OCT 2022 - International Aquafeed magazine

Page 64

International AquafeedVolume 25Issue 10October 2022 www.aquafeed.co.uk www.fishfarmingtechnology.net ASIA PACIFIC AQUAFEED: Forecasts indicate market size to exceed US$60billion by 2028 - AQUA DAYS - Sustainable aquaculture within planetary boundaries - GM oils & aquaculture; how do the oils of the future stack up? - Tuna aquaculture: Is new concept the solution for climate change resilient aquaculture production? - Offshore fish culture: Examining the challenging but promising case for submerged cage farming OCTObEr 2022Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY


If September was a full-on month for event organisers around aquaculture, I suspect the remainder of the year will be just as challenging for them, and those of us who value and attempt to attend as many aquaculture events as possible.

The key event prior to Christmas may well be the World Aquaculture Society’s Singapore 2022 event, being planned for November 29-December 2, 2022.

Roger Gilbert

And it’s very timely for me to be able to congratulate Bibha Khumari, of Magadh Mahila College at Patna University in Bihar, India for becoming the new President of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of WAS. WAS Singapore 2022 is yet another event that has been postponed multiple times.

Fortunately, airlines had allowed those of us who had booked for the original dates to defer our travel plans, and this has helped tremendously, given the price rises we are currently seeing in international air travel at the moment.

And its these and other industry-related increases - such as increases in raw materials and the ultimate increase in feeding costs - that are continuing to threaten the financial stability of the aquaculture industry.

Transportation is one cost that is beyond this sector’s control and yet much production from our industry must travel widely, by air, to reach the destined markets and consumers who consume it.

In additional to rising transportation costs for finished products, rising transportations costs for our macro raw materials is also impacting our business. In the middle we are dealing with increased feed production costs through increased energy and fuel costs to name just a few. While we talk about these tangible costs, we should not overlook the potential for rising labour costs which will also impact feed production and fish farming directly. But we pay only passing attention to these outside financial influence occurring elsewhere; the cost of getting a workforce on and off site, the rise in general living costs and inflation are being seen throughout the world.

Not only the cost of transportation contributes to producer worries, but the inflationary nature along the whole chain is stressful.

We must be aware that there is a tipping point beyond which farmers cannot be realistically expected to absorb passed-on costs which they know will not be met from income generated. If that situation happens in any business, then its business owners and directors have an obligation to cease ‘trading’.

Is that likely to happen in our food production system, where our dependence on the international movement of raw materials, being moved across borders, is so central to its continued production?

Costs must be passed on and consumers must and will be asked to pay a higher, fairer price for the aquaculture products they consume. Food production is an essential human activity, but not all food is the same. To maintain our health status and be able to ward off health challenges we need to consume nutritious foodstuffs and aquaculture provides these products in abundance.

There’s going to be a fine balance between managing prices and retaining demand from consumers.

At the European Aquaculture Society’s Aquaculture Europe 2022 in Rimini, Italy late last month several exhibitors and visitors went on record to raise the prospect of high feed prices pushing farmers out of business, particularly those that not only require specifically formulated, high-quality feeds but those that use copious amounts of oxygen in their production systems. You can view some of these interviews on our website at www.aquafeed.co.uk

Our industry needs to promote the benefits of our products in terms of their nutritional values for human health in advance of the situation becoming tighter for fish farming.

Consumers need to be made aware that there is added value in the protein products provided by our industry that are worth the extra spend.

Elsewhere in the edition

In this edition and in keeping with the above challenges, we review the DSM Aqua Days 2022 (see page 21), highlighting the thoughts of its president for animal nutrition, Ivo Lansbergen about the need for sound science in addressing the nutritional requirements of a growing world population and the need for aquaculture to understand its own carbon footprint.

We also report on the keynote presentation made by Dr Jorge Dias of Sparos in Portugal on managing feed costs. He delves in some detail into aspect of controlling costs and delivered a presentation that was not only timely but offering some partial advice.

There was much more to this meeting and IAF will publish more from this important event in the issues ahead. For now, we set the scene of what was a memorable meeting over three days for over 100 attendees. One of our leading features this month is GM oils.

In these times of difficulties as mentioned above, should we not be looking positively towards a genetically modified supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that will help us to overcome the shortages that we know are coming and which, if not solved, will limit the healthy aspects of consuming farmed fish?

Relying on fishmeal for the volumes of fish oil required to support industry is not realistic as we see our aquaculture sectors flourish. This is an informative review by Dr Richard Broughton of the University of Stirling in the UK (see page 24).

We also offer a feature on feed additives by Stephanie Frouel, Eloise Galmiche and Maxime Hugonin of Mixscience in Vietnam (see page 28). They explain the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals and point out the aquaculture provides 60 percent of the aquatic resources intended for human consumption and is a figure that is likely to increase. The subject they tackle is identifying the main challenges and solutions aquaculture offers in meetings these goals.

Company Andritz has contributed an article (see page 34) on the influence a chosen grinding methods has on quality. This is a detailed look at the grinding chamber in particular and what we should be looking out for in when it come the continuous running of such equipment. A nicely rounded article.

On page 38, K Shankar of Graphical Research in India looks at the development of aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region and estimates that aquaculture will exceed US$60 billion by 2028. This article attempts to put Asia-Pacific region in context when we consider the global production of aquaculture. An insightful report.

Finally, we come to the Fish Farming Technology section of the magazine which presents tuna aquaculture when Atlantic Bluefin Tuna are being considered for full reproduction in captivity. This article is an eye opener to this high-valued fish farming activity and discusses a method to raise these animals successfully. That ties in with our offshore fish culture feature that follows and before we get into our Technology Showcase (see pages 50-51) and the stories and event reviews that lie beyond.

Don’t overlook the interview this month! It’s with Nikos Papaioauuou of Irida SA in Greece. A great insight into a very successful operation. Enjoy the magazine.


After a busy schedule of meetings and my trip last month to Thailand, I am now for the moment back in my home city of Plymouth, England at my office/ study. Here I feel the most relaxed surrounded by my textbooks of animal nutrition, biochemistry, and physiology and quite vast collections of scientific papers. A selection complemented by my lovely collection of specific books on fish nutrition and aquaculture biosciences.

I am very fortunate to have great resources that allow me to communicate globally with excellent IT and a very efficient fast broadband connection with fibre optic to my door. 36 years ago, when I started my academic career, it would be unthinkable that I could be writing this without a trusted typewriter instead of my various computers and tablet or smart phone. I can format scientific paper manuscripts, review articles, and return these to publishers at the speed of light.

In the old days a scientific paper had to be hard copied three times and sent to the editor of a journal with many delays and a costly exercise for overseas mailing. We would have to wait several weeks for feedback and then to send in our corrections. The creation of a book chapter and the insertion of images was a huge challenge to us and very frustrating.

In a similar manner, the production of a scientific presentation or academic lectures have also undergone a revolution and now with the use of PowerPoint and equivalent software we can construct some very professional lectures, presentations of very high standards and quality in a short space of time.

The portability of information is also amazing with our memory sticks and external hard drives as vital accessories. Indeed, this came to good effect in Thailand last month where one of our guest speakers was unavailable at short notice. With my laptop and external hard drive and access to the cloud I was able to insert another lecture and cover the presentation with a related and updated topic that I ‘fished’ from my files in the comfort of my hotel room.

Our magazine is dependent on the information highway and fish nutrition is an area where this is of paramount importance to keep abreast of the rapidly changing scientific developments and the latest news in this discipline. Our section on Fish Farming Technology has featured AI and the use of remote sensing systems and drones to monitor fish health, welfare and performance in RAS and of course outdoor facilities and open sea pens.

The constant feedback on fish feeding behaviour and associated data can provide accurate measurement of feed intake and be

used in making predictions of growth and feed conversion efficiency. In other areas of animal production and agriculture this has been termed ‘precision farming’.

It is now becoming of age in aquaculture and in its more elaborate form will enable full, almost robotic control of fish farms where systems diagnostics would regulate feeding, water quality parameters, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, pH, and many other variables necessary for optimal fish and even shrimp production. Many fish farmers using RAS systems already engage with lighting control for both intensity and duration. This is seen especially with salmon smolt production and the induction and promotion of parr-smolt transformation stages.

With Autumn now established I am seeing here in the Northern hemisphere a distinct reduction in the daylength. This reminds me that so many trout and salmon farms are planning for the pending winter season. Salmon farms will be managing their brood stock and making detailed preparations and grading strategies.

The development of brood stock diets bespoke to salmon and trout has come a long way in the last 30 years, but nutrient specifications are quite different to younger fish, and I think much more work is needed to refine formulations with respect to sustainability and the inclusion of novel ingredients and supplements.

A large proportion of our knowledge base for fish diet formulations are based on nutrient requirement experiments on juvenile fish at early growing stages and to harvest. Work on larger fish like salmon attaining harvest size is likely to be very different to fish going through ovulation and sperm development.

This is an expensive area for investigation and relatively fewer peer-reviewed publications are available for most fish species for that matter in terms of many key nutrients such as vitamins and trace elements.

Fish nutrition remains a fascinating subject and in my 37th year as a scientist, I am intrigued by how much we are extending our frontiers of knowledge. This International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology magazine helps to stimulate our appreciation of the rapidly changing world of technology and the articles and features presented on our IT platforms, blogs, videos, and the printed magazine reinforces our commitments to keeping you well informed.

The face-to-face Aquaculture conferences and trade exhibitions are now gaining momentum and attendance numbers rapidly increasing. There are many excellent venues remaining for 2022 and most certainly into 2023 and beyond.

I will hopefully meet some of you at some of these events!




March 7th,
Part of VIV Asia,
4 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

At the end of September, the Norwegian aquaculture industry got the shock of their lifetime, although they should have foreseen it. The Government announced that they would put a special tax on fish farming, adding 40% to the 22% they are already taking. With the prospect of having to pay 62% tax on their profits, many fish farmers seemed ready to throw in the towel.

They should have foreseen this, though, for it has been discussed for a couple of years already. But nobody really believed that any government would actually do this. And certainly not on the scale that the present Labour government has proposed it – a 40% surtax! What is hard to understand is why Norway imposes such a surtax on any activity. The country is filthy rich. The energy crisis has brought it NOK 1700 billion (US$170 billion) in extra oil income this year! Norway is now the largest and most important supplier of gas to Europe. And it is selling gas at very high prices.

The reasons given by the government include the need for more money. What? What about the NOK 1700 billion in extra oil revenue? Not to be touched, says the government. That will just be added to the largest investment fund in the world, the Norwegian pension fund. Another reason given was that the new tax would be a tool for redistributing wealth. But nothing of this goes to the common man, everything goes to the government.

Jobs will disappear

The salmon farming industry is a major employer along the coast. In some communities, everybody works in the industry, either directly in salmon farming companies, in processing companies, or in companies which provide supplies. The new tax law could easily mean that these jobs will disappear, and people will have to move away from the districts to urban areas.

The stock market reacted immediately. In just one day, the share values of fish farming companies listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange dropped by NOK 60 billion (US$6 billion).

But what will the extra tax mean for the aquaculture sector in Norway, and for the rest of the modern aquaculture industry, for that matter?

One immediate result is that aquaculture companies have frozen all plans for investments in Norway. Grieg Seafood announced that they had dropped their plans to invest several billions in new technology and facilities. Mowi’s chairman said they would no longer invest in Norway, and other medium sized companies stated that they had frozen their investment plans. One company was planning to invest NOK 1 billion

(US$100 million), which would have created 100 new jobs, but now these plans were now dropped.

A driving force in technological development

For several decades, Norway has been the driving force in technological development in the salmon industry. These technological innovations have spilled over into other parts of the global aquaculture industry, and the billions spent by Norway on technological research and development have benefitted many. Now that activity could come to an abrupt halt.

Or it could mean that other countries will have to take over Norway’s leading role. For the big players in the Norwegian industry are not averse to the idea of moving their activities out of the country. One of the biggest operators in the fishing industry, Mr Kjell Inge Røkke, who owns the Aker industrial conglomerate, including Aker Seafood, recently moved to Switzerland to avoid the heavy Norwegian taxation. Others are following his lead. Røkke and the owner of Salmar, Mr. Witsøe, last year announced that they would join forces and invest some NOK 5 billion in fish farming in the open sea. We now expect that they will move their activities away from Norway. They might take their technological innovations to another country.

Like China, for example. China has shown great interest in ocean farming, and Salmar’s first ocean installation, Ocean Farm, was built in China. With a more favourable tax situation, it would be entirely possible that Røkke and Witsøe would consider such a move. To the loss of Norway.

The Norwegian technological environment, centred around Trondheim, where institutions like SINTEF, Marintek, and the technological university, NTNU, are located, would suffer a great loss. Funding provided by the industry could disappear or be channelled elsewhere, and the technological environment in Trondheim would certainly suffer.

The government’s tax proposal is so far just that: a proposal. It has to be accepted by the Norwegian parliament, the Storting, but the Government has announced that it will go into effect from January 1, 2023. One little blunder in the procedure, by the way. Such proposals are usually sent out for a ‘hearing’ before it is presented to the parliament, and the government has set the deadline for responding to the hearing to January 4 – four days after the new tax law goes into effect.

So much for what they think of everybody’s opinions!

The Norwegian government has created a textbook example of how to kill an industry. Not only that: this industry was supposed to replace the petroleum industry when its time is up in the not-too-distant future.

International Aquafeed - October 2022 | 5


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IN THIS ISSUE FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY ©Copyright 2020 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com ISSN 1464-0058 COLUMNS REGULAR ITEMS 8 Industry News The Aquaculture case study Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher
Gilbert rogerg@perendale.co.uk
Joy (Jyothsna) Nelloolichalil
(Chinese edition)
Garza (Spanish edition)
Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition)
• Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Dr Allen Wu • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey
Dr Eric De Muylder
Dr Pedro Encarnação
Dr Mohammad R Hasan
3 Roger Gilbert 4 Professor Simon Davies 5 Erik Hempel 66 Industry Faces 64 The Aquafeed Interview 60 The Market Place 11 Antonio Garza de Yta 12 Brett Glencross October 2022 Volume 25 Issue 10 54 Industry Events 50 Technology showcase 48 Moving mussels -New insights into shellfish farming
THE BIG PICTURE FEATURES Offshore fish culture: Examining the challenging but promising case for submerged cage farming See more on page 46 FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 42 Tuna aquaculture: Is new concept the solution for climate change resilient aquaculture production? 46 Offshore fish culture: Examining the challenging but promising case for submerged cage farming 16 AQUA DAYS - Sustainable aquaculture within planetary boundaries 20 Tubular drag conveyors: Debunking six common misconceptions relating to their use in feed processing 24 GM oils & aquaculture; how do the oils of the future stack up? 28 Feed additives: An examination of whether aquaculture can bring a key stone to the wall of global sustainability 34 Extruded aquafeed 38 Asia Pacific aquafeed: Forecasts indicate market size to exceed US$60billion by 2028

Norway proposes 40% aquaculture operations resource tax

The Norwegian government has proposed a new resource rent tax on aquaculture, to take effect January 1, 2023, affecting salmon producers as well as trout and rainbow trout producers.

According to the plan, which would need to be approved by parliament, half of the revenues collected will go to public funds. The tax is expected to generate between NOK 3.65 billion and NOK 3.8 billion (US$347 - 361.2 million) annually.

The proposal was sent out for consultation on September 28th. Following its return, the government will bring the legislation to the Storting (supreme legislature of Norway) to enable the proposed rules to apply from the 2023 tax year.

Norway's publicly traded salmon farming firms all saw their share prices tumble in trading on Wednesday, September 28th, with Mowi, Lerøy Seafood, and SalMar's stock prices falling between 15 and 19 percent. According to Reuters, while Norway has a US$1.2 trillion (EUR€1.2 trillion) sovereign wealth fund, the tax increases are necessary to curb inflation.

