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The Role of Security in Smart Cities

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Ezi Security designs, manufactures and installs a premium range of electronic perimeter security products designed for both vehicle and pedestrian control. These consisting of a wide range of security products suitable for low to high-risk applications. Ezi Security Systems has been manufacturing quality security products for over twenty-one years with equipment is installed in some of the very harshest of environments the planet has to offer. And all with outstanding results. While Ezi has a commitment to innovative design and quality products we also fully understand the importance of easy and efficient after sales service. Ezi Security Systems services and maintain the products we sell to ensure that your critical infrastructure and personnel are protected at all times. “ALL EZI SECURITY SYSTEM PRODUCTS ARE BUILT TO LAST A RELIABLE THIRTY YEAR (PLUS) PRODUCT LIFE SPAN WHEN MAINTAINED”

Ezi Security Systems has the most extensive offering of Hostile vehicle barrier products (HVB’s) and has the expertise to design and secure any critical infrastructure or site of national importance. Ezi has an extensive range AVB and HVB Crash Certified products such as the world famous TruckStopper, the renowned K12 Wedge, crash boom beams and crash rated static and automatic bollards. Ezi Security Systems has all the realistic solutions to meet your high security requirements while maintaining an aesthetically pleasing solution for your site. All Ezi Security System AVB & HVB have been vigorously crash tested and certified to meet all ASTM, IWA and PAS 68 stipulations. Ezi Security and its partners continue to the push boundaries on all crash products with our in-house R&D security experts providing market leading products designs. This specialist ability also involves our renowned installation expertise and advice with the all important civil work design & engineering. Ezi Security believes in pushing design frontiers for its products to keep pace with marketplace and security priorities. This year alone Ezi and PPG have successfully worked with CTS and crash tested to Pas 68 in 2015 the following products:

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COVER STORY THE ROLE OF SECURITY IN SMART CITIES From building automation to traffic management, emergency response and combating terrorism, technology is playing a greater and greater role in our everyday lives. What might the future look like when we begin to bring together all these disparate systems to create the kinds of cities that can not only more effectively manage the growing populations within our metropolitan centres, but also help to keep people safe and assist law enforcement and security to be more effective? Furthermore, who exactly might be responsible for overseeing, managing and maintaining all these systems. What might the role of security be in smart cities of the future?


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NOT WELCOME Every day, someone in Australia is refused entry or challenged by security because they have a guide dog. This not only humiliates the person in question but also impinges on that person’s civil liberties. Know the laws about guide dogs and avoid embarrassing and potentially costly incidents for your security team.


ISLAMIC STATE ROUTES OUT OF AFRICA Most nations are focusing on the near-threat of home grown terrorism; however, there still remains the threat from those overseas – the threat from afar. Is there the potential for trained fighters to enter Australia through the exploitation of refugee routes out of North Africa?


THE FUTURE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN SECURITY In the second of our four part special on Human Resource resilience, Greg Byrne looks at the need for organisations to develop a resilient chief human resource officer (CHRO) manager and why this role is essential if the Australian security industry is to keep pace with competition and globalisation.


WHAT GETS MEASURED GETS DONE Jason Brown, National Security Director for Thales, looks at the importance of establishing metrics for physical security programs. How do you determine which metrics are worth measuring?




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022. SECURITY BYTES Funny stories, tips, tricks, trivia and news from the security industry.


It should be called ‘What not to do to end up in this section’, but alas, we find a special home for those who are met with odd criminal situations and a lack of intellect.

074. LOSS PREVENTION How can you minimise five finger discounts in the busy pre-Christmas period?

082. AVIATION SECURITY Steve Lawson looks at the vulnerability of commercial aircraft to ground based attacks.

084. LEGAL Q&A How much do you know about terrorism-related offences and laws?

026. EVENTS CALENDAR A look at upcoming industry events. 030.

INDUSTRY NEWS All the latest from the industry.


MLA REGULAR All the latest from the industry.

040. ALARMS IT infrastructure supporting your critical security systems might be secure, but what about those of your trusted partners?


ACCESS CONTROL Your access control is only as effective as the

people using it. How can you create an effective security culture?


SPECIAL FEATURE We look at some of the challenges of

protecting your data when travelling overseas.

094. EMERGENCY RESPONSE Not all risks to security personnel are physical. How can you manage physiological risk to your security staff?

044. OPERATIONS Richard Kay looks at the impact training has on an officer’s ability to effectively carry out his or her role.

048. CCTV Senior Security Consultant Rachell DeLuca looks at the possible future uses of video analytics in CCTV.

054. BUSINESS BEYOND Moira Jenkins looks at some strategies for managing workplace conflict.

066. JUST LAW Anna Richards looks at Control Order in relation to potential terrorist attacks.



HOMELAND SECURITY We look at new research around the

cost of privacy breaches to organisations and their impact on brand and reputation.



108. PROFILES 112.


118. SHOPTALK Company announcements from within the industry.

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Editorial Editor: John Bigelow Sub-Editing: Helen Sist, Ged McMahon

Contributors: Peter Johnson, Rachel Deluca, Emanuel Stafilidis, Richard Kay, Moira Jenkins, Anna Richards, Anooshe Mustaq, Gerard May, Greg Byrne, Steve Lawson, Craig Millar, Graeme Cunyingham, Greg Barnes, Dave Burroughs, Jason Brown.

Advertising Phone: 1300 300 552 Publication Co-Ordinator: Stan Asenberger

Marketing & Subscriptions $62.00 AUD inside Aust. (6 Issues) $124.00 AUD outside Aust. (6 Issues)

Design & Production Graphic Design: Jamieson Gross Phone: 1300 300 552

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Interactive Media Solutions ABN 56 606 919 463 Level 1, 34 Joseph St, Blackburn, Victoria 3130 Phone: 1300 300 552 Email: Disclaimer The publisher takes due care in the preparation of this magazine and takes all reasonable precautions and makes all reasonable effort to ensure the accuracy of material contained in this publication, but is not liable for any mistake, misprint or omission. The publisher does not assume any responsibility or liability for any loss or damage which may result from any inaccuracy or omission in this publication, or from the use of information contained herein. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied with respect to any of the material contained herein. The contents of this magazine may not be reproduced in ANY form in whole OR in part without WRITTEN permission from the publisher. Reproduction includes copying, photocopying, translation or reduced to any electronic medium or machine-readable form.




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COPY/ARTWORK/TYPESETTING APPROVAL Please proof read carefully ALL of this copy/artwork/typesetting material BEFORE signing your approval to print. Please pay special attention to spelling, punctuation, dates, times, telephone numbers, addresses etc, as well as layout.It is your responsibility to bring to our attention any corrections. Minuteman Press assumes no responsibility for errors after a proof has been authorised to print and print re-runs will be at your cost. Signed.................................................................. Date........................



LETTER FROM THE EDITOR In the wake of terrible events like the recent terror attacks in France, it is so easy as a so-called security expert and media commentator to fall into the trap of playing armchair expert – second guessing the work of intelligence agencies and professing to have all the answers. The reality is, we do not have all the answers. (I certainly do not.) In fact, it is arguable as to whether or not the West even has a strategy for dealing with groups like ISIL, ISIS, Daesh… or whatever you wish to call them this week. I do not say this as a criticism, I simply wish to state a point of view. Terrorism is a major issue for the security community. Over the last 15 years, it has evolved from something that happens on TV to people in other countries to something that happens with frightening regularity in the West and which hangs over Australia’s collective head like the Sword of Damocles. What to do? Well, we know that we need to cut off the funding to terrorist organisations to make it more difficult for them to operate, but Austrack is already doing everything within its power to track, prevent and stop what it can. In reality, this is something that needs to happen in the oil-producing nations of the East where the real money is coming from. There really is not a lot a nation like Australia can do outside of Australia. We could work with countries like America and the UK to put boots on the ground with a view to containing, degrading and destroying ISIS but, America appears to be more interested in effecting regime change than actually putting an end to ISIS, and we all know how well regime change has worked in the past. (Have you ever wondered what the Middle East might look like if Saddam Hussein was still around – as evil as he was?) The problem with putting troops on the ground is that it will only result in more civilian deaths and a stronger belief amongst the communities of the Middle East that they have once again been invaded by the evil Western infidels, thus reinforcing the rhetoric of groups like Al Qaeda and ISIS and fuelling hatred of the West. If troops are to be deployed, much in the same way as if the funding is to be stopped, it is an action that needs to be taken by nations of the Middle East like Saudi Arabia so that it can be seen as the Middle East policing itself and not the West invading, again. So then, what are we left with? Well, we could work towards creating a more inclusive community where people of Middle Eastern background and Islamic faith are embraced and made to feel welcome. We could remember that we cannot judge an entire race or religion by the actions of a few misguided and angry fanatics. That would be a good place to start. What does that have to do with the security industry and security professionals you might ask? Simple; when it comes to matters such as terrorism, the community, the senior executives and staff in the organisation for whom you work and the media all look to the security industry and security ‘experts’ for insight, advice and guidance. So, if as an industry we change our paradigm and rhetoric away from bombing countries and deploying troops (something we have no control over) and start talking about the things we can do, the things that might actually make a difference – like talking down the hate, promoting acceptance, highlighting that the actions of a few should not be seen as a measure of the many. Then, perhaps, we can begin to effect some real change – possibly. One of the major challenges that the West, and as part of that, Australia, faces with regard to combating the growing threat from terrorism is that there is not really an effective, all-encompassing strategy in place to deal with it. On the other side of the equation, groups like ISIS have a very clear and effective strategy, which includes creating division, hate and dissent with a view to polarising the community and creating an ‘Islam versus the world’ mentality. I cannot begin to imagine the anger, loss and grief that the people of France must be feeling, but to let hate become our focus is to let terrorism win. But that is just my opinion.

John Bigelow Editor





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Glowing Fingerprints To Fight Crime A Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) scientist who had his home broken into has developed a new crime scene identification technique to help fingerprint criminals. By adding a drop of liquid containing crystals to surfaces, investigators using an ultraviolet light are able to see invisible fingerprints ‘glow’ in about 30 seconds. The strong luminescent effect creates greater contrast between the latent print and surface, enabling higher resolution images to be taken for easier and more precise analyses. CSIRO materials scientist Dr Kang Liang believes that this technique could be used for more challenging evidence where conventional ‘dusting’ is not appropriate. “While police and forensics experts use a range of different techniques, sometimes in complex cases evidence needs to be sent off to a lab where heat and vacuum treatment is applied,” Dr Liang said. “Our method reduces


these steps and, because it is done on the spot, a digital device could be used at the scene to capture images of the glowing prints to run through the database in real time.” CSIRO’s study shows that tiny crystals rapidly bind to fingerprint residue, including proteins, peptides, fatty acids and salts, creating an ultra-thin coating that is an exact replica of the pattern. “Because it works at a molecular level, it is very precise and lowers the risk of damaging the print,” Dr Liang said. CSIRO tested the method on non-porous surfaces, including window and wine glass, metal blades and plastic light switches, with successful results. Fingerprint identification has been used as a key method by law enforcement and forensic experts for over 100 years. Adding CSIRO’s method to the mix could save valuable time, costs and enhance investigations. “When my house was broken into I saw how common practice fingerprinting is for police,”

Dr Liang said. “Knowing that dusting has been around for a long time, I was inspired to see how new innovative materials could be applied to create even better results. As far as we know, it is the first time that these extremely porous metal organic framework (MOF) crystals have been researched for forensics.” MOF crystals have a number of benefits in that they are cheap, react quickly and can emit a bright light. The technique does not create any dust or fumes, reducing waste and risk of inhalation. The method could have other valuable applications, including new biomedical devices and drug delivery. CSIRO is now looking to partner with law enforcement agencies to apply the technique. The full research paper can be accessed from Advanced Materials (http:// SSN%291521-4095).

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Over the past few months, the Australian Security Industry Association Limited (ASIAL) has been conducting research into the security mindset of Australian householders through its free online Home Security Challenge. To date, almost 1,100 householders have taken the Challenge, revealing some interesting insights into the security behaviour of Australians. Using this data, ASIAL has identified some disturbingly common security risks. Did You Know That… Almost 70 percent of Australian householders leave valuables lying around the home. ASIAL CEO Bryan de Caires suggests people should, “Protect cash, jewellery, important documents and more, by investing in a home security safe – preferably one that can be secured or concealed, and is fire and flood resistant.” Did You Know That… Almost 60 percent of participants indicated that they do not have a home alarm system. Alarms with visible external sirens can act as a great deterrent and, when connected to a monitoring centre, can provide peace of mind and a prompt response when you are out or away on holiday. Having an alarm can also reduce insurance premiums.


Did You Know That… More than 35 percent of Australian householders say they would not know if someone was approaching their home at night unless they knocked on the door, which burglars are unlikely to do. Bryan de Caires urges householders to install sensor lights as an affordable security measure that can help to deter burglars and alert you to the fact that someone is approaching your home. Did You Know That… Almost 30 percent of Home Security Challenge participants believe it is okay to leave the front door unlocked! Bryan de Caires states, “Whether you are just popping around to see a neighbour or picking up some milk from the local shops, it is important to secure your property. With Christmas just around the corner, burglars do not need an invitation to steal your presents and valuables. An open door or window is just the thing an opportunist burglar is looking for.” Did You Know That… More than 20 percent of Australian householders leave a spare set of keys hidden outside the house. It is much safer to leave a set with a trusted friend or family member. Another option is to look at investing in a keyless entry locking system.

Bryan de Caires said Australian householders appear to have become increasingly savvy about the home security implications when using social media. “Only two percent of Home Security Challenge participants said they would send out an open online invitation to a party, with more than 85 percent opting to personally invite a small group of close friends and around 12 percent registering their parties with the police.” “When going away on holiday, around 80 percent said they only tell close relatives and friends. For the other 20 percent who let people know they are on holiday by posting happy snaps on social media, we would suggest holding off until you are home – then post an entire album. But if you cannot wait, check your privacy settings and make sure you are only sharing your location with trusted family and friends.” The free and anonymous Home Security Challenge is available by visiting




As A Matter Of Fact…

The Law Is An Ass...

We have all heard of and often use or pay for Search Engine Optimisation (SEO). However, how many people have ever heard of black hat SEO? In SEO terminology, black hat SEO refers to the use of aggressive SEO strategies, techniques and tactics that focus only on search engines and not a human audience, and it usually does not obey search engine guidelines. Some examples of black hat SEO techniques include keyword stuffing (the act of overloading keywords onto a web page so that search engines will read the page as being relevant in a web search), invisible text, doorway pages (a page designed to capture the attention of a search engine’s spider by containing keywords and phrases that the spider will pick up on), adding unrelated keywords to the page content and page swapping (changing the webpage entirely after it has been ranked by search engines). Black hat SEO is more frequently used by those who are looking for a quick financial return on their website rather than a long-term investment. Black hat SEO can possibly result in a website being banned from a search engine. However, since the focus is usually on quick, high-return business models, most experts who use black hat SEO tactics consider being banned from search engines a somewhat irrelevant risk.

Switzerland is known across the globe as a somewhat lenient nation when it comes to laws – they have legalised euthanasia and heroin shooting galleries, and alcohol purchase and consumption is legal from the age of 16 (beer and wine only, though this is not heavily enforced). Although the Swiss boys in blue may be somewhat lax in enforcing rules and regulations, it is no wonder given some of the laws they are expected to uphold. In Switzerland, it appears that Sunday is the agreed day of rest, with many laws forbidding citizens to do their chores on this day. For example, clothes may not be hung to dry on Sundays; cars may not be washed on Sundays; and it is considered an offence to mow the lawn on Sundays, as it causes too much noise. Also in Switzerland, it is required that every car


with snow tyres has a sticker on its dashboard to remind the driver of the vehicle that they should not be driving faster than 160km/hr. What? 160km/hr?

Commonly Speaking... When it comes to CCTV, artifacts have very little to do with the traditional definition of archaeological objects. Artifacts are actually undesirable elements or defects in a video picture. These often occur naturally in the video process, and must be eliminated in order to achieve a highquality picture. The most common artifacts are cross-colour and cross-luminance. Another CCTV term, back porch, does not refer to your back verandah – the term back porch means two things when used in reference to CCTV: The portion of a video signal that occurs during blanking from the end of horizontal sync to the beginning of active video. The blanking signal portion that is between the trailing edge of a horizontal sync pulse and the trailing edge of the corresponding blanking pulse. Colour burst is located on the back porch.





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CRIMINAL ODDITY We live in a world that is full of war, crime and despair. Be that as it may, it is good to focus on the ridiculous and hilarious in life sometimes. That is why it is great to look on the bright side of life… and read stories about really dumb criminals. It will help you learn to laugh about your own misfortunes.

If being dumb was an Olympic sport, then these people would be gold medallists. Take, for example, 53-year-old David Weber of Miami Beach. After breaking into and stealing from a parked car, he proceeded to attempt to purchase beer from a local bar. Weber ran into trouble, however, when he handed a stolen credit card to the bartender, who noticed he had just been handed his own credit card. According to reports, the bartender called Miami Beach police, whereupon Weber was charged with credit card fraud and theft. Of course, some might claim that criminal behaviour is a by-product of poor parenting which, if true, does not really provide much in the way of hope for our next gold medal contender. According to the Detroit News, a mother who allegedly coerced two children into helping her shoplift clothing and accessories from an Old Navy store recently, refused to pick up her 11-year-old daughter from police after the girl was arrested. Police informed the paper that the 49-year-old mother had enlisted the aid of three people – her daughter, a young boy and a 61-year-old woman – to help her steal clothing and other items from


the store in Troy, Michigan, in the US. Security camera footage showed the four entering the store shortly after 8pm and then fanning out to different areas, where they proceeded to fill various bags with items from the store. Security guards were able to catch the 11-year-old girl and 61-year-old woman, but the girl’s mother and the young boy reportedly got away. WXYZ News reported that the 11-year-old was found with $123.95 of stolen merchandise in her purse – including baby clothes, jewellery and women’s shirts – and that she told officers that her mother instructed her to grab the items and meet her out by the car.

After the girl’s mother failed to pick her up at the police station, officers reportedly called the woman at home, whereupon she initially denied being at the store in the first place, but then called back at around 10:30pm and admitted that she lied about the incident because she was scared. Nevertheless, the woman still refused to turn herself in or pick up her daughter, who was retrieved by an aunt later that night, according to the station. The woman is now wanted for retail fraud, child neglect and contributing to the delinquency of a minor, according to the Tribune (www.

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EVENTS Australasian Information Security Conference (AISC 2016) 2–5 February 2016 Australian National University, Canberra Australasian Information Security Conference (AISC 2016) will be held as part of the Australasian Computer Science Week (ACSW 2016), which represents the largest annual gathering of computer scientists and researchers in Australasia. This conference aims at promoting research on all aspects of information security and increasing communication between academic and industrial researchers working in this area. AISC 2016 welcomes not only computer scientists and researchers, but also educators, students, technicians and industry from across the world. They encourage contributions from different fields such as computer science, cybersecurity, mathematics and so on. AISC 2016 invites submissions from practitioners with an interest in a wide range of areas, including but not restricted to: • access control • anonymity • applied cryptography • authentication • cloud security • database security • data privacy


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digital forensics electronic payments electronic voting embedded systems security identity management intrusion detection Internet of Things (IoT) security malicious software network security privacy enhancing technologies trust and risk web security wireless security.

AISC 2016 seeks submissions from academic and industrial researchers on all theoretical and practical aspects of information security. Submitted papers must not substantially overlap with papers that have been published or that are simultaneously submitted to a journal, conference, or workshop with proceedings. Submitted papers will be subject to stringent peer review by at least three members of the program committee and carefully evaluated based on originality, significance, technical soundness and clarity of exposition. Submission of papers will be managed through EasyChair, a comprehensive conference paper management system – create an account and follow the prompts to submit your paper for reviewing.

The proceedings of this event will be published by the ACM Conference Publication Series. Please note that according to the policy of AISC 2016, at least one author of all accepted papers has to attend the conferences and present the paper. Failure to do so without a reasonable excuse will result in the paper being withdrawn from both the proceedings and all citation sources. Visit for more information.

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EVENTS in its delivery and provides real solutions to every day operational challenges by connecting buyers and sellers to source innovation, debate current issues, share insights and create opportunities for an invaluable community of professionals. Our vision We champion professionals who support the built and work environment with a sense of belonging and advocacy – the unsung heroes and behind the scenes forces. They aim to evolve and grow their offer year on year to: • bring new and leading solutions in operational efficiency to the market • deliver forefront trends for running more sustainable facilities and workplaces • foster a community of multidisciplinary professions to have a voice and achieve recognition • redefine the future of the industry and challenge traditional perceptions of facility management. For more information visit:

ISC West 6–8 April 2016 Sands Expo Centre, Las Vegas ISC WEST is THE largest security industry trade show in the U.S. At ISC West you will have the chance to meet with technical reps from 1,000+ exhibitors and brands in the security industry and network with over 28,000 security professionals. Find out about new and future products and stay ahead of the competition. Encompassing everything from access control to Facial Recognition software, you are sure to find products and services that will benefit your


company and clients. This year don’t miss our new IT Pavilion featuring the latest cyber security solutions. Working with SIA, ISC also features world class education to learn about every facet of the security industry. For more info on SIA Education@ISC visit:

AusCERT2016: Ubiquitous 23–27 May 2016 Surfers Paradise Marriott, Gold Coast AusCERT is hosting AusCERT2016, the 15th annual AusCERT Information Security Conference. As society increasingly moves towards ubiquitous computing and the Internet of Things, the innovations and benefits for society, health and well being are profound and exciting. We are seeing innovation in sensors and data analytics, context aware systems, wearable devices, drones and robotics, and machines and critical systems that have not previously been accessible remotely are now being connected. Advances in medical science using embedded medical devices that can prolong life, restore hearing and allow the visually impaired to ‘see’ through machines are some remarkable examples of ubiquitous computing. However, ubiquitous systems also create challenges and risks for everyone and everything. The interconnectivity of devices and systems; the ability for them to be remotely accessed or controlled; and the ability for them to be exploited and misused can have adverse consequences for individuals and societies that were not intended by their designers. The information security community must

address and respond to these challenges and risks while nurturing the innovations that benefit society and individual well being. Come to AusCERT2016 to hear a great line up of talented speakers discuss and explore the security challenges and risks associated with ubiquitous computing, and network with your peers. Visit more information.


Biometrics Institute Asia-Pacific Conference 2016 25–26 May 2016 Dockside, Sydney The Biometrics Institute is delighted to announce the dates of their annual event for 2016. If you are interested in sponsorship or speaking opportunities, please email:

Security Exhibition & Conference 2016 20–22 July 2016 Melbourne Exhibition Centre As an industry you have spoken and your event is returning to Melbourne in 2016! The Security Exhibition & Conference will return to Melbourne again in 2016 following another outstanding event this year. Having held the Security Exhibition & Conference in Sydney for 12 consecutive years, it’s great to remain in Melbourne to consolidate relationships and to nurture business in this market. For more information visit

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INDUSTRY NEWS Diebold Agrees To Sell North America Electronic Security Business To Securitas

Diebold, Incorporated (NYSE: DBD) recently announced it has entered into an agreement to divest its North American-based electronic security business to accelerate its transformation and better position the company to pursue growth opportunities in the dynamic self-service industry. Securitas AB, an $8 billion Stockholm-based global provider of security services and solutions, has agreed to acquire the business in a transaction with a purchase price of $350 million. Ten percent of the price is contingent on successful transference of certain customer relationships to Securitas. The sale is subject to regulatory approvals, customary closing conditions and working capital adjustments, and is expected to be completed during the first quarter of 2016. The two companies have also agreed to a strategic business alliance in which Securitas will serve as Diebold’s preferred supplier for electronic security solutions in North America. This will help ensure a seamless transition for Diebold’s electronic security customers, as well as drive further security innovation and services for the industries in which both companies operate. “Given the transformation that is occurring in


the self-service industry, this strategic decision will enable us to accelerate our own transformation and focus on the exciting opportunities we are seeing for growth and innovation in that market,” said Andy W. Mattes, Diebold president and chief executive officer. “Over the years, we grew the electronic security business organically into one of the leading providers in the North American commercial and financial markets through innovative software and services,” Mattes continued. “As a highly capable global leader in the security industry, Securitas has the scale and resources to take electronic security to the next level for our customers. We also look forward to continuing the relationship with Securitas to provide compelling expertise that further leverages our combined capabilities in services and security moving forward. This will enable a smooth transition for our customers and employees alike.” Diebold’s electronic security business in North America includes a full portfolio of intrusion, fire, video, access control and systems integration services, as well as monitoring, maintenance and other security-related services for commercial and financial markets. Revenue for this business was approximately $330 million from 30th June, 2014 to 30th June, 2015. Diebold is retaining all

of its physical and consumer transaction security businesses related to its core financial market, including automated teller machine security, antifraud card solutions, bank branch facility and drive-up systems, and related services. “The acquisition of Diebold’s electronic security business supports Securitas’ global strategy and substantially strengthens our position as the global knowledge leader in security solutions and technology. Securitas Electronic Security – previously Diebold Electronic Security – will continue to be a leader in the North American electronic security industry. We also plan for the North American headquarters of the electronic security business and its employees to remain based in Green, Ohio. We believe that we can leverage Diebold’s electronic security expertise to the existing Securitas’ customer base and offer our customers possibilities of security solutions by optimising the equation between different services,” says Alf Goransson, president and CEO of Securitas AB. Diebold will provide transitional services to Securitas during the closing phase of the agreement to help ensure a smooth integration. Diebold’s advisers for the transaction were Bank of America Merrill Lynch and Jones Day. Securitas was advised by K&L Gates.



