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Volume 2 2019

MATERIAL DISTRICT 2019 THE QUALIFY PROJECT THE TALLEST WOODEN BUILDING PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS ENTERPRISE EUROPE NETWORK METALLIC WOOD


CONTENT About

Innovatieve Materialen (Innovative Materials) is a digital, independent magazine about material innovation in the fields of engineering, construction (buildings, infrastructure and industrial) and industrial design. A digital subscribtion in 2019 (6 editions) costs € 39,50 (excl. VAT) Members of KIVI and students: € 25,- (excl. VAT)

SJP Uitgevers

Postbus 861 4200 AW Gorinchem tel. +31 183 66 08 08 info@innovatievematerialen.nl

Publisher

Gerard van Nifterik

Advertizing & sponsoring

Drs. Petra Schoonebeek ps@innovatievematerialen.nl

Innovative Materials platform: Dr. ir. Fred Veer, prof. Ir. Rob Nijsse (Glass & Transparency Research Group, TU Delft), dr. Bert van Haastrecht (M2I), prof. Wim Poelman, dr. Ton Hurkmans (MaterialDesign), prof.dr.ir. Jos Brouwers, (Department of the Built Environment, Section Building Physics and Services TU Eindhoven), prof.dr.ir. Jilt Sietsma, (4TU.HTM/ Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering (3mE), prof.dr. Pim Groen, (SMART Materials Aerospace Engineering (AE) TU Delft/Holst Centre, TNO), Kris Binon (Flam3D), Guido Verhoeven (Bond voor Materialenkennis/SIM Flanders, Prof. Dr. ir. Christian Louter Institut für Baukonstruktion Technische Universität Dresden).

1 News 10 MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019:

Today’s materials for tomorrow’s innovations. A review.

22 QUALIFY: Qualification of Hybrid Structures for Lightweight and Safe Maritime Transport The advancement in composite materials allows building primary maritime structures traditionally made of steel, e.g. ship superstructure. Steel and composites can be bonded together using adhesives, forming a hybrid (steel-composite) joint. Despite of the many benefits of composite and hybrid joints, the lack of guidelines for approval and design has prevented their uptake by the maritime industry, limiting their usage to secondary structures. This is partly because the long term behaviour and failure of hybrid joints is not yet understood. The goal of the EU funded QUALIFY project is to fill this knowledge gap, enabling the development of such guidelines, with the objective promote the use of hybrid joints in primary structures in a marine environment.

26 Mjøstårnet. World’s tallest wooden building

The Mjøstårnet was officially opened on March 15, 2019, making it the tallest wooden building in the world. The 18-storey building, located in Brumunddal, Norway, is 85.4 meters high. The building contains a hotel, apartments and office spaces. The building was designed by Voll Arkitekter (Trondheim); Sweco was responsible for the Structural Design and Hent AS and Moelven Limtre AS signed up for construction.

28 Smart Materials, Part 2: Piëzo-electric materials

Smart materials are everywhere, but often invisible or simply not recognized. This is the second article in a series of eight, in which prof. Pim Groen will discuss the world of smart materials; this time piezoelectric materials. Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress and vice versa. Pim Groen is professor of SMART Materials at Aerospace Engineering (AE) at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) and Programme Manager of Holst Centre, TNO.

35 What really happens inside railways....?

Each year, ProRail has to spend several million euros on periodic and ad-hoc maintenance work on railway tracks, in order to remove fatigue cracks before they lead to catastrophic rail fracture. One of the widely considered causes for the fatigue damage, which in railways applications occurs as Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF), lies in the changes in the internal structure of the steel that are induced during the passage of trains: so-called white etching layers (WEL) form. The extremely high hardness of the WEL is considered to be the origin of its susceptibility to fracture and crack formation during the subsequent loading by passing train wheels. Until now, the prevalent models used to describe the RCF process in rails fail to predict the occurrence of the WEL, due to the fact that the origin and character of the WEL remained debatable.

36 Metallic wood

Imagine a sheet of nickel with nanoscale pores that make it as strong as titanium but four to five times lighter. A team of researchers led by Penn Engineering (the University of Pennsylvania) studied a material of which the porous structure is responsible for the high strength-to-weight ratio and the structure is very similar to wood: so-called ‘Metallic wood’.

38 Enterprise Europe Network (EEN) supports companies with international ambitions

Cover: Water ripple effect, page 18

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019


NEWS

JEC Innovation Award (1)

Bendable thermoplastic compo­site reinforcements for concrete Together with SIREG (Arcore, Italy), the University of Miami, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), the French Arkema group (specialty chemicals) developed so-called ‘Bendable thermoplastic composite reinforcements for concrete’, which was the first prize winner of the JEC Innovation Award1 (category ‘Construction’) on March 13, 2019. Arkema received first prize for its innovation entailing glass fibre-composite reinforcement for concrete and composite cables for prestressed concrete made with the Elium resin. Elium is a patented technology of Arkema. These products have been made of glass fibre and Elium thermoplastic resin and have been processed through pultrusion using this technology’s standard equipment. These composite products do not rust or corrode; additionally, Elium based rebars and cables can be reheated and easily shaped or bent, reducing the cost of supplying rebars with custom shapes.

According to Arkema, fiberglass-filled reinforcing bars for reinforced concrete will replace some of the metal rebars

commonly used in the construction sector, with the added benefit of corrosion resistance in structures exposed to harsh environments such as marine applications. Above all, these Elium-based composite reinforcing bars offer a considerable advantage over the rigid thermoset composite reinforcing bars already used in certain constructions, Arkema says. They can be ‘bent’ by thermoforming, so they are perfectly suited for consolidating complex structures. More at Arkema> 1

Every year, JEC (Journées Européennes des Composites) rewards the best cutting-edge and ingenious projects using composites to their full potential. The JEC Innovation Awards are to be presented at the yearly JEC World Conference, this year on March 13th in Paris.

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NEWS

JEC Innovation Award (2)

Continuous-fibre 3D printing

Continuous Composites (USA) was one of the winners of the JEC Innovation Award 2019 with the Continuous Fibre 3D Printing (CF3D)-process. Continuous Fibre 3D Printing combines composite materials with a 3D printing process,

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creating a mouldless out-of-autoclave process. The result is a drastic reduction in cost and lead times. The CF3D patented technology is a revolutionary composites manufacturing process. Rather than using costly

prepreg fibre, high performance dry continuous fibres are impregnated with a rapid-curing thermoset inside the print head. The head is attached to an industrial robot controlled by the company’s CF3D software. The fully-impregnated fibre is pulled through the print head where, upon discharge, a high-intensity energy source (UV, heat, etc.) is directed at the wet fibre, curing the fibre(s) instantaneously and resulting in a true 3D composite part. As a result of the fibre being cured immediately after discharge, the CF3D technology does not require moulds or other support materials. According to Continuous Composites CF3D is not limited to stacking 2D laminates and can print fibres out of the XY plane into the Z direction. This opens design possibilities and enables load path optimization by discretely printing fibres in the direction of principal stresses and strains. The patented CF3D process reduces intensive manual labour and removes the need for expensive capital equipment


NEWS such as autoclaves and ovens, further reducing the costs and barriers to entry for the manufacture of composite parts. Since CF3D utilizes dry fibres and impregnates in-situ, the cost of the materials used in the process is exponentially (over fifty times) lower than prepregs, which are commonly used in traditional composite manufacturing, Continuous Composites says. The awarded project (winner of the category 3D Printing) was a development of Continuous Composites (USA) and associated partners: Air Force Research Lab (USA), FCA Comau (USA), Lockheed Martin (USA) and Siemens (USA). More at Continuous Composites>

Video

JEC Innovation Award (3)

