leader sayings that,” The enemy has prepared a comprehensive and planned scenario for Islamic system and Islamic awakening movements. But fortunately, using our philosophical and evaluative capacities we will be able to stand against these scenarios.” 6. Increase in awareness, cognizant presence in different arenas at appropriate time The role of people in emergence and continuity of Islamic awakening trend is undeniable. It was seen in Islamic revolution of Iran too; where presence of people in different scenes neutralized all the enemy’s plans against Islamic system. So the main treasure of awakening movements in Islamic countries has been presence of people at appropriate times. As supreme leader, in a question and answer session, says to the youth that,” Awareness of young generation is one of the three pillars in guarantying their own success in


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


future and prosperity of the country.” He advised them to feel responsible, to build their own future and not to rely on chances, to have faith, which is the key component in making progress and gaining achievement in all fields, and finally to have awareness and distinguishing power. Because if they have these characteristics, they can become successful in all fields.” 7. Constant reviewing the principles of revolution Islamic awakening movement has emerged on the basis of people’s will and Islamic principles and its continuity is bound to commitment to its fundamental principles, a deep understanding of its different layers and avoiding simplemindedness for the sake of keeping revolution achievements immune from deviations. Hence following items should be considered: ●maintaining and strengthening fundamental principles and directionalities of Islamic awakening wave ●focusing on the principles of revolution of which ignorance will lead to gradual changes ●the only way to prevent deviation from Islamic revolution principles is to making main indexes of system more prominent ●independence, freedom and justice-seeking ●not giving up to dictatorship and colonialism ●rejection of ethnic, racial and religious differences ●explicit rejection of Zionism ●maintaining originalities with a high sensitivity ●not allowing the enemy to determine future principles of the system ●not victimizing the principles in favor of passing benefits ●pessimism towards Europe, United States, NATO and

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening not believing their promises ●gaining solutions from Islamic origin and giving alien versions back ●pessimism towards any advise or measure proposed by America 8. Using the achievements, advances and valuable experiences of other Moslem nations Islamic awakening wave has started since decades ago and after victory of Islamic revolution in Iran. It has been accelerated and turned to the main discourse in political, economical and social arenas. Islamic revolution, acting as a stereotype, has gained lots of achievements and is gaining more power in the region. Therefore, the elite and intellectual youth should use different experiences of Islamic Republic of Iran and reach to their goals through a crosscut according to these items: ●using the principles of Islamic Republic of Iran constitutional law as a model for developing their own laws and regulations ●using Iran’s achievement in the field of Nano- technology ●applying fundamental researches of Islamic Republic of Iran in cultural and social fields ●using the capacities of young generations in Islamic countries ●believing young generation ●revival of self-confidence in the youth ●the youth’s application of older people experiences ●considering “Islamic democratic system” as desirable ●not confusing Islamic democracy with democracy 9. Aiming to release noble Qods (qodse-sharif) from Zionists


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


International Zionism and imperialism use all their capacities to occupy and annihilate noble Qods; the first Qibla of Moslems. Therefore, one of the future goals of Islamic awakening wave should be releasing it from Zionist regime to create an integrated Islamic unity. Following items should be considered: ●aiming to release Palestine from Zionists ●continuity of great movement in Egypt to Palestine and Rafah passage ●taking big steps to overcome all barriers ●considering true treasures of Moslem nations (not being arrogant after victory) 10. Establishment of mobilizations of people (Basij) and Islamic organs Islamic awakening wave, while gaining stability, is facing different threats from international system. Imperialism and Zionism use all their capacities to challenge this trend and neutralize its achievements. So it is duty of all Moslem young people to maintain these achievements and learn from Islamic revolution of Iran and establish mobilizations of people (Basij) and Islamic organs. As Imam Khomeini, the great leader of Islamic revolution, says,” defending Islam and Islamic countries is a religious and divine task of people and it is due to them.” Basij is an eternal source for Islamic revolutions and guarantees the prosperity of developing societies. Its importance is to the extent that Sublime God emphasizes on its necessity in Holy Quran. Reviewing the history of Islam also confirms this point that whenever people were present in different social scenes, there came fortunate outcomes for the society.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The role of Basij in Islamic revolution is another proof for the fact that it is of a revolutionary and constructive spirit. The existing bureaucracies in the societies are not barriers to achieving its goals. Hence, the young generation of the countries involved in Islamic awakening wave should provide a ground for flourishing and development through establishing mobilizations of people. The following items should be considered here: ●scientific mobilization and organizing the elites and influential figures in the trend ●defending revolutions through closing the ways of enemies’ infiltration to managing layers in new political systems ●deepening culture in the society ●comprehensive defending against software and hardware threats ●making stereotypes and presenting evaluable, revolutionary models in different arenas of new political systems ●neutralizing security and disciplinary threats in the society ●creating jobs and eradication of poverty ●identifying violators in new political systems ●construction and building appropriate infrastructures in the country Conclusions: The influence of the events happened during recent months is so great that the Islamic awakening wave has turned to a new political discourse in the 21st century. It caused a new power, called power of Islamic world, to emerge and


An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...


to become the center of attention for many political and nonpolitical analysts, who have presented different analysis of current changes. With spread of Islamic wakening wave, we should ask that “is it possible to consider an absolute ending to these changes? Is international imperialism and Zionism able to challenge these movements again?” Examining this issue demonstrates that this wave will be continued because of its expanding outcomes; Intervention of international Zionism and world arrogance will not impede it and will face with anger of revolutionary people and their justice-seeking stream. It is expected that intervention of imperialist system leads to spreading and fastening the cycle of changes and awakening movements and going their influence beyond the region. As supreme leader of Islamic revolution predicts, this wave will be expanded to other parts of the world and not only the Middle East and Africa, but also Europe will experience the outcomes of this movement. We should accept that international imperialist and Zionism have been weakening with emergence of Islamic awakening wave and with adopting different approaches and made up scenarios as well as creation of deviating models, they try to decrease the power of the countries involved in the Islamic awakening wave and their people. That’s why the responsibility of influential figures, committed youth, experts and leaders becomes more important and the necessity of taking needed measures is undeniable. These measures should be taken in order to overcome encountering challenges and making the best use of all capacities and capabilities of Islamic societies. Islamic nations and their people’s concentration on

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Imam Khomeini, supreme leader of Islamic revolution and other committed influential figures’ thoughts in the first, second and now in the third wave of Islamic awakening, is an important and great responsibility of of them to stand against international imperialism and Zionism as well as their alliances and counterparts in all phases of emergence, crisis and gaining relative stability. Thereby they can defend Islam and Islamic identity with the aid of all intellectuals, thinkers and young people of Islamic awakening movement and use all political, economical and cultural capacities of Islamic world to dictate the abilities and potentialities of Islamic societies to heads of global infidelity and imperialism. Therefore, young generation in the countries involved in Islamic awakening movements have a huge responsibility in standing against enemies’ conspiracies. As supreme leader points out,” The youth should take most of the responsibilities for the future and have a regeneration. Do not let the enemies annihilate nation hopes through propaganda, conspiracy and lying. Do not let them make divisions and create gaps between people and heads of the governments. They want you to become divided; because they are afraid of your integration. They have a fear of your firm slogans and the serious and firm will of the responsible people in the Islamic governments. They aim to unstable this will. When people of a country stand beside the heads of their government, nobody hesitate and they move forward.”


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions...

Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions and Speculating on How to Implement It in Order to Maintain the Islamic Awakening Achievements Roqayyeh Bahrami1 Introduction Many sociologists believe that as long as social revolutions and movements are opposed to the existing situation, they can result in motion, but when they attain a political structure and system, they adopt an inactive and justificationary, and it is at that very moment that the revolution and the movement expire and cease to attain their goals. According to this viewpoint, the process of transformation of a movement to a system, in a manner that leads to the maintenance and growth of ideals and revival of the revolutionary values resultant from Islamic Awakening, is one of the most important efforts which should be taken into consideration after a revolution. On the other hand, organizing the revolutionary passion of people, which has aimed at disarranging the previous system, is either impossible and might result in anarchism; or if achieved, leads to the extinction of this revolutionary passion. Formation of various civil circles is all the outcomes of these 1.Junior Student, Third Level, Department of Fiqh and Usul, Qaba Hawzah 'Ilmiyya, Tehran 09366447962 Email: "Muslim Ummah has sensed the breeze of awakening and has smelled the aroma of returning to Islamic Knowledge." -Hazrat Imam Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Islamic Revolution


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions...


approaches which have reached the "institutionalization" phase, and each has found a specific work in the system and the executive constitution of that approach. As a more elaborate instance, Imam's emphasis on the formation of a "Global Mobilization" illustrates Imam's high ends and endevours on one hand, and his determination to manage this revolutionary passion in an intelligent manner and spread it globally. This should be accomplished in a way to assure that the revolutionary passion does not extinct, and remembrance of the foreign adversary results in homeland unity and integration, so that a territorial order is achieved to establish a system. Constitution of such civil and revolutionary institutions, is illustrative of the strategic depth of the doctrinal leaders and proper understanding of the important point that revolutionary spirit can only last in civil institutions, rather than the structure of administrative and political systems where it fades gradually. "One of the key essentials in every social movement and upheaval,is that there must be 'word-making' and 'institutionalization' based on the ideas and the underlying basics of that movement," states Imam Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution, elaborating on this specific issue, "When a new concept, like the concepts of Islamic rule, Islamic system, and Islamic Awakening are introduced, the movement which is based on this new idea must have its own appropriate terms and words. If it borrows its words from outsiders, the atmosphere will get troubled, leaving subjects untold. The same is true about institutionalization. When a revolution and a movement is realized, it must form its own operational systems - mechanisms to follow its intentions.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The Role of People in Islamic Rule Although the idea of a proper rule in the general sense is considered in a revolutionary nation, lack of a local model to implement it has always been a problem. The prominent and permanent trait of the political system in an Islamic country is the "Islamic" nature of its rule. This is represented in forming civil institutions and dominance of these institutions in the society. The key point is that the capability of the execution of a good rule depends to some extent, on the nature of the correlation between these institutions and the civil society. In Islamic rule, people make an informed, willing and desirous choice to have an Islamic regime, demanding the execution of the divines. Without people's volition and support, Islamic rule is fundamentally and practically impossible. That explains why despite being appointed for the protectorship and leadership of people by God, Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) actually didn't take on this responsibility until people vowed allegiance to him. He did this because before that, operational basis for the protectorship and leadership of his majesty was not provided. This shows that although establishing a rule for executing justice and regaining the rights of the oppressed from the oppressor is a duty, fulfillment of this duty not being possible without the presence, allegiance and support of people, the holy immaculate Imam (Peace be upon him) isn't obliged to make people obey him by force when people are not ready to be present in the arena of an Islamic government. Rather, Imam prepares the ground for people's presence by informing them. While realization of such a system without people's volition is impossible, so are its management and


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... maintenance which are functions of people's presence in the arena and their choice. The statements of Hazrat Imam Khomeini (may Allah Grant him peace) well demonstrate the value of people's rights in establishment of Islamic rule: "Self-determination and the option to determine form and type of the government, is among of the basic rights of every nation." From his point of view, other governments, including monarchy, are not legitimate as they are not reliant on people's volition and opinion.


The Position of Institutions and Civil Society in Islamic Rule Understanding development and progression of civil groups, studying people's social activities and the role of these groups and organizations, are important subjects which have been investigated by some sociologists. These investigations include society, culture, community, behavior of the society and the groups, and the interactions of institutions and organizations. The growing number of civil institutions in all the fields results in their ascending role and power in micro and macro decision-making in the national and international level to an extent that some of these institutions have played an active role in international agreement developments. Though absent from governance and governing, these institutions certainly have a vital role in the operation and effectiveness of governmental efforts and the governments can't overlook their measures and proposals. They warn the political power about the society's weaknesses, negligences, and interests. If the governments don't heed their criticism and suggestions, they might face some problems. Thus these institutions which are the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening medium between citizen masses and the government, can be defined as: "A set of independent associations, communities and institutions which discuss and take actions about issues and problems in the public domain of the society and are formed as a result of increase in interaction and discourse between the government and independent social institutions" It is noteworthy that in a religious society in which people obey the religious regulations, the civil institutions have a religious hue too and play a major part in the intellectual identification and direction of the religious society. This contribution is to an extent that the more religious the society is, the more effective and dominant these religious civil institutions will be, and the more independent these institutions are from the government, the more operationally effective they will be in developing the society. It must be mentioned that according to classic political philosophy, a civil society is systematic and government-based, as opposed to primary society, which reflects only on the assemblage of people without any political order. Also, in modern political terms, the concept of civil society is closely related to the concept of social contract. In another perspective, civil society is defined as just the civil institutions and groups which are formed to attain goals like handling the needy affairs and accomplishing religious affairs. Civil society in this sense is true about most human societies including Muslim societies. Mosques, religious mourning bodies, social activities and movements are good paradigms of the existence of civil and independent groups and institutions which have traditionally been active in Muslim communities.


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions...


According to what was previously stated, and considering opinions and viewpoints on this subject matter, it can be stated that civil society in its modern sense enjoys these features: • The existence of families, informal groups, voluntary communities whose plurality and indipendency, allows for a diversity of life forms. • The existence of cultural and communicational institutions that include public or overt field of life. • Security and reverence of life and territory privacy, so that people can realize their capabilities and achieve to independent moral options. • Determining the borderline between the fields stated (for example, distinguishing between public and private scopes of life, or differentiating them from governmental sphere and economic life), which necessitates legal structures and a set of basic rights without which the realization of a civil society proves impossible. Civil Society and Power Transition Machanism When the field of civil society is powerful, and when its institutions consisting of parties, non-governmental organizations, guilds, unions, and the like, have accomplished their full capacities, and enjoy a relative independence and security at the same time, power transition has to happen in a peaceful manner. The reason is civil institutions acting as buffers between the government's unlimited exclusive power (force) and the masses. The necessity of governmental response to non-governmental and civil-centered institutions and the ability of these institutions to reflect and inform about measures and policies

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening of the government, results in an equation. According to this equation: the more powerful and active civil institutions are in the society in qualitative and quantitative terms, the more peaceful and just the power transition will be and up will build the cost of act of violence to maintain the existing circumstances. The issue which should be taken into consideration is once the basic parts of the civil institutions are formed, putting the field of civil society under pressure and oppressing it will work no more. Upon the occurrence of a gap in the body of the government, the institutions might work on retrieving their primary functions more seriously. This gap may be a result of various reasons including political and economic crises, but it is also interesting to note that in many countries, the high velocity of economic growth and development, followed by the expansion of the middle class, has provided this gap for civil institutions. In this situation, authoritarian powers will not meet the needs and new dynamic changes of the society. This issue makes governments face challenges like what has happened in some countries. But as one of the most important and distinct indicators of sustainable development, maintenance and continuation of authoritarian regimes cause disorder in development process. This phenomenon has hindered the progress on the route of progress and sustainable development in territorial and external level, particularly regarding social and political dimensions. It is in this situation that countries experience upheavals and riots among people who have distinct demands focused on establishing civil institutions and social organizations.


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... Also, they demand change in structure, reinforcement and execution of democracy principles, and the rule of law rather than monopoly power of the individual.


Various Types of Civil Institutions and Organizations Institutions and organizations in an Islamic state can have the highest influence on deepening religious beliefs and people's superior ideas, and on the Islamic state framework using an elaborate and predetermined plan, while directing ideas, attitudes, tendencies and behavior of the individuals on the society in a widespread basis. In today's world, nongovernmental institutions and organizations are more or less known in some countries, provided with internal, as well as external communications and even playing in role in the decision-making of the government and the interrelationship between governments. It must be noted here that there is a fundamental difference between institution and organization. The former is formed in the process of society changes and its functions, the role of individual, authority or government being absent in its establishment. In other words, social institutions are not predetermined. However, the latter is planned and organized by authorities, trusted ones, managers, investors, governments, etc. Institution is kind of a bond whose visible aspect is very limited and is only tangible in its relation to organizations. However, Organization is visible with regard to its establishment, implement, tool and human factors employed it, Civil institutions and organizations of a nation can be summarized as follows: • The customary and traditional institutions and organizations: Like religious groups and bodies which

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening have reached to such a degree of development that are considered traditions by the custom and their presence in the society in tangible. They manage to prove themselves by the formation of political struggle and contributing to the changes in the society. • Unions, syndicates, and professional gild associations: They form with the objective of protecting their own guild rights, and their measures and actions, have a major political influence on the Islamic society. • Political parties: Establishment of political parties in a nation transforms a closed society to an open one, in which the citizens generally have a right to contribute to their own social destiny. Political parties, who usually have a tendency to gain power, can directly communicate with people, declaring their political objectives and programs. • Legal and juridical entities: These institutions are known by people and custom, as well as recognized by the law. The role of Civil Institutions and Organizations in Islamic Society and Government In an Islamic government, Islamic is the main principle, and Islam, like other divine religions holds that government has a divine root. Therefore, political knowledge in Islam is not an independent system to seek the highest peaks of human understanding. In this system, people are not entitled change the divine sharia; rather they can either obey or defy it. The rules of an Islamic state are of two kinds: • Sharia and what is the command of God. • Rules approved by the government and guardian of the jurists' authorities. As the institutions and organizations compromise the


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions...


foundation for every government, defining their function based on their necessities and sufficiencies is one of the main tasks of an Islamic government. So rather than disturbing the government, its goals and conventions, and the social contracts; civil institutions can be the best contributers to the government. Institutions and organizations can help governments solve various problems and suggest some solutions to revise and eliminate the shortcomings by conducting research on their own area of function and presenting the results of these researches to governmental agencies. Also, they can pave the ground for more contribution of their members in social activities, so that they can fill the gap between people and the government and play an effective role in cultural, social, political and economic affairs in the society. Institutions and organizations are closely familiar with the issues of the society and people, so having recognized the problems properly and on time, they can suggest the right, rationalized, and feasible solutions accordingly. In some countries, civil institutions appear to be highly respected and credited. No ideal social evolution or change can happen within legal structures unless these institutions have a major role as competent and trusted experts and advisors in it. Definition of Non-Governmental Organizations Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are popular these days and are created in different countries with various functions, regarding the culture of every given country. There have been several definitions for NGOs and every country has defined NGOs and the scope of their activities according to its culture, political strategy and people's

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening volition. But the most common definition is the one put forward by the World Bank: "Private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development" Based on the UN definition of NGOs, they should bear four primary characteristics: • They operate independently from any government • They don't have any political activity and are independent from political parties. • They are non-profit and have no economic activity. • They are non-criminal and never pursue violent activities. In a broad term, non-governmental organizations are nonprofit organizations which operate independently from any government, and what is are usually expected from nongovernment associations is a leading value in the structure of their system, which pursues non-economic non-financial aims. One of the key indicators of these organizations is that their members' activities are totally voluntarily. In this view, two main types of NGOs are recognized: • Operational NGOs operational NGOs, whose primary purpose is the design and implementation of developmental and practical solutions, • Tracking and Assisting NGOs Organizations which contribute to improving service systems or specific types of social systems. Other definitions for these organizations are stated below: • NGO is an independent legal entity which is nongovernmental, non-profit and nonpolitical, and has been


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... formed for taking on voluntary activities in cultural, social, religious and humanistic areas, based a statute, in the framework of positive law and executive administrative law of a given country. • Another definition of NGOs, based on the contents of executive administrative law passed on 30 July 2005 by the Councils of Ministers about establishment and activity of them, can thus be stated: NGO is a non-governmental, voluntary association of natural or legal persons that has been established within the relevant law and is non-profit, nonpolitical and open to membership.


The Significance and Necessity of Establishing NGOs The main purpose and stimulus for establishing NGOs reflects on the social necessities and mobilizing civil, volunteer forces in organized frameworks, which is aim at improving society conditions and achieving balanced, sustainable development. Civil associations not only have access to different sections of the society and can get people trust them in order to improve the situation, solve problems, and eliminate shortcomings of the society, but also they find the oppurtunity to indicate and develop their own viewpoints, ideas and preferences in a legitimate and normal manner. There is no doubt that dynamic presence of effective and contributive NGOs can result in increased social security, as well as establish an order in the establishment of which everyone is participant and responsible. The cooperation of NGOs, which is within their nature, can be defined in 5 levels including contribution in: advisory, coordination, supplementary, operational and final participation. The final participation is the highest form and level of contribution

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening in which the parties involved (governmental or nongovernmental) perceive each other as correlative in the process of development and achieving common goals and opinions. The Process and Model of the Formation of a Social Institution Highlighted characeristics and indicatives of NGOs: 1- Being organiezed it means that these organizations have a specified statute, foundation and structure with determined goals. 2- Being private (non-governmental) It means that governmental agencies are not involved in the establishment and management of the organization. Of course NGOs and the government system have a bilateral relation and effect, but despite being independent from the government, the common, main goal of all NGOs is maintaining national interests and general benefits of the nation. 3- Being Autonomous and Independent NGOs should be able to have supervision and control over their activities, while having sufficient independence in the workflow of their internal affairs. These organizations attempt to achieve their goals within the framework of law, with the highest possible degree of independence in order not to be influenced by the authorities or trends. 4. Being non-profit Participating in these organizations is voluntary, so they can be financed through membership fee, governmental aids, donors, international formal organizations, offering services, etc. These donations are not supposed to render NGOs dependent on the donor sources and deviant from their social goals and commitments.


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... 5- Being voluntary NGOs are voluntarily established and operated based on the principle if free will of people, as a response to a normal need, derived from common stimuli, characteristics and ideals, as well as intellectual and environmental conditions. Accordingly, this definition is not true about organizations whose membership is legally compulsory. 6- Being nonpolitical NGOs should not be dependant on any political party or association. They are not suppesed to pursue any political activities. These organizations can issue manifestos and hold some meetings, but they can't recommend any candidates or provide a candidate with the facilities of the organization.


NGO Functions • Providing information and public awareness (communication) • Attracting public participation (public mobilization) • Fundraising and attracting small public resources (resource mobilization) • Development, expansion and reinforcement of the coordination between people and the government. • expanding public supervision • Evaluating activities • Increasing efficiency in using resources • Normalization Especially important among the functions stated above are "Attracting public participation", "resource mobilization" and "supervision and evaluation".

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The Main Activities of NGOs a) Operational activities

• formal and informal recruitment • Planning, supervision and evaluation • Supporting affairs • Building income • Providing information b) Non-executive and software activities

• Culture-building activities: holding religious meetings; publicity; promoting individual and social identity; giving responsibility to people; preserving cultural monuments and heitage; etc. • Public education: holding conferences and gatherings and participating in them; training specialists; etc. • Research: assessing social needs; increasing efficiency; introducing paradigms; analyzing opinions. • Building a relationship with state sectors: giving advice; holding joint meetings; carrying out joint activities; pointing out problems; and providing suggestions regarding the improvement of affairs. Major Roles of NGOs Because of the fact that NGOs work in various fields, build a social base for themselves and have a close correlation with different groups of people, they have the capacity to gain a proper understanding of the real needs and demands of their target groups. Some major roles have been stated for these organizations which are mentioned below: • Representation: They act as a link between people and the government. In many cases, numerous demands of people flow into these organizations. Based on the priority


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... and importance of these demands, the organization acts the representative of people, and transfers their demands to the government agencies. Thus, NGOs significantly help recognize, modify and address the real needs of the society. Also, they act like buffers, preventing the government from having to deal with a huge amount of people's demands. • Supervision: Being the best supervisors, they supervise the government's measures and activities. • Criticism: Actually, they act like a force leverage to impose more sense of responsibility on the government. • Advice: as advisers, they can make a contribution to policy-making and schematization. • Administrative: Then can participate in executing projects and the governmental planning.


Pathology of Civil Institutionalization in Establishment Process of a Muslim Community


a) Internal pathologies

Internal pathologies are the obstacles which are more related to the policy-making of civil institutions, rather that the performance of its members. Some of them are discussed bellow: • Lack of strategic planning and policy-making to acheive superior ideals and values of a Muslim community. Strategic long-term planning seems to be the best way for achieving the superior goals of an Islamic state, which in a proper cultural context, results reinforcement of religious beliefs including faith in God, the Unseen Universe and the Hereafter. Because of the fact that policy-making is a difficult task, religious elites should attempt further to go beyond the level of everyday issues and, using their

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening knowledge of what's beyond the horizons ahead, reveal a vivid image of the Muslim society and a revolutionary believer, while promoting religious and revolutionary teachings, and rearranging integrated relations and stable social relationships between people in order to deepen religious beliefs. • Dominance of the governmentalization approach in various fields of the Islamic revolution and awakening. Unfortunately, the government's intervention in all the cultural fields and religious practices of people causes some damages to the improvement process of Islamic society culture expansion, while undermining the sanctity of divine commandments as well as the culture. • Poor management mechanisms This factor has resulted in institutional parallelization as well as lack of optimal use of available opportunities. For instance, hasty actions of elites and planners to establish numerous agencies for popularizing Islamic Revolution have led to parallelization in this field. b) External pathologies

If internal patholigies are not heeded and treated properly, they can definitely lead to abnormalities in the behavior of individuals in the society. Since behavior is influenced by the insight, the latter will be subject to change, and when insights change, deviations emerge, rendering the activities and goals inconsistent with Islamic paradigms. In this situation, the following concerns might emerge: • Lack of proper infrastructure to restore the Sharia law and execution of the prophetic and divine commands. • Lack of adequate influence on how governments respond to a wide range of community concerns over the economic,


Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... political, cultural and social fields. • Failing to supply information and build coordination between individuals in the society. • Confusion in training expert and capable forces to lead and guide individuals towards a Islamic and revolutionary society. • Low motivation and delay in preparation for the formation of an ideal Islamic society.


Conclusion In general, civil institutions and organizations are capable of increasing the legitimacy of a system or reducing it. If a system attempts to eliminate or weaken civil institutions, it has, in fact, lost part of its own social base. Similarly, governments can gain more legitimacy and a broader social and civil base, while creating more enthusiasm and delight, by providing civil institutions with the opportunity to take on activities, and strengthening them. Having formed according to ultimate merits of the individuals in the society, and deeply influenced by superior beliefs and ultimate merits, these civil institutions are relatively stable and have the ability to produce behavioral models which consequently take the form of tradition and public culture. Also, they can get so much coordinate and integrated that "any significant change in one institution, can lead to some changes in other institutions." Based on what has been said, in can be concluded that unless governments recognize civil, traditional, legal, and customary institutions and get backed by their association, they cannot effectively serve people and the society, nor can they claim to be based on democracy. The statements of Hazrat Imam Khomeini

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening support this correlation. “People should support their governments. A government lacking people's support, will fail.” he stated. And this is unlike puppet governments of the countries in which Islamic Awakening is in progress. These governments have been intensifying suppression day by day, while pursuing a constant war against public opinion on Muslim societies, But ultimately they will have to admit this fact, as “Islamic Awakening is a fact which has emerged, no matter what the opinion of Islamic Ummah adversaries might be. Walking this path necessitates the resolved determination of leaders of the nations.”


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...

Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of Islamic Awakening on the Basis of the Comments of the Leader of Iran’s Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khamenei Abdollah Moradi Introduction: Islamic Awakening is an issue that coincided with the allout Western invasion on the Islamic World during the age of Colonism and has passed through various stages since the time of late Imam Khomeini. This movement definitely started with the views and opinions of people like Sayyed Jamalodin Assadabadi and always remained limited and could never work as a dominant discourse. Even when this movement was expanded by people like Hassan al-Bana and Sayyed Qotb in Egypt, it couldn’t get into the lives of all Muslims and make a change. This was Imam Khomeini who, for the first time, managed to change the discourse of Islamic Awakening into a political practice and involved not only Muslims of all walks of life but also all of the oppressed people across the world. Merging collective memory with the discourse of the Islamic Awakening was due to Imam Khomeini’s bright soul which could get huge achievement for the Islamic and human community in a short while. The first and the most important accomplishment was that discourse of Islamic Awakening changed into a dominant discourse. The development and victories of Hezbollah in Lebanon, the breakthroughs of Hamas and Islamic Jihad fighter in Palestine as well as the victories of Islamist


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


in several elections, indicate the capability of Islamic Awakening regarding the new developments and the will of the Muslim nations. It has been more than a year that the Islamic Middle East has been scene of political tensions and the eruption of popular demands. This is while, the Arab nations had never pressured their rulers to get their political, economic and social demands. This expansion and novelty has accelerated the developments in the Middle East and made them manifold and versatile. People’s demands in the Middle East include a wide range of political, economic and social demands. Seeking Justice, fighting totalitarian rule, political participation, democracy and free political activities, fighting economic and social corruption, and having economic welfare are among the demands of Arab protesters and revolutionaries. These demands take form in an Islamic context. These developments have created the third wave of political change in the Arab countries in the Middle East. The first wave of change was coupled with nationalism and led to the independence of Arab countries after the World War I. The second wave was inclined towards leftist movements and managed to make an uproar in Egypt via Nasserism Discourse for a while. Needless to say, these two waves that were a mixture of Pan-Arab nationalism and leftist ideology, failed to bear fruits after successive defeats against Israel and the humiliation of national and Islamic pride of the people in the Middle East and the political crackdown, economic underdevelopment. And now, the third wave of the developments in the Middle East, as the Leader of the Islamic Revolution says, are the calls for democracy by the people who think and live in an Islamic context.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The present article seeks to offer a political, analytical discourse of Islamic Awakening. This paper doesn’t deal with the history of Islamic Awakening, but focuses on the recent developments in the Middle East. The author seeks to explain the ideas, concepts, demands and semantic patterns in the countries involved in Islamic Awakening via using a theoretic framework and an analysis of the revolutionary developments in the Middle East. This article also attempts to define the formation of the identity of the Islamic Awakening and give a political analysis in the field of Islamic Awakening. So the question is that how can the demands, concepts, and patterns of Islamic Awakening be categorized into a coherent semantic system. Therefore, the present article will be divided into two sections. It will discuss the identity of Islamic Awakening discourse versus leftism, nationalism and liberal democracy. The second sections will discuss the concepts and patterns of Islamic Awakening from Ayatollah Khamenei’s point of view. Theoretical Framework Methods of study in human science research work like toolbox. One of the qualitative methods in understanding political phenomena and discovering political and social behaviors is discourse analysis on the basis of Lakalov and moufe version. This article seeks to define the principal concepts of Islamic Awakening via using discourse theory a simply a method without being loyal to its universal and cognitive requirement. That is because cognitive elements of discourse like relativism, denying universality, and ... don’t suit the theoretical principles of Islam. Discourse analysis was used for the first time in 1952


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


by the eminent linguist Zellig Hariss. With the emergence of “Michael Fuko� discourse analysis as a method for understanding literary and philosophical texts and was used for understanding political and social phenomena. Inspired by Fuko, people like Lakalov and Moufe partly completed this theory. In brief, it can be said that discourse means the framework of linguistic structures in context, if we accept the language as the meeting point of ideologies, historical context, power and other socio-cultural factors. Discourse, is a context with social background. The statements, clauses and raised issues, as well as words and phrases and their meanings all depend on this point that the rules and stated issues ... are asserted and organized when, where, how by who and against whom and with what incentives? And this means the function of language in a specific situational context that happens at every moment and of course has a political function. Words and concepts are the components of language structure, they are not static and their communicational roles change in different times and places to convey different meanings, therefore language structure is also prone to change. With this view, discourse can be considered as the indication of language role beyond sentences, words and phrases and can be sought in signs and non-linguistic acts and the communications among people. In general, the following approaches can be reviewed in discourse analysis studies: An approach focusing on the discourse itself that is text and talk structures An approach focusing on the study of social and cultural structure ( discourse background

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening An approach focusing on reproduction of hegemony and power in political, social and cultural context Therefore discourse analysis is a research attitude and seeks to study the formal effects of speech, to access the structure of production, and the background context or speech, namely, the extra-contextual elements (situational, cultural, social ... contexts). Discourse analysis claims that the analyst goes beyond the text while studying and evaluating it. In fact, as soon as we consider the contextual approach to discourse more seriously, many social and cultural aspects are involved. This school of thought deals with a method through which semantic systems or discourses form people’s understanding of their roles in the society and affect their political activities. Some of the most important objectives of discourse analysis can be summarized as following: - Clarifying deep and complex structures of text production, that is the process of discourse production - Indicating the effect of context(linguistic units) and situational context( social, cultural, political, historical and cognitive factors) on discourse - Indicating the position and certain conditions of the producer of discourse(producers conditions) - Discovering the relation between text and ideology (3) Lakalov and Moufe believe discourse is a field in which a combination of signs come together as a network and their meanings get fixed. This semantic network forms our understanding of the universe and make our sociopolitical behaviors. In Lakalov and Moufe discourse, social and political affairs and the universe in general, can be comprehended in discourse intra-structures. According to


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


the discourse analysis theory, each society is made up of a group of discourses (at least two discourses). Discourse consists of a number of signs. A coherent intellectual context and an ideological complex can be placed in the frame of a single form and system. Each discourse system has a central point which is the final point of all patterns, instructions and symbols of that system. In fact, the central symbol produces meaning and other symbols are based on that meaning. This symbol supports other symbols and keeps them at their semantic realms. For example, freedom is a central symbol in liberalism and concepts such as government, person and equality find their meanings in light of this central symbol. Besides, in some views, each discourse is made up of two separate chains of rejections and approvals. In other words, each discourse approves or rejects some concepts according to the central symbol and its ruling logic in the form of a mean‫ﻅ‬ngful chain.(5) Elements in discourse are the signs that have several meanings and various discourses attempt to insert these elements into a semantic system to make them meaningful. Discourses are constantly competing to fix meaning. Discourse gets its meaning from discourse form which is distinct from the opposing discourses and that is why there are conflicting discourses for the interpretation of the world and these conflicts determine the fate of the society. Every discourse structure needs to set up an outsider to establish itself. The identity of the subject and discourse of the collective identity of both is formed through the contrast between the inside and outside. The identity of the subject is formed through the contrast between its subconscious mind and the people around him and the identity of the discourse

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening is formed via the enemy or the outsider. As a matter of fact, identity is established an outsider. In other words, discourses are formed in a conflictive relationship and basically the identity arises from this conflict and hostility. Each discourse get its identity when it is compared to other discourses. These outsiders constantly seek to break the ruling structures and therefore, the ruling discourse can be toppled by the rejected discourses. Discourses reconstruct themselves through reconsidering the meanings of the signs in different periods. If the discourses fail to reproduce themselves, they will be rejected and possibly destroyed by other discourses and this is the meaning of discourse conflict. Each discourse attempts to reject the meaning of the outsider to maintain its own meaning and get identity through these conflicts. Causing and experiencing social opposites is considered as pivotal in the theory of discourse in three aspects. First, creating a hostile relation that results in the production of an enemy or an outsider, which is considered essential for setting up political borders. Second, the formation of hostile relations and the establishment of political borders, is pivotal to the stabilization of part of discourse identity and social agents and third, experiencing the opposite, is an example that indicates the establishment of identity. According to the theory of discourse, acquiring a perfect and positive identity by the agents and groups is impossible. Therefore, the theory of discourse doesn’t suit essentialism and naturalism as the presence of the outsider forms the identity. Lakalov and Moufe call this logic of contrast and consider it as the basis for the violent separation of forces that resist merging attempts.


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... Therefore, each discourse aims to conquer the essence of the words in the society. Different discourses are constantly conflicting over the creation of meaning in the society. In this conflict, when a discourse sets up its semantic system and manages to stabilize its semantic system in the minds of the subjects, it becomes hegemonic. In other words, when a discourse manages to stabilize its desirable semantic system in the collective mentality of the society, even temporarily, and attract public satisfaction, that discourse becomes hegemonic. Therefore, the success of political groups depends on their capabilities in producing meaning.


Identity and formation of Islamic awakening discourse By studying the historical trend of Islamic Awakening movements from Sayyed Jamal to Imam Khomeini we can conclude that the cultural backgrounds of Islamic societies in the region have been coupled with the Islamic culture and Islam has always promoted political thought and practice. The development of Islamic movements may be deemed as the most superficial reason for the fact that the Islamic model has always been the most ideal future for the society and the most obvious response to the people’s problems. So, Islamic Awakening is not a new issue arisen out of the eruption of revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia, but it has been an inseparable part of individual and social lives of Muslims. Therefore, Islamic Awakening when it came as a response to rule crisis in the Islamic world and when it was fighting against colonism and now that it seeks to make political reform on the basis of Islam, has always been after a series of common goals. Islamic Awakening has been defined as religious reform or revival and in Arabic it has been

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening described as Islamic Movement. Islamic Awakening has been described as social phenomenon which means return to alertness and wakefulness of the Islamic Ummah so that it gets self-confidence and be proud of their religion, dignity and political and economic and intellectual independence and try to take their role as the best Ummah for the people. But Islamic Awakening is now the product of an identityseeking trend against the ruling Arab nationalist discoursed which also relies the historical experiences. Arab Nationalism Discourse Arab countries gained their independence after the World War I. They got political sovereignty based on national regime years after being ruled by the Ottoman Empire and colonized by Europeans. This period coincides with expansion of nationalism as political manual in these countries, like Pharaoh Pan-Arabism in Egypt, which gets its identity from Pharaohism in Ancient Egypt. The changes caused the first wave of discourse which was based on Arab nationalism in Arab societies. This wave, first sought political independence for Arab countries. The second wave of Arab nationalism of course was more extended and complex that the first discourse environment. It may be claimed that the second wave of discourse change in Arab countries in the Middle East started after Jamal Abdolnaser came to power through a coup by army officer in 1954. Nasserism, changed the Arab identity into an ideological discourse that was based on leftism and Pan-Arabism elements. Nasser’s leftism was indicated by an anti-imperialism literature. Egyptian Intellectual Samir Amin writes:


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


Nasserism managed to take a clear anti-imperialism stance on the international level and propose modern socialist social reforms. Of course everything took place at the top level; democracy was not implemented as the people were not allowed to organize themselves. In fact, the political life of the society was eliminated. This vacancy caused by Nasser wan an invitation for political Islam to fill in the gap. Aarab nationalism that was in place in Arab world for nearly two decades was based on three fundaments of “fighting Israel, pro-socialism and Pan-Arabism. This secular discourse offered Pan-Arabism as its central symbol and managed to frame fighting West’s colonism, rejecting monarchies, implementation of social and political freedoms, and solving the problem of underdevelopment by promising to realize Arab Nation causes and separation from Israel. This discourse relied on popular masses and won victories like nationalization of Suez Canal and promoted its image among Arabs by confronting Israel. It managed to reproduce its political rule after hegemonizing its semantic context. Arab World was highly influenced by Egyptian president Jamal Abdul Nasser before June 1967 War. Millions of Arabs across the world would listen to Nasser’s fiery speeches on the radio. The only goal of Arab world was the liberation of the Palestinian territories and destruction of Israel. Many Arab countries especially Syria, Iran and Lebanon supported Abdul Nasser. Maybe Habib Bourguiba, then president of Tunisia, was the only Arab leader who called for establishing peace with Israel. His speech in the in the West Bank in 1964 drew fierce reaction from the Arab world and made him isolated. His

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening main slogan about Palestine was that we have to take back with force what they took from us forcefully. But after defeating in 1967 Arab war against Israel, the sentimental environment of Nasserism subsided and a wave despair and hopelessness was created across the Arab world. This era should be considered as the end of Nasserism. But military officers like Anvar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak continued the Arab nationalism discourse. Later they cemented alliance with Arab monarchs and the US. The basic property of this era was Sadat’s peace with Israel and pro-Palestinian groups inclination towards making peace with Israel. Elements in a discourse can be internal part of it and abandon it after a while. This feature makes a discourse change into another discourse under certain circumstances. The Pivotal meaning of discourse gets separated through deconstruction. After making peace with Israel, the Arab nationalism discourse went through semantic divergence because the framed concepts were disturbed after eliminating the symbol of fighting against Israel and even Imperialism. But, Arab nationalism discourse come up with a new frame through separation from Iran. In fact, deconstruction of the central symbol of Pan-Arabism, turned into Arabs’ separation especially after the Islamic Revolution in Iran when Shia ideology boosted and confronted the US and Israel, and the Arab stances against Iran intensified. Arab nationalism discourse offered the symbol of moderate-Arabism as its central symbol and managed to confront elements like economic liberalism, development, secularism, security, and Middle East peace. In this framework, security discourse, was created through peace between Israel and Palestinians and emphasis on Madrid and Oslo talks. Of course, due


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


to the political tyranny in Arab countries, securing these countries generally meant maintaining security for their rulers. This security could be gained through alliance with the US and the West. The Egyptian author writes about semantic changes through Nasser, Sadat and Mubarak: Egypt didn’t act as a regional and international activist as it had accepted global liberalization and the US strategies. It became the most important ally to the US, Saudi Arabia and Israel. This let Israel continue its colonist policy in the occupied Palestinian territories. Nasser had set up a guaranteed economic system to secure the growth of the middle class and proper distribution of wealth among the poor citizens. But Sadat and Mubarak replaced it with a system that only served the interests of corporations and imperialist capitalism. Back in 1990 in his speech at the Haj conference, The Leader of the Islamic Revolution described the result of the connection between Arab nationalism and the West as following: Fighting against Islamic Awakening has various forms across the world. In Algeria, majority of people vote for an Islamic group in a free and democratic elections but a violent coup annuls the election, cracks down on people and puts the elected people in jail. In Sudan, Islamic groups come to power through absolute popular support, and then the West start provocation and threaten them both inside and outside their borders. In Palestine, Muslims are brutally tortured by the Zionists and in southern Iraq, popular uprisings that are arisen out of Islamic motives, against the ruling Ba’ath party are savagely crushed and the US and the West that have already indicated their will for a strong response to

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Saddam in other cases, just come up with a muted response. In Egypt the most open-minded Muslim generations, are violently prosecuted by the ruling incompetent and corrupt regime and that great country’s puppet government gets financial and security support from the US. But the crackdown on these uprisings resulted in accumulation of their potential energy and challenged the moderate Arab nationalism that was connected to the US. By the passage of time, anti-radicalism fight was framed along with moderate Arabism. Hamas, Hezbollah, and Islamic Jihad were symbols of this radicalism in moderate Arabism discourse and found their identity through connection with Iran. Of course, the geographical atmosphere of moderate Arab nationalism spread across the region and passed through the borders of Saudi Arabia Jordan and Egypt,‌ and Persian Gulf states via severance from Iran. Analyzing Arab nationalism concepts Now Islamic Awakening has offered a new discourse against the old Arab nationalism. In Arab nationalism discourse, the central symbol was Pan-Arabism and after that moderate Arabism and the other concepts were framed on the basis of the central symbol. Therefore, Arab nationalism discourse was an amalgamate of Arabism and West and lived on for more than 30 years. This discourse, to get hegemonic, like any other discourse, must give meaning to the wandering symbols in the political literature and attempt to eliminate all rival discourses to get to the pinnacle of power. Therefore, Islamic ideologies, like those of Muslim Brotherhood’s, which is the most widespread Islamic organization in Arab societies, have been considered


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


as anti-regime discourse and have been cracked down. There is no doubt that Muslim Brotherhood is one of the most important Islamic movements in the recent history and has had profound effects on the developments in the Middle East and Islamic world. So while, cognitive gaps reveal in Pan-Arabism discourse, new political demands and concepts put the structure of this discourse under pressure. Since the framed concepts were likely to be disturbed, they had three properties of being “temporary, possible, and free.� In other words, each of the concepts could be separated from the central symbol and fueled their restlessness. This issue clearly was manifested in form of growing communications and democracy. Meanwhile, the growth of communication and the coherence of time and place are products of globalization process. But, the US took the next step unwillingly. According to its foreign policy, the US tries to introduce democratic, human rights and anti-terrorism values as accepted norms in the international community. Democracy is the main US instrument to establish its hegemony in the modern world. After George Bush junior came to power, the promotion of democracy was said to the best way to fight terrorism in the Middle East, at it was described as the biggest security threat for the US. According to this interpretation, despotic Arab rulers came under increasing pressure to open up political atmosphere. People in Arab societies had some democratic demands from their tyrant and puppet governments. In this stage, the concepts of Pan-Arabism discourse were challenged but the discourse itself was still stable because the opponents were not able to change the discourse. Discourses reconsider the meaning of their concepts periodically and if they fail to