"The board and management in Lerøy Seafood Group are in the process of assessing the proposal but do not have a complete overview yet," Lerøy Seafood said in a statement. "However, the proposal is undoubtedly hostile to the industry. If approved, it will have a strong

negative impact on the entire industry, unless decision makers at the Storting and people along coastal Norway manage to stop the proposal following the ongoing consultation period." Announcing the move, which also includes tax increases on energy generation, the government stated that its bureau Statistics Norway has identified substantial resource rent – or profits after all costs had been accounted for – in the aquaculture industry over several years. It said that resource rent in aquaculture has risen strongly since 2012 and, for the period from 2016 to 2018, totalled just over NOK 20 billion (US$1.9 billion/EUR €1.9 billion).

The aquaculture sector's resource rent for 2021 is estimated at NOK 11.8 billion (US$1.1 billion, EUR €1.1 billion), according to the government, which said it expected the industry to share the extraordinary return generated through the exploitation of the marine resources it uses.

“The proposal covers the production of salmon, trout, and rainbow trout and involves the taxation of resource rent at an effective rate of 40 percent. The rules are formulated in such a way that only the largest operators will pay resource rent tax. This is done by granting a tax-free allowance of between 4000 and 5000 metric tons,” Norway's Finance Ministry said in a statement.

“A key element of the proposal is

that the local communities which make natural resources available should be guaranteed a share of the resource rent. The tax revenues are estimated to be between NOK 3.65 and 3.8 billion and the government is planning for half of this to go to the municipal sector.”

The ministry has calculated the proposed tax-free allowance of between 4000 and 5000 MT is equivalent to NOK 54 million and NOK 67.5 million (US $5.1 million and US $6.4 million, EUR €5.3 million and EUR €6.6 million).

According to the ministry, around 65 to 70 percent of aquaculture companies have collected biomass under licences of less than 4000 and 5000 MT of maximum permitted biomass.

The government said development licences – used to test new technology – are not covered by the resource rent tax, but that if they are converted to ordinary licences for fish for consumption, they will be covered by the resource rent tax from the date of conversion.

The proposed tax rules grant tax-free allowances in the form of estimated average profit per ton of biomass, which can be deducted from positive resource rent income. Corporate tax will be calculated before resource rent tax on aquaculture, and resource rent-related corporate tax will then be deducted from firms' basis for resource rent tax.

8 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed News


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First of all, I would like to congratulate Bibha Khumari from the bottom of my heart for winning the election for President of the AsiaPacific Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society.

I would also like to offer my unconditional support to further consolidate the chapter. As a newcomer to the region, I realise that there is still enormous potential. Aquaculture is an Asian phenomenon, and it is for anyone dedicated to the exciting activity to be on the scene, so to speak.

Asia is responsible for more than 90 percent of all world aquaculture production, and it is also, I believe, where the main technological advances in aquaculture will be developed in the short and medium term.

For those who have not had the opportunity to visit this magical region, full of contrasts and ancient cultures, the Asia-Pacific region may sound homogeneous, but its diversity is such that it is difficult to describe – both in terms of climate, culture, ideology – and why, of course the subject that concerns us all; aquaculture.

This is why the Asia-Pacific Chapter is undoubtedly the most interesting and most challenging of them all.

Integrating the entire value chain

If the statistics were consistent, 90 percent of WAS members would come from Asia and this should be the most important chapter of the Society, however, it is not. Membership in the chapter is even less than the Latin American and Caribbean Chapter at times and much less than the North American chapter.

The advantages that North America has is that only two languages are spoken, but everyone can communicate in English, while in Latin America and the Caribbean 95 percent of the population can communicate in Spanish and Portuguese, or the mixture of both that we all call Portuñol.

Whilst in Asia, the number of languages is very important and no matter how much they want to homogenise through English, I don't think they still have the level in many regions.

This will be an extremely important challenge to face and to which a solution will have to be found, so that it is not only the scientific community that speaks English that belongs to the Society, but that the entire

value chain is gradually integrated.

If we don't have all the actors involved, we really miss our point. Little by little we must permeate with local producers and multiply the number of partners with great effort.

The theme of the conferences is also important, there are places, like Indonesia, to give an example, where the Chapter, in coordination with local producers, could have practically annual events, and would serve as a motor for development and technological exchange and not only as a visitor every certain number of years.

I think that the Asia-Pacific region needs more attention and a different strategy than the rest of the world. I also know that the pandemic decimated the chapter with difficulty, but starting with Singapore at the end of November, we will experience an interesting reinvigoration and working together we will achieve it.

Many people have told me that I was too hasty in accepting the nomination for the chapter presidency, and I think they are right, but the truth is that only those who do not try fail. I think I will have to continue working and as a newcomer to the region prove to the membership that I am not here to visit, but that I am here to stay.

For now, I will dedicate myself to working so that World Aquaculture 2024 in Muscat, Oman is an unforgettable event that leaves a mark on all those who visit these beautiful lands. See you in Singapore, see you in Darwin, see you in Muscat.

So, until next time!

Subsea sector provides a platform for new diving VR tool in aquaculture

In a first for the aquaculture sector, a new digital platform inspired by virtual reality (VR) technology used in the subsea energy and oil and gas sectors is being developed to enhance the health and safety of divers on fish farms.

Led by researchers at the National Manufacturing Institute Scotland (NMIS), operated by the University of Strathclyde, the project was recently awarded funding of around £50,000 from the UK Seafood Innovation Fund (SIF) with additional support from the Sustainable Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC).

Designed to replace existing paperbased dive planning, the system will use underwater 3D scanning with images captured by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to create a virtual replica of a

seafood farm, supporting divers to plan activities ahead of entering the water.

Divers will be able to use a mobile, tablet, or even a VR headset to gain a better understanding of the fish farm environment through a digital model that can help them to assess the difficulty of the dive, what actions are required in terms of maintenance and cleaning, and whether any additional equipment is needed underwater.

NMIS is working with Ocean Kinetics – a provider of diving services to a range of sectors including aquaculture, energy and renewables – and Viewport 3, specialists in subsea 3D scanning, to create a test platform based on a Scottish Sea Farms site in Shetland.

“3D scanning and VR technology is already used in many industries such as

aerospace and energy, and there could be a significant opportunity for aquaculture to follow, says Awais Munawar, visualisation theme lead – digital factory at NMIS.

“Of course, there are also challenges to overcome, which is the purpose of this feasibility study. For instance, fish farms are not fixed structures in the way that many oil platforms are, and the environment can be quite different depending on the location and depth of the water.

“We are also looking to test a small 5G network to improve communications as part of diving activity in remote locations. This could be used to update the information captured by the remotely operated vehicles in real-time, as well as being used to alert any nearby vessels to the fact that divers are in the water.

Antonio Garza de Yta, PhD in Aquaculture from Auburn University, President of Aquaculture without Frontiers, WAS President and creator of the Certification for Aquaculture Professional (CAP) Program. He is also the Spanish Editor of International Aquafeed Magazine and founder of the International Center for Strategic Studies for Aquaculture. He is currently Secretary of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the State of Tamaulipas.
Viva Biba! Still a lot to do in the AsiaPacific Region and the possibilities to grow together
Antonio Garza de Yta
International Aquafeed - October 2022 | 11 News

Brett Glencross

Ingredient evolution is driving strength in diversity

rely on other cheaper resources to serve as bulk nutrient sources.

A staple ingredient

However, another perspective of this story is the growing diversity within ingredient classes themselves, and this evolution looks to be growing one. Let’s start with wheat, a staple ingredient in nearly all classes of animal feeds (including that of humans).

Wheat these days has not only extensive diversity among the different varieties grown across the world to capitalise on the various agronomic conditions, but even within growing regions there is extensive diversity depending on the market the producer is targeting.


mantra we hear among social-circles and human resource management these days is that there is ‘strength in diversity.’ We are also seeing this as a clear trend in products across all sectors these days, as we rapidly move to a notion of the world no longer being ‘one-size-fits-all.’

While this growth in diversity might be true for social and market dynamics, it also holds true for the process of feed formulation and ingredient development. But what do we mean by diversity in this context?

Among diet formulations, a notable trend over the past 30 years has been the substantial increase in the range of ingredients now used in feeds. Back in the 1990’s it was common to see feed formulations with a quite simple raw material profile; fishmeal, fishoil, wheat and various additives.

Compare that with 2020, where we are more likely to see double to treble the number of ingredients, and we have clearly increased the diversity of our raw material profile. This growth in diversity was inevitable with the growth in the sector, there was simply not enough marine ingredient volume to continue to supply it as a bulk ingredient. Consequently, we have seen marine ingredients become a strategic resource, and we now

This has led to specific breeds of wheat for different products like, bread, noodles, pasta, etc. Different products value different attributes of their ingredients. And this diversification (and importantly, segregation) has been an important evolution in increasing the profitability of that sector. We see also a similar evolution in the marine ingredients sector. Where traditionally we might have seen just a premium and standard fishmeal being produced.

The diversification of raw material sourcing and the realisation that different feed sectors value different features of those products is leading to the diversification of fishmeals and fish oils for the various sectors they supply.

A clear example of this is from the fishmeals coming from Peru presently, where we see more than half a dozen different grades/types of fishmeal being produced for different markets. The practice is now so entrenched that some of those products are even named after their respective markets; products like Thailand Grade and Taiwan Grade fishmeals.

So where will this ‘diversification’ go? Based on the current trends it is likely that that we will see increasing diversification still. Growing demands on not only nutritional properties across the feed sector, but also sustainability/sourcing criteria, carbonfootprint criteria, and organic criteria across products is adding yet another point of diversification. But, as it was said earlier, there is ‘strength in diversity.’

Dr Brett Glencross is the Technical Director of IFFO - The Marine Ingredients Organisation. Over the past 25 years he has worked in various academic, institutional, and industrial roles across Australasia, the Middle East and Europe.
12 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed News


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ActiTuna, attractant for shrimp feed

Three companies sign agreement to facilitate the use of zooplankton in feed Andfjord

Salmon, Skretting and Zooca have signed an agreement to facilitate the provision of a specifically designed salmon feed for Andfjord Salmon as well as a long-term co-operation to increase incorporating zooplankton Calanus finmarchius in salmon feed.

Calanus Plus, by Andfjord Salmon, marks the first salmon feed that uses the zooplankton Calanus finmarchius as a raw material ingredient. It also contains algae oil as an alternative to fish oil.

The zooplankton is one of the most abundant animal species on the planet with a reproduction of 300 million tonnes. It is Norway’s largest harvestable and renewable marine resource. Current rates show that Zooca only harvests 0.0005 percent of total volume per annum.

“Calanus finmarchius is nature’s own ‘starter’ feed. It is a natural prey that is biologically adapted to provide optimal nutrition for fish. Adding Zooca Hydrolysate will be very useful to stimulate the fish’s appetite in the transition to seawater,” explains Mads Martinsen, Director of Product Development and Sustainability at Skretting.

Andfjord will be the first salmon farmer in the world to use a commercially developed feed with Calanus. Earlier in February, Andfjord entered into a feed supply agreement with Skretting.

The agreement has overseen the development of a feed tailored to the company’s flow-through technology which ensures optimal water quality, fish welfare and growth conditions.

Andfjord recently released the first smolt into its site at Kvalnes at the end of June this year, reporting that smolt had adapted quickly and biological conditions were as expected. The site utilises flow through technology which enables the producer to simulate wild salmon’s natural habitat in a landbased facility.

Martin Rasmussen, CEO of Andfjord Salmon who was involved in releasing the first smolt, refers to “ambition” with mention of the feed. “Our ambition is to develop the world’s most fish friendly and sustainable aquaculture facility of its kind. Having our own specially designed feed, with unique ingredients from a local supplier, is another important building block towards realising this ambition.”



“The fish has settled quickly and has already demonstrated a healthy appetite, which continues to improve daily. Fish mortality rate is extremely low, so it has been a promising start,” Mr Rasmussen adds.

Zooca is responsible for supplying the Zooca Hydrolysate to Skretting, which processes Calanus finmarchius at its facility at Sortland, nearby to Andfjord’s site at Kvalnes. The company has, for the last 20 years, researched and developed technology that can sustainably harvest and process the zooplankton.

“By sustainably harnessing high-performing, high-quality nutrients from Calanus finmarchicus, there is a large potential to improve long-term human health and ensure superior animal nutrition around the globe.

“We are delighted to secure this commercial breakthrough within salmon feed together with Andfjord Salmon and Skretting,” says Hogne Abrahamsen, International Account Director at Zooca.

“We look forward to using Calanus Plus by Andfjord Salmon at our Kvalnes site and to the long-term co-operation with Skretting and Zooca,” concludes Martin Rasmussen.

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High time for Scottish salmonNew plant-based protein feed trials herald new era for Atlantic salmon feeds

In a global first, a UK producer of hemp crops is taking its first steps into the aquaculture sector that could see the alternative plant-based protein source used as a key ingredient for Atlantic salmon feeds.

Rare Earth Global, growers of industrial hemp for a range of sustainable products, has received UK £50,000/US $57,000 funding from the UK Seafood Innovation Fund (SIF) to explore how hemp seeds could be integrated into the diets of farmed salmon in Scotland.

With support from the Sustainable Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) and the University of Stirling's Institute of Aquaculture, the project team has begun an initial feasibility trial to assess the impact of hemp protein on fish health and wellbeing, looking at factors such as digestibility and nutritional value.

A plant-based nutritional supplement

Hemp-based protein is already sold for human consumption as a plant-based nutritional supplement as well as being used in cattle and poultry farming. However, the results of this study could see locally grown hemp being introduced as a core feed ingredient in aquaculture for the first time.

Initial indications suggest that a protein content of up to 50 percent could be achieved from the plants grown on UK soil, exceeding producers' minimum requirements of 35 percent, as well as reducing the sector's reliance on imported ingredients such as soy and fish meal.

The concept of using the hemp seeds as an effective protein source forms part of Rare Earth Global's zerowaste approach to hemp farming, which ensures that every part of the plant is used for maximum value. Hemp plants are known to have multiple uses, with the stems widely used for sustainable insulation, paper, textiles, and other materials.

The largest UK-based hemp processor

By 2024, Rare Earth Global expects to be the largest UKbased hemp processor, contracting up to 5000 hectares, and the team said they have already had positive discussions with some of Scotland's major seafood producers and feed manufacturers.

“There are lots of novel feed ingredients coming into the aquaculture sector, but the hemp seed trial is about making the best use of local ingredients,” says Suneet Shivaprasad, managing director and co-founder of Rare Earth Global. “Hemp is one of the fastest growing plants, using minimal water and capturing up to eight times more carbon than most trees, which makes it a highly sustainable choice for so many different products and materials.

“Our aim is to ensure that every part of the plant delivers maximum impact, which is why we are focusing on aquaculture. Our studies show that protein conversion rates in salmon are much higher than for cattle or poultry, highlighting significant potential for the sector to introduce it as a new, sustainable feed ingredient. The process could be scaled up very quickly and we could see an entirely new UK-based supply chain for fish feed emerging in the near future.”

Researchers from the Institute of Aquaculture will be conducting trials at the University of Stirling's facilities to assess how salmon react to different varieties of the hemp plant and any impact that the ingredient has on gut bacteria and the digestive system.

Suitable for human consumption

“We already know that hemp protein is suitable for human consumption, which is highly promising, but this trial will help us better understand its impact on fish diets including gut health and digestibility,” says Monica Betancor, lecturer at the Institute of Aquaculture.

“There may also be additional nutritional benefits, such as anti-inflammatory properties, and our aim is to gather appropriate data that can be used to inform future decisions about the suitability of this new feed ingredient.”

There are around 100 different types of hemp plant that can be grown worldwide, from the harsh climates of the Himalayas to the warmth of the Caribbean, and a further goal of Rare Earth Global is to determine which varieties will deliver the best results in terms of crop yield, fish health, and growth.

“With rising demand for sustainable healthy protein across the globe, aquaculture has a responsibility to reduce the environmental footprint of seafood production while also increasing its capacity to feed a growing population,” says Sarah Riddle, director of innovation and engagement at SAIC.

