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ENERGY EFFICIENCY INFORMATION HANDBOOK

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Master Grocers Australia Energy Efficiency Information Project Ph: 03 9824 4111 Fax: 03 9824 4022 www.mgaeeip.com.au email: steve.sellars@mga.asn.au

Independent Liquor Outlets

Master Grocers Australia National Support Office 5/1 Milton Parade, Malvern Victoria 3036 Freecall: 1800 888 479 Ph: 03 9824 4111 Fax: 03 9824 4022 www.mga.asn.au

“This Activity received funding from the Department of Industry as part of the Energy Efficiency Information Grants Program.” Disclaimer: “The views expressed herein are not necessarily the views of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Commonwealth does not accept responsibility for any information or advice contained herein.”

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Foreword On behalf of Master Grocers Australia (MGA) Board of Directors, Liquor Retailers Australia (LRA) Committee and MGA’s hard working staff, it is with great pleasure that I launch, to our members around Australia, our fifth CORE Pillar, the Energy Efficiency Information Project. Energy usage has always been a major contributing factor to the cost of doing business. The very nature of our industry is to provide consumers with fresh, high quality fruit and vegetables, dairy, frozen products, meat and chilled beverages in a well lit, air-conditioned and comfortable shopping environment. Today, energy usage has become a major topic of concern for all businesses. Energy costs have escalated dramatically, having a profound impact on our members’ costs to do business, significantly eroding profits. Our members operate in a very competitive supermarket environment. To put up grocery and liquor prices to recoup energy costs is prohibitive. Every possible way to reduce energy consumption, without compromising the quality of day-to-day services, to customers must be sought out. Through the support of the Australian Federal Government and the help of an industry steering committee, MGA has developed a comprehensive Energy Efficiency Information Project. The aim of the project is to assist in changing the independent supermarket and liquor store energy usage culture by educating and informing members about every aspect of energy consumption, together with a range of easily implemented solutions. MGA’s team have developed highly accessible information mediums for all members including: • • • • • •

online fact sheets an interactive self-assessment tool a comprehensive website blog phone app over 70 national seminars.

MGA will also keep members updated with regular information in MGA’s Independent Retailer magazine and weekly emails. I would like to strongly encourage all members to take full advantage of this newly developed, world class Energy Efficiency Information Project. The project has been especially designed and developed for independent supermarkets and liquor stores Finally, to remain competitive as an industry, we must be vigilant about our costs. Today, energy consumption, in many cases, is the second highest cost to businesses, after wages. Change the energy usage culture in your business now and take full advantage of MGA’s Energy Efficiency Information Project. Rod Allen MGA Board President

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 What is energy efficiency and why should you become more efficient? 10 1.1

Where to get additional assistance and what to look for in a service provider 10

2 Energy Supply 14 2.1

Pricing – the facts about what you are paying for 14

2.2

Reading and understanding your bills – tariffs, rates and costs 15

2.3

Green energy products 19

2.4

Get the best deal – negotiate with your retailer 20

2.5

Get more electricity for your money – improve your power factor 20

2.6

Use less - the cheapest energy is the energy you don’t use 21

2.7

Control energy costs - create your own energy 21

2.8

Action planning checklist 22

3 Managing your energy use 26 3.1

Energy use within the Australian food, grocery and liquor retail industries 26

3.2

Managing energy demand 27

3.3

Developing an energy management system 29

4.1 Refrigeration systems 38 4.2 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning 50 4.3 Lighting 60 4.4 Hot water heating 72 4.5 Electrical appliances and equipment 78 5

Refrigerants 84

5.1

Alternative refrigerants 87

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Waste and recycling 90

6.1

Supermarket waste 90

6.2

How to improve your waste management and recycling performance 90

6.3

Opportunities to save money through improved waste management 93

6.4

Resources 95

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Alternative sources of energy 98

7.1

Heat recovery 98

7.2

Solar hot water 99

7.3

Solar power 99

7.4

Wind power 100

7.5

Other energy sources 101

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Best practice refurbishment 104

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Financial support programs 108

