Education Technology Solutions #79

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ISSUE 79 E D U C AT I O N T E C H N O LO GY S O LU T I O N S I S S U E 7 9 A U G / S E P T 1 7



w w w. e d u c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y s o l u t i o n s . c o m . a u

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Adding new technology into the learning environment does not automatically lead to increased achievement.

How do you build increased capacity for whole of school learning in a digital age?


20 TEENAGERS IN THE DIGITAL AGE: ONLINE PRESENCE FOR FUTURE PATHWAYS? With so many new tools available to help students facilitate social and educational interactions, how can educators navigate the maze?

34 COFFEE SHOP CLASSROOMS Flexible learning spaces have been the buzz words of industry for many years now and it appears this concept has developed from a ‘nice idea’ to the current directional norm.

54 WHAT’S IN STORE FOR EDUTECH, AND OUR NATIONAL FUTURESCHOOLS EXPO IN 2018? The EduTECH International Congress and National FutureSchools Expo events bring educators to the forefront of leading, teaching and learning with emerging technologies.


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16 INTERACTIVE LEARNING Mal Lee and Roger Broadie challenge the conventional thinking around traditional marketing strategies for schools and their value an increasingly online, socially connected world.


38 OFFICE SPACE What is authenticity and how can we use authentic work to improve student engagement?

42 NEXT STEP Shelly Kinash looks back at some the major changes in technology that have impacted on teaching over the last 25 years.

46 LET’S TALK PEDAGOGY How can you build your own light board to create more flexible learning?

70 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Sexting can have a significantly detrimental impact on a student’s mental health and future. Cyber Security expert Brett Lee outlines 4 principles educators can use to help students avoid the pitfalls of sexting.

58 TEACHING TOOLS Do you use drones in your school? If so, why, and do you understand the laws and regulations that may affect how and where you can use them?

62 GET CONNECTED Gary Bass looks at the power of mix reality technologies in the classroom.

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EDITOR John Bigelow EMAIL SUBEDITORS Helen Sist, Ged McMahon

CONTRIBUTORS Stephen Francis, Kathryn Taylor, Jonathan Roberts, Megan Vazey, Mal Lee, Christine Hayes, Steven Pinel, Peter West, Shelley Kinash, Bob Carpenter, Gary Bass, Brett Lee


Keith Rozairo PHONE 1300 300 552 EMAIL

John Bigelow Editor


Jonthan Rudolph PHONE 1300 300 552 EMAIL


PHONE 1300 300 552 EMAIL $57 AUD per annum inside Australia


PHONE 1300 300 552 EMAIL


ABN 56 606 919463

Level 1, 34 Joseph St, Blackburn, Victoria 3130 PHONE 1300 300 552 EMAIL WEBSITE


The publisher takes due care in the preparation of this magazine and takes all reasonable precautions and makes all reasonable effort to ensure the accuracy of material contained in this publication, but is not liable for any mistake, misprint or omission. The publisher does not assume any responsibility or liability for any loss or damage which may result from any inaccuracy or omission in this publication, or from the use of information contained herein. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied with respect to any of the material contained herein. The contents of this magazine may not be reproduced in ANY form in whole OR in part without WRITTEN permission from the publisher. Reproduction includes copying, photocopying, translation or reduced to any electronic medium or machine-readable form.


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ith the pace of technological evolution being what it is today, what sort of world might students be living in when they graduate? Just imagine, a student

enters school in 2017 and graduates high school in 2029. Can you even begin to imagine what the world will look like? You might think you can, but the reality is, you probably can’t. I say this only because, most people trying to imagine technological progress and

but instead, purchase a self expiring pattern license

evolution do so based on our current time scale and

that will enable you to print that replacement part at

rate of development. In reality, development will speed

home saving both time and shipping costs. Imagine

up exponentially in coming years as we become more

a world where, in order to install that spare part, one

technologically savvy. This is largely because as we

need only slip on his or her augmented reality glasses

develop faster, more powerful technology, that same

to see an overlay of instructions for how to install the

technology will more rapidly overcome many of the

part, what tools are required, and exploded diagrams

problems which are currently inhibiting our progress.

of where the part goes all superimposed over the item

Fast computers equal faster microprocessors equal

you are trying to repair.

faster engineering outcomes, faster computational abilities, faster prototyping and so on. By the mid twentieth century, we will live

what if it runs out? Well, in this future world, you

in a world where self drive cars, augmented

either direct you self drive car to find the nearest

reality, desktop 3D printing and invisible wearable

retailer who has the items you need in stock, and then

technologies are all commonplace, everyday norms.

take you there, or… that same retailer simply has the

(I should point out that invisible wearable technology

items you need delivered to your door via drone within

does not actually mean invisible but rather, is a

an hour of you placing your order online.

term used to describe wearable technology which

Others find it hard to imagine what living in this world

example, many of today’s smart watch’s simply look

might be like. Regardless, schools need to start

like any other stylish analogue watch but feature all the

thinking about how they prepare today’s students to

technological innovations of a smart watch).

become productive, contributing members of a world

to buy a spare part for your car, push bike or vacuum,

008-009_ETS79 Editor's Letter.indd 8

Some people find it hard to imagine this world.

is indistinguishable from non-smart technology. For

Imagine a world in which you no longer go online


Some might say that is all fine and well providing your 3D desktop printer has sufficient materials, but

that is facing challenges we have not yet even begun to imagine. Does it get anymore exciting then that? n

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Simply push the scan button on the ScanSnap SV600 to start scanning. You can scan documents which are impossible to scan using an ADF scanner. Large documents, thick books, and your precious memories. You don’t need to cut out pages anymore and you can even scan multiple document in one go. These are all made possible by the new Versatile Imaging Technology. Scan it with Fujitsu. If you would like more information please contact Proscan 1300 132 001

shaping tomorrow with you

008-009_ETS79 Editor's Letter.indd 9

19/07/2017 11:06 am



yber safety continues to

to recover passwords or user names,

importance. The

online service providers have had

instances of online

to develop a system of security that

scams, predators and potential pitfalls

enables the user to confirm his or

seems to grow on a continuing basis

her identity, while making it hard for

and if anything, scammers and

others to hack that account. To that

predators seem to be getting smarter.

end, the vast majority of vendors have

Protecting against online threats

book sending itself out without their

However, in order to allow users

be of paramount

implemented a challenge response


knowledge (most likely picked up while he or she was downloading the latest season of Game of Thrones). Furthermore, your friend will never see the results of your questionnaire. The results will instead be sent back to a group of hackers or scammers seeking to breach the security on a site that might keep records of things like your

requires effective security. However,

type of system whereby a user is

effective security is a balancing act

asked to answer a series of security

where one must constantly walk the

questions upon opening an account.

questionnaire that seems to have come

line between strong access control

These questions often ask things that

from someone you know. Perhaps a

receive online should be viewed with

and user friendly service. To that end,

are supposedly known only to the

close friend. The questionnaire asks a

an air of suspicion. Anything asking

many social media sites, banking

user. However, the types of questions

series of seemingly innocent questions

you to divulge information known

institutions, online movie sites and

being asked are becoming increasingly

about your friend and about you. This

only to you and maybe a very select

so on, have adopted a policy of

common. For example, a site might ask

is done under the pretext that you

group of friends should be viewed as

allowing users to recover or reset their

you to identify the name of your first

answer the question about yourself and

dangerous and deleted immediately.

password in the event that they forget

pet, or the name of your fourth grade

then the questionnaire compares those

Even if your friend was silly enough

it. And let’s be honest, who hasn’t

teacher, or your mother’s maiden name

responses to your friend’s responses

to send such a questionnaire, do not

forgotten a password or username

and so on. As these lists of questions

to the same questions to determine

respond as you cannot tell where

once or twice before. Given the

become more common, scammers

just how well they know you. For

copies of your response might be

number of sites we visit and online

and predators are becoming more

example, the questionnaire might ask,

sent. This type of scam is becoming

services most of us use these days, it

savvy, developing social engineering

what is your favorite colour? What

extremely common and a disturbing

is almost impossible to keep track of

or phising methods designed to ferret

was the first type of car you owned?

number of people are falling victim. Be

every username and password (unless

this information out. It is important that

Where were you born? The reality is,

sure to warn students and as always,

you use the same username and

educators be aware of these practices,

the email most likely has not come

delete anything you are suspicious of,

password for multiple sites but I am

not just for their own safety, but also

from your best friend, but rather, it

do not open attachments from anyone

going to assume no one reading this

to warn students in an effort to prevent

has been generated by malware than

you do not recognize and never ever

is that stupid).

unfortunate security breaches.

has infected your friend’s address

give away personal information. n


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Let us look at the example of a fun

credit card details and so on. Anything you and your students

19/07/2017 11:10 am

P a r t o f t h e F l i p p e d L e a r n i n g 3 . 0 W o r l d To u r

Friday 20 and Saturday 21 October 2017 | Inaburra School, Sydney

This conference is part of the Flipped Learning 3.0 World Tour. There are big changes on the road ahead for teachers, education leaders and administrators. Attend to get a wake-up call and a Flipped Learning 3.0 roadmap combined. Break-out sessions will focus on: • A beginner stream • Making flipped resources • Pedagogy and best practice • Subject specific • Experienced Flippers Stream • Assessment • Scaling up • Research • Flip a lesson • What happens at home The Masterclass Program includes the full conference program PLUS another 6 hours dedicated to specially designed Masterclass sessions. Masterclass sessions target mastery level and offer you an extended conference experience.

Keynote 1: Jon Bergmann IT’S TIME: Flip or Flop – 3 forces turning schools upside down, whether we’re ready or not

Keynote 2: Joel Speranza From Talkies to YouTube, the power of the Moving Image finally realised

Keynote 3: Errol St.Clair Smith What’s Next? – introduce new ideas without losing your mind, credibility or your job

Australian Professional Standards for Teachers For all States and Territories: This conference addresses the following Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. 2.6.2 – Information and communication technology (ICT) 3.3.2 – Use teaching strategies 6.2.2 – Engage in professional learning and improve practice 2.1.2 – Content and teaching strategies of the teaching area (ICT) 3.4.2 – Select and use resources 4.5.2 – Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically 6.3.2 – Engage with colleagues and improve practice In addition: Attending FlipCon Australia will contribute 10.25 hours (16.25 hours if you attend the Masterclass) of QTC Registered PD addressing 2.6.2; 3.3.2; 6.2.2 from the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers towards maintaining Proficient Teacher Accreditation in NSW.


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For more information about costs, program options and how to register go to:

19/07/2017 11:10 am


The Education Show

in your school to give your students a

product space and the ways this

Melbourne Convention and

competitive advantage. The conference

can best be employed to advance

K-12 Digital Classroom Practice Conference

Exhibition Centre

will appeal to school leaders,

teaching and learning.

Melbourne Convention and

Friday 1 – 2 September, 2017

leadership teams and classroom

The Leading a Digital School

Exhibition Centre (MCEC)

The Education Show is a key event of

teachers who lead.

Conference addresses both of these

1-2 September, 2017

The National Education Summit which

Program Overview

critical ingredients ensuring that it

The K-12 Digital Classroom Practice

draws principals, school leaders,

Keynote Address - Day 1: Breaking

rightfully takes its place as “no ordinary

Conference explores best digital

business managers and educators

down silos: creating a

digital technology conference”.

classroom practice to achieve superior

from K-12. For more information on the

culture of innovation.

Three perspecitves on leadership will

teaching and learning outcomes.

National Education Summit please visit

Keynote Address – Day 2: Growing a

be explored over the three big days;

This exciting event, now in its

culture of innovation.

Leading from the Top, The Beautiful

second year, is part of the National

Keynote Address – Day 3: Our

Synergy (leadership teams combining

Education Summit.

Disruptive Journey with Digital and

somewhere in the middle) and Leading

Leading a Digital School Conference 2017

Design Learning.

from the Grassroots.

classroom practice - using

For all States and Territories

digital technology is no longer an

Digital Classrooms | Digital Schools

two critical ingredients must be readily

this conference addresses the

option for a teacher.

24 - 26 August 2017

accessible to the leader:

following Professional Standards for

QT Hotel, Gold Coast

• An understanding of how to lead

Teachers: 2.6.2, 3.3.2, 6.2.2, 2.1.2,

doubt using some digital technology

To effectively lead a digital school

Drilling down to best digital

Of course as a teacher you are no

The Leading a Digital School

staff to achieve superior digital

3.4.2, 4.5.2, 6.3.2.

in your classroom for the benefit of

Conference 2017 is about driving and

technology outcomes

Further information can be found at

your students. But on a scale of 1

to 10 where do you sit? How far do

growing the inspirational and sound educational use of digital technology


010-015_ETS79 Regulars.indd 12

• An understanding of the exciting yet crowded digital technology

you still have to challenge yourself to

19/07/2017 11:10 am

CF OH A N G E R THE BETTER Switching to a new LMS is a big decision. Canvas comes with sky-high adoption rates, unparalleled services and support, and an open, innovation-obsessed platform. Because if you’re going to make a big decision, make the right one. Visit booth #74 at EduTECH where you can learn more about Canvas, watch a free demo and enter to win an iWatch.

Learn more: 1 300 956 763

010-015_ETS79 Regulars.indd 13

19/07/2017 11:10 am


be the best teacher you can be, using digital technology in effective ways that improve your teaching and your students’ learning? Time to “drill down” to become an accomplished digital practitioner in your classroom! The K-12


Digital Classroom Practice Conference will help you do that. Further information about the K-12 Digital Classroom Practice Conference can be found at

EduTECH Africa 2017 3 - 4 October Sandton Convention Centre, Johannesburg EduTECH Africa will take place in Johannesburg, South Africa in October 2017. With 1000’s of visitors in attendance at our 2015 and 2016

- research, classroom innovation

The National FutureSchools Expo

has limited funds, so they work with

events, EduTECH Africa is the symbol

and advances in technology are

is an annual 2-day event which

industry to subsidise registration costs

of just how much potential Africa

driving the change.

runs in March and will be held

making this an accessible investment

at the Melbourne Convention &

in your learning.

holds for technology, innovation and implementation in the classroom. EduTECH Africa is where all aspects

Classroom innovation is bringing some of the most exciting changes to Flipped Learning:

Exhibition Centre. It is the sister-event of EduTECH

At the National Future Schools event, educators have access to the

(Australasia and Asia Pacific’s largest

very best speakers from Australia and

deliver greater learning outcomes for

– the walls of the classroom

education event). It consists of one

around the world. You can share your

learners in all environments.

are nearly down

central exhibition and five parallel

ideas, successes and challenges with

conferences designed to tackle five

over 4,000 attendees in similar roles

specific areas of the future school:

to discuss, debate and take-away,

• Future Leadership

implementable outcomes.

of education are brought together to

For more information visit www.

• Expanding the group space

• Innovating with student created flipped videos • Innovating the teacher - student relationship – more time to create

The Flipped Learning 3.0 World Tour comes to Australia

• Redesigning the group space for

20-21 October 2017

• Gamification of the individual space

Inaburra School, Sydney

• Peer to peer instruction in

Flipped Learning

Flipped Learning Global Initiative

the group space

(FLGI), a worldwide coalition of

• Evolving way to use

• Young Learning

Just as importantly, you can tailor-

• Special Needs

make your own experience and learn

• Teaching about and using

what YOU want to know about – you

emerging technologies • STEM, coding, robotics and the

get to choose from 5 conferences, with multiple streams, plus focused

new digital curriculum

breakout sessions, MasterClasses

The 5 conferences at the National

and interactive exhibition seminars

educators, researchers, technologists,

the group space.