Bio4self: Self-reinforced PLA composites The project Self-reinforced PLA composites (Bio4self) has won the JEC Innovation Sustainability Award 2019. Driven by the wish to tackle environmental issues and work towards the EC Plastics Strategy, the composite materials developed in the Bio4self project are fully bio-based, easily recyclable, re­shapable and even industrially biodegradable. The composites are produced using one type of material: poly(lactic acid) or PLA, a thermoplastic bio-polyester derived from renewable resources

such as agricultural waste, non-food crops or sugar cane. Apart from some medical applications, PLA use is currently very limited. Bio4self brought PLA to the next level of application, such as parts for automotive and home appliances, by combining two types of PLA to form so called self- reinforced PLA composites (PLA SRPC). Two different PLA grades are required to produce SRPCs: a low melting temperature PLA grade to form the matrix and an ultra-high stiffness and high melting

temperature PLA grade to form the reinforcing fibres. The two PLA grades selected for Bio4self have a melting temperature difference of about 20°C, leaving a sufficient temperature processing window. Bio4self innovations overcome several challenges related to the production of PLA SRPC: formulation of a moisture/humidity-resistant PLA grade; melt extrusion of ultra-high stiffness PLA reinforcement fibres; development of (consolidation and thermoforming) manufacturing procedures to produce

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NEWS the highest performance SRPC material; and industrial scale-up of production. As a result, the PLA SRPC developed in Bio4self matches the requirements of current commercial self-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Self-reinforced PLA composites have qualities comparable to the stiffness achieved by self-reinforced PP, but the PLA SRPC has the advantage that it is made from renewable bio based raw materials, such as corn starch or sugar (cane). ‘Self-reinforced PLA composites’ is a project of Technical University of Denmark in cooperation with Centexbel (Belgium), Comfil (Denmark) and Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (Germany).

https://www.bio4self.eu>

Hét expertisecentrum voor materiaalkarakterisering. Integer, onafhankelijk, objectief onderzoek en advies. ISO 17025 geaccrediteerd. Wij helpen u graag verder met onderzoek en analyse van uw innovatieve materialen. Bel ons op 026 3845600 of mail info@tcki.nl www.tcki.nl

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NEWS

Self-repairing shoes Instead of throwing away broken boots or cracked toys, why not let them fix themselves? Researchers at the University of Southern California Viterbi School of Engineering have developed 3D-printed rubber materials that can do just that. Assistant Professor Qiming Wang and the Viterbi students Kunhao Yu, An Xin, and Haixu Du, and Assistant Professor Ying Li (University of Connecticut), have made a new material that can be manufactured quickly and is able to repair itself if it becomes fractured or punctured. This material could be game-changing for industries like shoes, tires, soft robotics, and even electronics, decreasing manufacturing time while increasing product durability and longevity. The material is manufactured using a 3D printing method that uses photopolymerization. This process uses light to solidify a liquid resin in a desired shape or geometry. To make it self-healable, they had to dive a little deeper into the chemistry behind the material. In just 5 seconds, they can print a 17.5-millimeter square, completing whole objects in around 20 minutes that can repair themselves in just a few hours. In

their study, published in NPG Asia Materials, they demonstrate their material’s ability on a range of products, including a shoe pad, a soft robot, a multiphase composite, and an electronic sensor. After being cut in half, in just two hours at 60 degrees Celsius they healed completely, retaining their strength and function. The repair time can be decreased just by raising the temperature. After conquering 3D-printable soft ma-

terials, they are now working to develop different self-healable materials along a range of stiffnesses, from the current soft rubber, to rigid hard-plastics and composites. More at Viterbi School of Engineering> The entire study is online>

Image: An Xin and Kunhao Yu

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MAKE IT MATTER

MAKE IT MATTER MAKE IT MATTER is compiled in collaboration with MaterialDistrict (MaterialDistrict.com). In this section new, and/or interesting developments and innovative materials are highlighted.

Pressure stool & bench Tim Teven’s pressure series uses material deformation under extreme pressure as a tool to design. By navigating this process using various self-made tools and techniques, Tim is able to control the deformation and turn it to technical details and aesthetic value. By pressing a pattern in aluminium sheets, the material becomes very strong. This makes it possible to make furniture from only 2 mm thick aluminium sheets. This resulted in lightweight stools and benches. More at MaterialDistrict>

Window blind/solar panel Solgami is an origami window blind that ensures privacy, while also generating solar energy. The solar blinds were developed by Ben Berwick, who runs the architectural startup Prevalent. The blinds are for urban areas, especially there where no rooftops for solar panels are available. The blinds consist of a flat, printable geometry that is folded in three dimensions. The blinds combine thin film solar cells and reflective, conductive inks, printed on a transparent polymer substrate. Once printed, it is folded in a concertina shape. More at MaterialDistrict>

Chitin-bioplastic Four designers from The Royal College of Art & Imperial College London developed new manufacturing processes to turn seafood waste into biodegradable, recyclable bioplastics. The project uses chitin, the world’s second most abundant biopolymer, found in crustaceans, insects and fungi. Chitin has to be chemically extracted from the source before it can be turned into the material chitosan, which can then be turned into bioplastic. More at MaterialDistrict>

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MAKE IT MATTER 3D printed Living Seawall Car company Volvo partnered with the Sydney Institute of Marine Science and Reef Design Lab to create a 3D printed seawall, inspired by mangrove trees. Called the Living Seawall, the reef consists of 50 tiles that mimic the structure of mangrove trees, designed to provide habitat for marine life. Using 3D printing, moulds are made, in which concrete is poured. The concrete is made with fibres from 100 per cent recycled plastic. (Photo: Volvo) More at MaterialDistrict>

‘Red mud’-ceramics A group of designers at the Royal College of Art designed ceramic pieces made of Red Mud (Bauxite Residue), a byproduct in the production of aluminium. In collaboration with KU Leuven and Imperial College London the team explored the potential of the material, both as a ceramic and as a geopolymer building material. Through hundreds of tests, they developed their own clay bodies, slips, glazes, and concretes, all made with the material. The ceramic glaze is also developed using the industrial waste, thanks to the abundance of metal oxides. More at MaterialDistrict>

Valchromat coloured MDF Valchromat coloured MDF is not MDF. According to the Valchromat company it’s an evolution of the MDF. The added value of Valchromat comes not only from colour but also from its distinctive composition and manufacturing process. It is a wood fibre panel coloured throughout, where fibres are coloured individually, impregnated with organic dyes and bonded together by a special resin which gives Valchromat its physic and mechanical features. More at MaterialDistrict>

TMF Valencia recycled glass For more than 25 years, UCI Union Ceramics International B.V. is specialist in the production and distribution of glass and porcelain mosaic tile products. There are different collections of mosaic tiles, such as Valencia: a hexagonal mosaic based on recycled glass and offered in a mix of a glossy and matte surface.

More at MaterialDistrict>

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Vakbeurs en congres

EUROFINISH+MATERIALS 2019 De centrale ontmoetingsplek in de Benelux met alle aspecten voor een goed en duurzaam eindproduct  15 en 16 mei 2019  Brabanthal, Leuven (België)

Highlights: • Focus op materiaalkeuze, karakterisatie, verbindingstechnieken en oppervlaktebehandeling • Uitgebreid congresprogramma en meet&match event • Demonstraties en innovaties

ratis Registreer u voor een g nish.be bezoek op www.eurofi of www.materials.nl Organisatie:


NIEUWS

International edition Innovative Materials, the international version of the Dutch magazine Innovatieve Materialen, is now available in English. Innovative Materials is a digital, independent magazine about material innovation in the fields of engineering, construction (buildings, infrastructure and industrial) and industrial design. Innovative Materials is published in a digital format, although there is a printed edition with a small circulation. Digital, because interactive information is attached in the form of articles, papers, videos and links to expand the information available. www. innovatievematerialen.nl info@innovatievematerialen.nl

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019:

Today’s materials for tomorrow’s innovations MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019, he material innovation event for R&D and design professionals, took place on Tuesday 12 to Thursday 14 March. In combination with a substantive program consisting of 50 lectures by material experts, 140 exhibitors, 100+ large exhibition pieces and 200 innovative materials, this edition was according to organizer MaterialDistrict (formerly Materia) a great success. For the first time the event took place under the new name Material-District Rotterdam (formerly Material Xperien-

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ce), with even more innovations than in previous years. More than 7,500 R&D and design professionals from the worlds of Architecture, Interiors, Textiles & Fabrics, Products, Urban & Landscapes and Print & Sign visited the event. In addition, 50 material experts gave their views on the future of materials within their sector during their lectures.

MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2020 will take place from 10 - 12 March 2020 in Rotterdam Ahoy>

On pages 13 - 23 a selection of the exhibited materials. Material District Rotterdam aftermovie


MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Industrial craft table Industrial Craft Table O2 by Charlotte Kidger is from a wider collection of sculptural objects and functional furniture all made from waste polyurethane foam dust and resins. This new composite material was developed after exploring ways of utilising plastic waste from CNC fabrication companies. Through experimentation the result was a durable and versatile material that could be cold-cast into various forms that lent themselves to make products between art and design, form and function. Natural defects within the pieces arise during the casting proces making each piece slightly bespoke and unique.

More at www.charlottekidger.com>

Glass-reinforced-concrete-­ façade-led-veins For Bulgari’s flagship store in Kuala Lumpur, architectural firm MVRDV, in collaboration with the Technical University Delft and Tensoforma, designed an innovative façade made of glass reinforced concrete, which achieves an electric-like effect at night. To make the façade, glass reinforced concrete (GRC) was cut according to a pattern, filled with resin and illuminated by amber LED light. A stainless steel sheet acts as a base for the resin. The illuminated cracks give the illusion of having glistening gold veins.

Meer bij MaterialDistrict>

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Coastal furniture The shell for the lounge chair is made of 100 percent biodegradable seaweed composite material, which the Danish designer Nikolaj Thrane processed and developed. The material consists of eelgrass and carrageenan. According to Thrane’s website, the main focus in the development process has been on sustainable thinking while preserving aesthetics and the unique seaweed texture. The seaweed roofs on the island Læsø (Denmark) has been the key inspiration source. Eelgrass grows naturally near the coastline and is easy to collect when washed ashore. Carrageenan is extracted from certain red algae. Carrageenan, eelgrass and water are mixed together by hand, after which it is laid out on a mould and dried in a specially-made oven. Thereby the water evaporates and the material fades into a quarter of the original thickness corresponding to approximate 10 mm. The material consists entirely of seaweed and is therefore 100% biodegradable. More at www.nikolajthrane.dk

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Acoustic reed panels Acoustic reed elements made by Hiss reet (Bad Oldesloe, Germany) consist of a carrier plate on which the natural reed pipes are fixed with special foam. The reed elements can be used as wall and/ or ceiling panels for the individual design of workplaces, business premises, shops but also in private houses. The modules can be installed without much effort thanks to a plug-in system. A study from the University of Lübeck showed that the acoustic ceiling elements immediately achieved the sound absorption class C (‘highly absorbent’) on the scale from A to E according to the DIN standard EN ISO 11654.

More at www.hiss-reet.de>

Metadecor metal façades Metadecor produces remarkable metal façades. This results in facades that play with light and wind and create wonderment and depth. With MD Formatura, a pattern is punched into metal panels. The resulting patterns are converted to capture light and create depth. The company supplies MD Formatura in aluminum, steel and corten steel, a steel alloy. The finishing of the material is determined by the location of a project, the likely weather effects and the vision of the designer. It is possible to powder coat, anodize or galvanize MD Formatura. Therefore the panels are protected against corrosion, wastage and chemical damage. And of course, it determines the final appearance of a building. More at www.metadecor.nl>

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Mycelium products Krown-design products produces all kind of structures from fungi mycelium. Mycelium is the interwoven network of fungal ‘roots’. This material acts as a natural glue that binds biomass materials (like husks from hemp, flax and corn stalk) together. Using 3D printed reusable moulds with a renewable biopolymer. First these moulds are filled with local agricultural waste, a little water and mycelium that binds it all together. Within a week the mycelium is ready. Once it’s full-grown and dried, it turns into a structural, stable and renewable product. Afterwards the moulds can be shredded and reprint over and over again. Krown-design products are found in interiors, packaging, building and construction.

More at www.krown.bio>

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Tectan Board

Tectan board is a chipboard-like material made from beverage cartons, both the scraps from production and used cartons. The drink cartons consist of various layers of paperboard, polyethylene and aluminium. In the production process of the board, the polyethylene melts and acts like a glue to keep the material together. Tectan board is available in three variations. The original version uses the entire cartons to create a colourful board. The second version uses recycled paperboard from the carton, separated from the aluminium in a recycling process. The third version reuses the aluminium to create a shiny board material.

More at MaterialDistrict>

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Rinjani envi contura antique

Nature at home Inspired by nature and with attention to natural forms and structures, Nature at Home (Roosendaal, The Netherlands) creates sustainable interior decoration from rest materials. The company uses waste matter from nature as raw materials to create remarkable, convenient wall panels made of wood, bark, coconut, shells, mussels, Himalaya salt, and moss. This results in a strikingly varied collection of natural materials.

More at www.natureathome.eu>

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Tongkonan coco evo bliss aqua natural


MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Eeuwenhout Antoine Verhofstede’s passion for wood started during a trip through the US, which leads him towards old and deserted barns and buildings. They stand ‘in the middle of nowhere’, as silent witnesses of past activity. They were once built from trees from the direct vicinity: various woods, mostly over a century old. Today they still defy weather and time, but they are deprived of their functionality. In places, these barns are dismantled, and the wood is reused by local farmers. This is where Antoine Verhofstede got his idea to give a new destination to the best batches of wood in exclusive European interiors. That was how ‘Eeuwenhout’ started. Nowadays he sets on a worldwide quest for old sheds, houses and industrial buildings in which wooden beams, planks and poles have proved their soundness for over a century, mainly in American barns. According to the Eeuwenhout website the dimensions and stability, together with their aged marking, ensure an aesthetic unique material.

More at www.eeuwenhout.be>

Fiber reinforced 3D Printing PolyProducts (Werkendam, the Netherlands) has the largest CFAM machine in the world (Continuous Fiber Additive Manufacturing). The new 3D printer is able to print large workpieces with fiber-reinforced plastic. According to PolyProducts the machine is capable of printing façades, canopies, bridges, outdoor furniture, sculptures, interior parts and art objects. With a machine bed of approximately 4 x 2 m and a print height of 1.5 m, PolyProducts can manufacture very large and strong products, inserts and complete composite parts from PET, PP and PEEK, a high-end engineering plastic. With the CFAM technique glass or carbon fiber can be adjusted and printed as well. The machine is tailormade and will work together with a milling machine for finishing the printed forms and products.

More at PolyProducts>

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Water ripple effect

Empirex panels are made from stainless steel and brass, both with a water ripple effect an designed by Empirex for indoor and outdoor use, like curtain walls, ceilings, façades, furniture etc. The panels have a natural flow design, with a max. width of 1500 mm and max. length of 4000 mm. They’re suitable for laser cutting, bending and slot shaping. Since the year 2000 the Empirex corporation has specialized in innovative surface decoration technology. Empirex began by developing and providing specialty coatings primarily for the automotive industry and later started working with and for architects and industrial designers. Recently the company began to expand its reach to a variety of other industries, most notably the interior design market. Through constant research and development the company has continued to create new products as well as improve on existing technologies.