“Rare Earth Global's entry into the sector represents an exciting opportunity for a new low-carbon feed source that could see reductions in imports from overseas. The circular model of production is equally important, highlighting the opportunity for a range of different sectors to make use of ingredients that may have otherwise been considered as waste.”

International Aquafeed - October 2022 | 15


This three-day event attracted some 150 guests from more than 20 countries who heard eight conference presentations, toured two DSM research and development centres and participated in a ‘speed dating’ afternoon that explained in short but focused time slots the work the company carried out behind the scenes on product development. DSM Global Aqua Days held in August 2022 will be followed by DSM Ruminant Days this month.

With acquisition of Biomin and Romer Labs by Royal DSM in mid-2020, the aquaculture industry may have expected the annual Biomin Aqua Days meeting to disappear. But not so.

DSM has embraced the platform and delivered its first Global Aqua Days at the end of August 2022 to continue offering this important event and meeting place for customers involved in the production of aquatic feeds.

The three-day event was held in Vienna, Austria and included visits to DSM’s laboratories and research facilities at Tulin, DSM’s facilities in Getzersdorf and the ultra-modern premix production plant at Haag am Hausruck near the German border which was opened in early 2020.

Reports on the important presentations made during the conference days will be published in subsequent editions of International Aquafeed.

The role of aquaculture

The event was opened by DSM’s president for aniaml nutrition and health Ivo Lansbergen, who quickly outlined the need for sound science in addressing the nutritional requirement of a growing world population.

He briefly highlighted the 120-year history of his company, from coal milling in 1902 to petro-chemicals and in more recent times to nutrition and health, with a focus on sustainable living and biosciences, to today’s three business groups of Animal Health and Nutrition HNH (which has an annual turnover of Euros 3.4B), Human Health, Nutrition and Care (at Euros 2.5B) and Food and Beverage (at Euros 1.3B).

In its ANH group, with its focus firmly on sustainability, the company has a further three segment approach of Essential Products, Performance Solutions plus Biomin and Precision Services.

Overall, there are six sustainability and business ‘platforms’ that drives the DSM ANH group:

• Tackling antimicrobial resistance

• Reducing the reliance on marine resources

• Reducing emissions from livestock

• Efficient use of natural resources

• Improving animal product quality while reducing food loss and waste

Improving the lifetime performance of animals

Mr Lansbergen stressed that sustainable nutrition for aquaculture must be achieved within “planetary boundaries.”

It’s the theme that Jan Vanbrabant, the chief customer office for ANH took up when concluding the welcome session.

Mr Vanbrabant added that fish farming had to be circular in nature, restorative for the environment and achieve a net zero carbon footprint while maintaining productivity, low mortality rates, improving feed conversion ratios and minimising losses in yield and during processing.

“It’s important that aquaculture producers understand their own footprint,” he says.

He also pointed out that from now on sustainability will be the key to investment, with the FAIRR Company Rankings showing companies producing feeds for the fish farming sector more environmentally friendly than those producing food products from terrestrial animal production.

Our industry needs to reduce the environmental footprint to mitigate the expected 70 percent increase in demand in animal proteins by 2050 and Scope 3 emissions is a key focus for retailers, he added.

Mr Lansbergen, in summing up the opening session, displayed some products that promote healthy and more sustainable

16 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

products to delegates with a focus on omega 3, saying that consumers were more willing to pay a higher price for food products that were sustainable and quoted an example where algae-fed salmon was more appealing to the consumer and created a greater value for the retailer.

The bottom line, he added, is that to grow sustainably the aquaculture industry will need to use novel protein ingredients with an emphasis on Omega 3.

Where we stand

Dr Jorge Dias, with a PhD in fish nutrition, tackled the difficult subject of managing feed costs and outlined what could be achieved. He is the co-founder and general manager of Sparos, a science and technology-driven company dedicated to the development of novel nutritional solutions and premium feeds for the aquaculture market. His work is extensive within Portugal and France.

He says aquaculture is “part of the solution” to feeding a growing

human population in which there will be a scarcity of several natural resources, the requirement to achieve a lower environmental footprint and the need to adapt to climatic changes.

“Fish are among the most efficient farm animals in converting feed nutrients into edible meat .and therefore is an attractive option to cater for future protein needs.”

Relative to 2018, the aquaculture sector is expected to grow by 32 percent over the current 12-year period up to 2030.

The sustainability challenges facing aquaculture, and which can be mitigated by optimising feeds, include:

Biological - animal performance and welfare, health and biodiversity

Environmental - sustainable feed resources, low pollution and integrated production systems

Coastal area occupation - production systems including RAS, IMTA and off-shore systems

Consumers - Food safety, quality, health and ethical farming methods

Speed dating: Smaller groups circulate around specific displays to learn more about what’s behind products development processes DSM’s president Ivo Lansbergen introduces the company and its ANH group Colour spectrum for salmon fillet goes from printed cards to digital with DSM’s new SalmoFan (top centre) DSM’s Biomin branded pre-mix plant at Haag am Hausruck near the German border, and which was commissioned in mid-2020, offers the latest in hygienic control with the aim of eliminating any risk of cross contamination during the manufacture process
International Aquafeed - October 2022 | 17
A welcome reception: of DSM welcomes 25 countries to Vienna city centre
18 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

He spoke about “knowing your ingredients beyond nutritional values in detail.”

Managing feed costs require precision nutrition to avoid overformulating, controlling the variation in raw material quality, judicious use of strategic feed ingredients, improved protection given to feeds and mitigating adverse effects such as mycotoxins plus supporting more precise feeding practices to gain the best FCRs.

He also pointed to gaining the most from feed additives and optimising the supply and production processes. Finally, formulators need to consider using emerging alternative ingredients for both their nutritional and technological advantages. Another aspect he spoke about was changing the focus from just feed prices and production costs to production performance. Moving to a more dynamic formation, based on digestible protein in the final feed, would achieve a more stable performance and should be combined with each protein’s nutritional value in terms of its amino acid profile and trace minerals, etc.

Dr Dias spoke about the gradual replacement of fishmeal in diets for not only salmon but also so for Bream, Bass, trout and carp. This move is showing significant reductions which has been achieved with greater use of vegetable proteins, processed animal proteins and their optimisation with vitamins and trace minerals.

In 2021 by-products from global fish production provide about 30 percent of the fishmeal now being used in aqua diets. Further growth in aquaculture is dependent on the arrival of novel protein sources, he adds.

However, marine harvested resources will continue to play a growing role in the areas of zooplankton biomasses, such as Antarctic krill, copepods, amphipods and others. Under evaluation are mesopelagic fish species plus macro algae and seaweeds with interest in the latter’s bioactive compounds for functional feeds.

Novel and emerging protein sources include plant-based byproducts such as distillers’ grains and DDGS which offers higher proteins levels of up to 60 percent. Other protein concentrates including rapeseed, sunflower and barley plus corn protein

concentrates are now being used in trout and Seabass diets.

There are others to be considered as well. Including single cell proteins, yeast and filamentous fungi, bacterial meals and micro algae. Insects is an emerging source but there is still a lot of variability in the products available on the market, he adds.

Fish oil

The gradual replacement of fish oil over the past decade has occurred, but there is still high dependency with 75 percent of all fish oil produced globally going into aquaculture as it is critical in the further growth of marine aquaculture.

While one 130g-150g portion of salmon per week provides the recommended 1.5g of EPA and DHA in the human diet there is an urgent need for additional n-3 HUFA sources.

“The good news is that we have a solution we can grow. Algae oils are gaining industrial relevancy and scale,” he adds, and they may contain specific lipids classes with a bioactive effect.

Novel and emerging ingredients means we have to look beyond nutrition at the biological performance and cost of production.

Novel ingredients are still in their pilot stages in many cases and energy inputs are still a major element for their CO2 footprint. There will always be a trade-off between impact categories, he adds.

While something new is always great to have, Dr Dias says we can do better with the feed additives we have to get the most out of our existing resources.

Phytase in tilapia improves phosphorus release values. In plant ingredients P is mostly present as phytate which is extremely poorly digested by fish (0-30 percent) and is an anti-nutritional factor which also negatively impacts the absorption of other minerals and proteins.

.Costs are no longer just formulation costs. Formulators need a deep knowledge of ingredients from nutritional to functional to technological. Advantage should be taken of feed additives for higher efficiency, such phytogenics counteracting gut morphology changes … and do the best you can, he concludes.

reception: Herbert Kneissl welcomes delegates from to Austria in downtown centre Jan Vanbrabant, the chief customer office for ANH talks about the challenges facing aquaculture Keynote presentation: Fish nutritionist Dr Jorge Dias, General Manager of Sparos of Portugal reviews the options when managing feed costs Gerd Schatzmayer, head of global R&D Centres at ANH A delegate and their pack – ready for work!

Forowners and managers of feed, grain, and allied grain processing facilities, walking onto the production floor with conveyor tubes winding this way and that, in and out of machinery can seem at first like they have stepped into a Dr Seuss book or Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory movie.

For example, at a glance even feed and grain industry veterans can be challenged to distinguish whether the conveyor tubes they see are screw (augur), pneumatic, vacuum, aeromechanical, tubular drag chain and disc or tubular drag cable and disc.

In fact, many owners, managers, specifiers, architects, engineers, and other professionals lack substantial technical or hands-on experience with such conveyors.

This knowledge gap can result in extreme consequences when delicate or precise feed and grain blends must be reliably conveyed but instead, costly product destruction or inaccurate blends occur.

Misconceptions relating to tubular drag cable and disc conveyors will be the focus of this assessment, addressing six widely held viewpoints in the industry. Correcting these misconceptions can help feed and grain facility owners and managers not only improve product quality but also productivity, efficiency and profitability.

Tubular drag cable conveyors gently move product through a sealed tube using a coated, flexible stainless-steel drag cable pulled through on a loop. Solid circular discs (flights) are attached to the cable, which push the product through the tube without the use of air. These conveyors excel in transporting delicate, precise feed and grain blends in versatile layouts and configurations.

Misconception #1 – ‘Conveyors are not designed to protect blends and mixes’

When transporting a blend of feed and grain product or supplement with a conveyor system, maintaining a consistent mix ratio is essential, whether a coarse mix, fine powder, or larger variable-sized amalgams of different weights and shapes.

However, conventional conveyor systems are not specifically designed to precisely transport blends without changing the mix ratio. Various product material weights, sizes, and shapes can shift and disperse in open systems like bucket conveyors, and vibration can cause the blended product to shift throughout transport.

Vacuum and pneumatic systems can cause smaller lightweight

Cablevey Conveyors’ tubular drag cable conveyors are engineered to maintain precise blend ratios, maintaining a consistent mix ratio whether conveying a fine powder, coarse mix, or larger amalgams of different weights and shapes.

particles in a feed and grain blend to move at different speeds than heavier or larger particulates, resulting in significant blend restructuring when the product reaches its discharge point.

In contrast, tubular drag cable conveyors are engineered to maintain precise blend ratios, which can be important to feed and grain industry professionals from nutritionists to farmers feeding livestock, according to Karl Seidel.

He is marketing director of Cablevey Conveyors, a mechanical conveyor manufacturer that serves the feed and grain, pet food, specialty food, coffee, powder and nut markets.

As an example, the company’s engineers have resolved the blending issue with a completely enclosed, compartmentalised

The cable and disc systems gently and precisely convey feed and grain blends for a wide range of conditions and facility layouts
Tubular drag conveyors Debunking six common misconceptions relating to their use in feed processing
Modular systems like tubular drag cable conveyors are space efficient, and an excellent option for complex layouts that require curves or changes in direction,
20 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

It is common to see portions of tubular conveyor equipment extending outdoors when conveying product from outside to inside or vice versa such as when unloading raw material or loading finished product.

ai1659709269130_IRIDA_PRINT_AD_05-08-22_OUT_102.5x280_ENG.pdf 1 05/08/2022
International Aquafeed - October 2022 | 21

(not dust)

within their facility’s available space or accommodate its layout, which may include significant inclines or elevation changes.

However, this is not the case.

Modular systems like tubular drag cable conveyors are an excellent option for complex layouts that could require curves or changes in direction, according to Mr Seidel.

“Tubular conveyors do not have to be installed at 90 degrees and can use angles so can go in between, around, above or below existing feed and grain equipment or other obstacles. That is important for existing facilities that may not have the flexibility to move something out of the way,” adds Mr Seidel.

In addition, tubular conveyors are quite space efficient. Seidel notes that to conserve space, the conveyor turnaround and its inlet can stand on end, so it is only one foot across instead of three.

If conveyor discharge occurs best using gravity, tubing can be run through walls and discharge out of the building roof, which saves interior space.

Misconception #5 – ‘Conveyors are indoor installation only’

It is a misconception that tubular conveyors are only installed indoors. In fact, it is common to see portions of feed and grain equipment extending outdoors. This may occur when conveying product from outside to inside such as when unloading raw material from a truck or railcar or loading finished product into similar transport.

Materials may also travel from a feed mill to a production or packaging room which may be ten feet or even one hundred feet away.

According to Clint Hudson, Cablevey Conveyors Engineering Manager, when some equipment is used outdoors, and when moving moist product, it can be helpful to wrap the tubes in heat tape to prevent moisture from condensing or freezing in the tubes.

The conveyor manufacturer can also provide a range of accommodations to account for the effects of wind, dust, rain, insects, and direct sunlight.

Misconception #6 – ‘Cleaning requires dismantling and extended downtime’

Between product changeovers, many traditional conveyor systems must be disassembled, cleaned, or soaked, and then reassembled – a labour and time-intensive process. However, this is not necessary for tubular conveyors.

With tubular conveyors dry, wet, and in-line cleaning options are available, according to Hudson. Among dry options, brush boxes and air-knives can clean the cable. Brushes and wipers can wash the tubes. To sanitise, a sponge soaked in sanitiser can be used without getting the system fully wet.

For the most thorough cleansing, the cable conveyor’s wet cleaning process internally washes the tube in several steps, starting with a water rinse followed by a foaming agent, a sanitizing rinse, and a final water rinse. Once the system is thoroughly flushed out, drying is achieved by attaching urethane wipers to the tubular conveyor’s discs, which ‘act like a squeegee’ to remove any residual water.

Whilst first impressions of tubular drag cable and disc conveyors can evoke images of Dr Seuss or Willy Wonka’s chocolate factory, the equipment has been carefully designed and engineered for industrial performance, reliably conveying delicate products and blends in a variety of conditions.

With an understanding of the true potential of these conveyors, feed and grain industry professionals will be well-positioned to take advantage of the systems’ abilities to increase quality production and decrease downtime.

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GM oils & aquaculture; how do the oils of the future stack up?

growth from the seafood sector is envisioned to come from the aquaculture sector, and with it, an increased demand for fish oils.

Owing to a finite supply of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), with the most well-known being EPA and DHA, which are commonly associated with the health benefits of eating seafood, alternative sources are required to supplement the diets of LCPUFA rich fish such as Atlantic salmon.

GM oils as an alternative

One solution to this supply issue, is the utilisation of genetically modified (GM) oilseeds, derived from oil rich plants from the Brassicaceae, of which Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and Camelina sativa are members. Fish-like oils have been engineered into these crops, producing comparable levels of both EPA and DHA, which can then be added to feed and substitute traditional fish oil.

To assess the suitability of these new oils, two diets were utilised in our study, with the GM diet incorporating LC-PUFA rich oil from Camelina sativa, and the control diet comprising a commercial blend of both standard oilseed rape and fish oils. Both diets were isolipidic at 36 percent and isoproteic at 36 percent.

Fish with an average weight of 187g were grown in six

seawater floating pens, with diets fed in triplicate, until a final fish weight, on average, of 3510g was obtained, over the period of June 2018 to March 2019, with six fish per tank humanely euthanised.

Advancing technology

With the advancement of genetic technologies, comes the need to advance the methods by which we study and monitor those alterations, and their downstream uses. Traditional methodologies for analysing lipids focus on the fatty acids themselves, and typically involve cleaving them from their lipid backbone, resulting in a loss of structural information.