MLA UPDATE Peter Johnson

Electronic Security

Are Locksmiths A Viable Option? Electronic security is perhaps the fastest growing segment in the locksmith industry, and all indications are that this will continue to be the case for the foreseeable future. Electronic access control, CCTV, and alarms and monitoring have long been seen as the domain of the ‘sparkie’; however, this is no longer the case. The consumer of today is demanding an integrated solution – mechanical and electronic, monitoring and response capabilities and reporting systems – and the modern locksmith is very well-placed to be able to offer such a solution. The products available today are both smarter and less expensive and, importantly, much easier to configure and install. The manufacturers work closely with the suppliers, who in turn engage with the locksmiths who ultimately sell and install the product for the consumer. The feedback received from the locksmiths in turn helps the manufacturers to better develop products that meet the needs of the consumer. A big change in recent years has been in the availability of training and certification programs put together for locksmiths by both the manufacturers and the suppliers. Examples include the certification programs run by Salto and the TechEd programs run by LSC. These


courses are not the type that merely require attendance to get a certificate; unless a locksmith successfully demonstrates competency, he or she does not pass and definitely does not receive certification. In addition, access to some of the products is only available to locksmiths who are certified. This is actually a big win for everyone: • The manufacturer/supplier gets minimal call backs due to incorrect product specification, incorrect installation, and so on. • The locksmith is both competent and confident to use the product. • The consumer ends up with the correct solution (which actually works as it should).

Some people think that perhaps locksmiths have ‘missed the boat’ when it comes to electronic security, however this is definitely not the case. So, is a locksmith a viable option when it comes to electronic security? The answer is a very big YES!



e m o c l e Not W


So, you are standing at the entrance to the newest nightclub in town, when a trendy girl with dark glasses and blonde hair with pink streaks rocks up. She wants to enter the nightclub – only she has a dog. You tell her to leave, politely, only to have her get angry. She tells you the dog is her guide dog and she can take it anywhere with her and that it is against the law to refuse her entry. Can that be? Is she really allowed to take a dog into a nightclub? The fact of the matter is, yes, she can. However, it seems that not enough people in the security industry actually know or understand this fact. Every day, someone in Australia is refused entry or challenged by security because they have a guide dog. A Dog is a Dog, is it not? Most people think that all dogs are restricted from certain public places. However, guide dogs are different. Both commonwealth and state acts state that guide dog users must be allowed to take their dogs into places other dogs would not be allowed. This includes restaurants, food halls, supermarkets and events or nightclubs. The reason for this is that guide dogs get their users from place to place. Persons relying on a guide dog to help them get around safely can legally travel with their dog just about anywhere, from public buildings, to places serving food or alcohol, and in transport, from taxis to planes. A guide dog is not a pet dog; it undergoes extensive training from eight weeks of age. Dogs that are aggressive, anxious or easily distracted do not make it through the rigorous program. How was I to know she had a guide dog? Ann walked towards the entrance of the supermarket. She was running late, and needed to be home by four o’clock. It was raining and both she and her guide dog, Jonathon, were damp. Her tunnel vision meant that she could see the blue uniform heading her way, even though she could not really make out his face. Her heart sank – she knew exactly what he was going to say. It had taken arguments and a call to the manager the last time the supermarket had a new guard. “Sorry Ma’am, you cannot come in here with that dog.” Yes, she can.


Ann’s situation is not uncommon. Often, people genuinely do not realise that the person they are speaking to has a guide dog because of vision impairment. Not everyone wears dark glasses, or looks different from other members of the public. In addition, many guide dog users have some remaining sight and may still be able to see a small amount – although not enough to function fully, but just enough for people to think that they are faking their blindness. This is one of the hardest things for a person with vision impairment to face. As Ann says, “It is bad enough that I have lost much of my sight. It is even worse when people accuse me of faking it just to get sympathy.” “It took hard work, training and hours of help from my orientation and mobility instructor to get Jonathon and I to a state where I was confident to go to my local supermarket on my own. It is really demoralising when you are questioned at every step of the way. There are stickers saying ‘no dogs allowed’, but not many saying ‘except if you have a guide dog!’” The best way to tell that a dog is a working guide dog is by looking at the dog itself. Guide dogs are usually Labradors or Golden Retrievers. They can be any colour, from golden to brown or black and, most importantly, they always wear a harness with a handle that users hold so that they can follow the dog. I was just trying to get my point across; I do not know why they got so upset! Peter had never felt so embarrassed. He was sure that everyone in the airport could see him as the security guard grabbed his hand and tried to lead him away. Peter could not work out which way the guard wanted him to go – but instead of asking, the guard just tugged his arm harder. “I tried to explain to the security guard that the reason that the

metal detector buzzed was because my dog’s harness contained metal, but he just did not listen; he yelled at me so loudly that the whole hall must have heard. Just because I am blind does not mean that I am deaf. I do not know where he took me or where my bags were. It was mortifying. I did not deserve to be treated like that.” It can be really difficult for people to know how to behave or communicate with someone who is blind or vision impaired. There are a few things that can be done, however, that would make any situation, no matter how tricky, much calmer. The following are some pointers: • People often unconsciously raise their voice or slow their speech when talking to people who have difficulties seeing. Loss of sight does not impact on a person’s intelligence or on their hearing. Speak to a vision impaired person in the same way you would speak to anyone. In addition, do not be afraid to use words such as ‘look’ or ‘see’. • Introduce yourself to the person that you are dealing with. Explain the situation and listen to his (or her) response. He will often know more about his rights than the average person will, and may be able to come up with a solution that suits you as well as him. • Never discriminate against the person because he has a guide dog – that is illegal – and always ask the person before you touch him. • Sometimes, you may need to take a person into a separate room or ask him to move in a particular direction. Just let the person know what is happening, as often his guide dog will be able to follow you, so you do not have to pull or hold the person, unless he asks you to do so. • If you treat people with dignity or think about how you would like to be approached if you were in their situation, most issues disappear. A good way to find out if a person needs help is to ask, rather than assume. And remember – guide dogs can go just about anywhere!

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Both commonwealth and state acts state that guide dog users must be allowed to take their dogs into places other dogs would not be allowed.

Take the quiz: 1. You work at an airport and the machine beeps when a person with a guide dog goes through. Do you: a) drag him away for a pat down search? b) explain the situation and ask if he can be led through the gate without the dog and then ask him to put the harness though the X-ray machine separately? c) tell him he cannot take the dog on the plane? 2. You work at a pub and a person with a guide dog comes through. Do you: a) tell him they cannot enter due to safety reasons? b) allow them to enter and wish him a good day? c) tell him they can sit outside in the beer garden, but not near the food areas? 3. You work at a food hall and see a person walking through the area with a dog. Do you: a) see the harness on the dog, realise the person is a guide dog user and leave him alone? b) see the harness and explain to the person that the health act prohibits him from bringing a dog into the area? c) yell to get the person’s attention and tell him to vacate the area? 4. You see a person with a dog without a harness who wants to bring his dog into a restaurant. Do you: a) let them in – the dog may be a guide dog? b) ask him to show you ID and explain that he can bring the dog in if it is muzzled? c) do an eye test to make sure that he is blind? d) explain to him that he cannot bring the dog in, as restaurants are prohibited unless the person is a guide dog user with a working dog in a harness? The answers: 1. b) there is always a solution that allows a person dignity without compromising security 2. b) guide dogs are allowed into pubs, clubs, restaurants and other places serving food, and users have the same rights to sit where they want as other people 3. a) you can always tell a guide dog user by the harness and handle on the dog 4. d) it is not the responsibility of security to make judgements on ‘how blind’ a person is

Note: For privacy purposes, names have been changed, but the examples provided are based on the experiences of guide dog users. For more information on guide dogs and the security industry, contact the community education team on 02 9412 9300 or go to


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Vulnerabilities Of Trusted Partners By Emanuel Stafilidis

The importance of protecting security systems from cyber attack cannot be understated. There is no system anywhere in the world that is safe from hackers. No one will ever be able to completely stop attackers, but they can make it harder. Imagine a burglar is walking down a suburban street looking for a ‘payday’ and comes across a standard home with lights on, a high fence with a locked gate, cameras, an alarm, and so on. He could break in; he is capable and believes he could get something of value and get away with it. Remember, he is looking for a ‘payday’ and not just a challenge. He then notices a home close by is in the dark, has its front door open and it is obvious no one is home. Which one will the burglar enter? The point is, everyone should have security and it is no different online and with an IPbased security solution. Security system designers, administrators and operators must carefully consider and protect against threats to the physical security network. It is conceivable that a vulnerable security system could be the opening needed to breach the facility. The vulnerability could allow the perpetrator to access the security network to compromise the security system, or use it as the bridge to the corporate and other networks. Security managers must ask what can be done to minimise the impact of a breach. To protect against the internal and external threats, some organisations are physically separating their IT infrastructure

by creating a network for physical security applications that is separate from all other network use. However, this may not be practical because infrastructure and workstations on alternative networks are utilised for the security application. Even if the network is completely separate and not connected to the outside world, the trusted insider still has access and can facilitate remote access through open ports or access points. Equipment lockdown is an important aspect of controlling general user access to functions and software that can lead to unauthorised system changes or interactions. Network security must be thoroughly implemented as if the system is open to the outside world. The security manager needs to consider who will have access to the security network, who will administer the network and whether it is separate or connected with other networks. Will the security installation contractor or the end-user’s preferred IT contractor be authorised to access the security network? Who is trusted and how do managers know they are capable of always following procedures? It may be better to utilise the end-user’s existing IT department to conduct administrative services, including security of the network, because they are internal staff and are already responsible for securing the existing corporate network. The security applied to the network must ensure that perpetrators are caught before they achieve their goal. If a perpetrator

does access the security network, they must be quarantined before they steal, tamper with, alter or deposit data. They must be restricted so they cannot turn on or off items that could render the physical and/or IT security systems useless. A very easy way a hacker can penetrate a network is with the use of someone’s login details. The management of user details, including login information, is a very important task. The security manager must analyse his organisation’s policy and procedures relating to logging in to the network. Is entering a username and password sufficient to protect the security system? This form of login is single-factor authentication in that it only relies on something the user knows. If the user passes this single bit of information to someone else, then that person is able to login. This policy is insufficient, particularly when protecting against the trusted insider. Two-factor authentication is still one of the best methods of protection – something the user knows and something the user has or, even better, something he is, like a biometric. A second factor, such as a card or biometric, greatly assists with the protection of the security network. HID Global are promoting the use of tap authentication, where it is possible to use an access control card to login to workstations and all other devices, such as mobiles and tablets. Recent reports have shown that once in, the hacker can cause immense damage.



If a perpetrator does access the security network, they must be quarantined before they steal, tamper with, alter or deposit data.


A quick Google search will discover recent breaches at JP Morgan Chase, Sony, UPS, The Home Depot, Target (US), the citizens of New York City, Kaspersky and the Australian Government; the list goes on and on. The majority of breaches reported appear to be debit and credit card data related. The news reports concentrate on breaches that impact large members of the general public, such as debit and credit card holders. This may give security managers of critical infrastructure a false sense of security. Further investigations reveal that every industry is being breached. Target’s US CEO stepped down after the massive data breach at the end of 2013. It was reported at the time that Target did not have either a chief information security officer (CISO) or a chief security officer (CSO) in place. That begs the question, who was speaking about security matters at board meetings? It is reported that 40 million credit and debit card records were stolen and over 70 million total records of Target shoppers stolen. Total records included name, address, email address and phone number. Target suffered a 46 percent drop in profits for the fourth quarter of 2013 compared with the year before as a result of the breach. They also spent $100 million on upgrading their payment terminals. The estimated cost to banks and credit unions to re-issue cards was $200 million. A class action lawsuit against Target has resulted in a further $10 million proposed settlement with affected consumers. The settlement also required Target to appoint a CISO and maintain a written information security program. Wikipedia reports, “The Sony Pictures Entertainment hack was a release of confidential data belonging to Sony Pictures Entertainment on November 24, 2014. The data included personal information about Sony Pictures employees and their families, e-mails between employees, information about executive salaries at the company, copies of (previously) unreleased Sony films, and other information.” Reports on the Sony hack were that the breach was a super-sophisticated attack, but Joseph Steinberg of Forbes magazine

believes that this seems to be an overexaggeration. The lesson from the Sony 2014 hack is that organisations without a security solution that can limit damage internally are taking remarkable risks and being extraordinarily naive about the advanced capabilities of today’s cyber attackers. In June 2015, Kaspersky, one of the world’s leading cybersecurity and research companies, discovered they had been under attack. They found malware in their networks designed to spy on them. The Australian Government has in place a range of measures, including the Cyber Security Operation Centre within the Defence Signals Directorate and a dedicated cyber investigations unit within the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO). The Daily Telegraph reported in 2011 that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) advised the Australian Government that at least 10 federal ministers’ emails had been hacked and the compromise occurred over a one-month period. Chinese intelligence agencies were among a list of foreign hackers that were/are under suspicion. The Australian Government has also documented that a CCTV system installed within a significant site has suffered failures in the past due to “external influences”. It is very clear that all network-based security systems must be fully protected. Network security must be thoroughly implemented as if the system is open to the outside world. The security applied to the network must ensure that perpetrators are caught before they achieve their goal. Two-factor authentication is still one of the best methods of protection and should be implemented to login to the physical security system. Emanuel Stafilidis has worked in the electronic security industry since 1988 as a security systems integrator and a security consultant. Emanuel is currently the Business Development Manager at Saab Australia. Visit region/saab-australia/security/ for more information. Emanuel can be contacted via email:


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Training Scars How You Train Is How You Work!


By Richard Kay A training scar is defined as any behaviour permitted during training that would be dangerous or inappropriate on the street. Training scars can occur in any training situation and will vary based on the particular training program. Unfortunately, some officers have no training scars. The reason it is unfortunate is that the officer may not have had any training in a given situation. If an officer has never received training, then obviously he has no training scars, and therefore probably minimal ability to safely survive a violent confrontation. The lack of training is perhaps the single greatest detriment to any officer’s survival. Just like skill acquisition, consistency and reinforcement are positive and crucial factors in operational safety training. Officers who safely survive violent confrontations do so because they perform the way they were trained – to prevail. For example, firearm training is not just about ‘qualification’, or shooting a ‘perfect score’, but learning to ‘fight’ with the firearm. Consider these examples of training scars from three phases of firearms training – qualification (skill acquisition), tactical (skill development) and scenario (skill application).

Just like skill acquisition, consistency and reinforcement are positive and crucial factors in operational safety training.


Qualification Training Training Scar


Improper use of holster retention mechanism

Wear the holster as on duty

Drawing the firearm very slowly and methodically

Clear the holster quickly and get on target

Taking time to get the perfect sight alignment

Acquire the front sight and press the trigger

Cocking the hammer on a double-action firearm

Practice in both single and double action modes

Looking at holster while drawing/reholstering

Draw whilst maintaining focus on the threat

Shooting at a ‘sterile’ paper target with no threat

Put a face and weapon on the target

Taking time to get into a shooting position

Get into position as if your life depended on it

Tactical Training Training Scar


Failure to know combat handgun fighting

Teach combat handgun principles

Inappropriate range commands

Train simple commands; thinking slows reactions

Failing to scan properly

Always scan; you never know what you may see

Improper use of cover

Teach ‘angling’ techniques and proper barricade use

Allowing officers to use large barricades

Use small barricades so officers contort to fit

Letting firearms run dry with reload commands

Have officers manage an empty firearm

Always using ‘set shot’ sequences

Shoot until the threat ceases

Not using interactive training scenarios

Use 1-1 situational training

Not increasing the heart rate using stress

Use training methods that involve stress inoculation

Scenario Training Training Scar


Officers permitted to stop in the middle of the action

Run scenario to a real-world conclusion

Not using proper equipment or simulating equipment

Train as you work; uniform, equipment, mindset

Allowing officers to quit after being harmed

Train officers that they must always prevail; never quit or say “I am dead”

Using humour during a training scenario

Real-life scenarios will not be cause for laughter

Not completing proper searches

Search everything, always, and properly

Failing to pay attention to the surroundings when using cover

Always look around the location

Failure to make officers verbally justify their actions after the scenario is complete

Have officers explain their actions, relating to legal standards and operational policy

These are the six most common training scars: Planted Stance Instructors who use a ‘qualification mentality’ and traditional training protocol can instil a dangerous scar by prohibiting movement during instruction. Officers often reinforce this fault in practice. It is a mistake to develop field practices out of a qualification mode. To be static in a violent confrontation is to be a target. Controlled, lateral movement can be a lifesaver. It can get an officer off the line of attack, create mobility so he is a harder target, and ideally allow him to get to protective cover where he is in a better position to bring the attack to a positive conclusion. Officers who have never learned or do not practice moving as a part of reacting to a threat are likely to stand stock still in a real confrontation, or perhaps duck at best, since they will not surpass the level of their training under intense stress. Narrow Awareness Rigid training and practice tends to discourage full environmental awareness. On the street, officers need 360° consciousness, before and immediately after a confrontation, because a threat may arise from any angle. If an officer is accustomed to recognising and engaging stationary targets only directly in front of him, his skill at noticing and responding to other threats will be compromised. Officers need experience with threats from multiple angles to learn to break tunnel vision. Token scanning does not cut it. In effect, that type of highly restricted ‘head wobble’ is just another training scar. Lack of Intensity Not every training experience has to involve 100 percent speed and power, but it is crucial to bring the right mindset to training every time. To get maximum benefit, officers should regard the target as a violent assailant, instead of thinking they are just ‘in training’. Bring intensity to the experience. Training only in non-stressful situations that require no decision making under pressure creates a lack of mental intensity. If the agency does not provide meaningful training, take responsibility to seek it out. There are many opportunities out there for healing dangerous training scars and implanting the skills needed to stay alive.

Inefficient Weapon Presentation Some instructors and officers introduce unnecessary steps into drawing and presentation of a weapon, thereby delaying getting on target. For maximum speed, an officer should be able to engage the threat as soon as the weapon clears the holster. Anything that inhibits that is a training scar. Officers should use a smooth, continuous, efficient draw, a flowing movement that allows them to engage at any point during the draw. Of course, like other aspects of skill mastery, it needs to be heavily practiced so it becomes an automatic motor program that runs without conscious thought – and without the deviations of training scars. Any extra steps diminish efficiency and add time. Premature Reholstering Reholstering too soon typically links to relaxing too soon. Again, it is usually a training scar born of training habits and a qualification mindset. Once they engage, officers often relax and then quickly reholster; they do not scan and they do not check the status of the weapon. Reholster reluctantly. Having the weapon out and ready to use is the best protection against a new threat or an old one that is not finished yet. Do not put the weapon away until it is appropriate to do so, and that needs to be a conscious decision, not a reflexive action. Instructor Dependence Some instructors encourage students to be overly dependent on them. It is dangerous for officers to rely on an instructor to always tell them what and when because it is not how adults learn best. Adults learn by failure and rectification; they want a sense of control over their learning process. Instructors should develop problem solvers – people who can make quick decisions in realistic circumstances and act effectively. This does not happen unless training exercises create issues that students have to solve themselves, within reasonable safety confines. Sometimes techniques are taught that are not realistic for some officers. Under stress, an officer tries to get the technique to work because he has ‘learned’ it and does not have a viable alternative, and gets stuck in a hopeless loop of life-threatening

Do not presume that all training scars can be eliminated, but it is important for instructors to be able to identify them and take corrective action in training programs. inability. Instructors should teach techniques that students can apply, not just because the instructor can do it. Training scars can sabotage operational safety, but many can be corrected if instructors allow them to happen during training. Do not presume that all training scars can be eliminated, but it is important for instructors to be able to identify them and take corrective action in training programs. Prioritise time toward correcting the most dangerous scars to maximise training time. Instructors should take responsibility to keep officers safe during training and stop presuming they always know the proper way to do things. Additionally, if an instructor caused a training scar, he needs to be the remedy that reduces the blemish and saves the life of an officer. Instructors must keep up-to-date with current training methodologies. What the instructor was taught at ‘instructor school’ 10 years ago may now cause a training scar. Training is an evolutionary process and instructors must evolve with the process. The skills needed to survive operationally are developed through realistic, relevant, frequent repetition – the habituation of good practices through proper training. Unfortunately, bad practices can easily slip in, or even be taught, and can become ingrained as habits through repetition without consciously realising it. If uncorrected, these performance faults may prevent an optimal response to a real threat.

Richard Kay is an internationally certified tactical instructor-trainer, Director and Senior Trainer of Modern Combatives, a provider of operational safety training for the public safety sector. For more information, please visit




The Future Uses Of Video Analytics In CCTV



By Rachell DeLuca

Video analytics in simple terms is the technique used to describe the algorithmic processing and analysis of video, either in real time or in pre-recorded format. Video analytics is a term that has usually been associated with CCTV cameras that have been installed for the purposes of surveillance; however, as the technology improves and advances are made, potential is being realised in other applications and across many industries. The benefits of video analytics are clear to any potential user due to the cost savings that come from reduced reliance on human operation, both in paid manpower hours and in accuracy, particularly when impacted by fatigue. Human operators are not capable of alert observation of a large number of cameras for long periods of time, and often there is a need to review large amounts of recorded video to extract video sections specific to a particular event, which is a task often impacted by strict time constraints and urgency. Having software analytics review footage and determine abnormal behaviour and activity that exceeds pre-determined thresholds in many cases is more accurate than detection via the human eye alone. Used in conjunction with human resources, video analytics becomes a valuable tool in reducing the lengthy process of manual review of countless hours of video from numerous cameras.

Current Uses Video analytics is currently being used across a range of industries and sectors, including airports, transportation and roads, government, city surveillance systems, critical infrastructure, and commercial and industrial applications. These current applications see the technology performing a dual function; firstly in providing critical security-related information, and secondly in providing data on business intelligence and resource optimisation, which allows adopters of the technology to reap benefits


through multiple business streams with unlimited future options as the technology advances further. Some examples of the current applications include: Airports Airports have been early investors in analytical software due to their unique risk profile and high patronage of transient users. As a result, they experience an increased level of security from use in traditional areas of perimeter protection, intrusion detection using virtual zoning, passenger and vehicle tracking, surveillance and monitoring of pick-up and drop-off areas, abandoned vehicle monitoring, package and baggage alerts, and facial recognition. Additional benefits in an airport environment include the optimisation of staff and resource deployment at hightraffic or problem areas, location of missing passengers who are late for a flight, the prediction, and therefore minimisation, of traffic bottlenecks (both pedestrian and vehicular), and queue and crowd management. Commercial Current commercial applications of video analytics include corporate office buildings, supermarkets, retail shopping centres, heavy industry, banks, hotels, casinos, and sporting arenas and stadiums. Often, the analytical software is added to existing CCTV systems architecture to enhance it and provide beneficial data such as car park usage, store layout and configuration performance analysis, patron dwell times at particular shelves or items, marketing campaign effectiveness analysis, shopper counts and typical shopper analysis, queue management, people tracking and counting and recognition, and even event monitoring and counting on casino gaming tables. Traditional security uses for video analytics in commercial environments include intrusion detection, perimeter

detection, detection of blocked exit paths and emergency exits, detection of abandoned vehicles or packages, location of key persons, tracking and monitoring of staff and security personnel, loitering and vandalism protection, protection of stock and high-security items through the creation of secure zones, and the detection of smoke within a facility. Transportation and Roads Transportation and road surveillance is an industry sector that has embraced video analytic technology for safety and security reasons, as well as effective traffic management and incident response.