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening reproduce, they will be rejected and possibly eliminated by other discourses. Insistence on following up western policies led to the disturbance of the concepts. These policies were challenged by Hezbollah’s victory against Israel during the 33 day war and Hamas victory in the 22 day Israeli offensive. These two accomplishments were both based on the ideology of the Islamic Revolution. This was of great significance as Arab Nationalism mad no breakthroughs neither within the years of fighting against Israel nor during the years of make peace with the Zionist regime. It has humiliated the honor and dignity of people in Arab societies due to the defeat against Israel. As a result, following the September 11 attacks and the US invasion of Iraq and the 33 day war between Hezbollah and Israel, the central symbol of moderation declined and the concepts based on it lost their order. So the semantic weakness of Arab nationalism discourse in organizing concepts like democracy and the failure of peace policies imposed an increasing feeling of humiliation to Arab nations especially Egypt. It resulted in the collapse of Arab nationalism discourse. Afterwards, Arab dictators attempted to gain security and legitimacy through relations with the West and support from the US, just like what Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran did to dodge his people’s demands, suppressing them and maintaining his authority. So the human dignity, and the idealistic Islamic thoughts of Arabs were hidden like illicit goods. This resulted in lack of suitable rule, tyranny, political crackdown, poverty, inequality in Arab societies. Of course it must be noted that many of these development originated from Iran’s


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


Islamic Revolution. The Islamic Revolution rejected one the fundaments of modernism, that is, isolation of religion in societies or secularism and ignoring the role of religion in political, economic, and cultural issues. The emergence of the Islamic Revolution has had rapid and far-reaching impacts in the past three decades. This led to the rejection of this view and the age of termination of religion turned into an end to this view and this was the beginning of all Islamic discourses which were basically being destroyed by the ruling secularism and tyranny. In fact, the most principal influence of the Islamic Revolution in Iran must be sought in the discourse environment of regional nations rather than in the geopolitics of the region. Arab Nationalism and Leftists ideas were the dominant ideologies across the Arab world in 60s and 70s and there was no room for the emergence of Islamism due to the tremendous pressures from the ruling governments. But Islamic Awakening emerged following the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979. Islamic Awakening discourse gets hegemonic The provided analysis includes descriptive function for the formation of Pan-Arabism discourse and obliteration of its symbols. In fact these are the reasons for ending Arab nationalism discourse. Setting out reason such as economic poverty, development of internet communications and ‌. that are used to define the reason of Arab uprisings can also be used to describe the causes of the failure of tyrant ruling regimes. In the meantime, people’s demand for Islam is one of the other several reasons behind the formation the developments in the region. But, a second question should be raised to define the main reason of the events

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and to set up a system that represent the popular demands in Arab revolutions as the issue fails to explain why Islamic Awakening discourse should replace the previous discourse. The second question is: why Islamic Awakening discourse should be proposed as the main alternative for reforming the political and cultural future of Islamic societies? According to discourse theory, the more efforts are made to drive the dominant discourse towards power, the more the opposite discourses will grow. While the powerful ruler is happy with the dominance of his discourse, resistance discourses emerge from the underneath layers. This antipower discourse needs an outsider to establish itself. The identity of the subject and the discourse or the collective identity are formed in the confrontation between inside and outside. Each discourse attempts to protect its own meaning via rejecting the meaning of the outsider and find its identity. So Islamic Awakening discourse should be expected to organize its identity elements in contrast and conflict with the elements of Arab Nationalism. These discourses, are placed against Arab Nationalism discourse and take stance against moderate Arab symbol, security, and connections with West. Besides, these discourses are made up of two separate chains of rejection and approval. It is obvious that they reject moderate Arabism and support fighting against Israel and seek democracy and seek their own identity trough independence and democracy in the combat against the tyranny and independence of Mubarak’s and Bin-Ali’s regimes. At the same time, Islamist movements get dominant among the anti-power discourses due to their historical links with the social context of the society and their discourses against the secular and tyrant


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


Arab regimes. Therefore, when the identities of the subject get agitated, that is when the dominant discourse starts to decline because of pervasive social or economic unrests resistance discourses try to reconstruct their social concepts and identities through organizing rival discourses. Meanwhile, discourses try to make their own cognitive atmosphere dominant and a new discourse match begins. But the discourse that manages to make itself tangible, accessible and acceptable for the audience in the society gets dominant. In fact Lakalov and Moufe use the concept of accessibility to explain how some discourses face more success and are welcomed by the audience during the crises. So, Islamic Awakening discourse, can overcome other discourses like liberal discourse and replace Arab nationalism due to its accessibility and acceptability. This issue has been realized with the victory of Islamists in the parliamentary elections in Egypt and Tunisia and Islamic orientations in Libya and Morocco and has upset the US and Israel. Islamic Awakening discourse is acceptable, credible, and accessible because of its long presence in the political and intellectual arenas of social societies and it is more qualified and legitimate than other discourse to get political power because it has experience violent crackdown by the US-backed nationalist regimes. The anti-tyranny and justice-seeking characteristics of Islamic Awakening indicate that the focus of popular movements and Islamic uprisings may have been put on the internal problems of the society and they seek a different political reform for make Islamic growth and development. Islamic Awakening discourse saddles not the waves of ideas but the hearts and minds of deprived people and seeks to

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening create a new order based on religious democracy through relying on the dignity of the people. Islamic Awakening discourse organization As mentioned before, each discourse tries to protect its own meaning with rejecting an outsider meaning and gains its identity through these conflicts. Therefore, Islamic Awakening discourse attempts to organize its semantic symbols in contrast with Arab nationalism discourse and moderate Arabism. This discourse is made up of two independent chains of rejections and approvals. The approvals of the Islamic Awakening are based on the Islamic culture and ideology that have been merged with the history, idea, and culture of the people in the Islamic societies. The rejections of Islamic Awakening discourse are raised against the Arab nationalism discourse. While the Arab nationalism discourse, using the central symbol of moderate Arabism, defines peace with Israel, relations with the West, secularism, political tyranny, and economic liberalism, the Islamic Awakening seeks its identity in Islam, democracy and independence. Considering the results of the recent elections in Islamic countries and the analysis given on the basis of discourse theory, we realized that the Islamic Awakening discourse has the highest semantic capability in organizing the wandering concepts in the demands of the people. Islamic Awakening is a general Islamic situation that indicated different interpretation that analysts disagree on. So, the slogans that the people follow alters. Analysis and description of this phenomenon, clarify the practical reality of the revolutionary awakening and uprising as well as its nature and basics and motives. Therefore, we try to


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


describe and analyze the real identity of this phenomenon on the basis of the comments of the Leader of Iran’s Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khamenei and provide a semantic system including the Islamic Awakening concepts (with the definition that the main roots of the developments in the Middle East should be sought in the discourse of Islamic Awakening) and place various demands in a single and coherent system. Ayatollah Khamenei defines the popular demands through a comprehensive Islamic interpretation: Independence, freedom, Justice, resistance against tyranny and colonism, rejecting ethnic, racial and religious discrimination, open rejection of Zionism, these are the basics of the uprising in the Islamic countries which are all extracted from Islam and Qur’an. Therefore, Islamic Awakening discourse is an extensive semantic system that seeks to bring together profound Islamic values, concepts and popular demands in a coherent semantic framework and involve other elements of Islamic Awakening with relying on the central symbol of religious democracy. Return and Awakening Islamic Awakening is based on three important principles: return to genuine Islam, Muslim world unity, and antihegemonism. In fact, Islamic Awakening, requires the admitting historical ignorance and underdevelopment and is a kind of social repentance. If we wish to sum up this new awakening in a sentence we should say it means that we return to Islam, its comprehensiveness and all of its aspects. Of course the meaning of return has nothing to do with historical retroversion. But the return to Islam means a historic repentance and social compensation. That is the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Muslim Ummah should heed the far distance between their believes, behaviors, and social performance and the Islamic values and concepts. This return is aimed at constructing a new Islamic civilization on based on the Islamic culture: Islamic Awakening is conspicuous all across the Muslim world; a massive movement can be seen in all levels of the Muslim world; desire to return to the Islamic principles and fundaments, which promotes honor, progress and advancement. The Leader of the Islamic Revolution considers Imam Khomeini as the paragon of this return and view him as the symbol of Islamic Awakening: The logic of our dear Imam was logic of wisdom, logic of thought, logic of insightful practice, logic of humanity, and human and moral virtues. Those who mistreat the people, even Muslims and believers, accuse some people of blasphemy, assault people with tribalism and lousy pretexts. But the Islamic Awakening must involve both will and action: Today, the US, a cruel government that has huge wealth, modern technology and science and humiliate the world nations, can be easily defeated in our Islamic region if the Muslim nations be hopeful about their future and go ahead with their revolutions optimistically. Fortunately, the nations have been awakened; but awakening is not sufficient. After getting awakened they must move, and this movement needs hope. So awakening finds it meaning in association with concepts, knowledge, will and action.


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


Popular presence The massive, wise, gracious and peaceful presence of people in Islamic Awakening developments are among the properties of this movement. Today, we witness that nations have a peaceful presence in all areas of Islamic Awakening and even in a country like Yemen, which is known as a free weapon market, stage an Islamic, civil and cultural revolution: The real and public presence of people in the scene of jihad is the most important factor in these revolutions. They participate in the revolutions not only with their hearts, will and faith, but also with their bodies. This presence is a far cry from a revolt by a military group or an armed resistance group that takes place in front of indifferent people over even happens with their consent. From the viewpoint of the Leader of the Islamic Revolution, popular presence is not only a property of a revolution, but also guarantees the implementation of its objectives: In the past events in a number of these countries, a small and limited number of armed groups who staged coup, shouldered the heavy burden of the revolution, not the people who are from all walks of life. They made decisions, and put them into action and when they themselves or the generation after them altered their path, the revolutions turned into their own opposite and the enemies took control of those nations again. This is absolutely different from a development that is shouldered by a mass of people who sacrifice for it with their lives and force the enemies out of the scene. Here, the people themselves make the slogans, set the goals, identify and introduce and chase the enemy

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and outline a desirable future and as a result don’t let the corrupt infiltrators to deviate their path. The revolution may be slow in the popular movement, but it is far from instability and superficiality. It is a sacred word as God says in the holy Qur’an: “Seeth thou not how Allah sets forth a parable? – A goodly word like a goodly tree whose root is firmly fixed in its branches to the heavens- of its Lord. So Allah sets forth parables for men in order that they may receive admonition.” When I saw the Egyptian protesters at Tahrir Square on TV, I made sure that their revolution will be victorious. Therefore, popularity is the most important element in the identity formation of these revolutions. Being anti-hegemony The anti-colonism origin of the Islamic Awakening is almost taken for granted and there is little debate on it. Sayyed Jamalodin Assadabadi’s presence in the battlefield against Britain in Iran, Ottomans, Egypt and,... Mohammad Abdeh and Hass al-Banna the founders of Muslim brotherhood in Egypt, Mirzaye Shirazi’s resistance against the foreigners’ hegemony in Islamic societies, and finally the Islamic Revolution in Iran to get rid of the US hegemony, all indicate that the prime purpose of these moves have been fulfilling the Islamic causes and not following the orders of the colonists. So, despite all the theories, Islamic Awakening doesn’t have a certain birth place. Changing Muslims’ mentality about obedience to the hegemonic powers is an accepted fact in the contemporary Islamic society.


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


For example, Imam Khomeini reiterates in his spiritual, political will that: Islamic scholars and lecturers in the Muslim countries should call on the governments to stop dependence on foreign powers and make deal with their own people, in this case they will be victorious.� But the matter which has not changed yet is the hegemonic powers problem with Islam: The direction of the movement in the Islamic society should be pointed against the global hegemonic powers which unfortunately have clinched at the Islamic World. They are hostile to Islam, they are hostile to Muslims’ awakening, and they are hostile to Iran because it is an Islamic country. Because that is where the Islamic Awakening started from. They are doing their best to stop the revival of the Islamic movement in the world. The US government is leading this hostility and is supported by minor and major powers that have an old hostility to Islam. But it must be noted that the victory of false movements and the deviation of the human community and oppression and tyranny is possible, but Qur’an considers them simply as fleeting movements. In this battle, righteousness ultimately overcomes falsehood. The Leader of the Islamic Revolution says the hegemonic plots against the Islamic Awakening are doomed. The hegemonic powers have never been and will never be able to stop the growing movement of the Islamic Awakening and the pro-Islam movement despite using all of their evil plots, force, false propaganda, and political ploys. The big enemies and bullying powers that are in control of the world feel weakness regarding the uprising and the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Islamic Awakening in Muslim countries. Their way has been blocked and this indicates God’s promise that: and surely Allah will help him who helps His cause; most surely Allah is Strong, Mighty. And He also said: And we wanted to confer favor upon those who were oppressed in the land and make them leaders and make them inheritors. These are God’s pledges. God also said: “And Allahhath full power and control over His affairs. These divine pledges gradually show themselves due to the movement and Awakening of the Muslims. Due to his historical knowledge of the Islamic Awakening movements and his faith in God’s pledge, The Leader of the Islamic Revolution considers the recent developments in the Middle East as an anti-hegemonic and anti-colonist movement that had directly and indirectly affected Islamic societies for years: We believe that the movements seen in some of the Islamic countries are the nations’ response to the hegemonic powers humiliation of them. Today, they have found an opportunity and have come to the scene. Independence It's obvious that Arab states whether kingdoms or previously progressive republics like Egypt defined their security in the context of close ties with the west after shifting their discourse towards Arab moderation and they put themselves under the support of the US. The U-S military presence in these countries and Washington’s annual financial aid packages prove this. In return, these countries tried to coordinate their foreign policy with the US by adopting an Iran phobic policy. Naturally, the discourse


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... of the Islamic Awakening is seeking independence from foreign domination by relying on principles of jurisprudence such as rejection of domination. This was the result of the slogan No to East, No to West, which began in the early days of the Islamic Revolution and is today the pivotal teachings and strategy in the Muslim world. "We are one and a half billion population and sit in the most sensitive parts of the world in terms of strategic significance and natural resources. But others are ruling us. Others are determining our fate. They are making decisions about our oil. They make decisions about our governments. The status quo needs to change and it will definitely change. We are seeing the signs of change today. This is the very Islamic Awakening thanks to Islam's blessing."


Islamic identity The wave of Islamic Awakening is one of meaning and spirituality. It seems that the Islamic Revolution has started a wave of spirituality in its political and civil sense that its final aim is global Islamic Mahdaviat. One of the aims of Islam is to emancipate humans from within. In this meaning, Islam has turned into the most inherent feelings and ideas and suggests itself in the form of identity by giving direction to human behavior. This Islamic identity in the first place appears in the form of symbols and individual behaviors and then in socio-ethical areas. Holding festivals and feats in a glorious manner, building mosques and religious places, attending prayer congregations, attitude towards Islamic veil or Hijab, establishing cultural and Islamic teaching institutions ‌. All these show the revival of Islamic values in the direction of Islamic Awakening. Therefore, the first

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening step of this identity is respectable, though it might not be political and clear. "We support Islamic Awakening allover the world and approve of the Muslims who want to return to return to their Islamic life and culture. They are entitled to this. What is being heard in the world today is not the same. Slogans d not point to a single reality. Judgment about the problems of Muslims in the world is not the same with regard to all of them. But what is respectable for us is the very return to Islam by Muslims. Today, Muslims around the world are entitled to endear Islam and the Qur’an and this they will do. They will also return to their Islamic life and plots and crackdowns will be futile." If Islamic Awakening is not rooted in the spirit of servitude to God, it will certainly face fundamental and significant vacuums. As a result, it will not have the necessary dynamism and efficiency. The essence of Islamic Awakening is its being value-based and its quest for meaning. If these values become internalized, no power can confront Islamic Awakening. "Today is a day when Muslim nations will return to their Islamic and true identity. What is in us of power and magnificence originates from faith in Islam trust in a divine support and reliance on God the Almighty. That's why no power, no power can overcome it. This we should show in our actions as much as possible." Of course, the main share of this public desire for true spirituality belongs to Iran’s Islamic Revolution of. The leader of the Islamic Revolution says: "All through these years of struggle following the Islamic revolution, our nation served humanity. They had closed many eyes. There


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


was nothing about religion, spirituality, ethics, human responsibility and the name of God. You, the nation, revived all these and shouldered the difficulty of fighting for the honor of Islam and for eulogizing the name of God. Today, although arrogant states are galloping ahead without having to fight and without a rival, things have reached the point where the strongest arrogant powers are fearful of the wave of spiritual awakening of nations." Therefore, when this inherent identity turns outward towards arrogant powers, its political act can direct the waves of Islamic Awakening towards the rule of Islam. Seyyed Mohammad Qotb writes: "Today, Islamic Awakening is indebted to those who love Islam and faith serves as a torch for them. They rush towards fighting the enemy. They shout, "The Qur’an and the messenger of God's Sunnah are the program of our life. They are ready to sacrifice their lives and respond positively to divine invitation." "Islam can go beyond a mere ethical advice and appear in the form of an ideological stance, which creates a political system. Islam's enemies saw that the religion managed to stage a revolution. They saw that Islam managed to give a nation self-awareness and get them out of mental destruction and enable them to achieve self-confidence and reliance on themselves and their religion. They saw that Islam can make a nation so strong that all the tools we spoke of would not affect it. This is another indication that if Muslims trust God's promise and fight in His cause they will definitely be victorious." Human Honor Speaking about the Arab world revolutions, Sheikh Abdol

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Fattah Moro, the leader and founder of Tunisia's Islamic Uprising Movementsays: "The main aim of the Arab revolutions is to reclaim the honor that can only be achieved through resorting to Islamic values. This Islamist leader believes: "Sticking to Islamic values brings honor and dignity for Muslims and keep them away from oppression and tyranny and insult by the arrogant powers." As we said before, under the Pan-Arabic discourse, the Arab and Muslim nations felt that the issue of Palestine and al-Quds is important for it with Gamal Abdelnasser and it fought for the cause and for the liberation of al-Quds. However, the Arab moderation view prevailed. This causes Muslim states to adopt a reconciliatory approach to Israel and even Palestinian fighters joined the so-called peace talks within the framework of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in the hope of forming an independent Palestinian state. Although the view was propagated for years and slammed resistance as a cause of bloodshed and accused it of being futile, nevertheless the Palestinian state was never formed and al-Quds became Israel's capital city nor did Israeli settlement expansions stop. Moreover, the Zionist regime did not stop attacking Muslims for a second. Thus, these frequent defeats alongside poverty, economic corruption and despotism in Arab states violated the human and Islamic honor of these nations very badly. Now, Islamic Awakening is a voice for rebuilding the lost honor and dignity. "Reviving and restoring the national honor and dignity that had been trampled upon during the despotic reign of corrupt rulers and under the domination of the US and the West; hoisting the flag of Islam, which is the deep belief


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


of the people in which they are deeply interested; and having access to psychological security and justice and development; all these can only be achieved through Islamic Shariah. Standing up to the domination and influence of the US and Europe that had inflicted the heaviest losses and humiliation on these nations over the past two centuries." However, the key events that gave credence to the righteousness of the resistance front in the face of the fake Israeli regime were the victory and Hezbollah and Hamas: "The Palestinian people were invigorated after decades of failure. The young people of the Arab states who had been disappointed after their governments were defeated in three consecutive wars by Israel, were revitalized. The first Intifadha, the al-Aqsa intifadha, Israel's defeat and withdrawal from Lebanon nine years ago, the 33-day war, the 22-day war on the oppressed people of Gaza, all these were blows dealt to the Zionist regime. This is while Israel was considered an invincible regime, by the Muslim states and Muslim nations, most particularly the Arab nations, at the time when the Islamic Revolution {of Iran } achieved victory. The recent events in the Middle East also stemmed from the violation of the dignity and honor of the people. This has been mainly ignored in many political and economic analyses. However, the feeling that the Islamic honor of the people of Egypt, Tunisia, etc. had been trampled on created the revolutionary identity in those nations and make them thirsty for change. "This great movement, which can put an end to the era of underdevelopment, weakness and humiliation of Muslim nations, has gained a considerable amount of its energy and

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening heroism from the issue of Palestine. One the one hand, increasing oppression and bullying on part of the Zionist regime and collaboration of some despotic and corrupt rulers and US puppet-gloves with Tel Aviv, and on the other hand, the emergence of the courageous resistance of Palestinians and the Lebanese and the miraculous victories of the Palestinian and Lebanese youths' victories in the 22day and 33-day wars were among the key factors that made rough the apparently calm seas in Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and other regional nations. That is a fact that the armed-tothe-teeth regime of Israel, which claims being invincible, suffered a humiliating defeat from the clenched fists of the pious and brave Mujahedin in Lebanon and later tested its blunt sword in the face of the rock-hard and innocent resistance in Gaza and once again suffered failure. " Of course, this identity and honor is only gained through relying on Islamic principles and beliefs: "The hoisting of Islam's flag allover the world gave Muslims a feeling of identity. It gave them self-esteem. Later, our noble Imam stood up in front of the world nations after long years of attempts to trample on Islamic identity. Then, all nations felt they have identity, prestige and origin. This caused the signs of Islamic Awakening to turn up in the east and west of the Muslim world. Religious democracy One of the most fundamental problems of the societies involved in the Islamic Awakening has been the long-ruling ideological and nationalist tyrannies or kingdom families. This has been one of the reasons behind the popular protests. Therefore, call for democracy, participation in


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...


decision making was among the most principal demands of the Muslim people of the Middle East. The Leader of Islamic Revolution says: Today, the Muslim Ummah is involved in major events. This experience that has been implemented in some Islamic countries and Islamic Awakening has led to the participation of people in deciding about their fate, are very important and valuable in Islam history. What you witness in Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain and some other countries where people themselves have come to the scene to make decision about their own fate, this can determine the historical path of Muslim Ummah and the region for a long time. But the basic point here is that how Islam and democracy, two principles demanded by the Muslim people of the region, can be merged. One of the senior members of Muslim Brotherhood says: The demands of the Egyptian youth don’t contradict with justice and Shariah because seeking freedom and justice and fighting the oppression and tyranny of Hosni Mubarak’s regime is based on Islam. Also, Tunisian Islamist leader Rashed al-Ghanoushi in his first TV speech emphasized the harmony between Islam and democracy and said: I will prove to the people of Tunisia that al-Nahzat is an Islamic movement that supports the rights of the people. Only enforcement of democracy and proper sharing of wealth and desirable economic conditions along with an Islamic government can guarantee Tunisia’s stability and the future of its people. In fact it should be said that religious democracy, as the meeting point of Islamic values and the methods of political decision making with presence of people, is the key demand of the people of

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening regional nations. Ayatollah Khamenei says: One of the most important demands of the people is decisive popular participation and role an vote in the management of their countries and as they believe in Islam, so their desirable government is Islamic democracy; that is the ruler get elected by people’s vote and the ruling values and principles in the society be based on Islamic Shariah. In the meantime, the pattern of Islamic Revolution and its theoretical capability in merging tradition and modernity, Islam and republic, religion and politics, and in general establishing a religious democratic government based on the principles of Islam, made an intellectual evolution in line with the Islamic Awakening. Basically, the independence from the West and the East in politics is the product of the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran: The theory of political Islam has a great position among intellectuals and has opened up bright horizons. The freedom and justice seeking image of Islam has now become more evident and unique following the decline of imported and controversial ideologies like socialism, Marxism, and has been welcomed by experts, intellectuals and all justice and freedom lovers. The youth in many Muslim countries have faced to political, cultural and social Jihad in the name of Islam and hope for the establishment of an Islamic justice government as they boost resistance against the rule of hegemonic powers. Islamic Awakening has disturbed the hegemonic calculations and has changed their desirable world order. So the main purpose of using Islam is to make political reform in the society and from Ayatollah Khamenei’s point of view there is no need to use the model of Islamic republic


Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... in the countries involved in Islamic Awakening: Muslim nations-from Africa to eastern Asia, decide to set up an Islamic government through different formula, and not necessarily that of the Islamic Republic, but they decided to have Islamic rule over their countries, some countries get successful, and some await a bright future. Now at the end of the study of different concepts of Islamic Awakening from Ayatollah Khamenei’s viewpoint, it should be noted that Islamic Awakening discourse, with offering a religious democracy, attempts as a central symbol; and organizes requests for justice, democracy, rule of religion, people’s awareness,‌in its semantic framework.


Conclusion: This research paper has been divided its study into two sections: first, how to use discourse analysis to describe the trend of political change in Islamic societies in the recent decades and define the formation of the Islamic Awakening identity in the recent developments which requires knowledge and background context of Islamic Awakening and second how to organize the concepts and requests of Islamic Awakening discourse in a semantic system. The following have been gained in the above mentioned sections: Islamic Awakening discourse as the front runner in the third wave of political change in Arab societies is the product of the formation of resistance discourse against Arab nationalism with the symbols of moderate Arabism, secularism, and dictators such as Hosni Mubarak. This discourse attempts to introduce its intellectual system against Arab nationalism and take position against the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening models of Arab moderation, secularism, peace with Israel, relations with the West‌ Each discourse aims to conquer the words in the society. When a discourse sets up its semantic system and managed to stabilize it in the minds of the subjects, it gets hegemonic. So, the success of political groups depends on their capabilities in producing meaning. This semantic conflict is underway in Arab societies but Islamic Awakening discourse due to its accessibility and acceptability is more capable of becoming hegemonic. Of course, the frequent victory of Islamists also indicates Islamic Awakening discourse superiority. According to the comments of the Leader of the Islamic Revolution, Islamic Awakening has the highest potential for establishing a figurative hegemony in the Middle East Arab countries and gets this objective via using the central symbol of religious democracy. Discourse analysis is capable of giving a comprehensive and factual analysis of the Middle East developments. In fact, it should be said that the most principal influence of the Islamic Revolution in Iran must be sought in the discourse environment of regional nations rather than in the geopolitics of the region. Arab Nationalism and Leftists ideas were the dominant ideologies across the Arab world in 60s and 70s and there was no room for the emergence of Islamism due to the tremendous pressures from the ruling governments. But Islamic Awakening emerged following the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979.


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Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the Islamic Awareness as viewed by the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei Mohsen Matlabi Junqani Introduction: In the late 20th century a phenomenon took place that contradicted all the international equations which had been defined based on a bipolar world of East and West. At that time, new equations were formed in the Middle East, which was of high geopolitical importance as the heart of the world and the route of transferring oil and gas, as the West’s vital needs. The phenomenon was the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran under the leadership of the late Imam Khomeini. The bipolar world was comprised of the two superpowers, the Soviet Union in the East and the United States in the West. On the one hand, liberal and secular thoughts were formed in the U.S. and the Europe during a couple of centuries, based on which all the west’s infrastructures had been founded. The liberal thoughts were disseminated in the West after the victory of revolution in France during 1789-1799 which had been infused by theories of scholars such as John Lock, Russo, Muntescio, and were promoted by viewpoints of Martin Luther, Adam Smith, Hanna Arent, Isia Berlin, Fridrisch Heik, Carl Popper, John Rawelz, Yorgen Habermas in different economic, political and social fields. The Marxism ideology came out in response to the vast problems which had been emerged in European societies


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and the industrial revolution as well as the conflict between employers and employees and passing from the Feudalism to the Capitalism. The Marxism, which had been emerged from thoughts of Marx and Lenin emphasizing on state economy and supporting laborers against employers and removing production tools from the hands of capital owners, was introduced in the Soviet Union. The Marxism was established in Russia after the 1971 revolution and the collapse of Tsars. Both the two ideologies are the fruits of a phenomenon named the Modernism, the most important principles of which are the ruling out of metaphysical concepts and religious thoughts from political, social and economic aspects of life and promoting Humanism and Secular thoughts instead. In this situation, the dominant theory of governments in social and political environments was the Secular thought in the West and the Marxism thought in the East. With the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the Marxism thought was fallen into oblivion and the Marxism thought was introduced as the sole way for the mankind to realize his wishes and make his dreams come true. Men in the West saw him above all and believed in his thoughts as the most perfect among other thoughts. This dominance has been outlined in different ways by Immanuel Wallerstein, Alvin Toffler, Francis Fukuyama, Marshall McLuhan, George Bush, and Samuel Huntington. All the theories have been outlined so that people are inevitable to surrender to the West’s civilization. Even in the Muslim world, the daily increasing backwardness of such communities and the promotion of

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening western thoughts led to the belief that religious teachings are the reason for the backwardness in the Islamic societies. Those persons who were referred to as intellectuals corroborated the belief. In such situation which the social communities were moving toward setting religion aside their political and social lives, the Islamic Republic of Iran triumphed as it was completely unbelievable for the Western men of thought. The formation of the new element and the negation of the Western and the Eastern thoughts by it in the strategic region of the Middle East and cutting the hands of the U.S. in the region were the reasons for the enmity and the hostility of the U.S. toward the Islamic Revolution. Due to its religious entity, the former Soviet Union followed the U.S. in making hostility with the Islamic Revolution. In these situations, many scholars and followers of the late Imam were contended with just establishing an Islamic system in the country, but the founder of the Islamic Revolution showed his deep insight and stated that exporting the Islamic Revolution was one of the most important objectives of the revolution. He said in a statement: “We will export the Islamic Revolution to around the globe, because the Revolution is of Islamic entity. So, as long as the motto of no God exists but Allah and Mohammad is the messenger of God has not dominated the world, combat will continue and as long as combat against arrogant powers continues we will go on.� Imam Khomeini outlines the concept and the meaning of exporting the Islamic Revolution as “When we say that we want to export the Islamic Revolution, it does not mean that we will get on planes and pour down onto other countries.


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No, we have not said such a thing. But, we can introduce Islam, as it is really is, through using broadcasting systems and printed media as well and also through dispatching persons abroad. This way, they will surely accept.” Many persons expert in outlining Islamic movements believe that the Islamic Revolution of Iran was one of the important and effective factors in the progress of the Islamic Awareness and the promotion of activities in Arabic and Islamic communities. The theory of effectiveness of the Islamic Revolution on other Islamic countries was based on statements of leaders of freedom-seeking movements and going after the Islamic Republic of Iran as well as the study of developments which have been occurred in the Islamic countries. Imam Khomeini was aware of the issue and was proud of the fact that “The message of the Islamic Revolution of Iran has been disseminated in the Islamic states and in other countries and this is a source of pride.” The same issue was asked by a journalist from the late Imam one month before the victory of the Islamic Revolution: “Do you think the Islamic movement in Iran will reach Turkey?” the Imam replied: “The Islamic Republic of Iran is a sacred movement. So, it evidently affects Muslims across the globe.” The self-awareness of Muslims about their power, especially in Islamic states, returning to Quran, relying on the rich Islamic culture and inspiring from the Islamic Revolution of Iran were not easy to be believed by the men of power. Alexander Haig said: “I believe that the outcomes of promoting the Islamic fundamentalism, which have been started in Iran and are threatening stability in Iraq and

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening all other moderate Arab regimes in the region, are more dangerous than (international problems). This phenomenon if gets out of control will seriously endanger interests of the superpowers.” The inspiration of Muslims from the Islamic Revolution of Iran has been significantly evident in the compilation of books and the edition of books as well as in media printed media. Mujibur Rahman, the journalist: “No one believed that in the contemporary era, Islamic principles would work. The Islamic Republic of Iran breathed a new life into the Islamic school of thought and proved that the Islamic system of ruling still works and can be the used as the foundation for contemporary communities.” “The most important work of the late Imam was to show that dictatorship is forbidden by Islam. People have the right to choose and they should not be ignored.” Hassan Suleiman, the prayer leader at the Cape Town mosque said that the Islamic Republic of Iran played a key role in toppling the Apartheid in South Africa. He said that the influence of the Imam on countries was the result of Islam. “The source of the late Imam’s thoughts was the religion of Islam. Undoubtedly, such thoughts and leadership of the late Imam give Muslims, especially the youth, the power to fight.” In the book titled “Imam Khomeini, the new solution to the Muslim world” Dr. Shaqaqi has said that the Islamic Revolution of Iran is effective and that the Islamic Revolution of Iran is decent to be followed. The book introduces the Imam: “He was the symbol of a new movement which described Islam as an ideology in order to remove problems


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of all aspects of life through establishing an Islamic system of ruling.” The time intellectuals and combatants turned to Nationalism and other leftism schools of thoughts to justify their followers he has referred to the Islamic Revolution as a new sample of human civilization which “has put an end to all other schools of thought which were planned to replace Islam.” The Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution has described the situation: “Before the victory of the Islamic Revolution, in many countries, including Islamic communities, the youth and freedom-seeker groups were in combat with leftism ideologists. But, after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, Islam was the base for freedomseeking movements. Today, in each point across the vats Islamic World, freedom-seeking groups and movements launch anti-imperialism campaigns based on Islamic school of thought.” According to the Supreme Leader, the Islamic Awakening which is seen in the Islamic communities and has led to the collapse of the agents of imperial powers in Arab states has been inspired by the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979. The present article is after introducing the most important factors and elements of the Islamic Revolution of Iran which have been effective in the Islamic Awakening in other Islamic states, as viewed by the Supreme Leader. A) Islamic Republic of Iran’s effects on Islamic Awakening movements In response the question of why the Islamic Republic of Iran has affected Islamic Awakening movements, we should refer to numerous common aspects between the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Islamic Republic of Iran and the contemporary Islamic Awakening movements. These common aspects, which are being referred to as the elements of convergence and synergy, include: 1. A Single Idea The Islamic Revolution of Iran is a Shia one, but like any other Islamic movements it believes in the oneness of God, believes in the Great Prophet, considers Kaaba its safe haven, considers Quran the word of Allah and the savior of human beings, and believes in afterlife, brotherhood and religious equality. As Imam Khomeini (P.B.U.H.) says: “We should be united together in our beliefs.” Of course, his charisma and anti-imperialist position which many Muslims are aware of intensifies the influence of Islamic Revolution and other Islamic movements. Iran’s Supreme leader also told some government officials: “Many decades ago a wise man said ‘:‫ﺑﻨﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﺎﻧﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫’ﻛﻠﻤﺔﺍﻟﺘّﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘّﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬. These two are the pillars of Islam: the first one in the unity, the second one unanimity; the latter is connected to the former, i.e., unity of word based on unity of God. We need this more than any other time; going back to unity and unanimity. “The hardships that Muslims are going through are rooted in the loss of unity in their lives. The closer we get to unity, the freer we will be from hardships. Iranian Muslims have taken up the path of unity and are therefore free from the dominance of the US and other imperialists and their influence. This is the result of unity and being a servant of God. Once you are God’s servant you can’t be servant to anyone else. This is the first rule.


Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... “The second rule is unanimity. Muslim nations should be untied with each other. Nowadays, one of the greatest problems of Islamic World is because of what their enemies have done something that should unite Muslims (i.e. the existence of enemies and usurping Zionists) has turned into a bone of contention. Because of what they have done many Muslim governments stand against their brothers, causing real discord. But the presence of such enemy at the heart of Islamic countries should draw them closer and induce them to form a united front. This is the result of imperialist interference. If imperialist countries, especially the US, didn’t support Philistine occupation and international terrorists that are at the heart of Islamic countries (the Zionist regime) they wouldn’t stand a chance. The same is still true.” 124

2. The Same Rival Islamic Revolution and Islamic movements have a common enemy. This common enemy, i.e. is global imperialism ant at its head the US and Zionist regime which are like Quraysh infidels, savage Moguls, Christian crusaders, European imperialists, racist Serbians, etc. threaten Islam, while Islamic Revolution with its “Not Eats, Not West” slogan has taken on the fight against this common enemy. Imam Khomeini says: “Today, our common enemies are Israel and America and countries like them who want to destroy our integrity and suppress us again. Push back this common enemy.” Describing one of Imam Khomeini’s great achievements, Iran’s supreme leader said: “his important act was proving the fact that ‘Not East, Not West’ slogan was practical and

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening possible. Others thought that one should depend either on the East or on the West, should worship one of these powers! They never thought that a nation could say no to the East and the West and keep getting stronger. Imam Khomeini proved it!” 3. Common Goal The Islamic Revolution of Iran and contemporary Islamic movements aim at stopping tyranny and corruption and the establishment of Islamic rule and an independent system without an emphasis on its Islamic shape. So it can be said that contemporary Islamic movements owe their life to Islamic Revolution, because Islamic Revolution gave Islam and Muslims a new life, and saved them from degradation and humiliation. It proved the inability of Marxism, Liberalism and Nationalism to guide Muslims and offered Islam as the only solution for Muslims’ political life. Sheikh Abdulaziz Udeh, prominent Philistine spiritual leader says: “Khomeini’s revolution was the most important and serious attempt at waking up Muslim nations.” So the existence and the political nature of Islamic movements are rooted in Islamic Revolution. Therefore, they are greatly influence by it. Talking about Muslims’ common goal, Imam Khomeini said: “Muslims have woken up and retrieved their Islamic identity. They are proud of being Muslims. In Muslim countries young people, students, intellectuals and elites are attracted to Islamic goals and respect them. In the Islamic World nations have found their true Islamic and national identities and, although suppressed for many years, feel powerful now. Philistine, Iraq, North Africa, and Lebanon


Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... are examples. Goals, Islam and independence can be found in these countries and they are full of hope and motivation. These are the results of the achievements of that great man.”


4. Unitarianism 5. The emphasis of Islamic Revolution and Iranian Leader on the necessity of unity among all the people and Islamic religions for achieving victory in internal and external fields is another reason for the interest of present Islamic political movements in Islamic Revolution, which follows the Prophet’s rule in not differentiating between black or white and European or non-European Muslims. It never highlights points that can lead to discord among Muslims, and has always acted in favor of bringing Muslims closer to each other; therefore, many non-Shia groups and even nonIslamic freedom-seeking movements follow the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a model. So it is not surprising that Palestinian Sunni Muslims go on Martyrdom operations with Imam Khomeini in mind. Mohen Al-Rahman Shami, Pakistani journalist says: “Another great influence of Imam Khomeini is that although he was a Shia leader… he didn’t preach discord. He shouted out in favor of Islam.” 5. People-Oriented The fact that the Islamic Revolution was people-oriented greatly influenced its acceptance among Muslim nations. The 1978 Revolution and its leader believed that people are more important that governments. For example, Haj and the important put on it by an Islamic Iran shows that the Islamic Revolution was people-oriented, because Imam

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Khomeini changed its state through reviving the act of declaring freedom from infidelity. The price they had to pay for nationalizing Haj was the murder of about 400 Iranians in 1987, but when Iranians returned to Haj three years later, they performed the declaration act will all their power and it still remains, though on a smaller scale. The Supreme Leader also has put great emphasis on the important role of people, saying: “by the hand of the Prophet and the help of God and the efforts of people, the light of Islam which had first lighted up a small part of Arab World gradually extended to other parts of the world. When the Prophet dies this government was an enduring one that could be a model for human kind; and if that government had continued in that path, history would’ve been changed, and something that is supposed to happen in the present era, at the time of Imam Zaman, would’ve happened then. A world full of justice and goodness and knowledge and love is the world of Imam Zaman, and human beings will achieve great feats. So if the Prophet’s government had continued, the history of human beings would’ve changed; but because of some reasons it never happened.” But aside from the similarities between Iran and the revolutions of Islamic World, there are also differences and problems. Challenges for the Influence of Islamic Revolution on Islamic Awakening 1. Being a Shia: Shi Muslims comprise 10 percent of Muslims in the world. Aside from Iran, Iraq and Syria they don’t have political power, although the majority of countries such as Bahrain


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and Lebanon are Shia. There’s a kind of historical conflict between Shia and Sunnis. Of course, Wahhabis are different from the Islamic Revolution and Syrian Sunnis are closer to it, and even Sufi Sunnis are not very different from the Shia. 2. Arab and Persian The conflict between Arabs and Persians started with the beginning of Islam in Iran. Sho’ubieh movement is an example. Abbasids and Ottomans and Safavids intensified this conflict, and Iraq’s war against Iran is called the most important was between Iranians and Arabs. They considered Iranians magi and believed that the Arabs were pro-Islam and Iranians were against it. 3. The Export of Islamic Revolution Some of the slogans and messages of Islamic Revolution such as Imam’s “our movement is developing and finding its way among other nations” is interpreted as Iran’s interference in other countries and its attempt to change their regimes. But one year later Imam said: “This transfer is not done by force. This transfer grows with the growth of Islam’s truths and morality and human morality.” All in all in spite of the difficulties in establishing a communication between Iran’s Revolution and the Islamic World, there are many similarities between them. In order to answer the question of the influence of Iran’s Islamic Revolution on contemporary Islamic and political movements we can refer o many different works and evidence that will not be studied further here. We’ll only take a look at its political and cultural effects. One of the most important achievements of Islamic Revolution is the revival of Islam in the world. According to Imam Khomeini, “in spite of the passage of more than

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening 150 years of modern plots against Islam we are witnessing a great Islamic movement in today’s world and the revival of Islam in African and Asia and even at the heart of Europe, and Muslims have found their true self.” He also says: “after the victory of the Islamic Revolution great powers started to act against the so-called export of Islamic Revolution, attacking it with propaganda. All the global media say that the Islamic Republic is trying to export revolution! They aggressively equal the export of revolution with the export of explosives and creating confrontation in other parts of the world. Like all the other things done by the West, this is also a villainous act. “The export of revolution means the export of Islam’s humanistic culture and emphasis on human values. We are proud of this deed and responsibility. This is the way of prophets and we shall continue it. In other words, the time when educated Muslims had no self-confidence and many of them wanted to be swallowed up by the global identity and had forgotten their past and referred to it only for fun, has come to an end. Islamic Revolution has restored this confidence and this Islamic revival has greatly influenced Islamic movements. One of these influences is choosing at as the best way to fight and continue resistance. The speaker for Philistine Islamic Jihad once told Imam Khomeini: “Intifada is a spark of light and a reflection of the great victory of your Revolution, a revolution that was the biggest development of our time.” Before that Islam didn’t have a great role in the fight against Israel. This kind of attitude necessitated putting aside secular thoughts especially Nationalism, Liberalism,


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and Communism and discarding the belief that man’s destiny is preordained, a belief that couldn’t save Islamic nations from domestic and foreign oppression. According to Sheikh Abdullah Shami, a Philistine fighter, “after Iran’s Islamic Revolution Philistines realized that to achieve freedon they needed the Quran and a gun.” Before that, all the Islamic movements were in the grip of Marxism. The Islamic Revolution emphasized the political aspect of Islam and afterwards many secret organizations formed in some countries and armed resistance on the basis of Islam developed. Fighting according to Islamic teachings was not the only result of Islam’s revival which many call fundamentalism; on the basis of “Islam, the only solution” there were new interpretations of Islam in which Muslims were encouraged to persist to gain their goals. Once, this was done by Hassan Al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb, but the Islamic Revolution offered it under a more serious light. B) The impact of the Islamic revolution on Islamic awakening 1- Islamic awakening as the legacy of Imam Khomeini (RA): The Islamic awakening is the result of Imam Khomeini's great achievements and efforts who sacrificed himself for Islam and the current wave of the Islamic awakening is the direct representation of his attitudes. Imam's first achievement was the revival of Islam, especially in terms of politics. The second major achievement was to regenerate the spirit of dignity in the Muslims. His third achievement was reviving the sense of Islamic Ummah among the Muslims which was almost forgotten

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening in the Islamic countries. His forth accomplishment was to topple down one of the most corrupt political regimes in the world. Establishing a government based on the Islamic principles and starting Islamic uprising were among other achievements of the late Imam Khomeini. He also created a new attitude in the Shia Fiqh and also eliminated the incorrect and mistaken beliefs in the individual morality. His ninth major achievement was to revive the sprit of pride and self-esteem in the Iranian nation. The tenth accomplishment was to realize his great slogan of "No need to East, no need to west." 2- Universal approach toward Islam: Since the agreement was achieved on the Westphalia treaties in 1648, every political unit in the world is busy taking care of its territorial integrity and national interests. Despite the huge economic and political problems at the beginning of the Islamic revolution, the late Imam Khomeini did not restrict himself to the political boundaries and adopted a broader perspective on the issues. His main concern was to improve the overall situation of the Islamic world. The general headlines of Iran's foreign policy were also based on this attitude at the international level. 3- Reviving the religious identity The final emancipation of the Islamic societies from hegemony and arrogance is regarded as one of the main achievements of Islamic revolution in Iran. Muslims were mostly under the influence of the Western culture and they could have no distinguished identity for themselves. Iran's


Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... Islamic revolution headed by Imam Khomeini successfully managed to liberate the Muslims from such a devastating situation. 4- Creating a new model for the Islamic countries Before the Islamic revolution in Iran, the only models existing for the societies were the eastern and western models of administration and political governance. The establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran, in fact, created a new model to replace the old and out of date systems for the political governance in the countries.