9.1

Financial support matrix 109

9.2

Australian government 110

9.3

New South Wales 111

9.4

Victoria 113

9.5

Queensland 115

9.6

Tasmania 115

9.7

South Australia 116

9.8

Northern Territory 116

9.9

Australian Capital Territory 116

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About Master Grocers Australia / Liquor Retailers Australia Master Grocers Australia / Liquor Retailers Australia (MGA/LRA) is the peak national employer organisation for independent supermarket and liquor retail outlets. Master Grocers Association of Victoria was formed (as the MGAV) in 1898, it was then known as the ‘Grocers and Travellers Club’. In 2007, retailers from the remaining states and territories came together to form MGA, bringing the total independent supermarket membership to over 2,100. MGA/LRA represents the interests of privately owned food, grocer and liquor stores throughout Australia by providing them with access to: • Training ○○ Retail ○○ Management ○○ Food safety ○○ Responsible serving of alcohol and other liquor laws and licences ○○ Allergen awareness ○○ Health and safety • Workplace relations assistance • Industry representation • State and Federal Government representation • Insurance services. MGA members’ stores operate under banners such as Supa IGA, IGA, IGA Xpress, Friendly Grocer, Foodland, FoodWorks, SPAR, Supabarn, Cellarbrations, Bottle-O, IGA Liquor, Local Liquor, Duncans and Bottlemart. These businesses employing 115,000 people and are responsible for generating annual sales of over $13 billion. Together, they constitute the major competition for the major chains. In addition to MGA’s direct industry membership, it has over 30 corporate partnerships that include suppliers of groceries, liquor, services and other industry stakeholders.

Forward It is important to note, that the MGA/LRA does not recommend you make changes to your store and systems (including refrigeration plant and equipment, HVAC and lighting etc.) without the expertise of your service and/or maintenance contractors. In some states, licences are required to make changes to refrigeration, HVAC and lighting systems and therefore should only be undertaken by professional/technical experts. An external provider, such as your service or maintenance contractor, can determine which options are feasible for your system and consider the effect of any change on your other energy using equipment. If you choose to engage an external service provider for further information, on what to consider and the questions to ask when selecting external expertise, refer to Section 1.1. The MGA/LRA can also assist you with this process. If you require assistance contact MGA/LRA Tel: (03) 9824 4111, Email: admin@mga.asn.au.

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Introduction to the program The MGA Energy Efficiency Information Project (EEIP) is a Government supported initiative to help you reduce the amount of energy used in your stores. The purpose of the project is to provide you, the retailer, with the background knowledge to understand and implement energy efficient opportunities to reduce costs in all areas of store energy use from refrigeration, heating and cooling, lighting, hot water and other appliances and equipment. It will also provide you with the confidence to start the conversation with your employees and service contractors about making your store energy efficient.

Why is MGA providing this initiative? We believe in creating energy efficient stores, especially when times are tough. You can reduce costs by getting the most out of your electricity and hot water use. Reducing consumption is good for the environment, for your pocket and your store’s reputation.

How will the initiative be delivered? This initiative provides information, tips and educational advice to independent retailers through the EEIP website and blog (www.mgaeeip.com.au) where a range of resources including this Handbook, seven factsheets and the interactive self-assessment tool are available. Access to the website and resources is also available to download as a smartphone app. Over 70 FREE seminars and workshops will be delivered nationally. Weekly communication from MGA will be sent via e-Alerts providing tips and energy news, as well as updates in the Independent Retailer magazine.

What will you learn at the seminars and workshops? The seminars are designed to educate you on why electricity costs are increasing, include examples of energy efficiency initiatives and case studies, as well as a workshop on how to read your energy bills and seek a better price from service retailers.

Why should you participate in this initiative? As a result of recently receiving Government funding we are able to provide this program to you FREE of charge. We are urging all stores and staff to participate – no matter how small the task is there are always a number of ways to create change. We know you are busy running your business, that is why we have developed the program to provide you with tips and information to help you make energy effcient changes. In addition to reducing energy use and implementing energy efficiencies, the program will also contain information on best practice new store design, including energy efficient fit-outs and retrofitting existing buildings, information on refrigerant gases and financial support programs.

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Contents of the Handbook The Handbook comprises the following chapters: 1.

What is energy efficiency and why should you become more efficient? Describes how energy efficiency benefits your business. This section also includes advice to help you to understand what to look for in a service provider, when seeking external assistance to help you implement identified energy efficiency opportunities.

2.

Energy supply Includes information on your energy costs, what you pay for, how to read and understand your bills and where you can reduce your cost of energy supply.

3.

Managing your energy use Explains where energy is used within typical Australian retail stores. Explores the creation of a system for managing energy use. It also introduces the principals behind the assessment tool designed to identify the areas where you can become more energy efficient and shows you how to engage an auditor and what to expect in relation to the identification of opportunities for energy efficiency and improvements.

4.

Reducing energy use and implementing energy efficiencies Provides you with information detailing the efficiencies that can be achieved within your store by looking at your refrigeration systems; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC); lighting; hot water heating; and electrical appliances and equipment.

5.

Refrigerants Explains the importance of managing refrigeration gases within your systems and alternatives to current systems.

6.

Improving waste and recycling performance Explores the opportunities to save money by improving the waste and recycling performance of your store.

7.

Alternative sources of energy Explores the other sources of energy that you can use in your store including solar PV, solar hot water and cogeneration.

8.