The benefits of video analytics are clear to any potential user due to the cost savings that come from reduced reliance on human operation, both in paid manpower hours and in accuracy.



The timely identification of incidents and response generation are of critical importance in these areas and video analytics is enhancing existing systems in detecting issues and generating alarm signals for response. Types of issues that are detected include congestion and incident detection, smoke detection in tunnels, active traffic management and the detection of bottlenecks and congestion, and stopped and abandoned vehicle detection, which may indicate a breakdown or other emergency situation on the roads.

Future Uses Future uses of video analytic technology are likely to be centred on increased customer service and adding value to and streamlining the user experience across a large range of different environments. This will build upon the existing behavioural analysis uses of the technology, moving away from traditional security incident detection and more into data collection on how users interact with particular environments. Video analytics has already proven to be an effective tool for security use; however, the potential for marketing, safety and behavioural analysis is only recently becoming a feature recognised by adopters. Future uses will include highlevel integration of video analytics with other systems such as building automation, access control, building management and lighting control systems, audio visual systems and IT infrastructure to combine the security features with those that will enhance the user experience and collect valuable data about its users. Commercial In a commercial setting, the analytical software could be set to detect a user’s entry to the facility via CCTV and commence a series of integrated operations particular to that user. This may range from building temperature and lighting settings, to audio visual messages such as reminders or alerts being displayed on screens and interfaces, booting into appropriate IT systems, start-


up of heavy machinery or plant, to time card and attendance integration and registration with evacuation and emergency systems of the users present within the facility at any particular time. Conversely, at the end of each day, increased safety mechanisms could be programmed into the system that identified which staff members were onsite after dark to automatically ensure that lighting along their path of egress was on, that machinery and systems were shut down and left in a safe manner, time card and attendance registration was updated, and that all personnel had been accounted for. In the future, high pedestrian commercial environments such as sporting arenas, shopping centres, stadiums and casinos are likely to further develop their tracking and analysis of pedestrian activity to predict and

Future uses of video analytic technology are likely to be centred on increased customer service and adding value to and streamlining the user experience across a large range of different environments. respond more efficiently to incidents and disruptions. This will be supported by more effective human resource management and deployment, incident response and provision of facilities such as parking, washrooms, food and beverage options and

the like, all of which will streamline the user experience and reduce security and safety concerns for the facility. Retail, Membership Programs and Marketing Future use of video analytics within the retail and marketing sectors is predicted to be one of the highest growth areas of technology uptake and implementation. In these sectors, customisation of the user experience is more driven by the potential for increased sales and profit. Whilst it may not be possible to customise the environment in terms of lighting or temperature to one single user, such systems might instead display personalised messages, including loyalty program information and benefits to users as they engage with the environment. In a shopping centre environment, this may include personalised centre maps with directions to favourite stores, or information on sales when a user presents at an information booth. Similarly, frequent flyer programs could provide customised information to their members at airports around the world, in a variety of languages, both personalising and streamlining the customer experience and providing benefit to users. Data gathered by the analytical system likewise will direct future marketing campaigns and increase understanding of how customers interact with products, impacting product displays, store layouts and pedestrian paths through store environments. Whilst these systems have already been implemented by individual early adaptors, the potential for it to be shared amongst companies and applied across a greater range of sectors is something that will no doubt be developed heavily in the future. Policing and Law Enforcement Finally, whilst many potential future uses of video analytics seek to enhance the user experience in a positive manner, providing mutual benefit to the user and provider, one very likely future use of the technology is stricter policing and law enforcement.

Video analytics has already proven to be an effective tool for security use; however, the potential for marketing, safety and behavioural analysis is only recently becoming a feature recognised by adopters.

Municipal councils are predicted to be quick to engage detection of parking violations, also utilising number plate recognition for swift infringement notice issuance; however, the technology could also be used in more effective design of car parks and review of time restrictions based upon the data gathered about actual usage. Likewise, police and road traffic authorities will embrace the analysis of vehicles that tailgate, speed, travel the wrong way, illegally turn, block intersections and train lines, and do not accommodate emergency vehicles. This is likely to see an increased number of infringements at first, but as understanding grows of how roads are used, it will likely result in better designed systems with emergency lanes, bike lanes and better systems for all users, which is consistent with the overall future prediction of enhancing the user experience. Overall, the potential of video analytics is endless and will be limited only by the creativeness of those who apply it. The ability to track, monitor, detect, count, recognise and identify individuals, vehicles, freight, animals and virtually any conceivable item, and assess it against pre-determined algorithmic behaviours, is limited only in the creation of those behavioural algorithms, and the creativity of those creating them.

Rachell DeLuca is a senior security professional located in Melbourne, Australia. She has over 16 years’ experience in the security industry and has been involved in projects utilising a huge range of analogue, IP and hybrid technologies. For more information, Rachell can be contacted via email or visit

Future use of video analytics within the retail and marketing sectors is predicted to be one of the highest growth areas of technology uptake and implementation.



Workplace Conflict:






By Moira Jenkins Anyone who works in security, at any level, has to develop a certain level of comfort around conflict and disagreement. However, the way in which people view conflict can have a significant impact on how that conflict affects them personally as well as how it affects the people around them. It is important to recognise that conflict does not have to be an unhealthy thing, especially in an organisation. To progress, excel and develop, an organisation may benefit from some healthy conflict. Indeed, the absence of conflict can indicate apathy, or a fear of questioning established or entrenched working practices. A workplace without conflicts can easily become stagnant and stuck in a rut. While healthy conflicts can be beneficial, unhealthy conflicts can be just the opposite. Studies have shown that unhealthy conflict in organisations can contribute to sickness, absenteeism and poor mental health in workers. When conflicts get ugly, they can result in legal or industrial issues and can be very costly for the organisation and the staff involved. The question is, how do managers tell the difference between the good, the bad and the ugly, and how can they encourage the good conflicts, nip the bad conflicts in the bud, and prevent the ugly conflicts from even occurring?

The Good Healthy conflict encourages staff to justify their positions and promotes greater understanding of the issues being discussed. Encourage staff to air differences; openly letting them know that different opinions and ideas are valued is a good way to promote healthy discussion and debate. Establish meeting norms to encourage a culture where employees feel safe in suggesting new ideas or asserting their position. Norms such as no swearing, no interruptions and no personal attacks will help set the scene for some healthy debate and exchange of ideas. Make sure that the less assertive people in the organisation are given the time and encouragement to speak. Who knows what ideas they may have been hiding. Make sure there is a time limit on the more vocal employees speaking so they do not hog the debate. Never underestimate the power of asking why employees think their idea or opinion is worthwhile. Explaining to staff why decisions are made and encouraging staff to ask a manager why he/she has come to a certain conclusion can open up the communication. Be wary of quick acceptance of a suggested solution or idea, as well as little sharing of information. These are all signs that employees are avoiding conflict and ‘tuning out’; the unresolved issues keep emerging in a different form. These unresolved matters, if not aired, can develop into bad conflicts. Ask at team meetings for two-way feedback and how communication can be improved. As a manager, model active listening skills such as paraphrasing

or summarising in order to reflect back ideas and feelings. That way, staff will know that they have been heard and they will feel understood.

The Bad Conflict is not always healthy, and there are several signs that suggest destructive conflict is setting in. Are staff meetings silent? Is one (or several) staff member sitting arms crossed, not actively participating? Are there staff members who are not speaking to each other? Are there patterns of unusual sick leave being taken by employees who are not usually sick? Can the tension be felt? Has inappropriate behaviour been witnessed or rumoured? These are all signs of unhealthy conflict brewing that need to be addressed. As an example, when I was working at the South Australian Equal Opportunity Commission, someone had lodged a complaint of sexual harassment against a fellow employee. When the person approached the manager about the behaviour and the ongoing conflict, the manager apparently said, “You two sort it out, or one of you will have to go.” That complaint went from bad to ugly very quickly. When there are staff in conflict, it is important to focus on the behaviour, not the person or the labels. It is also important to nip these conflicts in the bud as soon as possible, or they have the potential to escalate into ugly conflicts. Communication problems are an important source of conflict. Some workers may be very task orientated and not so focused on the relationship. Others may have a greater emphasis on the relationship and spend more time building relationships and making sure all parties are comfortable with decisions. As a result, both staff members may interpret the same event quite differently and be frustrated with each other’s communication styles. It is important that they are given the space and structure to discuss the issues and look at how they are going to move forward.



This can start with a meeting designed to let the parties air their differences, discuss the underlying issues and look for a resolution without focusing on blame and culpability. Acting as an intermediary, the manager can set an agenda where both parties are able to explain their side of the story and also hear the other’s perspective. Ground rules regarding behaviour need to be set and it is a good idea to let the parties set these themselves so they feel as though they are having input into how the meeting is run. As the referee, the manager might have to have the final say if the conflict is about issues that are against the law or company policy. He or she might have to tell one party that their behaviour is not acceptable. However, once this is out on the table, the parties can address future behaviour and discuss how they are going to interact in the future. It is important that managers document that they have met with the parties, document what was agreed on, and follow up with both parties to check whether the conflict is truly resolved. Nipping these conflicts in the bud also ensures that a good working relationship between the parties is possible. The no-blame focus means that the parties can concentrate on seeking a resolution rather than focusing on culpability and retribution. If the conflict is entrenched or complex, sometimes external mediators who are professionally trained in conflict resolution are more able to facilitate a positive resolution. Resolution Institute ( is a professional body that can provide information on mediators and workplace dispute resolution. Even if external mediators are brought in to assist with resolving the conflict, the manager still needs to follow up with both parties to check that the issues raised are truly resolved. He or she needs to document that they have followed up, and also document the responses of the parties.

The Ugly The ugly sorts of conflicts are those that trigger a media and/or a legal response. These are conflicts such as bullying, sexual harassment, discrimination or industrial conflicts. One of the problems with the ugly conflicts is that even if the alleged behaviour did not occur, the organisation still suffers. There are no winners (except maybe the lawyers). These ugly conflicts have a financial cost in terms of legal fees, increased staff turnover, difficulty recruiting,


increased absenteeism, workers’ compensation stress claims, as well as damaging the organisation’s reputation. These sorts of conflicts are usually characterised by entrenched positions and attempts to defeat the other party. Because of the potential of bad conflicts escalating into ugly conflicts, all inappropriate behaviour needs to be addressed by management. The bottom line is that managers are accountable and they cannot afford to put bad conflicts on the backburner. The number one rule is do not wait for a formal or written complaint. If a manager hears of, witnesses or is informally made aware of potential inappropriate behaviour, he or she has a duty of care and a legal obligation to follow it up and prevent or stop the behaviour. Once again, the advice is to document any intervention and follow up, follow up and follow up. In order to prevent these ugly conflicts occurring, The 10 Rules of Conflict Management there also needs to be 1. Embrace positive conflict and encourage staff to air their differences. clear policies around behavioural expectations, 2. Do not underestimate the power of asking why. and these policies need 3. Use active listening skills so that employees will feel that their side of to be understood by all the discussion has been understood. staff. There also needs 4. Be on the lookout for signs of unhealthy conflict. to be guidelines for staff 5. Focus on the behaviour not the label. on what to do if they feel 6. Nip bad conflicts in the bud before they turn ugly. they are being treated 7. Remember, managers are accountable. inappropriately and where they can go for help in 8. Managers should get help if they are in over their heads. resolving the conflict. 9. Document. Conflict never has to 10. Follow up, follow up and follow up. reach the ugly stage. An organisation that both encourages healthy debate and nips inappropriate behaviour in the bud goes a long way to nurturing a culture of growth and respect amongst its employees.

The bottom line is that managers are accountable and they cannot afford to put bad conflicts on the backburner.

As well as working as a clinical psychologist, Moira Jenkins has a number of year’s experience assisting organisations with the management of workplace conflicts. She has worked as a mediator and conciliator, and was the manager of the Complaint Handling Section of the South Australian Equal Opportunity Commission before launching her private practice. Moira has postgraduate qualifications in conflict management and is currently completing her PhD which focuses on workplace bullying.


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Securing Cities Of Tomorrow



By John Bigelow

I remember as a child watching shows like The Jetsons and Buck Rogers, marvelling at the possibilities of a future in which people had robot maids and houses that could anticipate and react to their needs. In recent years, more and more people have begun installing home automation systems as the technology and infrastructure becomes more affordable and the programming and ease with which such systems become more aligned with the capabilities of the average person. Today, for a small investment of only one or two thousand dollars, home owners can integrate their home security system with some sort of home automation system. This enables all manner of new functionality, such as the ability to enter a code on a smartphone upon approaching one’s house, which will trigger a series of events such as disarming the home security system, opening the garage, turning on lights, switching on the heating or air conditioning, and facilitating a whole range of other predefined tasks. Now take that user-defined functionality and intelligence, and transpose it across an entire city. What does that begin to look like and how would it work? What types of benefits might it offer society and why would communities want to embark upon such a major project? Just as importantly, what might it mean for the security industry? According to recent estimates by the United Nations, the world’s population will reach 9 billion people by 2050, with the majority of this growth taking place in cities. Therefore, it is reasonable to project that number of people living in cities around the world will rise from the current 2.8 billion to around 6.3 billion by 2050. This of course begs the question, how might things like traffic control, congestion on roads, public transport, critical infrastructure loads, public transport needs and so on be managed? The obvious answer is that cities need to get a lot smarter. Companies like IBM and Thales have started demonstrating models for systems designed specifically to address some of these issues. For example, imagine an intelligent city that could look at a weather forecast and take action based on that forecast. In the case of a


Smart cities have the potential to help law enforcement, local governments and security to more effectively and Programs like ShotSpotter (there are others), employ the use of directional efficiently monitor and microphones, strategically located around manage any problems a city, combined with highly sophisticated acoustical analysis software that can discern that might arise. the difference between a car backfiring,

day which begins as a bright, sunny 25 degree day, which has a prediction for storms and rain by 5pm, a smart city could predict that a higher number of trains and trams will be required during the evening peak-hour commuter period given the rise of potential commuters based on the data which shows that a large number of people had either ridden bikes or walked to work that morning. There might also be a sharp rise in the number of taxis required, which would also change the traffic patterns and level of congestion in the city. More people at bus and rail stations might require an increased security presence and so on. All of this could be predicted and accounted for ahead of time, avoiding last-minute issues, angry and disgruntled citizens, and a corresponding rise in antisocial behaviour. Of course, an increase in population brings with it more than simple logistical problems. Anywhere there is an increased number of people in a finite, centralised space, there exists the potential for a corresponding rise in crime and antisocial behaviour. Again, smart cities have the potential to help law enforcement, local governments and security to more effectively and efficiently monitor and manage any problems that might arise. An example of one such solution currently being employed in cities like Oakland and San Francisco in the US is ShotSpotter (www.

fireworks and gunfire. When the software detects gunfire via its microphone network, it uses the information received from multiple microphones to triangulate the location of the gunfire and, in some cases, depending on the product, provide law enforcement and security with not only the number of shooters involved, but also the type and calibre of the weapons being used. In a city that employs a public CCTV program, some of these gunfire detection programs can also be integrated with the public CCTV network. Once gunfire is detected, the software can orient Pan Tilt Zoom (PTZ) cameras toward the source of the gunfire, giving police and security crucial intelligence that allows for more effective tactical command and decision making with regard to how many officers are required to respond, as well as other emergency services, and also captures footage of the incident and other vital acoustic information (such as the number of shots fired), which can be used as forensic evidence at a later date. In cities such as San Francisco, where this type of program has been employed by local police, gun-related violence has halved since the introduction of the technology. Safe City Programs Many of the major cities around Australia have introduced a Safe City or public CCTV program in the last decade. While some people argue that such programs do not stop crime but simply displace it, there can be little doubt

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that, where deployed, such programs do appear to be achieving a positive result. If this is accepted as fact, the next question becomes what more might authorities be able to do with a public CCTV system in a smart city? Imagine being able to turn an entire city into a biometric detection network during the hunt for a wanted or even suspected criminal. Imagine if the same gunfire detection system could also be programmed to listen for cries for help and then direct the local CCTV cameras toward the site of the distressed individual, allowing operators to assess the situation and deploy resources accordingly. Building on this scenario, what if the directional gunfire detection microphones, along with the CCTV cameras, were housed in or atop public pillars that also housed useful, community safety aids such as Automatic Electronic Defibrillators (AED); an IP intercom from which people might call for help; electronic signage that could not only be used to advertise local events, but also to broadcast safety information (such as weather warnings, evacuation information, public service announcements and the like) in the event of an emergency; flood lighting; and useful public amenities such as Wi-Fi hotspots. Those same towers might also act as nodes in a mesh network that allows smart buildings to communicate information about the number of people on site in the event of a fire, or fire alarm information back to local emergency services. That same mesh network might also relay information about the amount of energy a building is using in the case of publically owned buildings, with a view to reducing carbon emissions. Additionally, that same building might also use the local mesh network to communicate the number of people occupying or leaving a building in the event of an emergency, or to help coordinate


There can be little doubt that interconnected systems... will form the hub of tomorrow’s smart cities. However, this in itself raises a number of interesting security challenges. traffic and public transport requirements. It might be feasible to use the mesh network, along with public CCTV and video analytics, to detect objects left in public spaces, such as an explosive device, or highlight unusual or aberrant behaviour, such as a person wearing a heavy overcoat on a warm summer’s day – a ploy which might conceal a bomb vest. By flagging such behaviour for further investigation by police or security on the ground, the smart city system could effectively provide the kind of information necessary to potentially avoid an attack. There can be little doubt that interconnected systems, or the Internet of Things (IoT) so to speak, will form the hub of tomorrow’s smart cities. However, this in itself raises a number of interesting security challenges. Just ask a security systems integrator about the difficulties and complexities involved in simply integrating the disparate systems employed for the purpose of securing a single building. Now imagine how one might begin to integrate heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC),

traffic control, lift automation, access control, CCTV, public transport control and the like across an entire city. Furthermore, who would have overarching control and authority over, and ultimately responsibility for, all of those interconnected systems? Who would write the policies and procedures for how such systems will be integrated, maintained, employed, monitored, managed and serviced? Who would pay for those systems to be monitored, maintained and managed? What happens when a city crashes, or when a city becomes infected by malware or a virus? Who would be responsible for protecting all the interconnected systems, as there can be little doubt that a connected city makes for an attractive cyber attack target. And how might one assess the threat to a city based on possible attack vectors, which would vary from city to city? Each city would need to be individual in its approach to these questions and each city would require different levels of threat assessment. In a connected city, cybersecurity is king! Low-level subsystems can quickly become significant avenues of penetration for anyone looking to affect higher order systems or carry out an attack. For example, why would anyone waste time trying to attack a heavily protected electrical grid to shut down the power and thus the security systems at a major event, when he could simply attack a low-level system such as the stop signals for the rail system? After all, if police and security cannot get to work, then the security at a high-profile event becomes compromised. There should be little doubt that while the smart cities of the future offer a myriad of security challenges, they also offer a wide array of security benefits. The benefits alluded to in this article are just a small handful of the many systems and solutions already on



trial around the globe – from coordinated response by emergency services to improved traffic flow management, improved transport capacity management and so on. One cannot help but wonder where it all might end. What if individual citizens became parts of the smart city security apparatus? What if, in an emergency, every camera and microphone on every smartphone within a given radius could be remotely triggered and monitored, turning every person in the vicinity of a terrorist attack into a covert intelligence gathering tool, providing law enforcement with thousands of eyes and ears delivering data in real time? What if it were possible to geo-fence and monitor social media communications within a city to predict potential problems such as terrorist attacks, riots or other forms of violent civil unrest? As many readers would know, such technology is not only possible, it exists and can and is being used by various governments around the globe for security purposes today. In the context of a smart or safe city, it is just another tool to help improve safety and security while minimising disruption to day-to-day life. Helping to Create a Cleaner Planet Security systems in smart cities of the future will achieve much more than just a safer, more secure future. Those same security systems can and will play an instrumental role in creating a cleaner, more sustainable future. Public buildings will be capable, through their security systems, of determining if a room is unoccupied and shut down lighting, HVAC, digital signage and IT systems accordingly. Imagine a system that could analyse electricity consumption and usage across an entire city to better understand usage patterns and reduce unnecessary waste. In New York, the New York City Housing Authority owns and operates somewhere in the vicinity of 570 buildings across New York City, Staten Island, The Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn and Manhattan, comprising roughly 178,000


There should be little doubt that while the smart cities of the future offer a myriad of security challenges, they also offer a wide array of security benefits.

apartments. Until as recently as only a few years ago, each of those building was heated during winter by boilers located in the basement of each building, which distributed heat to each apartment. There were no thermostats or other means of controlling the level of heat in the building because there was no way for the city to monitor the temperature in each building. Each boiler simply ran flat out 24/7 during winter, with residents opening windows to let the heat out when it became too hot. The cost of heating all the apartments, both financially and environmentally, was enormous, not to mention the security dangers that came with leaving windows open all evening. It was only when wireless mesh networks were introduced across the city to allow for the monitoring of elevator control systems and CCTV systems in the mid-2000s that the city was finally able to monitor and manage the temperature control in its buildings, thus significantly reducing its cost and environmental impact. Security is set to play a large role in smart cities of the future and will be a significant source of challenge, revenue and growth for the security industry. It is up to the industry to determine how it will take advantage of this growing market.

Security systems in smart cities of the future will achieve much more than just a safer, more secure future. Those same security systems can and will play an instrumental role in creating a cleaner, more sustainable future.



Control Orders




By Anna Richards Given the recent controversy over the introduction of what some describe as draconian laws relating to evading the risk of terrorist-related acts, it seemed an apt time to examine and inform readers about the current status of the law. The main piece of legislation that deals with control orders is the Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth) (the Act), which is a federal law. What are the Objectives of the Legislation? Section 104.1 of the Act describes the objectives of the legislation as being to allow obligations, prohibitions and restrictions to be imposed on a person, by a control order, for one or more of the following purposes: • protecting the public from a terrorist act; • preventing the provision of support for or the facilitation of a terrorist act; • preventing the provision of support for or the facilitation of the engagement in a hostile activity in a foreign country. What is a Terrorist Act? The first thing that needs to be established is exactly what a terrorist act is. ‘Terrorist act’ means an action or threat of action where: (a) the action falls within subsection (2) and does not fall within subsection (3) of section 100.1 of the Act; and (b) the action is done or the threat is made with the intention of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause; and (c) the action is done or the threat is made with the intention of: a. coercing, or influencing, by intimidation, any part of a state, territory or the Commonwealth government of Australia or the government of a foreign country; or b. intimidating the public or a section of the public. Section 101.1 (2) clarifies that the conduct must: • cause serious harm that is physical harm to a person; or • cause serious damage to property; or • endanger a person’s life (other than the life of the offending person); or • create a serious risk to the health or safety of


the public (or a section of it); or • seriously interfere with, seriously disrupt or destroy an electronic system, including but not limited to: o an information system; or o a telecommunications system; or o a financial system; or o a system used for the delivery of essential government services; or o a system used for, or by, an essential public utility; or o a system used for, or by, a transport system. The following conduct does not amount to conduct constituting a terrorist act: • advocacy, protest, dissent or industrial action which is not intended to: o cause serious harm that is physical harm to a person; or o cause a person’s death; or o endanger the life of a person (other than the person so acting); or o create a serious risk to the health or safety of the public (or a section of it). What is a Control Order? A control order is a type of court order which has the effect of regulating the conduct of the person who is the subject of it. The Act clearly limits the types of restrictions or obligations that such an order can impose. That is, courts cannot impose any sorts of obligations or restrictions that the judge thinks appropriate. The court is constrained by what the Act empowers it to impose. Section 104.5 (3) of the Act states that the obligations, prohibitions and restrictions that the court may impose on the person who is the subject of a control order are: • a prohibition or restriction on the person being at specified areas or places; • a prohibition or restriction on the person leaving Australia; • a requirement that the person remain at specified premises between specified times each day, or on specified days, but for no more than 12 hours within any 24 hours; • a requirement that the person wear a tracking device;

• a prohibition or restriction on the person communicating or associating with specified individuals; • a prohibition or restriction on the person accessing or using specified forms of communication or other technology (including the Internet); • a prohibition or restriction on the person possessing or using certain specific articles or substances; • a prohibition or restriction on the person carrying out specified activities (including in respect of his or her work or occupation); • a requirement that the person report to specified persons at specified times; • a requirement that the person allow himself or herself to be photographed; • a requirement that the person allow impressions of his or her fingerprints to be taken; and • a requirement that the person participate in specified counselling or education. Applying for a Control Order Not surprisingly, it is not a simple process to obtain a control order against a person. Where the circumstances are not urgent, a member of the Australian Federal Police (AFP) is required to obtain the prior written approval of the Attorney General before even applying to a court for a control order. However, in urgent cases, a member of the AFP can apply directly to the court for one. Further, section 104.2 (2) of the Act states that a member of the AFP may only seek the approval of the Attorney General to seek an interim control order where the member: • suspects, on reasonable grounds, that the order (with the proposed conditions of it) would substantially assist in preventing a terrorist act; or • suspects, on reasonable grounds, that the person (against whom the control order is sought): o provided training to, received training from or participated in training with a listed terrorist organisation; or o engaged in a hostile activity in a foreign country; or o has been convicted, in Australia,

of an offence relating to terrorism, a terrorist organisation (within the meaning of subsection 102.1 (1)) or a terrorist act (within the meaning of section 100.1); or o has been convicted, in a foreign country, of an offence, the conduct constituting which, if carried out in Australia, would amount to a terrorism offence (within the meaning of subsection 3 (1) of the Crimes Act 1914); or • suspects, on reasonable grounds, that the order (with the proposed conditions of it) would substantially assist in preventing the provision of support for or the facilitation of a terrorist act; or • suspects, on reasonable grounds, that the person has provided support for or otherwise facilitated the engagement in a hostile activity in a foreign country. How Easy is it to Obtain a Control Order? Section 104.4 of the Act provides that a court can only make an interim control order if: • the senior member of the AFP has requested it and complied with the requirements and procedures set out under section 104.3 (which are not outlined in this article due to lack of space); and • the court has received and considered any further information that it requested; and • the court is satisfied, on the balance of probabilities (meaning ‘more probable than not’) that: o the making of the order would substantially assist in preventing a terrorist act; or o the person has provided training to, received training from or participated in training with a listed terrorist organisation; or o the person has engaged in a hostile activity in a foreign country; or o the person has been convicted, in Australia, of an offence relating to terrorism, a terrorist organisation (within the meaning of subsection 102.1) or a terrorist act (within the meaning of section 100.1); or o the person has been convicted, in a foreign country, of an offence

Restrictions on Obtaining a Control Order The most pertinent of the restrictions on obtaining a control order are outlined below.