FutureSchools Expo have all been

and displays (not to mention hours of

professional development providers

Perhaps the most exciting recent

designed to cater for senior leadership

networking functions) - meaning that

working in different roles within

you gain the benefits of a bespoke

K-12 education.

niche program , focused on YOUR

and education leaders kick off the Flipped Learning 3.0 World Tour. Join Flipped Learning Pioneer

discovery about Flipped Learning is: Flipped Learning is not just another teaching tactic, but a meta-teaching

Whether you want to focus your

needs, combined with more than 1,500 like-minded education professionals.

Jon Bergmann @ FlipCon Australia

strategy that supports all others

engagements on Principals and the

2017 being held at Inaburra School

Further information about FlipCon

Senior Executives, prefer to talk to

Sydney on Friday 20 and Saturday

Australia 2017 can be found at www.

the real implementers of technology

Development points – when

21 October 2017.

And of course, earn Professional

teaching at the coal-face, or are looking

you register, simply tick the box

Flipped Learning 3.0

to meet people in specific roles such

indicating that you wish to apply for

The static view of Flipped Learning

as Foundation or SEN Coordinators,

CPD/PD Points, and we will post

the event is structured to appeal to the

you a Certificate of Attendance

people you want to speak to.

which you can present to your

students can watch them outside of the

National Future Schools Expo & Conference

classroom), has given way to Flipped

21-22 March 2018

Learning 3.0 a dynamic movement that

Melbourne Exhibition &

Future Schools is affordable… the

is rapidly changing. Three big factors

Convention Centre

organisers know the education sector

1.0 (record lectures on video so


010-015_ETS79 Regulars.indd 14

Perhaps most importantly, National

representative body. For more information visit n

19/07/2017 11:10 am

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016-019_ETS79 Interactive Learning.indd 16

19/07/2017 11:13 am

BY MAL LEE AND ROGER BROADIE The digital evolution of your school

digital transformation of marketing in

contribute to the overall image of the

commercial advertising. The ‘product

and the shift from the traditional,

business, the authors have identified

school. If these diverge it will be rapidly

benefits’ are identified and put into words

insular, paper-based operational mode

a suite of developments that point

noticed. If they are all ‘on-message’ the

and images as a ‘value-proposition’

to one that is digital and socially

strongly to the type of marketing that

impact will be hugely powerful.

that is promoted. Showcasing on the

networked obliges the school to rethink

digital schools are likely to employ, and

its traditional marketing strategy and

the implications which flow.

adopt one apposite for an increasingly

Not surprisingly virtually all of the

Within the traditional paper-based

other hand is based not on expected

school, with its strong division of

and hoped-for benefits, but on the real

labour, silo-like organisational structure

benefits that are realised from the use

integrated, higher order, socially

developments are consonant with and

and insularity, if school marketing was

of the product – in the school’s case

networked, market driven, 24/7/365

critical to the wider digital evolution and

done at all it was:

the real learning benefits that result from

mode of schooling.

growth of the schools.

• invariably handled by a designated

the culture, curriculum and teaching

The continuous flow of information

What is also becoming increasingly

person or unit responsible for all

‘product’ that the school provides. In shifting to a digital operational

and images to parents and community

apparent is that the marketing of a

the school promotion, with the

that digitally evolved schools create,

digital school, of a socially networked

school seeking to unilaterally

mode, the authors (Lee and Broadie

presents a day-by-day picture of

school community ‘owned’ by it,

control every aspect

2016) have noted the following

the school’s educational philosophy

is likely to be significantly different

and approach. If this image is in

to the marketing of products. While

at perceived key points in

pathfinders, with the schools:

conflict with the high-sounding

conscious that the marketing of

the school year

• adopting an ever more integrated,

statements promoted in the school’s

products is also evolving, shifting

• purpose specific

brochure and website a lack of belief

from the venerated silo-like single

• similar year on year

will be generated.

channels model to an omni-channel

• largely impersonal

• broadcast in nature – distributed

trends in marketing emerging in the

multifaceted, whole of school community approach • integrating the marketing into their daily operations

mode (

• strongly paper-based

is from advertising to showcasing.

Omnichannel), the trend line with

• carefully conceived and highly

It is possible in advertising to put a

schools is pointing very strongly to

polished with the desired

part they play in their teaching and

gloss on the reality of what happens

empowered total school communities

Pepsodent smiles and spin to

support in marketing the school

in the school. Showcasing has to

– largely unwittingly – being assisted

present the desired image.

be based on the reality, enabling

by the school leadership to use social

Many of the larger schools

• willing to reveal their natural

parents to rapidly see through any

networks and word-of-mouth to

for years have had a significant

workings, opening much of

advertising ‘gloss’.

market the school.

marketing budget, often employing

their daily teaching to public

specialist marketing and/or public

viewing, allowing current and

relations professionals.

prospective clients to scrutinise

The change that has to occur

In tracking the evolution of

The implication of this is that all

the mature digital school globally,

involved in the socially networked

observing the changes that have

communications – including pupils

taken place and also noting the

and parents as well as teachers –

016-019_ETS79 Interactive Learning.indd 17

In brief, the schools used an advertising model very similar to

• having the total staff understand the

and its culture

the school’s thinking and work, any time they wish


19/07/2017 11:13 am


only carefully selected snippets of

immense. If, however, that ‘ownership’

warning education systems and

collaborating with their

information digital schools open most

has not been secured, and the

governments should heed.

students, parents and wider

of their workings to public scrutiny.

school’s networked community is not

In going digital, schools are

community to distribute the

Of note were the school principals

impressed by the school, even minor

availed a plethora of immensely

marketing of the school

who commented on the number of

blemishes can see social networking

powerful and inexpensive marketing

‘out of area’ enrolments that flowed

cause major damage.

opportunities but all are contingent

• empowering and genuinely

• ensuring the total school

The reality, as every school and

on schools operating within a digital

community understands the

from prospective parents being able

school’s shaping educational vision

to readily scrutinise the school via its

business can attest, is that if the

and socially networked operational

and the school’s macro workings,

working website.

‘product’ being marketed is sub-

paradigm, continually providing its

standard no amount of money and

clients the desired totality and having

digital evolution and transformation of

marketing expertise will overcome

a tightly integrated, digitally-based

the schools, is to shift from silo-like to

that shortcoming and the inevitable

school ecosystem that does deliver

distributed marketing where rather than

poor word-of-mouth ‘marketing’. In an

each child an apposite holistic

the one person, the school brings into

increasingly socially networked society

education and which meets the

play its total community. A similar shift

where the clients not only talk at dinner

client’s rising expectations.

• capitalising upon the everyday

is evidenced in business with growing

parties and car parks but also through

tools of the socially networked

calls for organisations to abandon the

social media the lack of support for

that position, and time also for the

society and personalising

traditional silo-like marketing cell, with

the school or outright criticism can be

school marketers to grasp the digital

the ‘marketing’

its strong channels focus, and adopt an

highly deleterious.

transformation underway in marketing

able to speak with authority on those operations • moving almost entirely to digital communication and administration • employing an omnichannel approach

The trend, consonant with the wider

It takes schools years to reach

omni-channel, whole of organisation

and to reshape their thinking and

expenditure as they distribute the

model (Gupta, 2016). Ted Rubin, the

marketing model accordingly.

marketing and make extensive

marketing evangelist has suggested:

• reducing their marketing

use of inexpensive, highly efficient digital facilities • being highly agile, willing to take

To deliver a truly omni-channel, integrated experience, you have to connect the dots internally as well

risks and try new approaches when

— which means connecting your

the opportunity arises

employees so they can collaboratively

• using most programs/ operations simultaneously for

deliver that seamless experience. The important difference between

multiple purposes, not least of

the marketing of digital businesses and

which is marketing

schools is that in addition to involving

• ‘orchestrating’ the school


All the while this is happening the ‘digital masters’ are continuing to evolve at pace, strengthening their social networks, becoming increasingly attractive and making it that much more challenging for later adopter schools to compete. The sooner schools can successfully adopt a distributed mode of school marketing the sooner they will put themselves

all the employees the schools are also It is thus vital that from the

back in the game. n

community’s social networking.

able to ‘activate’ the immense power

Collectively these developments

of their socially networked community.

outset school leaders factor into

combine to communicate a consistent

Where traditional school marketing

the digital evolution of the school

narrative about the schools, where

focussed on ‘selling’ the school on

the understanding that the school

references, email info@

the macro image of each school is

limited, specific occasions each

will rely increasingly on its total

in harmony with its micro everyday

year a networked school community

community to market the school and

workings. The hype has been replaced

supportive of the school is ‘selling’

attract clientele. The school needs

schools, secondary college principal,

by a very real insight into the school,

the school with likely hundreds,

to ready its community to play that

technology company director and now

its thinking and values.

possibly thousands of social media

role. The experience of the mature

author and educational consultant.

Where in the traditional school the

communiques every day. A school

digital schools strongly suggests that

He has written extensively on the

marketing person/unit would carefully

of three hundred students could for

if the school grows its ecosystem

impact of technology and the

polish all communiques before release,

example see its parent community

successfully the marketing power

evolution of schooling.

within the digital school with an open

retransmitting school-generated digital

will grow concomitantly, and largely

website and comprehensive digital

material, with positive comment,

naturally without significant extra

experience helping schools get the

communications suite the ‘marketing’

daily to a thousand or more folk via

effort from the school.

maximum impact on learning from

is being done by all the school, virtually

various social media.

every day. Yes, care is taken with every

The key word here is ‘supportive’.

The obvious corollary is

For a full list of

Mal Lee is a former director of

Roger Broadie has wide

technology. He is the Naace Lead for

that if schools do not ready

the 3rd Millennium Learning Award.

publication emanating from the school

If, like the pathfinders, the schools

themselves, create the desired

In his 30-plus years of working

but few of the communiques receive

have, over time successfully

digital communications suite

at the forefront of technology in

the special PR spin. Prospective

collaborated with, empowered and

and ecosystem, and secure

education, he has worked with a huge

clients can inspect the reality, mess

got their community to ‘own’ the

school community ownership it

range of leading schools, education

and all. Where the traditional school

school the support proffered by word

will be folly to try and employ

organisations and policymakers in

works behind closed doors revealing

of mouth and social networks can be

the distributed model. It is a

the UK and Europe.


016-019_ETS79 Interactive Learning.indd 18

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016-019_ETS79 Interactive Learning.indd 19

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020-023_ETS79 Article 1.indd 20

19/07/2017 11:16 am



“I fear the day that technology will

connection with others, including

content, so deep thinking about self

surpass our human interaction. The

friends, teachers, professionals and

and, most importantly, the value of

world will have a generation of idiots.”

tools, improves our social network

who you are and what strengths you

Whether Albert Einstein said this or not

and that reach is beneficial in many

possess and use to benefit yourself

may be disputed. However, if he did, he

facets of teenagers’ lives. Managing

and others is frequently placed

was unaware of the potential scope of

these tools requires attention, as does

as a secondary focus. An online

positive impact technology would bring

managing face-to-face interactions

identity positions youth to claim

to our social framework and global

with peers, team work in class and

themselves, clarify how they wish

culture. When it comes to teenagers,

damaging relationships, albeit more

so much of the discussion around

complex and requiring a greater

technology use is negative, fearing

degree of both confidence and control

the damaging face of cyber bullying

which are developing throughout

and predators. While these concerns

the teen years.

are valid and a reality in a digital

An area of great benefit to youth,


to be viewed and what messages they seek to project. Reflecting on common imagery within media assists teens in recognising the impact of a brand and the associated assumptions and decisions based

society, they are countered by amazing

in terms of online engagement, is

possibilities for our youth to attain

the vast content and capacity of

otherwise out-of-reach insights.

technology to contribute to thinking

For generations, youth have

and decision making around future

sought to rebel, challenge and push

pathways. The insight, information

boundaries. This is not different

and opportunity provided through

with technology; the mental maturity

online sites and resources for those

to manage the volume of access

assessing or undertaking career

is often a challenge. Focusing on

change or progression is both

constructive use of technology with

immense and invaluable. There are

teenagers is essential for currency

multiple uses for online presence in

and response to a new tech-savvy

future planning. Below are seven steps

aspirational self to work towards

world and generations growing up with

for constructive engagement.

long-term goals. This support

technology as their norm. Commonly

on these assumptions. Creating a personal brand highlighting self-value and aspirations assists in building a positive self-concept that can guide future pathways.

2. CONNECTIVITY In having greater clarity of self, youth are better positioned to reach out to others to support understanding, improvement or extension of this

works by aligning social status and interactions, which are valued highly

the impact technology has on social


interactions, the understanding that

Sense of self is an evolving concept

of positive connections is critical to

we can engage, or disengage for that

in adolescence. The core focus of

promote wellbeing and productive

matter, with others online. Controlled

education is around knowledge and

frameworks to help teens:

we place a high degree of emphasis on

020-023_ETS79 Article 1.indd 21

during teenage years. The importance


19/07/2017 11:16 am


becoming more embedded into


education through formal and informal

When it comes to the reality of seeking

structures. In terms of future pathways,

work, be it casual whilst at school

with positive friends and family who

teenagers are regularly seeking

or following formal studies, online

have moved or live beyond their

interstate and international opportunities

tools are the go-to for accessing job

immediate reach

for study and work experience. The

• respond to times of difficulty with great control • maintain meaningful connections

• seek educated assistance to resolve personal conflict • continue to develop optimistic selfworth through purposeful contact.