Advances in chromatography and mass spectrometry have made it possible to determine in greater detail the structure of these lipids, specifically, their intact structure. We therefore applied these techniques to assess the differences between fish fed these two diets, and ultimately, whether any lipid structural alterations could be detected.

General lipid trends

In this study, we looked at five tissues, across two timepoints (intermediate and final), and found that there were key differences between tissues. It was found that brain, typically regarded as non-plastic in regard to lipid composition, generally conformed to this view, by illustrating small lipid changes, as represented in fold change (Figure 1), overall.

It was also found, that, in general, the brain responded

24 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

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positively to elevated LC-PUFA within the diet (Figure 2), with the control diet generally not eliciting increases in lipids which were shorter and less saturated, typically found within standard plant oils.

This indicated that a homeostatic baseline exists within brain tissue, allowing increases in longer chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids, but not shorter chain, mono- and diunsaturated fatty acids for example.

On the other hand, the gill seemed to benefit from the control diet, with the majority of the lipid changes occurring with this diet. Those shorter chain to medium chain lipids, containing 32-40 carbons, and those containing 1-3 and 6-7 double bonds were those primarily enriched within gill tissue. Many of these lipids were found to contain fatty acids with 18 carbons, a reflection of the diet, with the dietary effect appearing in contrast to that of brain.

The eye was found to be a relatively conserved tissue, though distinguished itself from brain through differences in glycosylated lipids. Liver, and to some extent intestine, were found to be

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modulated to a greater degree, by experiencing greater fold changes, likely due to their metabolic activity and role within lipid transport and metabolism.

Fatty acyl & isomeric analysis

To explore the lipid composition in more depth, we looked at how the fatty acids were attached to their lipid backbone. We found that, on average, across all tissues and timepoints, lipids were enriched with 20 and 22 carbon fatty acids when fish were fed the GM diet.

The same diet also enriched fatty acids containing 3-5 double bonds, with five double bond containing acids more enriched within phosphatidylcholine. In contrast to this, the control diet resulted in increased levels of fatty acids containing 14 and 16 carbons containing one double bond.

In the brain and eye, specifically at the latter time point, and gill, did exhibit deviations from the general trends observed. Brain appeared to enrich 18 carbon fatty acids into complex lipids in response to the GM diet, whereas the control diet favoured enrichment of the same fatty acids in gill.

The final brain and eye time points defied the overall trend, by enriching saturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids in response to the GM diet, whereas gill was found to strongly enrich fatty acids containing five and six double bonds in response to the control diet.

Interestingly, it was also found that there were putative stereoisomers (Figure 3), lipids that have the same fatty acids attached as each other, but in a different order. Of those detected putative stereoisomers, several trends were found, with the most consistent found in PC 16:0/20:2, PC 16:0/20:3, PC 16:0/20:4 and PC 20:4/22:6, where one of these isomers was preferentially favoured over another.

However, owing to the methodology, greater structural detail

could not be obtained, and further work needs to be undertaken to determine the configuration of these lipids.

Future work

The presence of these stereoisomers may have implications for fish health, owing to the functional role of phospholipids in inflammation, as specific fatty acids are released from the complex lipid backbone during times of injury or infection.

Further work is being conducted on these pro- and antiinflammatory mediators, the eicosanoids, and whether these novel diets impact the immune system and ability to resist pathogens such as sea lice.

A further potential use is the validation of Atlantic salmon which may have been fed oils derived from GM crops, where no genetic material from the original oilseed is present, providing a measure of provenance for consumers and regulatory bodies.

The work has been published in open access journal Metabolites, and can be read in full at: https://aqfeed.info/e/1675

26 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed
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Feed additives

An examination of whether aquaculture can bring a key stone to the wall of global sustainability


Frouel, Eloise Galmiche and Maxime Hugonin evaluate the added value of some innovative feed solutions to reach a more sustainable aquaculture that fits with Global Sustainable Goals adopted by United Nations in 2015.

Several recent reports described the consequences of climate change and lack of sustainability on human societies and ecosystems everywhere in the World.

The conclusion is once again very clear. The impacts of human activities have significant adverse effects on nature and people in all regions, particularly affecting the most vulnerable ones. In parallel, the adaptation measures already set up are far from being sufficient.

In 1987, the United Nations (UN) defined the Sustainable Development as the “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

This definition is based on three main dimensions: society, environment and economy (and eventually a fourth on when culture is considered) [Figure 1].

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development calls the UN countries to already start making efforts to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) over the next years [Figure 2].

The goals address the needs of people in both developed and developing countries and ask all industries to contribute, whatever their size.

1. No Poverty: End poverty in all its forms everywhere.

2. Zero Hunger: End hunger, achieve food security and

28 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed
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nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

Good Health and Well-Being: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.

Quality Education: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

Gender Equality: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Clean Water and Sanitation: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

Affordable and Clean Energy: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

Decent Work and Economic Growth: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Reduced Inequalities: Reduce inequality within and among countries

Sustainable Cities and Communities: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Responsible Consumption and Production: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Climate Action: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Life Below Water: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

Life on Land: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

16. Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

17. Partnerships for the Goals: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development

Among concerned industries, Aquaculture is a key player since it currently contributes to more than 60 percent of the supply of aquatic resources intended for human consumption. This share will probably increase in the future, due to the stagnation of catches linked to fishing.

Moreover, the aquaculture industry is considered one of the

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most sustainable agro-food industries.

But is it really the case and what are the main challenges and what solutions are likely to strengthen sustainability in aquaculture?

Is aquaculture a sustainable industry?

If we translate the definition of global sustainability applied to Aquaculture industry, it means that:

From an environmental point of view, Aquaculture should not create significant disruption to the ecosystem or cause the loss of biodiversity or substantial pollution impact

From an economical point of view, Aquaculture must be a viable business with good and long-term perspectives

From a social point of view, Aquaculture must ensure that fish is affordable and available for all, and economic and nutritional benefits are equitably shared

Today, Aquaculture is already being recognised for addressing some of these goals [Figure 3], with those applicable listed below.

Goals 1, 2 & 3

Though fish compose a small amount of global protein intake (6.7%), they are an important source of animal protein, providing 17% of the World’s meat consumption. Also, fish play a vital nutritional role for many people.

3.1 billion people rely on fish for 20% of their daily protein intake, with some coastal communities reliant on fish for upwards of 70% (www.sustainablefisheries-uw.org).

Goal 8

Aquaculture is one of the most important long-term growth areas for food production. With the catches from wild fisheries remaining largely flat and some stocks already overexploited. With a growing population, it is important to increase the amount of seafood available, using aquaculture to provide enough protein while keep reducing the wild fish catches.

It’s predicted that we will need to double protein production by 2050, so our reliance on aquaculture is likely to increase. In fact, the FAO forecasts that aquaculture’s share of production will increase to 59% (109 million tons) by 2030 (www.reutersevents.com)

Goal 9

In recent years, the global appetite for seafood has increased dramatically. Some recent initiatives have been proposed to bring innovations to support the demand.

The Global Aquaculture Challenge, for instance, invites innovators from every area of aquaculture including industry, academia, and public institutions to present and develop their ideas. Successful applicants will be able to glean knowledge from industry experts via relevant mentoring programs and have access to investment opportunities to fully develop their proposals (www.globalaquachallenge.com).

Goal 14, 12, 13 & 15

As evoked, Aquaculture aims to replace wild catches to preserve natural resources while the demand in animal protein increases. Being one of the more sustainable animal productions, seafood proteins seems to be a good alternative to other animal protein to limit the impact of their production on the environment.

Moreover, Aquaculture is also a good tool to repopulate impoverished habitats and areas.

A-Live Natural gut balance promotor based on phytogenics

- Helps to waste degradation in pond - Limit adherence of pathogens - Support immune responses

- Regulates the gut microflora - Improves gut microbiota abundance and biodiversity - Positively modulates the gut microbiota

- Improves water quality - Decrease use of chemicals

- Secure farm environment

- Improves survival rates/ maximises yield

- Helps to control the pathogenic pressure - Decrease use of antibiotics - Secure farm environment - Improves survival rates/ maximises yield

2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 14

Table 1: MiXscience’s product family and their individual associated sustainable goal MiXscience’s products families Modes of actions Sustainable benefits Targeted UN-SDG Noliflore Aqua Biocontrol / Bioremediation solution based on innovative biotechnologies and microorganisms

2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14

A-Coverost Antiparasitic solution based on natural oleochemicals and a specific galenic developed with partners

Mix-Amune Natural immunostimulant based on phytogenics

- Controls the parasite germination - Association of biological and mechanical actions

- Controls the parasite load in the animal and the environment - Decrease use of chemicals - Secure farm environment

- Improves survival rates/ maximises yield

2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 17

- Natural defense stimulation - Controls the inflammatory response - Antioxidant effect

- Enhance the natural defenses of the host - Decrease use of medication

- Maximises yield under stress conditions

2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14

32 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

Despite all of these listed advances and their respective benefits, aquaculture must keep evolving.

What are the remaining challenges?

In term of contribution to UN Goals, Aquaculture is already a key actor but to get bigger and go further, some remaining challenges need to be faced to achieve improvements as shown in Figure 4. Despite much progress, the sector is still suffering from a negative image on different topics such as:

Compliance with environmental standards, that addresses issues like habitat conservation, water quality and effluents, recycling of wastes.

Animal health and welfare, where best practices to manage animal husbandry and disease control are not always applied.

Social responsibilities of the entire aquaculture value chain, to make fish affordable for all and to ensure that local laws for worker and protection of child labor are respected.

Reinforcement of food safety to secure the resources and make assurance that no banned antibiotics or other medicines chemicals are used and all approved medicines are carried out in responsible way.

Are Feed additives and functional feeds a pertinent solution to achieve higher levels of sustainability in Aquaculture?

At farming level, to face environmental changes, societal pressure, economical constraints, and reach a long-term resilience, two strategies are possible:

- The first, adaptive, consists of implementing solutions that allow changes in the environment to be taken into account (adapted species, selection of sites, formulation of feed

supplemented with compensatory functional aids) and therefore ensuring that the animals have a better adaptation to changes;

- The second consists in imagining farming systems where environmental factors are strictly controlled in terms of temperature and oxygen in particular.

In the scope of the presented research, we will mainly focus on the first strategy, which seems to be the most agile and the most appropriate one for the actors in the value chain.

One of the approaches consists in developing functional feeds, based on additives and, if necessary, appropriate galenic. The purpose of such feeds is to allow/help the animal to have a more adaptive physiological response (of the host) to biotic and abiotic factors.

This is the MiXscience strategy and thanks to its portfolio that contains innovative products with specific modes of actions, and solutions specially developed with key partners to address Aquaculture challenges. Thanks to the company’s complete product range, in MiXscience, it aims to contribute to eight out of the 17 UN-Goals.

Bringing a stone to the wall of global sustainability

In Table 1, the modes of actions of MiXscience’s product families have been related to their associated sustainable goal to demonstrate that event at the scale of a small and individual solution, we could bring a stone to the wall of global sustainability

Speaking as established players in the aquaculture industry, Maxtex believe that its own actions and its wish to provide natural solutions that address the key challenges of the industry specifically, can form an important part of the process towards reaching a reliable and sustainable aquaculture industry for future generations.


Exploring the influence of a chosen grinding method on quality


refers to any feed given to aquatic farmed animals as part of aquaculture and is usually a mixture of various raw materials and additives. The requirements for these blends are very specific, depending on the species and age of the animal, to guarantee its nutritional, immune resistance, and growth promoting properties.

The hammer mill is commonly used in aquafeed factories for grinding. Particle size reduction results from the action of the cutting knifes (hammers), where aspiration airflow from outside of the grinding chamber forces the particles that are smaller than the screen perforations to cross into a collecting bin to be transported pneumatically to the next process.

The extrusion process has advantages in the aquafeed industries because it induces desirable physical and chemical changes to ingredients, changing their proprieties and qualities, increasing their nutritional value with efficiency at a lower relative cost.

This is due to the high thermomechanical energy used in the extrusion process, leading to changes in the aquafeed such as increased digestibility of cereals, inactivation of anti-nutritional factors, destruction of microorganisms, denaturation of proteins

that favor digestibility, and expansion of the types of raw materials that can be utilised.

The selection of the ingredients and the proper grinding have a major impact on the final product’s texture, nutritional quality, and economic viability. The raw materials are grinded and mixed creating a flour that is converted into a dough with the addition of water and steam.

Genitalisation of the starch components results in water absorption and an increase in the viscosity of the dough. The particle size of the ingredients does have a direct impact since smaller granulometry allows for higher starch genitalisation during the extrusion process. Nutritionally, the smaller the particle size, the greater the contact with the digestive juices and thus improved digestion and absorption.

Grinding for extruded aquafeed

In order to provide a homogeneous mixture of ingredients before the extrusion process, the particle size must first be reduced by grinding. Therefore, it is desirable that the particle size of the ingredients have little variability and a consistent distribution.

Furthermore, on the extrusion process, a uniform particle size results in more homogeneous moisture absorption and cooking, which prevents hard, partially cooked particles in the final product. Particle reduction is performed by mechanical means,

Michel Bauer Pereira, Global Application Manager, Aqua & Pet, Andritz Feed & Biofuel, Denmark Figure 1: High speed hammer mill for fine grinding (©Andritz Feed & Biofuel)
34 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

with no change in the chemical proprieties.

By reducing the particle size, the total surface area of the grain is increased. Consequently, a greater interaction with digestive enzymes occurs, improving digestibility.

In aquafeeds factories, the hammer mill is the most popular choice for particle size reduction due to its versatility and ease of maintenance. The hammer mill consists of a set of hardened knives or hammers, profiled parallel to each other, and attached to a high-speed shaft.

The screen is attached to a supporting frame and may have different perforation sizes according to the expected degree of grinding. The screens are made by piercing a metallic plate. The perforations result in a total open area that impacts the capacity of the hammer mill.

Prior to the batching of orders, raw materials are pre-ground using a slow hammer speed or crushers with a screen opening of 2mm or greater. The blended diet is pre-mixed and undergoes

a second grinder, to assure the desired particle size reduction is achieved.

Depending on the desired fineness of the ground raw materials, the grinder is equipped with screens of 0.8mm, 1,0mm or 1.2mm. A common rule of thumb recommends that no particles are bigger than one third of the size of the die plate perforations.

The grinding stack includes a feeder, a separator, and a hammer mill. The feeder produces even loading through the feeding width

for Feed Production

Figure 4: Inside the grinding chamber (by Michel Bauer Pereira – Global Application Manager, Aqua & Pet) Figure 3: Grinding stack (©Andritz Feed & Biofuel)
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Pole Position!

of the hammer mill to ensure the uniform use of the screens and hammers.

The separator has a strong magnet to catch magnetic foreign objects and it uses an aspiration fan and its adjustable airflow path to remove nonmagnetic impurities such as rocks, aluminum, and plastic.

Feeder speed must be constant

The feeder speed must be constant to ensure adequate ingredients are uniformly distributed throughout the screen area. The function of aspiration has an important role and must be carefully and precisely sized according to the screens area and the resulting pressure drop across the grinding stack.

If the aspiration volume is too high it results in coarse grinding, as the product will pass through the grinding chamber too quickly. On the other hand, if the aspiration is too low, the grinding will be fine, but the product will heat up inside the grinding chamber negatively impacting quality.

In the hammer mill, the raw material enters the grinding chamber and comes into direct contact with the working end of the hammers, spinning at a high velocity. Part of the material will be reduced to the semi-ground or fully ground state by the action of the hammers, which is influenced by the characteristics of the material been ground. In this step the material is propelled against the grinding bridge located in the upper part of the grinding chamber.

Then, the material is pulled by the hammers into the acceleration zone, where the particles match the speed of the rotating hammers. Here the particle size is reduced further by the friction that occurs in the mass tangent of the perforated screen.

Some models have a stone collector in the bottom of the frames which also acts as an airflow speed reducer or brake, changing the particle´s trajectory and reintroducing them back into the flow for a second hammer strike, increasing the mill’s efficiency.