The Act clearly limits the types of restrictions or obligations that such an order can impose. The court is constrained by what the Act empowers it to impose.

constituted by conduct which, if carried out in Australia, would amount to a terrorism offence (within the meaning of section 3 (1) of the Crimes Act 1914); or o making the order would substantially assist in preventing the provision of support for or the facilitation of a terrorist act; or o the person has provided support for or otherwise facilitated the engagement in a hostile activity in a foreign country; and • the court is satisfied, on the balance of probabilities (meaning ‘more probable than not’), that each of the obligations, prohibitions and restrictions to be imposed on the person by the order is reasonably necessary, and reasonably appropriate and adapted, for the purpose of: o protecting the public from a terrorist act; or o preventing the provision of support for or the facilitation of a terrorist act; or o preventing the provision of support for or the facilitation of the engagement in a hostile activity in a foreign country.

Age restrictions As the laws currently stand, a control order cannot be made against a person who is under 16 years of age (although there is discussion that this might be lowered to 14). However, this restriction is currently being reviewed by the Government and may well be removed or curtailed. Factors to be taken into account When the court decides what conditions of the control order should be appropriately imposed, it must take into account the impact of the obligation, prohibition or restriction on the person’s circumstances (including his or her personal and financial circumstances). Requirement to participate in counselling or education Even this requirement can only be imposed if the person who is the subject of the control order agrees to such a condition of it. Section 104.5 (6) of the Act provides that a person is required to participate in specified counselling or education only if he or she agrees, at the time of the counselling or education, to participate in it. Anna Richards is the legal director and a lawyer from Victorian Legal Solutions Pty Ltd. She practises in the areas of commercial law, including commercial litigation, and other areas. Anna and Victorian Legal Solutions can be contacted via email info@victorianlegalsolutions. com or by telephone on (03) 9872 4381 or 0419 229 142. Visit www.victorianlegalsolutions. com for more information. Whilst every effort has been taken to ensure its accuracy, the information contained in this article is intended to be used as a general guide only and should not be interpreted or taken as being specific advice, legal or otherwise. The reader should seek professional advice of a suitably qualified practitioner before relying upon any of the information contained herein. This article and the opinions contained in it represent the opinions of the author and do not necessarily represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or any advertiser or other contributor to Security Solutions Magazine.




Islamic State Routes

Out Of Africa By Anooshe Aisha Mushtaq Most nations are focusing on the near-threat of home grown terrorism; however, there still remains the threat from those overseas – the threat from afar. Is there the potential for trained fighters to enter Australia through the exploitation of refugee routes out of North Africa?



While Australia and the United States remain focused on Islamic State (IS) activities in Syria and Iraq, jihadist groups are capitalising on government instabilities in North Africa to expand their control in the region. This expansion poses major risks for more than just these North African nations. The more significant risk is that jihadi groups are spreading their networks in Europe, the Middle East and the Sahel region of Africa. The Arab spring that began in 2010 has dramatically reshaped North Africa’s political and security environment. Political instability in Libya, Egypt and Tunisia has contributed to a proliferation of terrorist and criminal networks in the region. There is now cause to believe that these networks are also exploiting North Africa’s advantageous location for drug smuggling and human trafficking into Europe. Further, IS is heavily investing in control of North Africa’s most important resource to expand its global power base – North African youth. Movement of these recruited youth and other sympathisers into and back out of Europe will have significant, unexplored consequences for regional development prospects, Australian economic interests and Australian domestic security.

since been responsible for the executions of more than 10,000 people in Iraq and Syria. As a terrorist movement, IS has succeeded in establishing itself in a very short period of time, and its influence and power should not be underestimated. Entrenched local conflict in Syria and Iraq produced conditions for IS to secure significant territorial gains in the region. After the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime in 2003, Iraq was plunged into war between the country’s two main Muslim sects, Sunni and Shiite, leading to unprecedented political chaos. The 2003 United States-led invasion of Iraq exacerbated ethno-sectarian tensions. The lives of most of Baghdad’s residents changed profoundly, with walls of division created between neighbourhoods, not just physically, but also socially between the Sunnis and Shiites. The IS has proven very successful at capitalising on these divisions to consolidate its power and expand territory. “But it is not just the land itself,” explained Terrence McCoy, a reporter for The Washington Post, on 4th August, 2014, “it is what the land holds that suggests the true extent of the Islamic State’s power.” “It now controls a volume of resources and territory unmatched in the history of extremist organisations,” wrote Defence expert Janine Davidson of the Council on Foreign Relations. She added, “Should Islamic State Islamic State [the Islamic State] Routes to Europe Routes to Syria and Iraq continue this pattern Islamic State of Iraq and of consolidation Syria (ISIS) DERN and expansion, this terrorist ‘army’ will eventually be able to exert a destabilising influence far beyond the immediate area.” Rise of the Islamic State This accumulation of resources has IS, as reflected in one of its original names, permitted the consolidation of other Sunni the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL), extremist groups and increased IS appeal as is a jihadi Salafist militant group born out of a legitimate organisation for jihadists around Iraq and Syria. Also referred to as the Islamic the world. State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah (Daesh), IS rose to prominence in Iraq in 2014 and has an estimated 11,000 to 13,000 militants scattered throughout Syria and Iraq. Its international profile has, in part, been bolstered by widespread media coverage of its brutality, including the 2014 beheading of journalist James Foley. The organisation has


Islamic State Interest in North Africa War and instability enable terrorist organisations to credit themselves as a viable alternative to the chaos left by established and existing regimes. Political turmoil in Libya is an example of how a state can facilitate the emergence

of jihadist groups. It is now believed that the African branch of the IS emerged in Derna, a port city in eastern Libya. Though Derna has a long history of Islamic radicalisation, IS’s presence in the city did not gain international attention until June 2014. IS expansionist strategies in regional areas are highly sophisticated and adopt a prescribed hierarchy. The Jund/Jounoud al-Khalifah (soldiers of caliphate) are well organised and equipped in the whole region. Terrorist activities are usually carried out by small numbers, usually no more than five people to minimise losses in case of retaliation. Each subgroup is led by an experienced leader who acts at his turn under the leadership of the Emir or Amīr al-Mu’minin (Commander of the Faithful). Each Emir also has a chief who works directly under the order of the Caliph. IS is also adopting the same expansionist strategies in controlled areas of Libya as in Syria and Iraq, including the use of jizya (taxes) on local people and Western businesses. Jizya is then used to buy weapons, ammunition and train new recruits. IS utilises anti-Western, kafir (non-believer) rhetoric to encourage youth to espouse Islamic Wahhabi and Salafi faith. Western way of life is posited as unrighteous, thus, war against the West presents not just a moral imperative but religious duty. The notion that the organisation’s leaders are direct descendants of Prophet Muhammad with a mission to destroy evil is also a powerful motivator for these recruits. Recruitment is key to IS’s North African ambitions. The IS’s Caliph, Abu Bakr alBaghdadi, proclaims himself to be a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad with a mission to purify the world from evil and Western ways. The establishment of an Islamic Caliphate in North Africa would significantly advance the group’s objective, not only because of its logistical significance, but also as a source of valuable human capital – North African youth. Libyans are fluent in Italian; Tunisians and Algerians are fluent in French; and Moroccans can speak Spanish. IS leverages the multilinguistic skills of young North African recruits to spread the jihadi message to Europe. Once in Europe, it is easy for these youth to blend with locals and start recruiting other young jihadis. IS primarily targets young people, usually European nationals, but also those who reside in other Western countries such as the US and

Australia. The aim of this recruitment strategy is twofold. Firstly, it gives them access to European residents who may not yet be known to security organisations. Secondly, it provides IS with intellectuals who can communicate in foreign languages and may hold degrees in electronics or engineering. This valuable source of human capital provides the means by which the jihadists can expand their sphere of influence. In addition to their linguistic and technical capabilities, recruits are also trained in more traditional areas of terrorism, such as fighting techniques, to prepare them for combat situations in war zones. At present, IS’s strategic plan appears to be succeeding. Increasing numbers of young jihadis from Africa and the West are attracted to join these militant organisations. Continued recruitment of North African youth combined with expanding strongholds in the region has significant implications not only for regional security and development, but also for the West as these groups take control of routes from Africa to Europe. Out of Africa and Back It is from Derna that a local observer believes radical Islamic preachers begin their journey from the African continent to proselytise Western European youth. It is reported that the preachers’ route from Derna is an arduous passage, beginning with crossing the Libyan border into Ben Gardane, Tunisia. Their journey then continues to the regional capital of Sousse, in Northern Tunisia, where there is limited government control, which allows these radical Islamic preachers to function freely in Mosques. Here they are able to attract Muslim support and perhaps even recruit more jihadists. IS has taken advantage of the weak government to establish a robust operation in Sousse as a primary departure point for human trafficking into European countries via the Tyrrhenian Sea. Militants who use this route are trained to exploit personal contacts, predominately those in Spain and Belgium. These areas in Europe are believed to be the main strongholds for IS’s sleeper cells. Morocco is also a potential hub for Islamic militants due to the population’s expansive connections to the over one million Moroccans now living in Spain and Belgium. Once they enter these countries they are able to train recruiters before dispersing into neighbouring countries.

The same militants and extremist preachers are then able to route back into North Africa from Europe via the Mediterranean Sea, particularly from Italy. Eastern Hawaria in Tunisia is a likely spot for re-entry into the continent. Those arriving include IS veterans returning to North Africa to give renewed direction to the African terrorist organisations. Thousands of Libyans and Tunisians who have joined the ranks of the organisation are now being trained by veterans from the wars in Syria and Iraq. Implications of Increased Islamic State Activity in North Africa Terrorism and continued socio-economic deterioration throughout Northern Africa is a major factor in forcing individuals and families to risk their lives to cross the Mediterranean Sea in the hope of reaching safe haven in Europe. The United Nations reported last month that attacks by radical Islamic groups, particularly IS-affiliated Boko Haram, are responsible for the displacement of approximately 2.3 million people since May 2013. At the recent 24th Annual African Union summit, Dr Nkosazana Clarice Dlamini-Zuma expressed, “…the brutality of Boko Haram against our people, the senseless killings, the destruction of property, the enslavement and sale of our people, our girls kidnapped and married and the terrorization of villages are a threat to our collective safety, security and development.” The economic impacts of terrorist activity in North Africa continue to hinder development objectives in the region. Tunisian tourism, which accounted for more than 14 percent of the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2014, has suffered a tremendous blow in the wake of two separate attacks on tourist locations in 2015. IS has claimed responsibility for the July attack at a seaside resort in Sousse that resulted in the deaths of 38 tourists, all but one of which were from Western Europe. As also alluded by SAGE International Director, Dr John Bruni, it is not just Africans caught in the direct crossfire of terrorist activity who are deciding to leave. Incremental economic growth in African nations, rather than inspiring loyalty in promising youth, has permitted them to seek ‘greener pastures’ in the developed world. These emigrations further curtail the region’s development potential, and foster conditions in which terrorist and criminal networks thrive.

Increased terrorist activity in North Africa also presents significant risks to Australian economic interests in the region. Of particular concern is the rise of Wilayat Sinai, a group allied to IS, whose territorial interests border the Suez Canal. Occupation of these highly strategic areas presents major risks to the security of ships crossing the canal. Territorial advances by extremist groups in these areas also pose major risks to Australian companies operating in North Africa. Australian investments in the region include nearly one hundred companies, the majority of which are in the mining, oil and gas sectors. Wilayat Sinai has led several offensives against both Egyptian and international forces in Northern Sinai, where it has been successful in garnering local support in an area known to be hostile to the current government. These advances, coupled with emerging evidence of the group’s sophisticated weaponry, including anti-aircraft missiles, continue to incite uneasiness in neighbouring Israel. The consequences of continued territorial advances by IS in North Africa warrant more Australian attention. In addition to Australia’s economic interests in the region, Australia’s domestic security could also be at stake. IS control of routes between North Africa and Europe not only foster expanded networks on both continents, but also introduce new complexities for Australian border security. Whilst current immigration and refugee policy have thus far succeeded in preventing terrorists from entering Australia, the process of identifying jihadists with European backgrounds will be decidedly more complex in years to come.

Anooshe Aisha Mushtaq is a first generation Australian of Pakistani origin. She spent her early years in Pakistan and several years in Libya on posting with her family. Since her arrival in Sydney in 1985, Anooshe has experienced first-hand the changing cultural landscape of Australia. She is studying a Masters of Terrorism and Security at Charles Sturt University. She has published extensively and spoken on the topic of Muslim youth radicalisation, violent extremism, Islamic State’s ideology and national security threats.




Loss Prevention Strategies To Curb Christmas Chaos By Gerard May In any year, achieving minimal retail theft is largely determined by the effectiveness of loss prevention methods over the Christmas retail period. This is the result of a sharp jump in attempted theft occurring concurrently with a dramatic increase in retail sales. Therefore, if during this time loss prevention managers (LPMs) get loss prevention methods right, retail shrinkage for the year will be greatly reduced. Conversely, if they get it wrong, they may find themselves in the uncomfortable position of explaining failed methods to company leadership. The timeframe for the Christmas period varies from store to store and industry to industry; however, generally speaking, it is the period between mid-December and midJanuary. A successful Christmas policy needs to consider and adapt methods to the structural, environmental and strategic changes occurring during this challenging time of the year.

the floor. Secondly, more store sales browsers

Structural Strategy Leading up to Christmas, structural changes occur in retail stores across the country for the betterment of sales and to the detriment of theft reduction. Such changes include the introduction of new promotional materials and the repositioning of store sales browsers. Promotional materials such as sales posters hang down and block the view of those monitoring the store from CCTV cameras and

Influencing Strategy Store managers and their staff can become significantly focused on sales leading up to Christmas whilst loss prevention can take a back seat in their thinking. LPMs should be proactive to ensure loss prevention is a store priority during Christmas. An effective way LPMs can do this is to become an attendee at manager meetings of retail staff leading up to and during the Christmas period. This will provide

are introduced onto the shop floor. For example, a common retail strategy is to position ‘bargain tables’ at the front of the store offering cheap merchandise with the aim of drawing in those passing by. Such tables create clusters of stagnant customers at the front of the store which, when coupled with overhanging promotional posters, significantly reduces visibility and mobility for loss prevention officers (LPOs) and subsequently reduces the likelihood of identifying and preventing theft. There are ways to reduce this risk, such as identifying high-risk products and positioning them in areas where they are visible to LPOs and/or store staff. For example, if there is a static LPO at the front of the store, try putting high-risk product in his vicinity. Alternatively, if possible, move a browser with high-risk product into the line of sight of staff behind the counter.

a forum to filter critically important information to leaders about where store theft hotspots are emerging and what they should be encouraging their staff to do to prevent theft. For example, a time-tested method is to encourage counter staff to leave the store counter when possible and provide help to customers throughout the store. Not only is this good customer service, it is also good loss prevention because it may draw unwanted attention to a potential shoplifter and deter the act. Another bonus in attending manager meetings is they provide access to early in-store intelligence on any structural changes, such as how the store’s layout is going to change. By being at these meetings, LPMs will be provided the opportunity to voice concerns and influence key decision makers about how things may be done while keeping theft prevention in mind. There are other ways to get theft prevention in the minds of store staff. Such strategies include sticking newspaper articles and police media releases of retail theft and credit card fraud on store noticeboards and lockers. Every Christmas, such stories make their way into newspapers. These stories often interest staff, generate discussion and, most importantly, make staff aware of the possibilities of how theft may take place and what the result can be of not being vigilant. Furthermore, prior to Christmas, store retail managers facilitate team talks to



get their staff focused to meet the company’s Christmas objectives. LPMs can use these meetings to their benefit by presenting to staff on where theft hotspots are located and inform staff on what they can do to prevent theft. A smart way of doing this is to show recent store CCTV footage of a store staff member thwarting theft, knowingly or unknowingly, from occurring. Even the simple motion of a staff member preventing theft by walking up to the potential shoplifter and asking him if he needs help can be very effective. Selling the prevention story this way will help make theft real to retail staff who are often oblivious to how it occurs, and it will demonstrate what they can do to prevent it. During Christmas, retailers may have hundreds of customers entering their store every hour, with loss prevention staff numbering as little as zero at times during the day. Therefore, aware and proactive retail staff during the Christmas period can make a significant difference, so get them on side and proactive for the Christmas rush. LPO Policy As the structural environment changes and the number of customers increases, so must the methods of reducing theft. Things to consider include areas to monitor and movement on the floor. In addition, LPMs should consider how much to arrest or not arrest during Christmas. Those who have arrested during Christmas understand waiting times for police can double compared to other times of the year. As a result, if arrests are made and the police are called, LPOs may be away from the retail floor with the offender for anywhere up to two hours or more. Not having overt (uniform) or covert (plain clothed) LPOs on the floor for this amount of time could leave the store unprotected to major theft. There are options that can be adopted to work around this. If, for example, a store’s majority of customers enter between 12 p.m. and 3 p.m. then a policy could be implemented where loss prevention staff could arrest shoplifters before 11 a.m. and after 3 p.m. By doing so, LPMs are ensuring there are


A successful Christmas policy needs to consider and adapt methods to the structural, environmental and strategic changes occurring during this challenging time of the year.

loss prevention staff monitoring the retail floor during the critical times. However, this policy will still allow for arresting during early and late parts of the day, which in some environments is a critical tool for theft reduction. Contract LPOs Often, LPMs will hire contract LPOs during Christmas because of the increased workload. LPMs should endeavour to get good contract staff locked into working their store(s) as early as possible before the Christmas rush. Effective contract LPOs are usually the same contractors used during the year because they have performed their tasks admirably. However, such motivated and skilled contractors will be noticed by other companies and will be in demand for their services during Christmas. It is critical to be the first to lock them in to the Christmas roster because, as well as being capable and motivated, they will be familiar with the surroundings and policies of the store. Therefore, unlike new employees, there is no need to provide lengthy inductions to teach store policies, hotspots and products. As a result, it is beneficial to lock in good contract employees as soon as possible so LPMs know they will have trained, competent and motivated staff. LPO Wellbeing During the Christmas period, LPMs need LPOs who are motivated and alert whilst customer numbers and workload may dramatically increase. LPMs should ensure LPOs have regular breaks to recuperate and distribute incentives for positive performance. Regular breaks and incentives will help to foster fresh, alert and team-orientated LPOs, which will help to reach positive outcomes in often demanding and stressful circumstances.

Gerard May was a retail loss prevention officer, analyst and strategist for eight years. For comment and discussion, he can be contacted at

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HR Resilience:

The Future Of Human Resource Management In The Australian Security Industry 078 SECURITY SOLUTIONS



By Greg Byrne This is the second article in a series of four articles written for Security Solutions Magazine on human resource (HR) resilience and the implications strong, resilient and robust HR systems and enabled HR professionals will have on organisations in and associated with the security industry in Australia. This article will focus on the development of a resilient chief human resource officer (CHRO) and argue that for people management in the Australian security industry to keep pace with change, competition and globalisation, the CHRO is essential. Further, the CHRO must be equal in status and importance as the chief financial officer (CFO) and should sit on the board or with the senior management team. The History of Human Resource Management in Australia Professor Robin Kramer, in the 10th edition of the Australian Master Human Resource Guide (2013), gives account of the four eras of human resource management in Australia. The first is the welfare and administration era, which began at the turn of the 20th century when Australia’s economy was based on primary production and developing into a powerhouse of mass production. The 1940s and the 1970s saw rapid economic growth and the emergence of the personnel management and industrial relations era, and the corresponding creation of people management positions such as personnel managers and industrial relations managers. The mid-1970s saw the emergence of globalisation, deregulation, reductions in tariff protection and the strategic HRM era. This era saw the phasing out of the personnel and industrial relations managers and emergence of the strategic human resource manager (HRM). The HRM was a vehicle to develop HR systems and respond to an increasingly complex and fluid industrial relations environment and a growing organisational development (OD) movement. The current era of people management began in the 2000s and is known as the era of sustainable human resource management. This current period is focused on the development of human capital and sustainable HR practices and management overall. This era has forced the


Drivers of change for the Australian security industry will be digitalisation, globalisation, developing business trends and changing concepts. Security businesses will respond in a number of ways, one of which will be to change ways people are managed and deployed.