5- Failure of the Nile to the Euphrates project Establishing the illegitimate state of Israel in the region by the Western powers at that time had doubled the problems of the countries in the middle east. Arabs were defeated in the 6 days war and the Israelis were continuing to dominate the region and follow their aspiration such as the Nile to the Euphrates project. Iran's Islamic revolution prevented such malicious conspiracies to realize and Israelis were unable to continue their ploys in the region and extend their domination. 6- Muslims unity Divisions between the Muslims and lack of unity have been described as the most important factors behind the backwardness of the Islamic Ummah, especially over the recent decades. The old British colonial power has used such divisions in order to rule the Muslim countries and exploit their resources. In other words, "divide and rule" has been the main policy by the British hegemony to dominate

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening on the Islamic world and people. Moreover, some of the Islamic sects including the Wahhabis have facilitated this colonialist domination because they are always on the side of enemies and their plots against the Muslims. The Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979 revived the concept of unity among the Muslims and increased their solidarity. 7- Muslim's sense of dignity Under the huge influence of Western propaganda, Islamic countries have always had great difficulties dealing with their problems over the centuries. Faced with the progress and technological innovations, Muslims had nothing to say and their sense of dignity was seriously undermined. Iran's Islamic revolution, in fact, revived the Muslim's dignity and the spirit of confidence among them. 8- Creating the beacon of hope and motivation among Muslims The increased ambiguity about the future and lack of comprehensive plans to deal with the challenges has discouraged Muslims over the centuries. However, the successful victory of the Islamic revolution in Iran over the hegemonic powers encouraged Muslims and motivated them to confront the bullying powers of the world. Due to this fact, the Islamic countries became more determined to deal with the challenges which had crippled them for many years. 9- Increasing success of the Islamic revolution, main factor behind the Islamic awakening Maintaining the general goals and objectives of a


Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... revolution is regarded as one of the main priorities of each revolution over the course the history. According to many prominent thinkers and philosophers, revolutions are bound to become short of their objectives, especially after a certain period of time in which the revolutionary ideas and slogans are weakened and the revolution is exposed to many threats. However, this historical experience has failed to prove when it comes to Iran's Islamic revolution of 1979. In other words, the Iranian nation has maintained their revolutionary ideals even stronger than before and there is a bright future ahead of the country in many areas.


Conclusion Political and social developments over the course of history have always been inspired by other developments. The current wave of developments in the Arab world is no exception in this regard. Undoubtedly, the Islamic awakening in the Arab countries is inspired by Iran's Islamic revolution of 1979 and it is regarded as the backbone of the revolutions in the Middle East and North Africa. Due to the differences between the Arab states and Iran, one should not expect the establishment of a popular system in these countries like what happened in Iran after the revolution. However, the rise of democratic governments in these countries can ensure the swift transition of power to the people and their representatives. Meanwhile, the revolutionaries should protect their uprising from the foreign interventions which are mainly aimed at high jacking the revolutions and establishing liberal democratic regimes. People's orientation toward the Islamic Sharia will certainly have many effects on the future of these countries. Ratification

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening of the constitution based on the will and aspiration of the people will help the juvenile revolution to pass through the current critical juncture. Enlightening remarks of the late Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei proves the depth of their insight about the Islamic awakening and their directives can serve as the best tool to protect the current revolutions in the Arab world.


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Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian Supreme Leader’s Thoughts on Muslim Youth Mohsen Movahedi1 Author Profile: Name and surname: Mohsen Movahedi (Professor of Tarbiat Moallem Centers in Isfahan Province, Iran); Academic background: Bachelor of Civil Engineering, Mater of Educational Sciences; Research activities within past five years: Why apprentices of Najafabad Technical and Vocational Schools are inclined to take part in technical and vocational courses in 2003 (Master thesis, 2004); Analysis of amount and type of study teachers of Najafabad Township were involved in academic year of 2006-7 (research plan of Isfahan Province Education Department General, 2006); Feasibility study on organizing virtual courses for improving Isfahan Province Education Department human resources’ efficiency in academic year of 2009-2010 (research plan of Isfahan Province Education Department General, 2010); Comparing the effectiveness of short-term virtual and personal inservice training courses in education procedure and empowerment to improve East Azarbaijan Province Education Department human resources (research plan of East Azarbaijan Province Education Department General, in-hand); Analysis of external performance of Kohgiloyeh-Boyerahmad Province technical schools and their effective factors (research plan of Kohgiloyeh-Boyerahmad Province Education Department General, to be signed); Feasibility study on the short-term virtual education of teachers in Lorestan Province (research plan of Lorestan Province Education Department General, to be signed); Some published articles: Promotion of logic of conversation among Muslims through Quranic 1. Master of Educational Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University


Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... criteria (the exemplary article of the 24th international conference on Islamic Unity, Tehran, 2010); Comparing insight outcomes outlined in Quran and Nahj al-Balagha in terms of Ayatollah Khamenei’s viewpoint (the exemplary article of the 27th international competition of Holy Quran in Islamic republic of Iran, 2010); Techniques and tools of the soft warfare and role of mosques to counteract them; Strategies and solutions of familiarity with the Quran during warfare time (the exemplary article of the 28th international conference on Islamic Unity, Tehran, 2011); Charity rules and condition in Razavi culture focusing on respecting human dignity (the exemplary article of the national festival of Imam Reza (A.S.), Shiraz, 2011).



Iran’s Islamic Revolution played a significant role in awakening Muslims of the world and reviving religious beliefs. The revolution, led by Imam Khomeini (RA), carried out when the Islamic dignity and glory were being threatened to be trampled by arrogant powers and enemies of Islam and when Islamic ethics and values were being forgotten; it brought about the original Islamic culture and civilization, it brought hopes back to life for millions of Muslims across the world and also resurrected Islam and its long-standing glory and magnificence. The cultural movement not only succeeded in creating a discourse space, which covered all micro-discourses, but also developed a new culture through conceptualization and intellectual reconstruction which was relied on religious democracy, Islamic thought revival, universalism of the Islamic civilization, cultural activities, empowerment of the new social movements, anti-imperialism and independence seeking culture. Iran’s Islamic revolution underwent a great development in political, cultural,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening social and economic aspects of Iran and also exerted a considerable influence across the world. The study initially analyzes viewpoints of Ayatollah Khamenei on important of youthfulness, youth specialties and role of Islamic revolution in awakening world’s Muslims, deals with the politicalcultural impacts of the Islamic revolution under the following topics: Promotion of the Islamic democracy, promotion of independence seeking and anti-imperialism culture, empowering reformism culture in the new social movements, strengthening intellectual, cultural activities, increasing cultural interactions and exchanges, resurrection of Islam in social life, promoting Muslim world’s unity, reviving liberation movements, cultural-political discourses, reviving religious identity, posing thought of Islamic government, defending sacred Palestinian aspirations, developing Islamic unity and correlation, international effective role of discourse. Keywords: Islamic revolution, Hazrat Imam Khomeini (RA), the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei, youth, Islamic Awakening

Introduction As a divine, all-embracing and human nature based movement; Iran’s Islamic revolution has indicated the power of religion and also as a revolution of values and norms began to foster culture in national, regional and international levels. The cultural movement not only succeeded in creating a discourse space, which covered all micro-discourses, but also developed a new culture through conceptualization and intellectual reconstruction


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which was relied on religious democracy, Islamic thought revival, universalism of the Islamic civilization, cultural activities, empowerment of the new social movements, anti-imperialism and independence seeking culture. Iran’s Islamic revolution underwent a great development in political, cultural, social and economic aspects of Iran and also exerted a considerable influence across the world. Although many revolutions have been carried out in different parts of the world, religious and anti-oppressive spirit, ambition to support disadvantaged people and fighting with diabolical powers have differentiated the Iran’s Islamic revolution from its other counterparts. The revolution was analyzed, supported and welcomed by world’s intellectuals and revolutionaries. The revolution was celebrated through theological and poetic thoughts of many thinkers and paved the way for recognition of the Islam in the current era. While having either political or social goals, the Islamic revolution considered Islamic civilization and worldview in a special trend. The phenomenon played a major role in awakening world’s Muslims and reviving their religious beliefs. Although, world’s bullies, particularly Western bloc, have spared no efforts to plot a counter-culture and aggressive image for the Islamic revolution; however, wise leadership of the revolution has relied on the new and fresh concepts, surging through the revolution’s spirit, and has insisted upon its affinities with the world and its specialties which cannot be found in various schools and intellectual currents of the world as they believe in dynamicity and emboldening, describing and promoting these specialties. On the other hand, it should be emphasized that the most energetic population of a society are youth. Young people

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening are the most important capitals of each country, since the future fate of their country will be determined by youth. Young people more easily accede to change their attitude and behavior in comparison with adults, for emotional dimension of attitude and insight of young people towards different individuals and phenomena are changing very quickly. Considering religious and theoretical demands and needs of the current generation and providing a deserved answer for such demands entails certain requirements. Therefore, anybody who is familiar with Islam, Quran and Holy Prophet’s household believes that the eternal treasures and the divine undying reservoirs are not only able to meet needs and to solve problems and uncertainties, but they are the sole possible way to meet needs and to solve problems. The important role played by youth in the recent Islamic awakening as well as political and cultural impacts of the Islamic revolution on them are significant issues of the study which will be referred later. Islamic Revolution and Muslims Awakening: Many scientists and researchers have described the Iran’s Islamic revolution as the last sample of the fundamental revolutions which have been analyzed in books and theories on social development and revolution. Such revolutions are associated with a number of substantial developments in the society’s value system and the public dissatisfaction is followed by formation of disaffected people who try to alter the ruling government. Beyond this situation, the revolution’s leader proposes a new proposal on political, economic and cultural dimensions and a new comprehensive paradigm of social development with both national and transnational


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features is presented. Iran’s Islamic revolution carried out a number of deep-tooted developments in both social and political systems of the country and inspired considerably Muslim and oppressed nations; it not only challenged the hegemonitic systems and unilateral dominant values over the international agencies, but deeply affected the theoretical framework of theories about revolution, which were relied in standard social and political perspectives of the second half of the twentieth century. Iran’s Islamic revolution was a turning point in the “Islamic Awakening” trend started since the late 19th century among Muslim countries and the most important features of the trend stood at reviving the Islamic values across the society, rejection of the domestic tyranny and foreign domination in the Islamic countries. Iran’s Islamic revolution is one of the greatest, deepest and widest Islamic movements whose impacts somehow can be compared with the upshots of the eternal revolution of Karbala2. Although the revolution is the outcome and result of the past Islamic revolutions, as a great revolution it has recorded different influences. Some of the results would be sought in more dynamicity, changed objectives, and developed methods of some Islamic movements. In reply to why the Iran’s Islamic revolution has affected its contemporary Islamic movements, numerous affinities between Iran’s Islamic revolution and the current Islamic movements would be pointed. The affinities made a condition in which Iran’s Islamic revolution and Islamic movement could mutually affect each other; some of the affinities are: 2 The Revolution of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680) in Karbala, in present day Iraq.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Common opinion: like any other Islamic movement, Iran believes in unity of god (monotheism) and the slogan of “No God but Allah”, prophecy of the holly prophet Muhammad (PBUH) (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God), and considers the Kaaba as its kiblah of ideals. Common foe: Iran’s Islamic revolution and Islamic movements have common enemies, the arrogant powers headed by the United State (The Great Stan) and the Zionist regime, like Quraish infields, savage Mongols, Christian crusaders, European expansionist countries and racist Serbs, who threaten Islam foundation. Chanting “No Eastern bloc, No Western bloc” slogan, Iran is the vanguard of battle against the Muslim world’s common foe. Common purpose: Iran’s Islamic revolution and other current Islamic movements are seeking for rooting out oppression and corruption, applying Islamic rules and laws, establishing Islamic governments in Muslim societies and hoisting the flag of “No God but Allah” all over the world through negation of the arrogant powers and relying on eternal power of God and people. However, some Islamic movements only intend to apply Islamic laws in their countries while others are desperate for establishment of an independent government whether Islamic or not. Moreover, the Islamic movements confess that their survival is indebted to the Iran’s Islamic revolution, because, the current continuance of resurrected Islam and Muslims, rescued them obliquity and humility, demonstrated failure of Marxism, Liberalism and Nationalism to direct and lead Muslims and introduced Islam as the sole way for political life of Muslims. Hence, the essence and political survival of the Islamic movements depend on the Iran’s Islamic


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revolution. It has paved way for the Islamic revolution to affect other movements (Halabi, 2005, p 69-70). The emphasis and reliance of the Islamic revolution of Iran and its leader on the necessity to preserve unity among all walks of life and all religions which is necessary to clinch victory in both domestic and foreign scenes, are another aspect of Islamic movements’ inclination towards the Islamic revolution of Iran. In the wake of the real Islam thoughts, Iran’s Islamic revolution makes no difference among various races of Muslims, European and non-European Muslims and does not stimulate the divisive aspects among Muslims. Instead, it has tried to unite all Muslims through establishing The World Forum for Proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought, organizing international day of Quds, issuing historical fatwa calling for the death of Salman Rushdie and holding the international “week of unity”. For the reasons, a wide range of non-Shiite groups and even non-Islamic liberation movements has used the Islamic revolution of Iran as a proper paradigm to follow. Islam resurrection is one of the most important achievements of the Iran’s Islamic revolution. Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei says: “In spite of more than 150 years of modern and comprehensive planning against Islam, Muslims have found their real personality and identity.” (Khamenei, 2008, vol.1, p. 90). The resurrection has brought about various achievements for the Islamic movements; one of them is choice of Islam as the best and most complete style of combat. The approach says that we should put the non-religious thoughts, e.g.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Nationalism, Liberalism and Communism, aside and toss away the thought that say our destination is coercive. For example, Sheikh Abdullah Shami, the Islamic Jihad leader in the Gaza Strip says, “After Islamic revolution of Iran, Palestinians found that Quran and guns are necessary for achieve liberty.” Adhering fighting based on Islam is not the sole result of Islam resurrection, but in this new approach relying on the thought that Islam is the sole solution, a new perception of Islam has been developed by which Muslims have been encouraged to resist and insist on achieving their own rights. However, the combat is not limited to armed struggle, but a number of reconciliatory methods, e.g. the method which is pursued by the Turkish Refah/Welfare Islamist Party, are seen there as well. The Islamic system, developed after victory of the Islamic revolution in Iran, has become the best paradigm and the most important political demand of jihadists. The issue is manifested in different forms in their rhetoric and/or political tasks. Muslim rebellious’ interest for building an Islamic government has been announced in three ways: First: A plethora of Islamic groups overtly have asked for establishment of the Islamic government in their countries and have announced their demand in articles of associations (Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq) and or in their declarations (Islamic Dawa Party3). However, a number of Islamic movements (e.g. Kashmir and Afghanistan) have defined achieving the political independence as their first political objective. 3. Islamic Call Party


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Second: Some other Islamic groups have expressed their interest to install an Islamic government through different approaches such as outlining the necessity of applying Islamic laws (e.g. the Islamic Guidance Society of Egypt), emphasizing the Islamic Republic of Iran as the sole solution (e.g. the Muslim Brotherhood), translation of Imam Khomeini’s Islamic Government (e.g. Al-Yasar AlIslami party of Egypt) etc. Third: A range of Islamic movements have left the narrow circle of nationalism and are seeking for building a unite Islamic system from the Persian Gulf to the Atlantic Ocean (e.g. Islamic Dawa Party in Algeria) ad or following leadership of Iran’s Islamic revolution based on Protectorship of the Islamic Jurisprudence. The latter is divided in two classes, a class who religiously follows the Supreme Leader of Iran (Amal Movement of Lebanon) and another who religiously and politically follows Iranian leaders (e.g. Hezbollah of Lebanon). Some movements stuck on coercive and armed operations (e.g. Hezbollah of Hejaz) and coup détat (e.g. Bahrain) to overthrow the ruling regimes. On the opposite side, there are groups who do not find the armed operations as the proper option and intend to try reconciliatory methods including participation in parliamentary elections for changing the ruling system (e.g. welfare Islamic party in Turkey); however there are several groups who believe in both methods. The Hezbollah of Lebanon is one of such groups who have used two different approaches against Israel (armed struggle) and St. Maroun based Lebanese government (participation in parliamentary elections). The birth and existence of some Islamic groups are

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening indebted to the Iran’s Islamic revolution. Such groups are split into two classes: a group who has been separated from a passive Islamic movement (Islamic Amal movement from Amal Movement) and another group who is not linked to any certain group and is considered as a new entity such as Pakistan’s Movement for the Implementation of Jafari Fiqh. Though the latter has more influenced by the Islamic revolution rather the former, all of them are shared in defending Iran’s Islamic revolution, following its leadership and pursuing the revolution as a paradigm. Another range of the Islamic groups have shook off their stagnation, lethargy and passiveness as the result of Islam resurrection, which was began as the fruit of Islamic revolution victory in Iran, and by taking advantage of new power and organization are being prepared to struggle with the arrogant rulers. A part of such groups have embarked on increasing their activities and focus on the reconciliatory approaches, while another part of them have boosted the intensity of their anti-governmental efforts and are after toppling their ruling states through armed struggles. Arab Peninsula Islamic Revolution Organization and Syrian Islamic Front can be exampled for the first and second mentioned groups, respectively (Seddighi, 1996, p. 78-89). Iran’s Islamic revolution has been either effective to stimulate even those semi-Islamic movements who are interested in Islamic revolution of Iran. The groups, which had been formed with the aim of tackling with the Islamic revolution of Iran, are supported and sponsored by Iran’s enemies, particularly the King of Saudi Arabia, Vahabiat in Pakistan, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in the occupied territories of Palestine and Organization of


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the Islamic struggle in Iraq are some of them. Thus, after victory of Iran’s revolution in 1979, the compromiser Islam (American Islam) was completely separated from the real Islam. Islamic revolution has introduced novel cultural values for political struggle against hegemonistic powers. Tendency to Jihad is one of the values. After Islamic revolution of Iran, Islamic movements have accepted jihad, martyrdom, and sacrifice as the fundamental principles and consider them as the religious obligation. Therefore, they have applied these principles in the various forms such as martyrdom operations (in Palestine), armed struggle and warfare (Afghanistan). Thus, “Jihad” has been used instead of fight and battle. It has been found that Islam is able to mobilize poor walks of life. Hence, Islamic movements have left intellectuals for general public and have developed their popular base. As Dr. Hasan al-Torabi, the leader of Islamic Front of Sudan, says, “The Islamic Revolution has bestowed the experience [popular working and using general public] as a precious gift to the Muslim countries” (Ashrafzadeh, 1995, p.112). Inclination to the popular working thought has directed the Islamic movements toward the religious and ethnic unity-seeking. For Instance, it helped them to avoid disputation and division and have provided them with stronger organizations, more facilities, more supports and greater stability. Imitation of Islamic revolution slogans is another way by which rebellious Muslims have taken advantage of Iran’s revolution. “Independence, Freedom and Islamic Republic”, “No Eastern Bloc, No Western Bloc, only Islamic Republic” and “Down with USA” are

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening some key slogans which are now imitated by the Islamic revolutionists. For example, the slogan Turkish Muslim protestors were chanting before coup détat 1980 was Independence, Freedom and Islamic Republic. Kabulis shouted Allahu Akbar (God is Greatest) over roofs of their houses, Egyptian Muslims carried placards saying No Eastern, No western . Kashmiri people in their known rally in 1980 shouted Allahu Akbar, Khomeini Rahbar . As Ayatollah Khamenei has said, Allahu Akbar shouts over roofs o Algerians have been learned from revolutionary Iranians” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 2, p. 133). Roger Garaudy, French Muslim intelelctual has described the Islamic revolution of Iran as: “As a matter of fact, the Islamic revolution [of Iran], which was led by Ayatollah Khomeini, is not similar to none of the revolutions that have been launched before that. Human’s history is full of revolutions organized with the aim of changing the ruling political systems. Social revolutions across the world are indicative of the needy’s wrath over the wealthy, the national revolutions released their anger at colonialists and occupiers. But, Iran’s Islamic revolution conveyed all of such motivations as well and it bore new concepts which not only overthrew Shah’s political, social government but also more importantly reversed the certain civilization and worldview which have been raised against the religion.” Iran’s Islamic revolution exerted so many effects in awakening world’s Muslims and reviving the religious beliefs. The revolution, led by Imam Khomeini (RA), carried out when the Islamic dignity and glory were being threatened to be trampled by arrogant powers and enemies


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of Islam and when Islamic ethics and values were being forgotten; it brought about the original Islamic culture and civilization, it brought hopes back to life for millions of Muslims across the world and also resurrected Islam and its long-standing glory and magnificence. Referring to the specifications of the Islamic republic and the necessity of information dissemination on values of the revolution, the Supreme Leader says, “[Our] revolution had two aspects; one was fighting against the domestic tyranny and the corrupted government which have beggared people and the country; the revolution was seeking for rescuing people, fostering people under Islamic instructions and governing the country by an Islamic government. Another aspect was bringing a new message for the world and mankind in general; it was what attracted the world, thus, those European, Western, African or Latin American intellectual who hail Imam Khomeini and our revolution and Islamic system are not in our country till be informed about it, it is the Islam’s global and human message that persuade him/her to praise. The second aspect is very important, we should express this” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 3, p. 79). Pointing to the necessity of identifying the new concepts of the revolution and presenting them to enthusiastic people and truth-seekers throughout the world, the Supreme Leader says, “Either Islamic revolution or Islamic system has original and fresh concepts for the world, although the concepts share with the world some affinities, the specialties of the concepts differentiate segregate them from various schools and intellectual currents across the world; we should find them all and protect and promote them” (Khamenei, 2008, vol.4, p. 143).

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The emphasis of the Supreme Leader upon the critical role of the Islamic revolution in awakening Muslims indicates its political-cultural impact or even its all-embracing effect on people of the world, particularly Muslims: “Today, when we see the Muslim World, it is evident thanks to awakened Iranians the awakening of Muslims in the Islamic countries and lands has been developed. Thanks to Imam Khomeini (RA), who put himself in the path of bullets of the enemy and spoke and acted honestly, Iranian people in turn have begun the struggle. Thanks to brave and loyal leadership of Imam Khomeini, Iranians have succeeded to impose their dignity and glory to the world where tries to humiliate Muslims. Protectorship of Imam Khomeini (RA) was a ray of the “blazing sun” of Ghadir, hence it could to develop these outcomes, to awaken Iranians and reconstruct Iran either spiritually or materially. An ancient nation, with a glorious history and culture have become a puppy in hands of foreign arrogant powers; they made decision about the nation and did anything they wanted with its wealth; they humiliated Iranians and pursued their own interests without considering ours, it is the biggest contempt a nation may incur over another nation. Our nation awakened and regained its glory strongly” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 3, p. 143-145). Based on the Supreme Leaders perspective, thanks to the Islamic revolution, today, Iranian people, particularly youth, youngsters, and intellectuals are taking advantage of Islamic motivation, inclination to the Islamic governance, and they hate domination of tyrants and colonialists. He says, “Today, if you go any Islamic country from East to West


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of the Muslim World including the Middle East, Arab states, northern Africa or Easter Asian countries, anywhere in which Muslims have formed their own organization, you will see that people, particularly youth, youngsters, and intellectuals are taking advantage of Islamic motivation, inclination to the Islamic governance, and they hate domination of tyrants and colonialists. The Muslim World was not a world like this. What were the principles of Imam Khomeini which brought such enormous success? The pivot of all principles and instructions of our deceased leader would be summed up in two things: Islam and People. He adopted his belief on people from Islam as well. It is Islam which emphasizes nations’ rights, importance of people’s votes and impact of jihad and their participation; thus, Imam Khomeini considered Islam and people as the pivot of everything; Islam glory, people glory; Islam power, people power, Islam invincibility, people’s invincibility. The most important work Imam Khomeini conducted across the Muslim World was resurrection of political and social dimensions of Islam. Since the day in which the colonialism appeared in the Islamic countries, all tyrants and arrogant powers pared no efforts to omit political and social dimensions of Islam, justice, freedom and independenceseeking of Islam. In order to increase their domination over Islamic nations and resources, the hegemonistic countries tried to separate Islam from its political dimensions and to introduce an Islam which is clueless against the occupiers and oppressive adversaries. Imam Khomeini revived the lost fact of Islam; hoisted Islamic justice; showed Islam’s opposition against discrimination and class division and aristocracies” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 5, p. 55-56).

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Hating United States and its interventions in countries, where are governed by its puppy government, are increasing in the Muslim World, and the Supreme Leader say in this issue that: “Awakening in the Muslim World was created thanks to awakening of Muslims in our country. Today, the awakened people of Palestinian has encountered the United States and the Zionist Regime with a great trouble and it is the outcome of awakening of the Iranian nation, otherwise, nobody thought that Palestinian nation would be able to challenge Israel, the Zionist occupiers and the United States. Already, a same phenomenon has not been occurred in the occupied territories of Palestine. It is the case for other Muslim nations living in other countries. Hating United States and its interventions in countries, where are governed by its puppy government, are increasing in the Muslim World. The dignity offered by Islam to nations is being boosted gradually. They feared that Iran’s Islamic revolution would be copied exactly by other countries. They tried to prevent this using various methods and techniques; but they failed to prevent extension of the Islamic thought and Islamic awakening. The Islamic awakening has been expanded throughout the Muslim World; we have to take the point in our minds” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 4, p. 69-70). The Supreme Leader’s Perspective on Youthfulness Analyzing issues related to the young generation is vitally important and expressing all reasons for such importance is not possible in this study, but consideration of the Supreme Leader’s perspective on youth and their relationship with materialistic and spiritualistic issues will somehow reveal


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the importance: “Like their body which is full of freshness and strength, youth spirits is full to the brim with exhilaration. The creature, with his/her mind capacity, wisdom, physical strength, nervous capability and unknown powers, has been created by the Almighty God and allowed him/her to enjoy the nature, feed and sleep, the material world and approach the Almighty God by using all means which are available in the world. It should not be considered that such looking is a secluded look. The closeness of God passed among such materials, but it does not stop in the midst of materials. Sin of the people who have soaked themselves in the worldliness is not they have addressed only the world, but their main sin is that they have underestimated the objective and aims of their lives” (Khamenei, 2001, p. 44). He also refers to the opportunity which has been created in the Islamic Republic System and any other Islamic and divine system else to the youth and says, “You, youth, girls and boys, are in the begging of your long path, you have either strength or selection power and you are able to pass the route and the route is open in the Islamic republic system and other Islamic and divine systems. The way of spirituality and serenity is not a deadend alley.” (Khamenei, 2001, p. 46). Stressing the commitments of youth, the Supreme Leader recalls conspiracies of enemies and says, “Today, the country drastically needs your exhilaration, your power, your innovation, and your serenity. Today, the youth should empower their wisdom, their knowledge and cognition, their faith, their correlation and integrity as far as possible; exactly the zones which the enemy does not want to be

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening empowered. The enemy does not want to see our science is being developed, it want to see our universities perform something other training and teaching; it does not want to see faith of our youth is strengthened and they want the faithful youth become swingers” (Khamenei, 2001, p. 51). Evaluation of youth-related issues of the Islamic awakening and how they are affected by the Islamic revolution depends on analysis of features of youth before any other thing. Undoubtedly, taking advantage of perspectives of the Supreme Leader in this issue would be helpful. He numerously has emphasized his deep and old relation with the young generation and describes characteristics of the generation very well. A number of the most important features of the youth outlined by the Supreme Leader are: Righteousness: While believing in youth righteousness, the Supreme Leader outlines it along with two other key variables namely honestly protest and worriless act: “Young people accept right things very easily. It is very important. Young people protest simply and honestly and take actions without any concern or internal worry, it is very important as well. Put the easy accepting, honest protest and worriless action together and see how beautiful truth is emerged and what key is prepared for solving problems.” (Khamenei, 2002, p. 60). Reform-seeking. The supreme Leader differentiates the reactionary-based reformism from youth reformism and associates it with some issues such as justice-seeking, legitimate freedoms and realization of the Islamic ambitions: “Youth naturally seeking for reforms; of course I do not deal with the common definitions of reformists, conservatives etc. Reformism as a political gesture is not


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my intention. Some people speak about reformism, while they do not know what they want and what is exists in their minds is not reformism, but is a type of reactionary and stagnation. You see that some people behind the beautiful cover reformism try to get back to era in which the religion was only a ritual in human’s life and not anymore! It is not reformism, but it stands in the point opposite the reformism. Reformism is associated with evolution and development and not with stagnation. There are some people who are actually reformists. They actually suffer from shortages, insufficiencies, difficulties and deviations and are seeking to reform them, which is good act. Young real reformists are seeking for justice, legitimate freedoms and realization of Islamic aspirations. Islamic facts and aspirations electrify and attract them. The icon of Imam Ali (AS) which is developed in their minds electrifies them; they compare the current shortcomings with Imam Ali’s era and desperate for reforms, it is a very bold and considerable feature which should be focused (Khamenei, 2004, p.60). Energy and vitality of youth: The Supreme Leader believes that energy and validity of youth is a blessing which brings about commitment; so conscious presence in the scene and more information about different issues makes heavier youth burden of duty: “One of significant features of youth is power, energy, innovation and exhilaration of youth. You have such features naturally. They are a part of long list of youth advantages. Are youth have acquired them? No. you have not made any effort to achieve right-seeking, energy, exhilaration and youth ambition. It is a natural term of life of human beings. So, it is a kind of blessing which is followed by duty and accountability.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Keep in your mind that the duty is heavier during youth in comparison with other stages of your life, why? because youth have played significant and special roles in the society; because young people of the country have been increased; because significance of youth people in political, social and cultural equations of the country is very eye-catching. Hence, it is not the case whether the young individuals have any commitment for themselves; no. the case is that the dense young population of the country and their participation in events and especially the consciousness from which our youth are enjoyed- there are a few places across the world where such consciousness, sensitivity and excitement could be found- make their commitments heavier and more important. However, the duty is a kind of duty which is exciting for youth and is not a boring duty. It is a duty which is accompanied with the youth nature and is persuading and progressive for young people” (Khamenei 2008, vol.3, p.88). 4. Identification: Identity means the state or fact of remaining the same one or ones, as under varying aspects or conditions. Identity indicates who we are and is resulted from human’s need to be identified and to introduce itself to something or somewhere (Sarokhani, 1991, p.91). While proposing a brief definition for identity, the Supreme Leader explains the enemy’s works and plans to sever Iranian youth from his/her identity and its outcomes: “The major need of youth is identity; youth should recognize their identity and objectives; they should know who they are and why they want to work and make efforts. The enemy intends to sever the Iranian youth from their identity; to demolish their goals, to darken horizons, to humiliate them, rely me


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to taking advantage of a good fostering and supporting; It is obvious that our rich country and very important and strategic region in which our country is located as well as numerous effects our nation can exert would be destructed through humiliation of our youth personality my adversaries. Today, enemy is planning is what as I said, so you must be vigilant about them� (Khamenei, 1994, p. 112). 5. Conscious responsibility: the Supreme Leader generalizes the responsibility sense of youth not only to the personal issues but also to some broader issues such as nation, history and humanity: “What is important for you as youth, like others, is having conscious sense of responsibility. Of course you are young and full if energy and enjoy more sensitivity. Sense of responsibility means that human being should not restricted himself/herself only to personal issues such as life, job, etc., but it means human must consider issues and goals which are beyond personal life, the goals that are not limited to him, but are related to the collection, nation, history and humanity. Human must feels responsibility over these goals. Nobody and no society would achieve the lofty peaks of happiness without sticking to such sense of responsibility. The sense of responsibility and commitment should be conscious. One should know what is he/she is seeking for and also should identify the obstacles in the way. It is the conscious sense of responsibility. Iranian youth is vigilant, sensitive, conscious and responsible and more than other youth of the world feels sense of responsibility. Of course I do not claim that I am informed about all parts of the world, but we receive a lot of news. We receive our information through so many outlets. Political understanding, political thought,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening political demand, ideal demand, sensitivity to incidents and participation in scenes is exemplary in Iranian youth, either boys or girls. For these reason we have attained massive successes� (Khamenei, 2001, p.120-123). The Supreme Leader expresses the risks posed by enemies to the conscious sense of responsibility with the aim of spoiling [our] youth, as follows: “There are risks which threaten us. Today, a common policy is followed throughout the world by certain centers. The policy says youth should be indulged in lusts, sexual instincts and moral corruption. It is a common policy in the world and includes both east and west sides of the world; but each region pursues it with a certain goal. Those centers where plot such policies provide the necessary tools and equipment considerably to carry out them. The centers mainly are the Zionism economic centers and international authoritarian systems who desperate with wealth springheads in countries where are mostly undeveloped, poor and weak lands but have hefty wealth resources. The most important obstacle for griping at such wealth resources is will of the nations which these resources are belonged them. So the best was for freezing and paralyzing a nation is freezing its youth generation; because youth are the active forces of any country. And in turn for paralyzing youth the best way is corrupting them and crippling them with sexual dreams, debauchery, alcoholic drinks and drugs. The Western countries apply the policy in order to prevent [our] youth from disturbing Zionists� (Khamenei, 1994 , p.131-134). 6. Will power. The Supreme Leader rejects the view saying that the youth are flail around with sins and believes that the youth have not only great physical power, but they


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enjoy stronger will power: “Your task is very easier than ours. You perceive the divine messages in a faster and more obvious manner [than us]. The Almighty God speaks to you and responds you and you feel the respond by your heart ….some thinks that the youth are flail around with sins; but the youth enjoys both great physical power and will power simultaneously” (Khamenei, 2004, p.92). 7. Divine nature: For the Supreme Leader, young people get acquainted with the Almighty God and spirituality through their heart and conscience rather via other people: “Nature of the youth is familiar with religion and spirituality. Before we take any action to get them familiar with the Almighty God, their heart and conscience get them familiar with the Almighty God. The whole thing we should do is be careful to keep them healthy” (Khamenei, 2002, p.71). 8. Reasoning and wisdom: The Supreme Leader’s viewpoint on religious studies conducted by the youth is righteous and acceptable when are based on reasoning, wisdom and true perspective: “The youth take advantage of stronger decision making, resistance and confrontation powers. It is an important and serious issue. The youth is interested in explanations of the religious concepts. Today, the youth generation intends to adopt its religion through reasoning, wisdom and lucidity. It is a deserved and right claim. The claim has been taught by the religion” (Khamenei, 1995, p.102). 9. Inclination to beauty and beautification: Beauty and inclination to beauty have always been stressed in the religious texts and Hadiths which indicates that beauty has been verified in our religion unlike sedition and corruption: “The human being, particularly the youth, likes beauty

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and beautification and intends to be beautiful and its is not bad; it is a natural and coercive thing which has not been forbidden by Islam, but what has been forbidden is sedition and corruption.” (Khamenei, 2002, p.77). 10. Coping with bullying: According to the Supreme Leader, all world movements accompanying with the youth, struggling with coercion and influence of foreigners is observed: “The youth naturally cope with bullies. You may not find any movement across the world, which is developed by youth to benefit foreigners. Always, the youth directed movements have been against intervention of foreigners.” (Khamenei, 2001, p.111). In conclusion it can be inferred that the Supreme Leader’s perspective on the youth includes personal and social concerns of young generation: “Any young man or woman has his/her own concerns. We cannot prevent them from having such concerns. In the first place, the youth worry about their education, job, employment and future as a whole. Having a clear clean and obvious future is critical for them. Enter into marriage is important for them as well. Attaining practical wisdom as far as possible is significant for them. They think about happiness and exhilaration. The issues related to beautyseeking nature of human being are strong by the youth. The youth are filled with human feelings and emotions. However, youth concerns are not restricted to the abovementioned ones. The youth is sensitive to the social problems of his/her society. He/she may suffer from any kind of discriminations across the society… the youth think idealistically. Lack of justice in the society may annoy the youth as well. Increasing corruption across the society will


Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... annoy those youth who make effort to develop their country and observe its glory and dignity. Where national passion is involved, one can predict youth sensitivity.” (Khamenei, 2004, p.84-85). Impacts of the Iran’s Islamic Revolution and the Supreme Leader’s thoughts on roles played by the Muslim youth According to what has been said, some of the most important effects of the Islamic Revolution, particularly those which are promoted by the Supreme Leader’s thoughts, on the roles were played by the Muslim youth are as follows:


Promotion of the Religious Democracy Culture: The Islamic revolution based on Imam Khomeini’s thoughts on protectorship of jurisprudence and also obvious stance and explanation of the Supreme Leader, Ayatollag Seyyed Ali Khamenei, for this issue could illuminate compatibility between Islam and democracy, mutual action between religion and politics for the young Muslim generation. While answering simultaneously to two fundamental questions, which may rise to minds of all young people living in the Muslim World, i.e. “who should rule?” and “how should rule?” the revolution developed a kind of political system which is based either on the ruling spiritual and political specifications or on the connection between the Islamic values and democratic structure/ procedure. Such government, which was based on the match between Islam and the time requirements as well as the religious resurrection using reviving Islamic perspectives on governance, emphasized the republic style, as a good style to govern the country, and participation of people in making

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening governmental decisions and observance of Islamism pattern and constant Islamic values including justice, divinity, and spirituality. The Islamic republic system indicates the linkage between religion and politics, combination of structure and performance and also demonstrated that religiousness along with modernization is not impossible. The political system simultaneously has negated the retrogressive and sectionalist Islam and secularism and laicism, so brought about a system which is legitimized by divine domination, righteousness of the religious values and popular will and the right to determine destinations of nations. Proposition of the religious democracy doctrine by the Islamic revolution developed the interactive culture, based on government’s ambition to meet will of the Muslim people to develop a humane society proper with the human nature. It also revived the role may be played by people with the aim of emphasizing the linkage and connection between people and their governments. As the same time Iran’s revolution strengthened tendency to Islam as a popular governance style among all nations and encouraged establishment of governments which insist on application of Shariah principles and realization of the social justice. While challenging the extremist nationality ideologies including pan-Arabism, the system succeeded to challenge puppy regimes too and started to cope with imperialism and social imperialism at the same time (Parsania, 1997, p. 221-237). Promotion of Independency and Anti-Imperialism The independent and anti-imperialist nature of the Islamic revolution and its efforts to develop a system independent from domination of the imperialist powers, based on thoughts of Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader, disrupted the


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balance between the global powers and challenged the international system developed by East and West blocs. Outlining “No East, No West” theory helped the Islamic revolution to foster a collective super-discipline based on equity of governments, rules and realization of both divine and human rights of nations in the international system. Reviving the forgotten capacities and facilities belonged to the non-committed countries and negating passivity and fear against imperialism helped Iran to embark on cutting roots of dependency of the nations to the hegemonistic powers. The Islamic revolution to negate the myth that the arrogant powers are invincible via divulging dominant nature and unilateral policies adopted by the global powers and planted seeds of hope in the hearts of all liberalists and world’s poor. The Islamic revolution paved the way for the independent and liberal movements stimulated by self-reliance developed in the needy through denoting the needy and imperialism. It started to struggle in two fronts, anti-colonialism and anti-imperialism, and also negated dependency which caused infiltration of independenceseeking and liberality culture among various classes of the societies, governments and liberal movements. Since Islamic revolution tackled with European common patterns of liberalism and socialism and challenged principles of secularism, humanism and materialism, the attractiveness of Marxism and Nationalism ideologies, as the ideologies used by militants and liberal nations, was faded out. Hence, the Islamic revolution opened a third front in the international system by which the materialist system of the world was confronted and a rich culture of independenceseeking and anti-imperialism among the third world states

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening was developed (Shafifar, 1997, p. 98-109). Strengthening reformism culture among new social movements: The Islamic revolution revived new social middle-classes who have started to restore thoughts of Imam Khomeini, Alame Tabatabaie and Morteza Mottahari with the aim of influencing the social and cultural strata and structures of the undeveloped countries, specially their youth population. With regard to the peaceful and nonviolent nature of the Islamic revolution of Iran which has been staged through reconciliatory and unarmed demonstrations, a religious intellectuality was formed which resorted to promotional styles and intellectual enlightenment instead of partisan and armed struggles. It paved the way for the youth to start continuous and reconciliatory struggles and to resort to reformist ways and moves relying on restoring and renovating religious thinking. The Islamic youth started to promote Islamic resurrection through intellectual and religious activities; on the other hand, with the aim of developing a doctrine and offering a coherent discourse of the religious modernism embarked on cultural activity to realize the religious democracy paradigm. Such religious reformist movements were manifested in Pakistan, Turkey, Bahrain, Algeria and Morocco. Islamic civil organization of the Muslim countries emphasized the necessity of continuous modernism, fostered a new method of thinking and pondering rooted in the combination of republicanism and Islamism, which was based on their own local paradigms and social norms. In accelerated the gradual knowledge and placed the cover, alive and active in the route of Islamic modernism. Emergence of young thinkers


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and intellectual in the Islamic countries brought about a new middle-class that announced proudly its independent Islamic and national identity and started to materialize the Islamic ruling based on the religious criteria. At the same time, the class involved with reshaping its role in the political activities; for instance, answer of Saudi Arabia’s intellectuals to letter of 70 American intellectuals after 9/11 incidents, who prescribed bellicosity of the White House under the framework of international policy and their opposite letter against educational system of Saudi Arabia in the current year can be pointed. (Lee, 1994, p. 54-56). Strengthening the intellectual and cultural activity Islamic revolution, relying on Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader’s teachings, stressed the software power of culture and thinking and supremacy of thinking over instrumenting with the aim of creating a type of intellectual and cultural activity which was based on intellectual and cultural independent of the Muslim nations. Such revolution which promoted self-sufficiency and scientific self-reliance without dependency to the foreign powers fostered a software movement which caused science production in the Muslim World that focused on protecting the local culture while taking advantage of technological achievements, particularly the communicative technologies. Hence, a number of sciences such as Islamic Insurance, Islamic Stock Market and Islamic Politics were welcomed by scientific and academic entities which mainly cover the youth and persuaded universities and seminaries to make interaction and cooperation. Therefore, when inclination of young pundits to understand and perceive the reality and nature of the Islamic revolution was enhanced, the Islamic

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening seminaries found a new importance in the intellectual developments of the globe a great deal of African students traveled Iran in order to enroll in its Islamic seminaries. Likewise, our universities become an important scene for scientific activities and political moves of the Islamic groups who stress the necessity to take advantage of time and speed and enhancing dynamicity and adopting with the global developments. Similarly, in order to strengthen the intellectual independence and thoughts of the Muslim nations and their Islamic identity as well as tacking with the western cultural invasion, more stress was placed on Islamization of Iranian schools and universities as universities and scientific and religious centers emphasized the intellectual and political growth. Scientific and cultural centers of the Muslim countries not only considered metaphysical principles of science and normalization of opinions on human being and life, but also made necessary efforts to strengthen scientific and logical perspectives with the aim of converting the Muslim World to an intellectual and civil hub in the world. Therefore, taking advantage of the Western technology along with being loyal to religious values and local findings created an intense relationship between science and religion, which was relied on westsearching approach instead of anti-west or westernization approaches, in universities and Islamic seminaries of the Islamic countries. Hence, the intellectual reconstruction based on combination of tradition and modernity was taken place, however, it tried to retain its reliance on localization and strengthening the cultural identity, concise adopting the novel technologies among the youth of the Muslim societies and their scientific centers (Akbari, 1999, p.95-98).


