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More than a building. A building is never just a building. It’s a place where we live our lives, share ideas and create a sense of community. As we face climate change challenges, all buildings and community infrastructures need to deliver on a new level of complexity, as do the materials they rely on. That’s why today’s concrete is reducing GHG emissions through refinements to its manufacturing process, new products like Contempra and investments in emerging low carbon technologies. Yet, its historic strength remains. Concrete is evolving to meet the demands of a low carbon, climate resilient future. Best of all, it’s manufactured locally, close to where it is used.

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This prestigious biannual awards program continues to distinguish projects, practitioners, and those in professions closely allied to architecture.





34 Gold Medal

Early release, published at on October 5, 2015. Subject to revision.




Medicine by design Innovation in Architecture Award 48 Young Architect CMAJ Award Podcasts: author interview at54


60 Allied Arts Medal

63 Advocate


The legacy of architect-urbanist Roger du Toit.


Kellogg School by KPMB opens at Northwestern University; OAA award winners announced.


A preview of the International Indigenous Architecture and Design Symposium.

56 Green Building Award ROBERT MACHADO NOA


“devastating” consequences ineteenth-century for architects, as “buildinghospitals had the doctors” diagnosed, treated look of Scottish casand healed architecture. tles. Early 20th-century hosSince then, the relationship pitals resembled noble public has become more collaborainstitutions such as city halls tive. “There are many physiand libraries. After World cians who know a lot about War II, hospital buildings hospital architecture and they morphed into office towers. really are coauthors of these And today? Hospitals look buildings. I mean Johns Hoplike shopping malls or, dekins in Baltimore is a great pending on your level of cyniexample.” cism, Toys“R”Us. Scholars of But the motives differed: medical history might argue For physicians, “the ongoing that these design changes requestion of the power of the flect advances in medical environment in the transmisknowledge and technology. sion of disease and in healing But Annmarie Adams, a is what drives them. It’s still scholar of medical architeca very big question.” When ture and former director of pressed to generalize, Adams the McGill University School says “want to creof Architecture,Award has a differ- 66 P  resident’s Award for Media 68architects Prix du XXe siècle for Architecture ate a beautiful and dignified ent take. in Architecture place for people.” And they “Hospitals are actually are concerned with the buildshaped by the same conteming’s place: “its location, its porary theories and cultural silhouette, its overall look.” factors that shape all [public] Architect Annmarie Adams is an expert in hospital architecture. She sees the two roles as buildings, not necessarily by COVER Radiantactivity installation quite complementary. come Institute; she found a whole lot medical factors. It’s very hard Sinceat moving MontréalDevonshire in 1990, more besides. to connect a medical innovation to an the toDrake Hotel SSAC Adams has focused on the Royal Victo“It really was the richness of the architectural change in the hospital.” by Leu-Webb Photo ria Hospital, built in 1893, as anProjects. encyresources and the fact that no one else After 25 years of devoting much of RAIC/OAA clopedia of hospital architecture had really looked at this intersection her academic energy to the intersection Johnny Lam Photography. throughby which she measures her underbetween medicine and architecture. It of medicine and architecture, garnering ICFF standing of all other hospitals. This is struck me right away … how empowfunding, awards and accolades alongthe heady territory of her book Mediered physicians seemed to be in the side her three books and scores of articine by V.62 Design: the Architect and the design of buildings.” cles and papers, Adams remains feisty N.05 Modern Hospital, 1893–1943. In the late 19th century, there was a and focused. The original Scottish castle, the full-on turf war between the professions. This focus was not, however, by “Royal Vic” was designed by THE Henry In her 1996 doctoral thesis, “Architecture design. During her doctorate at the UniNATIONAL many OF DESIGN in the FamilyCCA Way: Doctors, versity of California, Berkley, she venin Houses, Saxon Snell and is similar inREVIEW respects to his Royal Infirmary ofAND Edinand Women, 1870–1900,” Adams docutured to London to do research at the PRACTICE / THE Montreal burgh. It is also in keeping with other mented how the physician-led movement Royal Institute of British Architects’ OFFICIAL MAGAZINE “reform” institutions, such as prisons, to improve domestic sanitation made the library but arrived to find a sign on the THE RAIC poor houses and schools. The OF people public wary of architects’ and plumbers’ door: closed for renovation. A colusing these places were changed or “substandard work,” such as faulty league told her there was information reformed: the uneducated became edudrainage and ventilation. This charge had on women and housing at the WellSharon Morrison



 merging Architectural Practice 44 E Award


Vancouver Design Week(end); annual conference; Festival of Architecture; 2017.


Tanya Southcott reviews an autobiographical exhibition by Phyllis Lambert at the .

©2015 8872147 Canada Inc. or its licensors





MAY 2017




LEFT Roger du Toit, right, works with collaborators at a consultation session for Carleton University’s new master plan.

Roger du Toit’s Urban Legacy Canada’s centennial in 1967 arrived with a sense of decided optimism, as the country entered a period of explosive growth. Roger du Toit, this year’s RAIC Gold Medal winner, charted a career that coincided with this era. He was a leader in shaping the burgeoning country, taking advantage of opportunities that arrive perhaps only once in a generation. Du Toit earned his Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Cape Town in South Africa in 1960, but his interests in design were far more diverse than a single discipline could encompass. At the University of Toronto, he studied urban design with Jack Diamond, FRAIC; by 1967, he had become a partner with John Andrews Architects, where he came to lead the urban design aspects of the practice. Later, landscape design was also added to the purview of his expertise. The idea of design as a holistic enterprise was in the air in the 1970s. Ian McHarg’s Design with Nature and Christopher Alexander’s The Oregon Experiment were touchstones for du Toit. The former laid out a method for overlaying multiple sources of information to understand a site’s complexities. The latter documented a pilot campus planning project that relied on broad democratic participation and user-focused collaboration. These principles were first tested with du Toit’s leadership on the plan for Metro Centre, a modern development in downtown Toronto that was one of the largest single improvement schemes in North America at the time. Faced with an intricate web of considerations, du Toit developed a method of bringing together consultants in a collegial manner that would become a hallmark of his practice. In a document of the same era, On Building Downtown, du Toit worked with co-authors including George Baird, F RAIC and Stephen McLaughlin to develop guidelines for the development of downtown Toronto. Rather than being prescriptive in character, the document was based on clearly illustrated design principles, which give it continued relevance. This method of demonstrating key strategies, rather

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than dictating the final results, is another that du Toit would develop throughout his work. Several of du Toit’s best known projects involved long relationships with clients. In 1982, du Toit Associates Planning was asked to recommend sites for the National Gallery of Canada and Canadian Museum of Civilization in Ottawa. Their study, which envisaged a longterm link between Ottawa and Hull, led to planning studies throughout the Capital that continue to the present. In Regina, he was appointed to head the Wascana Centre area’s design advisory committee and refresh its master plan every five years—a process that continued, with some breaks, for several decades. Far from the stereotype of the top-down planner, du Toit was often engaged in issues from the grassroots level. He took an activist role in advocating for the dismantling of Toronto’s Gardiner Expressway with Jack Layton, a position that would later come to underpin his firm’s work on Toronto’s waterfront. He was wary of getting pigeonholed in abstract planning, and insisted on pursuing architecture, urban design and landscape design projects that would be realized. The same philosophy continues to inform his office to this day. DTAH aims to maintain a balance between the disciplines, and seeks out well-rounded staff that can work in multiple fields. Behind all of du Toit’s work is a vision of looking at the city from a broader perspective, and a passion for the common good. In du Toit’s spirit, his firm continues to ask: What is the public good, in both private and public projects? Says Robert Allsopp, partner at DTAH, “This goes beyond responding to the stated need. How do you get added value, not in dollars but in something less tangible?” It’s a challenge that the insights of architecture, urban design and landscape design can powerfully respond to—especially when combined with the passion of an exceptional individual such as Roger du Toit. Elsa Lam

­­EDITOR ELSA LAM, MRAIC ART DIRECTOR ROY GAIOT ASSISTANT EDITOR SHANNON MOORE EDITORIAL ADVISOR IAN CHODIKOFF, OAA, FRAIC CONTRIBUTING EDITORS ANNMARIE ADAMS, FRAIC ODILE HÉNAULT DOUGLAS MACLEOD, NCARB, MRAIC REGIONAL CORRESPONDENTS HALIFAX CHRISTINE MACY, OAA REGINA BERNARD FLAMAN, SAA MONTREAL DAVID THEODORE CALGARY GRAHAM LIVESEY, MRAIC WINNIPEG LISA LANDRUM, MAA, AIA, MRAIC VANCOUVER ADELE WEDER, HON. MRAIC VICE PRESIDENT & SENIOR PUBLISHER STEVE WILSON 416-441-2085 x105 SALES MANAGER FARIA AHMED 416-441-2085 x106 CUSTOMER SERVICE / PRODUCTION LAURA MOFFATT 416-441-2085 x104 CIRCULATION CIRCULATION@CANADIANARCHITECT.COM PRESIDENT OF IQ BUSINESS MEDIA INC. ALEX PAPANOU HEAD OFFICE 101 DUNCAN MILL ROAD, SUITE 302 TORONTO, ON M3B 1Z3 TELEPHONE 416-441-2085 E-MAIL WEBSITE Canadian Architect is published monthly by iQ Business Media Inc.. The editors have made every reasonable effort to provide accurate and authoritative information, but they assume no liability for the accuracy or completeness of the text, or its fitness for any particular purpose. Subscription Rates Canada: $54.95 plus applicable taxes for one year; $87.95 plus applicable taxes for two years (HST – #80456 2965 RT0001). Price per single copy: $6.95. Students (prepaid with student ID, includes taxes): $27.00 for one year. USA: $105.95 US for one year. All other foreign: $125.95 US per year. Single copy US and foreign: $10.00 US. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Circulation Dept., Canadian Architect, 101 Duncan Mill Road, Suite 302 Toronto, ON M3B 1Z3. Postmaster: please forward forms 29B and 67B to 101 Duncan Mill Road, Suite 302 Toronto, ON M3B 1Z3. Printed in Canada. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be re­produced either in part or in full without the consent of the copyright owner. From time to time we make our subscription list available to select companies and organizations whose product or service may interest you. If you do not wish your contact information to be made available, please contact us via one of the following methods: Telephone 416-441-2085 x104 E-mail Mail Circulation, 101 Duncan Mill Road, Suite 302, Toronto, ON M3B 1Z3 MEMBER OF THE CANADIAN BUSINESS PRESS MEMBER OF THE ALLIANCE FOR AUDITED MEDIA PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT #43096012 ISSN 1923-3353 (ONLINE) ISSN 0008-2872 (PRINT)


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includes a 10-lane competition pool, eight-lane pool with accessible ramp and diving boards, and a lazy river. Daylight is used as the organizing device and separator for the community and competition aquatic halls. A Y-shaped bank of columns supports a continuous six-metre-wide skylight bisecting the length of the building and splitting the two halls. A translucent screen creates a luminescent virtual barrier between the two spaces, offering controllability of the space to effectively operate aquatic functions simultaneously. The UBC Aquatic Centre won a Canadian Architect Award of Excellence in 2014.




Campus Expansion by Moriyama & Teshima and Montgomery Sisam opens at Sheridan.

PROJECTS Kellogg School of Management’s new Global Hub opens at Northwestern University.

The Kellogg School of Management’s new Global Hub, designed by Toronto-based KPMB Architects, has officially opened at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. The 410,000-square-foot complex comprises four separate buildings linked by a central atrium, allowing for what Bruce Kuwabara, founding partner of KPMB, calls “connected neighbourhoods of academic teaching and research.” Each classroom can become f lat, tiered, divided or expanded to meet the varied goals of faculty year after year. A 6,000-square-foot atrium doubles as a central meeting point and a location for conferences or events. The facility’s White Auditorium will be a signature space for both Kellogg and Northwestern. The two-story venue—with panoramic views of Lake Michigan to the north and east and the Chicago skyline to the south—can convert from a tiered 350-seat auditorium to an event space that can seat 250 for large dinners. Other amenities include a fitness centre, a food court, a coffee bar, several lounges, and stairs in the style of the Spanish Steps that connect the first three floors, giving students, faculty and staff an open space to convene. The Global Hub is one of the most eco-friendly facilities on campus, on track for LEED Gold certification with features including a geothermal field for heating and cooling, triple-glazed exterior windows, automated window shades, low flow plumbing fixtures, and a ground water reservoir for landscape irrigation. “This building is going to send a big message about the future of education, especially within management institutions,” Kuwabara said. “You don’t want to be just another business school; you want to set the standard, and that’s what Kellogg has done.”

Aquatic Centre by MJMA and Acton Ostry Architects opens at UBC.

A new aquatic centre has officially opened at the University of British Columbia. Designed by MacLennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects (MJMA) in association with Acton Ostry Architects, the facility

The Centre for Native Child and Family Well Being, by LGA Architectural Partners

ABOVE The Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, designed by KPMB Architects, has opened in Evanston, Illinois.

The Hazel McCallion Campus (HMC) expansion, a five-storey, 225,000 square foot building known as the HMC B-Wing, has officially opened. The facility will increase enrolment capacity to over 5,600 students at Sheridan College Mississauga. Designed by Moriyama & Teshima in joint venture with Montgomery Sisam Architects, the expansion embodies Sheridan’s Creative Campus philosophy and commitment to sustainability, including smart building infrastructure, zero waste foundations, water efficiency and reuse, as well as the use of sustainable materials. The building is built to LEED Silver specifications with the potential for Gold. Programs offered in the building include architectural technology, interior design, interior decorating, advertising and marketing.

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WilkinsonEyre and Zeidler Partnership Architects to design new pedestrian bridge on Queen Street.

Fire Resistant. Design Consistent.