HRM to evolve as an interdisciplinary operator with an expanded role (Kramer, 2013). Some of the drivers of organisational change have been: knowledge management, intellectual capital, work/life balance, employer of choice, war for talent, virtual workplace, and human resource information systems (HRIS). Charan, Barton and Carey (2015) state that as the concepts of HR management develop and the demands on the HRM increase, the role of the HRM will migrate into a new CHRO that is embraced by CEOs and boards, and relied upon to assist companies to fully develop and reach their full potential. The CHRO Drivers of change for the Australian security industry will be digitalisation, globalisation, developing business trends and changing concepts. Security businesses will respond in a number of ways, one of which will be to change ways people are managed and deployed. According to Charan et al (2015), Bolza (2015) and Benko, Gorman and Steinberg (2014), the role of the CHRO will emerge and partner the CFO and CEO to build talent, unravel energy and keep the organisation at the forefront of the competitive curve. To enable this, the CEO and/or board will create an additional strategic partner in the CHRO and move away from mundane administrative tasks such as wages and management of annual leave, which can be outsourced relatively cheaply

(the Western Sydney University is in the process of doing just that and has just recruited the equivalent of a CHRO). This process will place the CHRO in the position company accountants were in the 1980s when they were made CFOs and will see people management systems that are truly resilient – resilient to external pressures and internal manipulation and mismanagement. CEO’s Obligation The CHRO should enter into contracts that clearly enunciate the expectations of the owner/board, the expected level of interaction with the CFO and the desired output. As a minimum, a CHRO should possess all the qualities as detailed in the Australian Human Resource Institute’s Model of Excellence. Based on this, the minimum skills required are 1. predicting outcomes, 2. problem solving and 3. delivering solutions that value add and deliver on mission and strategy. Bolza (2015) believes that there is a widening skill gap between what is expected of CHROs and their actual skill base. In late 2014 to early 2015, Aon Hewitt’s advisory group of clients found that fewer than half of CHROs actually came from anHR background, most did not ask to be appointed in to the role, and many are endeavouring to seek rotations out of the CHRO role. Further, Benko, Gorman and Rose (2014) believe there is a critical shortage of talent in the HR profession and all industries, including

the security industry, need to act urgently. One of the vehicles of knowledge acquisition will be the development of staff from within and through smart staff recruitment. There are five basic skills required of CHROs in the Australian security industry: 1. An understanding of owner’s/board’s/CEO’s expectations as they relate to people development and management and how human capital is able to contribute to the mission and strategy of the company. 2. Proven ability to work with the board and senior management team (c-suite). 3. Ability to build trust and networks internally and externally to promote the organisation’s best interests. 4. Ability to continuously adapt and re-prioritise strategies so they continue as a fit with the everchanging operating environment in the Australian security industry. 5. Soft skills and behaviours such as effective decision making, a learning mindset, resilience and problem-solving skills that will allow the CHRO to identify why an organisation is not performing well or meeting target. The Approach If it is accepted that the CHRO is important to create a resilient HR department, then the implementation and development of the role should be done with careful consideration and good judgement. It is suggested that large security companies identify, recruit and appoint a HR professional, enter the person into a binding contract and integrate the position into the boardroom alongside the CFO. As suggested by Charan et al (2015), there is no need to have any other people at the table because there is clear linkage between financial numbers and the people who produce them. All management positions in the company could report directly to either of those three positions. The client manager, risk manager and operations manager could report directly to the CEO. The personnel manager and/or industrial relations manager could report to the CHRO and the finance department to the CFO. In smaller companies that cannot afford a fully devoted HR professional

position, the role of CFO/CHRO could be dual or the CEO (owner) could skill up on HR principals and systems sufficiently to competently carry out the role. An international CEO was recently interviewed regarding this CFO, CHRO and CEO structure and stated, “It adds significant value.” Yet another stated, “The CFO and a CHRO structure has charted a way forward for our company whilst working together to consider financial and talent considerations.” To create a resilient HR department, the CHRO should develop excellent soft skills and concentrate on talent management. Excellent soft skills will enable the CHRO to put the issues on the table; explain to the board what the problems are, where they came from and what the company should do about them. Talent management includes identifying hidden talent and vertically moving that person through the organisation. Recruitment of talent is also seen as a method of increasing HR resilience as it boosts a company’s responsiveness to the external environment and internally develops capabilities such as knowledge of analytics, algorithms and the willingness to change rapidly. Resilience development also involves avoiding certain behaviours. This would include, for example, in medium and large organisations, transactional and administrative work of HR, which could be delegated to junior staff reporting to the CHRO or removed from the HR function all together. As highlighted by Charan et al (2015), Netflix devolved traditional HR functions to finance and made the CHRO purely responsible for talent scouting and coaching. The NSW Government has created shared service departments that are headed up by CFOs or directors who administer wages, entitlements, compensation, recoup of invoices, and manage workers’ compensation. Performance of the CHRO As with any industry, measuring the performance of a CHRO will be problematic for the security industry. HR has traditionally been judged on the delivery of tangible outcomes and not so much on the creation of a resilient HR department or culture. To measure the performance of a CHRO,

security management should still measure tangible outputs, but change what is measured. They should link the CHRO’s performance to revenue, profit margin, brand recognition, or market share. But do it in such a way that reflects how the outcome has been affected by the actions or performance of people. For example, staff movements that result in changes in bottom line performance, skills development, critical recruitment appointments, or sorting out conflict that is affecting the confidence of a client. All this is observable, verifiable and closely related to the company’s performance and numbers. The Transition to the New HR Any CEO or board of a security organisation in Australia that recognises people are capable of either being the ultimate source of competitive advantage or literally bringing the organisation to its knees must take the rejuvenation and elevation of the HR function seriously. Creating a mechanism that knits the CFO and the CHRO together will improve the business and expand the CEO’s personal capability. It will not happen overnight – studies have shown that in larger organisations, the transition could take up to three years. Creating ways to blend business and people acumen should follow. Redesigning career tracks and talent reviews will take the company further still. But none of this will happen unless the CEO personally embraces the challenge, makes a three-year commitment and starts executing. For a full reference list, email: Greg Byrne is the CEO of MultiSec Consultancy Pty Ltd. Recently retired from the NSW Police Force after 32 years, Greg currently teaches an undergraduate diploma in policing at Western Sydney University and is a sub-editor and board member of the Australian Police Journal. His academic qualifications include Master of Management, Diploma of HR, Grad Cert in Leadership and a Diploma in Security Risk Management. Greg also possesses a current NSW security licence – class 2ABD. He can be contacted via email



Are Commercial Airlines Vulnerable To Ground Fire? By Steve Lawson How great a threat to civil aviation are ManPortable Air-Defence Systems (MANPADS)? Is the fear in the media surrounding MANPADS justified? I had begun work on this article before the Metrojet incident in the Sinai. However, that incident clearly demonstrates the fear surrounding the use of MANPADS by terrorists. My company is contracted to provide security services to a U.S. Airline. We act as the airline’s Security Department and that airline regularly operates into conflict zones. Consequently, the Metrojet incident was of great interest to us. Within hours of the incident, our immediate advice to the airline said, in part; “in the absence of military involvement, it is unlikely that the aircraft was taken down by a terrorist MANPAD.” The advice continued; “MANPADS generally used by terrorists have the ability to engage aircraft between three and seven kilometres away and can reach altitudes of between 10,000 and 15,000 feet above their launch point – although this is dependent upon the target’s bearing to the launcher, and its aspect. To reach an aircraft at 31,000 feet usually requires missile systems or MANPADS operated by the military. There is no evidence of terrorists in the area having weapons with the ability to reach an aircraft at altitude”. It isn’t usual to be able to make such a confident statement within hours of an attack, and, to some extent, we found it annoying that many talking heads continued to suggest MANPADS after the attack since they were


not really a viable attack method for an aircraft flying at altitude. Much of this article is based on work done by my collleague, Bill Dent, while he was at Qantas. His research is still quoted in some government papers on the subject. Attacks on Civil Aircraft using MANPADSGlobal Since the 1950s and before the MH17 incident, there have been 18 confirmed or reasonably suspect incidents involving attacks on Civil Aircraft. Of those, most were either soon after take-off or on approach for landing and the weapons were primarily, but not limited to, shoulder fired weapons (MANPADS). The attacks, and the regions where they occurred, can be broken down as follows: • Africa – 10 incidents • Europe – 4 incidents • Persian Gulf – 1 incident • Off India – 1 incident • Iraq – 2 incidents. Two of the attacks involved military forces mistakenly shooting down Civil Aircraft: • Iran Air Flight 655 misidentified by USS Vincennes; • Siberian Airlines accidentally target by Ukraine Military. Other than the Siberian Airlines aircraft, which was at about 36,000 feet, none of the others were above 20,000 feet.

There has only been a single incident (MH17) of an aircraft flying above 30,000 feet being deliberately shot down anywhere in the world by a terrorist or rebel organisation. In the Metrojet incident, as soon as we understood the altitude of the aircraft, we looked at publically available information indicating that Daesh had access to vehicle mounted systems that would be capable of reaching an aircraft at altitude and found that they do! However, that equipment is reportedly in Syria and it is our contention that Israel would, in all likelihood, have noticed a vehicle with missiles on the back driving across their territory. We also considered the likelihood of Daesh forces dismantling that equipment and transferring it to the Sinai. We did not consider that especially viable. The next thing we looked at was the presence of high ground near the reported flight path of the Metrojet aircraft. The range of a MANPAD is measured above ground level (AGL) so our advice to the airline was that the range of a MANPAD was “10,000 and 15,000 feet above their launch point.” We did not find any ground near the Metrojet flight path sufficiently high enough to allow an attack using MANPADS, the closest high point was Mt Catherine at 8,625 feet above sea level. Consequently, we were confident that we could say that the attack was not a result of a terrorist MANPAD. We were not as confident in our advice about the cause of the downing of the aircraft. That confidence has increased given that the United States Notice to Airmen

There has only been a single incident (MH17) of an aircraft flying above 30,000 feet being deliberately shot down anywhere in the world by a terrorist or rebel organisation.

(NOTAM) for flights across the Sinai did not change after the Metrojet incident. It said before and after the Sinai incident “avoid flying into, out of, within or over the Sinai peninsula… at altitudes below FL260 (26,000 feet)”. We did have, and continue to have, a suspicion (based on almost no evidence I should add) that the incident involved a trusted insider. We asked an expert to look at the device that Daesh say is similar to the one that brought down the aircraft. His advice, based solely on the image of the device claimed to be responsible, is that it would likely blow a hole in the side of the aircraft, possibly leading to the destruction of the aircraft but not so quickly as publically available information suggests. We did quickly recommend to the airline that they introduce slight modifications to their current security search procedures, especially the timing of the search and to more closely examine the area near the forward bulkhead of the aft hold. So what about other attack methods against airborne civil aircraft? To look at that vulnerability, we have looked at small arms attacks on civil aircraft in Afghanistan. It proved to be an interesting review since, while attacks on civil aircraft using small arms are not unknown in Afghanistan, and considering the supposed vulnerability of civil aircraft to ground fire, it was surprising that there are no examples of a fixed wing civil aircraft being downed by small arms fire! There have been 25 incidents involving damage or loss to a fixed wing civil aircraft in Afghanistan. However, none of those involved small arms or any weaponry. All have been deemed as accidents. All terrorist incidents downing civil aircraft have been against rotary wing aircraft. While it cannot be said that there is no threat to civil aviation within Afghanistan, there is no history of attacks on civil fixed wing aircraft.

What about Rocket Propelled Grenades (RPG)? The problem with the RPG is that it has a relatively short range, under 1000m, and is unguided. That isn’t to say that there is no history of an RPG being used against aircraft. However, this type of weapon isn’t usually a threat to civil fixed wing aircraft. However, they are most effective against stationary aircraft or helicopters. There are a number of examples of helicopters being destroyed by RPG and in 1975, two RPGs were launched at an El Al aircraft on the ground in Paris. Neither RPG hit the El Al aircraft but one of the misses did hit a Yugoslav Airlines aircraft. Given the short range, there are few airports in Australia where an RPG would be an effective threat to an aircraft. Additionally, RPGs are not easy to access in Australia. Therefore, given their relative lack of effectiveness and difficulty to obtain, Rocket Propelled Grenades are not a great threat to aviation in Australia, and not much more of a threat outside Australia.

They are able to absorb a significant amount of punishment, especially from small arms fire.

Modern passenger and cargo wide bodied aircraft are designed with multiple redundancies to cope with accidents, including engine explosions, storm damage and bird strike. They are able to absorb a significant amount of punishment, especially from small arms fire. While not immune from attack by RPG or MANPADS, the evidence from attacks elsewhere in the world is that the aircraft is most vulnerable when close to the ground, especially on approach and departure. There is an argument that an aircraft is more vulnerable on approach since the aircraft is not configured to fly. Further, the vulnerability reduces with altitude and the likelihood of damage from small arms fire is negligible above 5000ft AGL, and above 20,000 ft AGL from MANPADS. Notwithstanding the MH17 tragedy, a strike on civil aircraft from any ground-based weapon is negligible above 30,000 ft AGL.

Steve Lawson has over 20 years of experience in aviation security. As a Security Executive with Qantas Airways, Steve held a number of senior management roles covering all aspects of aviation security from policy development to airport operations. He was sent to New York immediately following the 9/11 attacks to manage the Qantas response and undertook a similar role following the 2002 Bali Bombings. On his return to Australia, he was appointed Security Manager Freight for the Qantas Group. Since 2007 he has been a Director of AvSec Consulting in partnership with Bill Dent, a fellow former Qantas Security Exec. Today Avsec Consulting provides consultants from the US, NZ, ME, Israel and Europe. Steve can be contacted on 0404 685 103 or



Q&A Anna Richards

How Much Do You Know About TerrorismRelated Offences And Laws? The serious repercussions of engagement in the types of conduct which fall under the umbrella of the offences covered by the Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth) (the Act) are reflected in the very severe penalties which are applicable, upon conviction. Many of the offences attract penalties involving the imposition of periods of imprisonment of 25 years and, in some cases, of life. The following examines some of those offence provisions of the Act to see exactly what sort of conduct it serves to capture. Advocating Terrorism Section 80.2C of the Act makes it an offence for a person to advocate (which includes encourage or promote) the doing of a terrorist act or the commission of a terrorism offence (which is defined under subsection (2)) recklessly as to whether another person will engage in either act. Conviction of this offence attracts the penalty of imprisonment for a period of five years. There are certain defences available, including where the conduct is carried out in good faith for a number of particular reasons, such as: • to inform the Government of the need for the legislation to be rectified to cure defects; • to inform the Government about matters which may have a tendency to foster ill will between different groups; and • to publish a report or commentary about a matter of public interest. Terrorist Acts Section 101.1 (1) of the Act provides that a person commits an offence if the person engages in a terrorist act. ‘Terrorist act’ means an action, or threat of action, where: (a) the action falls within subsection (2) and does not fall within subsection (3); and


(b) the action is done or the threat is made with the intention of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause; and (c) the action is done or the threat is made with the intention of: a. coercing, or influencing, by intimidation, any part of a state, territory or the Commonwealth government of Australia or the government of a foreign country; or b. intimidating the public or a section of the public. Section 101.1 (2) clarifies that, in order for the offence of committing a terrorist act to be made out, the action must: • cause serious harm that is physical harm to a person; or • cause serious damage to property; or • endanger a person’s life (other than the life of the offending person); or • create a serious risk to the health or safety of the public (or a section of it); or • seriously interfere with, seriously disrupt or destroy an electronic system, including but not limited to: o an information system; or o a telecommunications system; or o a financial system; or o a system used for the delivery of essential government services; or o a system used for, or by, an essential public utility; or o a system used for, or by, a transport system. The person or property can be located anywhere in the world. There is no requirement that the person or property be located within Australia. The penalty for conviction in respect of this offence is imprisonment for the period of the person’s life. Section 101.1 (3) clarifies that the following conduct does not constitute the offence of committing a terrorist act: • advocacy, protest, dissent or industrial action which is not intended to:

o cause serious harm that is physical harm to a person; or o cause a person’s death; or o endanger the life of a person (other than the person so acting); or o create a serious risk to the health or safety of the public (or a section of it). Providing or Receiving Training Connected with Terrorist Acts Section 101.2 (1) of the Act provides that a person commits this offence if he provides or receives training which is connected with the preparation for, the engagement of a person in, or assistance with a terrorist act and knows of that connection. Conviction of such an offence carries a sentence of 25 years of imprisonment. Further, even if it cannot be proven that the person ‘knew’ of the connection, if he is found to have been ‘reckless’ as to the existence of such a connection, then he may be convicted of the alternative offence (under section 101.2 (2)), which carries the lesser penalty of 15 years of imprisonment. Possessing Items Connected with Terrorist Acts Section 101.4 (1) of the Act provides that a person is guilty of this offence if he possesses an item which is connected with preparation for, the engagement of a person in, or assistance with a terrorist act and knows of that connection. Conviction of such an offence carries a sentence of 15 years of imprisonment. There is no requirement that the offending conduct occur in Australia. It can occur anywhere in the world. Again, if the person is found not to know of the connection but to have been reckless as to the existence of such a connection, then he may be found guilty of the alternative offence (under section 101.4 (2)), which carries the slightly lesser penalty of imprisonment for 10 years.


Q&A Membership of a Terrorist Organisation Section 102.3 (1) of the Act provides that a person commits this offence if he is ‘intentionally’ a member of an organisation which he knows to be a terrorist organisation. The penalty upon conviction of this offence is a period of imprisonment of 10 years. There is a defence to this offence in the form of the person being able to show that he took all reasonable steps to cease to be a member of the organisation upon becoming aware that it was a terrorist one. Recruiting for a Terrorist Organisation Section 102.4 of the Act provides that a person commits this offence if he intentionally ‘recruits’ a person to join or participate in the activities of an organisation which he knows to be a terrorist one. The penalty upon conviction of this offence is imprisonment for a period of 25 years. So, how broad is the definition of ‘recruit’? It is defined by section 102.1 of the Act to include “inducing, inciting or encouraging” and hence is quite broad in its application. Where the person cannot be found to have ‘knowledge’ but is found to have been ‘reckless’ as to the nature of the organisation, then he may be found guilty of an alternative offence (section 102.4 (2)), which carries the lesser penalty of a period of imprisonment of 15 years. Training Involving a Terrorist Organisation Section 102.5 of the Act provides that a person commits this offence if he intentionally provides training to, receives training from or participates in training with a terrorist organisation and is reckless as to whether it is a terrorist organisation. The penalty upon conviction of this offence is a period of imprisonment for 25 years. Getting Funds to, from or for a Terrorist Organisation Section 102.6 of the Act makes it an offence for a person to intentionally receive funds

from, make funds available to, or collect funds for or on behalf of a terrorist organisation with knowledge that it is such an organisation. Conviction of this offence carries a penalty of imprisonment for a period of 25 years. Where actual knowledge cannot be proven but it can be shown that the offender was reckless as to the nature of the organisation, the offender may instead be guilty of an alternative offence, which carries the penalty of imprisonment for a period of 15 years. Providing Support to a Terrorist Organisation Section 102.7 of the Act makes it an offence for a person to intentionally provide support or resources to an organisation which he knows to be a terrorist one which would help it to directly or indirectly engage in, prepare, plan, assist or foster the doing of a terrorist act. Conviction of this offence carries the penalty of imprisonment for a period of 25 years, or, if carried out recklessly (as opposed to with knowledge) of the type of organisation, the slightly lesser period of imprisonment of 15 years. Associating with Terrorist Organisations Section 102.8 (1) of the Act provides that a person commits an offence if he intentionally associates on two or more occasions with a person he knows to be a member of or to promote or direct the activities of an organisation which he knows to be a terrorist organisation, where the association does provide support to the organisation and the person intends for the support to assist the organisation to expand or continue to exist. Conviction of such an offence carries a period of imprisonment of three years. The Act does provide certain exceptions to the rules, such as: • where the association relates to a matter of genuine family or domestic concern; and • where the association takes place in a place used for public religious worship and in the course of practising a religion.

Financing Terrorism This is a particularly serious offence. Section 103.1 of the Act provides that a person commits this offence if he provides or collects funds and is reckless as to whether the funds will be used to facilitate or engage in a terrorist act. Conviction of this offence triggers the severe penalty of imprisonment for life. Section 103.1 (2) also clarifies that the offence is treated as committed even if: • a terrorist act does not actually occur or take place; • the funds are not or will not be used to facilitate or engage in a specific terrorist act; or • the funds will be used for more than one such act. Financing a Terrorist Section 103.2 of the Act largely mirrors the above section of the Act but obviously pertains to a ‘terrorist’ as opposed to a ‘terrorist organisation’. A conviction of this offence also carries the penalty of life imprisonment. Conclusion Hopefully, this article has provided readers with a general and basic overview of some of the important offence provisions of the Act.

Anna Richards is the Legal Director and a lawyer from Victorian Legal Solutions Pty Ltd and practices in the areas of Commercial law including Commercial litigation and other areas. Anna Richards and Victorian Legal Solutions can be contacted on: (03) 9872 4381 or 0419 229 142.

Whilst every effort has been taken to ensure its accuracy, the information contained in this article is intended to be used as a general guide only and should not be interpreted to take as being specific advice, legal or otherwise. The reader should seek professional advice from a suitably qualified practitioner before relying upon any of the information contained herein. This article and the opinions contained in it represent the opinions of the author and do not necessarily represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions Pty Ltd or any advertiser or other contributor to Security Solutions Magazine.



Developing and Embedding an Effective Security Program and Culture By Craig Millar

Ensuring the community feel safe and secure is an ongoing challenge, especially in today’s world of globalisation, instant communications and advanced technology. Recent events, locally and internationally, have highlighted and reinforced the need to be prepared for unexpected and rapidly unfolding incidents to occur that were previously not considered as credible threats. Lone shooter/actor and cybercrime are just two of many threats that have become more prevalent in today’s rapidly evolving environment. As we have seen, in many instances, individuals and organisations are being affected either as direct targets, or indirectly due to geographic proximity or other factors. Now more than ever, an effective security program and culture needs to be embedded into an organisation’s BAU activities – readiness and preparedness need to be at the forefront. Today’s security professional can and needs to play an integral part to ensure the safety, security and longevity of an organisation through effective leadership, partnership, risk management and solutions delivery. A holistic approach across the broad spectrum of security risks is needed, from physical security to information and cyber security, from the CEO to the shop floor. Building blocks must be solid and the security program and culture one of accountability, ownership and enterprise-wide participation. Each organisation and the risks they face are different and it is not possible to cover all aspects of developing and embedding a security program and culture in such a brief article. However, the information covered below should stimulate thinking and provide a basis for further consideration. A holistic approach Regardless of whether a security professional is taking on a green fields role as an in-house security manager, is providing advice as an external consultant, is taking on a replacement role, or is taking a fresh look at the security program and culture, in my opinion, the approach should be very much the same in all cases. A successful and relevant security program and culture are built on the foundation of trust and value adding, with many interweaved ingredients and deliverables. Here are some key focus areas to consider – I will cover these in more detail further on:

• Leadership. • Understanding the organisational goals and values. • Effective risk management. • Stakeholder engagement and support. • Building and maintaining a broad and multi-faceted network. • Partnering with peers, the business and vendors. • Building and developing a winning value adding strategy and team. • Ensuring the right mix of policy, procedures, technology and physical security measures. • Timely response, advice and guidance. • Communication, education and awareness. • Ownership and accountability. • Celebrating and communicating successes, demonstrating value and worth. • Benchmarking and continuous improvement. Leadership This is a key area and, in my opinion, the most important ingredient to build and maintain the right security culture. In the security space, leadership needs to be embedded into everyday activities. Here are some examples: • stepping up and leading in times of emergency, crisis or heightened awareness • engaging and delivering real time advice and guidance at the most senior levels of an organisation • developing relationships at all levels of the organisation, regardless of hierarchy or structure


• influencing senior management to seek funding on security initiatives • building and developing the security team • liaising with and building networks amongst law enforcement, government agencies and industry peers. Understanding the business It is imperative to learn the business. This means understanding: • the drivers, goals and culture – the organisation’s DNA • what the future strategy is • what products or services it offers • how it is travelling financially • where it operates • expansion plans. The more you can learn about an organisation and its people, the more you can align the security strategy and deliverables to ensure the right fit, and create the culture of ownership and security awareness. Effective Risk Management Getting to know the business will greatly assist in understanding the risks that it faces, the obvious and the not so. It will also go some way to understanding the risk appetite of the organisation, a crucial piece in ensuring the security strategies are relevant, aligned to the business, and seen as value adding and, therefore, an integral part of the business. Aligning your strategy to ISO31000 or other globally accepted RM standards is also a key factor in this regard. Engagement Stakeholder engagement is essential to the success of the security team and program. Identifying stakeholders at all levels, and building rapport and ongoing lines of communication will greatly assist in establishing credibility and the ability to reach out to the right managers for support during normal business operations and during times of emergency or crisis where time is critical and strong trust and relationships are essential. Strong internal relationships also assist in building support for the security program which assists in embedding the security policy and program, and possible disciplinary/corrective action in the case of non-compliance. Developing strong internal and external networks enables security professionals to seek and share information on current and emerging threats, best practice and benchmarking. This


will benefit in the risk management process and when presenting a business case or solution to senior management – adding credibility due to research and intelligence gathering. Networks should be relevant and far reaching depending on the nature of the business and risks – internally, externally, on and offshore as relevant. Delivering the right advice in a timely fashion reduces risk, builds credibility, and delivers a security program that makes sense to staff and seniors, is in tune with the business and the landscape, thus enabling the security culture to embed and evolve succinctly. Partnering Effective security professionals and teams develop strong partnerships internally with staff and seniors, and externally with vendors and other parties. Solid partnerships are built through collaboration, transparency and a collective desire to achieve and make a difference. An example of this is where the in-house security team work very closely with security vendors in a collaborative professional partnership void of an “us and them” approach, and with mutual respect to deliver effective security solutions to the organisation. Building the right strategic and operational plans Benchmarking, SWOT analysis, surveys, vision, workshops, collaboration and relevance are some of the ingredients to ensure an effective strategic plan – the plan will provide a high level guide and timeline for the delivery of the security strategy and plan. Underpinning this, a solid and carefully created operational plan will provide the more in-depth detail and granularity to deliver the overall strategy. Policy, Procedures, Technology and Physical Security – the right mix It is imperative to strike the right balance between policies, procedures, technology and physical security. They can and should be both complimentary and supplementary, and be intertwined as much as possible to cover physical and information security, cybercrime and other security threats. An example which highlights the need for cohesion is physical security access control. Installing an access control system without the right management and implementation policy can render it ineffective. Simply put, if an access system is installed and there are not robust access

segregation, approval, operational and audit processes, entry may be gained to an area by an unauthorised person or ex-staff member – thus diminishing the level of security it was designed to deliver. In regard to security policies, some organisations are adopting a minimalistic approach by developing the fiveminute or one-page security policy – a high level summary of the policy that staff are more likely to read and digest. Education, Preparedness and Demonstrating Value Operational readiness, education, timely advice, and guidance are an integral part of the security program and key to ensuring the safety and security of staff and the organisation. Education, induction training, security awareness campaigns, warden training, evacuation training, crisis management exercises, executive protection, and real-time senior management briefings are just some of the most effective ways to embed the security culture across every person and area of an organisation. Regular newsletters, an intranet page for security, and a security awareness week are also examples of ways to engage and communicate. Besides directly adding to organisational safety and security, these also foster an environment of accountability and ownership. Establishing metrics and formalised reporting that reaches senior management and board levels, as well as celebrating and communicating successes, will help measure the program’s effectiveness, highlight the return on investment, and demonstrate the value and worth of the security program. Summary A holistic approach to delivering security to an organisation is essential. An effective security program and culture relies on each and every staff member. Security is everyone’s responsibility. Staff ownership and involvement are critical to the success of the organisation and the security of its greatest assets – its people. It is the job of a security professional to enable this to happen and to ensure delivery of the best possible services and solutions.