‘gap year’ was previously questioned in terms of value. It is now recognised that immersion tours and practical experience within different cultures and communities have demonstrated an

We do need our teenagers to create

individual’s capacity to empathise, be

opportunities for separation and

resilient, react to immediate needs, grow

self-discovery to truly own their vision

out of their comfort zone and work with

of themselves and their journey to life

others in a range of settings. Teenagers

beyond school. Connection online can

are regularly seeking information and

be of value for those with passions not

opportunities from a global online

embraced in their learning environment,

community to assist them with:

heightened sense of responsibility and/

• studies and

or advanced ethical drive or to create

scholarship opportunities

focused interactions with established

• internships and international

associations to assist them in facing issues.


searching through reams of paper on the weekend to find your perfect job. The immediacy of seeking committed employees and the emphasis of global company branding has changed the face of the hiring manager. Roles and vacancies, voluntary, casual, contract and permanent, are promoted through a range of media, most commonly: • company career pages • social media (many casual roles are advertised through company pages) • professional online community (LinkedIn) • online job boards for both corporate

work experience

and not-for-profit

• volunteer work and

• networks and contacts in the

community programs in


opportunities. Gone are the days of

individual’s social media network.

underprivileged societies • working holiday opportunities

an area that online forums support

Overall, the positive impact of

As teenagers have a greater concept

bridging travel and finances

in several ways is that of experience

technology is in assisting teenagers

of self they are able to easily gather

• application of their studies in a

and real-life examples. Whilst this is

to access information and support

market and industry information to

global content, for example nursing

essential for all ages to access, it must

on flexible terms to respond to their

support various pathways under

or teaching abroad

also be shared with the understanding

needs, knowledge gaps and areas of

that experiences are subjective and

inquiry while building their identity.

impacted by many factors including:

It must be recognised that there is a

• personality, theirs and that of other

need for support to develop the skills

consideration. There are an extensive range of providers, businesses and

• future industry trends, for example in technology or fashion.

associations sharing relevant industry activities, opportunities for students


and job trends and changes. Youth and

When it comes to future pathways

adults alike have varying methods of

there is a barrage of information and

interaction; some prefer to work behind

insights. Resume writing and interview

• circumstances out of their control

expectations, mental health and demand

the screen via webinars and chat rooms

skills are two areas where we see a

• company regulation

for immediacy. Engaging in discussions

whilst others prefer a face-to-face forum

multitude of articles and information

and expectations

and interactions around the areas above

or experience. These opportunities are

and many of these are incorrect or

available through websites and social

tainted by an individual’s experience.

media channels from:

Credible sites and reputable publishers

• Universities and private colleges

are able to provide youth with

In sharing and reading these stories

• Apprenticeship or traineeship

evidence-based information validated

a grounded adult with the maturity

centres and TAFE

parties involved • previous experience, personally and professionally

• the element of showmanship in storytelling.

of management and self-esteem to ensure there are techniques to respond to negative forces on a teenager’s social

will add depth to a teenager’s internal thinking to build systems to support improved self-confidence and reach through clarity of personal value. n

by data and research into the specific

to decipher relevance will be able

• Industry bodies and associations

field. Diffusing the noise to create

to filter the essential and potential

Turning Point Consulting, a Centre

• Prominent companies, particularly

alignment and tangible resources

irrelevant aspects of others’ stories

of Excellence: Leadership, Change

helps teenagers to better understand

and experiences. Where we access

& Wellbeing Services (ACPi Pty

where to go for additional information

this content and how it is shared is

Ltd). In addition to sitting on the

and discussion.

vital. There are fabulous resources

Wellbeing Australia Board as an

from employees in a range of sectors

expert in Education & Wellbeing

sharing their workforces’ experiences

for ACPi, Kathryn holds numerous



outlining their position and the

qualifications including a BEd

The sense of global reach is now

One of the most difficult areas for

company which hold greater validity

(Sec) Grad. Cert. Career Dev. Prac.

standard in the workplace and is

youth in planning for their future and

than those on some informal forums.


with high volume of recruiting • Government bodies and advisory groups • Recruitment agencies.


020-023_ETS79 Article 1.indd 22

Kathryn Taylor is the Director of

19/07/2017 11:16 am

Thursday 17, Friday 18 and Saturday 19 August 2017

Digital Schools

Leading from the top

3 perspectives on leadership over 3 big days

6 Spotlight Sessions Breakout Sessions

QT Hotel

leadership teams combining somewhere in the middle

St Mark’s Primary School and Campbells Creek and Guilford Primary Schools, VIC

Ormiston College, QLD

3 Keynote Teams

The beautiful synergy



Gold Coast

Leading from the grassroots

St Hilda’s Anglican School for Girls, WA

Key Considerations Catering for difference Digital fluency Equitable access Data driven schools Networked communities Parent participation Computational thinking Design thinking Key trends Significant challenges Important developments Social media Smart pedagogies Scaling innovations

For all States and Territories: This conference addresses the following Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. 2.6.2 – Information and communication technology (ICT) 3.3.2 – Use teaching strategies 6.2.2 – Engage in professional learning and improve practice Ian Jukes and Nicky 2.1.2 – Content and teaching strategies of the teaching area (ICT) 3.4.2 – Select and use resources Mohan Program and 4.5.2 – Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically Dinner also available 6.3.2 – Engage with colleagues and improve practice In addition: Attending the Leading a Digital School Conference will contribute 13 hours and 15 minutes of QTC Registered PD addressing 2.6.2; 3.3.2; 6.2.2 from the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers towards maintaining Proficient Teacher Accreditation in NSW.

Find out more about the costs, program options and how to register @ OR Email

020-023_ETS79 Article 1.indd 23

rs leade l o o ch For s

19/07/2017 11:16 am




024-027_ETS79 Plugged In.indd 24

19/07/2017 11:19 am

Teachers have long been the driving

Sometimes referred to as e-learning,

including G-Suite for Education, and

blended learning, or digital learning,

Edmodo, who together claim over

factor behind successful teaching and

leaders experienced in guiding schools

learning in a digital age is no longer

140 million users in the K-12 space.

learning, including with technology

in learning in a digital age. Their expert

restricted by time, place, space,

Additionally, a myriad of software

(Hine 2011). However, without an

judgements were sought to determine

or pace. Likewise, schools have

application providers are moving

empowering organisation behind

the essential criteria for building school

grown in their complexity in many

from higher education into the

them, teachers face many barriers

capacity in a digital age in order to

ways, including in their adoption

K-12 learning space. Moreover, an

to effective teaching and learning

provide much-needed guidance for

of technology as an integral part

ever-expanding digital marketplace is

when technology is involved (Barbour

school leaders to take learning and

of learning. With technology now

creating unprecedented options with

2014). For international schools, this

technology conversations to the

touching the lives of billions of

thousands of educational apps and

challenge is often compounded by

educational leadership level.

learners of all ages across the

an estimated marketplace growth of

teacher transiency where capacity built

globe, the reaches of this change

over 34 per cent from 2014 to 2019

in individual teachers is not a lasting

Delphi Method, a mixed-methods,

affect learning in and beyond the

(Technavio 2017).

investment for the organisation.

consensus-building approach used

classroom, posing new challenges for

At the same time, school leaders

experienced educational technology

D-LIFE was created following the

for forecasting and strategic planning (Shelton & Creghan 2015). In this

changes without the benefit of formal

Global Study to Equip School Leaders to Navigate a Digital Age

everywhere, all the time, and integral

training or experience to draw upon.

To help school leaders with their

extensive literature review and presented

to life and learning, our schools

Similarly, those responsible for

efforts in organisational evaluation

to the expert panel in ten categories, in

need to adapt to empower students

technology leadership in schools

and strategic planning, the Digital

the form of a series of online surveys.

and teachers. However, introducing

have lacked a combination of both

Learning Implementation Framework

Experts rated criteria from one (not at

mobile, personal technology into

technology leadership and educational

for Education (D-LIFE) was created

all essential) to six (highly essential).

schools is not as simple as resourcing

leadership experience. While technical

through a global study of educational

Importantly, experts also proposed and

and purchasing, or learning to use the

directors, where afforded, often bring

technology experts in International

agreed upon an additional 22 criteria.

technology. Today’s technologies do

rich experience in the IT industry and

Baccalaureate (IB) schools (Haynes

Eventually, 148 items were deemed

not work in isolation. They are highly

technical solutions, they rarely have

2017). Residing in 15 countries

by the expert panel as essential (mean

connected, mobile and personalised

educational leadership experience.

and with experience in many more,

= 5.0+ with 70% agreement) and

and, to be leveraged effectively, need

On the other hand, ICT coordinators

the expert panel included highly

incorporated into the D-LIFE framework.

to extend learning beyond what was

and integrators while understanding

possible without them.

education deeply, seldom bring

school leaders to build organisational

need to navigate these widespread

capacity for such change. As

and rapidly advancing organisational

technology becomes ubiquitous,

With the recent ‘mobile miracle’,

Furthermore, it is unprecedented for

more than 7 billion people world-

schools to have the equivalent of

wide and connectivity reaches to the

a Chief Technology Officer (CTO),

far corners of the earth impacting

someone with a breadth of experience

‘broad societal and economic

in both technical and educational

transformations’ (ITU 2016, p. 157).

leadership involved in school executive

Furthermore, it is no longer deemed

decision-making. Ultimately the

optional to access technology for

school leaders, principals, business

learning as technology is embedded

managers, campus leaders, and

into both the Australian Curriculum

curriculum leaders find themselves

and our lives. The marketplace

ill-equipped for navigating technology-

has also responded with products

infused educational challenges in

that are free for education systems

a digital age.

024-027_ETS79 Plugged In.indd 25

first identified and synthesised from an

industry-standard technical expertise.

mobile technology is now used by

case, 185 enablement criteria were

D-LIFE Categories to build school capacity to enable teaching and learning (Haynes 2017).


19/07/2017 11:19 am


Educational, Scientific and Cultural

will help school leaders to conduct

Organization (UNESCO), and

a school evaluation to identify what

technology vendors. While many of

is next to inform school strategic

the existing frameworks and standards

planning as well as technology

are aimed at building teacher capacity,

implementation plans. n

D-LIFE instead closely aligns with the 14 ISTE Essential Conditions outlined

A highly experienced campus

as essential to support the ISTE

technology leader and teacher

Standards. ISTE standards include

herself, Dr Christine Haynes brings

Standards for Students, Standards

perspectives gained from hands-on

for Teachers, Standards for Coaches,

experience enabling schools with

and Standards for Administrators.

technology for learning. She is a

D-LIFE provides a comprehensive

strategist and education coach,

school-based framework not present

aiming to equip schools to empower

in existing international standards or

and connect learners of all ages.

frameworks (Haynes 2017).

ACCE Educator of the Year 2013, CEGSA Educator of the Year 2012,

D-LIFE Infrastructure Levels of Implementation (Haynes 2017).

What is next for D-LIFE?

Apple Distinguished Educator. You can

Efforts to collaboratively create a

learn more about D-LIFE on her blog

Designed for school leaders, D-LIFE

handbook for school leaders to use

includes 148 enablement criteria

the D-LIFE framework to assess

organised into ten categories. For

levels of implementation of the


example, the Infrastructure Category

enablement criteria is underway with

Barbour, M. K. 2014, ‘A history of

contributions by many of the original

International K-12 online and blended

geographically dispersed expert

instruction’, in R. Ferdig & K. Kennedy

panel. The purpose of the handbook

(Eds.), Handbook of research on K-12

is to provide guidance to school

online and blended learning, ETC

leaders to use the D-LIFE framework

Press Pittsburg, PA, (pp. 25–49).

D-LIFE for School Leaders

includes 11 enablement criteria seen as essential for learning in a digital age. Using these enablement criteria, school leaders can initiate conversations with technical leaders or consultants


in school contexts to evaluate current

Haynes, C. A. 2017, ‘Digital

levels of implementation and assess

learning implementation framework

school readiness for learning in a

for education: A Delphi study

digital age. The guide will include

of International Baccalaureate

explanations of the importance of

educational technology leaders’,

each enablement criteria based on

Doctoral dissertation, Lamar University

capacity for learning in a digital

the literature, as well as guiding

Beaumont, retrieved from ProQuest

age. Importantly, the remaining nine

questions and recommended actions.

Dissertations and Theses.

categories provide insight into other

The D-LIFE handbook and framework

to assess and address current implementation levels and next steps for the school organisation. While infrastructure is important to enable technology use for learning, it is only one aspect of organisational

Hine, P. 2011, UNESCO ICT

organisational aspects including the

competency framework for teachers,

role of the school leader as seen in the

Paris, UNESCO, retrieved from

Leadership category. Amongst others, International Telecommunication

the D-LIFE study identified that the role of school leaders now includes

Union 2016, Measuring the

creating and sustaining a collaborative

information society report 2016, ITU,

digital-age learning culture across

Geneva (p. 254). Shelton, K. & Creghan, K. 2015,

the organisation.

‘Demystifying the Delphi Method’,

How does D-LIFE compare to international standards and frameworks?

in V. C. X. Wang (Ed.) Handbook of

D-LIFE was compared to international

Hershey, PA (pp. 375–395).

research on scholarly publishing and research methods. IGI Global, Technavio 2017, Global Education

standards and frameworks including those from the International Society

Apps Market - Market Study 2015–

for Technology in Education (ISTE),

2019 retrieved from www.technavio. com/report/global-education-apps-

International Association for K-12 Online Learning, United Nations


024-027_ETS79 Plugged In.indd 26

D-LIFE Leadership Levels of Implementation (Haynes 2017).


19/07/2017 11:19 am

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024-027_ETS79 Plugged In.indd 27

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028-033 ETS79 Cover Story.indd 28

19/07/2017 11:24 am

Is Improving Teaching and Learning





Adding new technology into the

used effect sizes to show the relative

Learning website may lull some

like perfecting the recipe for a

learning environment does not

impact of each factor. Hattie’s original

school leaders into a false sense of

signature dish.

automatically lead to increased

ranking of 138 aspects as published

security as they endeavor to improve

achievement. It is vital that

in Visible Learning is often referred to.

learning outcomes in their school.

this program, take this magic pill…but

As much as I would love it to be

learning is far more complex than that.

educators are clear about how the

An effect size of 0.4 is regarded

Add this technology, implement

In a similar approach the

introduction of new technology will

as average or typical. School leaders

true, improving learning outcomes is

improve student learning. The use

therefore look for effect sizes greater

not as easy as painting by numbers

Learning Impact Fund have collated

of technology is not an end in itself.

than 0.4 with the aim of maximising

or selecting your dinner from

an interesting and simple means of

Effective use of technology should

the impact. The latest table of Hattie’s

a takeaway menu.

representing the likely impact and

be driven by learning goals rather

effect size reports that Computer

than the a specific technology. It is

Assisted Instruction (CAI) only has

updated and extended list of 195

vital that we are clear on how the

a 0.45 effect size. Interestingly CAI

effect sizes here: https://visible-


technology will be utilised to make the

with special learning needs students

learning experience more engaging

is reported by Hattie to have an


for the student, increase the clarity of

effect size of 0.57. Does that mean

their understanding or be responsive

that educators would be better off

learning outcomes to be simple.

improve student learning outcomes.

and tailor the learning experience

prioritising the use of CAI for students

Follow an identified formula for

The 34 approaches are presented

according to the student’s needs. Just

with special learning needs?

success and you will achieve

with a graphical representation of

improved outcomes. Increase one

the average cost, reliability of the

adding technology is not enough.

I am concerned that the fame

You can explore Hattie’s revised,

I would love achieving quality

cost of 34 education approaches:

The website is promoting the use of evidence to make informed decisions in undertaking initiatives to

Hattie researched the factors

of John Hattie’s work on effect size

aspect and the results will be better.

evidence and the likely impact (in

that affect student achievement and

and the launch of the Evidence for

More of this, less of that…sounds

months) of the approach.

028-033 ETS79 Cover Story.indd 29


19/07/2017 11:24 am


ALL APPROACHES - FULL TOOLKIT All 34 approaches in The Toolkit are listed here. You can filter by average cost, evidence security or months’ impact. Then select an approach to explore further.

Average Cost

Evidence Secuirity

Months’ Impact

Arts participation




Aspirations interventions




Behaviour interventions




Block scheduling




Collaborative learning




Digital technology




Early years intervention




Extending school time








As you can see from this snapshot,

pick’ the approaches that are likely to

to result in an additional four months

give the ‘most bang for the buck’. If, for

of learning for the students but comes

example, I was desperate to turn around

at a fairly significant cost ($$$ on a $

my school’s results quickly, I might

to $$$$$ scale).

be tempted to implement the following

I love the simplicity of presenting

six approaches as they appear to have

the research results and the emphasis

the most impact:

on choosing evidence-based strategies

• Feedback + 8 months

for school improvement. It is vital that

• Meta-cognition and self-

school leaders consider the potential benefit and base their decisions on evidence and getting return on the money invested. Whilst I am an advocate for utilising

regulation + 8 months • Collaborative learning + 5 months • Early years intervention + 5 months

research-based decisions, it is almost

• Peer tutoring + 5 months

impossible in education to single

• Reading

out just ONE variable in a classroom

comprehension + 5 months

environment to definitively say that

Wow! Through implementing these

changing variable X led to result Y.