Cadillac Fairview has unveiled plans for a new pedestrian bridge across Queen Street to better integrate the Toronto Eaton Centre with the Hudson’s Bay and Saks Fifth Avenue flagship locations in downtown Toronto. Designed by WilkinsonEyre with Zeidler Partnership Architects, the bridge will feature glass and etched bronze cladding panels. “We designed the bridge’s form to connect together the two inherent geometries of each building, transitioning from the historical, circular arches of the Hudson’s Bay and Saks Fifth Avenue building to the modern rectangular geometry of Toronto Eaton Centre,” said Dominic Bettison, Director at WilkinsonEyre. “This meeting and blending of the two buildings’ form and materials becomes a beautiful and metaphorical ‘handshake’ extending out over Queen Street.” The bridge will be assembled adjacent to the shopping centre on James Street and lifted into place once complete, with its grand opening planned for this fall.

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Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects to design new Aga Khan Garden at University of Alberta.

Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects has been selected to design the 4.8-hectare Aga Khan Garden, to be situated around the existing Calla Pond at the heart of the University of Alberta Botanic Garden. The project is funded by a contribution in excess of $25 million from His Highness the Aga Khan, Chairman of the Aga Khan Development Network and spiritual leader of the Ismaili Muslim community. Thomas Woltz was asked by the Aga Khan to study other Mughal Islamic gardens while developing a design that also incorporates the plants and topography of Northern Alberta. The garden will include secluded forest paths, wide, stepped terraces that change with the seasons, geometric water features that stream into wetlands, and an orchard of local plants. The Aga Khan Garden is the first garden in Western Canada, the second in North America, and the 11th in the world to be supported by His Highness the Aga Khan.

Studio Gang to design its first building in Canada in Yonge + St. Clair district of Toronto.

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Slate Asset Management has selected architecture practice Studio Gang to design a mixed-used tower at the south-west corner of Yonge and Delisle Streets in Toronto. The project will be Studio Gang’s first building in Canada, and is part of Slate’s overall effort to reimagine the area through the use of public art, vibrant streetscapes and open spaces. “As our practice’s relationship with Canada grows, we’re excited to explore Toronto and to understand the unique DNA of the Yonge + St. Clair neighbourhood,” said Jeanne Gang, whose offices are based in Chicago and New York. “We hope to design a building that will strengthen relationships within the neighbourhood and the city.”

AWARDS Winners announced for Ontario Association of Architects Awards.

The Ontario Association of Architects has announced the winners of the 2017 OAA Design Excellence Awards. Ten projects were selected from more than 140 submissions, judged on a number of criteria including creativity, context and sustainability. The winners are: Boulevard

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Club West Wing Replacement by Teeple Architects; Centennial College Ashtonbee Campus Renewal and the Conestoga College Student Recreation Centre by MJMA; Eva’s Phoenix by LGA Architectural Partners; Mike & Ophelia Lazaridis Quantum-Nano Centre by KPMB Architects; Queen Richmond Centre West by Sweeny &Co. Architects; River City Phase 1 & 2 by Saucier + Perrotte Architectes in joint venture with ZAS Architects; Rosemary House by Kohn Shnier Architects; Story Pod by Atelier Kastelic Buffey; and Williams Parkway Phase 1 by RDH Architects. All winners will be celebrated at an ceremony in Ottawa on May 26, as part of the RAIC/OAA Festival of Architecture.

Victor Prus.

We are deeply saddened to learn of the passing of Polish-Canadian architect Victor Prus, who passed away in Montreal on January 21, 2017 at the age of 99. Born in Poland on April 24, 1917, Prus served with the Polish forces in the Middle East and as a Flying Officer with the Royal Air Force 305 P Squadron, and was twice awarded the Polish Cross of Valour. In addition to obtaining his Diploma in Architecture at Warsaw Technical University in 1939, he received his M.Arch at the University of Liverpool in 1947. He taught and practiced architecture in London before immigrating to Canada with his wife, fellow architect Maria Fisz Prus, in 1952. After working with Buckminster Fuller at Princeton, Prus set up his practice, Victor Prus & Associates, in Montreal, with his wife. The couple designed countless notable buildings including the Palais des Congrès, Montreal; the Canada-France-Hawaii Observatory, Hawaii; Le Grand Théâtre de Québec, Quebec City; Centaur Theatre One and Two, Montreal; Metro Stations Bonaventure, Mont-Royal, and Langelier, Montreal; and Rockland Shopping Centre, Montreal. Prus served as a visiting professor at McGill University’s School of Architecture and at Laval University in Quebec City. He was a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, an Academician of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and an Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. He was honoured by L’Ordre des architectes du Québec with their Médaille du Mérite.

WHAT’S NEW Diarmuid Nash elected Chancellor of RAIC College of Fellows.

Diarmuid Nash, FRAIC, a Toronto architect and Past President of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC) and Ontario Association of Architects, has been elected Chancellor of the RAIC College of Fellows for a three-year term beginning May 2017. “I am deeply honoured to have been elected Chancellor,” said Nash. “I am looking forward to working with this leadership trust to lobby for the profession, advocate on issues in our cities and natural environment, build bridges with our educational institutions, and leverage key RAIC initiatives.” Nash is a Partner at Moriyama & Teshima Architects, which has offices in Toronto and Ottawa. He succeeds Barry Johns, FRAIC, an Edmonton architect who served two three-year terms from 2011 to 2017.

This article was adapted from an obituary originally published in the Montreal Gazette

on March 11, 2017.



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The drawing on the right represents the amalgamation of two Indigenous cultures, Ojibway and Maori, and their shared experience of spirit and mana, or spiritual power and presence. The seven stars represent the Pleiades star cluster and also the seven stones used in the sweat lodge ceremony. The pieces falling from the sky form a traditional sweat lodge, a sacred architectural structure. An Ojibway woman receives these teachings in front of a waka (Maori for canoe), an expression of Maori identity. Le dessin sur la droite représente l’amalgame de deux cultures autochtones, celles des Ojibwés et des Maoris, ainsi que leur expérience commune de l’esprit et du mana, ou la puissance et la présence spirituelles. Les sept étoiles représentent l’amas stellaire des Pléiades et aussi les sept pierres utilisées dans la cérémonie de la suerie. Les pièces qui tombent du ciel forment une hutte de sudation traditionnelle, une structure architecturale sacrée. Une femme ojibwée reçoit ces enseignements devant un waka (le terme maori pour désigner un canot), une expression de l’identité maorie.

Save the date! The 2017 Moriyama RAIC International Prize Gala takes place September 19, 2017 at The Carlu in Toronto. Details available soon at: www.

Notez la date! Le gala de remise du Prix international Moriyama IRAC 2017 aura lieu le 19 septembre 2017 au The Carlu, à Toronto. Des détails addition­ nels seront bientôt ajoutés sur le site du Prix, à

The RAIC is the leading voice for excellence in the built environment in Canada, demonstrating how design enhances the quality of life, while addressing important issues of society through responsible architecture. L’IRAC est le principal porte-parole en faveur de l’excellence du cadre bâti au Canada. Il démontre comment la conception améliore la qualité de vie tout en tenant compte d’importants enjeux sociétaux par la voie d’une architecture responsable.

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RAIC Journal Journal de l’IRAC Cheyenne Thomas, a Winnipeg designer, is a graduate of the University of Manitoba’s environmental design program, and a member of Peguis First Nation in Mani­toba. Cheyenne Thomas, une designer de Winnipeg, est diplômée du programme de design de l’environnement de l’Université du Manitoba et membre de la Première Nation Peguis, au Manitoba.

A Welcome Discussion Des échanges à point nommé Patrick Reid Stewart, Ph.D., MRAIC (Nisga’a) Associate Professor, McEwen School of Architecture Professeur agrégé, École d’architecture McEwen

As chair of the RAIC Indigenous Task Force, it is my honour to welcome delegates to the International Indigenous Architecture and Design Symposium taking place May 27 on the unceded traditional territory of the Algonquin Anishnaabeg people. The seeds of the task force began with RAIC Past-President Allan Teramura, FRAIC, who approached some of us in the Indigenous architectural and design community. We began to talk about the needs of Indigenous communities, our experiences and how we might help.

C’est pour moi un honneur d’accueillir les délégués au Symposium international sur l’architecture et le design autochtones du 27 mai sur le territoire traditionnel non cédé du peuple algonquin Anishnaabeg. L’idée de créer notre groupe de travail est née après que le président sortant, Allan Teramura, FRAIC, ait contacté certains d’entre nous qui œuvrons dans le domaine pour discuter des besoins des communautés autochtones, de nos expériences et de l’aide que nous pourrions apporter.

We are one-fifth of one percent of the number of architects, yet we comprise over four percent of the Canadian population; we have a long way to go to engage our youth in architecture.

Nous représentons un cinquième de un pour cent des architectes du pays, mais nous formons plus de quatre pour cent de la population. Il nous reste beaucoup de chemin à parcourir pour intéresser nos jeunes à l’architecture.

To the sponsors who have stepped up to support the success of the symposium: t’ooyaksiy nisim [thank-you].

À tous les commanditaires qui ont contribué à la réussite du symposium : t’ooyaksiy nisim [merci].

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RAIC Journal

Journal de l’IRAC

The State of Indigenous Architecture in Canada L’état de l’architecture autochtone au Canada

Dr. Daniel M. Millette Daniel M. Millette, Ph.D.

In spite of several hundred years of difficult challenges that include culturally destructive colonial strategies, many Indigenous communities are experiencing a period of self-actualized revitalization whereby culture is openly celebrated and outwardly presented. This is apparent through art, language and tradition, all manifested through a number of community facets, including architecture—the subject of the RAIC International Indigenous Architecture and Design Symposium being held in Ottawa on May 27. The symposium brings together some of the architects practicing within the Indigenous landscape, be it in what are now known as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, or elsewhere. During 20 years of traveling to over 250 Indigenous communities, I have observed a clear and accelerating shift toward what might be called the “taking back” of community planning and architectural design, whereby community members are increasingly taking on active roles in the design of their communities and facilities. The inclusion of community members throughout the design processes highlights a return to direct community control over environmental design on Indigenous lands. The result has been community empowerment that transcends plan or building, generating projects that are closer to traditional tenets that still consider land use planning and architecture as interwoven processes. Indeed, a surge of Indigenous-initiated environmental design initiatives has emerged. In Canada, many of these initiatives can be seen as original land-use planning combinations, and unique architectural typologies brought about by new or renewed needs. This is design that derives from beyond place and program; it stems directly from cultural consequences. In addition to traditional spaces that are

actively and continuously rebuilt, new spaces of cultural interaction, places of healing, and buildings for traditional practice, among many others, are being designed throughout the Indigenous landscape. Designed by Indigenous and non-Indigenous architects, the architecture presented in the symposium and the following pages of the RAIC Journal highlight examples of what is poised to become “the new normal” in Indigenous architecture.

En dépit des centaines d’années pendant lesquelles elles ont été confrontées à des défis de taille, notamment en raison de stratégies coloniales destructrices sur le plan culturel, bien des communautés autochtones connaissent actuellement une période de revitalisation et d’épanouissement dans laquelle la culture est célébrée ouvertement et présentée à l’extérieur. Cette revitalisation s’exprime dans l’art, la langue et la tradition comme en témoignent plusieurs aspects liés à ces communautés, y compris la tenue du Symposium international sur l’architecture et le design autochtones de l’IRAC, à Ottawa, le 27 mai. L’événement rassemble des architectes qui exercent dans le paysage autochtone au Canada, en Australie, en Nouvelle-Zélande et ailleurs dans le monde.

de la communauté sur l’aménagement du milieu dans les terres autochtones. Il en résulte une autonomisation des communautés qui transcende le plan ou le bâtiment et qui génère des projets plus près des croyances traditionnelles selon lesquelles la planification de l’utilisation des terres et l’architecture sont toujours des processus imbriqués. De fait, on a vu apparaître une poussée des initiatives de design environnemental initiées par des Autochtones. Au Canada, nombre de ces initiatives peuvent être considérées comme des combinaisons originales d’utilisation des terres et de typologies architecturales uniques créées par des besoins nouveaux ou renouvelés. Le design n’est pas simplement dicté par le lieu et le programme; il découle directement des conséquences culturelles. En plus des espaces traditionnels qui sont activement et continuellement rebâtis, on voit apparaître de nouveaux espaces d’interaction culturelle, des lieux de guérison, des bâtiments voués aux pratiques traditionnelles et bien d’autres installations, à la grandeur du paysage autochtone. Conçue par des architectes autochtones et non autochtones, l’architecture présentée au symposium et dans les pages qui suivent du Journal de l’IRAC illustre ce qui est appelé à devenir la « nouvelle normalité » en architecture autochtone.

Pendant 20 ans, j’ai visité plus de 250 communautés autochtones. J’ai observé un virage clair et accéléré vers ce que l’on pourrait appeler le « retour » de la planification et du design architectural dans les communautés. J’ai aussi constaté que les membres des communautés étaient de plus en plus nombreux à jouer des rôles actifs dans la conception de leurs communautés et de leurs installations. L’intégration de ces membres tout au long du processus de conception met en lumière un retour au contrôle direct

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Journal de l’IRAC



RAIC Journal

Rau Hoskins, Maori Architect Rau Hoskins, architecte maori Jennifer Lewington

Rau Hoskins; Reinstate­ment of Mataatua (visitor centre); Te Whare Wananga o Awanuiarangi, Whakatane campus (institute of higher learning). Rau Hoskins; Reinstatement of Mataatua (centre de visiteurs); Te Whare Wananga o Awanuiarangi, Whakatane campus (institut d’enseignement supérieur).

As an architecture student in New Zealand 30 years ago, Rau Hoskins was taught little about the design contributions of his Maori ancestors. “Through the colonization period, the role of the Maori experts—engineers, planners, carvers and master builders—was progressively diminished through legislative acts,” he says. “Effectively, until the 1970s and even the 1980s, the Maori did not have a profile in architecture at all.” Through reforms over the last three decades, New Zealand increasingly recognizes Maori culture and history as an asset to its built environment. In a 27-year career as an architect, and also a teacher, government advisor, housing advocate and filmmaker, Hoskins has become an influential leader in promoting Maori architecture and cultural landscape design. “It’s very affirming,” says Hoskins, of the raised Maori profile. A featured speaker at the International Indigenous Architecture and Design Symposium, Hoskins believes the past offers insights for the future. “I would like to bring a snapshot of where we have come from in the last 25 years in Aotearoa [New Zealand],” says Hoskins, of his topic. “Yes, there is always more to be done, but I will talk about the acceleration of the acceptance of Maori cultural aspirations in the built environment in large centres like Auckland.” A two-time recipient of the New Zealand Institute of Architects President’s Award

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for Services to Architecture, Hoskins is co-head of Te Hononga, the Centre for Maori Architecture and Appropriate Technologies at Unitec, New Zealand’s largest institute of technology. A member of the Auckland Council Public Art and Heritage design advisory panel, he also provides training in Te Aranga Maori design principles (honouring Maori values) to the Auckland Design Office.