Craig Millar CPP has more than 20 years experience working in local and global organisations in senior security and risk management roles.

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INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL SAFETY By Graeme G Cunynghame Travelling the world tops many people’s wish lists and for those in business it is becoming part of doing business globally. It is estimated there are around 100,000 airline flights a day in the world. As Australian companies embrace globalisation, travel is increasing in range and frequency which exposes workers to greater risks. This trend heightens the corporate liability of employers, who have a legal, judiciary and moral duty-of-care for their employees. Business travellers should take measures to ensure not only the safety and security of themselves but also their business information while travelling overseas. Away from the familiar surroundings, overseas workers or business travellers may encounter precarious environments, presenting increased and unfamiliar threats to their health, safety and security. In the current global security circumstances, you or your firm may be a target of another country’s efforts to obtain information or technologies in order to increase their market share, build economies, or modernise their military. According to the FBI, some of the more overt targeting methods used by countries seeking to obtain information include luggage searches at airports, extensive questioning, and the unnecessary inspection and downloading of information from laptop computers. Communication While Overseas Your ability to reliably communicate is critical. Mobile telephones, laptop computers and tablets are the devices we are most likely to utilise while travelling overseas. There have been reported instances of laptop computers being compromised by government sponsored hackers within 30 minutes of the arrival of the traveller at a certain Asian destination. Communication devices can be critical in maintaining interaction with people who can assist in the event of a crisis. Alternatively, we could communicate through facilities offered at your accommodation, or by using Internet cafes and so on. However, such facilities may not be reliable or available when you need them.

According to the Australian Government Cybersecurity Operations Centre, it is important that all updates, patches, encryption and antivirus software are correctly installed and up-to-date. It is also advisable to remove any programs or applications not required as this type of software can be utilised as a gateway into your hardware. It’s also advisable to remove all non-essential data from a device. It may also be an advantage to disable any feature or software that is not required for the trip. The less software on a device, the smaller the opportunity to exploit the system and gain access to the device through software vulnerabilities. Disable Bluetooth and wireless capabilities and the ability to automatically join a network. You do not want your device inadvertently connecting to untrusted networks. Do not connect to open Wi-Fi networks for business purposes. It is recommended you communicate wirelessly through secure networks (e.g. virtual private network). Where possible, avoid using web-based email services such as Gmail, Hotmail or Yahoo for business purposes as this might increase the security risk of unauthorised disclosure of information through unauthorised access to the account. Using webmail accounts for work purposes makes recipients more likely to accept social engineering mail as business-related. Importantly, clear your web browser after each use. This includes deleting the history files, cache, cookies, URL and temporary Internet files. It is also important to ensure you use strong passwords. A password should be either a long simple password (12 alphabetical characters) or a complex password (at least 9 characters with a combination of upper and lowercase characters, numbers and symbols). A password should not be written down or stored with the device. For devices such as smartphones or tablets, enable the short automatic screen lock, after which the password will automatically need to be re-entered. Always keep in mind that your device screen can be photographed while in use. It has been demonstrated by a U.S. University that a photograph taken



from the top of a high-rise building of a set of house keys sitting on a table at a coffee shop at ground level, could be used to facilitate the manufacture of a set of duplicate keys. Backup your data before you travel! While you are travelling, it is important to maintain physical control over your devices. It is advisable to keep your device in your position at all times and not trust hotels or other services to provide physical protection of your communication or storage devices. It is not advisable to check your devices in as luggage, but carry them with you as hand luggage at all times. Avoid connecting USB devices such as an iPhone, iPod, and portable storage devices, or playing illegitimate CDs and DVDs unless you are confident they are uncompromised. Be particularly cautious of gifted USB devices, CDs or DVDs as they are an easy method to distribute malicious software. If your device was taken out of your possession for any reason, or left in your hotel room for an extended period of time, particularly if you have travelled in a high-risk country, it would be a worthwhile exercise to check the device for any malicious software or evidence of compromise. Furthermore, change your passwords upon return from overseas travel. The undermentioned tips are by no means exhaustive but may be useful in promoting some thought about security when travelling overseas. Tips before travelling: • Familiarise yourself with local laws and customs. • Plan your wardrobe – travel light • Make copies of your passport, airline ticket, drivers license and credit cards. Keep a copy of each at home. • Do not take unnecessary identification or credit cards in case they are stolen. Obtain travellers cheques if needed. • Establish points of contact for your family to contact you in the event of an emergency. • Take any necessary medications. • Obtain specific pre-travel country risk assessments (travel secure website – register for email updates). • Sanitise your laptop, telephone etc, prior to travel – if not needed don’t take it. • Clean out your voice mail.


Tips while travelling: • Protect your passport at all times. • Be courteous and cooperative. • Use authorised taxis booked through accommodation booking services (fake taxis used for kidnappings). • Beware of theft (e.g. sleeping compartments on trains). • Do not invite strangers into your room • Avoid travelling alone. • Do not leave drinks unattended. • Avoid long waits in lobbies and terminals (e.g. pickpockets, thieves and violent offenders – especially in airports). • Closely monitor bags passing through x-ray machines – someone else may target them while you are distracted. • If you are arrested for any reason – notify the nearest Australian embassy or consulate. • Beware of new acquaintances who probed for information. • Avoid any actions that are illegal, improper or indiscreet. • Keep a low profile and shun publicity, dress appropriately and avoid wearing items of clothing that will draw attention • Be very aware of your surroundings (e.g. are you under surveillance). • Take care using ATMs, particularly at night – preferably go into a bank to increase safety. • If anyone grabs you (kidnapping) make a scene then and there – yell, kick and try and get away, avoid going to a second location. • If you become the victim of a robbery, don’t put up a fight – comply with the demands of the offender. Avoid carrying what you cannot afford to loose. • Do not over share information during day-to-day conversations (e.g. financial problems, emotional issues, etc) • Beware that your conversations may not be private or secure (e.g. electronic eavesdropping). • Do not leave electronic devices unattended. If a device is stolen, report to an Australian Embassy or Consulate. • Do not allow foreign electronic storage devices to be connected to your computer or phone.

• • • • • •

Always advise a friend, work associate or relative of your schedule and whereabouts and report regularly. Do not carry items that do not belong to you as you alone will be responsible for the contents of your baggage. Be aware that the risks of HIV or other transmittable diseases – avoid ear piercing, acupuncture, tattooing or dental work. Be aware of some medications sold in Australia may potentially be illegal overseas If you are carrying prescription medicine, ensure you have a copy of a doctor issued prescription with you. If carrying syringes, ensure you have a copy of a letter signed by a doctor outlining the need for the syringes.

In most countries, you have no expectation of privacy in Internet cafes, hotels, airplanes, offices or public spaces. All information sent electronically can be intercepted, especially wireless communications. Security services and criminals can track your movements using your mobile phone and can turn on the microphone in your device even when you think it is turned off. Cyber criminals from numerous countries buy and sell stolen financial information including credit card data and login credentials (usernames and passwords). According to the FBI, during the Beijing Olympics, hotels were required to install software so law enforcement could monitor the Internet activity of hotel guests. A strong travel security program not only meets a company’s legal and ethical responsibilities, but it also promotes employee well being, business continually planning, and reduce costs or expenses such as medical care according to International SOS. Responsibilities for developing an integrated risk management strategy cannot be delegated or outsourced and to ignore this issue is to ignore legal, commercial, judiciary and social responsibilities according to a recent International SOS White Paper “Duty of Care of Employers for Protecting International Assignees, their Dependents, and International Business Travelers”. Safe traveling its still a wonderful world.

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Psychological Safety

Managing Psychological Risk In The Security Industry

By David Burroughs Across industries there is generally a high level of awareness and understanding of issues of workplace safety and occupational health and safety (WHS/OH&S) obligations when it comes to the physical work environment. However, there appears to be much less awareness and understanding of the responsibility to identify and manage psychological hazards and risks to employees. With increasing insurance premiums, litigation and competition among employers, understanding and managing psychological safety issues is no longer an optional extra for business; it is a business imperative in its own right. It is not just about improving the psychological health of a workforce or improving workplace morale; it is about managing broader, more strategic corporate risks. Effective psychological risk management practices increase performance, reduce turnover and absenteeism, reduce litigation and insurance exposure, improve morale, and lead to better organisational and industry performance. It makes sound business sense, particularly within the security sector.


What is Psychological Safety? The concept of psychological safety does not just mean levels of susceptibility and exposure to workplace stress, but the various psychological and workplace factors that can affect the behaviour and wellbeing of individuals and impact on businesses. This is not to discount the issue of stress, which in itself is a big factor in workplace psychological wellbeing. Behind physical strains and sprains, stress has previously been reported as being the second biggest cause of workplace injury and illness (N. Caulfield et al, 2004). Compared to physical injuries, psychological injuries in the workplace usually result in longer periods away from the workplace and higher medical, legal and other payments. Just taking a Federal Government perspective, the average worker’s compensation claim for nonstress related claims was calculated at approximately $64,000, yet each psychological injury claim cost $250,690 on average (Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Commission, 2012). Security businesses, like any other workplace in Australia, are not immune to typical psychosocial stressors such as downsizing, restructuring, poor management styles, poor communication systems and capabilities, bullying, workplace conflict, and workload issues. However, the psychological safety risks for the security industry are potentially higher than most other industries, given the inherently highrisk nature of security work. Risk levels are increased by issues such as shift work, risk of physical injury and exposure to critical incidents, such as armed robbery and violent events where there are increased chances of acute psychological trauma. Furthermore, with many members of the security industry having access to weapons, including firearms, the risk of serious consequences from compromised psychological functioning is magnified. The degree of psychological risk at any point in time is not only influenced by the degree of risk apparent in the operational environment, but also by the interaction of different individual and workplace factors and the psychological demands of the role. Typical Factors Influencing Psychological Safety Individual Factors

Workplace Factors

Personality variables

Recruitment practices and job fit

Psychological status

Managerial capability

Situational awareness

Effective/supportive leadership

Communication and interpersonal Physical environmental factors capabilities (e.g. isolation, shift work, physical safety risk) Resilience and stress coping styles

Critical incident management and response

Personal efficiency and capacity to meet psychological job requirements

Workplace culture and practices

Social support networks

Psychological safety systems, including corporate support services

While most workplaces have operational procedures and guidelines in place to assess and limit exposure to physical risks and ensure physical safety, it is difficult to ascertain what proportion of workplaces have applied similar risk mitigation strategies to psychological risks. Such issues are often overlooked due to a lack of awareness of employer responsibilities in this area, and the fact that identifying and addressing psychological risks and injuries is not as easy or clear cut as it is for physical hazards. When it comes to psychological safety approaches, sadly having an employee assistance program (EAP) in place, participating in R U OK? day or running a diagnosis/community-based awareness course seems to be where most organisations limit their commitment. Looking at the Individual Level Differences in people mean differences in the level of psychological vulnerability, not just to one’s own psychological safety but to the psychological safety of others. Some people have greater tendencies to be more aggressive, more rule avoidant, more antisocial, more likely to take unnecessary risks, and to be more susceptible to stress and psychological injury than others. Unfortunately, such tendencies do not always reveal themselves in an employment interview or a criminal history check, and often do not become obvious on the job until it is too late. Job fit – looking at how well someone can accommodate the psychological, not just the professional and technical demands of a job – is an important issue often overlooked in managing psychological risk. Factors like personality, level of integrity, exposure to trauma, level of training, social support and resources, coping strategies, mental health history and interpersonal capabilities all interact and influence the level of risk associated with each individual. These are not all static and their influence on the psychological resources and behaviour of a person can fluctuate in accordance with various life events. Also at the individual level, having one’s psychological integrity compromised by workplace events can be devastating. Typical psychological issues like depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder can affect physical as well as mental health, and often impact on people’s family lives, work performance, future susceptibility to distress and their ability to function effectively outside of the workplace. Even sub-clinical levels of emotional distress can have significant impacts. One of the real challenges is that psychological issues do not always just develop in response to isolated traumatic events. People are not always attune to their own psychological vulnerabilities or equipped to recognise when their emotional resources, or the resources of others, have been compromised. However, on the positive side, people can be trained in stress management techniques and the recognition and early intervention of psychological distress, interpersonal relations and communications, as well as in other areas that increase their resilience and contribute to their own psychological safety. This is not about training people to be amateur psychologists, but giving them the knowledge, confidence



and capability (relevant to their role and responsibilities) to support workplace mental health. Looking at the Workplace Level At the workplace level, neglecting psychological safety has serious impacts in terms of exposure to litigation, workplace morale problems, increased insurance premiums, and employee retention and client relationship issues. In a case reported in Work InSights – Spring/ Summer Edition 2006 (Harmers Workplace Lawyers), a security company was found liable in contract in a psychological injury matter where the payout to the employee was in the millions, not thousands, of dollars, and this was not for a single critical incident. One can only speculate what the financial and flow-on costs would be to an organisation where a failure to identify and address psychological safety issues resulted in the loss of life, and access to firearms in the security industry certainly adds to suicide and homicide risk. In certain states and territories, industrial manslaughter charges and personal liability of company directors could possibly be tested. The bottom line is, ignoring preexisting, current or emergent psychological issues, ignoring the various psychosocial pressures in the workplace, or claiming naivety to psychological safety matters is not a viable excuse. The reality is, some people are a greater psychological safety risk than others. It is not discrimination, it is just a fact. Looking across policing, military and specialist government security areas, psychological screening over and above standard recruitment cognitive testing is the norm rather than the exception, and for good reason. Most people would be quite uncomfortable if police were let out in public without screening, support services and a high degree of training. But where is the requirement that all security guards, or even just armed security guards, are psychologically screened? Carrying a lethal firearm in public is an enormous responsibility, misuse of which can have devastating effects. Like all industries, the security sector attracts different people with different backgrounds and very different motivations for becoming a security professional. Some people are just better suited to working around sensitive information or in higher risk environments. Psychological screening will


not stop the odd one or two inappropriate employees from falling through the recruitment cracks, but it can reduce the likelihood of it happening. It also allows businesses to look at job fit, additional training, skills development and risk management strategies that can be put in place to manage the risks with different people in different jobs. With psychological safety matters, prevention and early intervention is crucial. However, when it comes to mental healthrelated issues, most people do not have a clue how to assist and, with illnesses like depression, underlying problems are often not as recognisable as a broken arm or leg. Monitoring psychological risk factors and emotional wellbeing of employees, educating managerial staff in workplace psychological

Compared to physical injuries, psychological injuries in the workplace usually result in longer periods away from the workplace and higher medical, legal and other payments. health prevention and intervention, and improving psychological health systems and services are all cost-effective options for security organisations. Workplace culture can have a huge impact on levels of risk, from the existence and adherence to sound policies and procedures and standards of workplace behaviour, to the extent to which staff are supported if their psychological wellbeing is compromised. Particularly in the security industry, which has its share of what might stereotypically be seen as ‘robust’ individuals and a degree of machismo, it is probably quite confronting for people to put their hand up and say they are not coping. There is still a lot of stigma around mental health issues and unless workplace culture and practices are supportive, there is a real risk of mental health issues being exacerbated. The longer people are left experiencing untreated psychological distress (and not just at the clinical level), the worse the prognosis and the worse the outcome all around. Critical incident planning is also imperative from an organisational perspective. While

most critical incidents are short-lived and the physical threat is minimised or extinguished quite rapidly, not so the psychological threat. While EAPs often provide critical incident response, effective management of critical incidents from a broader organisational perspective is also crucial. There are huge holes in workplace mental health services, and many people are not fully aware of their limitations. Organisations need to understand the benefits of effective psychological health and safety systems, effective leadership and the role of organisational support and response as protective factors for psychological distress. What about the Cost? With any risk management program, professional development activity or corporate intervention, there is always the consideration of likelihood of events, immediate financial costs and return on investment. The same considerations apply for managing psychological risk. There are additional benefits to the security industry overall beyond ensuring OH&S/WHS compliance, trying to reduce insurance costs, limiting liability and risk of litigation, or increasing individual security company performance. By having better psychological health and safety systems, policies and guidelines in place, the security sector can improve public perception of the people working in the industry, can increase public confidence in the industry and be seen as being increasingly accountable and professional for the actions of its people and the way the industry behaves. When industry entry and training standards and expectations are higher, the calibre of candidates can be higher, perceived professionalism and legitimacy of the industry increases, and security becomes more attractive as a career option. For a full list of references, email: David Burroughs is the principal psychologist and managing director of CommuniCorp Group Pty Ltd, a specialised psychological services firm. CommuniCorp offers a range of psychological risk management assessment, training, professional development and intervention services. CommuniCorp can be contacted via email info@communicorpgroup. com or on 1300 855 140.


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Keeping A Lock On Privacy:

How Enterprises Are Managing Their Privacy Function By Garry Barnes

Major privacy breaches of customer data records are becoming common news headlines, shattering the trust of customers who expected the affected enterprises to protect their personal information. Although these enterprises believed that they had adequate measures in place to secure personal information, someone – a hacker who seeks financial gain, a hacktivist who wishes to make a political point, a malicious insider who desires to get revenge for a real or imagined wrong, or a well-meaning but untrained employee who simply makes a mistake – found a way to penetrate their defenses. The consequences to breached enterprises are many, including fines, massive costs to revamp security, plummeting stock prices and intangible but real reputational damage. In today’s information economy, no enterprise is exempt from security threats, vulnerabilities and privacy exposures and, because a breach can generate a shocking degree of damage, enterprises cannot afford to overlook or mismanage their data security efforts. The aim of this article is to provide insight into new research around privacy and security, define privacy and accountability standards, how the right staffing and training impacts upon security, and look at best practices around ongoing governance and management. Privacy and Accountability Privacy, most recently, is defined as the right of an individual to trust that others will appropriately and respectfully use, store, share and dispose of his/her associated personal and sensitive information within the context, and according to the purposes, for which it

was collected or derived. What is appropriate depends on the associated circumstances, laws and the individual’s reasonable expectations. An individual also has the right to reasonably control and be aware of the collection, use and disclosure of his/her associated personal and sensitive information (ISACA, Glossary). Another term that often accompanies discussions about privacy is accountability. As might be expected of a concept that has existed in a complex and fast-changing environment for over three decades, many efforts have been made over time to precisely define accountability. Those definitions have reflected differing nuances and changes in the business environment; however, two general concepts remain constant: • Presence: Accountability implies the existence of an effective program; that is, the enterprise has gone through the effort to build and implement a privacy program and can verify the program’s delivery of the desired outcomes of protection and compliance with pertinent privacy regulation. • Demonstrability: Accountability requires the enterprise to be able to demonstrate the existence of the program. Privacy Staffing Accountability is an integral facet of a privacy program. Accountability implies ownership: the assignment of someone to be answerable for the management and monitoring of privacy program activities. According to a recent ISACA survey conducted this year among more than 15,000 members and others with privacy-related job titles, the

chief information security officer (CISO) or chief security officer (CSO) is the most frequently cited job title (23 percent) for the position that is primarily accountable for enterprise privacy. The chief privacy officer (CPO) runs second (18 percent). The CEO and the chief information officer (CIO) are at a tie, with roughly 11 percent each. Of the respondents, nearly eight percent reported that no one is assigned to privacy accountability. The connection between an enterprise’s perceived commitment to privacy protection and the placement of the top privacy role within the organisational chart was recently noted in a study on new perspectives on data privacy, which states a company that puts its top privacy officer in the C-suite sends a message to the marketplace that it takes protecting consumer data seriously (Conroy, 2014). ISACA’s survey reveals that no privacy function can be successful without a profound understanding of pertinent laws and regulations and actions that are necessary for compliance. Privacy Governance and Management Any enterprise program as complex as privacy, requiring the coordinated efforts of many departments and individuals, requires a formal system of governance and management. Having the appropriate leadership and staff structures is an important part of privacy governance and management; however, these disciplines entail a great deal more. As information and related technologies become more integral to every aspect of business and public life, the need to mitigate information risk intensifies commensurately.



Two significant components of a privacy governance/management program are identifying metrics to use to evaluate the program’s effectiveness and then monitoring those metrics on a consistent basis. In addition to enabling the enterprise to evaluate the effectiveness of its privacy program, metrics can support a business case for resources and budget and can facilitate management’s efforts to evaluate and reward the performance of team members. But, it is important to avoid measuring solely for the sake of measuring and instead focus on identifying and tracking measures that are likely to uncover improvement opportunities, answer questions or suggest business solutions. An enterprise can write the most comprehensive and specific privacy policy and devise the most elegant metrics, yet still be unlikely to succeed in its data protection efforts if effective governance/ management is not implemented. Privacy Issues and Mitigation Despite good intentions and enterprise commitment, the process to establish a privacy program does not always unfold smoothly. A simple one-size-fits-all approach that promises to enable the enterprise to evade pitfalls does not exist. Even after the program is defined and put into place, issues can arise and privacy failures can happen, which must be addressed quickly and vigorously. Respondents were asked to select, from a list, the most common types of privacy failure after implementation. Respondents identified lack of training or poor training as the most common type of privacy-related failure (55 percent), with data breach/leakage and not performing a risk assessment tied for second place (slightly more than 48 percent each). The survey also revealed that 76 percent of respondents indicated that their enterprises provide privacy awareness training to employees. For 77 percent of those enterprises, the training occurs annually and, for 60 percent of those enterprises, the training is part of the new-hire process. Training is critical to a successful privacy program. Ensuring that employees are regularly informed about the importance of data security, the consequences of a privacy breach, and how to avoid sharing of confidential and insider information, can make a significant contribution toward developing a positive ‘compliance culture’ within the enterprise.


To avoid poor training, it is paramount to ensure management buy in, provide targeted and continuous training, use marketing tactics, use metrics to gauge the effectiveness of the training and provide examples of potential breaches. Training is a key tactic to mitigate the risk of privacy breaches. Attitudes Toward Privacy Breaches A key finding of the ISACA privacy survey was that respondents’ level of confidence in their enterprise’s ability to ensure privacy of its sensitive data correlates directly with the robustness of their enterprise’s privacy program. Two survey findings in particular are very revealing about the confidence that privacy professionals have in enterprise privacy programs: • Less than one-third of the surveyed privacy professionals are very confident in their enterprise’s ability to ensure the privacy of its sensitive data; and • More than half of the surveyed privacy professionals do not think that consumers today should feel confident that enterprises are adequately protecting their personal information. The survey found very confident respondents work in enterprises that have the greatest percentage of components that are required for an effective privacy program. As the percentage of privacy-required components decreases, for example, appropriate privacyfunction staffing and privacy awareness training, privacy-professional confidence decreases. The majority of very confident respondents work in enterprises that have privacy programs with a maturity level of 4 (managed); the majority of somewhat confident respondents work in enterprises that have privacy programs with a maturity level of 2 (repeatable); the majority of not confident respondents work in enterprises that have privacy programs with a maturity level of 1 (ad hoc). Additionally, respondents were given a list of potential negative consequences of a privacy breach and asked to select all that apply. The negative consequence of a privacy breach that was noted most frequently by the survey respondents is a decline in enterprise reputation (80 percent). That the non-financial consequences were selected more frequently than the directly financial consequence is notable.