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Increasing cultural interaction and exchange The Islamic revolution based on Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader’s thoughts, introduced itself at the forefront of the new interactive and exchange-based discourses in science, technology and thinking spheres through revealing the capacity of the Islamic civilization as a comprehensive and multi-dimensional civilization in religious, political, economic, social, cultural and scientific fields as well as reconstructing the civilization based on west-searching and localization themes. At the same time, more efforts were conducted for reconstructing and enhancing the capacity necessary for changing religious thinking of the Muslim youth in order to increase scientific and cultural interactions, exchanges and cooperation. Pay attention to increasing cultural interaction and exchanges, based on the new communicative technologies through convergence the traditional communicative methods differentiated the identity of the Muslim World from the Western countries. In fact, occurrence the Islamic revolution during revolution of communications and along with the growth of transnational networks caused intellectual reconstruction of the Islamic civilization which was based on certain features such as comprehensiveness, multi-centrality, continuance and dynamicity. Likewise, the emphasis of the Islamic revolution on increasing both importance and role of the youth and the interaction among young generations of different nations enhanced self-conscious of nations and the conversation culture and accountability regarding promotion of criticism of ideas and organizations among Muslim youth. Respecting freedom of thought along with increased political importance of religion in

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening the international relations increases scientific interactions and interchanges among Islamic seminaries on the one hand and among professors and clergies on the other hand. Furthermore, increasing revolutionary spirit in universities of the Islamic countries and enhancing importance and role of students and student centers increases intellectual and cultural interactions between Muslim students. Distribution of religious cassettes, recorded speeches of the religious leaders and well-known Islamic sermons in universities of the Muslim countries as well as ever-increasing number of mosques and their promotional role as traditional communicative bases between students and intellectuals has facilitated the interaction between mosques and universities as monotheism worldview and Islamism and wisdom-based campaign ideology for Islamic movements of the Islamic countries were developed. Resurgence of Islam in the social life spheres Taking advantage of thoughts of Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei, the Islamic revolution of Iran, as a revolution based on spiritual and moral values and as the symbol of Islam domination on the immoral symbols, helped manifestation of ethics and religious norms in the social behavior. The manifestation could be considered in different fields such as Hijab as the Islamic and national coverage and clothing, complaint of the Muslim youth against the western pornographic movies, applying principles of and rules of Shariah, reviving mourning ceremonies. They led to formation of the collective spirit through broad and active participation of the youth in political and social scenes. It converted the


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Islamic traditional bases and centers including mosques to the powerful centers in the Islamic countries and helped them accelerating the social and political developments procedures, because generalization of Islamic ideology either is religious and political duty. This makes popular the Islamic movements. Therefore, mosques, tribunes and Friday prayers were treated as the communication bases or traditional tools to conveying messages and interchanging modern perspectives, which were based on religious beliefs and social traditions. Mosques became the symbol of the social cohesion and collective moves; thus, it revived influence of the religious leaders, particularly Shiite clergies. Inter alia regarding the increasing importance of family to shape social behaviors, an interaction between private and public sectors of the social societies was realized which led to returning to the Islamic teachings and strengthening the culture of “return to roots” based on Islam rule in all levels including family, social and political across the Muslim World from Morocco to Indonesia. Conversion of the Islamism into a dynamic power and critique of imperialism and colonialism has led to emergence of a new global resurrection and enhancement of self-esteem of the humiliated and oppressed Muslims based on epiphany of religion in all aspects of the social life. Growth of spirituality, increased popular inclination and tendency to ethics and development of the religious culture across the Islamic countries have brought about ethical, spiritual and epistemological identity for Muslim societies, as the religious intellectuals used “return to roots” movements to train religious human beings and started promote message of Iran’s Islamic revolution through promulgating journals,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and developing radio and TV networks. As a result, Islamic moves in the social spheres used a combination of monotheism, moralization, spirituality, and right-seeking to resurrect and replay (Taa’t 1996, p. 59-66). Hoisting culture on civilized unity of the Muslim World: Iran’s Islamic revolution focusing on the unity between Shiites and Sunnis, proximity of Islamic religions and negation of religious sectionalism based on thoughts of Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader, has started to unify Muslim nations and to realize project of Ummah formation. On the one hand the project was based on a positive struggle, i.e. relying on original Islamic beliefs and religious traditional customs and ceremonies, which established the foundation of political, economic, social and cultural organization of the Islamic Ummah on the original Islamic beliefs as well as common Islamic cultures and ceremonies including Hajj and on the other hand it insisted on a negative struggle against the common enemy including clearance from pagans, anti-imperialism and preventing the global arrogant from exploiting Islamic countries’ resources and wealth. They showed sensitivity of Muslims to developments of the Muslim World and the necessity of strengthening their collective spirit through opposing with domination of foreigners, fighting with Zionism etc. in the same view, reviving Islamic Ummah and civilization based on Qur’an, Hadith, Sunnah and Islamic rhetoric or Islamic worldview and formation of the Islamic unified society based on the worldwide Islamic order as well as the relation among governments and nations, unity among intellectual, cultural and political pundits on the one hand and development of


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the Islamic unified front against East and West blocs through intensifying the doctrine deals with fighting with Zionism and the Zionist regime, reconstruction of Palestine ideal and bucking Muslim youth up to developments of the Muslim World on the other hand has led to attraction of interests to convergence of the Muslim World based on the regional economic, political and cultural unions which are necessary to affect the international decision making system. It not only revived the Muslim World’s geopolitics, but also enforced the religion’s role as a fundamental principle in managing the global developments. Hence, the Islamic civilization started to achieve a novel position in the global discipline and after enhancing the level of international policy analysis from governmental players to civilization players provided a new opportunity to publish message of Abrahamic religions which may not be limited to certain time or places; so they can emphasize the intertwined destinations of human beings and regarding this fact that human is a general sample of divinity, it can be promoted that faith , as a factor, is critically important to extend humane values. In fact, world-spread effect of religions as a comprehensive system for human beings and linking universalism to religious civilization led to development of a macro approach to humane global subjects such as security, peace, justice, education development which are interlinked issues. Therefore, by using a type of universalism culture and by posing Islam as the sole way of human happiness and by relying on universalism, as the original, logic, political and divine discourse and by emphasizing the integrity among various aspects of the human life, Iran’s Islamic revolution succeeded to reveal the political importance of the religion

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening in the international relations for the youth of the Muslim countries, so provided the Muslim World with a kind of selfawareness and self-esteem necessary for unifying Islamic civilizations and playing some more important roles in both international culture and politics (Jalali, 1998, p. 38-44). Reviving role of liberal movements: Relying on Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader’s thoughts, Iran’s Islamic revolution succeeded to emphasize the significance of liberal movements, either Islamism or anti-colonialism, as the new players of the international discipline through enhancing self-awareness, self-esteem, self-reliance and Islamic awakening among Muslim nations. As a result the balance of power was headed to a third front which was based on freedom, social justice, negation of intervention of foreign states and necessity of a dynamic and flexible management of sociopolitical developments. It found more importance in the Islamic liberal movements, because they demolished facial and virtual borders through organizing Islamic awakening movement and stressing the role played by the youth and accepting the accountability based on youth-oriented paradigms. The above mentioned Islamic movements appeared in two spheres: one, intellectual sphere called moderate, reconciliatory and culture-based movements, and another, the martyrdomseeking operation and Jihadi activities like Intifada 4 which was taken place through copying Iran’s Islamic revolution, as a peaceful revolution with empty hands and taking advantage of mosques as the communicative bases. 4. uprising of Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in protest of Israeli occupation and political policies


Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... However, the common aspects of moderate and extremist Islamic movements are Islamic fundamentalism, schoolbased and idealistic identity of the Muslim World, reviving religious thinking, releasing from materialistic thoughts, spirituality without taking advantage of the importing ideologies, political dynamism of Islam and presence of religion in general and governmental fields, negation of secularism and materialism, idealism and value-orientation based on divine positions (Akbari, 1999, p.89-94).


Political-Cultural Discourse: Relying on Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader’s thoughts, Iran’s Islamic revolution created a discourse space, relied on spirituality and “return to roots”, which organized its audiences and lovers around a unite and comprehensive discourse. According to the theory “majority based unity”, i.e. unity in beliefs and value structures and numerous methods and applications invented by the human being, the revolution developed an umbrella-like discourse which was able to cover other micro-discourses. Such politicalcultural discourse succeeded to hold relation and similarity between affairs which were apparently contradicted; here some of them are pointed: Explanation of rationality as the criterion of acceptability and religiousness as the criterion of legitimacy foe the young generations of the Islamic countries. In other words, Islam approach should be combined with the republic-based method so that it becomes able to link moral rationality and idealist rationality to the modernity applied rationality. Therefore, Islamic revolution offered a pervasive interpretation of rationality in order to define it

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening as the protector of its ideals and aspirations, so the unity between theory and practice became possible, because aspirations are followed by facts and the realistic idealism was a bridge between ideals and facts. Solving the conflict between divine ruling right and public views and general satisfaction or the conflict between republicanism and Islamism or between appointment and election, which are raised in minds of Muslim young generations. Solving the relationship between religion and nationality through posing religious Ummah for negating nationalism and radical nationalism. Solving the relationship between fundamentalism and pluralism means consideration of the limited, standard and conditional pluralism in the framework of the religious fundamentalism along with negation of fanatics, sectionalism, and petrified, dogmatic and fanatic fundamentalism; in other words fundamentalism in differences and pluralism in similarities which it led to protection and maintenance of beliefs. Proposing an idealistic-practical paradigm for the Muslim youth means sticking on rationality while protecting ideals with the aim of enhancing productivity though saving values which are indebted to certain principles including Ashura culture, supporting oppressed people and Mahdaviat5 philosophy (Gharibi, 1992, p. 168-179). Resurrection of the religious identity: One of the most important cultural influences of the Islamic revolution of Iran is reviving religious thought 5. Is a religious term in Twelver Shiite Islam meaning "belief in and efforts to prepare for the Mahdi.


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and identity in the world, particularly for the youth of the Islamic countries. Imam Khomeini’s movement during the era in which religious principles was being forgotten under increasing struggles and efforts of laic and arrogant governments and materialist and pagan schools treated religion as “opium of mass” which has not enough capability to move mass and hence stimulate any kind of revolution and religious identity and religiousness were being faded out gradually, as in some societies faithful people felt reserved for their religious beliefs, even commitment and loyalty to religious principles was sentenced or mocked brought about a great development across the world. He converted the laic nature to the Islamic and religious nature relying on divine force, trust in god, and Islamic ideology. Muhammad al-Asi, Friday prayers leader of Washington Mosque, believes that Iran’s Islamic revolution not only made many developments within Iran, but exerted many international effects with the aim of reviving the religious thought. He said, “Our dear Imam, destructed the pagan and laic world, and today unlike years before Iran’s Islamic revolution, we see fundamentalist Christians, Jews etc. who are dealt with the press and other media (Ashrafzadeh, 1995, p. 111). Thanks to the great revolution, Muslim youth of Iran and other Islamic countries found that the solution of all problems of Muslims is returning to Islam and resorting at Qur’an. Sheikh Abd Al Aziz Awda, one of the founders of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, believes that the most important cultural effect of Iran’s Islamic revolution is awakening of Muslims in many countries. While relying on the fact that Iran’s Islamic revolution led by Imam Khomeini inserted

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening faith into hearts of the youth and made them familiar with the resuscitative thoughts of Islam, he says: “Iran’s Islamic revolution led by Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Khamenei, revived the lost hopes in hearts of Muslims. After victory of revolution in Iran, World’s Muslims are not orphan anymore and great power was emerged which supports them. Iran’s Islamic revolution revived the hope in hearts that Muslims can be winner one more time and they can recollect their ancient dignity and glory and can defeat their enemies” (Akbari, 1999, p.88). In fact, the revolution damaged social, economic and cultural foundations of West and trampled cultural domination of Imperialism which humiliate higher values of the needy and it proved that Muslims could release from domination and influence of west and east and live freely and independently. Imam Khomeini succeeded to revive what has been forgotten and introduced Islam as a new player of the international relations. After victory of Islamic revolution, imperialists, dominators, authoritarians, seditionists, domestic and foreign enemies spared no effort and conspiracy against Iran and launched various types of military, advertisement and psychological wars in order to seclude and prevent it from development. But as God protects the revolution, it enjoys supports of people and continues its way. All failures of enemies as a result of such sabotages, oppositions and conspiracies are the best evidence to demonstrate spiritual and positive influence of Iran’s Islamic revolution across the world. 11 - The idea of Islamic government: Many scientists and experts from the Islamic world and


Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... non-Muslim scholars reconsidered their opinions and views after victory of the Islamic revolution because they considered impossible establishment of an Islamic regime somehow a semi-impossible occurrence. Some of them described struggling with the arrogant powers as playing with lion’s tail. Hence, victory of Islamic revolution disturbed all international and regional consideration and balances and paved the way for establishment of Islamic governments in other countries (Fayyazi, 1991, p.61-66). Ahmed J. Versi, editor in chief of Muslim News of London, emphasizing the worldwide nature of Islamic revolution’s goals and says, “Islamic Revolution’s victory changed Muslims’ thought with an unarmed revolution and demonstrated that such movement is possible in the Muslim World and Islamic Ummah could manage the government.” 178

12. Defending sacred ideal of Palestine Islamic revolution of Iran took place after signing the disgraceful Camp David Accord and western countries plundered that they will be able to influence other Islamic countries very in the near future. All equations of the Islamic revolution took over and guided them, enlightened and assertive stance of Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Khamenei, was another form of fighting with Israel. According to the command of Imam Khomeini (RA), last Friday of Ramadan, was named as “Qods Day” and the Israeli embassy in Tehran was closed and converted to the Embassy of Palestine and Jerusalem as a holy place for Muslims and other religions. Islamic Republic of Iran gave confidence to Palestinian militants and supported the Palestinian intifada and the sacred cause of his agenda, and

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening the world, especially young Muslims to help and assist the political, financial and spiritual people. The confrontation with the Israeli occupation of Palestinian militant leaders encouraged and gave a new spirit (Parsania, 1376, pp. 78-75). Shahid Dr. Fathi Shaghagi, former leader of Palestinian Islamic Jihad, about the Palestinian Islamic Revolution says: “The revolution showed that our success depends on following the path of Imam Khomeini (RA), hence doors and walls of mosques of the occupied territories, especially Aqsa mosques were decorated with pictures of the Imam Khomeini. Today we are witnessing the same policy that Ayatollah Khamenei continues and the issue of Palestine among the main issues of Muslims “(Akbari, 1378, p. 91). He called intifada, the Palestinian national uprising, one of important blessings of the Islamic Revolution of Iran and says: (Akbari, 1378, p. 92) “Intifada is one of the fruits of Islamic awakening which Imam Khomeini (RA) brought about in the region and especially in Palestine.” Iran’s Islamic Revolution, the fact the youth of the Islamic nation specifically and humanity in general clear and proved to the world that Islam is the ideology of Islam and Muslims and who can fight for the oppressed of the world’s superpower and expensive, with the domination and restore their lost rights. After years of struggle of the oppressed people of Palestine, inspired by displacement and migration of the Islamic revolution, today the Zionist occupation forces have been fighting. Their way to victory and liberation, and the only way to save the positions of their adherence to the teachings of the Koran and the faith to know God, and in marches and protests and the campaign slogans of the Iranian


Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... nation against the Israeli usurper Today they shout and blessing of the Islamic Revolution, the Islamic world and the free world on their side.


13 create unity and Islamic solidarity: One of the positive cultural effects of the Islamic revolution was making Islamic brotherhood and solidarity among followers of Islam. As word of the unity of the Muslim nation of Iran and the Muslim Brotherhood under the leadership of the Ummah, the Islamic Republic was founded, its foreign policy based on the unity of the Islamic Ummah and the Muslim world, especially young people of all Asia to Africa and the Arab Middle East to Europe and America to the principles of monotheism, prophecy, resurrection, the Qu’ran, the Muslim pilgrimage and prayer, because they believed and were paid for Islamic unity in defense of Islam called Kian. Before the revolution, despite its potential unity of leadership and power in the world of Islam from the appearance and form isolation in his hand, and the ignorant and unaware of the transcendent values of Islamic societies and divisive and factious enemies of the Islamic Ummah on the other hand, the Muslims had taken the initiative. The most important of the Islamic Revolution in such a situation was that Islamic unity in the Muslim world, strong leadership and focus all his attention to the importance of unity. Islamic Revolution, the young Muslim nation in the world despite the shade of sectarian divisions of the anti-imperialists and Zionists in the flag (No god except Allah) will call to unity and consequences of injury the divisions among the Muslims to give them a warning. One of the encouraging measures in this regard is the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening establishment of “The World Forum for Proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought� at the behest of the Supreme Leader which was done with the aim of retaining unity among Muslims. 14 Effective role of discourse in the world: Freedom of discussion and dialogue and debate is a feature of the mission of the Prophet (PBUH) was common in his era, he has done. Conversation, the Prophet (PBUH) with the elders of Quraysh, Imam Zain al Abedin dialogue as a good visual, debates, Imam Sadeq (AS) with scholars and followers of religions, dialogue, Imam Reza (AS) with Christian scientists ... Evidence is clear on this. Islamic Revolution in Iran since the beginning of the discussion and dialogue with religious scholars, especially the great Christian thinkers has been established. This kind of dialogue with the goal of peaceful coexistence, understanding the true religions, cultures and civilizations, religions owners of mutual respect, justice and world peace, spiritual development and religious and moral values throughout the world are be a positive role and the role of many young Muslims in the Islamic awakening, has been lasting. (Parsania, 1376, pp. 201-200) Discussion and Conclusion: If most of the youth of the Islamic countries took a passive position facing with various aspects of the new life and eyecatching civilization of the West and were doubtful about effectiveness of the religious instructions to reasonably management of the Islamic societies, the all-embracing development of the Islamic revolution led by Imam


Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ...


Khomeini and after him by the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei, fostered the authenticated belief among the youth of the Islamic countries that Islam, as an eternal school, can bring about the most important developments throughout the world and propose a healing prescription for questions of the current era and management of societies. This point was the most important effect of political and religious thoughts of Imam Khomeini and his successor which established the current movements theoretically on the one hand and proposed the religious beliefs as a dynamic element in destination of the human societies on the other hand. For this issue, the Supreme Leader says, “Outcomes and blessings of Iran’s Islamic revolution on liberal movements and global Islamic uprisings can be seen through Islamism surge and extension of the revolutionary extensions against the ruling tyrant system from the Middle East to Northern Africa, and from the Central Asia to center of Europe. Resurrection of the Islamic identity among Muslims, awakening of nations and building exhilaration and hope in struggling and revolutionary forces are evident and undeniable fruits and results of Iran’s Islamic revolution (Khamenei, 2008, p. 188). For practical and objective aspects, the victorious leadership of Imam Khomeini and his successful and growing strategy to take advantage of the great popular capacity provided valuable and rich experiences for the Muslim youth. The objective experiences and struggling strategy of Imam Khomeini left the greatest objective and successful achievements gained from leading a religious movement; because new political movements seeking for bringing a new life for their people failed to attain their

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening goals and Iran’s Islamic revolution was the first successful and victorious religious movement which succeeded for the first time to realize goals and inspirations behind Islamic uprisings and religious movements in the Islamic Iran (Seddighi, 1996, p. 108). It provided the Muslim youth with the invaluable set of political and religious experiences on the one hand, and created the hope of victory and achievement on the other hand. As a result, it can be claimed that during the contemporary history of Islam, it is the first time that an Islamic movement could launch a revolution and manage it through a popular method. Therefore, it can be said that Islam has been materialized, both theoretically and practically, by the Islamic move of Iranians. Social dimensions of Islam are seen through all stages of Iran’s Islamic revolution. Iranians stood up against economic sanctions which were plotted aiming at weakening the revolution. Thus, among other Islamic movements, Iran’s political and social revolution enjoys a great and brilliant stance in terms of resistance against trespass of foreigners (Al-Ghonoshi, 1993, p. 92). It is necessary to note that the link between the revolution and religion in Iran’s Islamic revolution guarantees our evolution’s survival through the upcoming centuries as well as its promotion to various points of the world as a paradigm for the young generation of the Islamic countries for playing further role in the Islamic awakening current (Mizabani, 2008, P.65).


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni...

Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni (Harbinger of Islamic awakening in the ٢٠th century) Ali Salimi, Faruq Nemati 1. Introduction and background of the research The Islamic awakening means the manifestation of genuine and pure Islam in humans and the society and resurrection in light of the genuine Islam. In other words, the Islamic awakening is used in the sense of the revival of the Islamic life under which independence, justice and the whole raft of lofty teachings and values come to life. (Shiroudi, 5:1388). The Islamic revival, based on religion and religious methodology, tries to return religion to the scene of social life and dust off its genuine and human teachings with a revision and trimming of its components. The message of the Islamic awakening is to return to the genuine Islam and redeem our dignity and honor and make up for what we have compromised on the path toward the divine elevation. The goal behind this return is to build a new Islamic civilization by applying pure Islamic values. Hence, the aim of the Islamic awakening is to establish a global Muhammadan civilization in which rationality aligns with spirituality, power with morals, science with values and knowledge with action. (Islamic Propagation Office, 359:1385). The Islamic awakening movement has proliferated due to a variety of reasons including the colonization of the Islamic society and its subjection to aggression by the West.


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni...


(Shiroudi, 6: 1388). A renowned British historian, Arnold Twinbee, believes that the resurrection of the spirit of the Islamic government will force the Western imperialism to retreat again from Islamic territories. He says, "PanIslamism is dormant. But if the world's oppressed rise up against western imperialism and mobilize under a united leadership, it will wake up. The cries of this uprising may resurrect the Islamic establishment and Islam rise up again to take over its historic role." (Velayati, 217: 1384). Late in the 19th century, many religious thinkers and reformers in the Islamic countries concluded after an in-depth analysis of the current situation that the reason behind the backwardness and hibernation of the Islamic world was their alienation from genuine Islamic thoughts and teachings. Among them, luminaries such as Seyed Jamaladdin Assad Abadi, Mohammad Abduh, Seyyed Qotb, Hassan al-Bana and others made enormous efforts to keep the spark of awakening among Muslims alive and explain to them the causes of their failures and backwardness and what they had to do about it. Meanwhile, sections of the contemporary Arab poetry which is after finding solutions and explaining the challenges which the human society is faced with entered the realm of the Islamic awakening and dedicated its literary resources to enlightening the people, especially the youth. This type of poetry does not pay much attention to rhetorical arrangements, rather it finds beauty in meaning especially lofty human concepts. Simplicity, fluence, clarity and deep influence are among the most important features of this poetry, making it a subsidiary of the committed literature. Mustafa Ghalayeeni is one of the prominent figures of this

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening literary leaning who has dedicated his poems to the Islamic revolution, fighting colonialism as well as to lofty human values and nationalist ideals. Through his poems, he is trying to drive his compatriots especially the youths out of negligence and ignorance and return past dignity and honor to them. In this paper, we will examine the most important components of the Islamic awakening in Ghalayeeni's poems and dissect it from his perspective and with an analytical-descriptive method, we will attempt to answer the following questions: 1 - In what themes, the Islamic awakening has crystallized in Ghalayeni's poetry? 2 - Regarding political awakening of the youths, what matters have been emphasized by Ghalayeeni? According to reviews, no independent research has been made about the political and social ideas of Ghalayeeni in his poems. Many of the books and articles about this contemporary character have often investigated his religious aspects. One can refer to "El-Sheikh Mustafa Al-Ghalayyeeni Fi Mafahim Al-Islahiyah" which has been written by "Mani Hussein Dasvaqi" who has done a comparative study of the views and opinions of Ghalayeeni vis-a-vis those of Seyyed Jamaladdin Afghani and Mohammad Abdoh. 2. A look at the life and works of Mustafa Ghalayeeni Mustafa bin Muhammad Salim Ghalayeeni, (Al-Zarkly, 2007: 7 / 244) a Lebanese poet, writer and orator, was born in Beirut in 1885. He completed his primary education in his hometown and then went to Egypt in 1902 and to AlAzhar University where he became an apprentice of giants


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni...


like Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) and Sayyid Morsafi (AD 1931), and beside strengthening the spirit of faith and piety, he could make many achievements in learning various Arabic sciences. After finishing his studies at AlAzhar and the death of his teacher, Muhammad Abduh, he returned to Beirut where influenced by the corrective and disciplinary perspectives of Abduh and others, he dedicated his scientific achievements to the education and training of the youth in his hometown. (See: Al-Dasvaqi, 1999: 33 onwards). For 20 years, Ghalayeeni was engaged in education and training in many schools in Beirut and beside teaching Arab sciences such as grammar, Arooz (poetic meters), vocabulary and others, he rubbed shoulders with Lebanese political figures and analyzed the country's political issues. As a religious nationalist and freedom-seeker, he began his struggle against Ottoman political tyranny during the rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid. Following the approval of the 1908 Act to strengthen the ruling base of the Ottoman Empire, Ghalayeeni joined the "Unity and Development" party and participated in street protests against Ottoman tyranny and addressing the Ottoman caliph in an ode called "Al-Fowz Al-Mobin", so he wrote: Translation: 1 - You shed the blood of the innocent with your betrayal to fortify a government whose pillars are destroyed. 2 - Where is the oath that you took in allegiance with the people? Did you materialize the aspirations of the nation which rested on your shoulders? (Journal Al-Nebras, 1909: 232) The release of "Al-Nebras" in 1909 was among

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Ghalayeeni's political activities which reflected his views and those of others on political and social issues. The issue of unity and solidarity among all Arab and Islamic nations was among Ghalayeeni's emphatic demands. He regarded unity as the basis of prosperity and motivation for real life of the nations and considered discord and partisanship as the source of destruction and annihilation of the nations. (See: Al-Dasvaqi, 1999: 39; Quoted from Al-Nebras journal, 1909: Introduction) Following the collapse of the Ottoman rule and the occupation of Lebanon by the French, Ghalayeeni this time stood up against the French colonialists and and warned them of eastern anger, calling on them to leave Islamic territories. His nationalistic addresses in Beirut led him seek refuge in Damascus. After the fall of Damascus, he returned to Beirut and then went to Oman. He then returned to Beirut in 1922, but was arrested and imprisoned for seven months. Ghalayeeni's imprisonment and his suffering and ordeals never made him abandon his lofty ideals; rather with his persistence, he regarded patience as the way to dignity and honor. Translation: The prison is a house that despite the bitterness of its hardship and suffering through which I will achieve dignity and honor. After the end of his jail term, he was expelled from Beirut and went back to Oman. Several months later, he returned to Beirut in 1924 and was arrested by French forces upon arrival and imprisoned for 15 days. (Al-Dadsvaqi, 1999: 44). He was then exiled to Palestine and was settled in Haifa. There, he collected and sorted out his book of poems and his other literary works. (Ibid.: 44) Then, in 1925, he was


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... allowed to return to his homeland of Lebanon. Ghalayeeni never backed off in the face of the French and stood against colonialism with courage. In 1932, a ceremony was held in Beirut with his participation to pay tribute to 30 years of his scientific, literary and national efforts. Finally in 1944, Ghalayeeni died of a heart attack and was buried at the AlBashourah cemetery of Beirut during a grand funeral. Ghalayeeni is regarded as one of the personalities of the literary movement in the first half of the twentieth century. (Daghr, 1956: 2/619) He left behind many works in several different fields, most of which were published in his lifetime. Ghalayeeni's writings can be divided into the works of prose and poetry.


A) Works of prose In the field of grammar, the book "Jamey Al-Dorows AlArabiya" is among Ghalayeeni's most important writings which is still used in academic and scientific centers. The book "Nadharat Fi Al-Loghah va Al-Adab" examines some verbal and linguistic issues. He also has several works in the field of social and religious issues which one can refer "Arij Al-Zahr", "Ezzat Al-Nanashayyin", "Al-Islam Rouh Al-Madinah", "Nadharat Fi Al-Sofur va Al-HijabÂť, "AlTavon al-Ijtemayi", "Nokhbat Min Al-Kalam Al-Nabavy" and "Labab al-Khiyar Fi Sayrat al-Mukhtar". B) Works of poetry Ghalayeeni's only work of poetry is his book of poems which according to his own declaration in the preface of the book, he compiled, arranged and published it in Haifa in 1924 when he was in exile. (Ghalayeeni, 1993:5) He has

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening dedicated the book to all the Mujahedin who sacrifice their lives for their homeland and for achieving Arab dignity and greatness. Translation: 1 - To every young and old fighter whose entire existence is in greatness and glory, those who became the martyrs of dignity and glory. 2 - To everyone who takes a step in the way of Arab movement of greatness, I dedicate this work of poems which is a celebration of my loyalty to my oath. ' Ghalayeeni begins his book with a long introduction, touching on topics such as poetry, vocabulary, derivation, diction and decorum. He goes on then to explain the relationship between poetry and love as well as politics. Finally, he recounts his relationship with poetry and his passion for composing poems. 3 - Reflection of Islamic awakening in Ghalayeeni's poems In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, some sort of a confrontation broke out between Islam and modernity among the intellectuals of the Arab world. Some individuals, with a static and passive stance, made traditionalism their target, adopting a reactionary approach. From a traditionalist's perspective, the past, prior to the future, was the golden age which had to be resurrected some day. (Sharabi, 1369: 13) Some others instead were inclined to the modernist and prospective ideology. They saw the progress of the society in absolute compliance with the western civilization and culture and dispensing with noble traditions and the values of the past eras. On the opposite side of the conservative traditionalism and the avent garde modernism, there was a middle line which one can choose to call religious reformism. This line of


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni...


thinking, beside persevering Islam and respecting traditional structures and sublime human values, embraced new sciences and civilizations and with a realistic understanding of the situation and needs of the society laid the ground for the formation of a religious intellectual revolution. This blessed movement was "the liberal movement of young scholars who are aware that Islam, in order to be properly defended, had to overcome its weaknesses and be given a new lease of life. (Ibid.: 14) Mustafa Ghalayeeni must be regarded as one of the real representatives of this line of thinking. As a conservative intellectual, in addition to standing for Islamic values, he was after the development and progress of his country, using all the necessary means. His antidespotism thoughts and his aversion to colonialism and his efforts to spread knowledge and science among the youth, and create a free and unified Lebanon against foreign enemies, made his intellectual movement a follower of such reformers as Sayyid Jamaladdin Asadabadi, Muhammad Abduh, Rahman Kavakibi and others. On the other hand, it should be noted that the colonial invasion of the Arabic and Islamic countries prompted a variety of reactions in the contemporary Arab literature. Two trends are prominent in these reactions: (1) Dependence on the European looters 2 – Commitment and devotion to authenticity. (Azarshab, 1381: 24) Dependence in the first orientation meant accepting the occupation and believing in it in all political and cultural contexts and embracing occupiers as a model for escape from backwardness in Arab countries. Commitment in the second trend meant attention to the western civilization along with a conscious attitude

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening toward the Islamic civilization where one could distinguish between the desirable and undesirable elements and recognize factors behind the metamorphosis of a nation and the ways to strengthen it and try to eliminate shortcomings. Mustafa Ghalayeeni is one of the representatives of the second trend in the Arab world. He tried to bring his poems and literature to the service of this community and nation and make the Islamic awakening message resonate not only in Lebanon but the entire Arab world. As a poet and a historian and commentator on the contemporary culture and the harbinger of freedom and independence in his homeland, he never kept his social and literary life apart from each other. 3-1: Scientific and Cultural Awakening In the distant past, Muslims were pioneers in knowledge and various techniques and their culture and civilization had a precedence over others. What we see as the western civilization today is nothing other than the Islamic civilization whose various aspects have been explored and enriched and become advanced in its current shape, thanks to the diligent efforts of the Europeans. (Baghchehvan, 1383: 228) Therefore, Ghalayeeni like other great reformers of the Islamic awakening revolution, laid great emphasis on the role of science in intellectual growth of Muslims and their liberation from tyranny and colonialism. Insisting on learning and encouraging it is among the most fundamental issues which Ghalayeen is raising in his poems and inviting the youth to a scientific movement. Translation: 1 – Oh the youth! The blooms of the hills! Dedicate all your determination and will to learning knowledge 2 – Bring back the memory of the past which


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... was bright and radiant. From Ghalayeeni’s point of view, girls should be involved in the scientific movement and find their path with the light of science and knowledge and experience the best life with its radiations.


(Ibid.: 264) Translation: 1 – Oh the Arab girl, oh the daughter of greatness! Remember that the beauty of great deeds is the real beauty. 2 – And the best deed is acquisition of knowledge because at a time when deviation is prevalent in the society it is the best guide and director. 3 - Join the garden of knowledge and pick its fruits because a scholarly life is the best. 4 – Like a girl who seeks to reach higher levels of perfection, commit to acquiring the right knowledge. In another poem, Ezzat Al-Nashe’at, composed for her niece, Ghalayeeni stresses the value of science and knowledge for girls and describes it as the ladder of prosperity and the light in the darkness of ignorance. The poet believes ignorance is like a dark night which can only be illuminated with the light of knowledge and science. (Ibid.: 202) Translation: 1 – A girl with knowledge and not outward apparel will reach the summits of perfection and elevation. 2 – Knowledge is the ladder of felicity and aspirations and is the light for those who are lost in darkness. 3 - And ignorance is like the night which nothing can displace except the lights of knowledge when they radiate. 4 – There is no treatment for the disease of ignorance except acquiring knowledge since knowledge is the best cure. 5 – Acquiring knowledge

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening in this world is a blessing among many blessings of God for boys and girls. Convinced that a nation’s progress depends on having decent and accomplished girls, (Ibid: 205) Ghalayeeni stresses the equality of boys and girls in learning knowledge. (Ibid.: 202) Translation: 1 – If the girls lag far behind the boys in terms of cultural and scientific status, this will be the most dangerous disease. 2 – What benefits will our knowledge bring us when our women with their ignorance destroy every building? According to the poet, science will benefit the society only when the ignorance of women is wiped out (Ibid.: 265) Translation: Science and knowledge will not satisfy our needs a bit if our women and girls live in dreams of ignorance. However, sublime religious values and moral principles of Islam play an important role in Ghalayeeni’s awakening movement. He believes that learning knowledge and science per se cannot improve the status of the young girls; rather they must also possess decent morals, chastity and virtue. (Al-Ghalayeeni, 1993: 203) Translation: 1 - If the ethics and behavior is not proper and right, science and knowledge will not benefit the boys and girls. 2 – The dress of virtue and good morals is the ornament of a girl even if she wears old and cheap clothes. 3 - If a girl does not cover herself with the dress of dignity and modesty, no outward apparel will raise its status and


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni...


value. 4 – A beautiful dress is good only if dignified manners and chastity decorate it. 2-3.Political Awakening Ghalayeeni must be regarded among the first group of reformists who blew the spirit of the fight against tyranny and colonialism and made his name eternal as the flagbearer of the Lebanese awakening movement. He centered much of his political struggles around two fundamental axes: first an all-out fight against despotism at home and colonization of the people by the ruling regime and second, fighting the imperial influence. In his struggle, Ghalayeeni tried to awaken the masses, especially the youth, and bring the country’s elite who had the benefit of political awareness and national conscience to his side. Given that one of the main reasons behind the emergence of the Islamic awakening was the colonial invasion of the Islamic countries by the West and the weakness and inability of Muslim governments to confront them (Mir-Aghayei, 59: 1383), the issue of the political awakening must be regarded as among the most important subject matters of Ghalayeeni’s poetry. This awakening has been manifested in various forms in his poems which we will touch upon some of the most important among them: - Love of the homeland and trying to liberate it Love of the homeland is one of the main components Ghalayeeni’s political poetry. While in prison, he composed a series of passionate and epical odes on loyalty to his homeland. One of them was a poem called “Ela Jazirat Al-Arvad” written at a prison in Beirut and addressed to his mother in which he offers his life as a sacrifice for his

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening homeland. (Al-Ghalayeeni, 1993: 122) Translation: 1 – Oh my mother! I May my life be a sacrifice for the country! So I welcome the death that would take my life. 2 - If I die, may my country live long after me! And may it rise to prominence and its sublime glory. And in another poem, he says any exile or imprisonment on charge of love for the country is easy, which he says, he would bear with patience and fortitude. (Ibid.: 122) Translation: 1 – If I am imprisoned or exiled for the love and affection of my country; 2 – In both cases, I will remain patient and will enjoy the hard and strenuous life. - Avoiding negligence vis-à-vis the enemy. By sounding the alarm over the threat of colonialism, Ghalayeeni urges his compatriots to wake up from the sleep of ignorance and negligence so that the enemy cannot treat them like a cattle and subject them to any sort of injustice and tyranny. (Ibid: 67-68) Translation: 1 - We are being tormented with humiliation and despise while we are asleep in our deep ignorance and there is no vessel throbbing in us 2- As if we were a herd whose herdsmen tend it as they wish and the cattle has no choice of its own. The poet, observing the suffering and captivity of his country under the clutches of the aliens, resumes his awakening cries and chides the weakness and laxity of his countrymen.


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... (Ibid 259) Translation: Wake up; the laxity and ignorance has become long! Beware and look after your captive and suffering country. Ghalayeeni warns all Arabs of the enemies’ plots, urging them to confront the onslaught and beak up the chains of captivity and servitude.


(Ibid: 118) Translation: How is that a variety of disasters have assaulted the Arabs, but the events do not wake up weakwilled and feeble people. 2. The aliens attacked them in their beds but alas not a single dignified soul was found and no swords were drawn from their sheaths. 3. Will you push forward and confront the enemy to bring honor to yourselves or you will retreat which will bring about the ignominy of regret? 4. Wake up and shatter the chains of captivity which have been around you for long because you were the advocates of dignity and glory. Unity and Coherence Unity and solidarity among different people is one of the most important ideas and goals followed by the Muslims since the beginning of the Islam. The Muslims have pursued the unity based on religious teachings, presenting it as a theory, strategy, and plan. Such a thing has always been expressed by Ghalayeeni. In his view, the unity issue is self-consciousness into common interests which brings superiority and dignity. In the introduction of one of his books, "Areej-al-Zahr", he believes that Turk and Arab are brothers in an Islamic society, and he says such a unity

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening will progress the country, increase the country's esteem and make the God and his prophet happy: Translation: "1-Turk and Arab are brothers and the Islamic Unitarian society will embrace them both. 2-Therefore, anyone who stretches his hand to create division, his hand will be cut and he will be lost from the guidance path! O' sons of the homeland! Your unity will heighten our country's esteem and help the homeland reach its goals. 4The solidarity by you who seek the country's improvement, will make the God and his Prophet happy. (al- Ghalayeeni, 15: 1911) With such a thought, Ghalayeeni managed to challenge the effects of ethnic and sexual division, restoring the spirit of Islamic unity. He could also fight the plan "Create division and rule" which has been one of the plots employed by colonists to dominate Islamic lands. Ghalayeeni called all Lebanese groups, including Muslim, Christian, Arab, and Turk in a united front to confront the occupiers. Of course such a trend by Ghalayeeni was the reflection of Sayed Jamaledin Assadabadi's thoughts. Since "among Sayed Jamaledin's key thoughts; the Islamic unity and social solidarity can remove division among Muslims". (Tavana, 1385: 103) On the other hand, historic documents show that whenever the Muslims kept their unity, they gained victory and easily overcame the problems." (see Ramezani, 1383:66). Ghalayeeni understood such a reality, reiterating the unity once more through his verses. He calls on his countrymen not to leave their hope of brotherhood, and step in the path of perfection:


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni...

Translation: "1- O' sons of my country! You have always been brothers through the time, so do not leave the rope of brotherhood! 2- Forget disagreements, and all of you do step in the path of guidance and dignity so that you reach your goals through solidarity and unity."


(al- Ghalayeeni, 1993:63-64) In his speech to the Palestinian nation, he urges them to forget divisions and disagreements; as such an issue will upset the friends and make the enemies happy. It will also weaken them, disturb their dignity and awe. The poet says loss of unity among a nation will encourage their foes to use all their power to destroy this nation: Translation: "After that unity, you came to be divided; and because of that the friend got upset, while the enemy enjoyed. 2- If you are riding the horse of division, your spiteful foe will definitely will never change. 3- Your enemy has sharpened his sword, and prepared the spears to throw, varnished the swords and he will prepare horses to fight with you. He will use everything to destroy you. 4Division and disagreement weakened your power and faded your dignity." (same: 105) The last couplets of this poem refer to this Quranic verse: and fall into no disputes, lest ye lose heart and your power depart; and be patient and persevering: For Allah is with those who patiently persevere (Anfal_ 46) Like other Muslim reformists, Ghalayeeni has made practical efforts through history to prevent divisions among Muslims by preventing blind zeal and destructive ethnosectarian hostility lest they should have rich materialistic

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and spiritual resources plundered by colonialists. This convergence-oriented approach by Ghalayeeni even involved Lebanese Christians. It’s said that people took to the streets in Beirut in 1930 in protest against the Jews’ actions in Palestine. The Lebanese protesters were holding two flags in this rally: one bearing a cross held by Christians and the other bearing the slogan “There is no God but Allah” held by Muslims. At this time, Ghalayeeni requested a Christian and a Muslim to approach him with their flags. Then, he grasped the corner of both flags as a sign of national unity and solidarity and to show the need for leaving aside religious and sectarian differences, which would only serve the colonialists. (al-Dosoufi 1999, p. 45, quoting Ghalayeeni’s daughter, seyyedeh Fatemeh). Ghalaini says: Colonialists do not want see the nation to be united and under a single flag. They want the nation to be divided. (same p.45) Martyrdom-seeking The desire for getting martyred in the cause of Allah is a topic for political poetry of Ghalayeeni. He calls on all people including the youths to make sacrifices for their country’s independence and freedom. H speaks of men who are full of desire for martyrdom like love of life and are anxious for martyrdom. Translation: 1-Amongst us, there are men who are anxious for death, just as you love living and staying in a comfortable life. 2-then by reaching a real life, so rights are restored to their true owners: 3-and with death, until our land is irrigated and colored with the rain of our martyrs’ blood . (al- Ghalayeeni, 1993, pp.69-70)


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni...


-Self-esteem and roc-hard will Ghalayeeni believes that people should not back down from their position in the face of colonialist enemies and they should choose to lead a life of dignity and honor. He says honor and greatness can only be achieved through iron will and high ambition. Translation: 1-Tell the Europeans and their mercenaries; no matter how much you try, you won’t be able to undermine our rock-hard honor, 2-No matter how much you burn us with the fire of your tyranny, we only prefer living on top of the mountains, 3-Honor and greatness is build only on a pillar of dignity and willpower and a solid column. The poet once more reminds his countrymen the fact that the only way to reach glory passes through dignity: Translation: If you reflect on this piece of advice you realize that greatness lies in dignity. Ghalayeeni addresses the youth in a piece of poem titled “Oh the Arab Youth” and calls on them to not to pull out the sword of dignity and get on the vehicle of hazard and write the book of honor with their blood: Translation: Oh the youth of Arab, stand up for greatness, take your swords out for splendor. Take the vehicle of dangers and difficulties; take out the spears and write down the book of greatness with your blood. He also invites everybody to join a massive uprising and breaking the chains of slavery and hoisting the flags of honor and national pride and says: Translation: Move towards the uprising, towards breaking up chains, hoisting flags, towards what seeks dignity In another ode entitled “Towards the Movement”,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Ghalayeeni considers life in humiliation as very ugly and painful and says death is preferable and much better than it: Translation: 1-There are two diseases for men who should choose the easiest: death or living in humiliation, 2-Death or fulfilling one’s dreams is better and the worst life is living in humiliation, 3-What is the value of human if he lives in humiliation; curse be to that life rough with waves of humiliation (same p.55) In the poet’s view, any human being who has the least interest in dignity and honor will never remain silent towards oppression and tyranny. Translation: Except for the one who has nothing to do with greatness and honor, no one can tolerate tyranny and oppression. (same p. 56) Ghalayeeni once again addresses the youths and urges them to wake up and save their homeland from the humiliation caused by tyranny and oppression from the foreigners and light a torch of guidance by learning knowledge and the sciences. Translation: 1-O’ Arab youths! Wake up; because sleep will cause humiliation and misery in your lands. 2-Make genuine and serious efforts to acquire knowledge because knowledge is a light of guidance for the nation. 3-And light the torch of your perseverance and will among Arabs so all people in near and far lands enjoy it. (same p.222) In an ode he composed in a prison in Beirut, Ghalayeeni says he would by no means compromise his self-esteem and honor in the face of enemies. Translation: If my crime is self-esteem and honor, I will not repent.


Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni...


Conclusion Mustafa Ghalayeeni, as a contemporary freedom-seeking and political Arab thinker, played a positive role in the course of the Islamic awakening in Lebanon and the Arab world. With his weapon of oration and his enlightenment of the society, especially the youth, he managed to fire up the torch of freedom-seeking and fighting tyranny in their bodies and souls and challenge the domestic despotism and foreign colonialism with his sublime ideals and thoughts. As a religious and nationalist thinker and a political and social reformer, with his proper understanding of his country's developments, he applied his poetry into advancing his sublime ideals and those of the society and unleashed a wave of awakening in Lebanon in spite of all the problems and the ordeals of imprisonment and exile which he was faced with. The conclusions of this paper can be summed up in the following: 1. Attention to the acquisition of knowledge and science, unity and integration among the masses, fighting colonialism and confronting the plots of the imperialists are among the most important components of the Islamic awakening, especially among the youth, on which Mustafa Ghalayeeni has laid emphasis in his poems. 2. Ghalayeeni is interested in the presence of a political and combatant Islam in the society. From his perspective, the Islamic awakening is the political-social reconstruction of the Islamic communities and reliance on scientific movement of the youth in order to guarantee the real freedom and independence of their countries and rid their countries from the yoke of tyrants and colonialists. 3. He looked at the popular force of the masses, especially

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening the youth, as determinants of their nations' future and regarded popular movements as the foundations of all historical developments. In his humanistic ideology, Ghalayeeni believed that the Islamic awakening movement needs powerful and committed human resources in order to stand up against any tyranny and despotism with bravery and valor. In Ghalayeeni's eyes, the true value of humans is when they stand beside their nations and feel the pains and sufferings of their people in their flesh and bones: And what is the value of a human being who does not feel the pains of his nation? (Al-Ghalayeeni, 65:1993)


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ...

The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the Islamic Awakening Process Introduction Although the phenomenon of Islamic Awakening has increasingly engulfed many countries sine one year ago and attracted the sharp lenses of media, it is not a subject specific to the last year. The investigation of the Islamic Awakening from all its aspects could not be conducted by only studying a very short period in the past year. Rather, a deep investigation into this phenomenon requires us to study its infrastructures founded by the prominent leaders since at least two centuries ago in the world of Islam. To review this subject in detail, first we have to study the progress of the Islamic movements and the prominent personalities who participated in creating this phenomenon and then measure its influences and traces on the Islamic societies during the past decades while analyzing its backgrounds and infrastructures. It is the Investigation of the roles played by the Islamic pinioning figures in the contemporary world which is of the most importance. Although such leaders as Sayyid Jamal Aldin, Rashid Reza, Muhamad Abduh, Sayyid Qutb and the others made a considerable contribution to the development of the Islamic thougth, none could exert a profound influence and none delivered any operational executive outputs to materialize the mottos of the Awakening Movement. On the contrary, such figures as Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) were able to lead his movement to victory as a pinioning man in the Islamic movement. In other words, he could realize the political Fiqh; what the leaders of the


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... Awakening movement raised only in theory. On the other hand, Imam Khomeini (May God spread His shade), as the successor of the founder of the only system based on the Awakening thougth, accomplishing perfectly the progress started by his master and leader. He was able to develop this movement both in theory and action as a model for other societies with probably different political Fiqh compared to the Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace)’s Shiite thought, and proposed a new form of the political Fiqh for the whole of the Islamic world (both Sunni and Shiite).


Different Stages in advancement of the Islamic Awakening. Although the Islamic Awakening possess has passed different and multiple stages, the progress of this movement can be generally divided into two periods: before the Islamic Revolution (in Iran) and after the Islamic Revolution . The First Period of the Islamic Awakening This period began by the civil and awakening activities performed by the great reformer of the Islamic world Sayyid Jamal Aldin Islami. The reason behind this coincidence is the fact that after a long period of decaying of Islamic civilization and dominating of the Western industry over the scientific process of Islam that caused the Islamic community and their rulers to surrender to the West, he became a pinioning man for fighting against the colonization by adopting the motto of returning to religious teachings and fighting the cultural alienation. For this reason, he is known as the founder of the Islamic Awakening Sayyid Jamal Aldin’s attempts to return the Muslims

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening to the religious teachings as well as his travelling to the Islamic countries triggered streams of thougth that led to the foundation of such structured parties as Ekhvan Almuslemin whose goal was the Islamization of the Islamic world. This period triggered by Sayyid Jmal Al-din was continued by others. His reforming and awakening thougth took new forms later that caused systematic attempts at achieving political structures in Islamic countries in particular in the Arab countries. The role played by Muhamad Abduh who was at the same time the chancellor of Alazhar Univercity, was extremely important in forming the activists’ thougth of awakening in Arab countries and also his students’, including Rashid Reza. After these two, such personalities as Sayyid Qutb and Hsan Albana made considerable efforts in the advancement of the Islamic Awakening. Although the pinioning figure of the Islamic Awakening was a nonArabian thinker, it attracted supporters and possessed a position among the theoreticians and thinkers of Islamic Arab countries even more significantly than in non-Arab countries. After moving through the stages that every process must pass in order to reach its maturity, it led to the formation of the political trends which were based on scientific and social movements. However, there were also some peoples among the non-Arabian scholars who played a central role in the progress of the Islamic Awakening, including Allameh Eqbal Lahuri. However, Lahury had the same thougth and fundamentals as the awakening process had and was influenced by that same process, attempting actively in the subcontinent of India. The Ekhvanulmuslemin party in Egypt, as a party that emanated from this movement, exerted a profound influence on the


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ...


Islamic world and determined the future direction of the awakening movements. After this experience that was the output of the activities performed by such intellectuals as Hasan Albana under the auspicious of Sayyid Jamal and his successor’s teachings and awakening activities, it stopped suddenly in Arab countries and became a passive process then after. This stop, regardless of its reasons and significance, is important because some peoples regard it as the defeating point of the Islamic and religious awakening thougth that was caused by the apparently modern inclination towards the Liberalist thougth prevailing in the West. Many people believe that the stopping of the Awakening process in Arab countries that mainly happened in the middle of the 20th century, originated from the conspiracies organized by the West in particular by England. The growing of the secular parties in Arab countries and even in Turkey, as a country influenced by Sayyid Jamal’s thougth, indicated the fact that the process of the Islamic awakening was unable to compete, in the same form as Ekhvan Almuslemin had predicted, with Westernized intellectuals. However, the colonizer countries made serious attempts to establish this idea (the inability of the Awakening process). It is an undeniable fact that the colonizer played a crucial role in obstructing the progress of the Islamic Awakening at that time. Answering many of the questions raised about the above-mentioned issues depends on the determination of the means by which the West could block the progressing movement of the Islamic awakening process. The writer of this essay believes that although the conspiracies and plots organized at the time played a major role in slowing down the progress of the Islamic Awakening, the basic problems

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening that isolated the process have root in the ideological and theoretical infrastructures of the process in question. The colonizers could finally impede the process by taking advantage of these weaknesses. In other words, for finding the realistic “whyness’ of the stopping of the Islamic Awakening in the middle of the twentieth century in the Arab countries, we need to take the serious weaknesses of the theoretical discussions into account beside the external factors and the conspiracies organized by the colonizers concerned. These weaknesses were exactly those that were tackled in the second period of the Islamic Awakening that reached its climax in non-Arab countries. In this period, problems were covered logically and this resulted in the ultimate victory of the process and the establishing of a governance structure based on an Islamic and religious basic principles as well as on the Islamic Awakening. This structure and practical model used for administrating the society, was exactly the same structure that long ago was perused by Sayyid jaml and his disciples who could not achieve it unfortunately. The Second Period of The Islamic Awakening In the second period a process of Islamic Awakening began among the non-Arab scholars that managed to theoretically solve the two major problems of the firstperiod movement: 1-the lack of a governance model executable in the Arab countries and 2- designing some directional indicators in order to prevent any deviation. During the second period of the Islamic Awakening two groups of active personalities took action in the form of a systemic organization in Afghanistan in order to contribute


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ...


to the progress of the Islamic Awakening. Shaheed Sayyid Esmail Balkhi, Shaheed Niazi, sarvar Juya, Sho’a’ and some others founded a party for the purpose of establishing an Islamic ruling in Afghanistan. The thougth of members of the party was a combination of two different and separated processes: Ekhvan in Egypt and the Shiite political Fiqh. However, they were able to gain experiences in solidarity and a common function; also they managed to form a relative structure for establishing a ruling. However, this experience was defeated when the plot of the throwing up the royal monarchy was disclosed; Allameh Shaheed Sayyid Esmaiil Balkhi and his friends were put in jail and then martyred in different ways. Therefore, the second period of the Islamic Awakening that began in Afghanistan defeated partly. However, at the same time another movement was being organized in such bordering countries as Iran. Ayatollah Sayyid Mahmood Taleghani, first described the basics for the establishment of an Islamic community and the plagues of a movement in his explanatory book entitled “Partoyi az Qurn” (A ray of The Holy Qur’an) that was written probably at the same time when another book : Fi zalale Qur’an (In the shade of The Holy Qur’an) was written by Sayyid Qutb. On the other hand, Allameh Tabataba’i whose Tafsir Almizan (The Scale Interpretation )is a precious combination of philosophy, Fiqh, Hadith and policy, wisely criticized his contemporary main social thougths; those upon which most of the contemporary ruling systems had been established. His deep insight into policy and society revealed the major faults in the social and political thought common at the time. These efforts made by such scholars ultimately led to the theoretical discussions of the Islamic

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Awakening; in the holy city of Najaf it was wisely assessed from the point of view of Figh as the “Islamic Ruling” beyond Imam Khomeini’s (May God grant Him peace) Fiqh and Osul (fundementals). Therefore, the faults in question were corrected and an operational structure of a religious ruling was proposed. On the other hand, the directional indicators were finalized to prevent any probable deviation. The role played by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) is a unique one in comparison with the past fourteen centuries, as a personality who elaborated the basics for measuring the legitimacy of a religious government so that it could meet the requirements of the administration of a religious society and could operationalize the designed models, endeavoring to establish a religious ruling based on the pure Islamic thougth with the motto of waking and returning to Islam. Under the auspicious of what the Shiite Faqih after the Big Absence of Imam Zaman( may God precipitate His appearance!) discussed under the name of political Fiqh, Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace) succeeded in realizing what all the previous leaders of the Islamic Awakening had pursued. He set up the religious and anti-colonization system for the first time after the Innocent Imams; a system whose leader on the top is the Innocent Imam and its legitimacy is dependent on this innocent Imam. What Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace) presented to the Islamic community under the name of “Velayat Faqih” theory, though structured and systematized by this prominent Faqih himself, had been partly incorporated under different names in the books written by some other leaders and Faqihs . When Faqihs discussed such items as land tax, obligation,


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ...


jihad, congregation prayer and hodud, the instructions for executing these Fiqhian mandates were implicitly discussed too. Such Faqihs as Sayyid Ebne Tavus and Allameh Hely discussed this issue in detail and debated the opportunities that must be provided for developing the Faqih’s executive legitimacy at the top of the executing team to execute canonical mandates. In the tenth century A.H, the researcher Karaky (dead in 940A.H) posited the theory of “representative of Imam Ali(may God grant peace on Him ) as a basic principle in political theory of Islam. In an essay on prayer he wrote about this as follows: “Our friends (peace be upon Them) are in agreement over the fact that the just Faqih as an qualified person for issuing a Fitwah (decree), known as a Mujtahed in canonical mandates, is delegated to do all the things that can be delegated to him by Imam, on behalf of the absent A’emehHuda (peace be upon Him)”. (Karaky, V.1, p.142 available in Ayatulah Mar’ashy library, in Rasa’el (essays) section). Karaky didn’t focused only on the exposition of this theory, but he also in practice undertook the responsibility of ruling the Islamic government. Shah Tahmasb Safavi admitted his sovereignty and entrusted him with the authority to govern his country as follows: “You are the representative of Imam Zaman(God may hasten His appearance) and I am only one of your agents who would execute your mandates and commands” (A’yan Alshi’eh, V.8,p.209). By the authorities invested to him, Karaky could preserve Shah’s position so that Shah could administrate the country under the supervision of this religious authority.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Consequently, the political theory of the Ahlebeit School (peace be upon Them) gradually was put into operation within a perfect and authentic framework because this theory was proposed in an environment in which the ruler obeyed the Faqih not the reverse that was privilege in the four cults of the Sunni religion. The revolution staged in the political Fiqh by Karaky in the tenth century A.H was accomplished in the thirteenth century. Sheykh Ja’far Kashef Alghuta(dead in 1227 A.H) emphasized the theory of representative of Imam Ali(may God grant peace on Him ) and permitted Fathali Shah to command the war for the liberation of the North of Iran occupied by the Russians at the time. On the other hand, another important revolution happened in domain of theory; that was the book written by Ahmad Naraghi (dead in 1245 A.h) entitled as Ava’ed Al ayam (The achievements of the days). One of the topics covered in this book was Fi Tahdid Velayat Al-ahkam(Delimitation of the rulers’ Velayat). Under this topic he states that the Faqih is invested with competencies and authorities without mentioning the reasons. Therefore, he discussed the violation, approval and the rationale behind the existence of Velayat Faqih and ended the discussion with proving the “Velayat Ameh Faqih”. Since then the title of Velayat Faghih as a political theory in Imamieh Fiqh has increasingly attracted the Fahihs’s attention and has been debated, argued and reviewed as something beyond the “representative of Imam Ali(may God grant peace on Him ) ”. The Tobacco Movement in 1308 A.H and the Constitutional Revolution 1324 in Iran changed this brief and obscure theory into an explained and explicit one. The new theory intends to improve the


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... political status of the community on the basis of its plan and to undertake the responsibility of administrating the Islamic society. Just before the end of the century, the Iranian Islamic Revolution led by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace), ended in victory in 1399 A.H. In his book The Islamic Government, he offered all the basics, the Holy Qur’anic, traditional and rational reasons in order to approve the Velayat and ruling of Faqih. Then, he paved the way for the just Faqih to undertake the administration of the Islamic society in accordance with the wishes and attitudes of the peoples. As a consequence, he overthrew the old and tyrannical regimes in Iran. He set up the first religious regime after the earliest centuries of Islam. This regime was the output of a two-century attempt made by the great leaders of the Islamic world and Shiite Faqihs on the way to the Islamic awakening. 216

The common Aspects of the Two Periods Although the two periods discussed above have totally different distinctive features, they have also some features in common that originates from the nature of the process of the Islamic awakening. The most common element of the leaders in the two periods of the Islamic Awakening was their insistence on returning to the Holy Qur’anic teachings and Islamic mandates as the only way to the salvage. All those who played a central role during this relatively long period or in theorizing this subject, emphasized on returning the Islamic society to the Holy Qur’anic and religious teachings. According to them, the reason for underdevelopment of the Islamic societies is their distance from the enlivening teachings of Islam. Sayyid Jamal Al-

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening din who is known as the pinioning figure of the first period of the Islamic Awakening, could not express his views in the form of a system of thougth because he was continually travelling to different countries to wake people. However, his motto of returning to the Holy Qur’an along with his impressive orations in different Islamic countries was undoubtedly important in creating this system of thougth. He described the Holy Qur’an as follows: The humane utopia and the straight path is the Holy Qur’an; an honored and holy mandate which is the result of the honor brought by all the religions to the universe and a strong argument for the continuation of religion until the end of the world. It is a guarantee for prosperity in both worlds and for a salvage with two joys. According to him, the only way to rescue the Islamic societies from the yoke of colonization is to wake them to return to religious teachings of Islam in the way the Holy Prophet (may God grant peace on Him and His household) charged us. He regarded the lack of solidarity among the Islamic community as a sign of the Muslims’ ignorance of religious teachings as follows: The sharpest pain the Eastern nations are suffering is their discrepancy over solidarity with each other. They are in agreement over their discrepancy and have made a covenant not to be in solidarity, consistency and union. Sayyid Jamal Al-din regarded the governing tyranny, their ignorance of the Muslims, their distance from science and civilization, their superstitious thougth, their distance from the authentic Islam, their discrepancy over the religious or non-religious issues, the domination of Western colonization over the Islamic nations as the most important problems


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ...


facing the Islamic world. He made his best to pave the way for returning the scientific society to Islamic and the Holy Qur’anic orders. Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) also regarded the distance from the Holy Qur’an as the pain the Islamic world is suffering. He believed that trusting the Holy Qur’anic values is the only way to rescue the Islamic society. In his political and divine testament, Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) mentions the obedience to the Holy Qur’anic mandates as the only way to achieve victory in the movement and to bring people honor. He puts it as follows: We are honored of being the believers of a religion whose founder is the Holy Apostle in accordance with God’s order. The commander of the faithful Ali (peace be upon him), as a servant who was free from any shackle, had the mission to unshackle and release human from slavery. We are honored of the fact that Nahjulbalagheh was written by our innocent Imam (Ali), the second great book containing mandates for spiritual and material life and also a great book for releasing human, its spiritual orders being the best way to rescue human. We have the honor of implementing the intentions of the Holy Qur’an and tradition. Different sections of our nation have been very ardent on this seminal way, scarifying their life and property in the way of God. We are honored of having such old or young women who individually or massively and even better than men attempt to elevate the Islam and the intentions of the Holy Qur’an, in cultural, military and economical areas. (Imam Khomeini’s divine and political testament). Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) was able to remedy what Sayyid Jamal had diagnosed as the existing

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening diseases in the Islamic societies and then he prescribed practical treatments for curing them. Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) regarded tyrant rulers obeying to the West, lack of the solidarity among Muslims and their distance from technology and science as the main problems facing them. Not only did he theorize these faults, but he also took practical measures concerning them. The Distinctive Features of Each Period The most important question remained unanswered for every person is why the process of Islamic Awakening didn’t achieve any result and couldn’t rescue the Islamic societies despite the efforts made by its leaders while the second period led by Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace) resulted in victory? The answer to this question is significant because the Islamic Awakening triumphed in an environment whose basics of thougth were different from those in the Arab countries in the first period. This difference raise this question whether despite this fundamental difference the model of the Islamic Awakening in Iran can be compared with other Islamic societies? To answer this question we must first review the differences between the two periods. Investigating each periods mentioned above we come to two differences between the first and second periods. The fist difference is the fact that the Awakening movement led by Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace) was based on a Shiite Fiqh that assessed and criticized the issues of ruling and holding governance as well as the conditions of executing God’s mandates along with its limits. In these discussions, Faqih’s attitude and the legitimacy of the government were of the most important subjects. The


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ...


establishment of a government and its legitimacy were regarded as equal to the continuation of the Holy Apostle’s Velayat. For this reason, the head of the government must obtain his legitimacy from his God, as did his apostle. The subject of Imamat and Visayat (Succession) as ways to provide succession and governance for the Islamic society, is a thougth that is regarded as the main pillar of Shiite. For this reason, it has been discussed by Faqihs under the title of “political Faqih” as an important subject. The origin of this subject can be traced back to the early centuries of Islam. It evolved in following centuries by the prominent Shiite Faqihs and finally became a system of thougth and policy by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace). On the contrary, the first period had been influenced by the Sunni religions. It was a Fiqh in which the domain of ijtihad was limited and consisted of no item concerning government and policy. The main difference between these two approaches is that in Shiite Fiqh rulers must obtain their legitimacy from Faqihs , hence the possibility of Faqihs’s control over the rulers. On the contrary, in Sunni Fiqh, the ruler doesn’t obtain his legitimacy from the Faqih; instead, there are other ways for gaining legitimacy that give no authority to the Faqih. Therefore, here it is the Faqih who is controlled by the ruler. This big difference between the two approaches has caused the prominent figures and scholars to be blissfully unaware of such an important factor: establishing a government whose leadership and governance is held by those who lead the religious areas. The colonizers advocated this approach and attempted to oust the clergies from the political scene. The theory of separating religion from policy as one of the post-renascence

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening events in Europe was promoted by the colonizers among the Islamic societies too. Under such conditions of ignorance, the leaders of the Islamic Awakening were concerned only about reforming the administrating the Islamic society by the ruler. Sayyid Jamal Aldin and his advocates’ speeches given in front of the rulers from different countries as well as his attempts to infiltrate into ruling systems of different nations not intending to topple the tyrant rulers, confirm this ignorance. On the contrary, the scholars in the second period considered the existing governors as inherently lacking the necessary legitimacy because they had not been appointed within a legal and religious framework. Therefore, their legitimacy was questioned. For this reason they had to design a religious and legitimate regime to substitute the corrupt one. This regime was organized with the assistance of a political Shiite Faqih and finally implemented by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace). The second difference between the two periods is concerned with the directional indicators whose goal was to prevent any deviation from the movement. What Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) and his advocates proposed as the main guiding indicators was adherence to the Holy Prophet’s household (may God grant peace on Him and His household), apart from returning to The Holy Qur’an. The Holy Prophet himself put it as follows: I leave behind two precious things as memorials for you to look after: God’s book and my household. They wouldn’t separate until they come to me in Kawthar pod. So long as you adhere to these two you wouldn’t go astray. On the basis of this, the innocent Imams are regarded as the innocent successors of the Prophet (may God grant


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ...


peace on Him and His household) . Therefore, obedience to them is obligatory as obedience to the Holy Prophet (may God grant peace on Him and His household) was. On the other hand, his words, writings and actions are strong arguments as the Prophet’s (may God grant peace on Him and His household) were. This authority is given to him on the basis of some verses from the Holy Qur’an which regard some peoples after the Prophet (may God grant peace on Him and His household) as deserving the position of Velayat. In the Holy Qur’an these people have been titled as “Olol Amr” a title that is lacking in Sunii fiqh. In Shiite Fiqh the ruler must be either innocent or representative of an innocent person. Therefore, when the innocent Imam is absent, the just Faqihs who are qualified are introduced as His followers and successors. This person’s decree (fitwa) is of the same validity as Imams and the Holy Prophet’s (may God grant peace on Him and His household). Therefore, the just and pious Faqih whose bravery and awareness of the conditions of the time is obvious and has the absolute ability to administrate the Islamic society, gain the same position as the Prophet’s (may God grant peace on Him and His household). This Faqih’s fitvah gain religious validity for Muslims. Thus, such a Faqih can be regarded as the legitimate directional indicator for the Islamic community. Such an indicator that bears all the qualifications and gains his legitimacy from religion was lacking in the first period of the Islamic Awakening. Accordingly, in such a period, the movement may go in any direction when there is no directional indicator. These two features enabled the Iranian Islamic movement led by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) to introduce a new mechanism into the domain

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening of Islamic and international issues as an awakening process. It intended to introduce a ruling system into the world which, from the Islamic point of view, has an obvious system and ability to religiously administrate the Islamic society, on the contrary to the West that regards the religion as a phenomenon distant from policy and as something lacking the needed competency to administrate the society. From the international point of view, it intended to make radical changes in polarization of the world. At the same time when the West attempted to introduce its Liberalist and materialist thougth as the only system with ruling systematicity for the purpose of overthrowing Communist pole of the world, this process of Islamic Awakening introduced a new structure to the world that was based on religion and spirituality, in particular Islamic spirituality. Ayatollah Imam Khamenei, who is a perceptive faqih like his predecessor, realized his master’s visions in the society and enriched them considerably. The great religious movement of Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace) has been able to resist the oppressors all over the world due to his perceptions as a faqih who is courageously and wisely following his master’s visions and also deepening them. Ayatollah Imam Khamenei (May God spread His shade) was able to complete all the discussions of the great faqihs and teachings of Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace) and also set the scene for flow of the successful experience into other Islamic nations. The Moslem young across the world has begun the third wave of Islamic Awakening thank to the model developed by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) and decisive leadership of the supreme Leader Imam Khamenei (May


The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... God spread His shade). The Islamic community has come to believe that religious teachings can manage society and have appropriate structure. The whole Islamic community with its various thoughts and approaches can model the system Velayat Faqih so that religious and just scholars would be the main supervising and governing factor.


The second wave of the Islamic Awakening flowing into the Arab nations A considerable feature of the second wave of the Islamic Awakening is the flow of its thoughts into the other Islamic streams of the worlds and the development of an Islamic government model. The Islamic Awakening against the will of the west, succeeded in Iran and a religious republic was established there. The Islamic republic appreciated all the common concerns of the two waves of the Islamic Awakening and as the first step, expelled the colonization from the country then made great strides toward the scientific achievement, despite the West’s will, for the Islamic world. On the other hand, it carried out the economic, political and social teachings of such intellectuals as Shaheed Motahhari and Shaheed Beheshti and made operational the social contributions of Islam for humanity. Of course the pioneer of the second wave of Islamic Awakening passed away before his visions become operational and his successor, The supreme Leader Ayatollah Imam Khamenei (May God spread His shade) kept on the effort. Though Islamic and Arab nations still follow the previous thought system, it seems that the Islamic state of Iran and its thinking pillars have been established among the youngsters of the Islamic communities and the men of thought in those communities

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening are to take advantage from the new condition in developing the Islamic Awakening. The third wave of Islamic Awakening has begun for one year: the one that emerges in the original cradles of the Islamic Awakening along with the experiences of Shiite political fiqh. Certainly the Islamic wave will embrace all over the world and the weak will be the heirs of the earth as the holy Quran has promised. Regarding the gap between the successful second wave and the third wave of Islamic Awakening, however, one should beware that the Islamic and Arab nations would not fall into the tramp of the colonization as the first wave of the Islamic Awakening did.





Introduction: Prominent scholar Iqbal Lahori, the Muslim poetphilosopher from the Indian peninsula, was born in the city of Sialkot, Pakistan in 1873. Lahori attended school in Sialkot and Lahore and continued his education in England and Munich, returning to India in 1905. He obtained his PhD on philology with his thesis titled “The Evolution Of Philosophy In Iran�. In 1926, Lahori was elected as a member of the legislative council of Punjab province. Tensions among Muslims and Hindus and his love for freedom encouraged him to participate in political activities. In 1930, he proposed the formation of the Pakistani state in the annual congress of the Muslim League Party in the city of Ahmadabad. The wish came true, however, 17 years later. Pakistan was, in fact, the first country at the time to be established based on an Islamic ideology. It was therefore a new independent state on which true Muslims relied, one which enjoyed all the Islamic features that Lahori had aspired for. A Hindu who had converted to Islam, Lahori put emphasis on and was a proponent of a state based on Islam more than anyone else. Lahori is one of the most prominent figures from the culture and civilization of the Indian peninsula who represented the true essence of the Islamic culture in the modern times. He is nowadays viewed as one of the most valuable ideologues of the Muslim world. His role in the major political and cultural currents of the Muslim nations and especially the Indian peninsula is of particular importance.




As a matter of fact, Lahori is a reformist hero in the Muslim world, a figure whose thinking went beyond the borders of his own country. He put all his qualifications and spiritual merits to the service of Islam, with his very love for Islam and Islamic teachings making him an outstanding and timeless figure. Lahori’s literary and ideological stances played a pivotal role in the awakening and the morale of the oriental youth and their liberation from the 20th century colonial powers, particularly in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the whole Indian peninsula. He lived in a Muslim orient suffering from foreign intervention and domestic unrest and went through a lot of pain as an intellectual and a reformist who knew Islam and the west in their entirety. Lahori made huge efforts to awaken Muslims of the orient, the unawareness of whom made him suffer. He constantly criticized the passivity and inaction of Muslim communities. His youth coincided with political activities and the freedom-seeking struggles of Indians against the British colonialism. He joined the movements of the day and became one of the proponents of the Indian independence from colonialism. Lahori was a member of the committee which sought legal action against British colonialism. He continued his fight against the British also as a the head of the Muslim League in Punjab province, doing his best for the establishment of an independent Islamic state consisting of the three provinces of Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan. The wish, however came true in 1948, ten years after his death. In the First World War era, Lahori joined a movement known a Khalifa, an Islamic current dedicated to the anti-colonial struggle. He also had close cooperation with Mohammad Ali Jinah and Mowlana Mohammad Ali.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening In 1920, he was elected as a lawmaker in the Indian National Assembly. However, six years later as he saw the assembly filled by Hindu representatives, he left it and joined the Punjab Legislative Council which was an Islamic one based in the city of Lahore. As a member, he defended a draft constitution written by Moahammad Ali Jinah, which sought to restore the rights of the Muslim minority. In 1930, Lahori was elected as the head of the Muslim union of Allah Abad and two years later of Lahore. Lahori’s activities in awakening the youth Lahori focused on a series of strategies to awaken the youth as briefly follows: • The Ashura movement and the freedom-seeking lesson of Imam Hossein • A love for Prophet Mohammad and his household and taking lessons from him • Relying on the orient as an alternative for the western culture • Urging the unity of the Muslim world • Special focus on and interest in the Iranian youth • Call for a return to the self • Relying on domestic potentials • Using poetry as a means to deliver thoughts through 1-Ashura and Imam Hossein The first and most important factor which Lahori focused on was the Ashura movement and lessons from the path of Imam Hossein: Lahori is one of the most brilliant and outstanding Sunni poets who admired Imam Hossein and his struggle in his poetry. The Ashura movement is indeed one of the main


THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... themes of his literary works. Lahori’s poetry, in fact, makes use of the main qualities of the Persian literature to reflect the uprising of Imam Hossein more than any other Sunni poet. From Lahori’s point of view Imam Hossein is a perfect model for awakening the Muslim youth and motivating them for sacrifice and martyrdom, as a poem in his collection known as “Mysteries of Selflessness” says:


“Whoever maketh compact with the One That is, hath been delivered from the yoke Of that great leader of all men who love Truly the Lord, that upright cypress-tree Of the Apostles garden, Ali’s son, Whose father led the sacrificial feast And for that prince of the best race of men The Last of the Apostles gave his back And when the Caliphate first snapped its thread Fron the Koran, in Freedom’s throat was poured A fatal poison, like a rain-charged cloud The effulgence of the best of peoples rose Out of the West, to spill on Kerbela, And in that soil, that desert was before, Sowed, as he died, a field of tulip-blood. There, till the Resurrection, tyranny Was evermore cut off; a garden fair Immortalizes where his lifeblood surged. For Truth alone his blood dripped to the dust, Wherefore he has become the edifice Of faith in God’s pure Unity. Indeed Had his ambition been for earthly rule, Not so provisioned would he have set forth

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening On his last journey, having enemies Innumerable as the desert sands, Equal his friends in number to God’s Name. The mystery that was epitomized In Abraham and Ishmael through his life And death stood forth at last in full revealed. Firm as a mountain-chain was his resolve, Impetuous, unwavering to its goal The Sword is for the glory of the Faith And is unsheathed but to defend the Law. The Muslim, servant unto God alone Before no Pharaoh casteth down his head. His blood interpreted these mysteries, And waked our slumbering community. He drew the sword There is none other God And shed the blood of them that served the lie; Inscribing in the wilderness save God He wrote for all to read the exordium Of our salvation. From Husain we learned The riddle of the Book, and at his flame Kindled our torches. Vanished now from ken Damascus Might, the splendour of Baghdad, Granada’s majesty, all lost to mind; Yet still the springs he smote within our soul Vibrate, still ever new our faith abides In his Allahu Akbar, Gentle breeze, Thou messenger of them that are afar, Bear these my tears to leave his holy dust.” In the above lines, Lahori tries to focus upon a verity of issues. He believes that when Khilafat was disconnected


THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... from Quran, free-thinking individuals went through massive pain. Then he points to the uprising by Imam Hossein as a revolution that overthrew dictatorship. He argues that the blood of Imam Hossein served as an awakening element for nations who were living in ignorance. Then he goes on by advising mothers of his age to try to raise children like Imam Hossein. According to Lahori, Imam Hossein is a central figure and the leader of “the caravan of love” in the history of mankind. In what follows, he draws a comparison between Mary and Fatima, Imam Hossein’s mother in his collection of poems titled “The Mysteries of Selflessness”:


Mary is hallowed in one line alone, That she bore Jesus; Fatima in three. Who came a mercy to all living things, Leader of former as of latter saints, Who breathed new spirit into this dead world And brought to birth the age of a New Law. The chosen one, resolver of all knots And hard perplexities, the Lion of God, And she his mother, upon whom revoles Love’s compasses, the leader of Love’s train, That single candle in the corridor Of sanctity resplendent, guardian Of war and hatred might extinguished be, Trod underfoot the crown and royal ring. His mother too, the lord of all earth’s saints And strong right arm of every freeborn man, Husain. the passion in the song of life, Teacher of freedom to God’s chosen few. Of self-surrender, to all mothers she

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The perfect pattern, Fatima the chaste Her heart so grieved, because one came in need, She stripped her cloak and sold it to a Jew; 2- Love for Prophet Mohammed and his household Lahori has repeatedly expressed his love for the prophet and his household in a variety of his poems as earlier mentioned in one example. His inattentiveness to the western culture is mainly due to his deep love and spiritual affinity to the prophet and his family. Lahori insisted that “the brilliance of the western sciences never astonished me. It failed to blind me, because my eyes had been washed and cleaned by the waters of Medina.” 3- Focus on the orient and avoiding the western culture Lahori who had a deep insight into the western culture and its corruption used to lash out at those from the orient who felt no confidence in the face of the west and had lost their oriental consciousness and identity. Those people, Lahori insisted, were fascinated by the surface of the western culture without knowing the consequences of such an approach. In the early years after his return from Europe to India, Lahori released his collection of poems dubbed “The Secrets of the Self” and “The Mysteries of Selflessness”. Before being published in India, the poems were translated by Lahori’s British professor Reinhold Nicholson who translated them into English. Therefore, Lahori was already a famous poet in England before becoming well-known in his motherland. Lahori questioned strict Indian style religious practices and attacked the loftiness of mystic poets of his time. While




he questioned the western culture, Lahori also urged the Muslim community to discover its qualities and capabilities and find ways of its own progress. He invited Muslims to think and understand the notion of man’s leadership role on earth and act based on God’s laws. He argued that people from every walk of life should unite to lead the society toward perfection. He staunchly believed that the following were needed for the Muslim societies to become a whole unified community: • All Muslim states be ruled by one unified leadership • Muslim countries form a federation • Muslim states sign different cultural, economic, and military treaties and agree on various fields of cooperation He also insisted that the third world countries base their political entities on religion and do not rely on developed nations. They should also, he argued, have close trade interactions and utilize all their facilities for progress. In case of any tensions and conflicts, Lahori said, the Muslim states should resolve their differences through dialogue rather than wars and military confrontations. He supported the idea of unity among Muslims as the only way out of western colonialism. For the capital of this united community, he proposed Tehran due to its ideal geographic location. In his poetry, Lahori has praised the oriental culture and questioned the west as a destructive element in the modern world. He urged Muslims not to trust the west even when it supported nationalistic sentiments in the orient, calling this just a ploy and a scheme. In the same era, there were scholars and intellectuals who believed that fighting the west will lead nowhere. Lahori, however, never got disappointed

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and continued to call for unity among Muslims. He had a decisive anti-west stance pointing toward Islamic teachings as the only savior of the Muslim world; this, because he truly believed in the essence of Islam as a savior religion. He had realized the fact that the western dominance over Islamic countries was only due to the lack of unity among Muslims. In a collection of his poems dubbed Javidnameh he says: “The lord of the west playfully, Tried to propagate nationalism among believers But he wants dominance, You should let go of thinking of your nationality If you can judge between good and evil, You should not rely on what is made of soil And religion is nothing but departing from the soil And purifying the soul with awareness” On Lahori’s anti-west stance, Iranian scholar Morteza Motahhari says “one of the qualities that Lahori enjoyed was his deep knowledge of the western culture, philosophy and society. Even in the west, he was acknowledged as a prominent thinker. Lahori believed that the west lacked a comprehensive human ideology, while Muslims enjoyed one. Therefore, despite calling on Muslims to learn the sciences developed by the west, he warns them of adhering to western philosophical schools.” Lahori had a very firsthand experience of the western life. He never viewed warden sciences as destructive rather very helpful for third world countries. Instead he insisted that the life style in Europe was a dangerous one and therefore




continued to beware Muslims of imitating that culture. As he said once “how could this half-dead European culture revive Iran and the Arab world” or elsewhere “the main flaw with the European culture is its extraordinary emphasis on reason as the only savior of humanity without making any connections with conscience and faith.” Lahori is viewed as one of the greatest figures in the Muslim world who rose up against the destructive culture which the west was propagating. This anti-west attitude is a commonplace feature of his poetry. In fact, nearly two thirds of all his literary works focuses on the theme of struggling against the west. The main collection of his poems, in which the theme is so open and widely dealt with is titled “what should we do, O people of the orient?” Unlike many other reformists, he criticizes not only the contemporary west, but the ancient one even from the time of Plato and Aristotle. One should bear in mind that the Europe Lahori lived in was a capitalist one seeking dominance over Muslim nations. This, indeed served as an inspiration for Lahori’s cause and his literary works. In the same era, he witnesses the occupation of Afghanistan by British troops. Algeria and Syria were under French boots. The Dutch had entered Indonesia. Northern Iran was under Russian influence, while the south was controlled by the British. Iraq was apparently ruled by the Ottoman Empire but was in reality under British power and many other Muslim states were run by colonial forces. Lahori believed that the misery of Muslim nations was due to the colonial thinking current in Europe, something which he was determined to fight. Lahori’s frequent visits to Europe had given him a clear vision of the west and a full knowledge of its culture. In his opinion,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening the west had separated the spiritual life from the material one, keeping a blind eye on the former and indulging in the latter. As he knew Islam and the Islamic way of life, Lahori found humanity’s happiness and perfection only in subliming the spiritual life. He also insisted that the western advances in technology not only have not been able to lead man toward perfection, but they have also brought him to the verge of moral social and political collapse. In his Javidnameh, he further warns of oriental tendencies toward the western culture, noting that the western imperialism may destroy the oriental culture. Lahori argues that the corruption rampant in western societies has done away with the spiritual aspects of life. As an intellectual, he is saddened by the brutalities of western powers against Muslim nations. The demolition of mosques and houses, massacres, banning education, robbing Muslims of their natural resources and sacrilege of Muslim beliefs are among the cases which made Lahori suffer. He was in surprise as he saw many among Muslims still fascinated by the west, despite all atrocities the westerners had committed in Muslim countries. His views regarding the west were not based on his studies, rather they were a firsthand experience he had acquired by living in the west. Sir Thomas Arnold, one of his professors at the University of Lahore, encouraged Lahori to continue his studies in Britain. He followed the advice and traveled to Europe in 1905, a year which became a turning point for his knowledge regarding the west. He indeed entered a new realm and new prospects were opened to him. He stayed there for three years and was admitted as a top philosophy student to Cambridge University. Lahori worked on his




proposal titled “The Evolution of Philosophy in Iran” and then left Cambridge for the University Of Munich in Germany, where he took his PhD degree. Lahori’s views regarding the misery of Muslims Lahori believed that Muslim nations have lost their Islamic identities, something which he insisted should be restored. He argued that Muslim societies could be compared to individuals, both can lose their identities and both can collapse. According to Lahori, Muslims were suffering from an identity crisis due to the western influence. He blamed this on a lack of unity among Muslim nations and launched a harsh criticism against Muslim states for failing to unite. He believed that Muslims needed a central point to circulate around when they face modernism, which they have no idea about. Lahori insists that what Muslims have in common should be highlighted to promote unity among them and blow a new spirit into their lives. Therefore, a blind imitation of the western culture would destroy the Muslim identity and replace it with evil and anti-human values. He rethinks the true Islamic culture, seeking to adapt Muslim societies to the new world. This, in fact, led him to come up with the idea of Islamic democracy. He argued that such a structure would be ideal, one which is not separated from the Islamic beliefs and ethics. The Muslim world as a result would be a multi-national one void of any national tribal and sectarian prejudices. Such a community, Lahori argued, would be a homogenous one based on unity of all sects in the Muslim world. He compares Islamic societies to honey bees, each of which contribute a different taste to the formation of honey with the output being a purified valuable product. For the creation of such a community

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening he believes a central point is what he calls the leadership of love, something that he says will bring economic and human equality as well as peace and security. He insists that his proposed utopia should not be influenced by the culture of secular states instead, such a community must have its roots in spiritualism. Lahori believes that colonialism has fuelled sectarian and tribal divisions and sown discord among Muslims. 4-Urging unity of Muslims Lahori was strongly influenced by the theories of unity among Muslims, including those proposed by the Iranian scholar Sayyed Jamaleddin Assadabadi. Along with his great love for his own nation, Lahori put great emphasis on Muslim unity and called for brotherhood among all Islamic nations. He encouraged Muslims to acquire the scientific advances of the west but at the same time warned them not to be affected by its corrupt culture. He viewed Islam as a comprehensive purified and practical set of beliefs. He bravely did his best to save Muslims from the colonial rule and the domination of the west’s corrupt culture. In his poetry, he invites Muslims to shun from temptations of the soul and servitude of the evil, urging them to unite around one common faith. All his poems share the theme of Islamic unity and dignity. One of his famous poems in the collection dubbed “The Message of the Orient” demonstrates the way he looks at social issues as well as boundaries of color and race. He repeatedly expresses his anger at western policies aimed at sowing discord among Muslims, a feeling which he cannot help conceal in his literary works. He was a




follower of Sayyed Jamaleddin Assadabadi who supported the idea of unity among Muslims throughout the globe. During Lahori’s times, tendencies toward patriotism and nationalistic sentiments were on the rise in Muslim nations, an atmosphere which had its roots in the political and social developments in Europe. Western colonial powers, therefore, expanded those sentiments in Muslim nations as well, in an effort to create divisor among them. But Lahori found that unity among Muslims was the only solution, an idea for which he was inspired by Assadabadi. In Lahori’s ideology, it is Islam and Quran that sever the basis of unity for Muslims not patriotism or nationalistic sentiments. Thus he offered a proposal based on a love for God and Prophet Mohammad, obedience of Quran and Muslim brotherhood at an intentional Islamic conference in al-Quds in 1943. The proposal aimed to resolve all differences among Muslims and unite them together. Having scrutinized the history of Muslim nations, Lahori came to the conclusion that mysticism has just produced a literature of passiveness and jurisprudence had led to nothing but mere imitation. If Muslims continue the same path, he argues, they will have the same fate they have been suffering from during the last three centuries. According to Lahori, this fate has been but division, fanaticism, sectarianism and infighting among Muslims. Therefore, he says, if the status quo is maintained, there is no chance for Muslims to improve their lives. To prevent such a fate, he has a proposal, indeed three pillars which he suggests for the unity of Muslim nations:

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening 1: belief in the unity of God The unity of God, according to Lahori is the basis of spiritualism for human societies. It is this belief that can help with the unity of Muslims, a pillar that strengthens brotherhood among Muslims and gives homogeneity to a world which is full of plurality on the surface. It also helps Muslims unite in their approaches and attitudes. The belief in the unity of God also injects a fresh spirit among Muslims and leads them toward one unified goal. A true faith in the unity of God clears all the defections of a nation and purifies it of immoralities and vices. Such a nation is energetic, strong, and purposeful. A belief in the unity of God is a basis of perfect societies and a blessing that leads a nation toward dignity, homogeneity and cohesion. 2: Belief in Mohammad’s Prophethood Belief in prophethood is second to belief in the unity of God in Islamic faith. It indicates a centralization of leadership based on divine revelations. Prophethood is the unifying factor that connects individuals and makes them one whole community. Such a unification is the strongest one, because it gathers people who share the same beliefs. One crucial tradition of God for Muslims is the principle which defines Prophet Mohammad as the last messenger of God. This indicates the everlastingness of the Muslim community and that no other community would have the power to isolate it. Considering the two concepts mentioned, the Muslim community cannot be limited to a confined geographic location or historical period. In Lahori’s opinion, the love of Prophet Mohammad is a source of unity for followers of Islam since the main goal of


THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... Mohammad’s prophethood is nothing but liberating humans from tyranny and establishing equality and brotherhood.