Best practice refurbishment and new store design Provides information to help you with new store design including energy efficient fit-outs and energy efficient retrofitting of existing buildings.

9.

Financial support programs for energy efficiencies Provides details on current funding programs to assist you to implement energy efficiencies within your store.

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WHAT IS ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND WHY SHOULD YOU BECOME MORE EFFICIENT?

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1 WHAT IS ENERGY EFFICIENCY

AND WHY SHOULD YOU BECOME MORE EFFICIENT?

By definition, energy efficiency is the percentage of total energy input to a piece of equipment that is consumed in useful work and not wasted. To become energy efficient is to avoid unnecessary consumption of energy. To achieve this it may include elements of behaviour change, together with smarter equipment choices and use. To truly imbed energy efficiency as a business objective it is more than just buying new equipment that consumes less power, it is understanding how and where you use energy and the implementation of business processes and procedures you can use to minimise energy use. The benefits of being energy efficient are: • • • • •

Saving money on energy bills Reducing the need for costly government investment in energy infrastructure Engaging your staff, customers and service contractors Reducing your impact on the environment Enhancing your corporate reputation for protecting the environment.

Reducing energy consumption helps reduce the generation of greenhouse gas emissions. Energy use is the largest generator of human induced greenhouse gas emissions. It has long been argued that greenhouse gas emissions are causing a change in our global climactic patterns resulting in change to seasonal weather patterns that affect our ability to live safely, grow and transport our food and run our businesses.

1.1 Where to get additional assistance and what to look for in a service provider Some of the energy efficient opportunities (such as changes or modifications to any plant or equipment and lighting upgrades) presented within this Handbook will require the expertise of maintenance engineers/providers or other professional/technical experts. It is recommended that you follow the suggestions outlined within each of the actions plans presented at the end of each section, to understand whether you should undertake the action in-house or engage an external provider (including lighting product suppliers). It is important that you consult with the external provider prior to undertaking any of the recommended actions. Furthermore, you may be required to engage more than one external expert where certain changes to your system may affect another part of your store’s energy use. Examples of these include, considering your refrigeration system in the context of your whole store, where improving the efficiency of your refrigeration system, may not always result in an identified saving if another piece of equipment has to work harder to compensate e.g. the air conditioning has to work harder if the cold air return has been switched off. Balancing your heating, ventillation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system also requires consideration of your refrigeration system so they interact closely together to maintain a conditioned environment.

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The following series of questions have been developed to help you to engage external expertise to assist in implementing energy efficiency opportunities within your store. Once you have identified the opportunities, either by consulting this Handbook or through the self-assessment tool, consider asking these questions of the external provider to ensure that they provide the advice and/or products you require to reduce your energy use and save money. 1.

Do you offer a performance guarantee that I will achieve the dollar savings off my energy bill? Ask your provider if they will supply a guarantee that the identified savings will be achieved. Another approach could be to ask your provider to undertake the energy upgrades with no up-front capital costs, where you enter into an agreement that you pay for them later through the energy savings that result. This is also called energy performance contracting.

2.

If you do not meet the projected performance level, what will you do? Ask your provider what they intend to do if the project does not meet the performance levels. Will they replace the system to gain better energy efficiencies or return it to it’s original state with a refund on the capital costs?

3.

Do you measure energy use and/or energy bills before and after to make sure I achieve your predicted savings? Will the service provider present you with an analysis of your energy bills prior to and after implementation of upgrades to prove the predicted savings are realised?

4.

Will you continue to monitor my store to make sure that my savings are continued over the long term? Does the service provider offer a continuous monitoring service to prove the predicted savings will be realised beyond any guarantee period?

5.

What is the total project cost, annual saving on my overall energy bill, simple payback? Is the service provider able to present you with transparent costings that can be used to develop the business case for the implementation of new opportunities for energy efficiencies?

6.

Are you able to offer me Energy Savings Certificates (ESC-NSW) and/or Victorian Energy Efficiency Certificates (VEEC-VIC) as upfront discounts? Is the service provider registered for these two schemes and are they able to provide you with discounts based on the generation of energy efficiency certificates based on registered products.

7.

Do you offer finance? What is the total project cost, annual saving on my overall energy bill, simple payback? If you choose to enter into a finance agreement with your provider, ask if they can present you with transparent costings so you can understand what you are actually paying for.

8.

Does your product meet Australian Standards? Products that meet Australian Standards have been tested to ensure that they adhere to stated ratings or safety requirements. Ask your supplier to provide evidence that all upgrades carry the required certification. It is illegal to supply products in Australia that do not meet mandatory Australian standards and there are penalties and consequences for supplying products that do not comply with them.

9.