Although the negative consequence relating to direct financial impact is not the top selection of the ISACA survey respondents, the financial affect can be staggering. According to Forbes, the estimated cost to Home Depot in the aftermath of its data breach was approximately US $62 million, to cover the investigation, credit monitoring service, call centre staffing and other actions needed – a sum that is only slightly mitigated by the expected insurance reimbursement of around $27 million (Team, 2014). Half of the respondents whose enterprises had experienced a breach indicated that the most negative consequence is loss of productivity because key employees are diverted from their usual responsibilities to help respond to and resolve the breach. Given the clear evidence that data breaches are a pervasive problem for most enterprises and can entail negative repercussions in terms of cost outlays and reputation diminishment, it is difficult to understand why many enterprises do not take appropriate steps to prevent breaches or prepare for and mitigate the risk when the inevitable occurs. Conclusion The proactive measures that enterprises are taking to protect sensitive data, as reported by the ISACA survey participants, are encouraging and suggest an increased level of commitment to securing personal information. However, in today’s networked world, the threats to privacy change almost daily, and enterprise data security practices must adapt on the same schedule. For a full list of references, email admin@ Garry Barnes is practice lead, Governance Advisory at Vital Interacts (Australia). He has more than 20 years of experience in information and IT security, IT audit and risk management and governance, having worked in a number of New South Wales public sector agencies and in banking and consulting. He is the international vice president of ISACA (, a nonprofit association that helps global professionals lead, adapt and assure trust in an evolving digital world by offering innovative and world-class knowledge, standards, networking, credentialing and career development.





What What Gets

Measured Measured

Gets Done!


By Jason Brown People often quote the saying, “What gets measured gets done”, which has been attributed to Peter Drucker, Tom Peters, Edwards Deming, Lord Kelvin and others. However, often everyone gets hung up on metrics and measuring things to the point that they sometimes lose track of measuring the things that make a difference and instead focus on those things that are easy to measure. This must be addressed in the security context by considering and measuring the outcomes of security activities against the degree to which they support the capabilities and objectives of that which they are attempting to protect. Security for its own sake is not worthwhile; security is only of value if it supports the overall outcome that people and organisations are able to conduct their activities free from hindrance and fear. Know What to Measure Knowing what to measure requires an understanding of the objectives that the organisation supports. This is not as easy as it sounds. As Albert Einstein stated, “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.” For example, if the number of persons security vetted is measured, a simplistic output measure of process outcomes is the result. Does it advise that the organisation is ‘secure’ and that the behaviour analysed from the vetting process is a reasonable predictor of personnel security? Maybe for a moment, but the circumstances around the motivation that drive behaviour are dynamic and monitoring and revalidation is equally important in assessing the risk posed by insiders. The measures of suitability for access are inherently dynamic. What may be better measured as an indicator of security status is the individual’s engagement with peers and colleagues in the workplace, stability of life, and attitude to work. Such indicators of continued suitability are picked up by managers directly and by systematic revalidation on a schedule triggered by events affecting the person/s, or within an appropriate time frame based on the risk to capability that the person could pose if renegade.

Compliance versus Outcomes Measuring contributions to outcomes is critical, but simple process or compliance measures may not actually indicate reasonable security controls. Determining what needs to be measured should be predicated on whether or not what is implemented are effective controls and reduce the risks to security. Not all compliance activities will necessarily reduce the risk that they are designed for, but complying with them ensures organisations will not get in to legal or regulatory trouble. By way of example, under Defence Trade Control legislation in many countries, items that do not create substantial direct risk to a defence company create major reputational and financial risks (in the tens of millions in possible fines) if misdirected. Ultimately, organisations must comply with legislation and regulation, and undertake audits whether or not they are fully compliant. This may result in some mitigation of the risk categories mentioned above, but may not directly support the enterprise objectives. So organisations need to use a risk management model such as the ISO 31000 Risk Management Standard and its supporting tools to determine what the risks truly are and then implement controls and monitor and measure for success. Such metrics can be both quantitative in terms of efficiency and qualitative in terms of effectiveness, behaviour and culture, and can cover a range of associated areas. George K. Campbell (2011) suggests that there are a number of areas that need to be addressed in any set of security metrics, some of which can be measured by input/output measures; others will require more qualitative analysis. These areas include qualifying and quantifying, where appropriate the measureable activities and outcomes under these broad headings: 1. Security-related trends – general 2. Communicating risk knowledge 3. Audit implications 4. Background investigations 5. Due diligence examinations 6. Business conduct and reputational risk 7. Criminal incidents and investigations 8. Security operations, physical security and

premises protection 9. Informational risk management 10. Contingency planning and business continuity 11. Business-based security programs 12. Confidence with the corporate security functions 13. Management, professional development and employee satisfaction. Wayne Jansen (2009) suggests, “Security metrics are generally used to determine how well an organisation is meeting its security objectives. Since the security objectives of organisations can vary widely, it is reasonable to expect that the metrics required to make such an assessment for one organisation would also be very different from those used for another. In other words, security is risk and policy dependent from an organisational perspective; the same platform populated with data at the same level of sensitivity, but from two different organisations, could be deemed adequate for one and inadequate for the other.” This approach suggests the need for some context and structure to provide an overarching approach to security metrics that is relevant to any internal or external security provider. Firstly, does the security business plan integrate with the strategic plan of the organisation it is meant to secure? Secondly, does the security group/provider have its own plan with actionable, accountable processes and activities whose outcomes can be assessed for their support for the business? The measures in place must account for compliance with mandatory regulations and assessment of risk arising from noncompliance – both actual direct risks where the compliance action provides effective security controls and where non-compliance may have collateral damage, even though it may not directly enhance security controls. For example, it may be mandatory that all staff with access to munitions have licences, but if they were otherwise security cleared for national security, they have been vetted to a higher order than the state-based licence. Therefore, the security cleared staff may be lower risk than the state-licenced person, but they would be non-compliant!



Measures and the Security Business Plan All security business plans should have their compliance requirements and their supporting processes and measures clearly articulated. Audit activity for security performance and compliance should have a high priority and be visible to senior business owners to encourage support for security activities and resourcing. Audits should ensure that all the policy requirements are in place, all legal obligations are met, and processes derived to implement policy are efficient and effective. It is important to remember that efficiency may readily go to quantitative measures such as, ‘time to, number of, cost of’ and so on. Effective is more oriented to quasi-quantitative and qualitative measures – did the activity achieve the expected outcomes and did these outcomes maintain or enhance security and the business operations security is meant to support? To illustrate how metrics can be linked to a security business plan, the following examples are drawn from the Thales Australia and New Zealand security group and address key performance areas (KPAs) for the group. Some measures are clearly quantitative, but others are scaled to provide a semi-quantitative indicator that can be used for graphic illustration. Fully quantifiable measures have the letter Q in brackets after the metric.

• level of access to quality services and support • input to infrastructure and property development and management • number of security assessments conducted (Q) and their outcome 1 – misleading or incorrect information and poor service support 2 – incomplete or untimely advice and support action 3 – meets requirements 4 – timely (Q), accurate, complete (Q) and actionable with follow-up service 5 – exceptional intelligence, assessment and follow-up

KPA 1 – Positively influence security environment • number (Q) and quality of relationships that provide for access and influence • views and advice from security group on security matters is sought, accepted and respected by key members of the security community 1 – hostile or antagonistic to company approach 2 – unconvinced or neutral to company approach 3 – accepting or supportive of company approach 4 – approving and supporting company approach 5 – actively and independently supporting and promoting company approach

KPA 4 – Company security management system (CSMS) • quality of policy and procedures assessed against usefulness, accessibility, currency and outcome • status of the development and implementation of a company-wide security management framework and system 1 – high-risk, badly drafted, missing or incomplete system elements 2 – significantly incomplete or confusing system elements 3 – meets requirements 4 – exhibits most characteristics of international best practice and standards 5 – exceptional system elements and completely integrated system

KPA 2 – Reducing the security risk to the company • quality of information received in terms of relevance, accuracy and timeliness


KPA 3 – Compliance monitoring • number of audits completed (Q) • nature and extent of remediation taken • number, nature and success of investigations 1 – no audits completed or breakdown in reporting regime 2 – incomplete or untimely audits and slow remediation 3 – meets requirements 4 – timely (Q), accurate, complete (Q) and actionable investigations and audits with remediation 5 – exceptional audit, compliance and followup

KPA 5 – Contributing to organisational resilience • business continuity management program, policy, framework, BCPS and BIA forms are developed and published (Q)

• advice and support is provided in the development of IT disaster recovery plans, site recovery plans and other associated documentation (Q) 1 – no plans in place, little knowledge or consideration of contingency arrangements, unable to engage with business, requirement rejected by business, a number of significant exposures exist 2 – little involvement by the business, plan/s not at a satisfactory standard, a number of exposures exist 3 – satisfactory involvement by business, plan/s at a satisfactory standard, not required to deploy a specific plan (adequately covered under existing risk management program), a number of exposures exist but can be risk managed Scores attributed to the QPR are a five-point scale against each KPA element, with zero indicating insufficient information to attribute a rating. Each point represents a qualitative indicator equated to a numeric score rated similarly across activities. In the next issue of Security Solutions Magazine, specific measures for each element of process and security disciplines in the areas of personnel, physical, and information and technology security will be considered. For a full list of references, email Jason Brown is the National Security Director for Thales in Australia and New Zealand. He is responsible for security liaison with government, law enforcement and intelligence communities to develop cooperative arrangements to minimise risk to Thales and those in the community that it supports. He is also responsible for ensuring compliance with international and commonwealth requirements for national security and relevant federal and state laws. He has served on a number of senior boards and committees, including Chair of the Security Professionals Australasia; Deputy Registrar Security Professionals Registry – Australasia (SPR-A); Chair of the Steering Committee for the International Day of Recognition of Security Officers; member of ASIS International Standards and Guidelines Commission; Chair of Australian Standards Committee for Security and resilience.


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108 112 116 120

108 Profiles 108 109 110 111

Boon Edam AST Teleste Sylo

112 Hot Products 2016 112 112 113 113 114 114 115 115 116 116 117 117

AirKey Lockwood Wireless Digital Deadbolt Magicard Rio Pro Hytera PD412 Centurion Easygate HG Salto XS4 Mini Triview Cognitec C5 Camera KC-2000 Falcon Eye The Wedge II MotionViewer速 Provision-ISR CCTV Range

118 Shop Talk 118 118 119

Dahua Leaps to 5th Place MLA Conference Wrap-up Real Institute


Seadan Advanced Thermal Cameras


Seagate Security


Security Merchants



Boon Edam


Discover the new Speedlane Lifeline Series. A sophisticated, intuitive, refined and yet secure entry management system that guides authorised people through the gateway to their destination. For more information visit us at

Boon Edam Launches a New Era of Intuitive Speed Gate Technology BEAUS_Advert_210x276mm.indd 1

29/09/15 15:30

• The Open is perfect for areas where space and feel is a premium. Its barrier-free entry system provides the smallest footprint with a unique pulsing light strip to guide users to their destination. This invisible gatekeeper counts people as they enter and exit the building, and also provides a discreet, traffic-friendly security choice for businesses that require an approachable and welcoming workplace. • The Swing is the slimmest glass speed gate in the world, and combines high design with excellent security. Due to its elegant, minimal form and air of sleek design, The Swing creates an almost invisible gateway. The openness it provides is ideal for use in smaller areas with a high pedestrian throughput, commonly operating in multiples.

Since 1873, Boon Edam has been developing premium entrance products and has built up over 140 years of experience through innovation and customer service expertise. “As work environments become increasingly dynamic, the need for increased security measures within buildings grows. Knowing this, we started seeing things from a new perspective, to step ahead and meet changing demands,” Boon Edam Product Manager Daan van Beusekom, explains. Speed Gates have become more than just barriers to entry or ‘headcounters’. Structures that blend into a building’s space and provide a system that combines security with quality service, discreet looks and top-end technical functionality are now the industry benchmark. While security is still key, companies are now heavily investing in aesthetics, less obtrusive and fully integrated speed gates. Flexible working hours means that monitoring the daily movement of foot traffic in and out of a building has become an ongoing challenge faced


by building managers and security 24 hours a day. Boon Edam spent three years investigating patterns of behaviour in pedestrian mobility and consulted extensively with architects, building managers and tenants to better understand what they are looking for in a speed gate and how to address their concerns. Boon Edam then went back to the drawing board to create a new system from the ground up, with the intended outcomes in mind. Out of their investigations was born an innovative and highly sophisticated entry management system, one that was both visually appealing as well as functional for users. Launched in June this year, The Speedlane Lifeline Series is a new line of speed gates unlike any other in the industry. The series achieves the perfect balance between good looks, brawn and brains, with technology designed to be intuitive and interactive with all who approach. The Lifeline Series comes in three configurations: The Open, The Slide and The Swing – each with specific design and security benefits.

• The Slide is the ideal intuitive speed gate for a range of top security needs. It interacts directly with those who approach, managing and guiding authorised users through to the secured areas of buildings. The interactive light displays use intuitive and proven visual symbols to make it more userfriendly. Its array of customisation possibilities enable it to be fit with almost any interior design. The Lifeline Series is available in various modern trending colours and finishes to suit the client’s aesthetic desire to either blend-in or stand-out from the surroundings. The series recognises that each installation is unique, and can be integrated with almost any access control system on the market today. Boon Edam’s solutions help businesses by providing personalised and sustainable entrance products while maximising aesthetic design, safety and user experience. For more information, please visit:

Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or products appearing in this section represent the opinions of the relevant advertiser and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the other advertisers or contributors to this publication.




Morse Watchmans’ Open Architecture Opens the Door to Innovation

Newly Developed Software Brings Added Value to KeyWatcher® Key Control Systems

One of the more challenging issues that end users and integrators have faced over the years is the problem of upgrading a physical security system without having to replace the existing system. To help address this obstacle, Morse Watchmans has developed their KeyWatcher® key control and management system with open architecture that offers the ability to integrate highly efficient technologies to increase functionality and performance and improve ROI (Return on Investment). As explained by Jason Leach, the managing director of Australian Security Technology (AST), the open architecture of the system allowed his company to develop KeyPro Plus (KPP), a software enhancement to Morse Watchmans’ KeyPro management software. Now, instead of upgrading or replacing hardware, end users can simply upgrade the software on their KeyWatcher system to utilise additional features. The idea to develop the KPP software occurred a few years ago, in response to requests for additional key control systems from the Australian government. At the time, there was no unified purchase policy for key control systems, and each department could order as needed from the government purchasing schedule without regard for compatibility or overall system integration. AST had previously engineered a number of third-party interfaces with the KeyWatcher product to meet the unique demands of the Australian market, and believed a similar approach could be taken for the government. With several KeyWatcher systems in place throughout the government departments, AST focused efforts on creating a solution that would allow these departments to maintain their existing systems but with enhanced functionality and integration capability.

AST had already developed a management software product called KW Exchange for use in commercial and vehicle fleet management key control applications where they had installed the KeyWatcher. The open architecture made the development of KW Exchange possible. AST then built on this experience and knowledge to develop the new and enhanced software. The name was changed, with Morse Watchmans’ approval, from KW Exchange to KeyPro Plus to more accurately reflect its capabilities. Mr. Leach says, “Without an open architecture platform and Morse Watchmans’ support and co-operation, we would never have been able to develop our KeyPro Plus software. Also, if the KeyWatcher hardware wasn’t as good as it is, we would have had a problem.” With the development of the KPP software, AST was able to offer the government an enhanced solution that not only provided added functionality but also allowed integration with the department’s access control system. This also meant that any existing KeyWatcher did not have to be replaced but could be upgraded with KPP. This three-legged solution turned out to be a win-win for both AST

Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or products appearing in this section represent the opinions of the relevant advertiser and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the other advertisers or contributors to this publication.

and the government – AST created a pathway to maintain their customer, and the government gained better value for their money. According to Mr. Leach, the implementation of the KPP software may have also prompted a change in the department’s operational procedures. Because of the integration between the key control and the access control, the two are now managed under a single platform for more centralised control. As Mr. Leach points out, the benefits of a KeyWatcher system, coupled with the KPP software, are numerous. Essentially there is no end of life for the KeyWatcher hardware as the KPP software allows older systems to be upgraded with newer functionality, or new systems can be brought online and there is no appreciable difference in the functionality. “This is a solution where everyone wins,” adds Mr. Leach. “Most importantly though, security is improved and that’s what it is all about.”

For further information, please visit Australian Security Technology at or call 61 2 80 20 5555.





Teleste Takes VMS (Video Management System) To CMS (Content Management System)

For the best part of 10 years, manufacturers have used VMS (Video Management Systems) for the same purpose – to singularly manage analogue or IP video from cameras and display onto workstations or video walls. Teleste, with its flagship platform S-VMX, takes this to the next level and have applied the term CMS (Content Management System). By default, S-VMX can accommodate analogue cameras via the Teleste family of manufactured encoders or other third-party encoders as well as direct IP cameras. However, the differentiator between VMS and CMS is Teleste’s ability to take in other information systems to enhance the user’s ability to monitor the whole environment, along with video security monitoring of cameras. The S-VMX system is a web-based management system where the user interface can operate, administer, configure and install devices all from the browser. Anyone requiring access is verified against the systems database for the appropriate rights prior to being granted access. A standard


feature of S-VMX can allow users to open internetbased webpages inside the S-VMX client interface. This is particularly useful when users are required to access the internet for additional information, such as the latest news reports, traffic information, and weather reports… all of which provide important information to assess situations in real-time. Teleste’s S-VMX add-on module ‘Command & Capture™’ allows the connection of any thirdparty windows application to be streamed directly into S-VMX just like any other camera. This means S-VMX can now view and control other systems – such as irrigation, BMS, access control and even other CCTV/IP systems – all from within the S-VMX user interface. This is achieved by keyboard, mouse and video capture over IP, and does not require any deep SDK integration between disparate systems. This is an innovative way to ensure integration between different systems without the huge cost and time required for software development. In addition, Teleste manufactures their own encoders – one in particular, the MCC201, has a

HDMI input. This allows any HDMI display to be encoded by the MCC201 encoder and can be configured up to 1080p resolution as a video stream into S-VMX. A useful application is when corporate computers are required to be displayed onto video walls to show documents or presentations. Even Excel spreadsheets can be display with such clarity that individual cells can be clearly identified. Along with the ‘Command & Capture™’ module, it is now easy for the user to take control of the corporate computer via the S-VMX user interface. It is easy to see why Teleste S-VMX is more than a Video Management System (VMS). The ability to view and control webpages, third-party Windows™ applications, corporate computers, and much more is now available. This new generation of managing information can assist operators to make a proactive decision based on real-time events with the convenience of controlling multiple systems via a single interface. Teleste S-VMX now provides security managers a platform that is not singularly focused on CCTV images. It is the next generation and it is called CMS (Content Management System) which allows the visualisation of numerous systems under one umbrella. Teleste S-VMX is distributed by the communications specialist Optical Solutions Australia (OSA). OSA is renowned for their ability to provide quality communications systems and passive devices. They also supply fibre optic cabling, fibre optic test equipment, active Ethernet systems, and passive optical networks. OSA has a large technical resource base to support network system design, which is vital when distributing the Teleste S-VMX system. For more information relating to the Teleste S-VMX system, please contact your nearest OSA office on 1300 130 423.

Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or products appearing in this section represent the opinions of the relevant advertiser and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the other advertisers or contributors to this publication.




CORTEX Product of the Year

Introducing Cortex By Sylo Most security professionals would agree, that at its most basic, security is about the safety and protection of people, property and assets. Great security, however, also incorporates a healthy dose of customer service. So when one discovers a solution that incorporates all of these elements, and more, into one, convenient, user-friendly, aesthetically pleasing, robust system, it is no wonder everyone from city councils to property and facilities managers are cueing up to find out more about the Cortex solution from Sylo. Built upon the idea of providing innovative, bespoke, high-end solutions to unique challenges within the security space, Sylo has, since its inception in 2008, forged a solid reputation as a leader in its field. With an eye to the future, Founder Mark Hartman recently unveiled Sylo’s latest innovation, the Cortex, a smart-city community and safety device that unifies multiple security and awareness systems in a single point-of-presence. This public safety unit also houses state-of-the-art wireless technology, digital signage and interactive way finding displays, real-time emergency voice communication systems, USB charging points and other technology components, expanding its functionality beyond public safety with a view to making our digital cities of the future welcoming and accessible to the residents and visitors. Inspiration for the cortex was drawn from Hartmann’s many years of international experience in both the ICT and security industries. Through his experience, Hartmann saw that the ongoing convergence between security and ICT was creating new and exciting opportunities for community safety applications across increasingly intelligence cities. Sylo’s Cortex is a uniquely designed point-ofpresence that houses integrated best-of-breed

technical componentry in a single The structure is built in various shapes and sizes, state-of-the-art solution. Tailored depending on client requirements and level and to environmental factors and number of technical components which will be client requirements, the Cortex housed within the system. A patent-pending enables seamless monitoring, locking system and zero externally accessible analysis and real-time response fixings means no screw, bolt, hinge or lock is to enhance community safety, exposed, to reduce the risk of breaking-in or and information systems to damage. engage citizens and visitors in Cortex is set to simultaneously improve the local community initiatives safety and quality of life for many civic and The Cortex may also NVMS host business communities by combining public Solutions Custom Solutions Megapixel CCTV Thermal Imaging public ICT facilities such as amenity and safety infrastructure in a single +61 7 3841 8882 community wi-fi, interactive device. It is perfectly engineered to assist in digital way-finding, and the development of smart cities, safe corporate personal electronic device environments, and it will enhance development recharge stations to enhance of the local Security and ICT Industry. the liveability of the city, quality Based in the Brisbane Technology Park, of life for its citizens and public Sylo, with the Cortex, is already working to services for visitors. establish Queensland and Australia as a source Every component of the of uncompromised security, information and Cortex system is hand-picked smart city innovation for businesses and and rigorously tested by Sylo to communities across Asia Pacific. maximise the overall potential and lifetime of the structure in For more information visit any environment. Existing systems (ie: wi-fi or security cameras) may be integrated by Sylo’s tech team to maximise return on investment in these products. The cortex is constructed using robust 316 marine grade stainless steel housing, which shields the valuable technical components within Cortex against environmental elements and malicious intent.

Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or products appearing in this section represent the opinions of the relevant advertiser and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the other advertisers or contributors to this publication.






AIRKEY AirKey is the latest electronic lock innovation from one of Europe’s leading manufacturers of locking systems – EVVA. The AirKey is designed and manufactured in Austria and is available in a range of cylinders to suit the Australian market. AirKey is perfect for residential or single-lock commercial applications. Also it is an ideal solution for businesses with multiple locations – nationally or internationally. The system is managed using an app, and access can be granted over the Internet allowing an NFC enabled Android phone to grant access or even to be used as a programmer for traditional proximity cards and fobs. AirKey benefits at a glance: • Free software as a web service. • Cylinders to suit the Australian and New Zealand markets. • NFC enabled Android Smartphones – for programming and/or as the access media. • Traditional proximity cards and fobs can also be used. • Access and authorisations can be sent via the Internet to other NFC enabled Android smartphones. All that is required to get the system going is at least one NFC enabled Android smartphone or coding dock; access media (an NFC enabled Android smartphone or conventional proximity card / fob); an Internet connection and an AirKey cylinder. The free AirKey system management software is web-based and can be accessed with the app or PC. Using the App, you can send access privileges to anyone with an NFC enabled Android smartphone. The system is not only an effective and versatile access control solution but is also highly secure with all data transportation being encrypted. What’s more, Airkey cylinders and the wall readers are suitable for indoor and outdoor use. Using your Android enabled smartphones and the Airkey cylinder offers a wide range of benefits such as the ability to use your phone as your personal key, manage other users with the App and give access privileges to other users via the Internet turning their NFC enabled Android smartphone into a key. What’s more, every time a valid NFC enabled Android smartphone is used to access a lock or wall reader, the audit is downloaded and the lock is updated. For more information visit or call 1300 007 007

LOCKWOOD ELECTRONIC WIRELESS DIGITAL DEADBOLT The Lockwood Electronic Wireless Digital Deadbolt offers the flexibility of a keyless entry locking solution whilst providing wireless Z-Wave or ZigBee network connectivity to integrate into building automation solutions. It features a master pin code that controls up to 250 user codes, voice guided programming, weather resistant keypad, low battery warning, key override for emergencies and many more features for your safety and convenience. Ideal for use on new doors or as a replacement on an existing door lock on your home, the Wireless Digital Deadbolt is also suitable for internal and light commercial doors such as storerooms and shop fronts. Aside from the benefits of keyless entry, the Wireless Digital Deadbolt lock status can be viewed and controlled via a PC, Notebook, Tablet or Smartphone. Simply lock or unlock your door from anywhere in the world. Users can even receive a text message or email alert when the door is accessed to know that your loved ones have arrived home safely (when integrated with Remote Management Software). One of the features we liked most about this lock is the ability to integrate the lock with Remote Management Software which then enables users to turn on other devices when opening the door using a unique PIN code including: • Unlock all doors • Turn on the interior house lights • Turn on the TV • Adjusts the thermostat to 21°C • Close the curtains For more information


Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or products appearing in this section represent the opinions of the Editor or relevant editorial staff member assigned to this publication and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the advertisers or other contributors to this publication.