028-033 ETS79 Cover Story.indd 30

cumulative total of an ADDITIONAL 36

It may even be tempting to ‘cherry

the use of digital technology appears

six approaches I could achieve the

months of learning in just one year!


If I add digital technology into the mix I’ll add an additional four months learning for my students. Every educational leader would love 40 months of additional learning growth in just one year! Where do I sign up? However, teaching and learning are incredibly complex. There are a multitude of factors that impact on learning effectiveness. It is too simplistic to isolate just ONE factor and measure cause and effect. It is dangerous to undertake initiatives on a superficial level. The website provides further information and encourages a deeper dive to better understand how the approach has impact and the research evidence

19/07/2017 11:25 am

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The implementation of

that school leaders are VERY selective

technology initiatives can also vary

and carefully plan any strategy to bring

widely. Teachers need support and

about real, sustainable improvements

time not only to learn to use the

in student learning.

technology, but also to plan how they

The Evidence For Learning website acknowledges that ‘digital technology

utilize the technology to enhance student learning. n

is associated with moderate learning gains (on average an additional

Steve Francis is an expert in

four months). However, there is

the complexities of leading effective

considerable variation in impact.

schools. He is the first choice of

Evidence suggests that technology

Principals around Australia. Whether

should be used to supplement other

they want to enhance the skills of their

teaching, rather than replace more

leadership team or they want their

traditional approaches.’

staff to be genuinely and absolutely

I love the title of Marzano’s book,

engaged, energised and enthused to

The Art and Science of Teaching.

REALLY create the difference that sets

It encapsulates the complexity of

schools apart, they turn to Steve.

learning. I believe teaching is a science

This year Steve was recognised

and therefore can be researched

by Educator magazine as one of the

and supported by evidence but it

top 50 most influential educators in

is also an art, requiring judgement,

Australia. He is the author of four

feeling and intuition.

books including First Semester CAN

Each of the approaches advocated by John Hattie in Visible Learning and

MAKE OR BREAK YOU! and Time Management For Teachers.

the Evidence For Learning website

Steve completed a Masters in

can be effectively implemented or

School Leadership on teacher stress.

poorly implemented. Feedback, for

This led him to develop the Happy

example, is often highlighted as a key

School program. Over 600 schools

factor with a high effect size in Hattie

subscribe to receive Steve’s weekly

terminology. However, the quality of

Happy School articles and use them to

the feedback can vary widely from one

boost staff morale and reduce teacher

classroom to another. Simply saying

stress. This innovative program has

we are focusing on ‘feedback’ will not

been extended to certify schools that

have a predictable impact on student

are “Employers of Choice”.

learning. The impact will be dependent

Steve is passionate about

on the quality of the feedback.

work–life satisfaction and

Leadership and quality control are

keeping things simple.

still paramount.


028-033 ETS79 Cover Story.indd 32

19/07/2017 11:25 am

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034-037_ETS79 Article 2.indd 34

19/07/2017 11:25 am

CLASSROOMS Flexible learning spaces have been the buzz words of industry for many years now and it appears this concept has developed from a ‘nice idea’ to the current directional norm. Riding the momentum of laid back start-ups, companies and schools across the world are reinventing their spaces to try to engage employees and students in new and comfortable ways. BY JONATHON ROBERTS


Traditionally, a classroom has a central

into smaller meeting areas where

focus in the form of a whiteboard with

students can recline and interact

all furniture facing in the direction

with each other.

of this knowledge source. Students

With all this change from the

are seated in various arrangements

traditional rule, school leadership

including rows, columns or, in some

is now faced with the decision of

cases, groups. This model has

integration of this new classroom

proven effective for generations and

design. Is this way of learning here to

students have sat quietly and accepted

stay and worthy of a large investment

the teachers word as truth, so why

or would small changes to the

then do we need to challenge this

classroom suffice as we await the next

archetypal classroom?

classroom vogue?

Classrooms are starting to

considered, schools must consider

the traditional central focus being

the implications for those who matter

replaced with smaller meeting groups

most: our students. How is a change

and spaces. One large whiteboard

in furniture going to support student

has become multiple smaller boards

engagement and learning?

dispersed around the room and

034-037_ETS79 Article 2.indd 35

Before any change is ever

look more like coffee shops with

Through the Spaces Research

tables have been raised and lowered

Project, Kariippanon et al. (2016)

to create variation. A teacher’s goal

discovered that the primary driving

of achieving a perfect classroom

force behind the changes made in

of matching tables and chairs has

schools was the recognition of the

changed to a celebration of variation

need to adapt pedagogical approaches

as students find comfort on couches,

to better meet the needs of 21st

bean bags, sit/stand desks, pillows

century learners. Executives and

and deck chairs. Tables and walls are

teachers spoke of moving away from

being painted with whiteboard paint

didactic teaching and embracing

and square classes are being divided

student-centred learning, collaboration,


19/07/2017 11:25 am


peer teaching and self-regulation

or by painting your current walls and

Alternative seating

Many teachers are now opting for

to improve students’ engagement,

desktops with write-on paint. Windows

Along with standing desks, students

the ‘bare walls’ approach, choosing

motivation and learning outcomes.

and whiteboards scattered around the

also like to change seating styles.

instead to paint walls in a pleasant

It is important for schools to

room are also useful for small group

Classes have adopted a range of

colour that encourages creativity

understand that a colourful, flexible

work or for students to write their

different seating styles to allow

and comfort. The key to creating

learning space does not equate

ideas over. While whiteboards are

flexibility and diversity in where and

an environment that promotes

to better learning. If changing the

fluid workspaces with work constantly

how students work. Couches, bean

learning is to ensure classes are not

furniture is the school’s only answer

being erased, students and teachers

bags and rugs have encouraged

overstimulating. Overstimulation is

to meeting students’ needs, it will

can take photos to keep records of

students to get down on the floor

usually caused by large displays in

find itself with nothing more than an

their work on their digital devices.

and into more comfortable positions

bright colours, especially reds and

and to create different learning

oranges. Conversely, colours such as

Indoor plants

environments that replicate a café-

green and blue promote a calming,

learning spaces within their own

Another simple adjustment is to

style setting. While sitting in a bean

relaxed and creative environment. A

classrooms? No matter what the

introduce indoor plants into the

bag is not going to be ideal for neat

simple way of adding colour to a room

budget, adjustments can be made

learning space. Plants provide many

handwriting, it may provide a change

is to add pillows, pots or furniture in

to cater for 21st century learning.

benefits to learning spaces besides

in atmosphere for a student to sit with

chosen colours.

Below are some suggestions for how

their visual appeal. Students have

a laptop or for group conversation.

to create flexible learning spaces

noted that plants provide a calming

Flexible seating options that can

because teachers and schools have

in your school.

atmosphere and make the classroom

be easily moved allow for better

adapted their approaches to meet the

feel more like home. In a space that

collaboration and can vary with

needs of 21st century students. They

Shoeless Learning

can often feel clinical and generic,

different group sizes.

have adapted their lesson structure,

Shoeless learning spaces are

plants add a softer touch and a

changed their methods of assessing,

becoming more common throughout

tangible, textural change from the

accepted appropriate technology and

the world due to the significant links

usual flat and shiny surfaces. Indoor

ultimately allowed noise all in the

to concentration levels and behaviour;

plants also work hard to purify the air

however, it is still unknown why this

within your workspace by providing

works. In China, it is believed to have

more oxygen, removing toxins from

links to reflexology, in India being

the air and releasing moisture through

shoeless is linked to respect and in

photosynthesis. Plants have also

western countries to feeling more like

been linked to increasing focus and

home. Whatever the answer, classes

relieving stress.

attractive and expensive mirage. So how can teachers form flexible

and schools around the world are reaping the benefits of going shoeless

Standing desks

both in individual classes and as

Humans are not made to sit for

whole schools.

extended periods. For decades, research has been telling us that


Flexible learning spaces work

pursuit of creating an environment that will support and nurture a generation of students that require a different education. In a world that requires adaptation, flexible learning spaces are here to stay and will continue to evolve as research reveals the benefits of collaboration and project-based learning. Schools that elect against this movement, I fear, will be left in the back room beside the overhead

Write-on Surfaces

being sedentary for long periods

Another trend within classes that is

of time is detrimental to our health

going viral is the write-on surface.

both physically and mentally. This

This is another simple and affordable

is especially true for children who

modification that can be implemented

are naturally active and wanting to

primary school and university.

in any classroom to assist students’

move. It has even been discovered

His passions involve 21st century

learning. Being able to write on

that students who are living a

learning and integrating technology

surfaces is not just about convenience

sedentary lifestyle may experience

for children, instead it gives them a

poor academic achievement and low

Wall displays and colour

stimulating and engaging spaces for

sense of audience and purpose. Their

self-esteem. Providing tables that

As a teacher fresh out of university,

students to learn in.

work is available to the whole group

allow students to stand increases

my first impression of classrooms

or class and is visible for everybody

students’ movement and interaction.

was that there was a correlation

References: Kariippanon, K,

that enters the room. While writing in

Standing desks that are purpose-built

between the number of displays and

Lancaster, S, Parrish A, Cliff, D &

books is private, writing on a surface

can also be moved and adjusted easily

the quality of teaching. Rooms were

Okely, T 2016, Spaces Research

in full view of everybody adds to

to suit a range of different heights.

filled with posters upon posters and

Project, Early Start Research Institute,

classroom conversation and allows

Not all students enjoy standing all day,

art hanging from every surface of

University of Wollongong. 1 (1), 17.

everyone to become more aware of

so providing a group of standing and

the room. Not only were posters

Heppell, S 2015, Superclasses,

each other’s work. This adjustment

sitting desks provides students with

rarely ever referenced, they were

viewed 1 June 2017, http://rubble.

can be through purpose-built furniture

options to change as needed.

over-stimulating and claustrophobic.


034-037_ETS79 Article 2.indd 36

projector and dusty textbooks. n Jonathon Roberts is an educator currently working in both

in meaningful ways to create

19/07/2017 11:25 am


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19/07/2017 11:25 am 24/1/17 4:14 pm


Authentic Learning& Engagement


038-041_ETS79 Office Space.indd 38

19/07/2017 11:27 am


We read and hear a lot about authentic learning and engagement in education these days but the concept of authenticity is rarely well defined. What is authenticity and how can we use authentic work to improve student engagement?

Authenticity is the key in being able to successfully engage students in their own educational outcomes. Students that are authentically engaged are students that take responsibility for their own learning, retain and can apply knowledge in other contexts, and care more about their own educational and cognitive development than about the formal outcomes, or grades, that are achieved. The more our students become engaged in their education, the more they care about their learning, and the less they care about their grades. In order to engage students, we must be able to understand our students, and be able to select appropriate instructional techniques for each particular context. A solid understanding of the links between learning theory (how students learn) and instructional theory (how to help students learn) which informs instructional technique is critical to this process.

038-041_ETS79 Office Space.indd 39


19/07/2017 11:27 am


Schlechty’s Levels of Engagement



Ritual Compliance

Strategic Compliance

Authentic Engagement

Characteristics of the Learner

Diverted Attention No Commitment

No Attention No Commitment

Low Attention Low Commitment

High Attention Low Commitment

High Attention High Commitment

Appropriate Learning Theories





Cosmopolitanism & Enactivism

Cosmopolitanism & Enactivism

Behaviour Management and Wellbeing strategies used to move students towards Retreatism

High Classroom Expectations and Wellbeing strategies used to move students towards Ritual Compliance

Direct transmission of knowledge from the teacher

Learning from the world, (ie from sources beyond the teacher)

Learning from the world, collaboratively with peers (Cosmopolitism), and through interaction with the world (Enactivism)

Programmed Instruction, Differentiation

Discovery Learning, Learning Intentions

PBL, Personalisation

Examples of Instructional Techniques

Table 1: Student engagement and some appropriate learning theories (and techniques)

What makes work ‘Authentic’?

They are described by Schlechty as

outside of the classroom. Programmed

Students, particularly at high school,

being strategically compliant (see Table

instruction, explicit instruction and direct

are very switched on to identifying work

1), rather than authentically engaged.

instruction are all teaching techniques

that they feel may add value to their life,

This appears to be an important

that are based on behaviourism as a

and work that they see simply as ‘busy

distinction between these students

learning theory. Each of these techniques

work’. Teachers will sometimes create

and students who see their work as

make it very clear to students what is

work that mimics real life activities

authentic, in that it has value beyond

expected for them to succeed, but give

(the maths classic – how much paint

the classroom.

students no ownership of learning, and

is needed to paint the house), but

Schlechty’s model of engagement

so tend to result in low commitment,

in my experience, students do not

can be used it identify which learning

other than what is immediately required

always see these activities as authentic

theories are appropriate to use in

for each lesson. Proponents of these

(i.e. engaging).

different contexts, and with students at

styles of instruction often value teacher

different levels of engagement. It helps

accountability, and describe these

Consider authenticity in the context of musical performances. How do we

us to understand our students and

decide whether a band like Bjorn Again

measure their levels of engagement

(an ABBA tribute band) is authentic?

so that we can use appropriate

Ultimately, each claim of authenticity is

teaching styles to maximise learning,

tested and validated by the audience,

and hopefully improve their level of

not the performer. It follows, then, that

engagement over time.

as much as we as teachers may design


techniques as evidence-based in terms of producing improved results. However, accountability as a strategy for improvement is a relatively poor way to look for improvements in outcomes. If teachers are primarily accountable for the data and results

actual authenticity will not be validated

Learning Theories and Instructional Theories

until we bring them to the students. That

Learning theories are systems of ideas

is, a topic or problem being authentic is

that are intended to explain the way

not, of itself, sufficient to allow authentic

in which we observe how students

learning to occur. The topic or problem

learn. Instructional theories are used

must also be seen to be authentic

to explain how the various observed

what is asked by the teacher in order to

by our students.

teaching techniques work to help student

avoid negative consequences.

lessons and units to be authentic, their

One of the characteristics of an

they produce, then that will become the focus. Behaviourism, as a learning theory, works well for students who are working at the level of ritual compliance, in that they have low commitment and attention, but will do

learning. There are some natural links

authentically engaged student, according

between some learning theories and


to Philip Schlechty, a researcher in

instructional techniques.

Constructivism as a learning

engagement, is that knowledge is

theory assumes a greater role for

retained after the fact of assessment


relationships between learners and

for grades. There are students in our

Behaviourism as a learning theory can

the world than in behaviourism. The

classrooms who may appear to be

be described as direct transmission of

teacher is no longer the only source

engaged in school work but work hard

knowledge from teacher to student. It

of knowledge or facts, and students

primarily to receive good grades, rather

follows from this that behaviourism does

construct knowledge gained both

than for the learning itself, and soon

not require interaction between learners,

from the teacher and from their own

forget the knowledge they have learnt.

or even between learners and actors

experiences and sources outside of


038-041_ETS79 Office Space.indd 40

19/07/2017 11:27 am

process can itself result in action that changes the world we are studying. Enactivism will obviously only be relevant for students that are highly committed to their studies in a personal way and own their education as a way to improve the world. These students are also identified as being authentically engaged in the Schlechty model, as students highly committed to their own learning. Project based learning is an effective way for students to learn about their world and learn how to make changes to the world at the same time. While designed for first year engineering students, the Engineers Without Borders Challenge is an example of the sort of instructional technique that embodies enactivist thinking (Engineers Without Borders, 2014).