Hoskins mène sa carrière en tant qu’architecte, mais aussi d’enseignant, de conseiller gouvernemental, de défenseur du logement et de cinéaste. Il est devenu un leader influent dans la promotion de l’architecture maorie et de la conception du paysage culturel.

« Pendant la période de colonisation, diverses dispositions législatives ont eu pour effet de diminuer progressivement le rôle des spécialistes maoris—ingénieurs, urbanistes, sculpteurs et maîtres bâtisseurs », dit-il. « De fait, jusqu’aux années 1970 et même aux années 1980, les Maoris n’avaient aucun rôle en matière d’architecture. »

Deux fois lauréat du Prix du président de l’Institut des architectes de la NouvelleZélande pour les services rendus à l’architecture, Rau Hoskins est le codirecteur de Te Hononga, le Centre pour l’architecture maorie et les technologies appropriées d’Unitec, le plus grand institut de technologie de la Nouvelle-Zélande. Membre du groupe consultatif en design du Conseil pour l’art public et le patrimoine d’Auckland, il donne également de la formation sur les principes de conception de Te Aranga Maori (qui respectent les valeurs maories) au Bureau de design d’Auckland.

Hoskins est d’avis que cette mise en valeur des Maoris est très constructive et il croit que le passé offre un éclairage pour l’avenir. Of Maori and European ancestry, Hoskins Il aura l’occasion d’exposer son point de vue grew up in Whangarei where Maori tribes en tant que conférencier du Symposium international sur l’architecture et le design date to the early 19th century. As a child, autochtones. his love of drawing and building projects prompted his parents to encourage « J’aimerais brosser un portrait de him to pursue architecture. He earned l’évolution qui s’est faite au cours des 25 a bachelor’s degree in architecture dernières années en Aotearoa [NouvelleZélande] », dit-il. « Oui, il reste encore Lorsqu’il étudiait en architecture en Nou- beaucoup à faire, mais je parlerai de l’acceptation grandissante des aspirations velle-Zélande, il y a 30 ans, Rau Hoskins culturelles maories dans le cadre bâti de a très peu appris sur les contributions au grands centres urbains, comme Auckland. » design de ses ancêtres maoris.

Par les réformes adoptées au cours des trente dernières années, la NouvelleZélande reconnaît de plus en plus que la culture et l’histoire maories sont un atout dans son cadre bâti. Depuis 27 ans, Rau

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RAIC Journal

Journal de l’IRAC

from the University of Auckland in 1990 and a master’s of architecture in 1997. In 1995, after practicing with several firms, Hoskins founded designTRIBE, which espouses Kaupapa Maori [a Maori way] principles recognizing the right of Indigenous people to embrace their culture and destiny. Residential housing designs, for example, include communal kitchens for large family groupings. “That [design philosophy] was a unique focus of ours,” he says. “We saw there were whole sections of the Maori community that were not being looked after by the architecture profession.” By contrast, he says, mainstream architectural firms “didn’t have the cultural capacity and they didn’t have the ability to speak, almost literally, the same language.” His current involvement in New Zealand’s largest infrastructure project—a threestation underground rail link in Auckland—illustrates the value of collaboration by architects, governments, and Maori leaders. “My role is to make sure the whole set of experiences really delves into the richness of those particular train stations, so they become a truly great experience for everyone (who is) engaging in those spaces,” says Hoskins. He says a willingness to embrace the past to inform contemporary design holds lessons for Canada as it marks its 150th anniversary and looks to a new history with Indigenous peoples in response to the recommendations of the 2015 Truth and Reconciliation Commission. “Everyone benefits from giving or allowing Indigenous people to reassume their roles across local and other governments,” says Hoskins. “With pride comes cultural expression and with cultural expression comes a deepened appreciation of the place and the history—and a better understanding by visitors and locals alike of those cultural narratives and their modern-day expression as well.” He adds: “It is not just about us. It is about bringing the past to life for the future.”

D’ascendance maorie et européenne, Rau Hoskins a grandi à Whangerei, où les tribus maories remontent au début du 19e siècle. Ses parents, voyant à quel point il aimait dessiner et réaliser des projets l’ont encouragé à étudier en architecture. Il a obtenu un baccalauréat en 1990 et une maîtrise en architecture en 1997. En 1995, après avoir travaillé dans plusieurs firmes, il a fondé designTRIBE, qui épouse les principes maori Kaupapa en reconnaissant le droit des peuples autochtones d’assumer leur culture et leur destinée. Ses bâtiments résidentiels, par exemple, comprennent des cuisines communales pour les grands regroupements familiaux. « Cette philosophie de design nous était particulière », dit-il. « Nous avons réalisé que la profession architecturale ignorait des pans entiers de la communauté maorie ». En revanche, les principales firmes d’architecture « n’avaient pas la capacité culturelle ni la capacité de parler, quasi littéralement, le même langage. »

Jennifer Lewington

HARRIET BURDETT-MOULTON, FRAIC A former teacher, Harriet BurdettMoulton, 68, of Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, was inducted last year as a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. In a career spanning 40 years, the senior architect with Stantec Architecture was the first to practice her discipline in Nunavut, with more than 150 buildings in her portfolio.

Sa participation actuelle au plus important projet d’infrastructure de la NouvelleZélande—un réseau de métro de trois stations à Auckland—illustre la valeur de la collaboration entre les architectes, les autorités gouvernementales et les leaders maoris. « Mon rôle est de m’assurer que tous les usagers plongent réellement dans la richesse de ces stations de métro particulières et qu’ils y vivent une expérience enrichissante », souligne Rau Hoskins.

How has your Métis ancestry shaped your personal and professional goals?

Il dit que le Canada a des leçons à tirer de cette volonté de s’appuyer sur le passé pour orienter le design contemporain. Il espère qu’une nouvelle page de l’histoire des peuples autochtones s’ouvrira dans la foulée des recommandations de la Commission de la vérité et de la réconciliation de 2015.

You emphasize the importance of honouring “aboriginal form” in Indigenous projects. What’s a good example?

« C’est à l’avantage de tout le monde de permettre aux peuples autochtones de réassumer leurs rôles au sein des divers ordres de gouvernement », ajoute-t-il. « Avec la fierté vient l’expression culturelle, et avec l’expression culturelle vient une plus grande appréciation du lieu et de l’histoire—et une meilleure compréhension, tant par les visiteurs que par la population locale, de ces récits culturels et de leur expression moderne. » « Il ne s’agit pas seulement de nous. Il s’agit de redonner vie au passé pour le futur », conclut-il.

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Profiles: Canada’s First Nations Designers Profils : Designers des Premières Nations du Canada

Growing up in [Cartwright] Labrador, I had a sense that we were considered secondclass citizens and that people who were very capable and intelligent had very little input into their governance. I feel strongly that people who use a facility or a building should have a say in how it is designed for them.

Aboriginal form that reflects heritage or expresses culture will mean different things to different cultural groups. A reflection of Inuit heritage or culture, for example, is the use of an undulating roof on Piqqusilirivvik (the Inuit Culture Learning Facility in Clyde River) that lets the wind blow over the roof to minimize snow drifting. You recommend that architects understand communities and their relationship to the land and the environment. Why is this important in Indigenous design? I think everyone involved in the design process for all projects should have a voice. I think it is especially important for Indigenous people because they have been ignored for so long. There is a rich heritage of design, patterns, and knowledge

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Journal de l’IRAC

Dave Brosha

Chris Griffiths/Bang-On Photography

RAIC Journal

of way-finding that can be utilized to make projects unique and potentially great.

HARRIET BURDETT-MOULTON, FRAIC Ancienne enseignante, Harriet BurdettMoulton, 68 ans, de Dartmouth, en Nouvelle-Écosse, a été intronisée l’année dernière comme fellow de l’Institut royal d’architecture du Canada. Dans sa carrière d’une quarantaine d’années, cette architecte senior chez Stantec Architecture a été la première à exercer sa discipline au Nunavut. Elle compte plus de 150 bâtiments dans son portfolio. Comment votre ascendance métisse a-t-elle défini vos objectifs personnels et professionnels? J’ai grandi à Cartwright, au Labrador et je sentais que nous étions considérés comme des citoyens de deuxième ordre et que des personnes très douées et intelligentes participaient très peu à leur gouvernance. Je crois fermement que les gens qui utilisent une installation ou un bâtiment devraient avoir leur mot à dire sur leur conception. Vous insistez sur l’importance d’honorer la « forme autochtone » dans les projets autochtones. Pouvez-vous nous en donner un bon exemple? La forme autochtone qui reflète le patrimoine ou qui exprime la culture a un sens différent pour les différents groupes culturels. À titre d’exemple, la toiture ondulante du Piqqusilirivvik (le centre d’apprentissage de la culture inuite à Clyde River) qui laisse le vent souffler audessus pour atténuer l’accumulation de neige est un bon exemple d’un élément architectural qui représente le patrimoine ou la culture du peuple inuit.

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Vous recommandez aux architectes de comprendre les communautés et leur relation avec la terre et l’environnement. Pourquoi est-ce important dans la conception autochtone? Je crois que toutes les personnes qui participent à un processus de conception devraient avoir leur mot à dire, quel que soit le projet. Je crois aussi que c’est particulièrement important pour les peuples autochtones, parce qu’ils ont été ignorés si longtemps. Il y a un riche patrimoine de design, de motifs et de savoir-faire. Utilisons-le pour créer des bâtiments uniques et même de grands bâtiments.

ALFRED WAUGH, MRAIC Alfred Waugh, 49, is principal of Formline Architecture, specializing in First Nations and non-Indigenous design projects that reflect cultural sensitivity and environmental responsibility. Why are symbols and cultural and natural landscape important, and how is that different from a non-Indigenous perspective? Whether a client is First Nations or not, we try to pay attention to the locale and the people and make sure we have a sense of approach to the site as well as to the carbon footprint. When you work with First Nations groups, they have their own architectural typology or their own cultural initiative they want to bring to a project. Indigenous people put cultural identity up at the top of the list. For other clients, that may not even be a concern. What are some issues particular to Indigenous communities related to housing and architecture?

I go back to how they [First Nations communities] perceive their buildings and whether they have pride and a sense of ownership. That is an important key to a building’s success in a First Nations community. These projects somehow [must] respond to the way they live and to their culture; otherwise, there is no respect for the building. That takes a careful listening. The first thing you have to do is establish trust with First Nations.

Harriet BurdettMoulton; view of Piqqusilirivvik in Clyde River, Nunavut. Harriet BurdettMoulton; vue de Piqqusilirivvik à Clyde River, Nunavut.

Is there a danger in generalizing about Indigenous identity in design? There is a danger in generalizing about anything, especially First Nations. The solution has to come from those people. You can put some ideas in front of them for reaction, but I would never go into a room and say “this is what will work for you folks.” I take a naïve approach and allow them to respond whether it is good or bad.

ALFRED WAUGH, MRAIC Alfred Waugh, 49 ans, est associé principal de Formline Architecture, qui se spécialise dans des projets qui traduisent une sensibilité à la culture et une responsabilité environnementale pour des clients des Premières Nations et des clients non autochtones. Quels sont les symboles et le paysage culturel et naturel importants et en quoi sont-ils différents du point de vue d’un non-Autochtone? Que ce soit pour un client des Premières Nations ou non, nous essayons toujours de porter attention au lieu et aux gens et nous nous assurons d’adopter une approche sensible à l’emplacement tout en nous souciant de l’empreinte carbone. Les groupes des Premières Nations avec lesquels nous travaillons ont leur propre

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Journal de l’IRAC

Nic Lehoux

Gabriele Konopka

RAIC Journal

typologie architecturale ou leur propre initiative culturelle et ils désirent que le projet en tienne compte. Les peuples autochtones placent l’identité culturelle au haut de la liste. Pour d’autres clients, par contre, cette question n’a parfois aucune importance. Quels sont les problèmes particuliers des communautés autochtones en matière de logement et d’architecture? Je reviens sur la façon dont les communautés des Premières Nations perçoivent leurs bâtiments et les raisons pour lesquelles ils en tirent une fierté et un sens de propriété. C’est un facteur important de la réussite d’un projet dans une communauté des Premières Nations. Ces bâtiments doivent d’une certaine façon correspondre à leur mode de vie et à leur culture; autrement, ils ne les respectent nullement. Il faut une écoute attentive. La première chose à faire, c’est d’obtenir la confiance des Premières Nations. Y a-t-il un danger à généraliser l’identité autochtone dans le design? Il y a un danger à généraliser n’importe quoi, surtout lorsqu’il est question des Premières Nations. La solution doit venir de ces peuples. On peut soumettre quelques idées et voir leur réaction, mais je n’irais jamais leur dire que j’ai la solution pour eux. J’adopte une approche naïve et je les laisse dire s’ils croient que c’est bon ou mauvais.