As the particle reduces in size, it moves away from the action of the hammers and approaches the screen, its speed reduced by friction, allowing it to be expelled through the screen by centrifugal force combined with the aspiration airflow.

Extruded aquafeed is an in-line process

Microfeed extrusion with die plate perforations smaller than 0.8mm requires a selective sifter to be placed after the grinding stack-up to remove the particles out of specification, which could cause the die plate to be blocked and need to be reworked in the high-speed hammer mill.

For example, if the hammer mill is equipped with a screen with 0.8mm perforations, 90 percent of the particles it produces will be under 250 micrometres. The remaining 10 percent of the particles will need to be reprocessed in the hammer mill.

It is important to remember that extruded aquafeed is an in-line process and, therefore, any equipment that does not perform its function correctly will hinder or influence the processes that follow. The correct granulometry obtained by good grinding helps to obtain a product within the desired specifications. The extruder should be the piece of equipment that dictates the rhythm of the entire processing line.

As a result, the grinding system should have 20 to 50 percent greater capacity than the extruder to prevent upset conditions such as worn hammers or broken screens that can cause stoppages or poorly ground raw materials.

Microfeed extrusion with die plate perforations smaller than 0.8mm requires a selective sifter to be placed after the grinding stack-up to remove the particles out of specification that could

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cause the die plate to be blocked and need to be reworked in the high-speed hammer mill.

For example, if the hammer mill is equipped with a screen with 0.8mm perforations, 90 percent of the particles it produces will be under 250 micrometres. The remaining 10 percent of the particles will need to be reprocessed in the hammer mill.

Dictating the rhythm of the processing line

It is important to remember that extruded aquafeed is an in-line process and, therefore, any equipment that does not perform its function correctly will hinder or influence the processes that follow. The correct granulometry obtained by good grinding helps to obtain a product within the desired specifications.

The extruder should be the piece of equipment that dictates the rhythm of the entire processing line. As a result, the grinding system should have 20 to 50 percent greater capacity than the extruder to prevent upset conditions such as worn hammers or broken screens that can cause stoppages or poorly ground raw materials.

Factors that affect aquafeed quality

To ensure the utmost quality in extruded aquafeed production, attention must be paid to the grinding process, which is influenced by the ingredients used and has a direct influence on productivity and energy consumption. The main variables are the useful area of the screen, the peripheral speed of the hammers, the arrangement of the hammers, and the feeder speed.

Physical characteristics of the meal used to produce the aquafeed, such as the degree of grinding and granulometry, directly influence the feed conversion rate and the electrical energy consumption in the extrusion line – fine grinding increases the feed conversion and the extruder output capacity. On the other hand, the larger the particle size, the greater the energy savings and capacity with regard to grinding.

The raw material, the selection of process equipment, and the process conditions are all factors that affect the aquafeed quality. The effective formulation costs and the best use of available raw material are key in the operational factor. It becomes essential to the aquafeed producer to be able to adapt and adjust the process conditions and the raw material in order to keep production costs low while maintaining high quality and minimal operational costs.

Therefore, a grinding system sized according to the customer´s expectations – and properly operated – is a huge contributing factor in this constant decision-making process.

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Figure 2: Hardened hammers (©Andritz Feed & Biofuel)
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Asia Pacific aquafeed Forecasts indicate market size to exceed US$60billion by 2028

According to a recent study from market research firm Graphical Research, the Asia Pacific aquafeed market size is set to register a significant growth during the forecast timeframe, due to increased aquaculture production in developing nations of the region.

According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), worldwide seafood consumption will reach 21.5 kilos per capita in 2030, continuing a YoY growth trend that has lasted over 60 years.

Rising fisheries and aquaculture output and reciprocal market demand are two key factors supporting aquafeed market growth. The report also states that 183 million MT of the world's fish accessible for human consumption in 2030 would be consumed in Asia. Catfish, tilapia, freshwater prawns, and marine shrimp are some of the most farmed species in the region.

Adequate aquaculture additives are critical for growth stimulation and component dispersion in aquatic animals. Growing aquaculture demands are certain to fuel aquafeed trends. Penned below are the three major factors driving traction in the market.

Asia Pacific aquafeed market share from the carp segment accounted for 8000 kilo tonnes of volume in 2021. Major carps are one of the most farmed fish in the region due to their rapid development. Fish and shrimp require nutritional supplements depending on energy, protein, fibre, minerals, vitamin requirements, and body chemistry.

With increased knowledge of the health advantages of fish protein, such as ease of digestion, the product consumption is likely to surge across the region.

Four frequently Asked Questions:

1. How big is Asia Pacific aquafeed industry?

The market size for aquafeed in Asia Pacific was over US$41 billion during 2021 and is anticipated to record more than seven percent CAGR through 2022-2028.

2. What are the key trends impacting Asia Pacific aquafeed market?

Growing consumption of crustaceans and other seafood products in countries like China, Indonesia, and Malaysia, along with higher awareness of protein-rich food is likely to boost Asia Pacific aquafeed industry forecast.

3. Why is the demand for crusteceans growing in the Asia Pacific aquafeed segment?

Consumed as a major source of protein in human diet, Asia Pacific market share from crustaceans end-use segment was more than US$4500 million in 2021.

4. Who are the major producers of aquafeed in Asia Pacific?

Leading aquafeed manufacturers for Asia Pacific market are Charoen Pokphand, Nutreco NV, Archer Daniels Midland Co, and Tongwei Group.

Expanding seafood demand in Japan drives aquafeed industry growth

Japan aquafeed market share from mollusks end-use segment will exceed $1,300 million by 2028. The country ranks as one of the world's top seafood consumers. Several fish species, including mollusks, are consumed on a healthy scale across the region. One of the regional government's primary aims is to grow its exports in the global aquaculture market. To that end, it will increase investments in essential infrastructure for marine goods in domestic markets.

China observes rising demand for crustaceans Touted as one of the global leaders in aquaculture, China's fisheries and aquaculture policies prioritise sustainability and

38 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

modernisation of the sector with faster growth in aquaculture production. The region not only consumes the largest quantity of seafood in the world, it also consequently imports the most.

As per sources, China's seafood consumption presently accounts for 45 percent of the global volume. With greater emphasis on optimum nutritional content, low prices, and easy availability of crustaceans, the product demand is likely to rise considerably.

Thanks to healthy economic growth and migration from rural areas, China aquafeed market depicts promising growth potential during the forecast period.

Prominent aquafeed companies in Asia Pacific include Charoen Pokphand, Archer Daniels Midland Co, Nutreco NV, and Tongwei Group. With an aim to increase their revenues and market share, leading market participants are capitalising on partnerships, mergers, acquisitions and product line expansions.

GEPRO has developed into a constant and successful player in the aquafeed and the petfood industry for more than 50-year history and always meet challenges with innovative solutions.

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The Art of Nutrition &Growth

Dibaq Solutions are specific programs designed to offer customers a range of services that only a leader in aquaculture can: nutrition for every need, continuous follow-up of fish quality not to mention technical and commercial assessment. All of this is the outcome of our international experience.

Dibaq AquaSafe® - an internal quality seal for high-value products

By only using the highest quality raw materials, micronutrients and functional components, Dibaq Aquaculture is a well respected company that specialises in the manufacture of specifically tailored products.

As a result, we have managed to go further and improve the quality of these products with this new seal, which will help our clients to achieve the maximum performance in their own production.

The AquaSafe concept also prioritises sustainability and the water safety of planet earth, as well as the health of the fish fed, stimulating their immune system, improving growth performance and protecting them against internal and external parasites.

Therefore, Dibaq AquaSafe is not only supporting and focusing on the safety of the planet - but on the health of its fish too. Visit us: dibaqaquaculture.es


Tech update

Making and breaking waves

Widely believed to be the ‘silver bullet’ that will bridge the protein deficit ahead of the global population reaching nine billion by 2050, the spread of fish and shellfish farms has been accelerating at an astonishing rate.

In fact, according to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization, fish farming grew by 527 percent between 1990 and 2018, with numbers particularly staggering in China. Within the many facets of this burgeoning industry, offshore fish farming is arguably the one that carries the most risk, with pens needing to be built strong enough to withstand the open sea, from metre-high waves to fierce currents.

Their remote locations also mean that many issues are usually rendered more time-consuming and costly to fix by logistical issues – with bad weather meaning that even routine operations could be delayed for months. Even so, investors have poured tens of millions into the sector, with the lure for many being the promise of sustainable fish production.

41 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

Tuna aquaculture

Is new concept the solution for climate change resilient aquaculture production?

Tuna is the world’s fourth most traded seafood product and accounts for nine percent of the overall value of seafood exports, after shrimp (15%), salmon (14%), and whitefish (10%). Unlike shrimp or salmon, the tuna industry is fully based on wild catch fisheries. 43 percent of tuna stocks are overfished or close to extinction.

In the Mediterranean, Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABT), the most valuable tuna species, is mostly caught as live fish at a weight of 8kg and upwards to be then grown to a weight of 100kg and more in grow-out farms.

As world population grows, global demand for food grows. The demand for ABT will increase. Meeting this demand only through fishing will put tuna, and thus the tuna industry, at risk.

Making great progress

Over the last decade, the technology to close the full reproductive cycle of ABT in aquaculture has made great progress and has now been achieved at facilities run by research institutions. The timing is ideal to commercialise this progress.

Next Tuna GmbH (Next Tuna) is dedicated to sustainably produce and commercialise Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABT) in the Mediterranean Sea (Med Sea). From our perspective, fish logistics is one of the key success factors for closing the ABT production cycle, which is often overlooked.

Based on experiences from previous projects working on the commercialisation and production of ABT juveniles, Next Tuna has decided not to release the fish immediately from the hatchery into sea-based net-pens, but to keep the young ABT under controlled RAS conditions for a prolonged period of time.

Next Tuna profits from the lates development in RAS technology which made this technology more robust and reliable. The aim of Next Tuna is to sustainably produce stable ABT juveniles in the size range of 2-10kg for sales into the existing ABT grow-out and fattening industry (Figure 1).

At the size of 2-10 kg ABT have already developed their internal heating system and thus are not sensitive to fluctuations in ambient water temperature. This, however, leaves the challenge: how to handle fish that size?

To address this issue, Next Tuna, together with its Norwegian partner Seafarming system AS, developed the concept of a floating RAS. The floating RAS, with a diameter of 30m and

depth of 10m, is comparable in size with a net-pen.

However, the system is fully closed toward the surrounding environment through an insulated steel shell and covered by an industrial building (Figure 2).

The floating RAS systems has two operational modes:

1. Production mode

The system is connected to a harbour dock, or moored in a sheltered area and receives all essential supplies from land.

2. Delivery mode

The system is disconnected from land supplies, pulled out of the sheltered/harbour area into the open sea and joint with the delivery net-pen, for safe and stress-free fish transfer and customer delivery.

During production mode, the floating RAS receives all supplies from land or, if operated in open water, from a supply vessel, including, electricity, oxygen, new (sea) water and delivers all residuals back to land for final effluent water treatment (Figure 2). For transport, the tanks are detached from harbour or supply vessel and tugged to destination.

A maximum level of flexibility

The fish feed is supplied by net-pen feeders, which can be centrally loaded from the feed storage in the Next Tuna harbour and connected to each floating RAS. This gives a maximum level of flexibility, with no additional infrastructure for feed supply needed.

The RAS effluent streams are further treated on land. In a sludge thickening station, the particulate matter from drumfilter backwash is separated from the liquid fraction and further processed in a biogas facility, while the liquid fraction, is treated together with the system effluent in a fixed bed biofilter, integrated with an IMTA approach (multitrophic integrated aquaculture) with macro algae.

The roof top of the floating RAS is used for solar panels, to supply the energy for the temperature control inside the RAS.

Climate change resilient applications for other species

Whilst developing the concept of the floating RAS, Next Tuna and its partners realized, that the developed solution might be

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 42 | October 2022 - Fish Farming Technology

suitable for any kind of marine finfish aquaculture production, within the design limits of the system (Table 1).

The floating RAS has the same size as a net-pen but is independent from the surrounding seawater temperature and quality. With only a minimum of new, pre-treated water supply the system is suitable for any marine fish production. It is thus resilient to any adverse effects of climate change like heat waves, prolonged precipitation, algal blooms or water pollution.

In addition, parasites and pathogens can be excluded with

efficient inflow water treatment. Another advantage over open net-cages is that no uncontrolled effluents will be washed into the surrounding waters and escapees will not be an issue. This should help to tackle typical issues in permitting processes.

Overall, the system will allow our industry to take aquaculture closer to consumption, regardless availability of land or quality of water.

In short, the floating RAS offers the advantages of a land-based RAS and adds the flexibility of a floating production platform.


The Autumn Edition promotes feed intake and modifies fish body cells for optimum functionality during the wintering period.

Efficient preconditioning of fish for wintering period. Improved cell functioning through addition of phospholipids.

Efficient utilization of fat storages for stable energy supply.

Figure 1: Schematic set-up of Next Tuna production facility. (Created with BioRender.com)
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 43 | October 2022 - Fish Farming Technology
TOGETHER Temperature Adapted FeedsTM

The operation of the floating RAS is most suitable in harbour environments (Figure 3) or sheltered areas with a max wave hight of 0.5m. However, design parameter can be adapted to allow operation more exposed places.

Next to the flexibility/logistic advantages, the floating RAS offers additional beneficial features for an easy operation:

1. Access, service and maintenance: After the delivery of a fish batch, the floating RAS can be easily serviced inside and outside, as the system will rise out of the water as more water is pumped out of the system. Thus, inside and outside maintenance or potential changes are easy to implement, as nearly all parts of the system become accessible;

2. Cost of construction: The floating RAS is easier to implement than a land-based system. No costly ground-breaking/digging is necessary. The only requirement is either harbour/dock space or sheltered areas with wave heights within design limits (which can be adapted to local requirements);

3. Modular production approach: The number of floating RAS can be increased as production volumes increase. It would be the first time in the industry that identical RAS systems are operated across one production facility. This keeps the service and maintenance cost at a minimum.

Making sustainable ABT production possible

For Next Tuna, the floating RAS concept is a key prerequisite to make sustainable ABT production possible. In addition, the concept offers advantages beyond ABT production. Especially the possibility for aquaculture production in a climate change resilient way is a key advantage to produce other valuable marine (and freshwater) aquaculture species.

The system is easy to implement and requires a minimum of land-based infrastructure compared to traditional RAS operations. The modular concept allows for easy production increase with increasing marked demand.

Table 1: Key design and production parameters of floating RAS – two alternative, smaller designs available. Parameter Parameter Value Production volume 7’000m3 Volume treatment area 1’160m3 Water treatment concept, in order of water flow Mechanical filtration: 4 x 50µm drum-filter Biological treatment: 4 x moving bed bioreactor UV disinfection for the whole flow Protein skimmer with optional Ozone dosing for 11% of the flow 8 x Recirculation pumps Oxygenation system By diffusers in the tank Flow rate 1.3 x/h water exchange rate in the tank (9’100m3/h flow) Tank outflow distribution 60% bottom drain / 40% surface drain. Expected new water supply Ca. 10L/s (864m3/day) Estimated feeding rate 2’000-3’000kg/day System Dimensions 47,5m x 30m x 10-11m depth
Figure 2: Schematic set-up of floating RAS system. (Created with BioRender.com)
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 44 | October 2022 - Fish Farming Technology

Fish farming equipment designer and manufacturer

PUMPS + GRADERS + COUNTERS FISH sINCE 1 9 58 100%quality SINCE 1958, TRUST IN OUR EXPERIENCE More than 10 complete grading packs, nursery packs, grow out packs, harvesting packs. WWW.FAIVRE.FR

Offshore fish culture

Examining the challenging but promising case for submerged cage farming

Over the last decade there has been a notable surge in research into submerged cage farming among the aquaculture industry, even though caged culture of fish farming has been carried out since 1970.