Levels of engagement Measuring student engagement accurately can be a difficult task. the classroom. As in behaviourism,

the classroom teacher and other

are authentically engaged, as they are

Schlechty has developed a model

the world exists independently of

sources such as their own experiences.

frequently directing their own learning,

that identifies five different levels of

us, however there is an acceptance

Cosmopolitanism differs from

for their own purposes.

student engagement, from rebellion

in constructivism that it cannot be

constructivism in that cosmopolitanism

well defined. Programmed learning

describes learning as a collaborative


engagement is measured on two

and similar forms of instructional

activity, and occurs as students

The key difference between

domains, attention and commitment,

techniques used in behaviourism are

collaboratively engage with the world.

cosmopolitanism and enactivism is

where only students who show high

inappropriate. However, students may

Cosmopolitanism implies an openness

that while cosmopolitanism focuses

attention and high commitment are

still be guided in their learning by

to ideas and cultures that are different

on collaborative learning through

identified as being authentically

the teacher, so the provision of clear

to our own, as a result of interaction

observations and interactions with

engaged. The characteristics of the

learning intentions and success criteria

with other people, cultures and ideas.

the world at large, enactivism also

various learning theories described

can be useful instructional techniques

This requires from students a high level

identifies actions that result from

above match the needs of students at

to allow students to judge their own

of commitment in order to reorganise

that learning as a part of the learning

different levels of engagement as well

success as learners, although the

existing schema to accommodate

process. In other words, the learning

as appropriate instructional techniques

criteria for success are still set by

different ways of thinking, however

the teacher rather than the students

it can result in more enlightened

themselves. Students that show a high

and mature students, as their high

level of attention, but without ownership

level of work commitment causes a

of their own learning, learn well under

similarly high level of commitment

constructivist learning theories, and

to alternate cultures and ideas.

can best be described as strategically

Instructional techniques appropriate

compliant under the Schlechty model

for behaviourism are certainly not

for engagement.

appropriate, and even learning intentions and success criteria need to


be personalised, or negotiated between

In some ways similar to constructivism,

teachers and students. Interaction

cosmopolitanism as a learning theory

between students and other cultures

also posits that students construct

can be assisted through e-learning and

knowledge by reorganising information

digital pedagogies. Under the Schlechty

from a variety of sources, including

model, students working at this level

038-041_ETS79 Office Space.indd 41

to authentic engagement. Student

as shown in Table 1. Stephen is Head of Science


at Unity College, Caloundra. He was previously Head of Science at Proserpine SHS where he was heavily involved in eLearning, leading a team of eLearning Mentors to develop innovative and engaging curricula school wide. Stephen has taught in both the independent and state sector in Queensland, as well as abroad in the UK and at the Rotterdam International Secondary School. He blogs on engagement at http://


19/07/2017 11:27 am


25 Years & 15 Digital Changes to Teachers’ Work Education Technology Solutions BY PROFESSOR SHELLEY KINASH, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN QUEENSLAND


042-045_ETS79 The Next Step.indd 42

19/07/2017 11:30 am


campus shuttle bus. Every so often, I

Digital Changes 1-4: Devices, Location, Software, Storage

date-check using Safari on my iPhone,

Mostly, I wrote using pen and paper.

which is connected to the bus’s Wi-Fi.

I sometimes used shared computers

My Fitbit just vibrated and sent me a

in the university library and computer

text message reminding me that I have

labs, but was fearful that the computer

not achieved 250 steps this hour.

would ‘eat my words’ which it

oday I am writing this article on my laptop on a free university inter-

Twenty-five years ago, I was a

workshop and had a cardboard

my Master’s degree. Teaching was

cut-out to place over the function

face-to-face and I took pride in my

keys to remind me what to press for

collections of overhead transparency

tabs, bold and other format changes

teaching presentations. One of our

(there was no mouse). I stored my

professors encouraged us to try

files on a floppy disk and later on

email in the computer lab, saying

a compact disc.

that this new technology would be

042-045_ETS79 The Next Step.indd 43

Now I usually carry four devices

game-changing. We could not figure

– a work and a personal iPhone, a

out why or how.

laptop which I dock in my multiple

Here are 25 digital changes that

sometimes did. I took a WordPerfect

tutor in Canada, while completing

campus offices and an iPad. I

have radically transformed the way

prefer writing on my docked laptop,

in which I do my work as a university

accessing two monitors – one with

academic. Most of these changes will

my emerging document and the other

also resonate with school teachers. I

going between email and Google

have also included predictions as to

for background research. I save my

what some of these these functions

documents to the cloud so that I can

and technologies might look like in

access them from whatever device

another 25 years.

using Dropbox. I also save on my


19/07/2017 11:30 am


work network and a terra-byte pocket hard drive as back-up. In another 25 years, I predict that I will wear one small multi-purpose device (no larger than my current Fitbit). There will be no need to haul keyboards, tablets or mice. When I am in a place where I will not disturb others, I will dictate and my device will accurately transcribe to the cloud. When I prefer, I can project an instant keyboard or touch-tablet on whatever surface I choose, such as the bus window or the seat in front of me.

Digital Changes 5-6: Printers and Social Media Printer paper came in big boxes of accordion-design interconnected sheets with printer guide holes along tear-off edges. I had to be careful not to tear the pages when separating them and the edges left a lint-trail upon removal. The outcome was legible but not professional. Now I have a laser printer at home and professional-quality laser printers at work. It is easy to make

I try to remember to print only

Digital Changes 7-9: Office Hours, Phones and Incoming Messages

when necessary to stop destroying

In 1992, my office phone rang

Digital Changes 10-12: Distance Education, Global Communications and Feedback

so many trees.

frequently and missed calls went

Twenty-five years ago, I was teaching

or situated work experiences. In most

to voicemail or were diverted to a

in Canada. Similar to Australia, there

cases, flights are now inexpensive

will be less necessary. Specifically, we

colleague’s phone. I spent hours of my

are numerous regional and remote

enough that the students can travel

will be easily able to ‘beam’ documents

day responding to messages. Office

students who live too far from urban

to the campus for intensives. Many

to one another. Documents will be

hours for the students I was tutoring

centres to regularly travel to learn on

governments offer scholarships to

readily projected onto surfaces in our

were quite busy. Colleagues popped

campus. A team of three academics

expedite the learning experiences of

immediate environment such as table

by my office for chats.

(including me) travelled four times

their students. Employer partnerships

per semester to teach intensives.

also mean that work-integrated learning

and when it does, I can see the

Students would mail assignments

sometimes occurs within industries.

presentation at a learning and teaching

caller on a small monitor built into

to us between sessions and we

celebration. Rather than printing and

my phone. I receive more calls on

would return them with hand-written

learning management system (LMS).

handing out slide notes to the audience,

my mobile and hundreds of emails

feedback at the next meet-up. Work

Some are moving to portals, where

I directed them to a website where

a day. I also receive texts and I

with international colleagues was

the students can actively contribute

they could download the slideshow.

receive messages from colleagues

limited. Academics who were awarded

and have greater control over the

Immediately after the presentation, I

via Facebook personal messages,

Fulbright and other such fellowships,

learning resources and tools. Students

joined a multimedia designer in an audio

WhatsApp, and LinkedIn messages.

travelled internationally and initiated

download readings, organise their

studio, where I redelivered the keynote.

I go between leaving notifications on

research/writing partnerships which

time using specialised calendars,

He produced two versions – a show

my phone, getting annoyed by the

sometimes endured.

access technology-enhanced

in a subscribable podcast series and a

frequency of them, turning them off

screencast (audio-enhanced slideshow).

and forgetting to check all of these

digital resources to bridge the distance.

curriculum, 3D animations, videos and

Once these artefacts are posted to the

various sources. Besides personal

There are more external students

podcasts. Students use the LMS to see

web, I will tweet and LinkedIn post them

messages, I also receive newsfeed

than ever. International students enrol

what assessment is due when, access

to elicit further engagement.

posts to Twitter and LinkedIn.

from every continent and many, many

exemplars and expectations. They

my documents highly aesthetic with clear images and full colour.

In the future, I predict that printing

tops and the backs of chairs. Yesterday, I delivered a keynote


042-045_ETS79 The Next Step.indd 44

Now my office line seldom rings

Now, we have many tools and

countries. Knowledge resources, communication and interactivity are primarily managed online, blended with some face-to-face intensives and/

Every university uses some type of

learning resources such as gamified

19/07/2017 11:30 am

Now, it is second nature to use

submit their assessment items through

would at this point. Each has far more

the LMS, track their grades and receive

digital journal indexes. Keyword

references and other data than they

feedback from academics. Almost all

searches reveal thousands of journal

did previously. While tracking citations

LMS sites use communication tools

papers. I read the abstracts to make

was not possible in the past, I have no

such as synchronous video-chats, text-

sure that the research is precisely

doubt that my publications have been

based discussion forums and small

what I am looking for before reading

read and cited much more than had

group break-out rooms.

the full article. I have not yet come

they been published twenty-five years

across any piece of information that

ago. They are so much more easily

tour in India where I visited a number

is not on Google, and most topics

accessed today.

of universities and schools. I now have

have multiple websites dedicated to

many new LinkedIn contacts, who I

just that topic. The challenge today

learning experience than they did in

communicate with on a regular basis.

is how to moderate and discriminate

the past? We certainly have more

An Indian university colleague and I

between scholarly, robust research

metrics and capacity for league tables

just wrote a book chapter together. We

and false news. Overabundance of

to chart evidence of quality learning

used an online survey tool to collect

information is a problem that we have

and teaching. However, talking to

and then compare data between

just begun to consider for ourselves

my parents, I wonder whether the

university students and graduates

and our students.

university learning experience has

A few months ago, I did a lecture-

altered that much. Their memories

in India and Australia. While touring, I was interviewed by a journalist from Times India. Today, a LinkedIn colleague saw the resulting article in the newspaper and personal messaged me a photo of the page, taken on her iPhone. I just emailed the journalist and she immediately sent me back a PDF of the article. Tomorrow, I will tweet it and LinkedIn post it to continue the conversation.

Digital Changes 13-15: Library Catalogues, Digital Repositories and Google Often for teaching resources and even more frequently for research purposes, I would spend hours and hours at the library, coming away with a small stack of journal papers and/or microfiche

Do students have a higher quality


The more things change…

of the social aspects, exam stress,

In this article, I described fifteen

career aspirations, good and bad

large-scale changes that have

teachers and many more factors sound

radically changed my experiences

very similar to what I experienced

as a university academic. Other

as an undergraduate and to what

academics and teachers will no doubt

my own son and daughter are now

think of many more changes. There

experiencing. In conclusion, as a

are many notable comments from

teacher/academic, my own experience

previous generations stating that

feels radically different, but is the

technology cannot possible advance

essence of the university experience

any further; it has met its threshold,

such that digital changes do not alter

reached its ceiling. I am not so

what it means to be a student? n

naïve. If technology has so radically changed my experience within my

Professor Shelley Kinash is the

working lifespan, then it will no doubt

Director, Advancement of Learning

continue to advance in ways that I

and Teaching at the University of

cannot even imagine.

Southern Queensland

Access to digital tools and resources has not only changed

print-outs. To find a journal paper, I

my experience, but also my output

looked up keywords and/or authors’

and expectations. I have many more

names in big, thick, heavy printed

publications than I thought I

manuals. I would write down a large stack of call numbers and then use a legend to find out which floors and rows of the library to search. Many times, the issue of the journal I was looking for was not on the shelf. Microfiche had similar search technologies, but did not require physical library searching. I would ask for the microfiche call-numbers from a librarian and then sit at a magnifying machine that looked like a modern lecturn document scanner. I had to move the document left to right and up and down to read the full text.

042-045_ETS79 The Next Step.indd 45


19/07/2017 11:30 am




Patrick Dare, a Mathematics teacher at Saint Stephen’s College, explaining some theory in a video tutorial created using the Lightboard.


046-049_ETS79 Pedagogy.indd 46

19/07/2017 11:37 am

Creating more flexible learning BY PETER WEST

Education is constantly evolving.

more than an on-screen pen and a

She emailed her teacher, who advised

The emergence of the Lightboard

disembodied voice.

which tutorials to review online. The

is part of this evolution, allowing

When added to an online learning environment (OLE), the tutorials

of the problems, and came to see

flexible and effective.

can also be viewed any time and

the teacher the next day about the

from any location.

few, specific areas she still needed

Just as movies moved closer to

help with. Without the tutorials she

‘reality’, from silent movies to ‘talkies’, then to colour, HD televisions and

Eliminating ‘Groundhog Day’

would have remained confused

now ultra-high definition televisions,

Lightboard tutorials, when combined

and frustrated.

tutorials for students are moving closer

with a suitable OLE, are the perfect

to the ‘real thing’.

supplement to the classroom. They

explaining a core concept over and

A Lightboard allows teachers

allow core concepts to be covered

over, even after teaching the concept in

independently or to be revised in a

class. Lightboard tutorials allow these

create amazing, ‘more human’ online

full and rich fashion when the student

concepts to be explained once and then

video resources that are closer to

feels the need. Traditionally a concept

viewed as many times as necessary

the ‘real’ classroom experience, but

is taught in class and the student

by students who encounter difficulties.

with added advantages. Lightboard

takes notes for review later. However,

Those who understand can move on,

tutorials provide a more ‘personal’

if understanding is incomplete, the

while the teacher can then focus on

window into learning for students

notes may not be sufficient to allow

helping those students who require an

as facial expressions, gestures and

full understanding. A Lightboard

alternative explanation. Everyone wins.

the subtleties of person-to-person

tutorial allows the student to review

interaction are available at any time

the material over and over, and then

and from any location in ways not

ask specific questions of the teacher in

What is a Lightboard and how is it built?

possible before.

class the next day if necessary.

A Lightboard is a sheet of special glass

These tutorials do not replace the

which is flooded internally with light

teacher at Saint Stephen’s College,

teacher. They instead allow deeper,

from LED strips. The teacher writes

explaining some theory in a video

more specific and individualised

normally (not backwards) on the board

tutorial created using the Lightboard.

learning to occur when the student is

with coloured markers while teaching a

with the teacher.

concept or solving a problem. A video

The videos are a step beyond the Khan Academy style tutorials

046-049_ETS79 Pedagogy.indd 47

Many teachers also find themselves

with little technical knowledge to

Patrick Dare, a Mathematics

student was then able to solve most

learning and teaching to become more

As an example, a Maths student

camera captures the ‘lesson’. The

that have become world famous and

recently had difficulties with some

video is then reversed using software

extremely popular; they are much

concepts the night before an exam.

such as Camtasia, and is placed in an


19/07/2017 11:37 am


The Lightboard in its current form. The room has three walls completely black and there are now five lights to allow better lighting of the teacher. The black channels at the top and bottom of the glass house the LED strips that flood the glass with light. The video camera is visible on the right side of the picture.