WANDA DALLA COSTA, MRAIC Wanda Dalla Costa, 49, is Visiting Eminent Scholar at the Del E. Webb School of Construction at Arizona State University. An architect and member of the Saddle Lake First Nation in Alberta, she has spent nearly 20 years working with Indigenous

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communities with a focus on culturally responsive design and built environments as a teaching tool for traditional knowledge. After university, you backpacked through 37 countries in seven years. How did that shape your career as an architect? There are a lot of Indigenous people around the world who are still living in a very, very traditional environment and attuned to their culture. When I came home I thought “what happened here [in Canada]? How are we so far removed from what traditions we had?” The principles aren’t there and the values aren’t embedded in our environment, and so much is missing. I thought we had to rebuild that connection. What is the importance of story-telling in architecture? There are 1,184 diverse communities in North America, each with a unique story to tell and each with a distinctive protocol, process, and systems to be understood. The lessons are compounded as architecture acts as a convener for multiple disciplines: environment, economics, knowledge, art. In this light, architecture is a potent vessel of communication. It is a teaching tool, a preservation mechanism, a knowledge bridge between disciplines and between worldviews, and it is a storyteller. What are the issues for Indigenous students at college and university that should be addressed by the architecture profession? There needs to be a reflection of culture in the content. Until these students can see themselves in the curriculum, they won’t come or stay. They don’t engage with a subject where they can’t see themselves.

Students come from rich backgrounds and cultures. I want them to talk about it and write about it so architecture doesn’t become a homogenized global product.

Alfred Waugh; interior of First Peoples House at the University of Victoria.

WANDA DALLA COSTA, MRAIC Wanda Dalla Costa, 49 ans, est une éminente chercheure invitée à l’École de construction Del E. Webb de l’Arizona State University. Architecte et membre de la Première Nation de Saddle Lake, en Alberta, elle a travaillé pendant près de 20 ans auprès de communautés autochtones en insistant sur le design et les cadres bâtis sensibles à la culture comme outil d’enseignement des savoirs traditionnels.

Alfred Waugh; intérieur de la Maison des Premiers Peuples à l’Université de Victoria.

Après vos études universitaires, vous avez parcouru, sac au dos, 37 pays en sept ans. Comment cette expérience a-telle orienté votre carrière d’architecte? Il y a beaucoup de peuples autochtones dans le monde qui vivent encore dans un milieu vraiment traditionnel et en harmonie avec leur culture. Lorsque je suis revenue chez moi, je me suis demandé ce qui s’était passé au Canada. Comment en étionsnous arrivés à être aussi éloignés de nos traditions? Où étaient passés les principes et pourquoi les valeurs n’étaient-elles pas intégrées à notre environnement? Il manque tant de choses. Je me suis dit que nous devions recréer ce lien. Quelle est l’importance des récits dans l’architecture? On compte 1 184 communautés autochtones en Amérique du Nord et chacune d’elle a son histoire à raconter, selon un protocole, des processus et des systèmes distincts qu’il faut comprendre. Les leçons sont plus difficiles à tirer de fait que l’architecture agit comme un rassembleur de multiples disciplines : environnement,

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économie, savoirs, art. Sous cet angle, l’architecture est un puissant canal de communication. Elle est un outil d’enseignement, un mécanisme de préservation, un pont entre les connaissances de diverses disciplines et entre les visions du monde et elle raconte des histoires. Quels sont les problèmes des étudiants autochtones au collège et à l’université et comment la profession architecturale devrait-elle s’y attaquer? Le contenu doit être un reflet de la culture. Tant que ces étudiants ne se reconnaîtront pas dans le curriculum, ils ne fréquenteront pas ces institutions ou ils n’y resteront pas. Ils ne s’engagent pas dans une matière s’ils ne s’y voient pas. Les étudiants sont issus de riches horizons et cultures. Je veux qu’ils en parlent et qu’ils écrivent sur ces questions pour que l’architecture ne devienne pas un produit mondial homogène.

JAMES K. BIRD James K. Bird, 53, grew up in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, affiliated with the Northwest Territories Métis Nation and Athabasca Fort Chipewyan First Nation. A mature student studying Indigenous Studies and Architecture at the University of Toronto, he plans to pursue a Master’s degree in Architecture. You describe yourself as “a survivor of the effects of the residential school system.” How did that experience affect your ambition to become an architect? For as long as I could hold a pencil in my hand, I knew that I wanted to be an architect. Residential schools and the whole trauma of that quickly ended that dream as a young person. The closest I could do was become a carpenter, which I did.

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Journal de l’IRAC


Wanda Dalla Costa

Pierre Comty

Mariela Pajuelo

RAIC Journal

But in the back of my mind, I was always dreaming someday that perhaps some door will open. That door opened in 2010.

Words to Form is your architecture project response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s call to commemorate the dark legacy of residential schools. How do you bring physical form to the idea of reconciliation? Hosh key weeha we Towin is Cree for “new relations.” We are looking at this new relationship building between Canadian and First Nations people, with an opportunity to rebuild in a space—I call it the “affect” space—dedicated to thinking about reconciliation or conciliation. For the project, I am placing seven memorial stones spaced out around a tree that represent the seven grandfather teachings. On the back of the stones you will find a list of all the residential schools in Canada. A visit to an old-growth forest gave me the idea to build something with a tree that is living, because reconciliation is a living process.

toires du Nord-Ouest et à la Première Nation Fort Chipewyan d’Athabasca. Il étudie en études autochtones et en architecture à l’Université de Toronto et il envisage de poursuivre des études de maîtrise en architecture.

Wanda Dalla Costa; two interior views of the Aboriginal Learning Centre in Calgary.

Vous vous décrivez vous-même comme un « survivant des effets du système des pensionnats indiens ». Comment cette expérience a-t-elle influencé votre ambition de devenir un architecte?

Wanda Dalla Costa; deux vues de l’intérieur de l’Aboriginal Learning Centre à Calgary.

Dès que j’ai pu tenir un crayon dans ma main, j’ai su ce que je voulais faire dans la vie et j’ai su que je voulais être architecte. Les pensionnats indiens et tout le traumatisme qu’ils ont causé ont rapidement mis fin à ce rêve d’enfant. Le métier qui s’en rapprochait le plus était celui de menuisier. C’est ce que je suis devenu, sans toutefois renoncer à tout jamais au rêve qu’un jour une porte s’ouvrirait. C’est ce qui s’est produit en 2010.

What should be the connection between Indigenous culture and today’s building design?

Votre projet Words to Form est votre réponse architecturale à l’invitation de la Commission de vérité et réconciliation de commémorer le sombre héritage des pensionnats indiens. Comment donnezvous une forme physique à l’idée de réconciliation?

Architecture creates a spirit, an environment—and architects are responsible for creating an “affect” space whether they do it purposely or not. The idea behind spirituality and architecture comes out of First Nations cosmology, with the idea that any creation of space leads to spirituality in that space.

En langue crie, les mots Hosh key weeha we Towin signifient « nouvelles relations ». Nous voyons dans l’établissement de cette nouvelle relation entre les Canadiens et les peuples des Premières Nations une occasion de rebâtir un espace dédié à la réflexion sur la réconciliation ou la conciliation.

JAMES K. BIRD James K. Bird, 53 ans, a grandi à Fort Smith, dans les Territoires du Nord-Ouest. Il est affilié à la Nation Métis des Terri-

Dans ce projet, je place autour d’un arbre sept pierres commémoratives qui représentent les sept enseignements ancestraux. Au dos des pierres, on trouve une liste de tous les pensionnats indiens

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Journal de l’IRAC

James K. Bird

Robert R. Comeau

RAIC Journal

au Canada. C’est une promenade dans une forêt ancienne qui m’a donné l’idée de créer quelque chose avec un arbre vivant, parce que la réconciliation est un processus vivant. Quel devrait être le lien entre la culture autochtone et le design des bâtiments d’aujourd’hui? L’architecture crée un esprit, un environnement, et les architectes sont responsables de créer un espace qui « touche » les gens, que ce soit intentionnel ou non. L’idée derrière la spiritualité et l’architecture vient de la cosmologie des Premières Nations selon laquelle toute création d’un espace mène à la spiritualité dans cet espace.

KENNETH J. (JAKE) CHAKASIM Born in Moose Factory, Ontario and affiliated with Attawapiskat First Nation, Jake Chakasim, 43, is pursuing his doctoral studies at the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia. His research interests include Indigenous planning and architecture. Who or what inspired your interest in architecture? My grandfather inspired me to pursue design as a profession. My grandfather exposed me to both a tacit and temporal way of thinking and being out on the land in the far reaches of the North, long before Canadian schools of architecture were thinking of the northern landscape as a space for a design laboratory. Explain your interest in Indigenous original teachings as a tool to inform architecture.

My perspective is informed by a series of lived experiences with my grandfather— a story of place, instructional stories about hunting and giving back to one’s community. It’s a story of reciprocity as much as it is a story about him overcoming the experience of going to a residential school. An understanding of original teachings is a vehicle for framing our relationship to the environment. What is “Indigenous design” and what should non-Indigenous people learn from it for planning and architecture? “Indigenous design begins with a shift in mind that drops down to a feeling,” a quote I borrow from my current supervisor, speaks directly to what many non-Indigenous theorists are starting to write about: the tacit wisdom of listening and observing before speaking. All too often, non-Indigenous planners and architects parachute into our communities thinking they know what is the best economic design solution before actually listening, observing and feeling the habitual patterns of culture in a specific place.

KENNETH J. (JAKE) CHAKASIM Né à Moose Factory, en Ontario et affilié à la Première Nation Attawapiskat, Jake Chakasim, 43 ans, poursuit des études de doctorat à l’École de la planification communautaire et régionale de l’Université de la Colombie-Britannique. Il s’intéresse particulièrement à l’urbanisme et à l’architecture autochtones. D’où provient votre intérêt envers l’architecture? Mon grand-père m’a encouragé à m’orienter vers le design. Il m’a fait découvrir un mode de pensée à la fois tacite et temporel et m’a expliqué le sens d’être

dans la nature dans les régions les plus reculées du Nord, bien avant que les écoles d’architecture du Canada commencent à voir le paysage nordique comme un espace pour un laboratoire de design.

Model of James K. Bird’s project Words to Form; James K. Bird; Kenneth J. Chakasim.

Expliquer en quoi votre intérêt envers les enseignements autochtones originaux est un outil pour orienter l’architecture.

Maquette du projet de James K. Bird, Words to Form; James K. Bird; Kenneth J. Chakasim.

Ma façon de voir les choses découle d’une série d’expériences vécues avec mon grand-père—une histoire du lieu, des récits instructifs sur la chasse et l’importance de donner à la communauté. C’est une histoire de réciprocité tout autant qu’une histoire sur sa façon d’avoir surmonté la difficile expérience d’un pensionnat indien. La connaissance des enseignements originaux est un outil important pour encadrer notre rapport à l’environnement. Qu’est-ce que le « design autochtone » et quels enseignements les non-Autochtones doivent-ils en tirer pour la planification et l’architecture? « Le design autochtone commence par un changement de mentalité qui descend jusqu’à une sensation », comme le dit mon superviseur actuel. C’est directement ce sur quoi bien des théoriciens non autochtones commencent à se pencher : la sagesse tacite qui consiste à écouter et à observer avant de parler. Trop souvent, des planificateurs et des architectes non autochtones parachutés dans nos communautés croient qu’ils connaissent la meilleure solution économique avant d’avoir réellement écouté, observé et senti les modèles culturels habituels dans un endroit particulier.

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DTAH, unless otherwise noted

Roger Terence du Toit (1939-2015) was a decorated architect, landscape architect and planner with extensive project experience across Canada and other parts of the world. In a career spanning more than 45 years, he has left an indelible mark on Canadian urbanism, and has encouraged and inspired generations of fellow city builders. A fundamental and consistent principle in all of his work was the integration of the major design disciplines to create environments that meet the need for economy and utility, and provide places that are socially responsive and a joy to inhabit. Du Toit’s primary concerns were the collective and public dimensions of the built environment. Du Toit cared passionately about great architecture. However, his principal and most influential contribution to Canada’s urban environment is to be seen through the lens of urban design. To du Toit, urban design brings a comprehensive approach to orchestrating the many factors that when combined can create great buildings in a great public realm. He believed strongly that this process could only be successful through the close collaboration of all design disciplines, and the combined efforts of consultants, owners, managers and end-users. Du Toit was born in Cape Town, South Africa on December 20, 1939. He earned a Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Cape Town in 1963, moved to Toronto in 1965, and received his Master of Architecture from the University of Toronto in 1966. That year, he joined John Andrews Architects. During his time there he was a key figure in Metro Centre, the railway lands redevelopment plan that

resulted in the CN Tower. He went on to play a primary role in the successful construction of the CN Tower, completed with WZMH Architects. While with the John Andrews partnership, du Toit also worked on the twin campuses of the University of Minnesota. This project, along with Metro Centre, led du Toit to develop and refine his systematic, comprehensive and consultative approach to complex, multi-dimensional urban planning issues. In 1975, he established Roger du Toit Architects with his wife Sheila, who acted as the firm’s business manager. In 1985, the firm evolved into du Toit, Allsopp, Hillier, and in 2012 became known by its acronym, DTAH. Du Toit’s influence on Canadian urbanism can be summed up in at least three ways: in his extensive and wide-ranging body of work in cities, urban centres and campuses throughout Canada and abroad; in his innovative yet systematic working methods that always drove towards consensual resolution; and in his insistence on establishing and maintaining an inter-disciplinary office that would nourish and sustain many emerging professionals. Although he completed projects in Australia, Hong Kong, the Middle East and the United States, du Toit’s principal contributions have been in Canada. He was deeply involved with more than 20 university campuses, and undertook important urban design projects in most major Canadian urban centres. Of these, his most profound impact has been on the downtown precincts of Toronto and Ottawa.

ABOVE Partners Roger du Toit, Robert Allsopp, and John Hillier with a model of Toronto’s Distillery District. OPPOSITE TOP While working with John Andrews, du Toit led the Metro Centre plan for Toronto’s downtown railway lands and played a key role in completing the CN Tower. OPPOSITE BOTTOM Du Toit’s plan for Vancouver’s Downtown South recommended a mix of land uses that would reinforce the precinct’s best civic and natural features.