More at www.empirex.nl>

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Butong Bubble concrete The Swedish company presented Butong Bubble concrete panels made by pressing two ‘bubbled’ form matrices together. In this way a more or less filtering or light-transmitting material with cavities is created. How these matrices join inside the panel determine the filter effect of the panel. The panels have holes from both sides of the panel in a hexagonal pattern. Due to that the cells of the two sides of the matrix are joined, the panel will keep its uniform thickness. In its semi-hard condition, panels can easily be manipulated or cut into shape. The panels are suitable for architectural and interior purposes, like ceilings or for vertical gardens, or can be used to make objects like lamp shades. The holes can be filled with various colours concrete, glass, or left open, depending on the requirement. With the addition of titanium oxide in the liquid concrete, the panel will clean nitrogen oxides from polluted city environments.

and strength. Butong panels have no set dimension limit. Larger panels are possible, but must be carried out on site and will be more expensive. Panel depths vary depending on matrix and

requested transparency or translucency and strength. More at https://butong.eu>

The panels weigh 10 - 20 kg/m² depending on requested transparency

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

Foto boven: BAUX.se

BAUX The Swedish company BAUX is founded on the belief that building materials should be sustainable, surprisingly functional and remarkably beautiful. BAUX designs, produces and markets functional construction materials that meet the contemporary expectations of architects, engineers and builders - without compromising tomorrow’s safety and environmental standards. Over the past century, fossil based materials have become the norm and standard for acoustical products in the interior design and building industries. But according to BAUX it’s time for a new kind of sustainable material. So they developped several BAUX products, like so-called pulp panels (a paper-like material made of wood fibres and natural, biobased raw materials) and several products based on wood wool. BAUX Acoustic Wood Wool for instance, is an environmental friendly, recyclable material made from wood wool, cement and water. The natural components together provide many functional characteristics. The open material structure reduces sound reflections and makes the panels good sound absorbers. More at www.baux.se>

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MATERIAL DISTRICT ROTTERDAM 2019

The Coolest White The Coolest White by UNS studio, together with Swiss paint specialist Monopol Colors, is a prospective design solution that aims to cool down our cities. Coolest White is a coating system with very high total solar reflectance (TSR), which ensures the substrate heats up less and radiates less heat. The idea is that climate change will generate a lot of stress on the façade and can lead to damage. Designing with the future in mind means that buildings should be more resilient to change and environmental strain. Therefore it is necessary to invent new ways of designing and new materials too. Paint for instance. According the UNS studios website, The Coolest White painting system is at least 2,5 times stronger than a standard polyester coating and is therefore the perfect

protection for a metallic facade. So there’re at least two benefits: reducing the heat load and making the building more resilient. More at www.unstudio.com>

Video

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019

Qualification of Hybrid Structures for Lightweight and Safe Maritime Transport

QUALIFY The advancement in composite materials allows building primary maritime structures traditionally made of steel, e.g. ship superstructures. Steel and composites can be bonded together using adhesives, forming a hybrid (steel-composite) joint. Despite of the many benefits of composite and hybrid joints, the lack of guidelines for approval and design has prevented their uptake by the maritime industry, limiting their usage to secondary structures. This is partly because the long term behavior and failure of hybrid joints is not yet understood. The goal of the EU funded QUALIFY project is to fill this knowledge gap, enabling the development of such guidelines, with the objective to promote the use of hybrid joints in primary structures in a marine environment. The advantages of composite stem from its lightweight and manufacturing advantages compared with traditional steel structures. For example, a composite ship superstructure leads to a:

• Reduction of the top weight of naval ships (10%), and 1%-7% fuel consumption,

• Similar reduction of harmful emissions, • Increase in ship stability, • Less maintenance. 22 | INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019

Hybrid adhesively bonded joints present several advantages with respect bolted and welded joints:

• • • • •

Significant operational cost saving, Low-cost fast manufacturing, Lower tolerance requirements compared with bolting, Increased building safety. No hot works and induced welding deformations, Can join dissimilar materials such as composite-steel, which is not possible by welding.


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019

Figure 1: (left) DAMEN naval ship with composite superstructure, steel hull and hybrid joint; (right) hybrid joint detail of DAMEN ship

The QUALIFY project

QUALIFY is an innovation project with a budget of €3.8 million, partly funded by the EU Interreg2seas research program. The Qualify project is initiated and led by M2i (Materials Innovation Institute, The Netherlands). The consortium brings together 11 EU partners including shipyards, class societies, academia, technology providers and an offshore wind farm developer, from the 2-seas coastal areas of The Netherlands, Belgium, South England and France. 16 other organizations are also participating as observers, bringing in their expert advice. The project kicked off in October 2017 and has already reached its midterm project milestone, making steady progress towards delivering its intended outputs.

Main activities

The project is organized around three main activities

1. Long term performance of hybrid structures

The long-term mechanical performance of the adhesively bonded joint is evaluated under representative operational

and environmental conditions. The investigation plan focuses on understanding and predicting the coupled effect of applied load and environmental conditions, thereby reflecting the influence of the real conditions in which the hybrid structure operates. A test and simulation pyramid is conducted, beginning with material coupon tests used to determine the material properties, followed by structural details and components (full scale joints). To meet the requirements of the class societies, at each level relevant test types are carried out, under static and fatigue loading, aged and unaged conditions and different temperatures. Advanced simulation models (coupled sea water diffusion-mechanical, multiscale, cohesive models) are developed to predict the behavior and failure of hybrid joints under environmental and mechanical fatigue loading, which will be validated by the experiments.

2. Inspection and monitoring

A structural health management methodology is developed for in-situ monitoring of hybrid adhesive joints, consisting of:

• Early prediction of damage by means of different NDT • •

techniques (fiber optical strain gages, thermography, ultrasonic, acoustic emission, fiber Bragg grating); Reliability assessment of the sensing techniques to detect damage due to environmental conditions; Guidelines for the use of NDT techniques for inspection of hybrid adhesive joint in a marine environment.

3. Guidelines for the qualification of hybrid bonds Led by the class societies in the project, qualification guidelines for adhesively bonded hybrid joints (steel/composite) of marine and offshore structures are developed based on the results generated during the project. The focus is on the long term performance of the adhesive bonds in marine environments (fire safety is out of scope).

Figure 2. Partners

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019 More information

The QUALIFY project is initiated and coordinated by the Materials innovation institute (M2i), the Dutch institute for fundamental and applied research in the fields of structural and functional materials. M2i connects industry, academia and research institutes across The Netherlands and Europe. The institute supports society and industry in finding solutions for material related questions. The M2i valorization team is committed to ensure that research results are used in practice, bridging the gap between academic research and industry. In the QUALIFY project M2i builds FEM models to describe the mechanical behaviour of hybrid adhesive joints under fatigue and environmental loading. For more information please contact: Jesus Mediavilla Varas, j.mediavilla@m2i.nl (06) 13720972 www.m2i.nl

Figure 3: Failure of single lap joint with Scigrip adhesive (methacrylate) under shear load, with delamination at the steel-adhesive interface: (above) experimental shear strain field using DIC (digital image correlation); (below) numerical model and shear strain field

Figure 4: Failure of double lap joint: steel (external)-FRP (internal) joined with Scigrip adhesive under shear load, with delamination at the steel-adhesive interface: (above) experiment; (below) numerical shear strain field

Figure 5: (left) Non destructive testing using fibre optics; (right) signal processing and visualization equipment

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019

EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 From material choice to realized product

By merging the EUROFINISH and MATERIALS 2019 trade fairs, this event will have all the ingredients to come to a successful product. From material selection to processing to the finishing touch with quality assurance in every step of the process. The Materials trade fair organized by Mikrocentrum has a strong focus on the role of materials in the success of a product. Eurofinish, organized by VOM, connects professionals involved in surface treatment techniques. According to the parties involved, combining Materials and Eurofinish is a logical step: where Materials ends, Eurofinish starts. According to the organizers, this synergy offers one central meeting place where all aspects can be found to realize a good and sustainable end product.