An early setup of the Lightboard just after it arrived. The LED strips were too long, and can be seen hanging out of the end of the tubing on the left side of the frame. (The LED strips were trimmed to length later.) We initially used only two lights on tripods and had black cloth as a backdrop. Having black cloth as only a backdrop created reflection problems and lighting problems due to the windows.

OLE so that students can access it at

the lighting right, and we eventually

any time and from any location.

settled on five lights with tripods of

There is a lot of information on

various heights and positions. We

how to make a Lightboard available on

initially used a directional microphone

the internet, but our primary source

wired to the video camera. However,

was . The site

the quality of the sound needed

was created by Michael Peshkin from

to improve and there was hum on

Northwestern University. He is a

occasion due to induction from

the four walls. We also covered the

that transcend written notes or a text

pioneer of the Lightboard and the site

the electrical leads. We now use a

windows to ensure we had consistent

book. The Lightboard combined with

provided all the information needed.

wireless microphone.

lighting that isn’t impacted by how

a robust OLE is an excellent way to

sunny the day is.

facilitate this.

The Lightboard in its current form.

Building the Lightboard

The room has three walls completely

The glass and stand were the most

black and there are now five lights to

difficult part. However, we found our

allow better lighting of the teacher. The

Removing the ‘technology barrier’

Videos demonstrating the Lightboard.

local glass supplier was up to the

black channels at the top and bottom

Creating a Lightboard tutorial is easy.

This is a link to an early Maths

task. We provided them with the plans

of the glass house the LED strips that

Any teacher who can stand at a

Lightboard tutorial created by Patrick

from and they ordered

flood the glass with light. The video

board, write and talk can create one.

Dare, a teacher at Saint Stephen’s

the special high transparency glass

camera is visible on the right side

Converting the video to a useable

College. This tutorial was recorded

and built a custom stand, complete

of the picture.

format and loading it into the OLE

before we added extra lighting.

with channels at the top and bottom of the glass that the LED strips lie in. An early setup of the Lightboard

The special pens used to write on the glass are inexpensive and readily available from many suppliers of

is easy, and the process can be taught to anyone. However, we decided to remove watch?v=bo0mrkt6Lew This link takes you to a brief

just after it arrived. The LED strips

office products. We also purchased

every technological barrier by having

explanation and overview of the

were too long, and can be seen

black T-shirts in a variety of sizes for

a member of staff take the recorded

Lightboard, with examples from LOTE,

hanging out of the end of the tubing

teachers to use if necessary; colour

video, rotate it so that the writing is

STEM, Maths and Chemistry.

on the left side of the frame. (The

and type of clothing is important when

the ‘correct’ way and then save it to

LED strips were trimmed to length

recording presentations.

the appropriate location in the OLE.

later.) We initially used only two lights

While this adds a staffing overhead, it

on tripods and had black cloth as


a backdrop. Having black cloth as

A Lightboard is not easily transported

only a backdrop created reflection

and it is not something used in a live

problems and lighting problems due to the windows.

is worth it in my opinion. n Peter West is Director of eLearning at Saint Stephen’s College in Australia. He has over 15 years’ experience leading K–12

classroom environment. It requires

Making learning more flexible

a dedicated room. Luckily, we had

Learning doesn’t occur only in the

education, particularly blended

one. The room also needs controlled

time allocated to a class during a

learning using online learning

LED strips, LED lights and blackout

lighting. We initially had black cloth

school day. We need to leverage

environments. He can be contacted at

materials were ordered online. It takes

as a backdrop only, but soon moved

technology to allow students to learn

some time and experimentation to get

to having black material on three of

when they are ready, and in ways

All of the ‘extras’, such as the


046-049_ETS79 Pedagogy.indd 48

schools in technology enhanced

Note: All photos – Peter West

19/07/2017 11:37 am

3D4Ed Our Education packages are endorsed by the Australian 3D Manufacturing Association

046-049_ETS79 Pedagogy.indd 49

19/07/2017 11:37 am



Technological and e-learning is not

educational online environment by

and share images with potentially four

to be, a person under the age of 18

about technology, it is about learning,

providing information and applying

billion people via a smartphone or other

years and the material is sexually

just like cyber-safety education and

appropriate boundaries. This is

internet enabled device.

explicit in nature. As an example, it can

compliance is not about technology,

achievable and there is a real chance

it is about health and wellbeing.

you are already playing this role. It is

is a victimless act, it is important that

18 or the genitalia of any person under

E-learning and cyber-safety education

important to remember that a positive

we consider various scenarios where

18. It is illegal to create, possess or

must go hand in hand if our students

online experience and digital footprint

those images are viewed and used in a

distribute this material.

are to extract the very best the online

generally is not achieved by default.

way not intended by the creator.

While some might argue that sexting

depict the breasts of a female under

These laws apply to all people in Australia from ten years of age and

world can provide.


How serious can sexting be when

there is no element of ‘intent’ required

reduce online risk and create a positive

teenagers are involved?

to be proven as to why someone

digital footprint will not be delivered

What is it?

Serious criminal offences can

has possession of child exploitation

by online entities but by those around

‘Sexting is the distribution of a

be committed when children and

material. Therefor it is not necessary

them in the physical world: parents,

sexually explicit image of oneself

teenagers engage in this practice.

to show ‘why’ someone has this, only

carers and very importantly, teachers.

to another user via information

The Australian Federal Criminal Code

that they have it.

communication technology’.

contains a definition relating to what is

Education enabling our youth to

As educators, you have the ability to play an essential and effective

Sharing nude pictures is not a

role in assisting your students to be

new idea, but what has changed is

part of a safe, fun, productive and

the split-second ability to produce


050-053_ETS79 Professional Development.indd 50

‘Child Exploitation Material’.

In real terms this means it is immaterial from a criminal perspective

In general, this is a picture, video

if someone states, “I was just mucking

or description of what is, or appears

around, I didn’t do this to hurt anyone”.

19/07/2017 11:40 am

050-053_ETS79 Professional Development.indd 51


19/07/2017 11:40 am


Potential outcomes

Something can always be done to help,

professionals charged with the care

to consider

no matter what choices students may

of children in reducing the instances

Some of the issues teenagers

make in the online space.

of and dealing with sexting. Teachers

in Australia have faced as a

The advice below is a general

are encouraged not only to pass

result of sexting:

guide. You will need to consider the

these principles onto parents but to

• Arrest

individual circumstances, local rules

practice these where applicable in the

• Police investigation

and policies and also advice and

school environment.

• Blackmail (others using the images

training you have received from those

for their own gain) • Knowledge that others may have and

in authority in your community. Advice to give students who

Safeguard 1 – Set Rules and Boundaries

disclose their involvement in or

These are not optional.

• Extreme embarrassment

the existence of sexting may

Parents and children have rules and

• Global humiliation

include the following:

boundaries in every area of their lives.

• Loss of trust amongst adults

• If you have possession of these

Rules do not stop them having fun;

control the image forever

• Disappointment from family members Why sext?

images or videos now is the time

they protect them from themselves

to DELETE. You may also consider

and others. As children grow, parents

talking to a trusted person.

should not be afraid to modify a rule,

• If someone you know has images

taking care not to move outside their

Consider some of the reasons that

or videos of you, ask them to

values, beliefs, morals and ethics.

people engage in sexting:

DELETE them. Ask if you can

Rules and boundaries provide security,

• impulsiveness

watch them do this so you feel

letting children know where they stand.

• belief it makes them mature

comfortable it has been done.

The rules must be enforced or

• thinking that everybody is doing it • viewing it as not a big deal, and something funny • unsolicited images having been sent to them initially • pressure from others (either peer or blackmail) • a need to feel liked or

• If you receive an image or

not be taken as seriously if they can be

not know, DELETE IT and then

continually broken. On the other hand,

BLOCK the contact.

it is not weakness to allow a couple

• If you receive an image or video from someone you know you may DELETE and then talk to your

• an understanding of what

• no reason NOT to do.

if you don’t say something it will most likely continue).

Children will most likely form their beliefs about sexting from • Peers • Older teenagers • Parent or Carer

• Never take a screen shot or make a copy. • Never forward images or video for any reason at all.

language is acceptable • guidelines on where in the home technology can and cannot be used • restrictions on what websites, games and apps can be used • agreement on what to do if something of concern happens.

• Never engage online to fix the problem. • If you ever feel out of control,

• Teachers

pressured, scared or worried get

• The media

offline and talk to a trusted person.

• Online contacts

General rules might include: • time limits and curfews

friend. (This may not be easy but

their opinions from?

more minutes playing a game.

choose to DELETE. If it continues,

accepted by others

Where do students get

there is no point having them. They will

video from someone you do

• If you have concerns for a friend or

Safeguard 2 - Stay Current Parents should increase their knowledge base as needed. Staying current does not require parents to become technology experts.

any other person who is engaged in

It involves being across what children

Questions for students

sexting, REPORT IT.

generally do on the internet, staying

As teachers, we can challenge our

It is highly recommended

current by learning:

students to ask themselves:

for students, teachers and other

• Why am I doing this?

associated staff to NEVER copy, send

• Is this really who I am?

or print Child Exploitation Material.

• what devices can connect to the internet • when those devices are connected • where kids are going online

• How could this affect me, my


and what programs and

The following four principles/

• who they are connected to.

What to do if I am concerned or have

safeguards will assist and empower

Parents stay current by talking to their

a problem with sexting

parents, carers, educators and other

children and other adults, seeking

family, my community and my future if it became public?


050-053_ETS79 Professional Development.indd 52


games they are using

19/07/2017 11:40 am

advice or asking questions from

information or activity. A variety of

achieve and is the most important

teachers and schools, and seeking

programs is available and some can

and effective safeguard against online

information online.

be downloaded for free. More common

issues. It is powerful to tell children, ‘If

functions include:

you have a problem on the internet, or

Safeguard 3 – Use

• blocking concerning websites

even if you make a mistake, I want you

Management Controls

• setting time limits and

to talk to me about it and I promise I

Parents have a right to know where

ensuring curfews

their children go and who they

• recording web sites visited

communicate with.

• recording conversations in

Most schools have software or programs designed to monitor online activity. They do this because they have a duty of care for students. Parents also should have systems in place. There will be those who claim that

certain programs • limiting the downloading of particular apps • notifying a parent of concerning activity. If parents start using monitoring or filtering programs early, it will become

will help you solve the problem so you can keep having a good time online.’ Healthy communication about

to your children, other parents,

the opportunities:

friends, family and school teachers.

• Take time to chat to children about what is happening online, even just ten minutes a day during school drop-off or pick-up. • If you notice an unusual facial

using monitoring or filtering software

a part of their child’s online world.

reaction after looking at a screen,

is ‘spying’ on children. Am I spying on

They will be accustomed to it at home,

ask what was that all about and is

my teenage daughter because I want

just as they can expect to encounter it

to know where she is going with her

at school and then in the workplace.

friends on Friday night and who will be

Warning – Filtering or monitoring

there? Of course not. I need to know

software should never be relied on as

this to make sure she is safe. When

a total solution or a replacement for

children become adults, they will not

broader parental oversight.

harbour a grudge; they will thank their

• Never stop communicating. Talk

technology occurs be seizing

everything okay. • Have a chat around the dinner table about what is happening online. • Direct children to and discuss media articles about technology. • Never underestimate the value

Internet Safe Education – Online cyber-safety courses for schools – n Founded in 2008 by former undercover internet detective Brett Lee, Internet Safe Education programs are designed to equip children, parents and teachers with the skills and tools needed to safely and effectively

of face-to-face communication.

navigate the online environment.

parent for caring enough to monitor

Safeguard 4 - Communicate

If a sex offender approaches a

Internet Safe Education has reached

their activity and most likely do the

Create an environment of openness

child online and learns that the

over half a million adults and children

same with their children.

about technology and talk about it

child’s family discusses what

through face to face presentations and

with your kids.

happens on the internet, they will

online courses. Internet Safe Education

This is one strategy every parent can

not hang around.

also provides resources and training.

Parental controls work on a device or account to monitor or control

050-053_ETS79 Professional Development.indd 53


19/07/2017 11:40 am


What’s in store for EduTECH,

And our National FutureSchools Expo in 2018?

The EduTECH International Congress and National FutureSchools Expo events bring educators to the forefront of leading, teaching and learning with emerging technologies. These events help teachers, instructors and lecturers at schools, colleges, universities, RTOs and TAFEs get their hands on disruptive technologies to elevate learning.


054-057_ETS79 Article 3.indd 54

19/07/2017 11:41 am

The EduTECH team was super excited

from international experts, while

about the move from Brisbane to

masterclass, congress and breakout

Sydney this year. After significant

seminar presenters shared world

planning, and a great many years in the

leading strategies and resources.

game, once again the event was record

EduTECH provides an opportunity


to celebrate education with world

EduTECH is attended by the entire

leaders, including inspirational people

education decision-making chain

like this year’s ambassador Astronaut

including leaders, business managers,

Greg Chamitoff. Program highlights included

educators and ICT professionals. The event enjoyed 8760+ attendees across

Professor Carol Dweck, world

the three days, and we showcased

renowned author of Mindset; Abdul

250+ exhibitors and 230+ world-

Chohan, Essa Academy (UK),

class speakers. This year, following our

who spoke to us about leveraging

sustainable development theme, we

technologies for system-wide growth;

connected with NASA astronaut Peggy

Angela Maiers on student literacy;

Whitson with a welcome video from on

Mark Scott on leadership; Greg

board the International Space Station.

Whitby on innovation; Louise Stoll on

As a Giant Festival of Education,

collaborative professional learning;

EduTECH once again secured and

Peter Adams, who spoke about his

surpassed its place as a World Leading

experiences leading the International

Premier Education Expo. Delegates

Pisa Assessment Program,

networked with their peers and heard

and many others.

National FutureSchools Expo 2018 We are VERY excited to announce that in March 2018 the legendary Sir Ken Robinson, internationally acclaimed author and global thinker and leader in creativity and innovation, will be speaking at the National FutureSchools Expo in Melbourne: The National FutureSchools Expo is a must-attend premier event for you and your colleagues, in which five parallel conferences are dedicated to every aspect of the future school. This year, FutureSchools showcased 80+ exhibitors, and 120+ leading speakers. Based on past growth, in 2018 the Expo will be attended by 4,000 attendees from all over the country and from overseas. New technologies continue to shift and change the nature of learning in our schools and learning institutions. Next year’s themes include culture, leadership, curriculum, assessment, enterprise skills, entrepreneurship, innovation, creativity, literacy, numeracy, DigiTECH and STEM. Make a place for you and your colleagues in your calendar right now for 20–22 March 2018 and join us for the annual National FutureSchools Expo at the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre.

054-057_ETS79 Article 3.indd 55


19/07/2017 11:41 am


Popular pre-event masterclasses

Finally, we were all chuffed when

learning. Make a place for you and

this year included Teaching Kids

teacher Rebecca Backman from St

your colleagues in your calendar right

to Code, Setting up a Makerspace,

Mary’s Primary School, Williamstown

now for 6–8 June 2018 and join us

Cybersecurity, Digitally Young and

(VIC) won the 2017 EduTECH treasure

for outstanding professional learning

Well, and Getting the Most from your

hunt and a car for the grand prize!

and networking at the annual EduTECH

BYOD Program. Educators also learnt

EduTECH continues to grow, with

International Congress, hosted at the

how to MindmapTM, construct robots,

the addition of two brand new co-

International Convention Centre, Darling

and create code on the iPad using

located events in 2018: EduBuild and

Harbour, Sydney. n

Swift and Makeblock.