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Under du Toit’s leadership, DTAH worked with West 8 to design key components of Toronto’s waterfront, including the revitalization of Queen’s Quay Boulevard. CENTRE The initial plan for the rejuvenation of Toronto’s waterfront, to which du Toit was a key contributor, envisaged the reconfiguration of the Gardiner-Lakeshore corridor. OPPOSITE TOP, LEFT TO RIGHT The whimiscally shaped WaveDecks are a popular feature of the new waterfront; Queens Quay includes improvements for pedestrians and cyclists. OPPOSITE BOTTOM Du Toit spearheaded the creation of a heritage master plan for Toronto’s 13-acre Distillery District, including the rehabilitation of its 19th century industrial buildings. TOP

An important early work was the groundbreaking document, On Building Downtown: Design Guidelines for the Core Area. In Toronto during the early 1970s, the term “urban design” was seldom used and little understood. This innovative study, produced by a team led by du Toit, George Baird and Stephen McLaughlin, emphasized simple but crucial concepts. These included the importance of historical context and site particularities; the design, accessibility and affability of the public realm; and the responsibility of private development to contribute to the public good. The report profoundly affected subsequent Toronto civic planning, and its messages continue to reverberate throughout cities across the country. This work was to define du Toit’s professional preoccupations and his modus operandi for the balance of his 45-year career. Du Toit also spearheaded the heritage master plan for the 19 th-century Gooderham and Worts Distillery District, now a major cultural destination. From 2000 to 2015, du Toit helped develop the planning basis for the revitalization of Toronto’s Central Waterfront, with key recommendations including the removal and reconfiguration of the Gardiner Expressway. In joint venture with West 8, his firm designed some of the new waterfront’s key components, including Queen’s Quay Boulevard and the WaveDeck structures.

I can think of no other Canadian who achieved the level of skill, expertise and recognition in the field of urban design. He also possessed an uncanny ability to convey his ideas and persuade his clients of the importance of the issues implicit in his designs, in such a mild-mannered way. Norman Hotson, Architect, FRAIC Du Toit’s legacy in the National Capital Region began with a 1982 siting study for the National Gallery of Canada and the Canadian Museum of Civilization (now the Canadian Museum of History). In 1983, his firm devised the ceremonial route, now Confederation Boulevard, which connects the nation’s major political and cultural institutions in Ottawa and Gatineau. He was the driving force behind the Long Term Vision and Plan for Ottawa’s parliamentary and judicial precincts, completed in 1987 with an update in 2006, which guides the development and preservation of Canada’s most important cultural and political symbols. In the 1990s, he initiated a process for developing building height regulations in Ottawa to protect the views of national landmarks such as the Parliament Buildings. Many observers and colleagues commented on du Toit’s ability to listen—to take all views seriously, to weigh a full range of opinions and








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OPPOSITE TOP Du Toit initiated a process for developing new building height regulations that preserve the preeminent visual stature of the Parliament Buildings. OPPOSITE BOTTOM The Ceremonial Routes study was one of the first projects that Roger and the firm carried out in the National Capital, setting the basic framework for numerous subsequent planning directives that remain in place today. ABOVE, TOP TO BOTTOM Du Toit was the driving force behind the Parliamentary and Judicial Precincts Long Term Vision & Plan, which today guides the development and preservation of the Nation’s most important cultural and political landmarks; in 1982, du Toit led an interdisciplinary team in evaluating a series of potential sites for the new National Gallery of Canada and the Canadian Museum of Civilization, to be located near Parliament Hill.

ideas, to recognize and accept ambiguities—and then to carefully distill and persuasively convey his conclusions. Often faced with multifaceted client groups with divergent opinions and perspectives, du Toit developed great skill in untangling seemingly intractable planning conundrums, and in devising solutions of dazzling beauty and simplicity. Du Toit developed a powerful approach to master planning that he refined throughout his career. He had an aversion to the idea of a definitive “Master Plan” since it implied a kind of fixed view of a future state—one that was doomed to obsolescence as circumstances changed. Instead, du Toit developed a principles-based approach that set out objectives and general resolutions. Illustrated by a “Demonstration Plan,” these principles offered strong guidance, coupled with the flexibility necessary to incorporate as yet unknown future requirements. Du Toit believed that to be good at doing urban design, one also had to be good at making buildings, urban spaces and landscapes. He also believed that the opposite was true—that building and planning were reciprocal skills that were necessary for any one endeavour to be successful. Du Toit’s firm was always, and remains, a team of talented architects, landscape architects and urban planners that, along with like-

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Roger du Toit has possibly been the foremost practitioner and proponent of urban design for his generation in Canada... Nowhere has this been more significant than in Canada’s Capital, where he has had the most profound and positive influence, on its present and future character and notably on its national symbols. John Abel, FRAIC / Former Director, Design and Land Use (National Capital Commission) minded specialist consultants, can respond collectively to issues with solutions that may cross conventional professional boundaries. A further distinguishing aspect of his career was du Toit’s ongoing involvement in a number of Canadian institutions and communities over a very long period of time. These long-term associations gave du Toit the opportunity to monitor, refine and modify plans as conditions evolved. In the most rewarding instances, he was responsible for all project dimensions—planning framework, master plan, design and implementation. The most notable of these long-term associations included Wascana Centre in Regina. For more than 30 years, starting in 1979, du Toit oversaw the long-range plan of the Wascana Centre in Regina, a 2,300-

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As architect-planner for Wascana Centre in Regina, du Toit produced five Master Plan updates; the principles-based plans aim to balance landscape and buildings. BELOW The Saskatchewan Legislative Building is part of the park-like setting. OPPOSITE TOP, LEFT TO RIGHT Du Toit developed three Campus Plan updates for Carleton University; his work for the University of British Columbia guided the development of one of North America’s largest campuses. OPPOSITE BOTTOM Du Toit enjoys a quiet moment at DTAH ’s present-day office at 50 Park Road in Toronto.


The jury members were: Marianne McKenna, FRAIC, Paule Boutin, FIRAC, and


Yves Trépanier.

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:: Jury :: Du Toit was a leader. He has made timeless contributions to significant parts of our urban environments across the country. He developed a unique career that transcended traditional understanding of architectural practice, with work encompassing planning, urban design, community development and architecture. An innovator in truly integrative design processes, du Toit anticipated and planned for unknown futures. He took stewardship on as an important component of his relationship with his clients, and was also committed to research, teaching, and sharing. Du Toit’s work inspired many professionals and firms that followed his pioneering in urban design. He made us aware that our community projects could go far beyond the traditional notions of just streetscapes.


acre park built around Wascana Lake that encompasses the Provincial Legislative Building, the University of Regina, museums, arts centres, and other community buildings. As the Centre’s architect-planner, du Toit was able to successfully maintain a balance between the natural beauty of Wascana Centre, its recreational potential, and the cultural value of the institutions located there. Other long-term projects included Carleton University, Queen’s University, University of Regina and the University of British Columbia, where he created a framework for expansion that preserved the site’s old-growth forest. For all four, he directed successive master plans and precinct plans, as well as conducting feasibility studies, developing guidelines, or implementing specific architectural projects. Du Toit died in 2015, aged 75, from injuries suffered in a bicycle accident. He was among the best in his field. His legacy will prevail not only in the many plans and projects he leaves behind, but also in the many individuals he inspired and stirred to action.



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D’ARCY JONES ARCHITECTURE D’Arcy Jones Architecture (DJA) is a nine-person studio that was founded in 2005 by D’Arcy Jones, MRAIC. A graduate of the University of Manitoba and Dalhousie University, Jones worked on his own from 2000 to 2005. DJA’s projects are largely residential, but also include commercial spaces, art galleries, renovations and interiors. At a time when nearly 1,000 demolition permits are issued annually in Vancouver, DJA embraces the adaptive re-use of older buildings as an opportunity for architectural innovation and recycling. For example, in the Waddell-Kunigk Renovation, the studio brought new life, light, and views to a 1940s Vancouver bungalow by lifting it eight feet, turning the basement into the main living space and the former living area into a bedroom level. For the Monte Clark Gallery, which occupies two rough-and-tumble bulldozer repair bays in an industrial warehouse, DJA designed a modular and re-mountable system of drywall-clad plywood and steel panels. The new space’s character is determined by the existing industrial grit and patina, revealed and featured in quirky ways. Design decisions often flow from a motivation for clients to inhabit their projects with ease. Raw steel, exposed concrete and untreated wood are pre-

ferred as finish materials, since they are complete once they are installed. At the Friesen-Wong House in Coldstream, B.C. the Japanese-style charred wood exterior siding will never need stain or paint. The house’s long cantilevered concrete slabs have a custom-designed thermal break that maintains a complete insulation plane enveloping the whole building. Even in hot summers, the house is comfortable without air conditioning. Sustainability is also integrated in DJA’s design process, which favours craft-intensive details with common building materials over exotic nonlocal materials. The heights of parapets and exterior walls is often set by the longest available siding board lengths, or a module that can be cut with no waste. DJA strives to leverage skilled regional labour, contributing to keeping the craft of construction alive. Satisfied clients for the Abenbare House in Toronto, a 1950s bungalow renovation, described their experience this way: “There was a personal touch, an openness to incorporate all ideas and thoughts with no presumption that there was only one answer. What impressed us, beyond Jones’ visionary design, was just how cost-conscious he was with our money.”

OPPOSITE, CLOCKWISE FROM TOP Completed last year, the Okada-Marshall House is located in East Sooke, B.C .; Vancouver’s raw-edged Monte Clark Gallery was carved from the shell of a derelict industrial building; the Friesen-Wong House cantilevers outwards from a rocky ridge overlooking a river in B.C.’s Okanagan Valley. ABOVE In Toronto, the streamlined Abenbare House builds on the foundations of a 1950s bungalow.

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:: Jury :: The work demonstrates a thorough understanding of construction. The projects are carefully and intensely detailed. They show thoughtful attention to creating spatial variety, and reflect a good command of the creative selection and execution of constructed materials. The skillful integration of interior and exterior spaces is particularly well-executed, resulting in an architecture that is poetic.


DJA has current and completed projects throughout British Columbia, as well as in Ontario, Switzerland, California and Washington. Through competitions, design panels, teaching, lectures and juries, the studio strives to be a critical contributor to contemporary architectural culture. The firm has won numerous awards, including a 2016 Vancouver Urban Design Award, two Canadian Architect Awards of Merit and the inaugural Arthur Erickson Memorial Award. In 2014, Jones won the Ronald J. Thom Award for Early Design Achievement from the Canada Council for the Arts, which recognizes outstanding creative talent and potential in architectural design early in a career. ABOVE, CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT For the Waddell-Kunigk Renovation, DJA lifted a bungalow up eight feet, converting the former basement into living spaces and the attic into an office and playroom; the 430 House retained the foundation and structure of the previous home, revamping its exterior skin and interiors; built for an extended family, the Yan Residence combines three autonomous living units on a one-acre lot; the Brown House includes a 1,200-square-foot cabin, woodshed, and courtyard built across from an existing log cabin on Hornby Island, B.C.



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ANDREW AND JODI BATAY-CSORBA Batay-Csorba Architects was established in 2010 by Andrew Batay-Csorba, MRAIC and Jodi Batay-Csorba, MRAIC as a collaborative, research-oriented design studio. The practice was created in Los Angeles, California and moved to Toronto, bringing with it a fresh outlook to the progress of design in Canada. Jodi and Andrew both received their Masters in Architecture at UCLA . Before founding Batay-Csorba Architects, Andrew worked as a project architect at Morphosis, and Jodi worked at firms including Gehry Partners, Morphosis, Aedas and Gensler. The practice is committed to creating transformative spatial experiences through the exploration of site, typology, materiality and movement. Each project is generated through a deep reading of the site in search of unexpected relationships that can both tie it to a larger urban contribution and shape new perceptual experiences. While Batay-Csorba’s work ranges from small-scale installations to large-scale urban planning, its main focus has been a critical approach to Toronto’s low-rise typology. In counterpoint to the high-density, high-rise infill towers that have accounted for the bulk of the city’s residential development over the past decade, Andrew and Jodi have sought to revitalize and rethink the low-rise project. Their approach seeks to accommodate changes in lifestyle and more sensitively consider the long-term development of the city.

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This is pursued through a particular reading of common architectural elements and themes. Context is abstracted and understood for its geometric logic rather than as a language to mimic at face value. Typology becomes more spatial, reconsidering the configuration between units and between the building and its site. Façades become interactive to create a dialogue with onlookers and neighbouring buildings. Works exemplifying this approach include Semi[Detached], which was exhibited in the 2012 Venice Architecture Biennale’s Migrating Landscapes exhibition in the Canadian Pavilion and won an OAA Concept Award in 2014. It abstracts the geometry of a typical Toronto home, creating a sculptural form that fits in with its neighbours, despite using a completely different material palette. Double Duplex, the recipient of a 2015 Canadian Architect Award of Merit, creates two generous units per building by carving out front and back courtyards to allow for double-height volumes. And Misfit[Fit], which won a Canadian Architect Award of Merit in 2016, proposes a new take on precast concrete forms for a boutique mid-rise commercial building in a former industrial district. Like the rest of their work, these projects demonstrate Batay-Csorba’s commitment to thoughtful, creative design that offers innovative and sensitive ways to drive forward the profession in Canadian cities.

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Double Duplex is a twinned pair of two-unit residences in Toronto’s Parkdale neighbourhood that incorporates a finely patterned wood brise-soleil; Core Modern Homes uses large perspectival windows to extend the visual limits of the dwellings to embrace the site’s primary view corridors. ABOVE, CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT The Glebe Residence in Ottawa pivots a rear addition around a maple tree; the Hazelton Residence converts two duplex units by Barton Myers into a single-family home with a redesigned back façade; rendering of the Pacific Residence in Toronto.


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Rendering of the Methuen Residence in Toronto; the research project Semi[Detached] won an OAA Concept Award in 2014; Misfit[Fit] is a commercial project slated for construction in Toronto’s Liberty Village. ABOVE, CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT

The direction of the office has also been influenced by the duo’s extensive academic involvement. As an adjunct professor at Ryerson University, the University of Toronto and the University of Waterloo, Andrew has developed and taught several studio courses exploring new urban housing and mixed-use typologies. Andrew and Jodi have served as jury members at institutions across North America, participated at Pecha Kucha events at the University of Waterloo, and guest lectured at an international conference in Panama. The firm’s work has been distinguished with international awards, publications and gallery exhibitions.