Dutch and Belgian market

The cooperation between both exhibitions offers Dutch and Belgian specialists within the chain the opportunity to meet in one central location, varying from materials scientists or researchers to product developers, product designers, engineers, R & D specialists, production staff and specialists in, for example, maintenance, construction, automotive, transport and machine building.

Complete production process

During EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 the complete production process of a product can be found. Which material is chosen as the building block for a product is crucial to guarantee the quality. How the surface of this material is treated is at least as important. Good quality can only be achieved by collaboration between all players. It seems so obvious, but where are cars, machines and smartphones without a good, strong base and finish? Behind this self-evidence there’s a world full of techniques and challenges. EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 for the first time in the Benelux, a trade fair takes place where all the steps within this value chain are covered. From design and choice of material, to analysis, joining materials and surface treatment. EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 is not only limited to the solutions we know today, but also focuses on the innovations of tomorrow. The extensive conference program and the demo rooms show how developments in this field are constantly changing, literally and figuratively. According to the organizers, this makes the new trade fair EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 ideal for companies that are active in the fields of design, materials, analysis, joining or surface treatment. More information can be found on the websites www.materials.nl or www.eurofinish.be for more information.

Date: 15 & 16 May 2019 (9.30 / 18.00) Location: Brabanthal, Leuven (Belgium) Organizers VOM vzw, Belgian association for surface techniques of materials Kapeldreef 60, 3001 Leuven, Belgium +32 (0) 16 40 14 20 info@vom.be www.vom.be Mikrocentrum Postbus 359, 5600 AJ Eindhoven, the Netherlands +31 (0) 40 - 296 99 22 events@mikrocentrum.nl www.mikrocentrum.nl

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019

World’s tallest wooden building

Mjøstårnet

The Mjøstårnet was officially opened on March 15, 2019, making it the tallest wooden building in the world. The 18-storey building, located in Brumunddal, Norway, is 85.4 meters high. The building contains a hotel, apartments and office spaces. The building was designed by Voll Arkitekter (Trondheim); Sweco was responsible for the Structural Design and Hent AS and Moelven Limtre AS signed up for construction. According to the parties involved, Mjøstårnet (Mjösa Tower) proves that tall buildings can be built from wood. Nevertheless, designing a tall building using wood was a challenge. The load-bearing structure is similar to conventional buildings, but the dimensions of the elements are much larger than usual. The wooden columns were 60 × 60 centimetres on average, and the largest ones used in the corners were almost 60 × 150 centimetres. Both the structure and facade of the

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Mjøstårnet are made of wood. The structure consists of glulam columns, beams and diagonal members, which are well-suited to high-rise buildings as the large cross-sections can meet fire safety requirements. The first ten floors, with offices and hotel facilities, are made of prefabricated wooden elements. Here, so-called Kerto LVL Q-panels (Metsä Wood) provide stiffness. Kerto LVL is combined with glued laminated timber (glulam). The decks on the upper floors, with

apartments, are made of concrete. This is due to the fact that the amount of swaying increases the higher you get in a building built of wood or concrete. The weight of the concrete makes the swaying slower and not as noticeable. The shafts for the elevators and staircases were made of CLT (Cross-laminated timber). The main load-bearing structure consists of large-scale glulam trusses along the facades, as well as columns and beams


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019 inside the building. The trusses handle the global forces in the horizontal and vertical direction and give the building the required stiffness. CLT is used for secondary load bearing in the staircases and elevator shafts and is not structurally connected to the glulam. To ensure the stability of the Mjösa Tower, the bracing was ensured with huge diagonal cross-directional members across the facade. The building won the prize for best ‘mixed architecture’ at the 2018 New York Design Awards. More at Metsä Wood>

Video

Glulam, CLT, Kerto LVL Three wood products are dominating the Mjøstårnet construction: Glulam, CLT and Kerto LVL. Glued laminated timber, also called glulam, is a type of structural engineered wood product comprising a number of layers of dimensional lumber bonded together with durable, moisture-resistant structural adhesives. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a wood panel product made from gluing layers of solid-sawn lumber together. Each layer of boards is oriented perpendicular to adjacent layers and glued on the wide faces of each board. CLT is distinct to glued laminated timber, a product with all laminations orientated in the same way. Kerto LVL (by Metsä Wood, part of Metsä Group, Finland) is a laminated veneer lumber product (beams, panels, studs) used in various types of construction projects,

from new buildings to renovation and repair. According to Metsä Kerto LVL is a lightweight and straight high quality material with great strength-to-weight ratio. Kerto LVL is produced from 3 mm thick softwood veneers that are glued

together to form a continuous billet. The billet is cut to length and sawn into LVL beams, planks or panels. (see video) More about Kerto LVL>

Kerto LVL Q-panel, floor element. Foto Moelven AS

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019

Smart Materials, Part 2,

Piezoelectric materials Smart materials are everywhere, but often invisible or simply not recognized. This is the second article in a series of eight, in which prof. Pim Groen will discuss the world of smart materials; this time piezoelectric materials. Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress and vice versa. Pim Groen is professor of SMART Materials at Aerospace Engineering (AE) at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) and Programme Manager of Holst Centre, TNO.

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019 Piezoelectricity was first described in 1880 by Pierre and Jacques Curie. They observed that when a mechanical pressure was applied on various materials like quartz or even cane sugar a charge was generated on the surface of the crystals. This is what is called the direct piezoelectric effect. Basically transferring energy from the mechanical domain to the electrical domain. The opposite effect also exists. When an electrical field is applied to a material it will deform its shape: the so-called inverse piezoelectric effect.

Direct piezoelectric effect

Figure 1 shows a simplistic presentation of the direct piezoelectric effect: when a piece of quartz is struck with a hammer an electrical charge is created. On the right the inverse piezoelectric effect can be seen. If an external electrical field is applied over a piece of quarts, some of the silicon 4+ ions will move slightly to the negative electrode. At the same time the oxygen 2- ions will move to the positive side. This results in an overall strain on the material.

Figure 1

Applications

Figure 2 shows some applications of the direct piezoelectric effect. First: the simple electromechanical transducers where force can be applied on the material; a principle that is used for switches and sensors, like the airbag sensor on the right. Second: the acoustic transducers which generate an electric signal from an acoustic input like a microphone. And finally the generators where a voltage is generated like in igniters; an already old application and especially interesting to the field of energy harvesting systems, for which attention has increased significantly in recent years. For the inverse or converse piezoelectric effect there are several specific applications, like transducers: motors and actuators, like the brail keyboard on the right, specially developed in favour of blind people. Resonators and acoustic transducers which typically operate at higher frequencies find application in beepers and ultrasonic motors but also for cleaning. On the right (figure 3) there’s an active element of an ultrasonic cleaning batch.

Figure 2

Figure 3

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019 And finally there’re applications where the direct and inverse PE effect is used. The best known function are possibly parking sensors, on the right (figure 4). Another important application in the medical field is Ultrasonic Imaging. How does such an ultrasound application works? A sender is creating an ultrasonic pulse which is sent out. When in case of a parking sensor it is reflected by an object - a tree or another type of fabric or tissue with a different density - the soundwave will be reflected. It can be picked up by the sender which now is acting as a receiver. By measuring the time delays it’s possible to measure the distance to the object. This is the basic principle behind ultrasound imaging, but this is also the principle to measure the fuel level inside the fuel tanks of big airplanes.

Figure 4

The story of PE-materials always starts with Quartz. Figure 6 shows the crystal structure of Quartz. When pressure is applied on it, the crystal will deform. In certain specific directions this tiny deformation results in the movement of the ions inside the crystal, which form dipoles. As a consequence an electrical charge is produced at the surface of the crystal to compensate the internal dipoles. This is what’s called the direct piezoelectric effect. To generate the inverse piezo-effect Figure 5

an electrical voltage is applied to the material. Subsequently, the positive and negative ions inside the crystal will be attracted by the external field. And in case of some special materials like quartz, a macroscopic strain is observed.