Currently, a worldwide interest in submerged cages – a type of cage farming where the cages are completely submerged in the sea -are growing and numerous aquatic farms are under development in China, Chile, New Zealand and Scotland and to date more than a dozen of Finfish species are produced in such experimental caged condition.

In general, offshore aquaculture may be defined as taking place in the open sea with significant exposure to wind and wave action, and where there is a requirement for equipment and servicing vessels to survive and operate in severe sea conditions from time to time.

According to a study conducted by Institute of Marine Technology, Norway fish have optimal environmental conditions at which survival, growth and animal condition are maximised. Many of the disease-causing organisms are more prevalent in surface water layers, so submergence will likely reduce interactions with and impacts to farmed fish.

For example, infestations by skin flukes were reduced by submerging cages to two and four meters depth, while sea bass in cages submerged below the thermocline [thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, as in an ocean or lake; or air, e.g. an atmosphere) where temperature changes more drastically with depth than it does in the layers above or below] exhibited lower infection rates from certain intestinal parasites than fish in surface cages, as faecal transmission from seabirds were less likely.

This why submerged cage farming is assessed to be the most efficient type of cage farming by many, though many challenges still exists.

Current status of cages

Submerged caged farming came into existence in 1970s but most such farms were used for research purposes rather than industrial. Only in the last decade a substantial surge in companies that invested in submerged cage culture was noted and collaborations between industry and research emerged.

To date, 11 finfish varieties are cultivated using submerged cage culture, recently a start-up emerged in Costa Rica of a submerged culture industry for cobia. Almaco jack (Seriola rivoliana) are also produced commercially in submerged cages in countries such as Puerto Rico, the Bahamas and Hawaii.

There are numerous reports on promising results on submerged culture of Atlantic codes. Despite the high interest, the submerged culture of salmonids has had limited success. Though some studies yielded successful results in fresh water, Salmonids grow poorly when held in submerged cages for longer than a month in sea water.

More recently, additional studies are being conducted on submerged culturing of salmon by integrating an air dome into the ceiling of a submerged cage to enable salmonids to refill their swim bladders underwater. Tilapia cage culture is rapidly expanding in Latin American countries as well.

Benefits of cage farming

Submergence is an effect way to control fishes from getting exposed to parasite and disease control. Most disease causing organisms remain in the surface layer compared to underwater. Many disease spreads like salmon lice, tape worm infestation and gill disorders can be prevented to extent using submerged aqua culture.

In some, but not all locations, deeper waters can provide more stable or appropriate temperatures for production, salinities and oxygen levels, as they are often below thermoclines and haloclines.

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 46 | October 2022 - Fish Farming Technology

Salmons are at the risk of poor oxygen availability during summers and their growth rates lower in winter, and both these situations can be remedied by submergence as better temperatures may provide better growth performance during these times, and short-term periodic submergence can be a solution to avoid negative surface events such as heat waves, storms or swell. Moreover, the growing interest in submerged sea culture could be an effective way in reducing the construction costs and also could be a potential solution to damages caused by large hurricanes and extreme offshore weather events. They also have a greater advantage when it comes to waste disposal leading to limited benthic impacts beneath below cages.

Types of cages

Unlike other cage designs like open net cages and semisubmersible cages, fully submerged cages can be unattended by surface units or can be remotely controlled. It has the best features to avoid effects of storms albeit its structure does not need to be strong as surface structures.

But when required, maintenance of submerged cages can be difficult due to lack of visibility and maintenance tends to more expensive compared to other cage structures. The most used cage designs for submerged cages are:

Sadco: A Russian design which has evolved since 1980’s, its hexagonal steel superstructure which carries the net which is kept in shape using lower sinker tubes. The cage volume is around 2000m3.

Aquapod: Developed by Oceam Farm Technolgies in the US, it is a hollow spere shared cage which has a two-point anchor for mooring and some operational advances such as net cleaning and removal of mortalities.

Sinking fish cages: Large-scale sinking cage offshore verification testing was done by NSENGI (Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd) in a salmon farm located 3 kilometres off Sakaiminato, Tottori Prefecture, Japan's seashore. With wave and current resistance of 7 metres and 2 knots, respectively, each cage has a capacity of 50,000 m3 The machinery and feedstock storage facility for automated fish feeding are housed on a jack up platform that services the cages.

Recently a futuristic project by coordinated by Cliff Goudey, director of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Offshore Aquaculture Engineering Center, aims to attach robotic motors to a giant fish cage, allowing it to travel around the sea, rather than stay tethered in shallow water.

Many companies around the world are putting in effort to

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Syrena® Boost – your soFISHticated solution in aquaculture. Learn more: www.delacon.com Visit us at Aquaculture Europe 2022 Let your fish and shrimp grow naturally 47 | October 2022 - Fish Farming Technology

integrate AI to caged fish farming, and well we can surely hope it will revolutionise the offshore aquaculture in future.


The monitoring of submerged cages is a challenge due to lack of visibility and maintenance hence tends to be expensive. Developing capacity to monitor environmental conditions and manipulate cage depths to access optimum conditions will overcome this issue and enable ‘dynamic submergence’ as a culture strategy.

A major challenge submerged culturing of fish faces is fish buoyancy regulation. Depending on the fish bladders being too full or empty, buoyancy problems can arise in multiple ways.

From a biological perspective, providing feed under water is found to be less efficient that surfacing feeding due to various reasons like feed is unevenly spread within the cage could result in negative interaction between the fish.

Typically, underwater feed is delivered using gravity alone or combined with a water pump at the cage -AKVA and Vard Aqua’s Appetite Feed Control System have introduced prominent

technologies in tackling the issues caused by feeding the fishes in underwater. However, not all fish species will be similarly suited to submerged culture, and a suite of key challenges and bottlenecks stand in the way of commercial production of several species.

A considerable amount of uneaten feed, organic matter like and nutrients are released into the sea and this could have damaging effects on other aquatic animals depending upon the intensity of the culture operations. If not treated properly, these remnants can lead to creating anaerobic condition.

Becoming more sustainable & productive

Though it is inevitable that fish farming has to move offshore for it to be more sustainable and productive, expensive research is required to minimise its effects on the environment. Research must be done on finding efficient cost-effective solutions.

Also, introducing more fish cage designs that can improve the health of the fish, reduce fish disease and exposure to toxicity and environmental issues is a necessity as well.

The Future Awaits

Built on partnership and innovation, Wenger is providing more opportunities for client success.

For almost a century, Wenger has delivered extrusion-based innovations to our partners. We’ve worked alongside you to develop new processing solutions and better products, providing our industry-leading expertise and ongoing support every step of the way.

We don’t plan on stopping any time soon.

Wenger’s global food processing family is growing, and we look forward to the exciting opportunities that lie ahead. We will continue to deliver even more innovations and technologies to benefit companies that share our vision of tomorrow.


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 48 | October 2022 - Fish Farming Technology


Extruder AL300

Almex offers a wide range of single screw extruders and expanders which are used for different applications.

The robust and simple design of the Almex machines guarantees years of economical and trouble free production.

Scan the QR-Code for more information www.almex.nl


Innovations this month

October 2022

In this month’s Product Showcase we address water quality in aquaculture, which is particularly crucial in RAS facilities, including a drain waste collection system, a smart monitoring system and a UV disinfection system, all to improve water quality in fish farming.

If you would like your product or service to appear in this section in a future edition of International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology magazine, then please contact us at editorial@perendale.co.uk

Non-Corrosive PP UV Systems by UltraAqua

The Non-Corrosive PP series is developed specifically for disinfection in harsh corrosive environments. The series is based on over 25 years of experience with corrosive fluids, using Polypropylene material which has proven to be superior in warm salt water and other corrosive environments.

The material ensures operational excellence across several applications, due to its exceptional durability and resistance towards temperature and pressure.

Equipped with the automated Ultrawiper™ wiping system, the PP series becomes an unbeatable water disinfection solution without the hindrance of complex and frequent maintenance.

Paired with a control cabinet from non-corrosive GFRP materials, it is able to withstand even the most corrosive water environments found around the globe. https://ultraaqua.com

Learn more – Learn onsite Enroll in the 12-week Course

Metris Vibe by Andritz

Andritz created the Metris Vibe, an integrated solution for condition monitoring. Connected to your mobile phone using an app, the tool is a wireless vibration and temperature sensor that monitors the current condition of mechanical equipment, regardless of manufacturer. It will provide advanced detection or prediction of any possible faults or damage to components within the machinery and will send an alarm through the app to alert the user. Vibrations is one of the first indicators of damage developing, and any unexpected noises/ sounds will be picked up by Metris Vibe.

The goal of this is to increase reliability and customer productivity with the machines and to decrease any downtime needed to replace the components as it allows time to efficiently plan for stoppages and maintenance. www.andritz.com

Net cleaning Rigs by AKVA Group

AKVA Net Cleaners uses rotating cleaning discs mounted on cleaning rigs in various shapes and combinations. AKVA uses rugged, tailor-made high-pressure pumps to drive the cleaning discs.

The cleaning process starts with submerging the rig on the inside of the net, using only sea water under high pressure. Cleaning Systems does not use chemicals or scrubbing action. This is environmentally friendly and will not damage the nets. The cleaning discs are generally delivered with 40 cm diameter. They can also be offered in 30 cm or 50 cm diameter. A movable camera on the rig makes it possible to zoom in on details and provides full control of the washing process.

All Net cleaners are offered with a smooth front rail in stainless steel that ensures minimal wear of the net. All Net cleaners are offered with a smooth front rail in stainless steel that ensures minimal wear of the net. www.akvagroup.com

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Check out our website dedicated to fish farming technology


The Flobull aerator by Faivre

The Flobull aerator projects a very emulsified spray of water into the air, thus providing maximum contact with the atmosphere. In this way oxygen in the air is transferred into the water. This process does not raise the water temperature because a sometimes warmer atmospheric contact is compensated through cooling caused by evaporation.

Despite their low electricity consumption, 180W to 1500W, Flobulls have a water mixing flow rate of 75 to 380m3/h. For a Flobull 1CV (750W), the high oxygen input into the water is 1.2kg of O2/h. Fish grow up in the best conditions withe Faivre aerators. They are useful to Oxygenate water and discharge gases, diffuse the recycled water through the pond and help a regular growth of your fish. Since the 1960’s, FAIVRE has been developing floating aerators. www.faivre.fr


Cage nets by WJ Knox

Cage type, site conditions and user preferences are all taken into account when choosing the ideal rigging and netting specification for your cage pen, whether using traditional stabilised knotless nylon or STAR netting from GWRL, which makes in situ cleaning easier due to the smoother surface.

A further recommended netting for growing fish is GWRL’s Sapphire Seal Pro, with a polymer core and stiffness enhanced by hot waxes injected during braiding. To ensure that water exchange is maximised, nets are roped with the mesh square, whether first feeder size or the heaviest weights required offshore.

Knox have been making nets for fish farmers worldwide since the industry’s beginnings, producing a range of customised cage nets, bird nets, predator solutions, sweep and sampling nets. In conjunction with its partners, Garware-Wall Ropes, the company is now also supply lice shields, treatment tarpaulins and wrasse hides. https://wjknox.co.uk/our-nets/fish-farming/#cage_nets

fishfarmingtechnology.net International Aquafeed - October 2022 | 51

Moving mussels

New insights into shellfish farming

Researchers have identified how mussel larvae move – giving mussel and other shellfish farmers important insights into where and how to grow them.

The University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture used genetic testing of mussels at sample sites along Scotland’s west coast combined with mathematical modelling to understand where mussels grow well – and it’s all about the current.

“Mussel growing has been a bit of a black box. The larvae float in the water, we put ropes at sea and larvae appear there. If the stock goes down, we don’t know why. If the quality goes down, we don’t know why,” comments PhD researcher Ana Corrochano-Fraile.

“Our model shows us how the larvae move in the currents, from south to north. We found that, in 30 days, a cloud of larvae can move from the Scottish border near Stranraer up to Islay, for example.

“They then attach to substrate – anything solid in the water, which could be ropes – and grow for one and a half years until they start reproducing. The next generation of larvae is carried on the current from Islay to the Outer Hebrides in 30 days – that’s a lot further, because the current is faster there.

“For example, we found that 90 percent of the mussels in Loch Roag on Lewis have come from Barra. Knowing where mussels come from and where they go tells us a lot about the best and worst locations for farms.”

A self-sustaining population

The researchers worked with the Scottish Association of Marine Science, as well as mussel farms at different west coast locations, through the Fishmongers’ Company, Scottish Sea Farms Ltd and Association of Scottish Seafood Growers.

They discovered, for example, that larvae from Loch Eil farm leave the loch, but no new larvae come in, so although Loch Eil has a self-sustaining population, it also contributes to populations at other locations, such as Loch Linnhe.

“We were surprised by how fast the larvae moved in a short amount of time, and also how fragile and vulnerable they are,” adds Ms Corrochano-Fraile’s supervisor, computational biologist Dr Michaël Bekaert.

“The research shows that if we were to block the current in some way between Scotland and Northern Ireland, or slow it down, we would lose larvae. Similarly, if we were to pollute the sea there, or somewhere like Loch Linnhe, where many fresh larvae are washing in, that would have a huge impact.

“To breed quality mussels, like with anything else, you need maximum diversity in the genes, so you don’t want to lose fresh genes by messing with the current or polluting.

Aquaculture case study
52 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

“We will need to understand the effects of climate change better, but if the current were to move much faster, for example, the larvae might be swept past the Outer Hebrides without stopping at all!”

A low impact on the environment

Forty percent of the UK’s mussels are produced in Scotland, with half of these growing along the west coast and the rest around Shetland. Mussel farming has a low impact on the environment, as they require no food, grow on ropes and, by nature of being bivalves, they even clean the water around them.

“This does mean they are vulnerable to pollution though,” explains Dr Bekaert. “They will absorb heavy metals, for example. If we give them rubbish to eat, they keep it. But if these fast-flowing waters are clean, the mussels are clean.

“It is possible to produce a lot of mussels at very low cost – environmental and economic. The most expensive part is harvesting and processing them.”

Increasing mussel production is part of industry organisation Scotland Food and Drink’s ambition to double Scotland’s food production by 2030.

Dr Bekaert said: “This level of detailed oceanographic information is also relevant to other valuable bivalves such as scallops and oysters and, being at a scale of metres rather than kilometres, is even useful for the salmon industry.”

CS International Aquafeed - October 2022 | 53

Industry Events

Status updates for industry events amidst global effects of COVID-19


2022 October 12-14

Vietstock 2022 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam www.vietstock.org 2022 November 3-5

Future Fish Eurasia Gaziemir – Turkey https://eurasiafairs.com


AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference 2022 St. Petersburg, Florida, USA www.afia.org 9-11

Ildex Indonesia 2022 Jakarta, Indonesia www.ildex-indonesia.com 15-18

EuroTier 2022 Hannover, Germany www.eurotier.com


World Aquaculture Singapore 2022 Singapore www.was.org

The Annual International Conference & Exposition of World Aquaculture Society, World Aquaculture 2022 (WA22), will be held from 29 November – 2 December at the Singapore Expo and Conventional Centre, Singapore.

The event is hosted by the Singapore Food agency and is expected to have involvement from countries throughout the Asian-Pacific region and around the world. The Sessions and workshops at WA22 will cover all aspects of aquaculture.

Over 200 exhibitors have already signed up in a strong show of confidence and support for the event and the industry.

The annual three-day conference and exhibition will bring together global aquaculture industry professionals to network, learn best practices, and see the latest aquaculture innovation technology, all while enjoying face-to-face interactions.

The organiser will ensure a trade show and conference with safe management measures in place to provide a safe environment for all WA22 Singapore attendees.

Aquaculture is rapidly growing in the Asian-Pacific region and increasingly being integrated into the Singapore food systems and therefore 2022 is the perfect time for the world aquaculture community to focus on Singapore.

In addition to providing attendees with personalised, hands on training and unique networking opportunities, WA22 will offer nearly 150 sessions that will cover aquaculture trends, best practices, and the latest technological advancements.