3: Quran The third pillar which Lahori relies on for unity among Muslims is Quran as the collection of God’s rules and revelations which all Muslims from every sects and tribes believe in, a reference based on which the rules of Muslim societies should be set up. In fact, he believes that all human have the potential of sharing the spiritual experiences which the prophet had. This is nothing but speaking to their God. The main goal of Quran is nurturing understanding of man in his communications with God. As an individual, Lahori gave special priority to Quran, a book which he relied on till his last moments of life. Each time, Quran brought him a fresh outlook and insight to the world and intensified his faith in God. Lahori continued to invite Muslims to use Quran as their model and think of its words as the only solution to their worldly problems. 4: Ka’ba as a pivotal pillar Another element which Lahori views as a major factor contributing to the unity of Muslims is Ka’ba and its role as a central entity. It is in fact a point of commonness and a symbol of faith which connects souls and hearts together. This characteristic of Ka’ba is therefore central to unity and equality among Muslims. The theme is an obvious one throughout Lahori’s poetry. When it came to his homeland and the Muslims living on the Indian peninsula, Lahori found out that the main problems that his fellow countrymen were suffering from included:

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening 1- Ignorance and lagging behind the modern sciences 2lack of a true belief and dominance of deviated currents 3- surrender to the colonial powers 4- lack of confidence and blind imitation in the face of the superficially attractive culture of the west Considering the deeply-rooted tensions between Muslims and Hindus and the massacres that occur in Bengal, Lahori concluded that the only solution to save both Muslims and Hindus was independence and separation of the two sides. Therefore, he managed to rally support among Muslims who were a large minority in India toward an independent country named Pakistan. This is indeed one of his greatest historic achievements, helping establish a Muslim state. Lahori always moved to enlighten people and liberate them from colonial dominance. He also enjoyed massive popularity not only among his own countrymen but also beyond borders. As he dedicated special importance and attention to people in Afghanistan and Iran in particular Iranian youth, he was a great acceptable figure in those two countries as well. 5-Special Interest in Iranian Youth Lahori viewed Iranian youth as a symbol of Muslim dignity and power. Such a belief even led him to consider and propose Tehran as the revolutionary capital of the Muslim world. Although he never managed to visit Iran, Lahori was very fond of Iranians and used to address them in a variety of his poems. This, he demonstrates in one of his poems titled “Departure to the Palaces of the Oriental Sultans” in his collection of poems “Javidnameh”:


THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... “We are your intimate friends; tell us your secret, Reveal what you know of Iran” Despite having lived in Europe and gaining fluency in English, he preferred to write his poems in Persian to show his fondness of the language. His major collections of poetry have been written in Persian, among them the most famous ones are “The Secrets of The Self”, “The Mysteries Of Selflessness”, “The Message Of The Orient”, “Bang-EDara”, “Zabour-E-Eajam”, “Javidnameh”, “What Should We Do, O People Of The Orient”. In addition to Persian and Urdu, Lahori knew English. Among his English works are “The Reconstruction of the Religious Thought In Islam” and “The Evolution of Philosophy in Iran”


Lahori’s fondness of Iran Iran, as a country which has intruded great scholars and poets to the Islamic world has gravely attracted Lahori. Lahori has in many cases expressed his love for Iran and in particular Iranian poets including Mowlana, Hafez and Jaami. Meanwhile, the articulateness and smooth nature were elements that Lahori found fascinating about Persian language. 6-A Return to The Self In 1915, Lahori released two of major collections of Persian poetry titled “The Secrets of the Self” and “The Mysteries of Selflessness”. The central theme of the two collections is the phenomenon of the self, which he also tries to develop and further demonstrate in his later poems. He insisted that a society was like an individual having

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening a soul and a personality. As with an individual, a society too may suffer from an identity crisis. Each society, he argues, that loses its consciousness and identity is doomed to collapse. Lahori believed that Muslim nations had lost their identity in the face of a cultural invasion by the west. The remedy he offers is that reformists should restore the faith and beliefs of the Muslim community to its true “self”, which were nothing but the Islamic culture and spirituality. Lahori’s reformist thinking was not limited to the borders of his motherland rather was spread across the Muslim world. As the Iranian scholar Morteza Motahhari puts it “in his poems, Lahori tries to remind Muslims of their dignity, glories, culture, capabilities and qualities and to make them believe in themselves. That Lahori goes deep into the history of Islam to dig out great figures and put them before Muslims of his day is an effort by him to familiarize Muslims with their true self. Therefore, Lahori has undoubtedly done a great service to the Muslim world. To some extent like Sayyed Jamaldeein Assadabadi, Lahori has managed to export his ideology beyond the borders of his country.” 7-Relying on domestic capabilities In his poems, Lahori has done his best to urge Muslims to rely on their own powers and do not depend on the west. This attitude has also been pursued in Iran in the form of what is called the self-sufficiency struggle, which has greatly helped Iranian youth toward considerable achievements. “What grows on your own soil Have it, wear it and sell it. Those who gained prominence


THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... Have woven their own carpets Rise up and find a solution, Foil the plots by the west”


8-Implementing poetry as a means of conveying ideas When Lahori studied at the University Of Lahore, Urdu had already replaced Persian as the educational language. Lahori joined an Urdu literary group and read out one of his poems in a session attended by great literary figures. His poem on Himalaya was then published in a famous magazine known as Makhzan. This in fact made Lahori a well-known poet among the literary groups of his time. What distinguishes Lahori’s poems is his special religious and political thinking. To Lahori, poetry is not the goal but a means through which he conveyed his messages of awakening to the Muslim nations. He invokes a spirit of movement, activity and liveliness, themes which he repeatedly depicts in his poems. When he calls for movement among Muslims, Lahori’s poems have an energetic color, a special music and filled with excitement and vigor. Therefore, his poetry is not merely a reflection of literary figures but rather a message of knowledge, mysticism, religion, ethics as well as Quranic and historical allusions. In the early period of his works, Lahori’s pomes were mostly in the form of sonnets. However, as the struggle for independence and freedom-seeking movements spread and tensions between Hindus and Muslims flared, his poems gradually dealt with political and social themes. Such poems as “the picture of pain” and “the sorrow of an orphan” demonstrate the plight of Muslims in India.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening In April, 21, 1938, the 61-year-old intellectual passed away and was buried in Lahore’s ancient cemetery. In one of his last poems before his death he noted: “The poem said can never be retold No breeze from Hijaz is coming The days of this poor man are numbered No omniscient man will replace him” Conclusion: 1- Through his poetry Lahori has managed to encourage the young generation of his age and promote Islamic awakening among them. 2- Lahori should not be merely viewed as a simple philosopher who tries to reason phenomena, rather a thinking messenger and knowledgeable poet whose ideology was based on promoting the role of the individual in Muslim countries and the whole world. 3-Lahori was an ideologue whose main purpose was establishing a large Muslim state which he tried to depict in his poems. His literary works were indeed a means through which he lived up to his responsibility of awakening Muslims. He urged Muslims to make use of western advances but at the same time called on them to beware the non-Islamic features of the western culture. To gain such a goal, Lahori investigated different ideologies both in the west and the orient to come up with lively and effective strategies. References: -Iqbal Lahori, “Collection of Persian Poems”, Ahmad Soroush, Sanaee Publication, Tehran, 1964.




-Iqbal Lahori, Mohammad, “The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam”, translated by Ahmad Aram. Resalat Ghalam Publications, Tehran, 1967. -Iqbal Lahori, “The Voice Of The Poet Of Tomorrow Or The Secrets Of The Self”, Institute For Cultural Studies, Tehran, 1991. -Anvar, Eshrat Hasan, “The Supernatural In Iqbal’s Thinking”, translated by Mohammad Baghaee, Hekmat Publications, Tehran, 1991. -Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Iqbal “The High Star of the Orient”, Tehran University Press, 1982. -Radfar Abolghassem, “Iqbal Lahori’s Selected Poems”, Amirkabir Publications, 1990. -Rafighi, Aborraouf Khan, “The Evolution of Studies On Iqbal In Afghanistan”, 40 essays, Kabul, 1922. -Saeedi, Gholamreza, Hadi Khosro Shahi, Islamic Culture Publications, 1991. -Shadravan, Hassan, “Studies On Iqbal”, with a preface by Mohit Tabatabaee, Islaimc Teachings Organization. Tehran, 1992. -Knowing Iqbal, A Collection Of Essays In The Intentional Conference Commemorating Iqbal Lahori, 1986, Faculty Of Arts and Literature, Tehran University. -Ghaemi, Parvin, Iqbal Lahori, Farlin Publications, 2003. -M, Darvish, Iqbal Lahori’s Persian Poems, 1980. -Motahhari Morteza, “The Revival Of Islamic Thinking”, Ghom, Sadra Publications, 2004 (21st publication)

The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran...

The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a Model for the Youth in the Islamic Awakening Seyyed Mahdi Faghihi Va’ezi1 ,Mahdi Ajam2 ,Hassan Honarvar3


Introduction One of the greatest and the most important events in the last century was the Islamic Revolution of Iran. This Revolution which was led by Great Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - changed many of the equations and orientations of the great powers of the world. It also managed to create wide-spread changes and reformations in the international system. The Islamic Revolution of Iran took place during the Cold War and the bipolar system of the world. Due to its religious and sacred nature, the Revolution of Iran could make great changes in the world, especially in the world of Islam. Therefore, this Revolution is considered one of the great events of 20th century. The victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, on the one hand, influenced and renewed the revolution theories. On the other hand, it paved the way for many changes, transformations and awakening of people. This article is an attempt to analyze the impact of 1. Ma’aref Eslami University – Doctorate Student of Islamic Feqh – Qom – 36 Years of Age 2. Olum Pezeshki Baqiat ol-Allah University – Health Department – MA Student of Management – Tehran – 32 Years of Age – 09125027074 – The Committed Author – 3. Olum Pezeshki Baqiat ol-Allah University – Deputy of Culture and Student – MA Student of Cultural Management – Tehran – 35 Years of Age

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the spiritual evolution of nations and liberal movements from different viewpoints. It also seeks to define concepts such as Islamic Awakening and to examine the influence of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the global community and the revolutions of the region. Finally it analyzes the role of the youth first in the Islamic Revolution of Iran and then in the Islamic Awakening of nations. Defining Concepts Islamic Awakening Islamic Awakening refers to Muslims’ efforts to overcome their own problems and vicissitudes. Nowadays there are different terms referring to the same concept, such as Political Islam, Islamic Revivalism, Islamic Resurrection, Islamic Awakening Movement, Islamic Reformism, and Retrieval of Islamic Identity. One of the most known and comprehensive terms and concepts is Islamic Radicalism4 which is referred to as Islamic Fundamentalism by westerns. Islamic Fundamentalism Fundamentalism5 is one of the terms prevalent in western world for centuries and refers to dogmatism, religious bigotry and the return to the principles of Protestant Christianity. This term which has a negative connotation has gradually extended its use throughout the world and now the west is struggling to adopt it as a reference to all Islamic Movements and Waves, which want Islam to be the basis of their societies. ‫ ﺍﺻﻮﻟﮕﺮﺍﻳﯽ‬.4 ‫ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﺩﮔﺮﺍﻳﯽ‬.5


The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... The term Fundamentalism refers to the return to the main principals, values, and rules of Islam in the language and literature of Middle East and Northern Africa. Therefore, it can be considered equivalent to Radicalism. Since the term Radicalism is free from the negative connotations of Fundamentalism, we could use the term Islamic Radicalism instead.


The Concept of Islamic Awakening Islamic Awakening is a movement which began two centuries ago. Having identified the facts and realities of the Islamic Community, it has continuously made scientific and practical progress and now plays a major role in political and social scenes of the Islamic and global world. The Main Impacts of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the Islamic Awakening The Islamic Revolution of Iran took place in a time when the west and specially America lacked any realistic and rational understanding of the Iranians’ strife against the dictatorship of Pahlavi’s regime. Moreover, the special situation in the region and the role of Iran in the stability and security of Israel and in the progress of western colonialism was to such a high extent that Pahlavi’s regime had become a nightmare for the Arabic countries in the region. Regarding the situation, the emergence and victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran with the leadership of Great Imam Khomeini (May Allah Grant him peace) exerted a profound influence on various areas in the region and in the world. Some of those areas are as the following: A) Thought and Reflection The term Islamic Awakening has close ties with the concept

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening of Islamic Revolution of Iran. Terminologically, revolution [=Inqilab] is a Latin word which refers to “evolution, transition, and change”. Politically, revolution means “an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed”. Authors and theorists have different and sometimes conflicting ideas regarding the nature, causes and effects of revolution on other phenomena. Any theorist has attempted to understand and define revolution based on different theoretical frameworks and methodologies. Chalmers Johnson, a noble theorist, defines revolution as a violent act which is intended to overthrow the government and leadership of the society, to change the regime and method of governance, or to change different structures such as social structures, the system of ownership, class dominance, and the dominant values of the society. [4] Jack Goldstone examines the efforts of social science scholars to define the nature and the roots of the three generations of revolution. The scholars in 1920s and 1940s focused on the natural history of the first generation of revolutions. The main aim of such scholars was to describe the major revolutions specially the French Revolution. Edwards, Petty, Sore, Canon, and specially Crane Brinton are some of the scholars of the first generation who identified models and characterized all revolutions based on those models. The scholars who were active in the 1950s and 1960s studied the second generation of revolutions. They attempted to define and explain the why and when of the revolutions. These scholars adopted different psychological theories such as the theory of insufficiency and relative


The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran...


deprivation, social theories and modernization theories to define revolutions. Thus they attempted to use certain theories to describe the why and when of revolutions. James Davis, Tredegar, Charles Tally, and Nil Smellser are some of those scholars to be mentioned. The third generation of theories includes structural theories which focus on the analysis of explanatory aspects such as the structure of international pressure, rustic community, armed forces, and the behavior of elites. Theorists such as Teda Scotchpole believed that political and international pressures could cause certain gaps and force the governments to confront the pressure. This could pave the way for a revolution in the society. Generally, until the victory of Islamic Revolution, the major scientific theories of revolution defined revolution as a phenomenon related to modernity which reduced the role of religion in society, i.e. secularization, increased the economic expectations and lacked the political modernization. However, the victory of Islamic Revolution brought about great changes in the revolution theories. Now key concepts which were previously ignored were incorporated into the theories of revolution. The victory of Islamic Revolution paved the way for great evolutions in the area of thought and theorization. It also made the available theories of revolution testable and caused many transformations and changes in the theories of revolution. Thus the Islamic Revolution managed to bring about the idea of religious democracy and the belief in the possibility of reform and revival of religious, spiritual and even liberal values. This accomplished idea became the basis and foundation of a model for the whole Islamic World.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening B) Activism and Religious Behavior At first, the western colonialism assumed that it could overcome the obstacle and problem of religion and activism in the east as it had done in the west. However, gradually the contrary was proven. Therefore, the westerns decided to use religion as a means to overcome this obstacle. The religion of the west had gone through a metamorphosis and was aligned with the liberal democratic goals. The first step was the dispatch missionaries of the Catholic Church to the targeted communities to pave the way for religion replacement. Although the policy was successful in some parts of the world, it could not succeed in the Islamic countries. Therefore, the west changed its strategy and decided to exploit the religion of Islamic countries to make its supremacy possible through three ways: Founding new religious cults, such as Baha’ism in Iran and Vahabism in Arabic countries. Reviving decadent and weak religious cults. Intensifying divisions and conflicts among religious cults and ethnic groups. This policy has been exercised in eastern world for a while, and has yielded positive accomplishments for westerners. The inflamed atmosphere in such communities which was a result of ethnic and religious conflicts set the scene for westerners to propagate their highbrowed ideas. The foundation of freemasonic organizations in targeted countries, such as the Faramoush-khane of Malkom Khan or Adamiyyat community in Iran, and also establishment of modern educational systems were all intended to serve the westerners’ objectives.


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More than a hundred years ago, the first generation of pseudo-intellectuals of Iran which consisted of a group of selected youngsters were dispatched to the west in order to complete their education. Besides acquiring modern sciences, the young men were also fascinated by the dazzle of the western life and influenced by liberal democratic school. They assumed that the new accomplishments of the western world were a result of secularism, and the reason for the backwardness of the eastern communities was the compliance with religious customs. Therefore, they returned to their countries to play their pseudo-intellectual roles in irreligious activities and to pave the way for the supposed development of the country. However, the propagation of pseudo-intellectual and secularist ideas was unsuccessful. The western colonialism against failed to implement its agenda. Open opposition to Islam and insults to Prophets, to the Great Prophet of Islam – peace be upon Him – and to the pure Imams by the pseudo-intellectuals caused the vehement reaction of faithful people. Such behaviors made the people detached of intellectuals. So the westerners plotted new strategy which is interpreted as Islamic Protestantism or “Reformed Islam”. Thus “religious intellectualism” was established to metamorphose the religion which was an obstacle for westerners. A new form of religion was intended to replace the current one and align with the westerners’ colonialist objectives. Thus the ones who “considered the ruination of world caused by Prophets”, openly insulted the Great Prophet of Islam – peace be upon him – and assumed the Divine Verses

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening of Qur’an the words produced by the Prophet, became the followers of the new strategy of the west and interpreters of Islam based on the modern principles. Mirza Malkom Khan Nazem ol-Dole is quoted to say: “I devised a plan to combine the political wisdom of the west with the religious mind of the east. I realized that changing Iran to become like Europe is a fruitless attempt. Therefore, I offered the idea of materialistic progress under the veil of religion so that my people can better understand it. I invited reputable people and friends. In private [freemasonic] gatherings I talked of the need to reform Islam. I resorted to the [humanistic] spiritual essence of human.” Mirza Fath-Ali Akhundzadeh is also quoted as condemning 1280-year-old mistake of Iranians in complying with Islam, saying: “One thing that may be comforting is to admit that our past 1280 years were a mistake.” Despite his insults to the Great Prophet – peace be upon him – and the Prophet Ibrahim Khalil al-Rahman – peace be upon him – and his denial of Namaz, Roozeh, and Haj, he suddenly talked of reformed Islam and Islamic Protestantism: “There is no need to withdraw from our fathers’ religion. It seems we have to move beside our religion brotherly, but inwardly we should be the followers of the true path!” His plan to implement the Protestant reformation was as follows: “Protestantism is a religion in which the rights of Allah and the duties of His worshipers are tumbled. The only thing which remains is the rights of people.” Thus reform Islam or Islamic Protestantism means the omission of Divine and Godly aspects of religion and the denial of Shari’ah and Godly origins of right. On the other


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hand, placing the social conventions at the center of religion is among its objectives. He also believed that reformed Islam is a religion which does not take part in politics. He believed that until religion is not free from social and political orders [Ahkam] and is still taking part in manly issues, it would not be possible to reform it and pave the way for the society to be like western societies. He also maintained that reformed Islam should be free from orders which were issued by the Prophet Mohammed – peace be upon him – and other orders similar to those of western world should deployed. Thus “religious intellectualism” was established in order to metamorphose religion and form a new religion which is not an obstacle for westerners and is well aligned with their colonialist objectives. As we mentioned earlier, contemporary pseudo-intellectuals are still translating the theories and works of the westerners which are to oppose Catholic Christianity, and use them against Islam to support reformed Islam. Discussing the issues related to their activities needs another comprehensive article and should not be mentioned here. Regarding such a history, we should mention that Islamic Revolution of Iran in the areas of activism and behavior has led to the failure of colonial plots in the form of dependent intellectualism. Thus behaviors based on Islamic values proliferated among Iranians and other Muslim nations. Religious mourning, ceremonies and rituals proliferated among Muslim nations especially among those of Lebanon, Iraq and Pakistan. At the same time, with the revival of the specific role of Shiisim, anti-imperialism and anti-American behaviors in the region and among various communities

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening such as Arabia, Bahrain, or even Egypt and Lebanon emerged. This fact shows that Islamic Revolution which was dependent on Islamic values, denied the influence of western intellectualism, and strived against the barbarous Zionism and global imperialism offered a major model of behavior for other countries. This model was influential to such an high extent that we could witness the martyrish operations by our Muslim young soldiers against Zionists in the Occupied Lands of Palestine. Regarding the protests and demonstrations against tyrant governments, for example in Algeria, and the shouts of Takbir and Allah-u Akbar from the roofs and houses indicate that the Islamic Revolution of Iran has managed to influence the areas of activism and behavior of Islamic and even non-Islamic movements in the region, such as the Islamic Salvage Front led by Abbas Madani. This great accomplishment is one of the successes of the Islamic Awakening and every day it becomes greater. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution Basically, in different countries, the youth are considered active and airily forces. Indeed, the role of aware and educated youth in the development, progress, and prosperity of communities is profound. In the reign of Pahlavi’s regime, the youth formed a great part of the Iranian population. However, due to destructive policies of the regime, the youth lacked the necessary soul and proficiency. The tyrant system, on the one hand, established a dictatorial regime which barred the free political, social, and cultural activities which were against the viewpoints of the regime. On the other hand, the Shah’s regime sought to avert the thought and talent of the youth


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so that they would not reflect on the future of the country. Thus, the regime tried to set the scene for immorality and promiscuity of the youth, and amuse them with trivial and cheap matters. The founder of Islamic Republic of Iran, Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – sagely understood the threat and warned of that. He stated that: “They intended to corrupt our youth so that they became indifferent… Such youth could not think of the future of the country”. However, the regimes propagandist and planners of his corruptive and destructive programs were not aware of the religious morale and spirit of the Iranian youth. Although a group of the youth was deceived by the propaganda system of the regime, many of them were vigilant and remained intact. For the youth, the Shah’s strategy to cause divergence among the youth was indicative of the regime’s corruption. This led to increasing hatred of the youth against the regime. Here, the enlightenment of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - and other pioneering and revolutionary figures played a key role and the awakening of the youth. The young generation of Iran saw in the Revolutionary slogans their ideals such as the Islamic identity, a will for justice and independence, and denial of tyranny and dictatorship. Thus, the Revolutionary youth, which was a great and proficient force, entered the scene. In the Revolutionary movement of Iranians in 1978, the youth were the forerunner and precursor force. They played a pivotal role in thrilling the people and leading the Revolution to its victory. The demonstrations usually were organized by the youth, and they had various responsibilities. In the course of Revolution, the youth regained it national

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and religious identity and took the responsibility for the future of the country. After the victory of Revolution, Imam Khomeini’s - May Allah Grant him peace - confidence in the youth, and their reciprocal faith in the great leader, made it possible for them to self-reliantly take part in different areas and occupations. Since the victory of Revolution, many of the managers in the country were the faithful and revolutionary young men who later bravely defended their country against the aggression of Saddam Hussein’s forces. Obviously, a part of the youth is comprised of students who are educated and promising people. In some countries, due to their interest in political and social issues, and their contacts with educated and broadminded people, students are more knowledgeable than other people. Therefore, they are seldom indifferent to tyranny and inequality. This is also true for Iranian students. Before the Islamic Revolution, Shah’s regime had witnessed the role students played in events like the nationalization of oil industry. So he tried to gain control over the universities. On the other hand, the regime was trying to disseminate corruption in the society and propagate westernization among students. However, the students who witnessed the tyranny, poverty and inequality in the society, protested against Shah’s regime. Moreover, when they noticed the regime’s dependence on west specially America, their objection intensified. Leftists and Marxists, who were not thinking and acting in the right way, opportunistically were trying to attract protestors to their parties. Nonetheless, the presence of Muslim students in universities, and the efforts of influential figures such as Shaheed Ayyat-ollah Motahari, Shaheed Mofatteh, and Doctor Shari’ati in educational


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settings, paved the way for religious students to act in a proper atmosphere in universities. With Iranian uprising, students readily joined the people and universities became important centers for gatherings and protests against Shah’s regime. It should be noted that students and clergymen, who both were educated and pioneering in the course of Revolution, had very close ties with each other. Regarding the role of the students and youth Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - states that: “In the course of history, the committed youth and especially the Muslim students of the current and future generations are promising resources for Islam and Islamic countries. The students with their commitment, arms, persistence and endurance can lead the salvage ship of Islamic countries and communities to the shore of independence, freedom, progression and sublimity of nations.” Nowadays the presence of the youth in all areas and scenes of the Islamic Republic is indicative of its permanence and continuity, and is promising of a prosperous Iran. To have confidence in the youth and to let them accept responsibilities would make them self-confident and selfreliant which in turn would guarantee the full development and progression of the country. The youth who were influence by the Islamic Revolution and illuminating thoughts of the late Imam Khomeini May Allah Grant him peace-, showed an epic bravery in the time of Revolution and especially in the years of Holy Defense to such an high extent that a 13-year-old young Shaheed named Hussein Fahmideh received a medal of honor and leadership from the late Basiji Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace. Imam Khomeini were always

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening interested in the youth, had confidence in their potentials. He regarded the youth valuable and promising assets of the country and hence he entrusted the Revolution to the youth who had played a key role in its victory. He stated that: “You fertile young men; you dear students; you are my hope and promise. In what part of the country you are, you should be vigilant; you should watchfully defend your rights.” He then mentions the importance of Islamic training of the youth and adolescent and states that: “We need to train our youth; we need to teach them Islamic values of humanity. They should be properly trained to protect the country and manage it.” The late Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - emphasized the importance of training and edification in the time of youth, and addresses the youth as saying: “For Islam the edification of the youth and adolescent is of highest importance. Now that you are young and able, you should struggle to free yourselves of bodily [sinful] matters and fancies”. Regarding the great evolution among the youth as a result of Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - states that: “The evolution that emerged among our youth, among our committed people, is more important than the evolution that emerged in the country.” The Youth and the Previous Regime The youth were discredited in the previous regime; their talents and abilities were ignored. Creativity and innovation were not important for that regime. The regime’s main issue was disseminating the western culture in the society. They were highly dependent on the west under the disguise of development and progression. So the religious and national


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culture was ignored and the regime opposed the religious values and beliefs. Shah’s regime was disseminating corruption and immorality among the youth with the hope that they would become indifferent to the culture and future of the country. The aim was to make the youth unable to think, to kill their creativity, and to make them harmless and ineffective. Regarding such matters, the late Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - stated: “The main plan was to corrupt the youth so that no one would protest against the regime… They intended to eliminate any thought that they assumed contrary to theirs… The corruption centers disseminated throughout the country entertained the youth with lustful matters and deprived them of their thinking ability.” [18] He also states that: “They [the regime] intended to corrupt our youth so they would become indifferent to their matters and issues and whatever happens to them… Such youth could not react against what happened to their country.” [19] However, the Islamic Movement and Imam Khomeini’s sublime ideals caused the youth to become vigilant and cognizant. Now they could regain their lost identity and individuality due to the Movement and Imam’s efforts. They youth witnessed that the ample resources of the country are despoiled by foreigners, and the authorities are just obsessed with their own pleasures and ignore the interests of the nation. So they sought prosperity and freedom from tyranny and inequality in the sublime ideals of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace. They became devoted followers of Imam’s Islamand equality-seeking Movement. According to Shaheed Motahhari, “Imam Khomeini’s call was reverberated in the deepness of history and culture and in the hearts and souls

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening of the people. The people, who were ingrained by and aware of the epical bravery of Mohammed, Ali, Zahra, Hussein, Zeynab, Salman, Aboozar and many others for fourteen century, could hear the same epical bravery in the call of this man [Imam Khomeini]; they could see Ali and Hussein in his face. For them, he was a mirror reflecting their culture which was for a long time humiliated. What did Imam do? He brought them back their personality; he brought them their real selves, their lost Islamic identities. He helped them out of alienation. That was the greatest gift the nation received from the great leader. He could give them back their lost faith and confidence in themselves.� [20] The Key Gathering Centers for the Revolutionary Youth There were three main centers which were influential in the process of Islamic Revolution. They were the key centers of gathering for the revolutionary combatants, and were influential in the dissemination of the ideals and slogans of Islamic Revolution and the progress of the Movement. The presence of the youth in such centers was so productive for the progress and victory of the Islamic Revolution. Usually those centers brought to mind the intense and excited presence and activity of the youth. Those three centers were the Mosques, Hoze-yeh Elmiyeh, and the Universities. In the following part of the article, we will briefly discuss the role of the youth in those centers for the progress and victory of the Islamic Revolution. A) The Mosques The Mosques were key centers for the victory of Islamic


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Revolution. Different activities of the combatants especially the youth in the Mosques such as collective prayers, public speeches, guidance and promotions, equipping the Revolutionary combatants and disseminating information made the holy institution a key station for the Movement, and the Mosque regained its historical role which it played in the early years of Islam. [21] In the fortification of Islam [the Mosques], the combatant clergymen explained the political Islamic thought and disseminated the objectives of the Movement. They revealed the corruption and the disasters cause by the Shah’s regime and unmasked the fateful influences of foreign dominance and imperialism. By reciting the statements, declarations, and announcements by the Great Leader, they made the people especially the youth vigilant and aware of the Islamic ideals and regime-caused disasters. The presence of the youth in the Mosques and their close ties with the clergymen made the Mosque an important scene of the people’s strife against Shah. Nikkei Arcady, American author and scholar, believes that “a large group of educated people, students belonging to a new political class, and urban indigents were organized by the Mosques to form a pillar of the modern civilian politics.” [22] The presence of the youth in the Mosques and their combatant activities in various fields, in addition to the key role the Mosques played in the progress of the Islamic Movement, disturbed the Shah’s regime. They resorted to different tactics to confront the Mosques, such as establishing parallel gathers centers like cinemas and socalled social hubs, disseminating corruption, arresting the clergymen and mullahs, controlling the programs of the Mosques and supervising over them, insulting the Mosques

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and closing them, etc. By doing so, they intended to interfere with the role of the Mosques and to prevent the youth from activity in them. [23] However, none of the tactics exercised by the regime was successful. The Mosques remained intact and continued to be the key station for the combatants. The clergymen and mullahs organized and directed the campaign from inside the Mosques. They also disseminated information and made the people and youth aware. Having divided the city to different areas, the clergymen coordinated the Movement. In Tehran, the Qoba Mosque was at the center of the Movement. It was managed and organized by Shaheed Doctor Mofatteh. The Jalili Mosque which was led by Ayat-ollah Mahdavi Kani; the Amir-almo’menin Mosque led by Ayat-ollah Musavi Ardabili; the Lorzadeh Mosque led by Hojjat-ol-Eslam Amid Zanjani; the RostamAbad Mosque led by Hojjat-ol-Eslam Shah-Abadi, the Ark Mosque, Javid Mosque, and Mahdiyeh Tehran were all active centers for gathering and organization of the forces, and for printing and publishing the revolutionary announcements, declarations, and cassettes. The presence of the youth at these religious and political centers made them active and lively places. For example, in 1350 [1971], the Rostam Abad Mosque at Shemiran district was the center of strife against Shah, and also of training the youth. They also organized and directed the group Hezbollah at this Mosque. [24] Similarly, in other cities, Mosques were a key center for gatherings and campaign; organization of combatant groups and other activities took place in these centers. [25] B) Hoze-yeh Elmiyeh and Other Religious Science Schools


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Hoze-yeh Elmiyeh and religious science schools were other scenes for the youth active in Islamic Movement. There the committed and cognizant youth were trained and guided by great scholars and scientist to campaign and strive against the regime. All the members of Hozeh including the Maraje’eh Taqlid, teachers and scholars, and students became the followers of the Great Leader of the Movement and devotedly supported it. Tollab [the students of Hozeh] formed a wide network of connections with different layers and groups of the society, and disseminated the message of the Movement and its leader among people. They played a key role in the progression of the Movement. [26] The main stations for the young tollab at Qom were the Feiziyeh, Hojjatiyeh, Khan, Haqqani Schools and the Imam Hassan Asgari – peace be upon him – Mosque. These places were regularly intruded by Savak [regime’s intelligent officers]. Among the schools mentioned, Feiziyeh was regarded as the main center, which was usually invaded by Savak, until it was completely closed in 1354 [1975]. Similarly, in other cities, the religious schools were the key centers for the campaign against Shah. What follows are just examples of the efforts by young tollab for the sake of Islamic Revolution. 1) Confronting the regime’s so-called “White Revolution” and referendum, the tollab of Hoze-yeh Elmiyeh and other religious schools were active to such a high extent that the police invaded the Feiziyeh School. In the yard of the school, they fired and injured some of the tollab. They also encircled the school and prevented the tollab and clergymen to leave there. [28] Similarly in Tehran, many of tollab, clergymen and students were arrested and assaulted. Also

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening in Mashhad, the regime encircled religious schools, the houses of the scholars and the Goharshad Mosque. [29] 2) In 2 Farvardin 1342 [1963], the regime invaded the Feiziyeh School and Talebiyeh School of Tabriz. [30] The bloody assault on the young mullahs and tollab was indicative of the profound role of them in the progression of the Islamic Movement, and also of the regime’s hatred towards them. The regime was struggling to prevent the mullahs and tollab from continuation of the campaign by frightening them. However, their infertile deeds had a reverse outcome. Following the deadly attack on the schools, a wave of protests and demonstrations broke out in the country. 3) Dispatching young tollab to the military service was another plot by the regime intended to eliminate them from the scene of campaign. It was indicative of the influential role of the tollab in the Movement, and also of the fear of the regime. However, the statements of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - took the initiative out of regime’s hands. Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - stated: “Do not be worried. Do not be uncertain. Show a full bravery, pride and spirit. No matter where you are, you would be the soldiers of Imam Zaman. You should do your military service. Your responsibility now is to make the soldiers aware and informed. So make your souls and bodies strong and powerful.” [31] Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - guidelines extended the domain of the Movement to include military bases. Despite the restrictions on clergymen and tullab in the military context, they continued their task to inform and guide people. 4) The arrest of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him


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peace - and the uprising of the 15 Khordad intensified the people’s Movement. It was a scene for the youth and religious tollab who continued their strife against the regime. After the uprising of 15 Khordad, the campaign of the Iranian Muslim community became more systematic and organized. In Tehran and many other cities, groups of young people and followers of Imam’s school were formed. They played profound and influential roles in the progression of the Great Leader’s ideals, and in the continuation of the Islamic Movement. Jam’iyyat-eh Motalefeh Eslami, Majma’eh Ruhaniyun-e Mojahed and Jebhe-yeh Mosalmanan-e Azad are among those groups. In Isfahan, a number of active Revolutionary young men formed organized groups and systematically strived against the regime. The continuous publishing and disseminating declarations, announcements and publications of Hozeyeh Elmiyeh of Qom, such as Be’sat and Faryad, by these active groups had troubled the regime. [32] 5) The young clergymen usually revealed and unmasked the crimes and plots of the regime in various gatherings and ceremonies held by influential and noble authorities of Hozeh. Young mullahs took part in such gatherings, and at the end chanted slogans, uttered Salavat, and disseminated announcements and statements of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace. Doing so, they spread excitement among people. [30] 6) Publications such as “Faryad”, “Be’sat” and “Enteqam” were other influential measures done by the young clergymen. These publications played vital roles in enlightenment of people, revelation of regime’s crimes, and progression of Imam Khomeini’s holy ideals.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening C) Universities Universities were other key centers for the presence of the youth. They were the scene of people’s campaign against Shah. The history of the Revolution is indicative of the active presence of the students in the Islamic Movement. Undoubtedly, university students were among the pioneering and key forces of the Revolution. They had made the universities centers and stations for Revolutionary campaign against Shah. [35] What follows are some examples of students’ role in the victory of Islamic Revolution. 1) Protests against “Local and Provincial Councils Bill” were the point where students joined the Islamic Movement. After the enactment of the bill, Tehran University students published an announcement and criticized the bill. They warned the government as the following: “… We, the Muslim students of Tehran University, will support the Holy Movement against tyranny until our death. We will firmly stand until the revival of Qur’an and the Constitution; we will stand until the victory and will sacrifice of blood for the establishment of Qur’an and the Constitution.” [36] Forming huge meetings, the students of Tehran University hastened to Qom. At the Holy Shrine of Masumeh, A’zam Mosque and the houses of the scholers, they held demonstrations to show their support of the Islamic scholars. [37] We can understand the importance of this event when we consider the fact that the so-called intellectuals and nationalist parties had agreed with the above-mentioned bill. However, the protest of the students who supported the Islamic scholars was a failure for the regime. 2) The students joined the people in their protests and


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demonstrations against the regime’s so-called White Revolution and referendum. They gathered in the Mosque of the Tehran University. However, the regime’s officers invaded there and arrested some of the students. Also some thugs who had ties with Savak invaded the university, assaulted the students, and destructed the properties of the University. [38] “The Revolutionary stance of the University against the White Revolution of Shah was such a blow to the political reputation of him that no arrest and punishment of the students could make up for it.” [39] 3) The demonstrations of the students at the 40th day of mourning ceremony of Pahlavan Takhti led to the arrest and detention of tens of the students. Following the incident, waves of protests, demonstrations and violence broke out in universities and even in some high schools. Tehran University and some important schools were encircled by the police for three days. In other cities including Isfahan, Tabriz and Shiraz, university students held protests to support Tehran University. The most intense demonstration took place in Shiraz University where the students clashed with the special forces of the regime. Consequently, the Shah’s regime was forced to close the Shiraz University for a while. [40] 4) The students made efforts against the regime’s plan to abolish Islam and to disseminate corruption and prostitution. Obviously, the Shah’s regime struggled to exercise anti-Islamic, corruptive, and anti-cultural programs which were intended to make the students atheist and indifferent to important matters such as the future of the country, and to make the universities spiritless places. However, the broad-minded young men who were trained

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening in the productive school of Islam devotedly strived against the regime’s anti-Islamic plots. For example, the students of Shiraz University contested against the regime’s “sexual freedom” policy which intended to disseminate corruption and prostitution. They sought asylum at the University and remained there for a week. At the end, the regime’s officers invaded the university, assaulted the students, drove them out of the university and arrested some of them. [41] Similarly, student held protests and demonstrations against the 2500-year-old Festivals held by the regime. 5) Students also reacted against Imam’s arrest, and joined the uprising of 15 Khordad. The first reaction to the arrest of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - was from Tehran University. Having heard of Imam’s arrest, the students cancelled their classes, held demonstrations and informed people of their leader’s arrest. As a result of the demonstrations, the regime’s officers encircled the university. [42] Demonstrations and protests were also held in other universities throughout the country. 6) The students confronted the investment consortium formed between America and Iran. After the revelation of the regime’s plan to form an investment consortium with America, Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - stated that “All the political and religious figures, all the students of religious schools and universities, all the people are required to protest against this consortium and its deadly consequences.” [43] Following the statement of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace -, the declaration of Hozeyeh Elmiyeh of Qom, and the revelation of Shah’s and America’s new plot against the economy of Iran, the committed students of universities reacted against


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the consortium. Although they had limited resources, the Muslim students actively published declarations, protested and demonstrated against the plot. 7) Despite the regimes schemes and plots to hinder the progress of students’ movement, it was day after day escalated. Finally, a new wave of students’ protests forced the opportunist regime to dismiss the supposed “adverse students” from universities in the summer. The wave of arresting, dismissing, and dispatching the combatant students to military service escalated throughout the country. A number of best students who were seeking freedom were deprived of education, and were sacrificed due to the tyranny of the Shah’s regime. [45] This reaction from the regime was indicative of the profound role of students in the people’s campaign against Shah, and the regime’s fear of them. 8) The peak of the religious activities by the students was from 1352 [1973] until 1356 [1977]. Despite the regime’s struggle to deprive the universities of religious and social motivation, the students were still disseminating religious thoughts by forming Islamic associations and libraries. Finally the students’ accomplishments forced the regime to close all the Islamic libraries in different universities in the Shahrivar of 1356 [1977]. [46] 9) The students protests on 13 Aban 1357 [1978] was a turning point for students’ movement. The massacre of the students was indicative of the regime’s weakness and its failure in repressing the campaign of the students, and also of the influential role of the students in the people’s movement. 10) Student’s organizations oversee were also important

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening centers for the campaign. In many stances, they had showed their support of the student’s and people’s movement, and condemned the policies and actions of the regime. The late Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – was interested in those groups and guided them. The associations of Persian-speaking students at America and Canada were examples of such groups. The late Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace, in a letter, wrote to them “You educated young people; wherever you are, you have important responsibilities. Everybody is responsible to defend Islam, to defend the nation and its independence, and is responsible to disseminate Islam among communities. Everybody is responsible to disseminate the Islamic governance method, to extend justice and equality, and to spread the Islamic behavior by rulers and governors towards the nation…” [47] A key factor for the progression of Islamic movement was the cooperation between the youth and the clergymen, and their adherence to the guidelines of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace. Despite the political differences which prevailed among different groups in the society, the youth were coherently following the clergymen without noticing other groups and tendencies. They had set Islam their goals; it was a reason for their unity. There would not have been such a unity and coherence if there were any other tendency except Islam. The Role of the Youth in the Victory of the Islamic Revolution from the Viewpoint of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace According to the late Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace -, the victory of the Islamic Revolution


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was a result of self-sacrifices by the youth. Regarding this matter, he stated that “The youth belonging to universities, to schools, to bazaar, to tribes; they were the ones who upraised, overthrow the evil regime and drove imperialism out of the country”. [48] “You young people, with the strength of your faith, paved the way for the victory of the Movement. You shall preserve the strength of your faith.” [49] “God may bless you, the great nation of Iran, and the vigilant and watchful young people. Your magnificent efforts, o young men, in every layer and class of society, helped the movement to progress and develop. It was due to you magnificent efforts that we gained victory and the roots of corruption were desiccated to the highest extent. God willing, from now on, with your magnificent efforts, we will continue to uproot corruption from each and every part of this country.” [50] Undoubtedly, the youth had a pivotal role in the founding and victory of the revolution. Similarly, they play profound roles in the continuation of the Islamic Revolution. Their cooperation is reassuring for the future of the Islamic Revolution and helps the progression of its objectives in all the areas. After the Islamic Revolution, during the inflicted war, the presence of the youth and their self-sacrifices deactivated the plots of the foes and enemies. Similarly, after the victory in the Holy Defense, the presence of the youth in different areas and fields of science played an inimitable role in the construction of the country. Therefore, paying attention to the youth, and their development and progression in different areas and fields is essential for the progress of the Islamic Revolution and the fulfillment of

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening its objectives and goals. Without the corporation by the young people, the fulfillment of such objectives and goals would not be possible at all. So identifying the deficiencies harming the youth and resolving them should be a priority for the Islamic Republic and the authorities. C) Systemization and Modeling of the Revolution for Other Communities The victory of the Islamic Revolution and the establishment of the Holy Islamic Republic of Iran which was due to the votes of Iranian people in a decisive election became an important model and pattern of modern governance in the global setting. The new model was based on the ideas regarding the ties between Imam Khomeini and the community, the role of religion in the governance and the politics, and the attention to the role of civilian institutions in the political structure of the country. In the first months after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, there was an escalation of hot debates over the principles compromising the theory of “Velayat-e Faqih” by different schools of thought, different figures, and different political secularist groups. They were struggling to identify Velayat-e Faqih with dictatorship. They even tried to characterize the principle of Velayat-e Faqih as a system based on Islamic monarchy which is similar to Marxism and reproduces an Ideological and Fascist system. However, the systemization of the model of the leadership and the inimitable influences of Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – is very important. The impact of the character and personality of Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – on the Islamic Revolution is profound


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and is not comparable to other leaders. Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – was not only a great leader for the people but also an influential Marja’e Taqlid. Indeed, the people regarded him a great Marja’e Taqlid. In the course of the history of Iran, there were many great clergymen and Mojtaheds who ceaselessly struggled to inform and awaken the people. But Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – was an inimitable Mojtahed and Faqih who led a Revolution in the name of Allah and gained victory in a period of spiritual and religious eclipse. Many prominent scholars and theorists of the world regard the twentieth century, a century belonging to Imam Khomeini – May Allah grant him peace – whose success was based on two principles: the requirements of time and space. Imam Khomeini – May Allah grant him peace – presented the theory of Velayat-e Faqih in a time of intense debates and quarrels. He affirmed that “the Islamic government is a branch of the Velayat of Rasul ol-Allah – peace be upon him and his household.” According to Imam Khomeini – May Allah grant him peace – the principle of Velayat-e Faqih is among the “primary Ahkam [=orders] of Islam and is prior to the secondary orders”. According to Imam Khomeini’s Feqhi theories on the Islamic system of governance and the execution of Ahkam-e Shar’ [=religious orders], there is a mention of the establishment of Islamic government or Islamic state. He has also differentiated between the Islamic government and other forms of governance. According to Feqhi views of Imam – peace be upon him – the Islamic government is different from monarchy. The establishment of Islamic government invalidated the monarchy and overthrew the monarchies of Persian, Eastern Rom, Egypt,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and Yemen in the early years of Islam. The Islamic government is different from absolute or constitutional monarchy. Indeed, it is the governance of Islamic and Divine orders over the people. In the Islamic government, the governors are constrained by a series of conditions and orders which are set by Great Qur’an and the tradition of the Great Prophet – peace be upon him and his household. The above-mentioned series of conditions are Islamic Ahkam and orders which should be observed and exercised. In the time of the Hazrat-e Qaem’s – God May hasten his presence – absence, the religious Marja’ should intervene in governmental and political issues, and should establish an Islamic government. Hazrat-e Imam Khomeini presented a series of reasoning and arguments based on Feqhi methodology. Moreover, he discussed the practical ways for practicing Velayat-e Faqih; he presented certain and practical ways for establishing a government based on Velayat-e Faqih. Now the Iranian nation has the highest capacity for religious democracy. In each election, the nation demonstrates a new light of its greatness. Finally the systematization done by Imam Khomeini led to the establishment of a national and independent government which is based on Islamic instructions and the presence of people in the scene of governance. However, the western countries and America could not gain the confidence of the Iranian nation. Consequently, they suffered great costs due to their inability to behave properly. It has been a long time that the region’s nations are witnessing the misbehavior of Americans. It seems that the nations of the region have now decided to take measures.


