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one or two percent there were reductions to both B- and R-cells, wider interstitial spaces as well as some instances hypertrophic B-cells and necrotic tissue within the tubules (Figure 3C & D). Such patterns and variations in the hepatopancreas of prawns fed with one and two percent FOS might have been due to oxidative stress which affecting the normal hepatopancreatic integrity of M. rosenbergii, but further research is needed.


Based on the findings of this study, dietary supplementation of prebiotic FOS at 0.4 percent significantly improved the growth performance, SCFAs production and hepatopancreatic condition of the prawns. Therefore, it can be recommended as a dietary supplement in this prawn aquaculture industry. Higher inclusion levels of one and two percent dietary FOS appears to be excessive as it led to oxidative stress and abnormal hepatopancreas structure. Further study is needed to fully understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this finding in M. rosenbergii fed dietary FOS to include potential changes to the bacterial composition/amount, digestive enzyme activity as well as immunological response. Note from the author: I would like to specially acknowledge my supervisor Dr. Natrah Fatin Mohd Ikhsan and co-supervisor Dr. Nicholas Romano for their invaluable supervision and guidance in my research study in Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Double Shaft Paddle Mixers (DPMA) The Wynveen double shaft paddle mixers, realizes high mixing capacity with a relative small mixer content. The mixer has a mixing time, depending on the product type and quantity, from 30 to 60 seconds. Features • Capacities available from 500 to 20.000 liters • Mixing accuracy of 1:100.000/C.V. < 5% • Short mixing time of approximately 30-60 seconds • Minimum filling degree will be 25% of the nominal content • Extra wide bomb doors. International Aquafeed - November 2017 | 39

NOV 2017 - International Aquafeed magazine