Expert speakers will deliver unique insights to each session, and exclusive celebrity keynotes.

The event will be held at Singapore EXPO & MAX Atria and open to fully vaccinated participants only with adherence to safe distancing measures, so please get vaccinated to enjoy a free-flowing meeting.

The team will work closely with the Singapore Tourism Board (STB), local partners and relevant authorities including our host, Singapore Food Agency, to ensure all participants’ health and safety at WA22.

Details on the conference and exhibition as well as more updates on WA Singapore ‘s content and programming can be found out on the WAS website: www.was.org.

2022 December


AlgaEurope 2022 Rome, Italy https://algaeurope.org


2023 January 24-26 IPPE Atlanta, USA www.ippexpo.org 2023 February 8-9

Seagriculture Conference Asia-Pacific Online https://seagriculture-asiapacific.com


AQUAFArM Pordenone, Italy www.aquafarm.show


Aquaculture America 2023 New Orleans, Louisiana, USA www.was.org

2023 March 7

Aquatic Asia 2021 Bangkok, Thailand aqfeed.info/e/1696


7th Annual Aquafeed Extrusion Conference Bangkok, Thailand https://aqfeed.info/e/1697


VIV Asia 2023 Nonthaburi, Thailand www.vivasia.nl

28 - 30

AquaFuture Santiago, Spain https://en.aquafuturespain.com/ 2023 April 18-21

LAQUA 23 Panama City, Panama www.was.org 2023 May


World Aquaculture 2023 Darwin, Australia www.was.org 2023 June


VIV Turkey Istanbul, Turkey www.vivturkey.com 21-22

Seagriculture Conference EU 2023 Trondheim, Norway https://seagriculture.eu

☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event 54 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

4th Global Feed Summit held both digitally and in person

The 4th Global Feed Summit (GFS) was held both digitally and in person at the Hilton Sukhumvit Bangkok Hotel in Bangkok, Thailand from August 25th-26th, 2022.

Organised by the Centre for Management Technology (CMT) and originally set for February 2020, the summit was rearranged due to the pandemic for 2022. Now five years after the previous summit, which had last been held in 2017, there were plenty of updates and information to share.

The B2B event was filled with vital and interesting details and solutions to many of the problems that the aquaculture industry currently faces along with the current going-on’s there are in the world.

The event began with an introduction regarding the chairman for the day, Dr Wilhelm Uffelmann, Partner and Global Head of Food & Agribusiness Practice. “Rising prices, reduced consumption of animal protein and a shift towards plant-based,” says Dr Uffelmann.

“All of which we’ll be discussing about today,” he continues before he introduces the first speaker. Whilst the event spoke of a wide range of topics relating to grain, livestock and the global economic outlook, this report will focus more on the areas in relation to aquaculture.

Aquaculture Presentations

A range of topics were discussed over the two days at the B2B event. On day one, Dr Olivier Decamp, Dr Hadden Graham and Mr Dan Pathomvanich spoke on varying aspects on aquaculture. Dr Decamp talked about the challenges and solutions regarding the decline, farming and feeding of shrimp in his ‘Innovative feed for the aquaculture industry’ presentation.

The biggest concerns for shrimp farmers, Dr Decamp says, “refer to aquafeed, cost and quality performance, immediately followed by disease.” He explains that the drastic decline in shrimp in 2010 were due to diseases such as white faeces and EMS and how farming has had to adapt and change to battle these diseases.

He then describes how Grobest has a special feed and diet plan to assist the farming and how the usage of insect meals and single cell protein are beneficial to shrimp’s health and growth.

Dr Graham, Managing Director for Ocean Harvest Technology, presented a project on seaweed – influencing the gut microbiome and improving animal production sustainability. He went into

IFFO 60th Annual Conference 2022

The IFFO 60th Annual Conference will be held from October 23-27, 2022 at The Westin Lima Hotel & Convention Center in Lima, Peru.

As the world’s only conference dedicated to the fishmeal and fish oil industry, the conference will bring together an anticipated 400+ delegates from around 35 different countries. The B2B event will also showcase 30 different speakers along with simultaneous English-Spanish interpreters for those who require it.

The seminars will open with the IFFO President, Gonzalo de Romaña, followed by further presentations featuring discussions on topics ranging from blue foods, marine ingredients industries, global food production and distribution, and the challenges of facing the global economy and how it’s affected the industry.

detail explaining the benefits and drawbacks of feeding seaweed, or macroalgae, to livestock and aquaculture along with results from tests using seaweed and how it affects the environment when used as feed.

Mr Pathomvanich from NR Instant Produce presented a project on the diversification to alternative proteins in livestock and seafood industries. He mentions how he partners with a state-owned enterprise with seaweed to help develop plant-based foods and to help reduce methane emissions and carbon footprint.

Many of these topics emphasised the diverse options of alternative feed that are available to aquaculture along with making sure to emphasise any challenges that are in the industry but always offer solutions to these problems. Some focused or mentioned on the impacts the farming of aquaculture has on the environment and how the usage of certain aquaculture helps to lower methane and carbon.

Day two was opened by Mr Matthew Clark, Managing Director for Feedguys Resources, the chairman for the day who introduced the speakers for the day. Most of this day focused on the nutrition and feed for livestock and poultry. Mr Nick Piggott, founder and Co-CEO to Nutrition Technologies discusses the hidden value of insectmeal.

He also describes how insectmeal “doesn’t work as a protein replacement for soybean or fish meal” but rather “it only works when supplemented with amino acids.” Mr Piggott even provides live samples of insectmeal for people to smell, taste or touch if they hadn’t ever interacted with it.

Recordings and Networking

With day two only being half a day unlike day one, which was a full day, day two ended with a final discussion and a lunch, closing off the event successfully. The B2B event provided many opportunities throughout the two days where between every couple presentations there would be chances to network with as many people as possible.

It was encouraged to use this time wisely, so everyone could both grow a larger understanding of the companies and people in the industry and to discuss the new topics and information brought forth by the presentations given during the day.

An incredibly successful event with many opportunities to network and discuss varying topics associated with the supply and demand, the economics and more regarding grain and feed along with aquaculture. CMT will have recordings of the 4th GFS available to purchase and download for anyone interested in the topics mentioned.

You can purchase the recordings from this link: https://aqfeed. info/e/1678

A variety of global speakers will present the information, ranging from Aldo Bernsconi, Vice President of Dara Science, GOED, from the USA to Arnt-Ove Blytt-Tøsdal KolåsCOO Feed from Norway.

Exploring the effects of climate change

With the Sustainable Seafood Report underway, the latest evidence on the effects of climate change on global fisheries will be discussed. They will explore the effects of climate change and how to effectively set climate targets and achieve them. Life cycle assessment (LCA) analyses are becoming an essential approach to feeding, which will be further explained by the speakers.

As this is the central and connecting hub for the marine ingredients industry, the five-day event will have plenty of opportunities to

network with various activities to take part in, from a city tour on the first day, the market forum on the third to the factory visit on the final day – with multiple opportunities to create new and rekindle old connections.

With IFFO providing the only conference for fishmeal and fish oil, IFFO’s Annual Conference is the source-hub is not only for networking, but for gathering valuable market expansion, a strategic market-entry and an understanding of various topics that’ll be discussed throughout the event.

IFFO is an international trade organisation that represents marine ingredients industries and have been holding the conferences since 1960. With the previous two years of the annual conference being webinars, the last in-person conference was held in Shanghai, China, 2019.

Industry Events
56 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

The complete Feed to Food global trade show in

Asia Co-located with www.vivasia.nl New venue! VIV ASIA 2023 BANGKOK, THAILAND 8-10 MARCH WWW.VIV.NET Organized by Supported by

SPACE 2022

After two years of sanitary constraints due to the pandemic of Covid-19, SPACE was very happy to welcome its exhibitors and visitors to help to celebrate its 36 years anniversary.

During these two years, the organisation took time to reinvent the layout of certain halls and create new focus areas such as Aquaculture SPACE. Indeed, over 100 companies represent the aquaculture this year and were easily recognise with the ‘Aquaculture’ logo on their stand.

Moreover, after the warm summer and heat waves that happened recently in France and more largely in Europe, one of the key aims of Space was to tackle early on this subject linked to climate change. There are also concerns over rising production costs and certain solutions were found in the halls of SPACE.

Taking place from September 13 –15, 2022 at the Parc Expo of Rennes in France, free shuttles were available from the train station, the Republic Square and the Airport. Free shuttles for visitors were also available from different cities around Rennes.

Aquaculture at the SPACE

Over the years, aquaculture has been growing at the SPACE and this year, for its 35th edition, a milestone was reached with 100 companies providing products or services for aquaculture exhibiting at the show, with a special route organised with stickers on exhibitor’s booths.

The list of these 100 companies includes industry leaders such as AB Vista, Adisseo, Amandus Kahl, Biochem, Bühler, CPM Europe, DSM, Evonik, Olmix, Lallemand, Skretting, Techna, etc.

With companies represented from areas of the industry including ranging from genetics to nutrition as well as extrusion equipment and more and more, one of the strengths of the show was its representation of different sections of the aquaculture industry, with exhibitors displaying a variety of solutions specifically designed for aquaculture.

SPACE organisers aim to be an important international show for the aquaculture industry. Indeed, when asked 26 percent of French visitors and 50 percent of international visitors are interested in the aquaculture industry – with France being the third largest aquaculture producer in Europe.

In order to emphasise this growing segment, SPACE also organised numerous conferences, with two half-days (one in French and one in English) dedicated to aquaculture and more precisely: ‘Advances in aquafeeds’ and ‘Nutrition, at the heart of the durability challenge.’

One of the positive signs that SPACE is becoming an important event for the aquaculture industry, was that two foreign delegations (from Senegal and Algeria) specialised in aquaculture attending the event this year.

Climate change & food sovereignty

During the first day, the Minister of Agriculture, Marc Fesneau, spent the whole day in the aisles of the different halls with Marcel

Denieul, president of the SPACE. He took time to talk to stock producers, exhibitors, professionals as well as students about the issues that the sector faces such as the climate crisis, food sovereignty and produce remuneration.

“Drought and feedstock and energy inflation create one of the greatest stresses for a farmer - not being able to feed their animals,” comments Marcel Denieul, in his opening speech.

Moreover, a lot of tension is currently being experienced and the sector is usually seen as a climate problem. SPACE’s president regretted these fingers being pointed at farmers, adding: “while it is precisely faced with these issues (climate change) that farms can contribute positively underscoring its mission to feed the country” and ended by asking, “Can we really equate greenhouse gas emissions from food production with those from less essential activities?”

Climate change was also at the heart of the Espace for the Future, with a debate that happened on Wednesday, the second day of the show on “Herbivores, a source of solutions!” The main conclusion drawn was that being responsible for a high proportion of greenhouse gases, breeders must rise to the challenge of climate change but also grasp the opportunities.

Another problem that was discussed is food and feed sovereignty. Indeed, the pandemic crisis followed by the war in Ukraine have shown how dependent the French agriculture has become on imports (feed, energy, etc).

The French minister added that the war in Ukraine is “showing us how food can be weaponised” and therefore, how important it is to keep and improve our sovereignty.

“Even if animal farming must evolve and improve regarding climate issues, there is no future for agriculture without animals. It is a part of our food sovereignty structuring our regions and countryside and a source of employment,” he adds.

Innov’Space Awards: 36 Starstruck companies

On the Tuesday evening, the exhibitor’s party took place where the Innov’Space Awards were given. 36 exhibitors out of the 103 initial applications examined had between one and three starts distributed by the jury. These new tools or services assist farmers to improve their working conditions and are a veritable showcase of innovation.

Indeed, one in four French visitors and four in ten international visitors head for the winners’ stand. The jury is made of 50 members from the Agricultural chambers, technical institutes, INRAE (Intitut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - National Institute of Reasearch for Agriculture, Food and Environment), INPI (Institut National de la Propriété Intellectuel - National Institute for Industrial Property), ANSES (Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire de l’AlimentationNational Agency of Food Safety), GDS, veterinaries, farmers and specialised journalists.

This year was also the 25th anniversary of the award and for this occasion selected the 100 most impactful innovations.

French favourite unveils 36th edition with a new more aquaculture focused offering by Antoine Tungay, International Aquafeed magazine, France
58 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed



Around 1200 exhibitors came to the SPACE to display their products and services in 10 different halls plus an outdoor space. 22 countries were represented including the United States, India, China, Singapore, Germany, the United Kingdom and Denmark.

Every two years, feed equipment manufacturers are represented at the SPACE. Among them Bühler, Amandus Kahl, CPM Europe, Ferotec, Sabe, Morillon and La Meccanica. Feed producers and nutrition companies such as AB Vista, Adisseo, Evonik, Danisco, DSM, Nor-Feed, Mixscience, Phileo by Lesaffre, Foss, Cargill were also here like every year.


Every day, around 30 conferences took place with wide topics from the climate change and how livestock farming is improving in order to face the current challenges to the impacts of the war in Ukraine for the French agriculture and supply of feed and energy.

During a panel presentation, a

representative from l’Institut de l’Élevage (Livestock Farming Institute) underlined “the importance of communicating and defending agriculture - and livestock farming - as it is necessary and beneficial for all people but also how innovative the sector has been in order to reduce impact on the environment.”

The speaker also mentions that the use of water and the polemics that raised in France during the warm and dry summer. Indeed, a lot of restrictions have taken place during the summer and, once again, the public pointed fingers at the agricultural sector and its use of water, adding that “water is necessary to live, and transforming water into feed and food is not a waste or wrong use of the water when compared to swimming pools.”

Indeed, France is the second country, after the United States, in number of private swimming pools. “With climate change and the increasing rareness of water, we need to have a proper discussion and national strategy on the use of water,” she adds.

Despite these big challenges that the french sector is facing, she concludes by saying that she is “optimistic for the future as France has unique resources in terms of lands, climate, soil and technology”.

General atmosphere/attendance

Over the three days of the show, SPACE gathered over 90,000 visitors (of whom 8400 came from 120 different countries) and close to 1200 exhibitors (of which 300 were international and 250 taking part in SPACE for the first time).

After the pandemic and two years during which travel by visitors from abroad was heavily restricted, those in attendance felt that the event recovered its full international dimension and glory.

Delegations from around the world came to meet exhibitors, visit farms and draw inspiration from their organisational models. Despite a difficult context both nationally and internationally, these three days have proved that with constructive dialogue and high attendance we can find solutions and have a positive outcome.

Indeed, SPACE is an exceptional showcase for the livestock industry, a modern, constantly evolving industry with bright future. The show was full of positive energy and optimism to inspire confidence in farmers’ determination to carry out their jobs and ensure food sovereignty.

The next edition will take from Tuesday 12 to Thursday 14 September 2023 at the same venue, the Rennes Exhibition Centre.

Industry Events
International Aquafeed - October 2022 | 59



Air products



SAS Laboratories Phode +33 5 63 77 80 60 www.phode.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1644

R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1645

Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1610

Founded in Washington, MO, in 1982, Romer Labs have over the years become a leading provider of diagnostic solutions for the agricultural, food and feed industry.

Today, Romer Labs offers a broad range of innovative diagnostic solutions covering mycotoxins, food pathogens, food allergens, gluten, GMO, veterinary drug residues, and other food contaminants.

Furthermore, they operate four accredited, fullservice laboratories in Austria, UK, US and Singapore. Using cutting-edge technology in the fields of chromatography and immunological analysis, their labs offer services for the analysis of mycotoxins, food allergens, meat speciation, VDR and GMO.

Romer Labs is at the forefront of diagnostic technology and are constantly expanding their product and service portfolio to meet your continuously evolving demands.