The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... The continuation of this consensus among the nations depends on a proper and effective model. Of course, the local circumstances of the countries also play a pivotal role. On the other hand, the effective confrontation against imperialism by the Islamic Revolution of Iran, and its ability to deactivate the plots by colonialists is known by other nations. This great accomplishment and the self-confidence among the large communities have been fruitful. They have now united to achieve their sublime goals and ideals against the tyranny. The Islamic Awakening has now taken place. It has paved the way for different groups of people with various thoughts and ideologies to unit and move towards better conditions.


D) The Political and Social Ties among the Nations The western politicians believe that the recent events in Arabic and Islamic countries in Middle East and northern Africa are social movements. These movements are due to the political and social matters which are temporary and the situation will finally calm down. The statements of the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei, at the International Conference for the Support of Palestinians Intifazah, and his perceptive and discerning analysis of the nature of the evolutions in the region especially the issue of Palestine, were the ultimatum for the opponents. His full explanations of the concepts were fruitful for different institutions and elites active in the wave of Islamic Awakening. There is certainly no doubt that the new wave in the region has an Islamic and religious nature and origin since the issue of Palestine is at the top of the list of the claims by the peoples’ movements, regional revolutions,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and Islamic countries. No matter in what stage and phase of the revolution, the region’s nations are chanting slogans supporting the freedom of Palestine. Struggling to reform their governments, the nations ask for the divorce from the occupier Zionist regime. The victory of Islamic Revolution of Iran influenced the performance of the Islamic- and freedom-seeking groups in the form. Now they can play a more active role in the social and political evolutions and transformations. The ties between the religious scholars and scientific elites have become closer. Also the close ties between the religious schools and the universities, and reliance on traditional and religious methodologies have been very fruitful. Conclusion The importance of religious rituals in scientific communities is indicative of the accomplishments by the Islamic Revolution. The Revolution has been successful in influencing the Islamic communities, the nations, and elites. It has helped them to play better roles in social and political processes. Now among the Islamic countries especially in the Middle East, there is no place for the dominance of the world’s powers. Knowledge and discernment are key factors for the salvage and freedom of the nations from the tyrants and colonial powers. Realist nationalism is useless if it lacks spiritual and religious strength. Any country which becomes free from the dominance of tyrants, will adopt a religious and national approach to bigger and deeper evolutions. Now the nations have gained the belief that the dominance and misbehavior of America, would never lead to a secure and stable Middle East and World.


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Now in the Middle East and the Islamic world, there are waves of movement and uprising. The Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution has called it “Islamic Awakening”. The western powers and their allies inside and outside the region are struggling to characterize the waves of uprising as social movements which have no Islamic origin. They are emphasizing that the uprising in the region is not influenced by the Islamic Revolution of Iran, and that it has not been a ground and a model for the regions revolutions. That is why they call the movements in the region “Arabic Spring”. Now the unity and solidarity of nations, and their close social and political ties will be influential for the future of evolutions. Indeed, Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – has always indicated the importance of unity as a key for victory against the super-powers. There is a noticeable fact regarding the Islamic Awaking: The Islamic Republic of Iran is a model for these movements. The Islamic Revolution is a great model for the Muslims. We should be very watchful since the youth plays a major and key role in the Islamic Awakening of the countries of the region. It should be noted that the old parties and political groups are not playing a major role in the movement. Indeed, the youth who has been influenced by the model of Islamic Revolution of Iran is playing the major role in the Islamic Awakening. It is very important that the youth of our holy system and country make wide contacts with the revolutionary youth of the Muslim nations in the region. They should provide the revolutionary youth with their fruitful experiences regarding revolution. They should also make them aware of the possible threats and harms in the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening course of revolution. Recommendations: Holding international congresses for the revolutionary elites and youth in the Islamic countries Translating and publishing important works and literatures of Islamic Revolution of Iran, and delivering them to the Muslim nations Establishing non-governmental and civilian organizations and institutions with the cooperation of the youth on an international level Making use of the capacities of the cyber-space and virtual world for sharing the experiences of the revolutionary youth of Iran


Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental...

Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental framework of the Islamic awakening and the youth: Explanation of the factors of authenticity, preservation and survival of the Islamic Awakening Seyyed Mohammad Mir Tabaar Professor and the researcher of Hawze ye elmiye of Qom Introduction Islamic awakening (al sahwat al islamiya) is a common belief among Muslims all over the world. This awakening which has non-state nature is the cause of the Islamic movement that is observed beyond religion, nation, race and country everywhere. Undoubtedly, nowadays, there is no experience more amazing than the rise and return of Muslims to Islam in Islamic countries of the Middle East; because new determinative chapter has opened in the history of Islamic nation. This great awakening is the beginning of vivacious, revolutionary progress, the motivations, experiences, awareness and wisdom are the fundamental factors of this great rise. One of the best ways in recognition of nature and the root of phenomena are the exploration of concepts, factors and its specific characteristics of that phenomenon. The exploration of these characteristics will help us to recognize distinctions and similarities with other phenomena. The essence of nature of this awakening is the fight with injustice, discrimination, political corruption, social


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decadence and religious heresy. Returning to authentic self is the message of this great Islamic wave. This wave has pointed at deeper layers of western thoughts and civilization and is effective to the extent of their civilization and cultural evolution. Such an odd time! The time has challenged the whole governments all over the world in the same way. Those who are familiar with political history of the world would certainly know about the term “the revolutionary waves�. After the collapse of Soviet Union, many scholars like Francis Fukuyama claim that the age of revolutionary changes has come to its end and the Western liberaldemocracy is the ultimate form of governing. It is a form which will not change. 20 years has passed but the wave of revolution has affected not only the Middle East but also the West. The Western liberal front try to theorize the dependent opinion and characters of Islamic countries, to suppress the revolutionaries and Islamic scholars especially those who are active in religious fields, to state fictitious matters, to charge Islamic Republic with interference in other countries' internal affairs and to debauch popular and Islamic Revolution of region. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) as the most prominent leader of Islamic Awakening and thought in the meeting on Islamic Awakening offered the manifest of the Islamic Awakening in the form of his great personal experiences gained in the Islamic Revolution as a leader stepping a head of other leaders and pioneering pure Islamic thought. This manifest of the Islamic Awakening was welcome by Islamic leaders and Islamic worlds and

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening many of them have accepted his leadership in the recent movement in the Islamic world. This paper intends to explain the concepts and factors used in the Islamic Awakening; regarding the strategic points of Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) and the Supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) some analysis have been carried out concerning their opinions. We strongly recommend that respected and honorable readers send us their ideas and reviews. Parameters of authenticity of the Islamic Awakening Cultural components Exalting Kalama tayyeba and hoisting the flag of Islam The commander of Muslims in his seminal speech in Islamic Awakening meeting referring to principles of current revolutions of the region says “hoisting the flag of Islam which is deep belief and lifelong devotion of people and enjoyment of mental security, justice, progress and prosperity can only be achieved under the shade of Islamic Shariat.� At the end of cold war, new age of culturalization of this political matter formed. Subsequently those nonWestern countries freed from coalition of communism and liberalism were allowed to manifest their own cultures and subcultures. These countries until recently were under the categories of inactive political forces and global culture. Professor Foran is a sociologist at the University of California in the Santa Barbara who has valuable books in cultural studies in the Middle East. He studies social changes of revolutions in the cultural context. According to him, culture has important and complicated role in


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revolution and its consequences. Culture can provide the context of distribution of common belief of people and historical memorials of fights. This beliefs and memorials include common emotional structures which are popular in the public experiences context. As we know cultures refers to various symbols and boundaries, but historically religious links are those determinants of culture and identity. This effective element in the Northern Africa and the Middle East are called “Islam�. He power which according to many western researchers like Huntington has the ability to make new order in the secular world. Islam always in the form of moral, political and social guidance have some instruction about integration of religious and policy, the role of women, the youth teaching, penalty determination, deviation and definitions of strangers and etc. The culture of Islam moves expeditiously in the political discourse. The relative decadence of West, the explode of population in the Islamic world and the results of globalization had great role in causing imbalance in power relations between Islam and the West so that it would have been able to give glad tidings of new order in the revival of Islam in the international system. In such condition, the formation of new cultural changes, the rise of identity in the Northern Africa and the Middle East and taking position of the global power in forming culture in these countries, place a new chapter of cultural partitioning in front of the contemporary humans. On the one hand, there was Islam as a divine religion which claimed a new way of eternal living for Adam’s sons and on the other hand there was the product of thoughts of

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening western human being meaning liberal-democracy. History shows that the Muslims living in the age of the Holy Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) with lack of military equipment and without worldly properties but with fidelity to divine values become the best community, because of that they gained cultural hegemony and as a result they were honored by others and their majesty ingratiated itself with them. It was the Muslims who made the ultimate decision. In the commander of the faithful’s words, “you exchanged God’s affairs and then returned to you”. But this magnificence was gradually missed due to indifference to divine covenants and leaving the heavenly teachings and also moving toward materialistic values as well as racial and political prejudices and the outsiders became superior to the Muslims in their countries beginning internal deIslamization. And again we have in the Imam Ali (peace be upon him) that “you have allowed the oppressor to rest at your own house, gave the restraint to them and placed the divine affairs under their control.” Thus what has the main importance in the rise and awakening, and as a result can provide the field of freedom of Islamic countries, is return to the illuminating teaching and freedom of the Islam. About the importance of this issue Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) says “If Islamic governments and Muslim nations trusted in Islam instead of relying on East and West bloc, and followed the redemptive and illuminating teaching of holy Quran, today they wouldn’t be captive in the hand of Zionism and wouldn’t be afraid of the phantom of America and weren’t subjugated to evil deception of them.”


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A tangible example of seeking Islam and hoisting the flag of Islam was proved in recent election of Egypt, because 40% of votes were owned by those supporters of Islam. And in Libya, after victory, Mr. Mustafa Abd Al Jalil prostrated and thanked God in front of the eyes of people and proclaimed that the foundation of our Revolution is Islam. One of the requests of the people of Tunisia was to have freedom in performing religious rituals. In this Islamic country, the people were deprived of religious rituals and performing congregation prayers and men with beard and women with veil were under a lot of pressure and also in this country the fear of Shiite and becoming Shiite were gradually increased. These facts prove that this movement is awakening of Islamic nations. This public movement, from the point of view of the Supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade), was described as a stable movement. Regarding this issue, the supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) says “in public movement, the revolution may be delayed but it is away from instability and being sketchiness; it is the word of “TAYEBE”, a proof for the very word of Allah who says “don’t you see that how God brings example? Pure speech is like pure tree which its root is stable and its branch is in the sky? I.e. a healthy tree with stable timber and root and its fruitful branches are in the sky so that everybody can use its fruit. The culture of Jihad and self-sacrifice The Islamic movements happening after the Islamic Revolution of Iran has accepted Jihad, martyrdom and

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening self-sacrifice as fundamental principles. In other words the principles like Jihad, martyrdom and self-sacrifice which are the symbols of the movements of Shiite Revolution and were the motto of Islamic Revolution are accepted as fundamental principles of struggle. Undoubtedly all the conspiracies planned to collude nations will be rendered null and voids by the culture of self-sacrifice. Today people know this mystery of victory very well and use this against the conspiracies of enemies. On this subject, Hersh, the analyst of war between the occupying regime and Lebanon says “in the past years, they (Israelis) believed that they can solve their problems with violence but nowadays with the concept of self-sacrifice of Muslims all the things has changed and they need new answers. How can they frighten those who love selfsacrificing? The belief in the existence of better life and prosperity of martyr (Shaheed) is one of the factors of stability and victory. This belief can be observed in all the recent movement of the region. Because the martyr is alive and is the source of effect and awake and shine on the people of world. This mystery of the prohibition of this illusion about the death of martyr is that they have better life. For encouraging the people to the Jihad, God, All purified, expresses the important spiritual factors in victory of struggle. In Surah Baqara, the belief of better life and prosperity of martyr is the main factor of stability and victories. Shaheed Motahhari says “what does a martyr do?... every single drop of martyr’s blood changes to hundreds of drops or even sometimes turns to the sea of blood and enters to the body of society”. Martyr has epic effects, and the greatest characteristics


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of martyr are his heroic and epic characteristics. In those nations which the spirit of epic, especially divine epic, dies, the main characteristics of martyr is to revive this dead epic, thus Islam always needs martyr because it always needs epic characteristics: Brand new epic, brand new creation”. Self-sacrifice gains its purity from consciously sacrificing one’s existence before a sacred goal. Martyr has practical influences, it means as he tries to save others in his life, the effect and the bounties of his blood help more people to be guided so they would follow the way of martyr. Martyr’s blood is effective in any conditions. Perhaps this effectiveness would not be immediately, but it can never prevent the effectiveness of the martyr’s blood and realization of his objectives. This fact that martyrdom seeking was mentioned in the Holy Quran, shows that martyr after his martyrdom like before it was thinking about the prosperity of others and he is not disinterested about other people. Because martyr is altruist and he has passed away with this virtue. Martyr has two mandates: relative and absolute. Absolute mandates indicate that he is alive and take his aliment before God, and relative mandates indicate the creation of the culture of martyrdom, expanding them in Islamic nation and protection of Islamic of mandates. When the Palestinians record the new entry of “selfsacrifice” into their literature, Israeli high ranking experienced officials recently understood the exact meaning of the words of fear, panic and anxiety. Shaheed Yahya Ayyash is the father of martyrdom seeking in Palestine. He realized that the only way to freedom of Palestine was in self-sacrifice, he paved a new way for the adolescence and the youth which the end of the road, undoubtedly, will have

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening freedom and salvage for the people of Palestine. Egypt and Arabic countries will be freed from current desolation and inappropriate conditions unless they return to integration religion and policy. Martyrdom in the struggle with tyrant, according to exact words of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), is not only less valuable than martyrdom at the front but also more valuable because guarding the governance is the main guarantee for protection of Islam and Muslims and is more important than victory at the front. Social components The revival of national benevolence and magnificence Current Arabic Revolution from Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya to Bahrain and Yemen put an end to historical humiliating of the Arabs. It is not true to attribute these Arabic Revolutions to the will of the US and the West. Some of them even seek the roots of Egyptian Revolution in Barak Obama’s speech in Al- azhar two years ago and believe that this speech has spread the seed of the Revolution. However Sayyed Hassan Nasr Allah’s speech during 33 day war of the Gaza which blamed Hosni Mubarak affected public opinion in Egypt and provoked their anti-despotism and anti-Zionism feelings. Certainly this awakening originated from people’s inside. The Islamic Revolution of Iran’s records not only turn Iran to a magnificent nation but also it was an absolute example for nations which has viewed the national authority of Iran against imperialism. The presence of people in the field of practice Last year nobody believed that the Flame of Revolution


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starts to kindle in the hot land of the Middle East and the Northern Africa and devour reactionary and suppressive systems. But the ghost of revolution, sometimes rapidly and sometimes slowly, travels in the countries of the region. By its travel trembles the palace of tyranny and familiarize the hopeless nations with the concepts of political human being, civilization and having roles in the process of selfdetermination. In the revolutionary thoughts of Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) and Ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread His shade), the commander of Muslims, the people are the pillar of legitimacy of religious ruling and frequently emphasized that the people are determinative and decision maker. The Supreme leader of Iran (May Allah spread His shade) says “in my opinion, the most important element in these revolutions is the real and public presence in the field of practice and the scene of fight and Jihad, not only with their heart, requests and their faith but also with their body. There is a distanced gap between such presence and the uprising done by military or armed forced in front of the indifferent eyes of people�. The first characteristic in the formation of this movement is the presence of people from various social groups. The profound role of women and the youth in the world of Arab was unprecedented. All were in the street without weapon but determined their requests were clear: the overthrown of the regime�; they were straitened. Everything begins from the public role of the people of Tunisia. It was the self-burning of the young and desolate peddler named Tariq Al Tayyib Mohammad Al-buazizi in the city of Ben Aroos which provoked the revolution.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening He burned himself because of the insult and quarrel of the municipality officials for not having the necessary license for peddling. His burning body can likened to Phoenix who rises from his ashes and asks for his humane and free life. The flame that he kindled continued in the body of dictatorial governments of the region. After Mohammad Buazizi, some people imitate his action in Egypt, Mauritania and Algeria. But maybe it wasn’t necessary to do that, because after the movement of Tunisia and its victory, this movement spreads to other countries of Northern Africa and the Middle East of Asia. They named this revolution with various names. The West in continuation of colorful revolution named this revolution “jasmine Revolution”. Those who are more realistic named this revolution as “Sayyedi Bu Yazid Revolution”. This is the name of city that the first demonstration happened. But only a Revolutionary who is in this context of revolution can feel correctly the real spirit and meaning of this public movement. The people of Tunisia gave the most meaningful name to their revolution “magnificence revolution”. Yemen is not politically and economically developed country and what is more important is that in this country each person has three guns. Its population is almost twenty millions and there are 70 millions of guns. People have demonstrated for seven months, they don’t fire their guns, but on the other hand the army of Ali Abdullah Salih kills the people and this is unpredictable. Egyptians are culturally developed; Tunisia is somehow developed economically and culturally. Yemen has a traditional society but it acts like a developed country. Ali Abdullah Salih was injured in his palace, but nobody undertakes responsibilities and


Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... this is a great phenomenon. The movement of the people of Yemen, the non-violent movement of the people of Egypt and Bahrain, all are the consequences of these events. At first this movement doesn’t belong to a party or a military and there was no interference or support of political parties. In this movement, the poor and the public rose before the rich, clergymen and outstanding figures and then parties joined them and the demonstration formed.


Setting goals and providing mottos by people Every revolution is a conscious, voluntary and purposeful phenomenon. The differences between the revolutions and chaotic rebellions are in these factors. Revolutions have ideology and planning, in revolutions there is a kind of labor division between people and leaders and finally after toppling the authority, the goal of each revolution is reconstructing with the new logic. The nation of the region began their struggle with the name and remembrance of God and the motto of “Allah o Akbar”, performing congregation and Friday prayers, and writing Quranic verses on their automobile’s windshield and emphasize on this way. Writing motto was in the way of the revolutionaries combatants of Iran. The various mottos of No East and No West, Allah o Akbar, Haihat men al zellah, down with America and the occupying regime, etc. and other religious mottos always were emphasized by demonstrators. We can still see the motto of Islamic republic and the pictures of the supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) in the Shiite region. Americans, themselves, better than any other nations

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening knows that the main core of this rise; the main role of guidance of demonstrators was on the shoulders of Ekhvan Al Moslemin in Egypt which one their great achievement was choosing epic names for the days of resistance. Ahmad Shafiq, the prime minister of Mubarak’s government in the last days of President Mubarak administration offered four positions to them so that he was able to control their revolutionary movement that was refused by leaders of Ekhvan. Two Shiite streams of “Haqq” and “Vefaq” have the main role of guidance of the demonstrators in Bahrain and the return of “Mashima” to Bahrain and his declaration on his dependencies on Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) and the coffin of martyrs which was inscribed with the mottos of “Ali vali Allah” and “Labbaik ya Hossein” were glad tidings of great victories in this country. “Al-Nihza” movement has a great role in the revolution of the people of Tunisia. Broadcasting Azan after many years, reopening of mosques, the freedoms of hijab and entering female students with hijab to the universities are the results of these struggles which by resigning of Mohammad Al Ghanushi these concepts have gotten new meanings. “sanusi” stream in Libya and “Al Husi” streams in Yemen each has great effect on this uprising and their role make the nature of Intifada more clear. One of the main purposes of people in this movement was resistance of people to form the new democratic system which is obtained directly from votes and opinions of people. Today Tunisia and Egypt has set up their voting polls for entering the process of structural changes in their own countries and in the near future Yemen and Bahrain will


Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... enter this process by breaking the last resistance of tyrant of their countries. Certainly, in the future political system of the region, there is no place for kings and hereditary states and god in Quran says “when the kings enter a city, they destroy it and humiliate the squirearchy.” Justice seeking and fighting against tyranny This is an idea which contemporary society needs them and modern intellectuals seek them in their writings, struggles and decrees. Realization of justice depends on overlooking our own and family convenience and the acceptance of difficulties, torture, being killed, captivity and plunders. Another message of Islamic Awakening is fighting against tyranny. During the history this phenomenon is the place of meeting of justice and injustice which is the basis of movement of prophets against this evil feature. 298

The culture of freedom Freedoms, fighting against tyranny, giving in to injustice, not being afraid of death and facing it are the main strength in this rise. The mottos of “hey at men al zeal” of the people of Bahrain and the mottos of people of Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Yemen indicate fighting against tyranny and seeking glory, they shouted repeatedly “people are determined to topple the domineering system” Making strangers hopeless As mentioned in the words of the supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) “foreign power tried to preserve the corrupt and dependent leaders in these countries with the latest skills and abilities and they don’t support them

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening when the rise and determination left nothing for them. They are not shareholders at all. What has frightened the West and made them hopeless was the theoretical dimension of Islamic Awakening. This fact that after many centuries of profanities, attempt to marginalize the religion and theorizing secularism and secular values, today comprehensive and liberating movement centered on religion occurs in the region of the Middle East and Northern Africa and it is not obvious that to what extent it will extent. It is a dreadful nightmare which its interpretation can be the decline of humanistic thoughts and the fall of values of secularism and liberalism and that the deadlock of philosophy of materialistic school and based on this, it seems that we have to select a place for liberalism near communism in the museum of history. Certainly, when the founder of Islamic Awakening interprets the occurrence of Islamic Revolution of Iran to light explosion he was thinking of global mission of this revolution and believes the Islamic Awakening is the beginning of the Awakening of human in the world. The youth and their intellectual and scientific capacities in Islamic awakening The Supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) was hopeful of Islamic democracy and avoidance of laic democracy changes of the region in his speech at the meeting of Islamic Awakening, thus he says “trust your young generation, renew the spirit of self-confidence in them, and provide those experiences of skilled and aged. The current generation has the capacity to do such affairs. The old generation is proud of the current young generation.�


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It is the first time that the youth of Tunisia and then the youth of Egypt have begun a movement which its product is a challenging process for achievement of this requisition and the foundation of Islamic democratic society basing on the voting of citizens. The roots of revolution in Egypt and Libya and Yemen and Bahrain are very similar to the roots of the revolution of Tunisia. Among the names given to the revolution of Egypt, I like to mention the youth revolution. The great young population of Egypt and Tunisia (30% of population) are the users of internet which is the cause of a great influence in public mobilization. The Egyptian youth has smartly used Facebook and Twitter and Tunisian users are about 35 percent of the population. Tunisia has the most internet users among the Arab countries. This great net-army could remove all the barriers. According to Google, more than 35% of Egyptians have access to internet. This is why Mubarak in 28 January 2011, just three days after the onset of the protest limited the access to internet. College students have always contributed a lot to social and political ties which is due not only to their passion and high education but also to their insight, pragmatism and their social concerns. The same thing can be viewed in all the history of high education. The European student uprising in the 60s, Iranian students protest against Shah in the 50s, popular rise of three decades later, the Middle East events and beyond that the “occupy Wall Street� movements are among some examples. But what makes students protest can be understood under the light of recent experiences. The Arab spring reached some

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening European countries in summer and fall and is going to reach all the Europe and U.S. as well as some Latin American countries. Kathy Mc clani, a political activist in the U.S. emphasized that “Occupy Wall Street movement is the beginning of U.S spring. I think that the world will see that the Americans are awakening and I am so excited. Given the next year we need a revolution”. Regarding the Islamic Awakening in Tunisia some important notions can be considered: A country which allocated seven percent of its GDP to higher education with a population 98 percent of which literate. The revolution expanded in the Arab and northern African countries which one out of five people, is between 14 and 25. Mohammad Bu Azizi was one of these youth who set fire of revolution on himself. The years of despotism, economic crises and class differences triggered the fire. But the wrath of people was in part the gun powder accumulated in the cities: students and graduates without any future. “Employment, security and opportunity for the youth” were among what Ibrahim Salih calls it the missing factor of the youth life in the Arab countries. As a chancellor of the Qatari university he believes that students and graduates were not optimistic about their employment so they served in the Arab revolutions. His shocking statistics suggest a 90 million Arab youth population who are graduated from universities without any hope; however the Arab dictators were among the first victims of these students. What Mr. Salih Al-Na’imi meant by “the chance of practicing youth’ was not certainly irresponsibility, because this chance was already provided for the Western countries.


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Instead, he meant the influential presence of the Muslim and gallant youths in political, social and religious scenes. The scenes of Islamic Awakening in Arab and Islamic countries, broadcast by media showed youths whose motto were mostly Islamism, authority, autonomy and antityranny. They regarded all these as the remedy for all their internal crises. Moreover, the subject of employment and security was important and couldn’t be ignored. According to Doctor Elizabeth King one of the directors of the human developing program of the world bank, the development of primary and secondary education in these countries along with their young population and also the lack of a better way for living exhorted the youths to take higher education. This education offers them a degree not a skill for entering the labor market. In an interview Mrs. King made it clear that “the higher education is in fact a political matter because the youngsters in the streets don’t demonstrate but the college students do”. The major problem with Mrs. King’s belief is her monodimensional judgment about the scientific, academic aspects and the vigilant youths in these countries. When the youths in Egypt, Labia and Tunes felt a mysterious force wanted to lead their victory toward accepting a secular regime, unanimously shouted “we want the Islam; we don’t allow the Western rulers to make decisions for our nation”. An important photo, published by media during the Tunisian Revolution, showed a group of youths standing in the street to perform their prayer. This photo became the symbol of the Islamic Awakening of the Arabian revolutions. It showed how the Tunisian youths imposed by religious restrictions, could regain the pleasure of piety after 23

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening years by a sudden uprising. By performing a congregation prayer, they proved that they still adhere to the Islamic teachings. Today this Arabian movement has changed into the most important and influential revolution. Obviously, all the rulers in the world and regional or local players attempt to demonstrate their participation in this revolution to their interests and wishes. The demands of the Arabian youths are the common commands all over the human world. The occupied Wall Street, though it cannot be called a revolution yet, has been inspired by the resistance and movements of the Middle East and has shocked the foundation of capitalism. Although the occupation of the Wall Street, spreading very quickly throughout the United States and soon in the Western countries, has involved some large groups of countries concerned, it is the young students who has gained control over a large part of the movement. The news from all over the United States shows the youths and students’ widespread participation in this public movement. The lack of Elites One of the features of the recent movements is that unlike the past revolutions, it has no leader; that is to say, it has no charismatic leader. During the years before the Islamic revolution, emphasis was put on the necessity of a guide or a leading person in order to prevent any deviation from the path of the movement. Such intellectuals as Dr. Shari’ati who had been educated in abroad, posited the thesis of Imam and community; they regarded any movement without Imam as vain. When there is no Imam, it is difficult for the groups to gain wisdom. On the contrary, in the recent uprisings absence of a political leader is obvious.


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People in these countries know what they don’t want but they don’t know what they really should want. For instance, the clergies in Egypt who has been always lagging behind as spectators during this uprising announced that “our laws must be Islamic but we don’t want an Islamic government”. This is a worrisome problem; however, we are optimistic about the future of the Middle East because people have returned to their human nature and a widespread awakening has begun all over the Islamic world. The Supreme Leader of Islamic Republic (May Allah spread His shade) said: This Awakening must be guided in a correct way; the responsibility of this is incumbent upon the thinkers and clergies in the Islamic world. They must bring about a situation in which this Awakening ends to the Islamic governance. The political and economic constraints the ruling government has imposed upon the clergies, in particular those in the Al Azahar university, has reduced the effectiveness of this centre in the society and consequently most of their Fitwas are issued only to gain satisfaction of the dictatorial and tyrannical rulers. By imposing financial constraints upon the clergies in the Al Azhar University, the rulers attempt to exploit them only as a means of war or religious mottos. This has resulted in enfeebling the structure of the university and all its disciplines both the religious and non-religious ones. Since it was established, the Al Zahar University has been playing a central role in the history. It is sorrowful to see this university has lost its leading role and its guiding light has vanished. The shining of this educational center of Islamism has disappeared because of the corrupt policies dominating this center under

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening the pretext of Arabism. Because of the government intentional ignorance policy of this scientific center, it has changed into a centre fighting against intellectual and religious freedom, since it is reluctantly and financially dependent upon the government. Only some court and governmental scholars can enter this university under the government control; sometimes they even fight against their own religion. After the felicitous revolution in Egypt that boosted the youth’s hope for returning to the golden age of scientific and political movement in Egypt, this university must be revived to lead the continuation of the movement as a university with a role in making history and civilization. . Political components Resistance against the U.S. and Zionist pressure The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) believes that Palestinian Resistance has been modeled by resent revolution. “The great recent movement has modeled Palestine to proceed” he said. According to Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) and Ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread His shade) Palestine is the main focus of humanity and the Islamic world. They assume an all-out resistance as the only way to liberate Palestine and also a religious idea for the Muslims. Despite global and regional pressures in the Muslim countries, today Islam seeking is a growing phenomenon which confronts great power’s policies. Thomas Freedman suggests that opposing the U.S. in Europe is a hobby but a duty in Islamic world. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) states


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that “what threatens the Zionist regime is not Iran’s missiles or the resistant groups but determination of men and women in Islamic nations who don’t want the U.S., Europe and there puppet regimes to offend them. As a liberal democrat state, the occupying regime has faced with the same crises as the West as well as environmental effects of the Islamic Awakening. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) during the Islamic Awakening meeting emphasized the fight against the occupying regime as the principle for the current revolution of the region. He also added that “nations under the influence of the East could liberate themselves after 80 years, so can Palestine”. The occupying regime knows that the previous order of Middle East is declining given the Egypt status. Ehud Barak has formally announced that after the Egyptian revolution, the Sinai Peninsula may change to be a safe haven for the Palestinian combatants. Attacks to the Israeli embassy in Cairo made the Israeli officials believe that there is an anti-Israeli move among the revolutionary governments especially when the border tension between the Egyptian and Israeli caused the bloodshed. Will Egyptian states go on its policy toward the occupying regime, or the new Egyptian officials remain a concern to the occupying regime? Besides, bombing the gas popes by the Egyptian saboteurs can be a threat to the occupying regime for it shows their hatred from the occupying regime and any dealing with it. A survey in this spring (2011) shows that half the people of the Egypt agree with cancellation of the Camp David Accords which was signed in 1979 during the Sadat administration with the U.S. and the occupying regime.

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening They want Egypt to return to its great national standing to resist against the occupying regime and its policies regarding Jewish settlements. Islamist parties’ success in Tunisia and the growing position in Libya and Egypt can threaten the occupying regime’s environmental stability. The initial impetus in the Arab movements was to reduce political pressure and corruption of their respective states. However by now it has been obvious that Islam can play a critical role in their states after the Arab Spring. What concerns the occupying regime is a shift in the political discourse of the region. Islamic Revolution as a model As ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread His shade) said “no doubt the Iranian nation is being observed by the awakened peoples of Egypt and Tunisia and even by people having imposed and evil systems. Our nation is recognized in the world as a pioneer Muslim one having insight and awareness in different arenas.” “Where is the modern Islam’s cradle?” asked the culture and thought desk editor of the German newspaper Die Welt during an interview with Juan Goytisolo, a famous Spanish intellectual. “Iran, certainly Iran at the first place.” replied Goytisolo. Islamic Republic of Iran has emerged in an “age of revolutions and movement”. The Western state and the US strived to prevent Iran from becoming a model; so attempted to inculcate the people of the region with the feeling that this course has many difficulties and leads to complete isolation. They tried to impose economic pressures and sanctions, deprival of knowledge and technology, etc. through psychological warfare among the world’s people and introduce Iran as


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such. Visiting Iran, one would be surprised. These facts motivate the people of the region to pursue much seriously their own movements. The religious nature of the movement is the same as the strength of the revolution in the third decade of its existence. Removing the thought limits of the revolution theoreticians was among others, one of the achievements of the Islamic Revolution. For instance, Theda Skocpol who used to deny ideological roles in revolutions, in a paper under the title of “Shiite in the Islamic Revolution” writes “this revolution makes me expand my understanding about the potential roles of the belief systems and cultural issues in shaping political actions”. Among the influential contributions of the Islamic Revolution for the West and even the Islamic World, was the Islamic thoughts renewal all over the world, the political Islam being one of the main ones. Actual experience of the Islamic Revolution in various arenas especially during the holy defense years against the aggressive enemies revealed the role of spiritual issues in manpower as a global achievement. These experiences provide the revolutionaries and Islamic liberating movement of the world with the useful source that the revolution in the name of God and religion addressed more than one billion Islam seeking Muslims. The Iranian Revolution unlike other movements from the very unset encouraged the religious renaissance and resurrection. Its founder being aware of other Muslims needs and requests introduced the Muslims’ awakening and “return to Islam” as its manifesto. Most of its pioneers as such have emphasized the under development of the Islamic nations. Thus authorities of

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening the Islamic movements during the recent three decades tried to motivate and awaken the Muslim population. The increasing Islam seeking trends of the world’s different peoples suggest a promising future for Islam. As Ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread His shade) states, “the prospect of today’s world shows that the 21 century is the century of Islam.” Therefore, the Islamic system of Iran has been able to make great strides both theoretically and practically toward solidarity of the Islamic community under the flag of Islam. The illuminating ideas of the late Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) and his cause attacked the unjust ties of international system, “Occupy Wall Street” against capitalism being a prominent example in the US and all over the world. If the late Imam (May Allah grant Him peace) was among us, he might announce the collapse of the capital system as he had already announced the collapse of the socialist one. The late Imam (May Allah grant Him peace) states that “now your movement and revolution has covered the world and the light of Islam has reached the other parts of the globe”. As the American Heritage Foundation admits, Ayatollah Khomeini’s ideas are still alive in the region especially among the Shiite groups of Iraq and the Lebanese Hezbollah. He taught his proponents how to gain popular support. The Islamic Revolution’s international influences cannot be ignored. Even when some Muslims did not believe in political aspect of Islam they became aware and came to realize that they are able to regain their economic, political and cultural independence and once again become the most


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powerful international force. The main concept i.e. what is named “Islamic renaissance” in international relations literature and the main concern of the West is but the link between the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the Middle East’s waves. This is what the western media are to conceal. It is worth mentioning that while Iranian parties are engaged in the daily routines and many of the exalted teachings of the Revolution are being forgotten, the Revolution and Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) are among the most popular concepts abroad. The secular West and its leaders are inactively watching the broad influences of religious and spiritual messages of the late Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) and the Islamic Revolution on the western citizens. Renewal of the Church, increase in the missions, dramatic movements of the religious leaders and their engagement in politics, interests in religious audiovisual and written products, and increase in popular protest against profanities are among some cultural influences of the Islamic Revolution and its awakening outcomes in the West. It is fair to measure the capabilities of the movements by their “leader’s strategy”. The late Imam (May Allah grant Him peace) state that “our movement is for Islam and our Republic is an Islamic one; thus the movement cannot be limited to just one country and even to only Islamic countries. The Islamic movement is in line with the profits movement so it cannot be limited to just one place. The holy Prophet of Islam is from Arabia but his mission is a universal one”. He also says “the sacred movement of Iran is an Islamic one, thus all the Muslims are affected by it”. He also emphasized the “self-confidence and self-consciousness”

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening to defeat Muslims’ ignorance. According to Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) self-consciousness is motivating approach and a religious obligation as well as a rational issue for the Muslims. He utilized the logical Islam that any indifference to the outsider’s hegemony would be blamed. Dr. Tallal Atrisi, a Lebanese intellectual assumes the Islamic revolution and interpretation of Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) as the cause of two revolutions in the Islamic world, saying “an internal revolution regarding fiqh and emphasis on the movement in the era… and a second external revolution creating a fiqh focusing on Islam’s ability to make changes and govern. This was unlike the European views and Marxist theories which assumed religion as a cause of underdevelopment, thus the Islamic Revolution is a great shift in the 20th century that accelerated the Islamic Awakening among the Islamic figures and movements. Michel Foucault, the French philosopher and sociologist, believes that “discourse of Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) was situated not only among the minds but within the souls of the oppressed and was accepted in accordance with love rather than logic.” Professor Herider Kernijian writes that “an Islam’s renewal and return to its values is apparent all over the World. We noticed Islam just after the Islamic Revolution and its influences on the politics and international affairs. Fundamentalism became a frequent term in the western political literature”. Eqbal in his book insider philosophy predicts that Tehran would be Muslim’s headquarters in the future. Carter, the


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then president of the U.S. said that “Iran is a safe island in one of the critical regions of the world”. Today Iran is the main target of the enemies. Some Zionist theoreticians such as Eban suggest that “Islamic Republic is a turning point in the ideas that are frequent in the Middle East and has become a model for the oppressed Muslims”. The Islamic Republic was actually a model for it was great in the eyes of Iranians as well as other peoples of the region. The Islamic Republic is characterized by its antidespotism and anti-colonization because it is in line with human nature and the Islamic teachings. Thus the contemporary political theorists assume the Islamic Awakening the result of the Iranian religious movement. As Saeed Sha’ban, leader of Lebanese Islamic Oneness group said “jihad and self-sacrifice in Lebanon are inspired by Islamic Revolution in Iran”. Rashid Al Ghanushi, leader of the Tunisian Islamic party explicitly stated that “this is the first time in the contemporary world that an Islamic movement becomes so powerful that it can cause a revolution. So the Islamic movement of Iran has realized Islam both theoretically and practically”. Demonstrators in the Arab countries have chanted some slogans concerning truce with their armies (just like the very beginning of the Islamic Revolution in Iran) and have given flowers to the soldiers (again reminiscent of the Islamic Republic in Iran). This is indicative of awareness in those revolutions and its expansion of them to the Arab countries. Ayatollah Khamenei(May Allah spread His shade) explicitly supported the Arab protestors and encouraged them. An American expert in communication from Virginia that has chosen the name of Hajar Hosseini for herself says

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening that “I became interested in Islam just after the Islamic Revolution. I had studied different religions but had not noticed Islam until Islamic Revolution happened and then I converted to Islam”. Parameters for preserving the Islamic Awakening Cultural component Ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread His shade) regarding the strategies for preserving victories mentioned some spiritual notions such as trust in God, optimism about divine promises, lack of ignorance, permanent combat, wisdom and determination, courage and unison as well as the following: Permanent reinterpretation of the principles of the revolution The principles and causes of the revolution are considered its roots without which it cannot advance. Causes are signs to lead the revolutionaries and touchstones to measure them. Any toppling in revolutions is due to leaving the principles. Thus it is necessary to reinterpret the principles. By the way the interpretation prevents the deviation in revolutions. Deviant streams have a revolutionary guise but change the principles of revolutions. The deviation in the words of the supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) begins with a deviation in the mottos and goals. The enemies of revolution initially try to change the mottos and symbols of revolution then alter the goals and causes. In the Islamic Revolution the slogans “Down with the U.S.” and “Islamic Republic” were replaced by some with “Down with Russia” and “Persian Republic” to echo the enemies’ will.


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System developing Revolutions consist of two stages: destruction of the status quo and developing a new system, without the latter revolutions may turn to rebellions. The achievement of the revolutionary forces is due to this stage. What kind of system is now appropriate for the governance? Experiences of the Islamic Revolution and the Islamic world in the recent decades suggest that the West is trying to establish two kinds of state: the liberal state under the pretext of democracy, human rights and civil liberties (like secular Turkey) and some reactionary religious movements (like Taliban and Wahhabis) which both are dangerous for the Islamic Revolutions. In fact Islamic Revolutions are always faced with the modern and the reactionary forces, the former excludes religion from social affairs and the latter ignores all the scientific achievements. Both are plagues for any revolution. The Islamic Revolution has been faced with both forces during the recent three decades. Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) warned against the liberals and reactionary force of Hojjatiye. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) refers to “religious democracy� to merge the divine teachings with the new age saying “one of the main causes of the revolutionary people is their desire to self-determination and contribution to their own governance. Since they are Muslim, they want a religious democracy that is officials are chosen by people and values and principles are based on Islam. This could be realized in different countries according to their conditions but care should be taken not confuse it with the western liberaldemocracy. Secular democracy in the west has nothing to

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening do with the Islamic democracy committed to values and principles of Islam. Secondly, Islamism should not be confused with the reactionary and extremist forces. Religious extremism makes with violence is the cause of underdevelopment and defeat of revolutions. Social components Taking the dangers into account The supreme leader’s warnings about the danger facing the rising people are so serious: “initially there are both dangers and ways to deal with them. Peoples should not be fearful of dangers. Let enemies be fearful of you. Dangers should be identified so that no doubt and hesitation regarding them would happen”. Just after Mubarak’s fall in Egypt the U.S. officials were frightened and O’bama against his state’s and the occupying regime’s policy which are based on violence stated that “the moral and violence force has shifted the direction of history toward justice”. Given the contemporary movements it is clear that the West always tries to take advantage of the changes and revolutions according to its interest in the Middle East and Northern Africa; a warning Shaheed Ab Al-Aziz Rentisi, the then leader of the Islamic Resistance (Hamas) had mentioned. It is noteworthy that during the conflict between the oppressed people and oppressor state, the superpowers and international colonialist that prefer the status quo to promote their own interests suddenly appear and try to indorse the states through the military, political and security means


Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... in order to control the revolutions unless they are assured that the change is inevitable. Then they try to defend their favorite system though the new systems turned to be exactly the very systems just toppled. Today the U.S. and the West are apparently promoting different NGOs, preserving human rights and democracy but they actually spend a lot of money to expose their favorite figures to win the elections. There should be some parameters to measure the people as well as insight to deal with the enemies’ plots. But now we can see some aware and active forces who lead the Islamic movements and who are able to resist the terrorist attacks of colonialist in the region. The current collapse of western liberalism and the Muslim Front is the continuation of the Islamic Revolution. 316

Political component The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) regarding the nascent revolutions stated that “peoples and elites are but the owner of the revolutions who can develop and promote them. Not to be faithful from enemies & interventionists The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) encourages the revolutionaries offering an example from the early Islamic period war “the fear from the U.S. and other interventionist powers should be avoided. The brave elites and the youth should avoid fear”. When the Egyptians were on the scene, the U.S. officials were eagerly supporting Mubarak and the Egyptian system to divide people. At the same time, the supreme leader (May

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Allah spread His shade) addressed the Egyptian people and made them courageous. His speech without any political expectation was delivered differently in comparison with the other foreign officials’ since it entered the Egyptians’ hearts. Today the peoples of the region are awakened and are to take revenge from the traitors such Saudi Arabia which deviated Egypt from its historical course and made it a dependent state to defeat its rival. Now, the Egyptians know that Saudi Arabia is afraid of Mubarak’s trial because of its role in the Camp David process and financial support for him to sign an EgyptianSaudi-Zionist treaty. For the same reason, a corrupt person (Walid ben Tallal) spent four billion dollars to prevent Mubarak from being tried. He offered 100,000 acres of his land to the prosecutor, Abd Al Majid Mahmood as a bribe. The Egyptian people will take revenge because it is greater than Sadat, Mubarak or Saudi State. Parameters for the survival of the Islamic Awakening Cultural component As the Islamic Revolution owes its emergence to an intellectual guidance, its survival will depend on a cultural basis. Iranian Awakening began with religious leadership. The same leadership can guide the people abroad and this is exactly the “Export of Revolution”. Social component The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) presents booty seeking as a threat in revolutions saying “ignorance


Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... due to the initial victory is dangerous especially when people go to seize booties”. This is because the revolutionaries think that everything is over. By the way some anti-revolutionary forces may enter the scene. Toppling of the three decades of the Islamic Revolution reveals the fact very clearly.