:: Jury ::

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Andrew and Jodi Batay-Csorba have consistently produced good and mature work that is innovative and fresh. The projects—particularly in infill—are original and are developed with focus and exploration that is consistent with ongoing university explorations. It shows a lot of time and commitment to research. The work displays excellent design and built resolution of space and surface detailing, and incorporates expressive texture and form. Batay-Csorba’s projects also reflect a trusting relationship with clients. This is a positive validation of the quality of their process and design.

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:: Jury ::


As a 28-year-old who had recently received his Master of Architecture, Ken O. Lum, MRAIC was shortlisted from 1,011 professionals in a major international competition to design a national September 11 memorial for Flight 93, which was hijacked by terrorists intending to crash the plane into the White House or Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. His proposal explored the potential of landscape and sculptural form to heal tragedy through time and inspiration. Lum’s award-winning design was published, featured in a documentary by CBC National, and televised internationally. It received multiple awards, including the OAA Award of Excellence. Lum’s professional experience began in design firms including Hariri Pontarini Architects and KPMB Architects. In 2007, he joined the executive architect firm Adamson Associates. To bridge the gap between design and construction, he seized the opportunity to propose and create a design manager role that leads, reconciles and balances the design and construction concerns of client, design architect and executive architect teams throughout all stages of design. A design manager’s uninterrupted involvement guarantees that design integrity is maintained from start to finish. Since its successful debut, Adamson now employs design managers on most of its complex projects. Lum’s ability to view a project holistically through the lens of an architect, engineer, client and user has led him to become the youngest and fastest-promoted associate at Adamson. He has worked on such highprofile projects as 50 Hudson New York, Crossrail Station London, Abu Dhabi Media Zone, and various skyscrapers in New York and London. He is currently working on the highly anticipated Google Headquarters in California. Lum has successfully collaborated with the firms of master architects including Norman Foster, Richard Rogers, Jean Nouvel, Zaha Hadid, Ben van Berkel, Jeanne Gang, Bjarke Ingels, and Thomas Heatherwick. Design excellence executed at the top levels is achieved not through solo genius, but by a collaboration of talent. Success in architecture, for Lum, is about the day-to-day work of many contributors. Lum’s example demonstrates that there are paths other than celebrity and starting one’s own practice to create a meaningful impact and enjoy a fulfilling professional life. Lum has served as a teaching assistant and design critic for the University of Waterloo, and volunteered as a guest lecturer at Ryerson University. He also serves as a mentor to young professionals at work and aspiring architects at the high school level. He is part of the OAA intern architect mentorship program.





This award is given in recognition that there are roles for architects within the practice of architecture that are significant, but not centered on classic notions of the designer. Ken O. Lum is playing a major role in project cost, content and management for complex projects. He is demonstrating the major impact that an individual in a large organization can have, and at an early stage in their career. The choice of Lum for this award validates the place of support and management roles within design culture. Designed by Bjarke Ingels Group with executive architect Adamson Associates, 66 Hudson Yards includes a spiral of green infrastructure that extends upwards from the High Line; the luminous scar-like profile of the Flight 93 September 11 National Memorial is inscribed in the landscape; designed by UNStudio with executive architect Adamson Associates, the Abu Dhabi Media Zone is a broadcastfocused development located near the Corniche waterfront.

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Hariri Pontarini Architects

The Bahá’í Temple of South America, by Hariri Pontarini Architects of Toronto, is a domed structure set in the foothills of the Andes Mountains outside Santiago, Chile. Nine monumental veils frame an open worship space that expresses a faith of inclusion and accommodates up to 600 visitors. Surrounded by reflecting pools and a landscape of native grasses, the temple acts as an invitation for spiritual contemplation. The realization of the architecture depended heavily on innovations in three primary areas: materials, technology and structure. The vision for the Temple began with the concept of light—to design a building that would allow light to move through its surface and structure. An intensive investigation into materials that capture, express, and embody light resulted in the development of two cladding materials: an interior layer of exceptionally translucent marble from the Portuguese Estremoz quarries, and an exterior layer of cast-glass panels developed exclusively for this project. The research for the cast-glass exterior cladding took nearly four years, working in collaboration with artisans at Jeff Goodman Studio in Toronto. By firing layered fragments of borosilicate glass rods in custom kilns, the designers obtained glass sheets imbued with subtle variations of translucency, movement and colour. Flat pieces were CNC water-jet cut to the exact shapes defined in the computer model. For curved pieces, the cut shapes were reheated and slumped over digitally fabricated concrete moulds to produce the exact curvatures required. 1,129 unique glass pieces were produced and assembled with meticulous care to create each of the nine wings. On the inside, flat pieces of marble were water-jet cut while the curved pieces were extracted from blocks. Each wing of the nine-sided Temple

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contains over 870 unique pieces of marble. Final assembly for both cast glass and marble elements—including the installation of anchors, gaskets, and aluminum frames—took place in Germany before the completed pieces were shipped to Santiago. Realizing the complex curves of the conceptual design required the studio to look beyond the traditional three-dimensional visualization software used by the architecture industry, towards modeling platforms geared to fabrication and manufacturing. Dassault’s parametric CATIA software, used at the time primarily by the automotive, aviation, and aerospace sectors, was selected for its ability to gracefully manage large amounts of geometric and informational data, and to transfer this information directly to fabrication machines. The CATIA model became the robust central data repository for the project as it progressed, combining information on its structural, mechanical, and electrical components, and all other constituent elements of the completed building. The site, at the foothills of the Andes, is exposed to diverse weather conditions and located in a highly seismic zone. Consequently, the structural design of the Temple had to support the complex building shape and also be able to withstand extreme earthquakes, wind and weather. The superstructures of the wings comprise hundreds of unique, individually engineered slim-profile steel members and nodal connections. This superstructure forms a system of interior and exterior frames, stabilized by diagonal bracing members and shaped in accordance with the geometry of the cladding that they support. Each of the wings rests on concrete rings and columns on elastomeric seismic isolators, so that in the event of an earthquake, the concrete pads slide horizontally to absorb the shock.

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Around the world, each of the Bahá’í continental temples serve as centres of worship as well as expressions of technological innovation and architectural excellence. The Temple is more than just a story of complex design, innovation, and construction: it is the embodiment of a community’s aspirations to create a place for gathering, contemplation, meditation, and prayer for future generations. :: Jury ::

The assembly of an international and local team of suppliers, consultants and fabricators demonstrates how the profession is increasingly working in complex, globalized environments that demand a sophisticated use of evolving software, communication and fabrication software tools. The choice of the irregular spaceframe for the nine wings was developed using fabrication software that in turn informed the segmentation philosophy for the cladding systems. The delicate nature of the fine structural grid thoughtfully answers the risk of shadowing from the structure that could have competed with the project’s aspirations of translucency and lightness. The successful resolution of a project of such extraordinary ambition establishes a legacy for future projects for the profession.

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The project illustrates a complete complement of innovations in science, practice, and art to support a highly resolved architectural form. It demonstrates multiple zones of exploration and aspiration that transcend materials to sculpt a spiritual presence.

The Temple’s translucent envelope emits a soft glow at night; an intricate steel structure supports the outer skin of custom cast glass panels and interior skin of Portuguese marble slabs. ABOVE, CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT A view looking up to the mezzanine level and central oculus; an aerial view of the foundation, with rebar in process for the ground slab beams; a screen shot from the CATIA model development; created in collaboration with Jeff Goodman Studio, the custom cast glass pieces were slumped over moulds to create curved forms. OPPOSITE, LEFT TO RIGHT

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BIBLIOTHÈQUE DU BOISÉ ARCHITECTS Cardinal Hardy | Labonté Marcil | Éric Pelletier architecte en consortium (Éric Pelletier architecte and Cardinal Hardy joined Lemay in 2013 and 2014, respectively)

Montreal’s Bibliothèque du Boisé combines high-performance standards with design quality and responsiveness to community needs. Since opening in 2013, the facility has quadrupled visitor forecasts and been recognized for many aspects of its architecture and interior design, in particular, for its environmental sustainability. The LEED Platinum certified building covers 6,000 square metres and brings together multiple functions: a library, administration, exhibit space and museum archives. The result of an architectural competition by the City of Montreal, the library contains a large collection to serve an ethnically diverse area. It includes meeting rooms, youth areas, and a café, and aims to provide an attractive space for learning as well as cultural and community activities. Positioned between Thimens Boulevard and Marcel-Laurin Park, the library both strengthens the artery’s civic identity and enhances the protected woodland behind it, by providing a new passage between the two. The architecture unfolds, spreads out and rises up, blurring the boundaries between the building and its site. The project is further integrated into its surroundings through its use of natural wood and gentle slopes. Sustainability strategies include an innovative integration of mechanical systems: a passive heating system uses the heat accumulated in a glass prism for redistribution through a geothermal loop. Low-f low ventilation through the f loors reduces the number of ducts required. The building relies mostly on natural light, combined with task lighting, for energy savings: 75 percent of the library’s f loor area receives natural light. The project emphasizes the use of certified wood, lowemitting materials, and recycled or regional materials.

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The existing natural environment is strengthened with xeriscaping, the sensitive design and operation of retention basins, and a green approach to the construction and layout of parking areas. The project preserves certain trees and plants over 100 new ones, while also adding 5,000 indigenous shrubs, climbing plants, and groundcovers. A storm water recovery system supplies water to an adjacent wetland. Envisioned as a 21st-century library, the Bibliothèque du Boisé is more than a space for housing documents: it is a cutting-edge cultural, technological and creative hub. It has become an exceptional landmark for the residents of Montreal’s Saint-Laurent borough and an inspiration to other communities. By integrating numerous functions, the library embraces the latest innovations in information management and educational technologies. With its balance of open spaces and cozy alcoves, the library fosters social exchanges and generates a sense of belonging and community. :: Jury :: The Bibliothèque du Boisé offers a variety of beautifully lit and welcoming spaces throughout, maximizing daylight and views and the use of natural elements, such as wood, to create an environment that contributes to health and well-being. The architects’ approach to high-performance building through whole systems design and strategy has resulted in an impressive achievement. Not only does the Bibliothèque du Boisé have a remarkable dialogue with the urban site and natural habitat, it also does so with a striking form.

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OPPOSITE A walkway crosses a portion of the library, connecting the main street to a nearby woodland. ABOVE, CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT The building’s wood-clad eaves echo the surrounding landscape; the forest is visible throughout the reading areas; the interior makes extensive use of certified wood; the project site was landscaped with indigenous plants; a skylight adjoins a dramatic inverted triangle volume.

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CHRISTINE LEU Toronto architect Christine Leu, MRAIC, is the co-founder, with Alan Webb, of the multi-disciplinary arts and curation practice LeuWebb Projects. A graduate of the University of Waterloo School of Architecture and a licensed member of the OAA, she also teaches as an adjunct architecture and interior design professor at Ryerson University. LeuWebb uses space, light, sound and texture to activate public space, with a focus on social issues and respect for historical context. The practice’s grounding in site-specificity comes from the founders’ experience and training as architects. The collaborative practice operates at a variety of scales and across a range of media and disciplines. Recent projects include a landscape installation at Ontario Place, Toronto, for the in/future festival, where LeuWebb Projects reimagined the utopian architectural forms of the park’s 46-year-old structures. Flotsam/Jetsam consists of several hundred plaster casts of the Cinesphere, pavilions, and modular pods strewn upon the rocky infill of the west beach, interspersed between detritus and miscellaneous objects. Workplace Affairs, curated and photographed by LeuWebb Projects for the Toronto Design Offsite Festival, explored the relationship of space to the creative process, examining the artefacts of production and documenting the workspaces that enabled their creation. The exhibition gave visitors a peek into the physical studio spaces of local artists through architectural drawings and artefacts from their work. It posited

that the creative process may be shaped by physical constraints; likewise, an artist may remake their workspace in their own image. Fort York National Historic Site in Toronto was the site of Melting Point, an installation merging light and sound for Nuit Blanche in 2013. Light poured from the mouths of Fort York’s cannons, accompanied by a soundtrack of cannon rumbles, harps, and waves—laying a symbolic defense against encroaching development. As architecture seeks to make connections to the larger world, the artwork of Christine Leu seeks to engage people with both the tangible and the ephemeral aspects of everyday life. By creating projects that encourage interaction and imaginative interpretations, Leu aspires for her audiences to reconsider and rediscover the spaces around them. :: Jury :: This is an extraordinary body of work that bridges art and architecture, with a high-quality craft element. Each one of Christine Leu’s permanent works and temporary installations manifests a thoughtful and thought-provoking approach to its architectural or environmental context. The work also demonstrates skill in response to site interpretation. Leu exemplifies a successful and creative career, working as an architect and artist, in collaborations, and in teaching.

ABOVE A public artwork commissioned for the Edmonton children’s zoo, Animal Family will feature full-sized animal silhouettes on the side of an urban barn. OPPOSITE, CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT The exhibition Workplace Affairs explored the relationship of space to the creative process; Catch and Release mimics the action of Hydrostor, a system that stores energy under Lake Ontario; Melting Point is a sound-and-light installation at Toronto’s Fort York; A Veil of Skavgraes was developed during an artist’s residency in Denmark; the mural Collaborative Chromatics reflects and refracts natural daylight; created for an arts festival, Flotsam/Jetsam scattered miniature replicas of architectural components of Ontario Place among the rocks of the site’s lakefront.