Materials

Figure 6

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In what kind of materials can the piezoelectric effect be observed? The answer is not simple because a good look at the materials is necessary. Most materials are what is to be called centrosymmetric, what can be seen at the left side of figure 7. So there’s a centre of symmetry in the middle of the ions. It’s easy to imagine that when a material is stretched, the positive and negative charges will still


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019 coincide even when deforming. So there is no separation of charge. In other words: no dipole moment is formed. On the other hand, non-centrosymmetric crystals as shown on the right react quite different. When they’re strained, a dipole moment is formed directly. Every crystalline material crystallizes in a certain basic crystal system; ceramics as well as metals. In fact, seven basic crystal systems can be identified. These seven crystal systems can be subdivided into 32 symmetry groups as shown in the schematic diagram of figure 8. Eleven of these symmetry groups are centrosymmetric. These can never be piezoelectric since no dipole moment can be formed as was discussed before. Now 21 of the groups are non-centrosymmetric, and 20 of these 21 point groups form the class of the piezoelectric materials. These are the materials which become polarized under stress,

Figure 7

such as Quartz, ZnO and AlN. A subgroup of this class are the so-called pyroelectric materials which are already spontaneously polarised. The most important class is probably the

class of the ferroelectric materials, wich have the best piezoelectric properties. In these materials polarisation is ‘switchable’ which we will discuss next. These materials include Barium ti-

Figure 8

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019 tanate and PZT (Lead Zirconia titanate) and KNLN (Potasium Sodium Lithium Niobate) which is a lead free material, and subject of much research into more environmentally friendly materials.

Ferro-electricity

Figure 9 displays a list of materials which can be used as piezoelectric material. The first practical application of a piezoelectric material was quartz, applied in sonar devices developed during World War I. Quartz was an useful material as a sensor or resonator but is simply not good enough for application as an actuator or in ultrasound applications. During World War II ferro-electricity was discovered in ceramics and the first material which came up was BaTiO3 (BT). Later in the 50’s PZT was found (lead zirconia titanium oxide) which is still the work horse in the field of piezo-electricity. In some high end applications single crystals are used (mainly medical, like ultra sound imaging applications). But there are piezo polymers too, like Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF). Furthermore, the last two or three decades a lot of research on thin films has been done, mainly on micro-electromechanical devices and integration in silicon. And finally there is a trend to work on composites, and the big question here is: how to make flexible piezo?

Figure 9

BT & PZT

Figuur 10

In figure 11 on the left the ideal perovskite structure which is cubic and centrosymmetric. The Ti4+ is nicely located in the middle of the six oxygen 2- ions. However, the material is cooled

Figuur 11

Back to the workhorses BT and PZT. On the right of figure 10 you see the microstructure of BT ceramics. It looks like small grains, typically between 1 and 10 micrometer. On the left hand there’s the crystallographic structure of this perovskite1. Here the blue balls are Ba or lead ions surrounded by oxygen molecules that form an octahedra: the yellow structures in figure 10. In the centre of this octahedra there is the Titanium 4+ ion. You may wonder if this looks like a centrosymmetric crystal. And that’s correct. In the ideal form a perovskite is nicely cubic.

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019 down below the so-called Curie temperature2, through which the crystal structure had changed into a non-centrosymmetric tetragonal crystal structure. This structure is shown on the right. Notice that the titanium ion is not in the centre of the octahedron anymore, but an internal dipole moment is formed. The Curie temperature at when this happens, is different for the diverse materials. For BT it is 120 °C which is a bit low for many applications. That’s why we mainly work with PZT which has a Curie temperature of 360 °C. This is shown with a rectangle with a red arrow in it, indicating the direction of the polarization.

Figure 12

The poling process

Figure 13

It’s important to realize these materials are ceramics. They consist of small grains with different random orientations. As a result, there will be no overall net polarisation left over all these randomly oriented grains. But even within a single grain there is the formation of domains with different polarization directions. What we need to do is to try to align all polarisations in one direction. This can be done by applying an electrical field over the ceramics. As a result the polarisation within the grains and domains will be oriented in the direction of the electrical field. This is called poling. Before poling, the polarisation of the ceramics is zero. During poling the so-called saturation polarisation will be reached, called Ps. And after poling most of the polarization will remain fixed. This poling process can be shown when the polarisation or the electrical displacement is plotted as a function of the applied electrical field. It starts at zero, but when the voltage is increased, the dipoles will align in the direction of the electrical field until the saturation polarisation, Ps, is reached. If the field is removed, most of the dipoles will remain fixed in their position and the so-called remnant polarisation (Pr) is reached. The polarisation can be changed if the electric field is applied in the opposite direction. At a certain field value the polarisation direction changes to the opposite direction. The field at which this occurs is called the coercive field. The final question is how to transfer polarisation to macroscopic strain.

Figuur 14

Figure 14 shows the unit cell of Barium Titanate which describes the crystal structure. Below the Curie temperature the crystal structure is tetragonal what is illustrated by the rectangle containing the red arrow indicating the polarisation

direction. Before the poling process all the small rectangles are oriented in a random way. After poling the rectangles are oriented in the same direction. This must result in a macroscopic stain ΔL as shown in figure 14.

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019 Strain

Figure 15

Figure 15 is very important. It shows the strain versus the electrical field. If an electric field is applied for the first time, a strain occurs because of the poling process. However, if the electric field is removed a strain is left over: the poling strain. This is the piezoceramic material in its poled state that can be used. If an electrical field is now applied over the material there will be a resulting strain. The red line is the ‘working line’ of a piezoelectric material. It shows the most important piezoelectric constant: the piezoelectric charge constant d. This d-constant simply describes how much strain you will get if you apply a voltage.

Figuur 16

Finally, figure 16 shows the so-called butterfly loop. The hysteresis loop for the polarisation (figure 13) showed the switching of the polarisation by reversing the electric field. The same applies for the strain curve which is shown here the so-called butterfly loop. The most important message of this curve is that working with piezoceramics means to be careful with how to connect the piezo material. If it’s connected in the wrong direction, the polarisation will switch. And because of the large strains which occur during this process, the ceramics might be damaged. Pim Groen Notes: Perovskite is a named after the mineral composed of calcium titanate (CaTiO3). It lends its name to the class of compounds which have the same type of crystal structure as CaTiO3, known as the perovskite structure. More> 1

The Curie temperature (Tc), or Curie point, is the temperature above which a piezoelectric (ferroelectric) material transfers to a (paraelectric) material which is non-piezoelectric. More>

2

Piezoelectric Materials and components A few years ago, Pim Groen, together with Jan Holterman, published ‘Piezoelectric Materials and components.’ It’s available online> An extended version (hard copy) can be ordered via the website of applied-piezo.com> Authors: Jan Holterman, Pim Groen ISBN: 978-90-819361-1-8 Hardcover, 218 fullcolor illustrations, 307 pages.

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RESEARCH

What really happens inside railways.... Each year, ProRail has to spend several million euros on periodic and ad-hoc maintenance work on railway tracks, in order to remove fatigue cracks before they lead to catastrophic rail fracture. One of the widely considered causes for the fatigue damage, which in railways applications occurs as Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF), lies in the changes in the internal structure of the steel that are induced during the passage of trains: so-called white etching layers (WEL) form. The extremely high hardness of the WEL is considered to be the origin of its susceptibility to fracture and crack formation during the subsequent loading by passing train wheels. Until now, the prevalent models used to describe the RCF process in rails fail to predict the occurrence of the WEL, due to the fact that the origin and character of the WEL remained debatable.