The key objective at Romer Labs is to provide scientifically sound, high-quality products and an exceptional service, in line with their mission –Making the World’s Food Safer®

Amino acids

618 1596785


Bulk storage



Colour sorters

Computer software

Faivre + 33 3idah 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr PROFILE:
Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1035
Dibaq +34 921 574 286 https://dibaqacuicultura.es PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1604 DSM +43 2782 8030 www.dsm.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1605 Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1606 Jefo +1 450 799 2000 https://jefo.ca PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1607 Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1608 ORFFA +32 479 50 09 08 https://orffa.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1278 Phibro +972 4 629 1833 www.phibro-aqua.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1609
Evonik +49
www.evonik.com PROFILE:
Silo Construction & Engineering +32 51723128 www.sce.be PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1611 Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com aqfeed.info/e/1646 Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com aqfeed.info/e/1647
Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1612
Cablevey Conveyors +1 641 673 8451 https://cablevey.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1613 Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com aqfeed.info/e/1648
Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1614 Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com
Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1277 60 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) aquafeed.co.uk/web/companies

Coolers & driers

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1614

Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com aqfeed.info/e/1650

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1034

FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com aqfeed.info/e/1652

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1615

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1616

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1617

Drum filters

Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1603

Elevator buckets

Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com aqfeed.info/e/1653

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com aqfeed.info/e/1654

Elevator & conveyor components

4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com aqfeed.info/e/1655


DSM +43 2782 8030 www.dsm.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1605

Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1606

Equipment for sale

ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1618

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1615

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1621

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1616

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1617

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1623

Feed and ingredients

Adisseo +33 1 46 747104 www.adisseo.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1624

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/961

Alltech +44 1780 764512 www.alltechcoppens.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1625

Anpario +44 1909 537 380 www.anpario.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1626

Anpario plc is an independent, international manufacturer and distributor of natural feed additives for aquaculture health, nutrition and biosecurity. Our specialist feed technologies are both innovative and tailored to meet the ever increasing population requirements for healthy food.

Anpario’s feed additives are sold in over 80 countries through established sales and distribution networks, which includes a number of wholly owned subsidiaries in key markets around the world. We have over 30 years expertise within agriculture and aquaculture sectors, working with key research institutes and universities across the world in both the development and evaluation our innovative cutting-edge products.

Anpario’s product portfolio of innovative solutions work in harmony with the natural aspects of both the animal’s biology and environment, creating responsible solutions to sustainably optimise health, growth and profitability.

Our mission is to add value throughout the lives of animals so we can help our customers achieve optimum animal performance, with proven return on investment, boosting profitability in today’s modern aquaculture production systems. Our technologies are developed, produced and dispatched directly from our pioneering quality assured manufacturing plant in the UK.

Feed Mill

Biorigin www.biorigin.net PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1627

GePro +49 54415 925252 www.ge-pro.de aqfeed.info/e/1656

Grupo Dibaq +34 921 574 286 www.dibaqacuicultura.es

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1604

Grand Fish Feed +202 20 650018 www.grand-aqua.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1628 Liptosa +34 902 15 77 11 www.liptoaqua.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1608

Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1629

Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1620

TekPro +44 1692 403403 www.tekpro.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1631 Van Aarsen International +31 475 579 444 www.aarsen.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1632

Fish counters

Fish Graders


Fish Stunning



Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1279

Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1619 Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1614

Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1620


Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1603
Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1603 Fish
Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1603
Ace Aquatec + 44 7808 930923 www. aceaquatec.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/764
Grand Fish Feed +202 20 650018 www.grand-aqua.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1628
Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1633 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1617 Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com aqfeed.info/e/1657 61 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed
3-5 OCTOBER 2023 NEW! SÃO PAULO BRAZIL LATIN AMERICA’S LARGEST DEDICATED EVENT FOR THE ANIMAL FEED AND GRAIN PROCESSING INDUSTRIES • Animal Feed • Agua Feed • Pet food • Poultry feed • Flour milling • Grain processing, handling & storage MORE INFORMATION � NICKMOUTHAAN@VICTAM.COM � +31 6 2126 4398 � WWW.VICTAMLATAM.COM MORE INFORMATION Scan the QR code or visit victamlatam.com FOUNDING COMPANIES

Moisture analysers

Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1634


FAWEMA / The Packaging Group +49 22 63 716 0 www.fawema.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1635

Paddle Mixer

Anderson www.andersonfeedtech.com aqfeed.info/e/1658

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1615

Pellet mill

Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1620

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1615

PTN +31 73 54 984 72 www.ptn.nl

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1636


Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1619

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1614

Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1620

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1633

FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1034

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1621

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1617

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com aqfeed.info/e/1657

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1623

Predator Defence

Ace Aquatec + 44 7808 930923

www. aceaquatec.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/764


DSM +43 2782 8030


PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1605

Royal DSM is a global, purpose-led company in Health, Nutrition & Bioscience, applying science to improve the health of people, animals and the planet. DSM’s purpose is to create brighter lives for all. DSM’s products and solutions address some of the world’s biggest challenges while simultaneously creating economic, environmental and societal value for all its stakeholders - customers, employees, shareholders, and society at large. DSM and its associated companies employ approximately 23,000 people around the world and deliver annual net sales of about €10 billion.

DSM use their bright science to deliver positive transformations at scale for as many people as possible today and for generations to come, operating within the constraints of the world’s finite resources. DSM aim to redefine how they live and work in order to create a fairer, more prosperous and more sustainable society.

The DSM Animal Nutrition and Health business group offers customers a true end-to-end portfolio of products, solutions and services for sustainable and profitable animal farming. The company’s three dedicated business lines cover Precision Services, Performance Solutions + Biomin® and Essential Products.

Greater precision in animal farming is key to a more sustainable and profitable future. Their Precision Services use the latest data analytics and diagnostics to improve animal health, lifetime performance, resource use and environmental footprint — while mitigating risks and unlocking more value. Improving the sustainability and profitability of animal farming is secured with Their broad portfolio delivers the level of functional nutrition needed for the industry to meet the challenges of sustainability, animal welfare and feed quality.

Essential nutrition is fundamental to healthy, sustainable animal protein. Their Essential Products provide vital nutrients for an animal’s healthy growth and development — delivered to the customer in the most flexible, tailored way.

As a purpose-led company, for years, DSM has supplied science-based products, services and ground-breaking innovation fundamental to the health, well-being and sustainability of farm animals. With growing demand for sustainable animal protein that is safe, nutritious and affordable, DSM helps the industry transition to a more sustainable future to meet this complex challenge.




IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1615

RAS Equipment

RAS system



Weighing equipment


Delacon +43 732 640 531 414 www.delacon.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1637
Fish Farm Feeder +34 886 317 600 www.fishfarmfeeder.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1638
Aqua Ultraviolet +1 952 296 3480 www.aquauv.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1639
FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1034 TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1612
Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1633 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1617
Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1621 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1617 Yeast
Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 www.leibergmbh.de PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1640 Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1629 For more information about our market place - please view or download our 2023 media kit https://aqfeed.info/e/1529 63 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

the interview

Nikos Papaioannou, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Irida SA, Greece

Nikos Papaioannou was born and raised in Greece, a country with more than 15,000km of coastline and sat amongst 3000 islands. When he was in high school, he was already being introduced to the amazing world of aquaculture and learnt that tourism and shipping are not the only ways of making good use of this unique natural resource – the sea.

Without second thoughts he knew that his future lay in the fast-emerging aquaculture industry. He studied Animal Science at the Agricultural University of Athens followed by postgraduate work at the Institute of Aquaculture of Stirling University in Scotland. Coming back to Greece, he was employed by KEGO SA a fast growing and pioneering company focusing on feed nutrition and fish feed manufacturing but involved and investing money and resources in more than that.

As an example, they established together with Akvaforsk Genetics Center, Norway the first family-based breeding selection program internationally, targeted specifically at bass and bream.

At KEGO, he met who proved to be the most important persons in his professional life, his three mentors Apostolis Kefalas, Sotiris Papasolomontos and Christos Gogorosis. They inspired him to learn in depth more about feed nutrition and fish feed production and perhaps more importantly, total respect for the values of business integrity, innovation, and excellence.

International Aquafeed magazine met with Mr Papaioannou recently to discuss the emerging trends ingredient trends in our industry, its role in supplying a reliable source of protein as the world’s population continues to grow and any possible constraints that it may encounter as it strives to overcome what he describes as being “a profound change in global food production.”

How long has it taken IRIDA to develop to the aquafeed production capacity that it is capable of today?

In 2008, together with Christos Gogorosis we established IRIDA S.A. and in the next years his sons Apostolis and Michalis joined us making a strong and effective management team.

Today, at IRIDA we employ more than 100 people, thus supporting the local communities surrounding our factories, while we produce and sell more than 100,000 tons of fish feed per year, serving the local market but also exporting to other Mediterranean countries and beyond.

Our state-of-the-art facilities with two factories and four distinct and separate production lines, enable us to produce with precision and at scale. Our size, coupled with our customer focus and attention to their specific needs, allow us to be agile and always competitive in what we now consider to be our home market, that is the whole of the Mediterranean.

Which are the areas that IRIDA focuses on and invests in?

The development, nutrient specification, and production of all our feeds is based on the in-depth experience and knowledge of our nutritional team strengthened by its close links to our customer base and deep understanding of their needs. We continually improve by growing our team of scientists and professionals who add know-how and value.

We continually invest in our people while also investing heavily in our manufacturing process with state-of-the-art engineering technology, that we believe differentiates us from local and global competition.

Specifically, our Research and Development and IT departments receive significant support and are key players in the investment strategy of IRIDA.

What is ‘Aquatic Biologicals’ and why has IRIDA invested in them?

We always seek to offer ‘end-to-end’ solutions to our aquaculture partners, that work well both for them and the environment. To this end, in 2021, we invested in Aquatic Biologicals, a spin-off company of the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, becoming the majority shareholders.

Aquatic Biologicals is a Marine Biotechnology Company

devoted to the prevention of fish diseases in aquaculture. Led by a team of fish researchers and animal health scientists, Aquatic Biologicals has invested heavily in the design and production of autogenous vaccines and provides diagnostic services in aquaculture.

We have initiated together a project to construct a GMP+ certified laboratory facility, the first in Greece, dedicated to the production of customized autogenous vaccines for Mediterranean fish species.

What are the future constrains in meeting the demands for aquafeed in your region?

We are facing a profound change in global food production, where we must harvest and produce more food, but do so in a more sustainable way to meet the needs of a rapidly growing world population and their expectations. The major future constrains relate to the environment and the raw material availability and sustainability.

It is obvious that our sectors’ priorities should lie in embracing fully the principles of sustainability while facing future challenges with due consideration of economic, environmental, and societal needs and demands.

IRIDA is the largest producer of aquafeeds for organic production in the Mediterranean and is certified by Naturland and Bio-Hellas. It is also in close contact with ASC and our resources are devoted to ensuring we will be ready the soonest to be certified for the new aqua-feed standards.

We understand IRIDA is using krill as a source of protein. Is this a viable alternative raw material in fish feed production, is it sustainable?

To meet the nutritional requirements of fish safely and in full, we always give high priority to the quality and sustainability of the raw materials we select and use. One of these is Antarctic Krill Meal from Aker BioMarine.

This top-quality krill meal acts as a feeding stimulant that increases feed uptake and enhances growth in marine fish species. Additionally, it has been proven to strengthen the health and improve survival rates at the larval and juvenile stage. Among all the benefits of krill inclusion in feed, one of the most important, particularly in the current market, is its low environmental impact.

64 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed

Will aquaculture continue to play a significant role in meeting a growing population’s demand for protein in the future?

Aquaculture already makes a significant contribution to world food supply and security. At the global level it helps fill the gap between the rising demands for fishery products and the limited increases in capture fisheries production. Aquaculture is the fastest growing foodproducing sector in the world.

Fish have a highly desirable nutrient profile providing an excellent source of highquality animal protein that is easily digestible and of high biological value. Marine fish are one of the best converters of feed to human food.

The challenge is to secure the growth and development of the aquaculture sector in a sustainable way with deep respect for society at large and our home, planet Earth.

International Aquafeed - October 2022 | 65


Aker BioMarine strengthens sales team with new talent

Following the successful recruitment of two new ‘talents’ for its Norway-based team, Aker BioMarine is enhancing its Qrill™ Aqua sales organisation.

The supply of sustainable and nutritious ingredients for fish feed is essential for further growth of the Norwegian salmon industry. Aker BioMarine strongly believes that QRILL Aqua can be part of the solution.

Therefore, the company has decided to establish a team that will work closely with the fish farming industry in order to find tailor made solutions for each customer. The team will be led by Maja Bævre-Jensen who takes the role as Business Development Director, and Karen Kirstine Østerhus is appointed as Business Development Manager.

Maja Bævre-Jensen has spent the past five years of her career working with the Norwegian Seafood Research Fund. With two decades of aquaculture experience, she has spent her career exploring new solutions for both Norwegian and global fish farming. Ms Bævre-Jensen holds a master's degree in Aqua Medicine from the Norwegian Arctic University, with a specialisation in sea lice.

Karen Kirstine Østerhus previously worked at STIM, where she gained experience with bacteriophages, feed and other fish health-related products. In her most recent role, she focused on fish ready to be harvested and collaborated with farmers throughout Norway.

Ms Østerhus holds a bachelor's degree in Aquaculture Management from Nord University and is halfway through a master's degree in Sustainable Aquaculture from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).

Burges Salmon appoints new senior technology and data specialist

Having previously worked at Burges Salmon, Martin Cuell is re-joining a firm he knows well. His return to Burges Salmon is being described by the company as testament to the firm's rapidly growing Technology practice and positive and collaborative culture. Earlier this year, Burges Salmon was named the RollOnFriday 'Best Law Firm to Work at 2022' – a unique award based on the views of the firm's people.

“Technology is a significant focus for our firm, and an important growth area both for us and our clients, so we are excited to welcome a lawyer of Martin's calibre back to Burges Salmon,” says Martin Cook, a technology and fintech partner at Burges Salmon.

“Martin has spent many years working on a wide range of significant technology projects for a diverse client base, so he has a genuine understanding of the issues that clients and in-house teams face both on a daily basis and on major programmes of work.”

Ace Aquatec accelerates global growth with latest appointment

Award-winning aquaculture technology specialists, Ace Aquatec, announces the appointment of Costa Skotidas to the role of Sales & Partnerships Manager, to spearhead its EMEA (Europe, the Middle East and Africa) operations.

Following recent growth in countries including Greece and Denmark, Mr Skotidas will be responsible for overseeing the firm's expansion into further European markets as well as the introduction into the Middle East and Africa.

With over 15 years of experience in the aquaculture and technology industry, Mr Skotidas brings a wealth of experience to Ace Aquatec, having previously worked as EMEA Advertising Account Manager for IntraFish.

As part of his new role, Mr Skotidas will be developing and executing all EMEA strategic sales plans which include identifying potential new clients within Europe, the Middle East and Africa as well as expand the company's current client base.

Aker BioMarine sets its sights on growth in Indonesia by strengthening local team

As the company continues to make headway in Indonesia, aquaculture expert and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Bawanta Widya Suta, joins Aker BioMarine as Aquaculture Sales Manager in the Animal Health and Nutrition department. Mr Widya Suta will be charged to lead Aker BioMarine's growth journey in Indonesia, a market that the company describes as being of key strategic importance.

Mr Widya Suta comes to Aker BioMarine from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), where he focused on farmer training and biosecurity. In addition, he has previously served in leadership and managerial roles in PT MJPF Farma Indonesia, Biowistechnologies Inc and Cargill Aqua Nutrition. He holds a doctorate degree in Veterinary Medicine from Bogor Agriculture University in Indonesia.

66 | October 2022 - International Aquafeed
Official Website Facebook ZhengChang Group : No.28 Zhengchang Road, Kunlun Development Zone, Liyang, Jiangsu, China : +86 21-6418 4200 Fax : +86 21-6416 3299 : International@zhengchang.com : www.zhengchang.com/eng Address Telephone E-mail Website Vertical Vacuum Spraying Machine SZPL Series Remark: Optional Powder Spray System Optional CIP (Clean In Place) Particle Diameter Model 1~30mm SZPL 2000,3000,5000 Liquid Addition Spray Uniformity Residual rate 1~36% Cv≤7% ≤0.5% Batch Working Time 5~7min Maximum Vacuum Vacuum Retention 40mbar ≤100mbar/5min
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