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HCMA ARTIST-INRESIDENCE PROGRAM Since 2014, HCMA has hosted six Canadian artists at its studio for periods of several months each. The Artist-in-Residence Program provides the opportunity for participants to pursue their artistic research, take advantage of resources at the HCMA studio and collaborate with the studio on projects. Each artist is financially supported by HCMA with a materials budget and honorarium. HCMA aims to work with artists who look at relationships, connections, human interactions, human potential, social potential and social space—areas that their architectural team wants to explore in greater depth. HCMA’s first artist in residence, Julien Thomas, developed and constructed The Faraday Café—a Vancouver coffee shop designed to repel wireless signals. Photographer Krista Jahnke, the next artist, constructed a portrait of Vancouver that reorganized Vancouver landmarks into a new configuration. The resulting mural, A Stable World That Will Last Forever, was displayed at the Olympic Village SkyTrain Station from January to April 2015. When HCMA moved to its current location, it sought a memorable first installation for its new rotating lobby gallery. Artists Michael Rozen and Scott Sueme were invited to paint directly on to the studio walls, and were fully integrated with HCMA’s team for the duration of their residency. Choreographer Heather Myers’ residency delved into the intersection

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Solid Liquid Ether was a site-specific dance piece choreographed by Heather Myers at a recently opened aquatic centre designed by HCMA; Katherine Soucie experimented with circular knitting looms during her residency; Scott Sueme and Michael Rozen at work on the Connections mural at the HCMA studio.


of dance, architecture and film. This research resulted in a choreographed dance at the Grandview Heights Aquatic Centre, an architectural project completed by HCMA in early 2016. The firm’s most recent artist in residence temporarily transformed HCMA’s model workshop into a textile studio. Katherine Soucie specializes in the re-use of pre-consumer textile waste, using it to create clothing, accessories, interior products and 3D sculptural forms. HCMA encourages artists to share their final piece with the public to ensure their work isn’t confined to the studio and staff. Some of the residencies have led to artist collaborations on architectural projects. But more importantly, the program has given HCMA new windows into the creative process. The goal is to stir debate, challenge assumptions and ultimately push the boundaries of traditional architecture practice. :: Jury :: It is very clear that this program has tremendous value. The presence of an artist-in-residence at the HCMA Studio is stimulating to the architects. It challenges their perceptions and broadens their perspective. The program is a source of inspiration to other firms, providing them with a model to emulate.

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Alan DeSousa has been mayor of the Borough of Saint-Laurent in the City of Montreal since 2002 and a municipal politician since 1990. He is a member of the council of the Montreal Metropolitan Community, which represents 82 municipalities. In his municipal roles, DeSousa has made significant contributions to enhancing the built environment in Greater Montreal and across Quebec. His advocacy for sustainable, quality environments has led to the construction of high-performance buildings and the creation of municipal tools that guide the region’s environmentally forward development. For example, Montreal’s 2006 official designation as a UNESCO City of Design comes out of public policy documents that set design as a municipal priority. DeSousa played a leading role in the development and adoption of those documents. Economic Development Strategy 2005-2010 defined design as a driver of economic growth, while the action plan Montreal: City of Design/Design of a City proposed steps such as design competitions for major public buildings. From 2001 to 2012, DeSousa served on the Executive Committee of the City of Montreal, where he held positions including Vice-Chair of Economic Development and Sustainable Development. In 2009, he tabled a policy that set a minimum standard of LEED Gold certification for new municipally backed buildings on the Island of Montreal. To date, 60 city buildings are certified or on-track for certification. In April 2015, DeSousa spearheaded a zoning bylaw amendment to include living roofs, ref lective roofing membranes, and other sustainable cladding materials in the building code. DeSousa championed transit-oriented development, LEED Silver certification and strict design guidelines for the Bois-Franc urban redevelopment project of the 1990s in Saint-Laurent. Under his leadership, the Borough of Saint-Laurent revised municipal regulations and set guidelines to preserve the heritage qualities of wartime houses in the Norvick neighbourhood; put in place plans to create a clean technologies campus, the Éco-campus Hubert-Reeve; and has expressed support for a Quebec Architecture Policy. DeSousa’s influence will have a lasting impact on the quality of the built environment of Saint-Laurent, Montreal, and other municipalities, creating a legacy for generations to come.



Alan DeSousa; rendering of the planned Écocampus Hubert-Reeve in DeSousa’s home borough; view of the BoisFranc residential development in Saint-Laurent; the Bois-Franc district surrounds the De la Brunante Basin.


:: Jury :: DeSousa’s work reflects a creative and effective use of the role of government in support of architecture. He is a politician who has, throughout his career, demonstrated his commitment to developing public policies to preserve the interest and authenticity of his borough’s heritage with a view to protecting the architectural quality of the built environment. This is real advocacy that has resulted in community transformation.

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Medicine and society

Canadian hospital architecture: how we got here See also


oday’s hospitals look a lot like hotels, shopping malls and even airports. They frequently feature multi-storey atria, lots of glass and a certain glitzy style. The entrance to SickKids in Toronto, for example, recalls the neighbouring Eaton Centre, designed by the same architects (Appendix 1). The Walter C. Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre in Edmonton and nearby West Edmonton Mall (Appendix 1) are cut from the same cloth. But hospitals of the 1950s and 1960s didn’t resemble malls at all. They looked more like office buildings: Toronto’s 1951 Hospital for Sick Children is a perfect example. And hospitals built before World War II, such as the Ottawa Civic Hospital and the Kingston General Hospital, had a strong civic presence, more akin to a school or a town hall. They looked public rather than private. What drives change in hospital architecture? Why and how has hospital design transformed? Many architectural historians avoid hospitals, perhaps because of their complexity, and as a result, hospitals are glaringly absent from standard architectural history texts. The exceptions are the 15th-century Ospedale degli Innocenti by Filippo Brunelleschi and Alvar

Aalto’s sanatorium in Paimio, Finland, famously used as an example of “functionalism” by Sigfried Giedion in his blockbuster book, Space, Time and Architecture.1 A compelling question for those of us who dare to go there, however, is the relation of the building’s changing form to medicine. Was the post–germ theory hospital different? Did antibiotics disinfect the hospital? What is functionalism today? My position on these questions is that the histories of hospital architecture and medical practice have rarely converged.2–4 Hospitals are influenced by medicine, of course, in the same ways that schools are influenced by education, but also and perhaps more significantly by a myriad of other factors that have shaped many building types in the last century or so, including hospitals. The four-part diagram shown in Figure 1 illustrates a simplified lineup of hospital types from the past 165 years. From roughly the Crimean War to World War I, hospitals looked like other reform institutions that featured big, open wards: workhouses, orphanages, convents, even prisons. This is the hospital of Florence Nightingale, where 30-some patients lay in parallel rows of

narrow beds. Ventilation, ventilation and ventilation were the three main planning ideas driving the form of this largely philanthropic institution, often called the pavilion plan because the buildings were surrounded by fresh air. This hospital type was part institution and part residence, with nurses and other staff members living on site. Montréal’s Royal Victoria Hospital of 1893 is an outstanding Canadian example. Between the world wars, hospitals remained conservative and dignified institutional buildings when viewed from the street, but the plans differed drastically from the pavilion plan buildings that preceded them. Inside the Ottawa Civic Hospital of 1924, for example, instead of open wards, smaller rooms were clustered for efficiency. Physicians could expect to find all their admitted patients in smaller rooms along double-loaded corridors that resembled a hotel arrangement. Surgery was no longer performed in an amphitheatre but rather carried out in a suite of highly specialized rooms, each devoted to a specific function. Interwar hospitals looked like elegant hotels, taking cues from the tradition of aristocratic housing. They featured drop-off by automobile, elegant lobbies and fine

HOME AND/OR HOSPITAL The Architectures of End-of-Life Care


Figure 1. Frank Gehry’s Maggie’s Centre at Dundee, Scotland, shows the power of architecture to inspire patients diagnosed with cancer. (The Maggie Keswick Jencks Cancer Caring Centres Trust)



ANNMARIE ADAMS Professor Annmarie Adams’ recent article “Canadian Hospital Architecture: How we got Here” was published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal in March 2016. It explains nearly two centuries of Canadian healthcare architecture in a succinct two pages. It is a model of professional outreach, from architecture to medicine. It presents academic research in an accessible format, and underlines the power of architecture to enhance healthcare. The CMAJ is widely read by Canadian physicians, with an impact factor of 6.7. It accepts only 7 percent of papers submitted for publication. The article followed an interview and podcast featuring Professor Adams by the CMAJ’s news editor Barbara Sibbald in October 2015. The article in the CMAJ is representative of a series of publications by Professor Adams over more than 25 years. These publications intend to educate healthcare professionals, especially physicians, about the value and history of healthcare design. They also seek to educate readers outside Canada, particularly Americans, about the state of Canadian healthcare architecture. Healthcare is hugely important to Canadians. As our aging hospitals crumble and are replaced by new and sometimes puzzling institutions, the architectural community must celebrate and support efforts to explain the multi-faceted world of hospital design. It is crucial that physicians and physicians-to-be understand and appreciate the architecture of the institutions in which they work.

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Annmarie Adams


Harvard Design Magazine

Henry Saxon Snell’s ground floor plan of the Royal Victoria Hospital shows the open ward and its adjacent extraction tower, a key feature in the building’s ventilation system.

:: Jury :: Annmarie Adams displays creativity and profound impact in synthesizing healthcare discourse with architecture, in a manner that is simple to understand. She merges two areas of expertise to better explain the impact of architecture each time we visit the hospital, and helps doctors understand the importance of the buildings in which they work.


Architecture that Breathes

Henry Saxon Snell’s original drawings for the Royal Victoria Hospital were discovered in a closet. The heating system was a source of tension between architect and client.


Harvard Design Magazine

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evidence that Abbott won out in the great heating debate. By 1890, the fireplaces were gone from the plan, though the chimneys remained, a ghostly reminder of architecture’s layered, iterative nature in this era. Based on what we learned from the archival documents, we tried to show through Don’s simulation model how air moved through the building. Just north of Snell’s multistory open wards were two extraction towers. Cold air entered the hospital through apertures in the base of these towers. This air was heated by a boiler and circulated under the wards, brought upward through vertical tubes in the exterior walls and diffused into the ward interiors through small square vents located just below the ceiling. This warm air circulated among the patients and nurses, presumably cooling down while mixing with their breath and other interior ambiences. This same vitiated (often called “foul” or “impure” at the time) air from the wards was extracted back through outlets and sucked back down to the basement, pushed northward to the extraction tower, where it was reheated by the same boiler. Because heated air rises, this infected, problematic, used, foul, impure air naturally shot upward, over the rooftops (and nearby water supply) of central Montreal. The genius of the system was how the extraction of the germfilled air created a vacuum, causing fresh air to enter the system in an endless loop. Don’s model allowed me to see that pavilion-plan hospitals resembled giant lungs. Without even trying, we inhale fresh air to supply oxygen to our body parts and exhale warm, moist air by exhaling. This breath-like air movement was illegible in architectural drawings of hospitals—hence my desire for a dynamic model—but for some reason was often depicted in drawings of houses. In fact, 19th-century physicians frequently drew cross sections with dashed lines and curving arrows, showing the movement of air through residential interiors. Physicians produced architectural drawings to show how houses were to blame for the spread of illnesses.2 For example, Leeds-based surgeon Thomas Pridgin Teale included delightful cross sections showing how impure air moved through houses in his celebrated 1879 book, Dangers to Health. Teale’s book beautifully illustrates literary theorist Steven Connor’s 2004 call to think of buildings as articulations of air and of air as the animator of buildings. In a lecture at the Bartlett School of Architecture, Connor said: Air has traditionally been, not the antagonist of the building, but its unobserved complement. Buildings, like utterances, are articulations of the air. No structure that contained no space, had no cavity in it, could qualify as a building. And yet, though buildings include, enclose and admit air, that air is not thought of as belonging to the building.3 It is my contention that the vast mechanical services of the pavilion-plan hospital, and the inclusion of lines and arrows in cross sections of houses, animated the graphic depictions and shaped the ways buildings were understood as technologies of healing. The air belonged to these buildings. Piecing together how the pavilion-plan hospital’s ventilation system worked has fed my own need for precision and

No. 40 / Well, Well, Well


©2016 8872147 Canada Inc. or its licensors


accuracy within the historical record, underlining for me the essentially forensic nature of 19th-century architectural history. It has shown me how my beloved photographs depicting the social lives of hospital wards serve to disguise the technological wizardry housed in the basements, wall cavities, extraction towers, and power plants just beyond the walls they depict. These massive, shed-like—dare I say, simple—spaces (what Joe Esherick, my professor at UC Berkeley in the 1980s, would have called a “dumb” building) camouflaged an amazing culture of grates, flues, boilers, outlets, and tubes, working in symphony with the building’s form.

Annmarie Adams is Director and William C. Macdonald Professor in the School of Architecture, McGill University. Her work focuses on the cultural landscapes of houses and hospitals, specifically the intersections of architecture and medicine. She is author of Medicine by Design: The Architect and the Modern Hospital, 1893–1943 (2008); with Peta Tancred, coauthor of Designing Women: Gender and the Architectural Profession (2000); and Architecture in the Family Way: Doctors, Houses, and Women, 1870–1900 (1996). Opening spread: Photographs of Nightingale wards, like this one taken by Willam Notman & Son at Montreal’s Royal Victoria Hospital, typically show open windows. Women’s ward, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, 1894. Letter from John Abbott to Henry Saxon Snell, March 26, 1889. See Annmarie Adams, Architecture in the Family Way: Doctors, Houses, and Women, 1870–1900 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1996). Steven Connor, “Building Breathing Space” (lecture, Bartlett School of Architecture, March 3, 2004),

1 2





Figure 1: Diagram showing hospital evolution since the Victorian era. Montreal’s Royal Victoria Hospital: a layered history. Montréal: unpublished heritage study for the Ville de Montréal; 2012. p. 8.