MAGICARD RIO PRO The Magicard Rio Pro is the industry standard for high volume, high-speed card printing. Excellent print quality secured with a unique custom watermark and backed with the industry’s most comprehensive warranty. Built for heavy use, the Rio Pro sets the standard for secure card printing. High capacity hoppers (up to 200 cards) and a fast, reliable print engine can produce more than 150 high quality, secure, full colour cards per hour. Included with all Magicard printers, HoloKote® is patented technology that frosts a secure watermark onto the card’s surface during printing. The Magicard Rio Pro offers the option of customising this watermark to your organisation’s unique logo or security design. The Magicard Rio Pro can be equipped with a range of card encoding devices to write secure electronic data to cards at the point of issuance. Smart card encoding options include contact chip, MIFARE, DESFire and iClass. Specialist high-security encoders, such as EMV accredited devices, can also be fitted for the in-line personalisation of payment cards. The Rio Pro can also be supplied with a magnetic stripe encoder built-in. Wholesale iD are the Australasian distributor for Magicard card printer solutions. For more information visit

HYTERA PD412 DIGITAL PATROL RADIO The Hytera PD412 is a compact and rugged two-way digital patrol radio with an embedded RFID chip to enable it to read information from an RFID tag and send the information out by radio. The patrol software enables the user to run reports on individual IDs, the radio or on each checkpoint effectively turning the PD412 into a combination radio and attendance verification system. The PD412 features analog and DMR (Digital Mobile Radio) mixed channel modes and is compliant with MIL-STD-810 C/D/E/F/G standards which basically means that this radio will survive pretty much anything the US army might throw at it. In digital mode, its battery operates for at least 16 h under a duty cycle of 5-5-90 @1500 mAh. The unit is only 112 x 55 x 31 mm and weighs 270 g. The unit also features preprogrammed text messages, one-touch call/text and VOX or voice activated mode. The PD412also features a development port for radio and RFID enabling third-party partners to further develop other helpful applications to extend the radio’s RFID functionalities via a Hytera Application Programming Interface (API). With so many features and so much value packed into one small unit, it is hard to see how anyone looking for a mobile comms solution for security could possibly go past the Hytera PD412 Digital Patrol Radio. For more information visit





CENTURION EASYGATE HG The Centurion EasyGate HG is the very latest in high tech entrance control systems. The EasyGate uses glass barriers in conjunction with optical detection technology and a new, patented magnetic drive motor which moves the barriers much faster and more precisely than any other product on the market, to provide a high throughput / high security gate. The bi-directional glass barrier is designed to work in a normally closed mode and open after a valid card has been presented to allow the authorised user to pass. The glass barrier then closes behind the authorised person to deter tailgaters. The glass security barrier moves away from the authorised pedestrian. In the event of other authorised users trying to use the lane, the barrier will stay open, even if they are walking in the opposite direction. The familiarity of the ‘door-like’ action of the barrier gives users confidence in operating the system ensuring quick acceptance. With pedestal widths of 210 mm, barrier heights of up to 1800 mm and an open sided design matched with customisable vanity tops, Centurion EasyGate HG provides the ultimate combination of high security, fast throughput and high aesthetics. EasyGate HG automatically sounds a local alarm if someone enters without authorization. Additionally, a relay can activate stricter security actions such as triggering CCTV, locking doors, or controlling elevators. When integrated with the fire alarm system, and upon a fire alarm, the barriers automatically open to allow for free emergency egress. The barriers can also open in the same manner in the event of a power outage. The EasyGate HG can be supplied with a desk mounted console or PC software to provide the reception team with easy control of the turnstiles functionality to facilitate visitor entry, simplify alarm monitoring and change operational modes. In addition, the turnstiles can be configured to allow remote diagnostics allowing engineers to dial in and undertake remote maintenance, servicing, configuration and trouble shooting saving on expensive site visits. For more information, visit

SALTO XS4 MINI SALTO Systems latest product breakthrough, the XS4 Mini, has finally hit Australian shores. Part of a broad initiative of new products that follows SALTO’s concept of developing innovative access control products with state-of-the art technology and an attractive design, the XS4 Mini includes all the original SALTO features like SALTO Virtual Network (SVN) and wireless capability but in a mini size, with mini installation needs, and on an updated technology basis. Embedded in the heart of the product is the latest microprocessor technology, ready for the connected world, open and future-proof for online connection, wireless technology and NFC. The XS4 Mini’s compact size combined with a modern LED aesthetic also marks a new design language from SALTO. Salto have gone to great lengths to ensure that the new XS4 Mini looks as amazing as its is feature rich. For example, changing the look of the XS4 Mini is as simple as removing the face plate and replacing it with a different plate more in line with the aesthetic of your building. The XS4 mini also works seamlessly with the SALTO virtual network which facilitates quick and easy updating of access control privileges at the door anytime a user presents his or her card. What’s more, Salto have also integrated off line access for remote sites utilising NFC enabled smart phones. Simply send the required access credential to the user’s phone and he or she can then access the required doors for the specified period. More advanced than any other electronic lock on the market, XS4 Mini has been designed to cover users’ security needs today and into the future. In addition to supporting the SALTO Virtual Network and SALTO Wireless Network, the XS4 Mini is available as a tubular latch solution, is compatible with Australian mortise locks, and multiple types of RFID technology, including NFC. For more information, visit:


Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or products appearing in this section represent the opinions of the Editor or relevant editorial staff member assigned to this publication and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the advertisers or other contributors to this publication.

TRIVIEW Imagine if there was a way to get all the benefits of modern, High Definition CCTV, without having to replace your existing analogue infrastructure which cost thousands of dollars to install. The new Triview Vision system from Nidac uses High Definition Transport Video Interface – HD-TVI – which offers users all the benefits of High Definition video, without many of the costs traditionally associated with switching to HD CCTV. This revolutionary technology allows users to send uncompressed, high-resolution video over coaxial and data cables. The Triview Vision HD product family is comprised of full HD cameras and DVRs that offer seamless compatibility with multiple video formats, from standard definition analogue to HD-TVI to megapixel IP. Other benefits of HD-TVI include absence of video delay in live viewing, bi-directional signalling, and highly efficient storage, adding up to an incredible breakthrough in the evolution of analogue transmission. Where previous HD video over coax methods were limited by cable type and distance, reliability, lack of bi-directional communications, and total system cost, HD-TVI addresses these challenges effortlessly. Supporting up to 1080p resolution at around 300 meters, the HD-TVI signal is immune to electromagnetic interference. Live video can be viewed in high resolution with zero latency because the video stream is uncompressed. Bi-directional signaling allows for PTZ control and setting camera functions remotely. In addition to the flexibility of the system, and the way it can integrate with and handle other cameras, the cost saving on cabling alone ensures the Triview Vision HD-TVI system is comparable to that which one might expect to pay for a lower cost HD-CVI system, making it the most attractive security camera system on the market today. In addition to its many other features and benefits, HD-TVI produces higher quality images than any other comparable system on the market. When cost, quality, clarity and reliability really matter, you cannot go past Triview Vision. The brand with excellent support and services. To find out more call 9808 6244 or visit today!

FACEVACS VIDEOSCAN WITH NEW C5 CAMERA Cognitec now offers a highly specialized IP video camera with built-in face detection and tracking technology as a component of its FaceVACS-VideoScan product. The FaceVACS-VideoScan C5 camera provides optimal image quality for real-time face recognition, even under challenging conditions, while requiring low computing hardware and bandwidth resources. Currently, users of high-resolution machine vision cameras require constant high bandwidth to receive uncompressed face images for optimal recognition performance. This scenario requires a dedicated network connection between camera and software. Typical surveillance cameras with moderate bandwidth requirements produce compressed images, leading to decreased biometric performance of the face recognition software. FaceVACS-VideoScan C5 combines the advantages of the high image quality produced by machine vision cameras with the moderate bandwidth requirements of surveillance cameras. The camera performs real-time, gapless face detection/tracking and generates lossless, cropped video streams for all faces appearing in front of the camera. An integrated camera control provides optimized exposure on the face area. FaceVACS-VideoScan C5 supports RTSP/H.264 video streams for integration with digital video recording systems. The camera delivers optimal integration with Cognitec’s product FaceVACS-VideoScan, enabling the technology to detect and identify persons of interest in real time and with great accuracy. In addition, anonymous facial analysis over time allows the software to compute people count, demographical information, people movement in time and space, and to detect frequent visitors and crowds. Since the technology can analyze a face for gender and age, it can trigger the display of a targeted message on a digital sign. The software also compares faces to image databases and instantly finds known individuals. Businesses can detect and prevent unwanted behaviour in more efficient ways, as operators can receive alerts on mobile devices to act within the immediate vicinity of a suspect. On the other hand, FaceVACS-VideoScan identifies authorized individuals or high-ranking customers on real time, prompts access to restricted areas or alerts personnel to provide special treatment. For more information, visit





KC-2000 FALCON EYE Unlike other low light cameras on the market today, the Falcon Eye KC-200 does not require IR illumination or an image intensifier unit. Instead, this unique camera is built using a new type of CMOS sensor which, when combined with advanced electronics and image controlling software, has resulted in a unique image capture system with a light sensitivity way beyond the capabilities of other night vision systems on the market today. Where other night vision and and low light camera systems on the market produce green-tinged monochrome or black and white images, the KC-2000 enables users to see and record in color - even in the near total darkness – capturing scenes otherwise invisible to the human eye. In addition to its amazing low light capabilities, KC-2000 is extremely easy to operate. Most settings are automatically adjusted by the camera making the camera easy-to-use. Furthermore, the camera can be used to capture both still images and video, working equally well during both day and night, making this one of the most powerful, versatile surveillance cameras on the market today. Because the camera captures high resolution images in clear colors regardless of the level of ambient light, the KC-2000 is ideally suited to surveillance applications where reliable target recognition and identification is key. In addition to it incredible video performance, the KC-2000 is built for operation in tough environments thanks to the camera’s robust housing which is CNC-machined from a single aluminum block. This results in a camera that is both weather proof and durable, while being compact and light weight providing excellent portability. Designed for handheld shooting, the KC-2000 records at HD 1280 x 720 to an internal SD cards at frame rates of up to 30 frames per second ensuring you have an accurate record of events even at night. For more information please visit or contact

THE WEDGE II The Wedge II Physical Access Control Barrier From Ezi Security Systems offers maximum security against unauthorized wheeled vehicles of all sizes and weights for highly sensitive entry points. Typical areas of application include embassies, government sites, research and development centres, power stations, industrial plants, military sites, airports and other high security areas. The Wedge II can be installed as a single unit or in combination with other products such as barriers, gates, tyre killers or bollards, in order to create a sluice arrangement forming a vehicle check point. The new Wedge II has been successfully tested to PAS 68:2013 (UK’s standard and the security industry’s benchmark for Hostile Vehicle Mitigation equipment and IWA 14-1:2013 standard (the International Workshop Agreement which specifies the essential impact performance requirement for a vehicle security barrier) stopping a 7.5 tonne vehicle travelling at 80 km/h with ZERO penetration. With its decreased installation depth and foundation footprint combined with the lowest foundation thickness in the world, the new Wedge II reduces installation costs significantly and allows installation in areas where foundation depths are limited due to underground utilities. Compared to the Wedge I, the Wedge II features a range of technical innovativations such as state-of- the-art foundation and reinforcement and high energy efficiency due to employment of pressure spring pistons. Furthermore, the starting power and lifting power employed in the raising of the blocking element have been optimized in the Wedge II due to the fact that energy is now stored in pressure springs. Further improvements include scale downed versions of the accumulator for Emergency Fast operation and RO3 function. The Wedge II effectively blocks the road within 3 seconds, which can be decreased to 1 second in an emergency via the use of an optional accumulator. Furthermore, the working oil volume has also been reduced due to the use of a single hydraulic cylinder which equates to lower costs for higher security. In all, the Wedge II is an extremely effective and impressive tool for physical security against wheeled vehicles. For more information visit


Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or products appearing in this section represent the opinions of the Editor or relevant editorial staff member assigned to this publication and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the advertisers or other contributors to this publication.

VIDEOFIED OUTDOOR MOTIONVIEWER® The Videofied Outdoor MotionViewer® (OMV) is a battery-powered PIR motion sensor with an integrated video camera and infrared illuminators. It is designed to detect an intruder, instantaneously record a short video clip and transmit the video to the control panel. The panel then transmits the video alarm signal to the central station for immediate review and dispatch to police for priority response to a crime-in-progress. The OMV provides built-in infrared illumination up to 30 feet from device. Because it is designed for outdoor operation, the OMV is IP 65 Weatherproof rated, Temperature rated from -30° to +60°C and can operate for years on one set of AA batteries. To ensure reliable communication between the camera and the panel, the OMV has an effective RF range 500ft or up to 1000ft for line-of-sight contexts (zero obstruction). New features on this latest generation OMV include: • Multiple Fresnel lens options to allow users to configure the device for different scenarios such as pet immune, perimeter detection and so on. • Enhanced night vision • Accelerometer tamper detection • Input and output terminals for integrating the OMV with 3rd party devices • A VGA day/night video camera • Doubled wireless transmission speed and, • Easy battery change Whether you are looking to protect a building site, outdoor stock area, or your own backyard, be sure to check out the new OMV from Videofied. For more information visit

NEW PROVISION-ISR CCTV RANGE Introducing the new rage of CCTV Cameras, network and digital video recorders from Israeli based CCTV manufacturers Provision ISR, one of the fastest growing CCTV brands in the world today. Distributed in Australia by Melbourne based company Centrevision, the exclusive Australian importer and distributor of Provision-ISR products, this new range of cameras and recorders has been designed as a boutique brand, providing quality products at affordable prices. There are three new NVRs in the range, a 32 channel, a 16 channel and an 8 channel NVR, all capable of recording in real time across all channels at 3 megapixels. Amongst their many features, all three units feature HDMI output, 2-way audio, simultaneous play back across 4 channels and are Onvif compliant. The new range also features Provision-ISR’s Analogue High Definition technology. This effectively means cameras and recorders in the AHD range can work as standard analogue cameras or be switched to AHD mode to capture analogue high definition images at 720p (with 1080p available shortly). In addition to the three new NVRs, the new SA – 8200 AHD is compact 8 channel DVR featuring 720P AHD + 1CH 960P IP making this a powerful and flexible little hybrid DVR. The new camera range includes everything from 720p AHD models to 3 mega pixel IP cameras in a variety of configurations including Infrared and day/night cameras, vari-focal and fixed lens cameras, standard and anti vandal domes and bullet cameras. One of the things we most like about this range is Provision-ISR and CentreVision have worked hard to ensure to protect the installers margins by ensuring that the range is only available through the distributor meaning installers never have to worry about going head-to-head with grey imports. Backed by unparalleled customer service and great warranty support, if you haven’t yet seen the the Provision-ISR CCTV range then I definitely urge you to contact CentreVision to take a closer look. Visit



Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or services appearing in this section represent the opinions of the relevant advertiser and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the other advertisers or contributors to this publication.

Dahua Leaps to 5th Place in the A&S Security 50 HANGZHOU, China/November 20 2015 – Dahua Technology, a world-leading manufacturer and supplier of video surveillance products headquartered in Hangzhou, China proudly announced that its sales revenue leaps forward to 5th place according to A&S Security 50 report 2015. According to IHS 2014 report, the global market size of video surveillance was estimated to be US$15 billion. These markets are forecasted to grow to approximately $23.6 billion annually by the end of 2018. The global demand for security products remains high, however multiple factors have changed the security industry landscape. Dahua has continued to grow internationally by 35% surpassing the Global Technologies Division of Assa-Abloy and attained the number five position on the top 50. The urban surveillance and safe cities markets are driving growth, especially in developing countries. Founded privately, Dahua is the only company in the top 5 to be independent of the government and gain its business extensively from SMB customers. This shows Dahua’s extraordinary success in obtaining this industry milestone. “Our leadership role has been forged by more than 20 years of industry experience,” said Fu Liquan, President of Dahua Technology. “Dahua will continue to provide new solutions through innovation and research. We believe China will change the global security industry landscape, and Dahua will be the leader of this positive change.” For more information visit

2015 MLA Conference Wrap-up The 2015 MLA Conference and Trade Exhibition was one of the most memorable in recent history. A number of international guests from around the globe attended to see for themselves the latest in technologies and solutions available here in Australia. Apart from keeping engaged and informed about the latest issues and products in locksmithing, the conference also provided attendees with the opportunity to network with their peers. The Friday night BBQ and drinks was very popular with all the delegates and exhibitors, as was the Saturday night Gala Dinner which was attended by nearly 300 people. Special congratulations are in order to Luke Bergin from Ruswin in Townsville, QLD for winning the “John Andrew Apprentice Of The Year” competition and to his mentor Glen Westhorp. The event was proudly sponsored by LSC, ABUS and Silca, with both Luke and Glen winning a trip to visit the ABUS facility in Germany and the Silca facility in Italy. Aiden Binstead from Keycut Services in Gladstone, QLD was the first runner up and Lisa Nottage from Woodpend Hardware/Premier Locksmiths in Wayville SA the second runner up. For more information on other winners and awards please refer to the MLA website at Make sure that you place the 2016 MLA Conference & Trade Exhibition in your diary for October as this year the event will be held in Perth. For any enquiries please contact the contact the MLA: or 03 9338 8822.


Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or services appearing in this section represent the opinions of the relevant advertiser and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the other advertisers or contributors to this publication.


Why risk management and planning is essential for all Australian businesses If you are responsible for providing security and risk management services, then you will understand the critical need to plan for worst case scenarios. Identifying the security risks and developing a plan to mitigate and manage these risks is essential, as is having a team of people who are skilled in doing so. But how do you create a culture of continuous improvement so that your teams remain alert to any new threats? At Real Institute we specialise in delivering training solutions that do just that. By delivering training that is engaging and relevant we help businesses to foster a culture of continuous improvement, as well as develop the skills and knowledge of their teams. Our courses can be tailored to meet your specific needs and can be made up of nationally recognised qualifications and non-accredited courses, some of which are listed below: • CPP20212 Certificate II in Security Operations • CPP30411 Certificate III in Security Operations • CPP40707 Certificate IV in Security and Risk Management • CSC40112 Certificate IV in Correctional Practice • Counter-terrorism Awareness • Armed Robbery Awareness We are also one of the few training providers to gain approval from Office of Transport Safety (OTS) to deliver the newly introduced Aviation Transport Protection qualifications: • AVI20613 Certificate II in Aviation Transport Protection (Passenger/Non-Passenger Screener), and • AVI20713 Certificate II in Aviation Transport Protection (Checked Baggage Screener). Our programs are delivered by trainers who have real industry experience so you can feel confident that you’re getting training programs that are relevant and up-to-date. With the current worldwide events it’s more important than ever to have secure planning and risk management in place. Contact Lalith Udugampala on 0499 998 879 or visit our website for more information.

Seadan launches complete range of Advanced Thermal Cameras from Dahua Seadan is pleased to announce a complete range of Thermal Cameras for the Australian market from Dahua. Unlike many other camera manufacturers, Dahua offers a full series of Thermal cameras. The three categories include Hybrid style cameras (Thermal and Conventional MegaPixel, Speed Dome style and mid-size Bullet Thermal cameras). An innovative new capability allows the thermal camera to thermally detect a distant object of interest (such as a vehicle) then communicate this information to the associated conventional camera, instructing it to zoom into that object, completely unattended. With up to 40 X zoom, clear visual identification is possible. Actual temperature measurement is available with the “T” models, further extending the application into industries such as energy utilities and heavy manufacturing for maintenance analysis of switchyards and process lines where “hotspots” are indications of early failures. In addition, the camera can trigger an alarm if set temperatures are exceeded. The Hybrid series offer panoramic display (of both Thermal and Conventional cameras), hot spot detection and alarm, plus intelligent tracking. A unique feature of the Professional and Lite series is the Tri–output video, permitting connection to SD, HD-CVI or IP video recorders. Lenses are available from 7mm to 100mm. All cameras include IVS (Intelligent Video Surveillance) offering features such as virtual trip wire, object discrimination and more. Seadan Security and Electronics is a leading Australian wholesale supplier of security and CCTV system solutions. Seadan is a national distributor of Dahua products, with local engineering support and with Dahua products on display in all Seadan showrooms across Australia. For more information about Advanced Thermal Cameras, please contact David Pettigrew, National Marketing Manager – CCTV Division of Seadan Security and Electronics. Call 1300 366 851 or email:



Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or services appearing in this section represent the opinions of the relevant advertiser and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the other advertisers or contributors to this publication.

Seagate is bringing Christmas early this year for security professionals Seagate is committed to working closely with security professionals, installers and technicians. Seagate’s seventh-generation Surveillance HDD delivers reliable recording, playback performance and data reliability at an affordable price. The Seagate Surveillance HDD range can be your bedrock for better video surveillance systems. The Surveillance HDD is engineered for high resolution and camera count with low energy requirements whilst still working around the clock. It really is the first choice for security with its outstanding features which include: • precision-tuned for high write surveillance workloads operating 24x7 • supports up to 64 cameras per drive and 8+ drives per system • up to 8TB or 600+ Hours of HD video • low power requirements • rotational Vibration sensors to prevent performance decrease • optional +Rescue Data Recovery for critical data recovery • 3 Year limited warranty. An incredible Christmas offer from Seagate will enable you to stuff something extra into your Christmas stocking this year. When you purchase a Seagate Surveillance HDD from today until the 29th of January 2016, simply register your purchase and receive a $10 fuel voucher for each Surveillance HD! Fuel vouchers for every purchase can also be accumulated and the total amount of vouchers will be sent to you after the campaign ends in February. For further information, visit

Important Security Merchants Australia Distribution Announcement Security Merchants Australia (SMA) and UTC Fire and Security Australia Pty Ltd trading as Interlogix, are excited to team together in offering Tecom®, TruVision®, Aritech®, ITI™ and IFS™ into the Australian market. Expanding channel to market – Interlogix and Security Merchants Committed to delivering best-in-class security products to security channel markets, one of the world’s largest and most recognised security solutions providers, Interlogix, has partnered with Security Merchants Australia. The Security Merchants value proposition complements the Interlogix portfolio well. SMA holds a strong position in the market for specification, technical support and delivering the best customer service experience in the industry. Kristian Speers, Security Merchants General Manager, welcomes the addition of the Interlogix portfolio to the SMA offering, “SMA has grown exponentially in the last 2 years. Our investment in staff infrastructure and innovative systems is clearly paying off. Our focus on providing the always better customer experience will now be paired with one of the world’s leading integrated intrusion and access control portfolios”. From the 23rd of November 2015, Tecom®, TruVision®, Aritech®, ITI™ (formerly Sentrol) and IFS™ products will be distributed by Security Merchants Australia. Martin Dillon, General Manager of Interlogix in Australia and New Zealand, shares an aligned vision, “Interlogix is excited about the addition of SMA to our channel, as a focused and successful distributor. SMA’s customer focus and approach are a perfect match for our innovative products”. For more information visit


Powerful insights into security and property related matters that occur in and around the work place. SIMTRACK™ is the solution of choice for organisations to manage and track security related incidents across all business sectors in a structured and unified environment. Built with complete mobile and tablet support, SIMTRACK™ allows incidents to be reported as they happen, where they happen. Intelligent insights to trends, incidents hotspots, serial offenders and more emerge through powerful inbuilt real-time reporting. Businesses can mitigate risks effectively with strategic implementation of preventative measures. l l

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SWIPE TAP TWIST POINT TOUCH OR PUSH WITH CONFIDENCE. Technology is evolving and words like “interoperability” are taking on entirely new meaning. HID Global is leading the industry by developing the world’s broadest portfolio of truly scalable, fully interoperable secure identity solutions. We are connecting people to places with physical, mobile and virtual access solutions like never before—and we’re doing it with the most advanced layers of security anywhere on the planet. You’ll call it seamless end-to-end solutions. We call it, “your security connected.” YOUR SECURITY. CONNECTED


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Security Solutions Magazine Issue 99 Digital Version  

Security Solutions Magazine Issue 99 Digital Version

Security Solutions Magazine Issue 99 Digital Version  

Security Solutions Magazine Issue 99 Digital Version