Learning@Work. We bring learning

The FREE Expo offered an

environments to life such that people,

interactive NSW Department of

technology, place and space work

Education Future Learners Maker

together in concert to accelerate and

Space, a parents seminar, robotics

deepen learning. Persistent themes

demonstrations, a cooking show,

include collaborative professional

TeachMeets, and an outstanding main

learning, STEM, DigiTECH, and

stage speaking program.

inclusive teaching practices for the full

The audience was thrilled by contributions from the student

range of learners. EduTECH offers nine parallel

videography team at Northern Beaches

congresses covering every aspect

Christian School, under the direction

of education, incorporating schools,

of Mr Chris Woldhuis and by a K-12

VET/RTOs and TAFEs and tertiary

breakout session by the STEM students

education providers and universities

of Queenwood, directed by educators

together with workplace, community

Andrew Merrick and Andy Draper.

and library learning providers. It is

Following a day of world-class

kind in the Asia Pacific, and in the

dinner guests were entertained by the

Southern Hemisphere. Next year EduTECH will continue

at the Gala Dinner pre-dinner drinks,

delivering on the delegate feedback

under the direction of musical and

we obtain from year to year. Strategic

performance directors Michael Tabrett

and targeted technology investment

and Antony Much. This outstanding

will be strongly supported as we

comprehensive public school jazz

continue to learn how to meet and

ensemble received rave reviews.

exceed expectations about quality


054-057_ETS79 Article 3.indd 56

Speaker applications are open! If you lead future learning and / or technology education at your school, and you have a story to tell, we invite you to apply to speak at either event in 2018, and we would love to hear from you. National FutureSchools Expo 2018 Apply to Speak: http:// Apply-to-Speak.stm EduTECH 2018 Apply to Speak: Apply-to-Speak.stm

recognised authority in creativity and innovation in education, and New York Times best-selling author Bio here: Speaker-Bios.stm

the largest education event of its

content and professional learning, Epping Boys High School Jazz Band

Sir Ken Robinson - Internationally

Interested in sponsoring or exhibiting? If you would like to showcase your products and services at the exhibition for either event, please contact our Education team at or call (02) 8908 8555.

19/07/2017 11:41 am


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Edval Interviews ETS Ad3.indd 27-4-17.indd 1 054-057_ETS79 Article 57

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AVIATION: is the practical aspect or art of aeronautics, being the design, development, production, operation and use of aircraft, especially heavier than air aircraft.


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vary depending on whether you are

Other schools use drones less

flying commercially, educationally or

formally – to take film footage, collect


data for analysis (drones are great

CASA considers drones to be aircraft as they use the airspace the same as manned aircraft and

data collection platforms) or to fly obstacle courses. Probably the best advice you

helicopters. The regulations define the

can have about drones is from Brett

various sizes of drones by weight with

Salakas (#AussieEd): “A lot of teachers

the major difference being if a drone is

are actually breaking those CASA

above or below two kilograms.

regulations, so you have to be really

Any time we are operating a

smart about how you are using drones,

drone outside it falls under the CASA

especially if you’re going to advertise

regulations. So – are we flying toys or

the fact that you’re doing them.”

engaging in aviation? I would like to think we are aviators.

Categories and training There are three categories of drones:

Drones in school

• Commercial > 2Kg

Where you are in Australia and what

• Commercial < 2Kg

school system you work in dictates

• Recreational

your students’ ability to access drones in the school environment. Working in collaboration with

Commercial > 2Kg The Commercial >2kg category

universities, industry or alone, schools

requires that all operators have carried

have developed design tasks where

out a formal training course to CASA

students design their own drones for

standards, with a licensed training

specific purposes, using a variety of

organisation, and have been issued

materials and machinery.

a Remote Pilots License (RePL). The

An example of an engaging program in which students design

course of training is normally done over five days.

drones for a purpose is Outback Joe.

When you have qualified

Teams of high-school aged students

and have a RePL you may work

are challenged to develop a system to

for an organisation that holds

drop a medical package to Outback

an RPA Operators Certificate


(ReOC). It is only then that you can

Drone kits can be purchased

operate commercially.

on the internet but once the drone

What is a drone?

attractive proposition as a stand-

is built – then what? Often the next

Commercial < 2Kg

Remotely piloted aircraft systems

alone program or part of a suite of

step is to compete in a challenge

On 29 September 2016 CASA

(RPAS), unmanned aerial vehicles

STEM offerings for students to gain

or a competition. These can be

introduced reduced entry requirements

(UAV), unmanned aerial systems

skills for the future. These are very

designed just for the group, class

for people wanting to fly a very small

(UAS), multirotors, quadcopters

positive outcomes for all – totally

or school, or could be a local

(100g < 2kg) remotely piloted aircraft

– all these are commonly called

engaging, exciting, fast paced

tournament, national event or even an

(RPA) commercially. Consequently,

drones. Drone technology has

and innovative.

international challenge.

operations under 2kg (excluded)

saturated our lives. Concepts of drone delivery, drone public transport

The biggest question if you are using drones in school is ‘Why?’

and many other innovative ideas

The use of coding and drones is

do not need an RPA operator’s

a great fit in the Digital Technology

certificate (ReOC), or a remote pilot

syllabus, especially as drones use GPS

licence (RePL).

have made the policy makers and

Drones are aircraft

and even geofencing to control their

regulators nervous.

The use of drones or, more technically

actions and movements. There are

RPA category have to notify CASA at

Those operating in the excluded

Drones can be purchased

correctly, remotely piloted aircraft

boundless possibilities if teachers just

least five business days before their

anywhere – even in supermarkets

(RPA) in Australia is governed and

put their minds to it.

first commercial flight and agree to

– and with rapid advances in this

regulated by the Civil Aviation Safety

technology, they are relatively easy

Authority (CASA) and is covered by

students a Remote Pilot’s Course that

conditions and the guidance in CASA’s

to fly. This ease of use, low price

Federal laws (as defined in the Civil

leads to the attainment of a Certificate

advisory circular (AC) 101-10.

point, popularity and the technology

Aviation Safety Regulations Part

III in Aviation (Remote Pilot – Visual

make the use of drones in schools an

101) these safety laws for drones

Line of Sight).

058-061_ETS79 Teaching Tools.indd 59

Some schools have offered their

operate by the standard operating

It is your responsibility to abide by all of the regulations detailed in Civil


19/07/2017 11:47 am


You would be well advised to

Aviation Safety Regulations Part 101.

lithium batteries catching fire. A

than through first-person-view

Failure to do so could result in large

lithium battery fire generates its own

(FPV)) at all times.

fines and possible jail time. If you wish

oxygen and cannot be extinguished

to operate outside these Standard

with fire extinguishers. There are

than 120 metres (400ft) above

Operating Conditions then you must

now restrictions on the carriage of

ground level (referenced to a

The future

hold an RePL and an ReOC.

batteries on aircraft: https://www.

point on the ground immediately

There is currently a Drone Safety Review

below the RPA at any time

underway. The outcomes of this review



during the flight).

will not only take into account the

The definition of Recreational flying is:

• Storing

In relation to the flight of an

Lithium batteries need to be

• You must not fly your RPA higher

• You must only fly your RPA during the daytime. • You must keep your RPA at least

check that you are covered before operating drones.

numbers of drones sold, but also the number of drones that are being identified as contravening the regulations, with

unmanned aircraft, a flight activity only

stored in a metal fire resistant

for the pleasure, leisure or enjoyment

cupboard that meets your system’s

30 metres away from other people

the end result being the regulation of

of the remote pilot.

equipment safety regulations.

(that is any person who is not

safety in Australian airspace I expect

charged with duties essential to

that there are going to be changes to the

When charging lithium batteries,

the safe operation of a remotely

regulatory environment.

you should be using good

piloted aircraft).

Does your use of a drone in the school context meet this definition?

• Charging

Use of airspace

quality charging systems that

The airspace in Australia is divided into

permit you to balance the battery

sections with each different section or

during charging. These batteries

• You must not fly your RPA over

category of airspace being governed

should never be left unattended

any area where, in the event of

available through the CASA websites.

by different rules for the operation of

during charging.

a loss of control or failure, you

I would strongly recommend that you

drones. In the educational context, we

create an unreasonable hazard to

check these web sites and the CASA

must be flying in Class G airspace that

the safety of people and property

information made available to the

on the ground (populous area).

public to ensure that you are up to date

has no restrictions.

Can I fly there? The sky (airspace) over Australia is pretty vast and for most people, it is difficult to know what aircraft and/ or helicopters might be operating in the areas where they wish to fly a drone. To that end, CASA has recently launched a downloadable app that will show you if you can fly your drone in your immediate location. You simply identify where you are or where you would like to fly, anywhere within Australia and the app will show if there are any restrictions on the use of drones. The app is available on Android and iOS devices, with a web-based HTML5


version also accessible.

Batteries and safety

Risk Management When operating drones, you should

• You must keep your RPA away from prohibited/restricted areas.

• You must keep your RPA at least

More information This article has referred to the CASA regulations and the information

with any changes to the regulatory

5.5km away from an aerodrome


with an operating control tower

(controlled aerodromes).

drones-australia n

• You must not fly your RPA over or near an area affecting public

Robert (Bob) Carpenter OAM

safety or where emergency

Bob has been employed in the Military

operations are underway (without

and Aviation fields since 1967. Bob

prior approval). This could

joined the Royal Australian Air force

include situations such as a traffic

as an Avionics Technician in 1967.

accident, police operations, a fire

Bob continued in the Military Aviation

and associated firefighting efforts,

field following his discharge, providing

and search and rescue.

training in relation to the flight,

• You can only fly one RPA at a time.

maintenance and aircrew operations of Hercules Aircraft for a number of


international military customers and

When using drones with our

private companies in over 14 countries

students we need to know how are

throughout the world, primarily in SE

we covered by insurance should

Asia. He retired in June of 2016 to

there be a problem.

undertake full time involvement with

If you are using drones outside of

The drones we purchase or construct

be aware of the CASA Standard

the Standard Operating Conditions and

are normally powered by lithium

Operating Conditions:

you need to make an insurance claim

polymer battery packs. We use these

• You must only fly during the

it may well be refused.

the One Giant Leap Australia group of companies. Bob has been involved with Radio Control aircraft and systems since

new technology batteries to provide

day and keep your RPA within

We have been informed by

1969. He was the first person to fly

longer flight times with smaller weight.

visual line-of sight (VLOS) -

insurance companies that they are

a Radio Control aircraft in Antarctica

close enough to see, maintain

reluctant to provide insurance unless

in 1981, was the initial test pilot

we need to be aware of the safety

orientation and achieve accurate

the operator has undergone formal

for the University of Sydney UAV

precautions required.

flight and tracking. This means

training and is the holder of a RePL

projects, and also was the Chief

being able to see the aircraft

working for an organisation that is the

Instructor for Australia with MAAA for a

with your own eyes (rather

holder of a ReOC.

number of years.

When using lithium batteries,

Over the past few years there have been many instances of


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Now Available For Every Screen!

e ality

Increasingly technologies force a rethink on preconceived notions. Marshall McLuhan suggested ‘the medium is the message’ while in education we are all aware that ‘perception is the reality’. Several technologies are converging to recreate the idea of ‘reality’. Small screen resolutions allow each eye to have a dedicated display; computer processors are (nearly) fast enough to be able to redraw high definition images for those screens; multi-camera high definition cameras are able to record (almost) 360˚ x 360˚ video. Several terms describe these technologies. VR (virtual reality) is a complete fantasy scene where all aspects are draw by the computer. AR (augmented reality) overlays a computer-generated annotation between the viewer and the recorded scene. Three sixty degree scenes are recorded by camera arrays

062-065_ETS79 Get Connected.indd 63


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then ‘stitched’ into a continuous image on a ‘sphere’. The illusion of reality is created

These effects and many others produce a 3D effect when looking at 2D images. The same deception is

when the eye deceives the brain into

now being employed for flat screens to

believing the image is real. Humans

develop 3D objects.

only ever ‘see’ two-dimensional (2D)

‘Photo-realistic’ is a term

images. The depth, or 3D, is created

used to describe vivid colour

reality in 1994

by visual clues. These clues can be

photographic reproductions.

Source: Wikipedia

Mixed Reality (MR) continuum after Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino defined mixed

created in CGI (computer-generated images). The behaviour of objects is the image that are changing, a more

governed by well-known physical rules; closer objects are larger, move more quickly, and make louder noises. For distant objects the converse is true. Anyone familiar with optical illusions understands the brain is easily deceived by the use of shading, size and simple dividers. Many of the deceptions are employed in creating a virtual reality environment.

A realistic 3D effect is achieved by colours and shading

Colour The eye and brain combine to ‘see’ than other colours which appear to be

produced by 4K video. Realistic motion, free of jumping

changes slowly and stationary near objects do not need to be redrawn. Mixed reality (MR) is created by combining graphics with live video on screen. The two images become indistinguishable and it is not possible to detect live images from computer

tended to be used exclusively. An is enormous. A very fast computer

alternative is to consider these realities

is necessary for VR, where the entire

on a continuum.

or flickering, requires the full screen

screen needs to be drawn/rendered

image to be redrawn at least one

very quickly, very often.

hundred times per second (100 Hz).

example, the distant background

The terms AR and VR have

High resolution images drawn in quick succession can be

efficient redraw is possible. For

generated images (CGI).

Source: Wikipedia

some colours as approaching or closer receding or farther off.


Other features of computers can

Virtual reality (VR) can be considered to operate to various ‘depths’. The graphic below

As you can begin to understand,

reduce this processing workload.

developed by Steve Bambury outlines

the amount of data being processed

By optimising only those parts of

the main features

One of the clearest examples of near-colour / far-colour is in the perception of blue and red, referred to as chromostereopsis Source: Wikipedia

Proximity effects Same-size objects or same-colour objects are perceived as different due to the location of other objects. This is referred to as the Ebbinghaus illusion.

Same sized circles appear different Source: Wikipedia


062-065_ETS79 Get Connected.indd 64

For further discussion visit the closed Facebook Group: VR in Education @steve_bambury C-C4. Source: Wikipedia

19/07/2017 11:54 am

role barely imagined a few years ago, is now an obvious. one. Clearly with each new technology development, new skills and new employment opportunities are created. GOOGLE expeditions was trialled during 2016 and has been released as a variety of self-contained apps. An entire class can explore together in virtual space. At this stage operating at perception level (see Bambury’s depths diagram above), future developments will attempt stimulation, while interaction and immersion remain the province of high-end fast computers. Facebook360 Samsung GEAR 360 works with android and iOS smartphones as well as Windows and macOS. Source:

Recent developments by Samsung have dramatically improved access to the means to make MR content. The 2017 Samsung GEAR 360 camera records 360˚ images and video to a smartphone, which can then upload to a variety of social media. For example, Vimeo, YouTube and Facebook all provide simple upload options for 360˚ video. The latest changes to Adobe Premiere offers 360˚ editing capabilities.