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Annmarie Adams, David Theodore, Don Toromanoff

Department of Social Studies of Medicine and School of Architecture, McGill University

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JOHN BENTLEY MAYS For four decades, until his death in September 2016, John Bentley Mays was one of Canada’s greatest observers, interpreters and explainers of architecture. In addition to the numerous articles that he wrote for Canadian Architect, Azure and other magazines, he authored a weekly column in the Globe and Mail newspaper on the topic of residential architecture. Mays explored his subject with boundless curiosity, and imparted readers with his deep knowledge of architecture along with its history, context and theory. He promoted architectural experimentation and innovation, helping to bring acclaim to thoughtfully designed buildings based in the here and now. One of his favourite topics was highlighting the talents of emerging architects, and his writings uplifted many careers. Mays delighted readers (and inspired writers) with his humour and choice words, describing buildings as “jaunty,” “glassy,” and “snazzy.” He painted masterful metaphors that helped to contextualize his opinions, such as this summation of a new condominium design: “There will always be a place in the urban wardrobe for well-stitched, sensitively designed ready-to-wear structures such as The High Park. But as the newest batch of mid-rise multi-family dwellings roll out on main streets across the city, we could surely stand to see a dash more haute couture.” Mays took the role of the critic seriously and selflessly, protecting and also spreading his infectious love for the subject. Sometimes his criticisms were scathing, but only because he held high standards for our future. His column kept many accountable. Mays’ criticism spurred widespread discussion— ensuring that contemporary architecture is alive, vital and important. :: Jury :: John Bentley Mays presented artful skill and creativity in his deeply influential body of work as a writer. He expressed universal feelings about architecture with touching simplicity. He played a pivotal role in promoting good architecture to the everyday user through his weekly column. Mays possessed very good knowledge, not just of urban architecture, but also its environment. His articles did not focus on just one building, but gave insight into their social, cultural and physical context. He made architecture interesting for the common reader.

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ONTARIO PLACE Completed in 1971, Ontario Place became an instant landmark for its elaborate landscape and its stunning modernist architecture by Toronto architect Eberhard Zeidler, FRAIC of Craig Zeidler Strong (now Zeidler Partnership Architects). Ontario Place crystallized avant-garde ideas in post-war architecture and urbanism, and remains emblematic of the optimistic nationalism and progressive thinking of 1960s Canada. Originally, Ontario Place was meant to replace the Ontario Pavilion at the Canadian National Exhibition. Influenced by ideas seen at Montreal’s Expo 67, the Government of Ontario revised its plan and decided that the site would operate independently as a brand-new inclusive environment for public entertainment, education, culture and recreation. Zeidler, who had previously developed the ambitious Harbour City plan for the use of Lake Ontario, proposed that Ontario Place be literally inserted in and over the lake. His design consisted of two main components. The Pods are a modular system of five interconnected mast-hung pavilions, which initially hosted an elaborate multimedia exhibition. Despite the unique aesthetic of the bridge-like suspension structure that elevates the Pods over the lake, at the most basic level, each Pod is an 8,000-square-foot, three-storey box. It can be clad in glass or steel, cut up with interior walls or floors, and have its pedestrian traffic redirected with modular ramps and bridges. The Cinesphere is a 35-metre-wide triodetic dome made from steel and aluminum tubes. The structure is similar in design to the famous geodesic dome designed by Carl Zeiss and developed by R. Buckminster Fuller. The Cinesphere housed the world’s first permanent theatre for IMAX technology, a Canadian-made, large-format film projection system invented for Expo 70 in Osaka, Japan. One great challenge presented by the Ontario Place proposal involved the engineering required to support it all. Initial estimates placed the cost at roughly $9 million, but Zeidler was able to reduce this figure to $900,000 by creating an artificial reef of sunken ships and lakefill around the foundations of the Pods. This approach gave Zeidler and his collaborators over 20 hectares of new land to use. The new grounds were furnished with the Forum, the Children’s Village, a marina, and a wealth of canals, walkways, and wooded areas designed by landscape architect Michael Hough. Almost all construction materials for the project originated in Ontario:

the steel for the Pods was mined and refined in Ontario, the landfill was hauled from Toronto’s booming construction sites, the Cinesphere’s architectural processes and materials hailed from Eastern Ontario, and many of the trees were transplanted from provincial lands near Barrie. Over the years, the site was altered a number of times, which obscured the original design somewhat. In 2013, however, the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Sport conducted a heritage study that clearly indicates that “Ontario Place is a cultural heritage landscape of provincial significance.” Accordingly, Ontario Place is now subject to the Ontario Heritage Act, and its future managed in part by a Conservation Plan respective of the Act’s Standards and Guidelines. Ontario Place is an example of Canadian architecture at its most innovative, bold, and unusual, and represents a piece of our modernist history we are perhaps only now beginning to truly appreciate. Its Pods and Cinesphere are design treasures, but more importantly, they are cultural landmarks that possess a huge wealth of potential for the future of Toronto and the nation. Text adapted from James Ashby and Nathan Storring’s exhibition texts for Your

Ontario Place, on display at the Urbanspace Gallery in 2012.

:: Jury :: The Cinesphere and Pods realize—in tangible physical form—some of the most ambitious utopian architectural ideas from Europe and the United States of the 1960s, such as the sky cities imagined by designers such as Yona Friedman, and technological fantasies conceived by the Archigram group in Britain. They are a compelling example of two major design tendencies of their period: the “megastructure” and “high-tech” design. The Ontario Place Pods’ elegant structural system, combining light tensile cable supports and compression steel masts, is superbly detailed, with very beautifully expressed connections and joints. The complex’s close relationship to Lake Ontario is celebrated through the integration of water throughout the ground plane. While the Cinesphere and Pods no longer house the functions for which they were designed, they still exhibit the same strong design presence they had when they were first completed.

ABOVE A design model for Ontario Place shows the geometric Cinesphere at left, with the modular Pods suspended above the water at right. The complex was designed by architect Eberhard Zeidler, then of Craig Zeidler Strong.

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When the final piece of the CN Tower’s antenna was bolted into place on April 2, 1975, the edifice became the world’s tallest free-standing structure, a record it would hold for over 34 years. Rising 553 metres above the Toronto Skyline, the CN Tower is an iconic landmark and an engineering marvel. To create the world-class structure, Webb Zerafa Menkes Housden Architects and John Andrews Architects International worked alongside engineers and contractors, innovating in design and construction methods. The tower was conceived as a telecommunications facility. A tall structure was needed to provide high quality broadcast signals that would travel above the new skyscrapers rising throughout downtown during the 1960s. The Canadian National Railway’s solution was a TV and radio communication platform that would serve the Toronto area, as well as demonstrating the strength of Canadian industry—and CN in particular. The original design envisioned a tripod consisting of three cylindrical pillars, linked at various heights by structural bridges. Eventually, the tower took its current form of three legs extending from a single hexagonal core. The foundation floats on bedrock more than 12 metres below ground. The tower is stable because of its mass and low centre of gravity. This allows it to withstand an earthquake of 8.5 on the Richter scale, and winds of up to 418 kilometres per hour. Work began by constructing the CN Tower’s 335-metre-tall concrete shaft. This involved pouring concrete into a massive mold. As the concrete hardened, the slipform moved upwards, supported by a ring of hydraulic climbing jacks, gradually decreasing in size to produce the CN Tower’s tapered contour. Post-tensioned concrete was employed, with bundles of steel cables anchored into concrete throughout the tower. The cables run through steel ducts in the concrete core and wings. This strengthening strategy allows the structure to maintain its slender profile and gives it an expected life span of over 300 years. To build the Skypod observation deck, a temporary steel crown was hydraulically lifted into place over a period of a week, serving as a platform for the necessary concrete pour. The pod was then reinforced with a large steel compression band around its perimeter. The topping off of the antenna by helicopter became a city-wide event. While the world’s tallest tower is now the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the CN Tower remains the tallest structure in the Western hemisphere. It has also achieved other records, including World’s Highest Wine Cellar and the World’s Highest Outdoor Walk on a Building. In 1995, the American Society of Civil Engineers named the CN Tower one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World.

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The Skypod observation deck of the CN Tower under construction; the CN Tower as it rises above downtown Toronto today.


The CN Tower has become a landmark on the Toronto skyline and a major tourist attraction, drawing more than two million visitors annually. It acts as a symbol that reminds us of a previous generation’s aspirations for Toronto as a world-class city, and an iconic image of Canada’s largest metropolis. :: Jury :: The CN Tower is an incredible achievement of Canadian engineering and construction that pushed the boundaries of concrete technology and slipform techniques to a scale never before undertaken. A timeless silhouette on the Toronto skyline, the structure has stood sentry over the remarkable development of that city’s downtown over the past four decades. It is a classic building that is a true synthesis of architectural form and engineering, and one of the world’s best-proportioned communications towers.

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It’s All Happening So Fast: A Counter-History of the Modern Canadian Environment Opening May 3, 2017

Curated by Montreal’s CCA, the Toronto stop of this exhibition questions our stereotypical views of nature through narratives by environmentalists, artists, photographers and architects.

SSAC Annual Conference May 24-27, 2017

The Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada’s 43rd annual conference takes place in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, and features sessions on the theme “Layered Histories.”




Festival of Architecture May 24-27, 2017

Vancouver Design Week(end) May 12-14, 2017

This design festival in Vancouver celebrates local talent, connects design makers and users, and supports design’s capacity for improving the quality of our everyday lives.

Co-hosted by the RAIC and the OAA, this four-day festival in Ottawa will consider the role of architecture in creating built heritage and expressing culture. The event includes a day-long Indigenous Architecture and Design Symposium.

Canstruction Toronto May 16-19, 2017

This annual charity competition challenges architects and engineers to build structures entirely from canned foods. Following the competition, all cans will be donated to the Daily Bread Food Bank.

Breaking Ground May 25, 2017

Hosted by the Canadian Association of Women in Construction, this spring gala in Toronto will feature networking opportunities for fellow construction colleagues.


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Held in Mississauga, STONEX is Canada’s only dedicated trade show and educational program for the stone, terrazzo, ceramic and tile industries.

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Projects Review 2017 features graduate and undergraduate projects from the University of Waterloo School of Architecture, showcasing students’ creativity, craft and commitment to architectural excellence.

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ICFF 2017 May 21-24, 2017

This trade show at the Javits Center in New York City attracts more than 750 exhibitors and 33,000 interior designers, architects, distributors and manufacturers.

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Expo 67: A World of Dreams To October 8, 2017

This multimedia exhibition in Montreal revisits Expo 67 using archival images and footage from the National Film Board and CBC/Radio Canada.


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Tanya Southcott Phyllis Lambert’s self-portrait in oil on canvas from 1947; a view of the Seagram Building from 1958.



Architecture frames our daily lives; it creates the medium in which we grow, learn and live. Yet as an art form and social structure, its language is mostly unknown. Clearly architecture is a public concern. So wrote Phyllis Lambert, when building the case for her magnum opus, the Canadian Centre for Architecture (CCA) in Montreal. But Lambert’s words can also be read as a blueprint for a life spent in the service of architecture. Among notable contributions are her pivotal roles as Director of Planning for Mies van der Rohe’s Seagram Building in New York, as founder of the non-profit organization Heritage Montreal, and as architect of the Saidye Bronfman Centre for the Arts in Montreal, the latter in honour of her mother. The exhibition Phyllis Lambert: 75 Years at Work—curated by Lambert herself to coincide with her 90th birthday— traces this public, yet deeply personal relationship with architecture, underscoring Lambert’s commitment to the city, the built environment and intellectual research. The exhibition fleshes out formative moments in Lambert’s lifelong involvement with

architecture through a series of artefacts carefully selected from the CCA collection and the Phyllis Lambert fonds, displayed in the seven large vitrines lining the institution’s corridor gallery. These range from a self-portrait dated 1947, one of her earliest artistic endeavours, to the catalogue for Mies in America, her last exhibition as Director of the CCA in 2002. The eclectic selection includes the oft-quoted letter to her father from June 28th, 1954—a harsh critique of his proposal for the Seagram tower and early manifesto on architecture. Also on display: a bird’s-eye-view of a model for a 747 airplane hangar—her master’s class project while at the Illinois Institute of Technology—and alternate sketches for the entry sequence to the CCA, made in conversation with architect Peter Rose. The advantage of the autobiographical format is the opportunity to control the narrative, which Lambert does with elegance. Through thoughtful curation, she celebrates the breadth of her many successes while not letting her challenges go unnoticed. Lambert presents herself as equally determined throughout her career,

whether as a young woman in a boardroom full of older men reviewing Mies’s plans, or as an activist protesting the demolition of Victorian buildings in Montreal. The 2007 film Citizen Lambert: Joan of Architecture proclaims: “Lambert plans, designs, rejuvenates, battles, rescues, renews, restores, builds.” Likewise, the objects on display elucidate her as a woman of action. Lambert is often described as a linchpin in the careers of others. On her winning the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement in 2014, head juror Rem Koolhaas said, “Architects make buildings—but Phyllis Lambert makes architects.” Using her trophy from Venice as the gatekeeper for 75 Years at Work, Lambert proposes a more diverse and comprehensive view of her accomplishments, legacy and understanding of architecture. For Lambert, architecture is more than a glossy image. Architecture is an ambition to improve the world around us—and through this process, to improve ourselves. Tanya Southcott is a Montreal-based writer and Ph.D. student at McGill University’s School of Architecture.

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MAPEI helps forestry center meet Living Building Challenge MAPEI products were used to build one of the Americas’ first facilities to meet the Living Building Challenge, an environmental standard that reflects the most advanced measure of sustainability in today’s built environment.

Bill Fisch Forest Stewardship and Education Centre York, Ontario

MAPEI met the challenge by providing Health Product Declarations (HPDs) for all of its products used on the project. To meet the standard’s requirements, sustainability and transparency were critical for selecting products used in the building’s construction. MAPEI products used: • Mapelastic ® • MAPEI Ultralite ™ Mortar

Ultracolor ® Plus • Planibond ® EBA • Ultratop ® • Planiseal ® HG

Contact MAPEI’s Technical Services Department at 1-800-361-9309 for information on sustainability and transparency in MAPEI products.

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WoodWorks® Grille has a bold linear look and installs just as easily on walls as it does ceilings – even angled or curved transitions. The solid wood slats come in a variety of widths, depths, and finishes to extend the design possibilities. Learn more about the versatility of WoodWorks at



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Canadian Architect May 2017  

Canadian Architect is a magazine for architects and related professionals practicing in Canada. Canada’s only monthly design publication, Ca...

Canadian Architect May 2017  

Canadian Architect is a magazine for architects and related professionals practicing in Canada. Canada’s only monthly design publication, Ca...