Railway steel at different length scales. From left to right: (a) macroscopic view of the rail/wheel contact at the metre scale; (b) signs of WEL formation at the rail surface, seen at the millimetre scale; (c) microscopic cross-section of railway steel, where the hard (820 HV Vickers hardness) WEL, as well as a fatigue crack, is visible at the top at the micrometre scale; (d) nano-twins and cementite traces in the WEL’s martensite at the nanometre scale; (e) distribution of alloying elements C, Si and Mn at the nanometre scale, with the WEL in the top three pictures and the original steel in the bottom three

Dr. Jun Wu explores, together with prof. dr.ir. Jilt Sietsma and prof.dr.ir. Roumen Petrov, the root cause of the WEL formation via a series of microstructure characterizations, laboratory simulations, and theoretical modelling. The microstructural study, combining a wide variety of modern microscopy techniques, leads to the unambiguous conclusion that the WEL forms due to the significant heat generated during the wheel passages. The microstructure changes show that underneath train wheels the temperature repeatedly increases to over 700 °C. The WEL structure was suc-

cessfully reproduced under well-controlled laboratory conditions mimicking this rapid temperature rise followed by fast cooling. Furthermore, the characteristics of the WEL formation process were studied by phase field modelling. The insight provided by the thesis work of Jun Wu provides important guidance for the future design of new rail steels with higher resistance against WEL formation.

ding his thesis first at Ghent University on 7 November 2018 and later, on 17 December 2018, at Delft University of Technology. This entitles him a joint degree from both universities. The title of his thesis is ‘Microstructure Evolution in Pearlitic Rail Steel due to Rail/Wheel Interaction’.

The Ph.D. research work of Jun Wu was performed under the joint supervision of Delft University of Technology and Ghent University. Jun Wu succeeded in defen-

The thesis can be found at: https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/ object/uuid%3Ac536ca47-8981-4a9e916f-396bcbca4bc5

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RESEARCH

‘Metallic wood’ Imagine a sheet of nickel with nanoscale pores that make it as strong as titanium but four to five times lighter. A team of researchers led by Penn Engineering (the University of Pennsylvania) studied a material of which the porous structure is responsible for the high strengthto-weight ratio and the structure is very similar to wood: so-called ‘Metallic wood’.

Its porous structure is responsible for its high strength-to-weight ratio, and makes it more akin to natural materials, like wood. High-performance golf clubs and airplane wings are made out of titanium, which is as strong as steel but about twice as light. These properties depend on the way a metal’s atoms are stacked, but random defects that arise in the

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manufacturing process mean that these materials are only a fraction as strong as they could theoretically be. An architect, working on the scale of individual atoms, could design and build new materials that have even better strength-to-weight ratios. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Engineering and Applied Science, the University of Illinois

at Urbana–Champaign, the University of Cambridge, and Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey have done just that. Their study was published in Nature Scientific Reports, earlier this year. According to team leader, James Pikul, Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied


RESEARCH Mechanics at Penn Engineering, the reason they call it metallic wood is not just because of its density, which is about that of wood, but its cellular nature. Cellular materials are porous. Wood grain for instance, contains parts that are thick and dense and made to hold the structure, and parts that are porous and made to support biological functions, like transport to and from cells. The structure of metallic wood is similar, containing areas that are thick and dense with strong metal struts, and areas that are porous with air gaps. But how to make such a material? Pikul’s method starts with tiny plastic spheres, a few hundred nanometers in diameter, suspended in water. When the water is slowly evaporated, the spheres settle

and stack like cannonballs, providing an orderly, crystalline framework. Using electroplating, the researchers then infiltrate the plastic spheres with nickel. Once the nickel is in place, the plastic spheres are dissolved with a solvent, leaving an open network of metallic struts.

ble a material that has the same strength properties of other super high-strength materials but now it’s 70 percent empty space. Probably in future this space can be filled with other things, like living organisms or materials that store energy.

Because roughly 70 percent of the resulting material is empty space, this nickel-based metallic wood’s density is extremely low - roughly equivalent to that of water - in relation to its strength. Once the researchers can produce samples of their metallic wood in larger sizes, they can begin subjecting it to more macroscale tests. A better understanding of its tensile properties, for example, is critical. The long-term interesting thing is to ena-

More at Penn Engineering> ‘High strength metallic wood from nanostructured nickel inverse opal materials’ is online>

ICSBM 2019 – The 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Building Materials 12 - 15 August 2019, Eindhoven Following the success of the previous conference in Wuhan in 2015, the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Building Materials, ICSBM 2019, will be organized in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 12 - 15 August 2019. The idea behind the ICSBM conference is to find (scientific) answers to the question to what extent new, sustainable building materials can play a role in the future. The building sector is by far the largest consumer of raw materials and producer of human-made materials. From a sustainability and circularity point of view, the effects of this demand can among others be mitigated using biogenic resources, smart material design, enhanced durability, functionalization, reuse and recycling, and the use of side streams (‘waste’). The conference addresses this challenge starting from a scientific approach: building materials science being a syncretic discipline hybridizing mineralogy, ceramics, solid-state physics, chemistry, metallurgy and biology. Advanced characterization and treatment methods, together with novel technologies and modelling tools, are vital for the study and improvement of the complete life cycle of building materials, from raw materials, to production, use and recycling. Thematic workshops will be provided, e.g. microscopy (Prof. Pöllmann), 3D printing/additive manufacturing (Prof. Salet), matchmaking for international cooperation and corporate presentations. Parallel presentation sessions, poster sessions and company exhibition stands will be held for the duration of the conference. https://susbuildmat.com

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ENTERPRISE EUROPE NETWORK

Enterprise Europe Network (EEN) supports companies with international ambitions The Enterprise Europe Network (EEN) is an initiative of the European Commission that supports entrepreneurs in seeking partners to innovate and do business abroad. The Network is active in more than 60 countries worldwide. It brings together 3,000 experts from more than 600 member organisations – all renowned for their excellence in business support.

Database

Every company can participate by adjusting its profile to the database. This company will be brought to the attention in the country in which it wants to become active. At the same time it is possible to search for partners. EEN advisers actively assist in compiling the profile, which is drawn up in a certain format. The EEN websites also contain foreign companies that are looking for Dutch companies and organizations for commercial or technological cooperation. The EEN advisers support the search for a cooperation partner by actively deploying contacts within the network. In addition, Company Missions

and Match Making Events are regularly organized. All these services are free of charge. There are five types of profiles:

• Business Offer:

the company offers a product

Video: How Enterprise Europe Network works

• Business Request:

the company is looking for a product

• Technology Offer:

the company offers a technology

• Technology Request:

the company is looking for a technology

• Research & Development Request:

the organization seeks cooperation for research

When a company has both a Business Offer and a Business Request (or another combination), two (or even more if applicable) profiles are created. The profile includes the most essential

information about the nature of the supply or demand, the ‘type of partner’ that is intended and the expected cooperation structure. Get in touch with your local network contact point by selecting the country and city closest to where your business is based. They can help you with advice, support and opportunities for international partnerships. For sustainable building and the creative industry, contact ir. drs. Hans Kamphuis: T: +31 (0) 88 042 1124 M: 06 25 70 82 76 E: hans.kamphuis@rvo.nl For Materials contact Nils Haarmans: T: +31 (0) 88 062 5843 M: 06 21 83 94 57 E: nils.haarman@rvo.nl More information websites can be found at the Europe Network websites: www.enterpriseeuropenetwork.nl http://een.ec.europa.eu

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ENTERPRISE EUROPE NETWORK The Enterprise Europe Network Materials Database: Request for partnership ERA-NET Cofund - MarTERA: Innovative composite material for resistant products/constructions in salt water and saline fog environments - partners sought for the project coordination, field tests, certification, proposition of areas of application The university research institute from Latvia has developed a composite material based on recycled thermoplastic polymer (as a binder) and inert filler. The project will aim to demonstrate that the material is suitable for use in saline environments. The project proposal is planned to be submitted to the ERA-NET Cofund MarTERA Call 2019. Partners are sought for coordination of the project, field tests, certification of the material, and proposition of areas of application. POD Reference: RDLV20190217001