Early days yet..


The Oculus Rift and HTC Vive remain the class leaders in VR kits. It is not

Other cheaper cameras are

Technology means are improving in performance and decreasing in cost.

Source: www.facebook.


only that the present cost is prohibitive,

being released but may not be

as fast graphics computers are required

sufficiently robust to withstand a

to support the tethered headset.

classroom environment. INSTA360

The educational purpose is yet to

has android and iPhone versions

be developed. While everyone who

that are significantly cheaper. These

participates in the VR experience is

models clip onto the smartphone

impressed, the educational elements

and provide real time images through

need further attention and development.

a direct connection, whereas the

While there is no doubt that VR will be

GEAR360 camera sends wirelessly to a

beneficial to improving understanding,

nearby smartphone.

the ‘how’ case is yet to be compelling;

The biggest challenge confronting

when all is done, students are still

VR filmmakers is a situation where there

watching a screen. Unless and until VR

is no ‘fourth wall’. There is no longer a

becomes interactive and immersive,

‘behind the camera’ location where the

the technology will be engaging and

director and others can operate outside

entertaining, however the improved

the view of the recording camera. The

learning with empowerment may

camera is now all-seeing, a new form

remain elusive. n

of film-making will be required. Indeed, the narrator, who holds the camera, is now part of the action. The idea of a VR tour guide, a new

Awarded Victorian IT Leader of the year 2016, Gary Bass has presenter at numerous Science, IT and mathematics conferences including, most recently,

VIMEO360 Source: www.vimeo. com/channels/360vr

Unreal science VR/AR, Beyond real science: Simulations of collected data using Wolfram Mathematica and SystemModeler, Big Data needs Huge Analysis:Data Visualisation for schools using Tableau and Mathematica. In addition to being an Apple Distinguished Educator Gary is currently President Mag-Net: Introducing VR180 Source: https://www. UCzuqhhs6NWbgTzMuM09WKDQ

062-065_ETS79 Get Connected.indd 65

Magnificent network: Online STEM Educators Association 2016-17 and a teacher of VCE Informatics at Distance Education Centre Victoria.


19/07/2017 11:54 am

TECH STUFF 068 PRODUCTS Compulocks Secure Hyper Space Enclosure for iPad Makeblock Airblock Programmable Drone Epson Moverio® BT-300 AR Smartglasses Parallels Toolbox Edval - World Leading Scheduling Software PCSchool Interactive Cash Flow

072 NOTICEBOARDS ScopeIT Education K-12 Digital Classroom Practice Conference Leading a Digital School AONIQ Aims to Disrupt 3D Printing


066-067_ETS79 Tech Stuff.indd 66

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066-067_ETS79 Tech Stuff.indd 67

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SHOWCASES Compulocks Secure Hyper Space Enclosure for iPad Securing an iPad in the office or classroom has never been easier or more secure. Compulocks Secure Hyper Space Enclosure for iPad is a masterpiece of iPad security and tamper-proof design. Two high-grade aluminium plates secure a moulded, rugged, iPad support that grips the iPad safely in place, providing excellent device damage protection. Ten studs hold all the components in place secured with unique security screws fastened through the device to prevent unwanted prying open of the frame. Price $225 Retail, less for education For more information visit www. or call 1300 769 374

Makeblock Airblock Programmable Drone Makeblock Airblock

The use of logic and reasoning

Programmable Drone is the

introduces kids to basic computer

first modular drone that can be

programming, growing critical

turned into a hovercraft, car,

thinking skills. Operating the drone

and more! But the STEM fun

helps kids build fine motor skills

doesn’t stop there. Airblock

and hand-eye coordination as

can be programmed like a real

they code cool aerial stunts and

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Assembly is easy thanks

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to the use of six modular parts

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their creations.

Makeblock Airblock also offers

Airblock is an educational,

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Price $299 Retail, less for education For more information visit

styrofoam which is light-weight

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Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or products appearing in this section represent the opinions of the Editor or relevant editorial staff member assigned to this publication and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the advertisers or other contributors to this publication.

Epson Moverio® BT-300 AR Smartglasses Epson Australia has launched the third generation of its Moverio®

tours at museums and galleries. Moverio smartglasses are

smartglasses for augmented reality.

powered by a quad core Intel®

The Moverio BT-300 features Epson’s

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display technology, enabling truly

upgraded 5 mega pixel front-facing

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camera and on-board sensors

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enable the Moverio BT-300 to more

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precisely determine the location

Moverio BT-300 are also the lightest

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binocular see-though smartglasses

Si-OLED projection system can

announced to date.

then seamlessly render and lock

At the Australian launch, Epson

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demonstrated how Moverio BT-300

no display background or edges in

smartglasses are now very much

the field of view.

mainstream and key to a wide

Epson has built a global AR

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ecosystem of partners and solutions

and government uses including

over the past five years and three

flying drones, aerial photography

commercially available products,

and videography, VR learning and

something that has contributed

AR learning. They also highlighted

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smartglasses’ adoption in the market.

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The Epson Moverio BT-300

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smartglasses are available at

security, media, agriculture for an RRP of

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gaming, watching movies and AR for an RRP of NZ$1,299.00

068-071_ETS79 Product Showcases.indd 69


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Parallels Toolbox now available on Windows Digital apps and tools are indispensable

With just a snap of your finger,

to both educators and students today,

Parallels Toolbox for Windows executes

but many simple tasks and commands

a myriad of commands without hassle

essential in their learning journey

– such as capturing a video of your

still somehow seem complex and

screen, quickly archiving files to save

difficult to use.

storage space, or preventing your PC

Do you need to download a lecture video off YouTube? How about

from going to sleep while you work on a big important presentation deck.

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no bloated programmes to launch. You

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experience with malware potentially thrown into the mix.

But perhaps best of all for

Subscribers will also get all new tools added to the suite at no We’re giving a one-year

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Unless otherwise expressly stated, the review of the product or products appearing in this section represent the opinions of the Editor or relevant editorial staff member assigned to this publication and do not represent the views or opinions of Interactive Media Solutions or the advertisers or other contributors to this publication.

Edval - World Leading Scheduling Software Backed By A Team Of Experts For over a decade, Edval Timetables

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EdvalDaily designed to enable daily organisation, exam timetables, Edval’s comprehensive range of services include: Scheduling products to facilitate timetables, staffing, curriculum modelling, resource allocations and even elective lines. WebChoice – a service designed

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User can over write the budget numbers

end of year financials inc Balance

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Sheet etc. These reports include the

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068-071_ETS79 Product Showcases.indd 71

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19/07/2017 12:01 pm

The Great Challenge In Providing A Robust Digital Technologies Education


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copeIT Education trains

complexity. ScopeIT Education has

more than 14,000

a detailed course curriculum that is

Australian students in

fully aligned with National and State

digital technologies

standards. Additionally, ScopeIT is

every week. Founder and CEO, Frank

endorsed by APPA (Australian Primary

Lucisano says that every child should

Principals Association). Their detailed

learn the fundamentals behind the

lesson plans with outcomes in specific

technology that is shaping their future.

KLAs ensure that students not only

“We believe that every student should

receive efficient delivery of lessons,

have access to the best ICT education

but have deep integration with other

courses and subjects they will need to

subjects including mathematics,

succeed in their future careers and

science and creative arts and design.

workplaces. We want to give kids the tools to learn and create, not just

Hardware and internet

consume,” remarks Lucisano.

Funding is always a challenge and

ScopeIT find that schools

having a computer lab that is up-

commonly report that they know

to-date is a luxury for most. When

how important a digital technologies

delivering classes, ScopeIT Education

education is for their students, but

brings along everything required.

that the implementation of a program

Brand new laptops, 3D printers,

poses the greatest challenge.

electronics, robotics and even the

Lucisano states three major factors

internet connection.

that schools encounter when trying to implement a robust digital technologies program:

Science Week offer for all Australian Schools To coincide with the celebration of


Science Week this year, ScopeIT Education are giving a free lesson plan to schools. The lesson plan is focused around Science Week and offers an

Teacher skillset

introductory coding lesson that can be

Australian teachers have enough

delivered by classroom teachers.

demands on their time and the level

The Science Week digital

of professional development required

technologies lesson plan is easy

for digital technologies education

to follow and has been created by

can be daunting. ScopeIT Education

professional educators in a well-

brings two fully trained instructors

structured lesson plan format. It

that deliver the classes, bringing

is based on ScopeIT Education’s

their own technology, devices,

Beginner Coding course which has

internet connection, lesson plans and

been delivered to more than 80,000

assessment materials.

students, across 200 schools in the past two years with a 93% approval

072-078_ETS79 Noticeboards.indd 73


rating from teachers. To receive your

A digital literacy curriculum can

copy, go to www.scopeiteducation.

be wide, varied and fraught with n


19/07/2017 12:03 pm


For classroom teachers keen to lift their digital knowledge and skills

For classroom teachers keen to lift their digital knowledge and skills

Immerse yourself in all of the above at the K-12 Digital Classroom Practice Conference.

Keynotes by two very accomplished practitioners • Day 1: Teach Differently - Nick Jackson, Senior Leader -


f you are involved in education in this day and

teaching and your students’ learning? Time to drill down to become an

age, you cannot get

accomplished digital practitioner in

away from a discussion

your classroom!

about digital technology and its place in teaching and learning, nor should you.

The K-12 Digital Classroom Practice Conference will help you do that. It

• Ideas about how to achieve a strong digital mindset in yourself and your students • An appreciation of the digital literacies worth cultivating • How to ensure that critical

explores best digital classroom practice

technologies are accessible

an option for a teacher. It is an imperative

to achieve superior teaching and learning

by your students

as reflected in the Australian Curriculum:

outcomes. This exciting event, now in

Digital Technologies.

its second year, is part of the National

Using digital technology is no longer

Of course as a teacher you are no

Education Summit.

• A sound knowledge of the digital curriculum and what it has to offer • A willingness to experiment with different digital environments

doubt using some digital technology in students. But on a scale of 1 to 10 where

What does a digital classroom practitioner need?

do you sit? How far do you still have to

Any serious consideration of

challenge yourself to be the best teacher

what a digital practitioner needs

you can be, using digital technology

to grow and shape a digital

enough attention to your own

in effective ways that improve your

classroom, must include:

professional practice.

your classroom for the benefit of your


072-078_ETS79 Noticeboards.indd 74

• The ability to select digital

Transforming the Learning, Wirreanda Secondary School, Adelaide, SA • Day 2: Get back on that horse - Eleni Kyritsis, Year 3 Teacher, Firbank Grammar School, VIC Learn from your colleagues to upgrade your digital knowledge and skills! Join us on Friday 1 and Saturday 2 September 2017 at the Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre (MCEC) to see the amazing ways digital technology can be used in your

resources that meet the needs

classroom to deliver the curriculum

of your students

to your students and to unlock their

• A commitment to paying

learning potential. Further information can be found at n

19/07/2017 12:03 pm

Innovative Approach to Keynotes

Leading a Digital School Conference

purely for professional development

program and will provide a very

to enhance their own practice; or they

attractive choice for many delegates.

can utilize attendance at this PD to

innovation (St. Mark’s Primary

The program promotes modern

begin the process of completing the

development for school leaders that is

School and Campbells Creek and

teaching and learning.

course requirements for a Masters

transformative. One key component of

Guildford Primary Schools, VIC)

Jukes and Mohan Program Outline:

of Education. This model, which

• Day 1: Leadershift: Renewing

is a perfect fit for busy educators,


t the Leading a Digital

• Day 1: Breaking down the silos

School Conference we

(Ormiston College QLD)

have always sought to

• Day 2: Growing a culture of

provide professional

transformative PD is a highlight of the

• Day 3: Our disruptive journey

conference this year:

with digital and design

Schools for Modern Times (3

has been carefully designed so that

Collegial Learning.

learning (St Hilda’s Anglican

sessions + keynote + spotlight)

it seamlessly integrates into your

In 3 keynote addresses, 3 school

School for Girls, WA)

• Day 2: Disruptive Innovation in Education (3 sessions +

teams will share with delegates

daily practice. If you wish to learn more about

accomplishments in driving digital

Modern Teaching and Learning

technology programs and change in

Jukes and Mohan Graduate Series

Learning Environments ( 2

climate, why not attend the Leading a

their schools. Participate in the best

Program (1 day or 2 days or 3 days –

sessions + keynote + spotlight)

Digital School Conference to be held

of collegial learning by engaging and

take your pick!)

These workshops have been

at the QT Hotel, Gold Coast on 17,

developed in partnership with Lamar

18 and 19 August 2017? For more

University (USA.)

information and to register go to:

their strategies, experiences and

interacting with these school teams

This 1 day, 2 day or 3 day

which are currently grappling with what

program presented by Ian Jukes and

it takes to transform their schools.

Nicky Mohan is included within the

072-078_ETS79 Noticeboards.indd 75

keynote + spotlight) • Day 3: Creating Significant

Participants can choose to attend

what it takes to lead in a digital school in today’s challenging educational n


19/07/2017 12:03 pm


AONIQ Aims to Disrupt 3D Printing


ormed with the aim to

Somewhere along the journey, it

become a disruptive

would appear that the concept of 3D

force in an already

printing being an affordable, reliable

disruptive industry,

source of parts and production has

Australian R&D company AONIQ is set

been forgotten. AONIQ has decided

to launch their game

to address this gap in the market by

changing 3d printer.

introducing an industrial 3D printer at

3D printing promised to bring

a price point that makes it viable for

about a new age in manufacturing, one

schools to teach to the manufacture

where people would be able to build

production parts. The new 888 printer

customised parts and projects without

will set a new standard in 3D printing

having to pay huge amounts of money

as it offers the ability to produce real

to do so. According to Michael Slavica,

world products due to the fact that it is

CEO of AONIQ “Instead we have only

the first 3D printer in the world built to

two types of 3D printers, expensive

utilise PVC as a printing material.

industrial 3d printers, that are only

In addition to using PVC, which

affordable to large or niche enterprises,

offers a variety of advantages over

or cheap 3D printers that are suited

the most common plastics used

little more than cheap hobby use.”

in 3D printing currently, AONIQ will


072-078_ETS79 Noticeboards.indd 76

19/07/2017 12:04 pm

be offering 24/7 support with

stage of 3D printing, it is time for

live interaction to the screen on

most schools already using 3D

the machine. It is envisioned

printers to decide if they want

that the use of more robust and

continue to tinker on the sidelines

affordable material combined

or to actually join the latest

with an unprecedented level of

industrial revolution.”

support is will provide customers

customers the tools they need to

assurance they need to adopt

take their school to the next level.

the 888 as a commercially viable

Together we will help students

teaching solution.

of the future shift away from

Michael Slavica, stated “with

many old inefficient and wasteful

this 3D printer, we are giving

manufacturing practises and unlock

the average school a genuine,

the potential of a new future.

commercial grade resource”. He added that “in this next


We are providing our

such as schools with the

For more information visit n

Mobile iPad Charging Station

The iPad Charging Station is designed for education environments that organize large numbers of iPads and require support tools necessary for efficiency. They provide a practical, functional storage solution.

Holds up to 30 iPads

Sync & charge



VIC (03) 9801 1044 / 072-078_ETS79 Noticeboards.indd 77

NSW (02) 9749 1922 / 19/07/2017 12:04 pm


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