Political components Identifying west-dependent figures One of the external threats for revolutions is the role of west-dependent figures. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) warns that “the first threat is persons committed to the U.S. and the West”. If the great powers cannot prevent a revolution from happening they will try to support the west-dependent figures to alienate it. The Constitutional Revolution was a typical example which started with the clergies and support of the people but the west-dependent persons and foreign embassies seized it and excluded the committed clergies. The same danger threatens our Islamic State and most of the recent revolution. The enemies try to create the deviant alternatives to be the models for the revolutions. They inculcate western models of socialist and liberalist systems as the only version of the governments. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) states that “some deviant alternatives are made available in the movements. Media and financial support, civil wars, economic sanctions and account blockades among others are their tactics to defeat revolutions. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) states that “they are two despair people from their support for revolutions”.

Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...

Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience, Execute Fears, Unite, Plan and Organize to Achieve Victory Abstract:


Youth Islamic Awakening – Awaken the Inner Conscience, Execute Fears, Unite, Plan and Organize to Achieve Victory. By Hashim Okera – International Short Courses and Sabbatic Islamic Awakening is backed by the youth of the community. Youth Islamic Awakening has been successful and blessed by Almighty Allah s.w.t. and our Saviour Imam al Mahdi a.j.f. In this new wave after Islamic Revolution of Imam Khomeini in Islamic Republic of Iran. Muslim countries as well as in Western countries Youths are rejecting the arrogance, oppression and so called democracy of their government. Youth' awakening is looking for change to have better safe, secured and just government. Power hungers see Islamic Awakening as big threat for losing their power and domination in this world. Now the power mongers are spending lots funds to divert the Islamic awakening in their interest. The major victim has been youth; different type of mechanism has been used to divert the attention of the youth. Youth should awaken their conscience and see from different side of the hypocrites. Youth should be united regardless of different faith of Islam. Youth should plan before any move. Youth should organize and follow the pious leadership. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience, Execute Fears, Unite, Plan and Organize to Achieve Victory

In the words of the English historian Edward Gibbon: "In

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening a distant age and climate, the tragic scene of the death of Hussein will awaken the sympathy of the coldest reader." Youth Islamic Awakening is in Muslim nations beginning of revolutionary mayhem as well as the appearance of Islamic awakening wave in recent decades especially last year in the region indicate the revival and backtracking of Islamic nations to their forgotten civilization and identification. The root of Islamic Awakening has been started when Prophet Mohammad s.a.w. rejected the rich society of tyrant and pagans communities when he was all alone in his, he rejected without any fear of isolation, punishment or death. The Prophet Mohammad s.a.w did not leave them aside but also invited them to one God and to live in peace and harmony in Islam, mission. The important manifestation of a political system is vindicated through the establishment of a state and the way of its governance. Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) established a state at Madina, of a unique type, based on consultation, justice, equality and accountability. Youth are the backbone of the society; youth are the spring water of the healthy society. The impact of Islamic Revolution upon the Muslim youths all over the world, have developed in the period of time when the Islamic movements have been resuscitated in the world level and it sparked by the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 that afterwards has been reflected in the world. Youth have come to conclusion that the late Imam Khomeini the Founder of Islamic Revolution, the reverend Supreme Spiritual Leader and the Founder of I.R of Iran used to follow precisely the same methods of the Holy Prophet of Islam (PBUH).


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


Youth awakening has been big threat to the power mongers of the west. West see that Islamic awakening is filling the gap of so called western 'democracy' and so called 'western style human rights' that created between nationals and governments. The propaganda machine has been established to create threat and doubts amongst the youth. It presents this common core of Islamic culture as a great burden, but one only needs to look at the unfortunate millions who are left on their own in the name of freedom, to ascertain the truth. Is it not true that if one were to draw a family-and-homelife-disaster map of the world, it will coincide with a map of the Western world? The distinctly safe area will be the Muslim world, with a gray area within it coinciding with the areas of westernization. The safeguards and the disaster are built into the underlying cultural values and one cannot do a wholesale exchange of cultural practices without buying into the underlying values and facing the consequences. Today youth do not accept blindly following the tyrant and aggressive leader or regime. Youth awakening has no more room for the so called power mongers democracy. Youth are looking forward for the fare and just regime. Youths are been bombarded with fake false information about their own homeland and are been attracted to the western countries. Youths are migrating to the western countries in mass. Spending thousands of dollars to get in the west and risking their life just to get in the western countries. The same amount would be fruitful opportunity if they might have invested in their own country. With the failure of Muslim regime and Muslim leaders youths today see water stream in the hot desert. This is not because of

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Allah s.w.t. Book the Holy Qur'an, The Sunnah and the Teachings of Ahlulbayt and Sahaba was incomplete but instead the Holy Qur'an was left in precious cupboard and the sunnah on the shelf. Some Muslim youth who are week in their iman, are trapped in the western countries after failing to be accepted in the society or job market again they attempt to change their names from Mohammed to Mo and from Khadija to Katy and so on. Muslim Youth forgetting their beautiful Islamic roots and they imprison themselves more and more in the western corrupt society. I call these group "voluntary slaves". Finally when they wake up they find their culture, their religion and their out spring have gone far from humanity. Then they realize about Islamic teachings and go after Muslim clerics to save their out springs that have gone far. Majority of Muslim Girls find that to live equally without Hijab in the western society is more acceptable. But gradually they find that they are left all alone without the Muslim culture and Islam. The arrogant enemies whose illegitimate interests and avarice are threatened by the Islamic Awakening use psychological warfare - namely making people feel disappointed, stigmatizing their identity, and flaunting their own material power and wealth - as their most important weapon in order to deal with this increasingly powerful wave. There will be thousands of media facilities in the future, as there is today, which will attempt to make Muslims disappointed in the prospect of a bright future or entice them towards the future that is in harmony with their own evil intentions. From the era of colonialism up to the present, this cultural invasion and psychological warfare


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


have been the most effective means of the West in order to establish domination over Islamic countries. The modern propaganda with its international coverage is undoubtedly the most effective force used by the arrogant powers. Today, the number of media and press using multimedia equipment, which spend most of their efforts to oppose Islam, is very high and is constantly increasing. There are number of mercenary experts who are busy broadcasting news and interpretations in order to mislead the minds of their audience and wrongly paint an ugly picture of the Islamic movement and the great Islamic figures. From the pre-Revolution era up to the present, the Islamic Republic has constantly and increasingly been confronted with such belligerent propaganda, said the Supreme Leader Ayatullah Khameini. Since last century it is noticed that hundreds of theories were established in the name of democracy and human rights. The isms were the banner to take advantage of innocent civilians, from socialism, communism, capitalism, liberalism, nationalism and so on. But all witnessed to be under the power hunger rulers and less interest for the civilians. Threats have been sowed in mind of the civilians, so that they should not dare to talk against the adventurist regime. Civilians were bombarded with the fake theory of democracy and human rights. The civilians were forced to blindly follow the rulers. And others either with threat or with the fake policy they were trapped in the system. What was the result death of thousands of thinkers, professional people, hunger and civilians remained slaves within their own country. It is noticed that the western power hungers' have gone

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening from Africa to Asia to make people poorer by the banner of development and so called democracy. Not only that to create cause and instability in the region they established arm sales in the name of so called defenses. Tons of ammunition has been sold to Africa and Asia and now Arab Gulf states are in the process to buy heavy arms from the US, Britain and Zion state. Recently Saudi Arabia and UAE have signed deal of billions of dollars to acquire heavy arms. All these arms in Muslim country will be gathered for what? To save who? The illigimate Arab monarchies? Or to save the interest of Zion regime? To fight with whom? Where the Khadimul Haramain is how come Saudi Arabia forgot the power of Muslims and gone to purchase such weapons? Do not they realize that US, Britain and Zion had control over the economy of African, Asian and Middle Eastern countries? In the return they have been grabbing all kind of resources with their own selected throwing prices of the products, and the innocent civilians will bear the burden of the huge debts. Has the queen of Britain realized that her whole pride the crown filled with jewels, ruby and gems which she takes proudly on the important occasions, are either stolen from India or made by the blood of innocent people in Africa, who live lives of slavery in their own country and everyday they are been shot for small mistake in that gems mining. This is happening today in this era in Africa and Asia. The glimmer of red and green of those jewels is the reflection of the cold and hot blood of innocent minors. Have the westerners or European and North American people realize that to start a day with a cup of coffee or with the blood of the civilian farmers from Africa and


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


Asia? Farmers live lives of the slaves who do not even know after harvesting the crops with which price they are going to sell. The best coffee are been taken from Ethiopia and still they claim that Ethiopia is the poorest claim. The whole remote is under the Zionist regime. Haile Sellassei the Lion of Judah in his Nazaret Gazette in 1960 said that the west is exaggerating the poverty of Ethiopia; their motive is to steal our coffee, gold and Ethiopia's riches. Haile Sellassei was another fascist and the staunt Orthodox Christian whose motive was to erase Muslims from Horn of Africa. The so called Lion of Judah could not see Ethiopian Jews he would burn them alive. He was the severe enemy of Ethiopian Muslim who left them in ignorance. But so smartly the Haile Sellasei establish the first Islamic Shari'a court in the Orthodox Christian Ethiopia. That was all to limit the rights of Ethiopian Muslims. In the Islamic Sharia court only Marriage was performed and not more. Till now the Ethiopian Muslims who are in majority living under systematic discrimination. Higher education is been neither granted nor higher post in the regime is given to the Muslims. During the time of Mangistu Haile Maryam, Ethiopian Muslims had very good chance to strengthen their institution. But Saudi and other Gulf regime's interference in every mosque created fitna. Thus Ethiopian Muslims Ummah who were proud of Sufi sect of Islam that spread in the Africa, remained divided and struggling for their rights in their own country. Thus Ethiopian Muslims live the life of oppression because of disunity in the Muslim Ummah and thanks to the petro money of Saudi Arabia. Ethiopian Muslim Youth rose together with Christian Ethiopians to raise their voice against the regime. But

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening unfortunately the wahhabi and salafis have weakened the force of Ethiopian Muslim Youths awakening. Surprisingly whenever the civilian stand up for their rights they are branded as the either terrorist or thugs or mad mullah. SayyÄŤd Muhammad Abdullah Hassan`Abd AllÄ h alHasan was a Somali religious from Salihiyya Sufi sect and nationalist leader from Northern Somalia. Referred to as the Mad Mullah by the British, he led an armed resistance in Somalia for a period of over 20 years against British, Italian, and Ethiopian forces. He was made utilizing an independent air force unit; this war is not well known to the world. And yet this is the story of one of the first examples of the utilization of modern arms against a powerful people's army, who had the nearly total control of an immense area with strong-points which could not be overrun without extremely severe losses, and with utilization of the sanctuary on the other side of international borders. The parallel with Vietnam is obvious. The Somali Leader Sayyid Mohamed Abdullah Hassan was born in the 1860's in Kirrit in the Ogaden Desert. As a young man he went to sea, and sailed to Egypt where he learned from the Mahadi (religious leader) - known for his victory over Gordon in Kartoum in 1885 - made the traditional pilgrimage to Mecca and joined the very fanatical Islamic sect "Mohamed Salih". The British considered him a religious, fanatic rebel, although an opposition member of the Parliament in London described him as "a. brave man, striving to be free". It has been argued as to whether Sheikh Mohamed was a tribalist or a nationalist. It might be a rather theoretical


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


question in this environment, but the national pride can be seen in a letter he wrote to the English people in 1903: "If the country was cultivated or contained houses or property it would be worth your while to fight. The country is all jungle and that is no use to you. If you want wood or stone you can get them in plenty. There are also many ants heaps. The sun is very hot. All you can get from me is war, nothing else". In several of his poems and speeches, Sayyed Abdulla Hassan said that the British infidels "have destroyed our religion and made our children their children" and that the Christian Ethiopians in league with the British were bent upon plundering the political and religious freedom of the Somali nation. He soon emerged as "a champion of his country's political and religious freedom, defending it against all Christian invaders." He issued a religious ordinance that any Somali national who did not accept the goal of unity of Somalia and would not fight under his leadership would be considered as kafir or gaal. After the First World War it was decided that the British should go into the offensive to annihilate the Mullah and his regime. It was decided to dispatch a self contained RAF unit "Force Z" to Berbera under the command of Group Captain R. Gordon in the last half of 1919. The group had 12 DH9 aeroplanes out of which one was an ambulance plane, 36 officers (incl. 4 medical officers) and 189 other ranks (incl. 25 medical personnel) and had rations, fuel, spare parts, ammunition etc. to operate independently for 6 months. In November 1919 Gordon arrived at Berbera together with his aerodrome engineer and his supply-officer as an

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening advance party. In order to keep the plans secret, they wore no RAF insignia, but came as the advance party for an oilexploring company. They started up with preparing an aerodrome ("site for drilling equipment") at Berbera. Next an aerodrome was made near Burao, 140 km. from Berbera and 150 km. from Eli Dur Elan fort, where the Mullah was suspected to be. During December more than 20 tons of supplies as well as 2.000 camels were moved to the aerodrome at Burao - a 6 day's ride. On 30th December, the main force, with the aeroplanes, arrived by Royal Navy to Berbera. What we see happening in the lands of Somalia has been pre-planned before 70 years when Zion regime in Falastin named Israel was violently established. Somalia has been divided in pieces. Christian Missioners in the name of NGO divided Somalia in tribes. The British major on establishing Israel in Falastin said that I am not worried about neighboring Arabs countries for the security of Israeli state. But he said I am afraid with Somalis, if they are settled in safety, the existence of Israel will be in danger. Somalia is a strategic land, any ship passing for Israel can be monitored easily. In the cold war both USSR and USA were competing to acquire military base in Berbera, but Siad Barre who finally understood the evil motive of so called super power was against USA military base in the region. The attachment of the youths to their spiritual leaders became big threat to the power mongers. The leadership of Ayatullah Ruhullah Imam Khomeini and tens of Shia clerics have put the westerners in questioning 'who these people are?' Living simple lives without arms and wealth they win the heart of millions of people in the world. Not only


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


that also Arab monarchies and puppet leaders of Muslim countries are worried and disturbed with Shia spiritual leaders. The strength of Marja-iyyat (spiritual leadership) made the westerners sleepless; the power of Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Sistani in his small room and the leadership of Ayatullah Khamanei today in the critical time of I.R.of Iran when all European regimes, USA have joined Zion regime to put an end to the Islamic Awakening. Youths are been informed to cut links from Mojtahids, Maraaji and Islamic Scholars. Heavy instrument in different ways has been used from the Universities, Media, Cyber programs and philosophical books. The Mujtahids, Maraaji and Islamic Scholars who showed the world that only Islam and Islamic teachings is the solution for any state, regime, family and home; have been target of the enemy. The strong faith and knowledge of Mujtahids, Maraaji'and Islamic Scholars are been put in the doubts of Muslim youths mind. Some Youths only see what is programmed by the media and the internet information that west has been cheating their own people and the world. Today some youths who have been influenced by western media, still ask the question is there democracy in Islamic countries? Is Islamic Awakening without the help of west will work? Can we survive in western countries with our Muslims identity? Is not Islamic Republic of Iran life example which stands all alone without any western domination? Technology, Science, New kinds of Medicine, Literature and all kind of development that a civilian need is been developed without west. The Leader of Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei, has emphasized that Islamic awakening has

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening undermined and shaken the West's status in the international scene and even in the countries, dominated by the West. With the victory of Islamic Revolution, the process of Muslim nations' awakening started and following the consecutive successes of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the scientific, economic, military, cultural, and political domains, Islamic awakening developed and expanded more than ever. As the Leader of Islamic Revolution pointed out, this Islamic awakening shook the status of the West throughout international equations. Those inside the country engaging in mischief are inspired by crooked illusions. We do not like the deceived youths, boys and girls to live with these devils and get inspiration from them. What have you girls and boys seen from your corrupt leaders except empty claims and perversion. Were they not those who claimed that they were on the side of people and against foreigners? You saw they acted contrary to their claim and took refuge in America, which backs them up. Why did you let others think for you? Why do not you have the independence in your thinking? Why do not you read about those leaders who are corrupting you while they themselves are either in the work, they will come and rule over you. Why do not you think? Why do not you pay attention to your own interests? It is not clear what they will do to you when they come and assume power‌.Wake up, be aware and put an end to all these evil mischiefs. – Imam Khomeyni Sahifey-ye Imam Volume 15 pp 247..0 Every person finds the glamour on the surface of the ocean, unless one jumps in will never know what kind of consequences that person is going to face. Islamic Awakening is not to just overthrow regime. But


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


Islamic Awakening is to awaken the inner conscience of a being both male and female. It starts from the every individual home and family to achieve real Islamic states. Otherwise it will be another regime change without the inner Islamic teachings. As Hojjatul Islam wal Muslimeen Grand Marja' Ayatullah Mazaaheri in his speech when we met him in his resident in Isfahan said that 'amr bil ma'ruf and nahiy anil munkar' is Madhloom "oppressed". To be Good Sunni Muslim or to be good Shi'a Muslim without enjoining good and forbidding bad within the society is great disaster. Emotional and to blindly follow for the Islamic Awakening without going through the instructions of the Holy Qur'an, Sunnah and Ahlul Bayt a.s. and the right leadership, is just like putting salt the big ocean. Thousands books have been distributed by wahhabi, salafis, cia and mossad to confuse Muslim Ummah. They are after youths awakening to divert youth Islamic awakening to their old and wicked interest. Let us reflect upon the cause of the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (A.S.) (the 3rd Successor after the Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.) and the statement made by him. Before leaving Madinah Imam Hussain a.s. made a will and handed it over to his brother Muhammad Hanafiya. In this will Imam wrote:"My mission is to reform the Muslim community which I propose to do by Amr Bil Maruf and Nahiy anil Munkar, inviting them to the good and advising them against evil. It is not my intention to set myself as an insolent or arrogant tyrant or a mischief maker". The Prophet of Islam pbuh said that, "My followers will be in good condition as long as they bid each other towards the good, forbid each other from the evil, and co-operate

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening with each other in good deeds. If they do not do this, then the heavenly blessings will be lifted from them and some evil ones among them will be imposed over them as a ruler. In that state, they will have no helper, neither on the earth nor in the heaven." In the same line, Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib a.s. said: "Verily the people before you perished because when they committed sins, the Rabbis and the Priests did not forbid them from it. And when the people became submerged into sins and the Rabbis and the Priests did not forbid them, then the chastisement came down upon them. Therefore, bid towards the good and forbid the evil: and know that bidding towards the good and sustenance." Do not enslave yourself to another person, for Allah has made you a free person. Islam is the religion of Allah sent down from the heavens to rescue mankind from all problems and to bring about the people’s happiness in this world and the next. It is obligatory to implement Islam in all areas of life – politics, economics, education, society, war, peace, in the house, in the school, in the workplace, in the barracks, and in all other stages of life. Islam is a complete religion providing for all the needs of humanity in every place and at every time. Islam provides for every person: correct belief; freedom for individuals and groups; happiness of life through being saved from poverty, illness, ignorance and crime; complete peace between countries, individuals, and nations. Every person has the right to free thought, free speech, freedom to work, freedom to travel and settle, freedom to write, all of this in a pure framework offered by tolerant Islamic law. The Laws of Islam are all of the systems and laws


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


which the Messenger of Allah brought from Almighty Allah such as the laws of buying and selling, mortgaging, renting, divorce, marriage, the judiciary, bearing witness, inheritance, retribution, compensations and the like. Islam has not neglected to make clear anything, so politics, economics, education, society, peace, war, agriculture, manufacturing, family life, government and all other affairs to do with mankind from his birth to his death are all clarified in Islam and have particular systems and just laws. If mankind implemented them they would find happiness in this world and the next. Maulana Maududi in his book Human Rights in Islam writes, "On the other hand it hurts one's feelings that Muslims are in possession of such a splendid and comprehensive system of law and yet they look forward for guidance to those leaders of the West who could not have dreamed of attaining those heights of truth and justice which was achieved a long time ago. Even more painful than this is the realization that throughout the world the rulers who claim to be Muslims have made disobedience to their God and the Prophet as the basis and foundation of their government. May God have mercy on them and give" Where is so called western democracy when million people stand against their regimes decision. We have witnessed Millions marched before American invaded Iraq from London to Toronto and from Washington to Hamburg. The similar people stood against G8 globalization policy. Where the millions civilians say was heard? Today democracy goes as the rhyme of Music of the regime. As far as regime is safe public's voice is ignored and neglected. Islamic Awakening should start long before world war

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening One when the colonial power shared the poor countries of Africa and Asia as their feast. Every colonial regime took the best part of their interest to rule and grab all kind of resources the developing countries had. Walter Lippman considers it a weakness of democracy that it laid more emphasis on the origin of government rather than on what it should do. He says (Rossiter, 1982, p. 21) : The threats of impacting on the Muslim youths, all kind of fears and doubts are been created in the mind of youth worldwide through different type of sources. But iinstead it turns to opposite, youth become more attached to the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah and their spiritual clergymen and leaders. Youth Islamic Awakening in Western countries is worrying the power mongers. For instance when the late Imam Khomeini the great founder of I-R of Iran issued the verdict of apostasy of Salman Rushdi, the presence and demonstration in the west was considerable. Sayyid Muhammad H.Fadlullah said when Israel was threatening Lebnani revolutionary youths with bombs "rebellion against fear." The great power inspired fear among the oppressed, who had no more than "children's toys" to mount their opposition, but by conquering their own fear, through acceptance of the virtue of martyrdom, the oppressed could evoke alarm and fear among their oppressors." In a short span of time, the first adherents of Hizbullah had overcome fear. "The school of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard made the Muslim youths love martyrdom," said Abbas al-Musawi. In one of his speeches, Imam Hussein a.s. said that the authorities in Kufa had given him only two options -


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


humiliation or death. He carried on to say,' And we do not accept humiliation'. A tradition reported by Imam Sadiq a.s records that, other than not accepting humiliation, Allah Almighty has given to believers a choice in all matters. But after every crush Allah gave it strength, resurgence and a new vigor of life. As Allama Iqbal the poet said, “Islam is brought to life after every Karbala, i.e. after every defeat.” Therefore, every crush brings with it the glad tidings of an imminent revival since victory always comes one step after defeat. “Palestine and resistance, as the main issue of the Islamic World, have turned into a pillar of Islamic Awakening,” Ali Akbar Velayati. He added “This magnificent and vigorous movement calls for fair and respectful interaction with the world, emphasizes on its political independence and defies any hegemony or submission,” Velayati pointed out. “Brothers and sisters in Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Iraq and the entire region, our way to glory, dignity, independence, liberation, power, prosperity, and security, is through unity, avoiding incitements and conflicts, solving issues through dialogue, and holding on to the resistance spirit and choice,” Sayyed Nasrallah stated. “Experiences throughout history, including this great occasion, have proven to us that with this spirit that rejects humiliation, loves martyrdom, and has faith in the future and in the coming victory, we could attain unity, power, safety, glory and victory,” his eminence concluded. Sayyed Nasrallah Biggest threat of the power mongers is the unity of Muslim Ummah both Sunni and Shia. All kinds of mechanism have been set up to create conflicts between one Mosque to other

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening and from one Husayniya to other. The Muslims should be aware – despite of differences in schools of thought and their many different factions – are a single nation and that they are brothers in faith. Almighty Allah has said in the Qura"n: "You are the best nation brought out for the people" "Indeed the believers are brothers, so make peace between your two brothers Any attempt to bring about disunity between them in the name of minorities, nationalisms or sectarianism and the like is not permissible either religiously or rationally" It was the prime black era of Gen Zia ul Haq. Public hangings, lashings, political imprisonment, barbaric use of state machinery on every voice that spoke against the dictator, Zia's, rule was the order of the day. In all that Shaheed Quaid Allama Arif ul Hussain Al Hussaini’s voice was nothing but thorn in the eyes of Dictator Zia. Zia the founder of Taliban in Pakistan understood the power of Shaheed Quaid Allama Arif ul Hussain Al Hussaini’s words and was very afraid of him. So his government planned a ferocious campaign against Shi'as. The first step they took was against Azadari e Imam Hussain (AS). In the first year of Shaheed Quaid's leadership, incidents of firing and ransacking on mourning processions and Imambarghas in different cities occurred. In the second phase Zia's government introduced Draconian and discriminatory laws against Shi'as of Pakistan. All the government's tactics bore no fruits. Shaheed Quaid Allama Arif ul Hussain Al Hussaini emerged from every crisis more forcefully. After taking responsibility as the Leader of Millat e Jaffaria of Pakistan, Shaheed Quaid Allama Arif ul Hussain


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


Al Hussaini started his journey with the task of inspiring and achieving unity among all momineen (Ittehad e Bainul Momineen). He had stated that unless and until we (momineen) got united, the government would not pay heed to our demands. Shaheed Quaid understood fully that the vision of Pakistan, as a true Islamic state could never be fulfilled unless unity among different sects of Muslims was achieved. So with the demand to change the system, he started to strive for unity among Muslims (Ittehad e Bainul Muslimeen). After two months of being a leader of Millat e Jafarria, Shaheed Quaid Allama Arif ul Hussain Al Hussaini in Bhakkar said in his public address: “Shi'as and Sunnis should keep their historic differences in limits because they are not enemies of each other. America, Russia and Israel are their mutual enemies. It is no matter to them if we are Shi'as or Sunnis; they wanted to destroy Islam. So in such circumstances, we should set aside our differences, and we should strive together to counter enemies of Islam". In April 1984 in D. G. Khan, Punjab Shaheed Quaid Allama Arif ul Hussain Al Hussaini said in a press conference: “Our aim is not to enforce Fiqh e Jafarria in Pakistan. Let it be clear that we want Fiqh e Jafarria for ourselves and for Ahle Sunnat brothers we want their fiqh to be enforced so that both sects could live freely in Pakistan according to their own fiqhs". Whenever Shaheed Quaid visited anywhere in Pakistan, he used to meet with the area's Ahle Sunnat Ulema. Due to his character and thoughts, numerous Ahle Sunnat Ulemas across Pakistan joined hands in unity with him. It can be

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening said that anti-American and anti-imperialism sentiments inspired unity amongst Muslims in Pakistan under the spiritual leadership of Shaheed Quaid Allama Arif ul Hussain Al Hussaini. Consequently, the current imperialists of the time, perceived another Islamic revolution in the offing in Pakistan, and worked to silence the voice of unity, justice and freedom. Shaheed Muttahari while explains Islamic Unity; "what is meant by the Islamic unity? Does it mean that one Islamic school of thought should be unanimously followed and others be set aside? Or does it mean that the commonalties of all Islamic schools of thought should be taken up and their differences be put away to make up a new denomination which is not completely the same as the previous ones? Or does it mean that Islamic unity is in no way related to the unity of the different schools of Fiqh (jurisprudence) but signifies the unity of the Muslims and the unity of the followers of different schools of Fiqh, with their different religious ideas and views, vis-a-vis the aliens?" Unity in the world view, in culture, in the civilization, in insight and disposition, in religious beliefs, in acts of worship and prayers, in social rites and customs can well turn the Muslim into a unified nation to serve as a massive and dominant power before which the big global powers would have to bow down. This is especially true in view of the stress laid by Islam on this principle. According to the explicit wording of the Qur'an, the Muslims are brothers, and special rights and duties link them together. So, why shouldn't the Muslims use all these extensive facilities accorded to them as the blessing of Islam? The only consideration for Islamic unity in this case is that


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


the Muslims- in order to avoid the emergence or accentuation of vengeance - preserve their possession, avoid insulting and accusing each other and uttering fabrications, abandon ridiculing the logic of one another, and finally abstain from hurting one another and going beyond the borders of logic and reasoning. In fact, they should, at least, observe the limits which Islam has set forth for inviting non-Muslims to embrace it: "Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good exhortation, and have disputations with them in the best manner... "(16: 125) Allama Amini said "People are free to express views and ideas on religion. These (views and ideas) will never tear apart the bond of Islamic brotherhood to which the holy Qur'an has referred by stating that 'surely the believers are brethren'; even though academic discussion and theological and religious debates reach a peak. This has been the style of the predecessors, and of the 'sahaba' and the 'tabi'un', at the head of them. Differences in the ‘branches’ (madhahib) of religion between Islamic sects which arise out of differences in legal opinion, providing that the jurist-consult observes and adheres to the Qura"n and the traditions, are no cause for disunity amongst the Islamic nation. There is worries and fitna that is created by wahhabi/ salafis makes the Sunni people to ignore the call of unity from the Shia people. Mulla Asgar M.M.Jaffer in his lecture said "Unity is not one way road, but it is two way roads from opposite sides." Shia brothers and sisters always mingle with Sunni Brothers and Sister, they join in their prayers, pray in the Sunni Masajids, go to the Sunni gatherings and Sunni lectures. But Sunni hesitate to join in Shia Masajids,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Shia Hussayniyya or any Shia gathering. This is not called unity. It is the duty of every Youth both boys and girls individual or collective, according to the words of the Prophet and Imams: ‘Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock’, to work to awaken the Muslims so that they become the leaders of the world as they were previously. This is possible, indeed easy if the required effort is spent. Young Muslims have a number of advantages including large fertile populations, a strategic region, great wealth, healthy methodologies, and a strong, progressive way of life. If they were to, as a whole, make faith all encompassing, cleanse society of inappropriate things which Islam has forbidden, ensure freedoms, open the door of deriving legal opinions from the sources – the Quran, the traditions, consensus and reason and make these four the only source of legislation, make the basis of government consultative with the just jurists who have knowledge of worldly affairs and the exigencies of the time, and bring back the idea of Islamic brotherhood as opposed to nationalism, sectarianism, or parochialism etc. then the Muslims would return to power in the twinkling of an eye by the will of Allah. "It hurts one's feelings that Muslims are in possession of such a splendid and comprehensive system of law and yet they look forward for guidance to those leaders of the West who could not have dreamed of attaining those heights of truth and justice which was achieved a long time ago. Even more painful than this is the realization that throughout the world the rulers who claim to be Muslims have made


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


disobedience to their God and the Prophet as the basis and foundation of their government. May God have mercy on them and give them the true guidance." Maulana Maududi - in his booklet Human Rights in Islam. So called western human rights has merely protected the interest of the western people. The term is used whenever it suits them. UN is another blind body that follows the weather. Today even after all scientific proof, that Halal slaughtering of animal is healthier than shooting the animal which harms more. Just to confront Muslims still there are debates in western society that why Muslim demand slaughtered Halal meat. One should understand that animals' rights is non of western's interest. It is a plot to occupy Muslims mind in Halal issue. There are many examples that westerner harm animals for games and enjoyment, but we are not going to discuss this in this paper. Youth's Islamic Awakening should be fully aware of the hyprocracy and double standard of the west. The different plots of the enemies, the media power and cyber power that they have can easily divert the real attention Eva Sajoo quotes in an article Bahrains-silent-spring"Our media attention span is short and sensation-driven. The toppling regimes of Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and now Syria have each succeeded each other in the spotlight, falling out of the headlines once the government has changed. The real measure of success for these countries lies in the long road ahead, as they struggle to build democratic institutions and accountable governance. While western governments and media claim to be championing the cause of human rights as the Arab spring unfolds, the case of Bahrain proves that

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening this commitment is quite selective. Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Sadr proposed a "theory of the popular caliphate supervised by the religious authoritative Source. The theory holds that the people's political rights should be officially independent of the jurists and that the status of the jurists should be more liable to superintendence. On the executive level, the religious Source is selected by traditional methods, not by democratic elections." Al-Sadr demonstrated that khilafa (governance) is ‘a right given to the whole of humanity’ and explained it to be an obligation given from God to the human race to ‘tend the globe and administer human affairs’. This was a major advancement of Islamic political theory. Al-Sadr stated that the legitimacy of a government in an Islamic state comes from the people, and not from the clerics. Al-Sadr explained that throughout history there have been '…two lines. Man’s line and the Prophet’s line. The former is the khalifa (trustee) who inherits the earth from God; the latter is the shahid. Political Philosophy: Wilayat Al-Umma Al-Sadr also presented a practical application of khilafa, in the absence of the twelfth Imam. He argued the practical application of the khilafa (governance) required the establishment of a democratic system whereby the people regularly elect their representatives in government: Islamic theory rejects monarchy as well as the various forms of dictatorial government; it also rejects the aristocratic regimes and proposes a form of government, which contains all the positive aspects of the democratic system. Youths should be aware of the hypocrisy of western power mongers. If Muslim nation wants to be governed according


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


to his faith and religion Islamic Sharia. Why non Muslims impose such silly question "why Muslims want Islamic Sharia to be implemented in Muslim countries." Will the non Muslims and power monger tell us how we should be ruled in our own Muslim countrie and Muslim State? It is none of their business they should be out of Muslims affairs. Islamic Shari'a has been misunderstood by many western people and non Muslims at large. I will not exaggerate if I say that it is neglected by western regime or the churches to mislead their own people to prevent them to look for better alternative faith that is completely build upon human rights, brotherhood and love. Islamic Sharia does not only give full rights to the human beings but preserved all rights of other creatures as well as nature. The Holy Qur’an the holy book of Muslims say: "You are the best community raised up for mankind."(Suratul aale-Imran Ayah 110). And the whole world is regarded as one community regardless of color, race, sex, culture, language and country. It is only Islam on this universe that has so wonderful rules and regulations that protects everything and considers all human beings as a community. What is required for youth awakening If the attitude of the young male and female Muslims of this awakening is not based on Allah’s Book, the Sunnah of Allah’s Prophet (S) and the pious leadership, according to the understanding of the pious predecessors of this Nation, then it will become a reckless and misguided awakening, and it is feared that it will destroy more than it will build. The Ayatullah Khomeini the Founder of Islamic Revolution of the 20th century advising the Basijis, said, "It is hoped that you acquire purity in all affairs. I hope you apply sincerity

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening in all affairs whether military techniques or in mobilizing the oppressed masses of people and the tyrannized peoples of the world against world-devouring imperialists. I hope your efforts would carry on until the imperialists close their covetous eye at the Muslim countries, not to mention the tyrannized peoples of the world. It is hoped that you will strengthen Basij to safeguard Islam and Iran with patience and steadfastness in these great goals, giving divinely color to this valuable services and taking it as act of worship. I implore God Almighty to grant you success in this great purpose. May Almighty Allah protect you. The youth of this awakening must follow the correct methodology that was applied by the leader. Youth should not be deceived by so called Muslim leaders who hold the banner of Islam and at the same time act against the Islamic doctrine. To kill innocent people is un-Islamic no Muslim individual or in group can claim Islamic by killing innocent human beings. Human beings include all kind of religious people whether Muslims or non Muslims. The youth of this awakening must be upon one word, united; their tactic must be one, and their strength must be a united strength, and that is because disunity and discord do not lead to good but instead bring joy only to the enemies of Allah in the East and in the West. Youth awakening should be fully attached with a pious and sincere leadership. And the most important things is Muslim youths should learn to plan. They should know what kind of move they are taking. They should correctly measure all kinds of consequences under their leadership. In one of the speech the Muballigh of 20th century Sheikh Ahmed Deedat said, Muslims emotionally go to war


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


front without any plan to kill kuffar, they just enter in the battlefield without planning and say Allaho Akber and they are killed, finish. Planning, Uniting, Obeying Leadership and Organizing itself is the achievement of the Youth Awakening. A teacher of the Qur'an by profession, Omar Mukhtar the Libyan was skilled in the strategies and tactics of desert warfare. He knew his country’s geography well, and used that knowledge to his advantage in battles against the Italians, who were not accustomed to desert warfare. He repeatedly led his small, highly alert groups in successful attacks against the Italians, after which they would fade back into the desert terrain. Mukhtar’s men skillfully attacked outposts, ambushed troops, and cut lines of supply and communication. The Italians were left astonished and embarrassed to have been outsmarted and tricked by a mere "Bedouin." Omar Mukhatar's intelligence is thought to be "unbelievable" and "improbable" by the Italian generals. Knowledge, skill and tactics can lead the Youth Awakening to the success. The political and intellectual elites of the Islamic Ummah have to shoulder a heavy responsibility today. The deceitful enemies of the Islamic Ummah are the belligerent and greedy people who run the centers of arrogance and who consider the Islamic Awakening as a serious threat to their illegitimate interests and their oppressive domination over the world of Islam. All Muslim nations and their statesmen, religious scholars, intellectuals, and national leaders must form a strong unified Islamic front against this belligerent enemy. They must gather all their power and appropriately make the Islamic Ummah powerful. Knowledge, acumen,

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening vigilance, sense of commitment, reliance on Allah, being hopeful about divine promises, ignoring petty needs in exchange for obtaining God's satisfaction, fulfilling one's duties among other matters are the elements of power for the Islamic Ummah which help it to achieve glory, independence, and material and spiritual progress. These elements prevent the enemies from being greedy and encroaching on Islamic nations. Islamic settings - both individuals and nations - have always been subject to these two kinds of threat and are currently threatened even more seriously. Spreading corruption in Muslim countries and imposing Western culture - which is furthered by some dependant regimes - includes such areas as individual behavior, civil engineering, general living conditions, the press, as well as military, political, and economic pressure on Muslim nations and killings in Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan and other countries clearly bear testimony to the existence of these two types of threat. Therefore, the usurper Zionist regime is the greatest danger for the world of Islam now and in the future. And it is up to Muslims to seek a remedy for this great threat and oppression. Of course, I am totally sure that in the foreseeable future the Palestinian nation will reclaim its violated rights and drive the oppressive and invading foreigners out of its home by relying on its own sacrifices and the awakening of the Muslim world. But the determination on the part of Muslim governments and nations will, by Allah's favor, facilitate the achievement of this prospect and will help decrease the hardships. Allah is the guardian of those who know Him. He is


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...


the enemy of those who pretend to know Him. A person of intelligence is forgiving and an ignorant person is treacherous. If you like to be honored you must become kind hearted and if you like to be insulted become harsh. One whose origin is noble he is kind hearted. One whose element is rough his liver is thick. The extremist falls into crisis. One who is afraid of the consequences desists from involvement in what he has no knowledge of. One who engages in an affair without knowing anything about it he is headed to his own loss. One who does not know, he does not understand and one who does not understand, he does not agree and become peaceful. One who does not agree and submit he is not respected and one who is not respected is broke and one who is so broke is blamable and one who is in such a condition must become regretful for his own self. A survey into the Islamic history, as well as the reasons of the collapse of Muslims, proves that the confessional feuds were the main reason that resulted in the disagreement, disunity, and crumbling of Muslims and their powers that led to such a gloomy destiny. Muslims were humiliated only when the disuniting tendencies of fanaticism found grounds in their mentalities and caused their handles of mutual affection to be broken and their ties of fraternity to be split up. Hence, they became the example of retardation, separation, and humbleness after they had been the symbol of superiority, cohesion, and pride. They did not take heed of God's saying: "All of you united hold fast to the rope of Allah, and recall how He favored you when your hostility to each other had torn you apart. He united your hearts in one faith and through His grace, you became brothers. You were on the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening verge of falling headlong into the abyss of fire, but Allah saved you. (3:103)" To conclude, the Youth today is experiencing a blessed awakening in all aspects of its affairs. However, the astute observer of this awakening will find that there are many problems that hinder its progress; problems that have prompted some scholars, callers to Islam, and students of knowledge to lay down some guidelines that the youth of this blessed awakening should adhere to and follow. Without a doubt, the enemies from the Zion, Christians, Gulf Arab Monarchies are trying to put a stop or divert Youth Islamic Awakening on their interest, simply because they fear the results of its success and because they know that, if it strengthens, spreads, and succeeds in achieving its aims, it will signal the end of their dominance. “Today, seeing what is happening in the world, from the threats of America, Israel, and their agents in the region, we repeat these stances and say: Do you threaten us of death? We are the sons of Hussein, Zayn Al-Abidin, Allah’s prophet, household, and friends, we are the sons of (the battles of) Badr, Khaybar, Hunain, and Karbala, so death for us is a norm and Allah honors us with martyrdom.” Sayyed Nasrallah He added: “We have confronted you with this spirit since 1982… and with Zainab’s stance, we fill up the fields and tell all the tyrants in the world: Use all your powers and efforts, and by Allah, you will never erase our presence, memory, and effect, you will never recognize our limits…” Imam Ali Reza (AS) while dealing with the problem of guardianship says, "There is no nation which is without its leader and the social structure of a society is directly


Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience... concerned with the leader and that people should manage the public treasury by keeping an account of its income and expenditure, organize the society, fight against the enemies and protect the society from internal dissensions and disunity. If there is not going to be any such leader, then the nation will break up into pieces and the Divine commandments and the teachings of the Holy Prophet will be tampered with at the command of despotic ruler". References:


1. Leader: Islamic awakening has undermined West's status - 2. Ruhulah al-Musawi al-Khomeini Aban 30, 1363 AHS – Sahifey-ye Imam Volume 19 pp 95. 3. Ibid Volume 15 4. Sayyed Mohammed Abdulla Hassan – The Somali Leader. The Anglo-Somali War 1901-1920 or "How to get rid of a rebel" 5. Sayyed Mohammed Abdulla Hassan http://www. =article&id=86:sayyid-mohammed-abdullah-hassan---&catid=41:azerbaijan&Itemid=97 6. 14 LESSONS FROM KARBALA (From: YA ALLAH (ONE N ONLY) !!!) 7. Sayyed Fadlullah Haeri - 8. Sayyed Nasrallah on Arbaeen 2012: Our Certainty of this Right Path Is Increasing p?fromval=3&cid=33&frid=23&seccatid=14&eid=41956 9. Martyred Syed Mohamad Baqer al Sadr; 10. Eva Sajoo is a Research Associate with the Centre for the

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Comparative Study of Muslim Societies and Cultures at Simon Fraser University.) bahrains-silent-spring/ 11. Shaheed Foundation. quaid.asp 12. Sayyed Mohammed Baqer al Sadr - http://islamicinsights. com/religion/history/sayyid-muhammad-baqir-al-sadr.html 13. Omar Mukhtar (1862 - September 16, 1931) http://www. 14. Calamities of Sectarianism - Ahl-e-Bait, Ethical Role-Models by Sayyid Mahdi As-Sadr 15. AL-KAFI H 29, Ch. 1, 16. What islamic unity means: Shaheed Mutahari


Youth and Islamic Awakening  
Youth and Islamic Awakening  

International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening (Abstracts of Papers)