More>

A Chinese company is looking for cemented carbide 3D printing forming technology

A Chinese cemented carbide company is looking for cemented carbide 3D printing forming technology. They want to cooperate with partners through research cooperation agreement and technical cooperation agreement. POD Reference: RCN20180828004 More>

Czech manufacturer of woven fabrics seeks industrial partners and R&D institutions to jointly develop novel woven technical textiles and products based on 3D and multi-axial technology A Czech trans-nationally active manufacturer of woven fabrics carries out development of 3D and multi-axial woven structures using state-of-the-art weaving technology for the production of demanding technical fabrics from a range of materials including carbon fibres. The company is looking for industrial partners and R&D institutions for joint development of novel technical textiles and products applicable in industries based on technical cooperation agreement. POD Reference: TRCZ20180514001

More>

Small Italian company in the furniture sector is looking for technical expertise and know-how in plastic materials

An Italian company in the furnishing and manufacturing industry with competence in the design and development of contemporary seating and furnishings is looking for a partner able to offer know-how/technology solutions for new plastic items. The company intends to expand its production by collaborating with a R&D centre or a manufacturer with expertise in developing innovative, eco-sustainable, versatile products in plastic. Partnership sought: technical cooperation or manufacturing agreements. POD Reference: TRIT20180920001

More>

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ENTERPRISE EUROPE NETWORK The Enterprise Europe Network Materials Database: Request for partnership Partners sought for the development of high-performance cellulosic fibre materials

A German company specialised in viscose specialty fibres is looking for partners who distribute suitable porous materials, preferably particles, to produce cellulosic viscose fibres with superior mechanical and chemical properties for applications in functional apparel textiles, technical nonwovens, hygiene products and specialty papers. Technical cooperation agreements are sought. POD Reference: TRDE20181213001

More>

UK-based company looking for a manufacturer of innovative stainless steel bowl

A fast growing, multi-award winning London design brand is seeking a manufacturer of exceptional quality for its sculptural stainless steel bowl. The London-based SME is looking to sign a manufacturing agreement with companies that deliver remarkable quality stainless steel. POD Reference: BRUK20180917001 More>

A French commercial agent is looking for companies manufacturing technical products (technical materials, electrical/electronic devices) to sell them in France

Commercial agent since 2013 based in France near Paris is looking for a contract as commercial agent with a middle size industrial company manufacturing technical products (electronic, new materials , metallic) willing to extend its market share abroad. The contract area could be France for a non-french company but could be also outside France for a French company. POD Reference: BRFR20181015001

More>

Spanish research center is looking for a supplier of novel biodegradable polymer blends based on aliphatic polyesters and copolyesters derived from biobased acids through manufacturing agreement. Spanish technology centre specialized in plastics, composites, polymers is looking for novel commercial biobased and biodegradable polymers. The client is interested on biopolymers obtained from monomers synthesised from renewable feedstocks such as, succinic acid, adipic acid, or biosynthesis technologies such as microbial synthesis. The aim is to develop highly biodegradable polymer blends based on polybutylene succinate and polyhydroxy-butyrate through manufacturing agreement. POD Reference: BRES20190215001

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More>


RESEARCH

SIM User Forum 2019 & M2i meeting materials

22 May 2019, Ghent Just like last year, the SIM User Forum takes place during the Advanced Engineering fair, a new trade show concept based on the creation and production of innovative products. This makes the SIM User Forum an ideal platform for companies that contribute towards the production of innovative products, technologies and electronics. According to the organizers, the half-day event is an excellent opportunity to discover the material innovations within the SIM Projects and to meet up with the materials community in Flanders and beyond. The event aims for maximum interaction with and participation from industry by foreseeing ample networking time in the afternoon and early evening. Besides networking, there is the opportunity to visit the materials market and to discuss developments in science & technology at the poster presentations. In addition, there are lectures by SIM program managers about SIM projects results. The topics this year are:

• • • •

Circular Economy Energy Industry 4.0 Societal challenges

In a separate session IBN Composieten will present its roadmaps.

This year's User Forum is organised together with M2i - Materials Innovation Institute> Event date: Wednesday 22 May - 1:00 pm to 9:00 pm Location: Flanders Expo - Ghent

About SIM-Flanders The Strategic Initiative Materials ‘SIM’ is a virtual research centre, founded in 2009 by the Flemish Materials Industry and the Flemish Universities. SIM’s mission is to further strengthen the scientific materials base and to build technology platforms in relevant areas with sufficient critical mass. More at sim-Flanders.be>

41 | INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019


EVENTS Swisstech 2019 14 - 17 May 2019, Basel

8th Circular and Biobased Performance Materials Symposium 19 June 2019, Wageningen

Materials & Eurofinish 2019 15 - 16 May 2019, Leuven

ICCDU 23 - 27 June 2019, Aken

Materials & Eurofinish 2019 15 - 16 May 2019, Leuven

Metec & 4th Estad 24 - 28 June 2019, Düsseldorf

Architect@work Zürich 15 - 16 May 2019, Zürich

Materials Science & Engineering 2019 24 - 26 June 2019, Vienna

Moulding Expo 2019 21 May 2019, Stuttgart

GIFA 2019 24 - 29 June 2019, Düsseldorf

4Smarts 22 - 23 May 2019, Darmstadt

METEC 2019 25 - 29 June 2019, Düsseldorf

Advanced Engineering 22 - 23 May 2019, Ghent

Rapid.Tech + FabCon 3.D 25 - 26 June 2019, Erfurt

25th International Congress on Glass (ICG2019) 9 - 14 June 2019, Boston, USA

ICSBM 2019 12 - 15 August 2019, Eindhoven

European Polymer Congress 2019 9 - 14 June 2019, Heraklion

ISCHP 2019 28 - 30 August 2019, Delft

Atlantic Design & Manufacturing 11 - 13 June 2019, New York

International Rubber Conference 2019 3 - 5 September 2019, London

XVI ECerS Conference 16 - 20 June 2019, Turijn

European Architectural Envisioning Conference EAEA14 3 - 6 September, Nantes

Biopol 2019 17 - 19 June 2019, Stockholm

ESIAM19 9 - 11 September 2019, Trondheim

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 2 2019


http://hightechmaterials.4tu.nl

Select key words and find relevant materials scientists or research groups within 4TU.

High-Tech Materials form the key to innovative and sustainable technology

www.4tu.nl/htm @4TU_HTM

4TU.HTM Research Programme New Horizons in Designer Materials | Visibility and accessibility of Materials Science & Engineering | Annual symposium Dutch Materials | 4TU.Joint Materials Science Activities | web application http://hightechmaterials.4tu.nl


Innovative Materials (Innovatieve Materialen) is an interactive, digital journal about new and/or innovatively applied materials. Innovative Materials provides information on material innovations, or innovative use of materials. The idea is that the ever increasing demands lead to a constant search for better and safer products as well as material and energy savings. Enabling these innovations is crucial, not only to be competitive but also to meet the challenges of enhancing and protecting the environment, like durability, C2C and carbon footprint. By opting for smart, sustainable and innovative materials constructors, engineers and designers obtain more opportunities to distinguish themselves. As a platform Innovative Materials wants to help to achieve this by connecting supply and demand. Innovative Materials is distributed among its own subscribers/network, but also through the networks of the partners. In 2019 this includes organisations like M2i, MaterialDesign, 4TU (a cooperation between the four Technical Universities in the Netherlands), the Bond voor Materialenkennis (material sciences), SIM Flanders, FLAM3D, RVO and Material District.

Profile for Innovatieve Materialen

im20191en  

im20191en