Do you assist with completing government grant applications for the work you are suggesting? There are a number of Australian Government and state based grants available for capital expenditure (upgrades, new equipment), finance to support procurement of equipment (leasing, loan), rebates to owners/ installers of specific equipment and auditing activities. Ask your provider if they can assist you to develop an application to secure funding on your behalf to help reduce some costs. More information of the types of grants available can be found in Section 9.

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10. Can you present me with a case study, showing the total project cost, annual saving on my overall energy bill and simple payback from another satisfied retail customer? Ask your provider to show you written evidence of what they have been able to achieve for a similar client. Follow up with a telephone call to satisfy yourself that the provider conducted the work in a professional manner and the savings achieved were real. 11. Will you work in with and collaborate with my existing service contractor? Depending on the scope of work, your new provider may need to work in conjunction with an existing contractor. You may also be required to engage more than one external expert where certain changes to your system may affect another part of your stores energy use. Ask your provider if they are willing to work with other providers. 12. Will you work in with, provide some training and explain what you are doing to my staff? It is important to ensure your staff understand how to operate and the basis behind any new systems and that they are engaged in your energy efficiency program at the store level. Changing staff behaviour will require a focus on education including building awareness of energy issues and motivating energy efficient actions and behaviours. 13. Are you independent on any particular products and services and on providing unbiased advice? Some providers have a limited suite of products that they will try to supply you with. Ask them if they provide unbiased advice and/or provide a comparison with other similar recommended products in the market to achieve efficiencies.

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ENERGY SUPPLY

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2 ENERGY SUPPLY The two most common sources of energy used in Australian food, grocery and liquor stores are: • Electricity – usually supplied through the national grid • Gas – usually natural gas supplied through pipelines, but could also include LPG and other forms of liquid and gaseous fuels.

2.1 Pricing – the facts about what you are paying for Large increases in the price of electricity and gas have been experienced across Australia in recent years and further increases are planned for the next few years. All states have recorded strong increases in prices over the past decade, even though prices are generally set independently across the states, with the largest increases recorded in the east coast capital cities. There are a number of factors behind the increases in electricity prices over recent years. However a major cause has been the need to significantly increase investment in infrastructure, followed by a price on carbon, actual energy generation costs, retail costs and other environmental (green scheme) charges. An example of price increases that have occurred in NSW are shown in Figure 2.1.

$2500 $654

$2230

Network

Total bill 2012/13

$2000

$167

$1500 $1100

$76

$94

$140

$100

$500

0 Total bill 2007/08

Energy

Carbon

Other green

Retail costs

Figure 2.1: Components to electricity bill Increases in NSW 2007/08 to 2012/13. Source: Take the Power Back, Choice; www.choice.com.au

For electricity, investment in transmission and distribution networks has increased sharply in recent years and is expected to remain high for quite some time. This partly reflects the need to replace ageing assets, given that a sizeable proportion of the electricity network infrastructure in Australia was built between the 1950’s and 1970’s and is coming to the end of it’s technical life.

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Investment has also been driven by the need to expand network capacity in order to satisfy strong growth in demand for electricity at peak times, particularly due to the greater use of air conditioners and heaters on the hottest and coldest days of the year. Network providers need to ensure they have the capacity to meet this peak demand, even though this extra capacity will be idle during non-peak periods. Growth in peak demand is expected to outpace growth in overall electricity consumption, which implies that the additional costs involved in expanding capacity will not be matched by increased sales overall, leading to higher prices per unit of electricity sold. Expansion has also been required to meet more stringent reliability standards.

2.2 Reading and understanding your bills – tariffs, rates and costs The adage ‘you can’t manage what you don’t measure’ holds true. Some businesses may find their bills confusing; however understanding your electricity and gas bills is the pathway to reducing energy costs. As you review your bill you should be able to see all of the items outlined in this section. The example of a typical electricity bill, that follows, has the key areas highlighted as a guide to help you to understand and interpret your bill. National Meter Identifier (NMI) for electricity or Meter Installation Reference Number (MIRN) for gas. This unique number identifies the billing at your address. For businesses with more than one meter, you may have more than one meter represented on your bill under your unique NMI. The billing or supply period is important as you will need to know this to determine how much energy you use, on average each day, week or month. The charges over this period may include: • • • •

Electricity/gas charges Charges for emissions and renewable energy Meter supply and market participation charges Distribution charges (or network charges).

These charges are usually broken down in more detail on the subsequent pages of your bill - Figure 2.2 shows a general break down of how energy costs are distributed on your bill.

Electricity

Natural gas

47% - Network costs

53% - Network costs

42% - Wholesale costs

26% - Wholesale costs

11% - Retail services costs

15% - Retail services costs

Figure 2.2: How bill payments are allocated to cover costs of electricity and natural gas respectively.

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2.2.1 Energy charges Energy (electricity or gas) charges are the cost of the energy used by your business. Each charge is determined from a quantity of energy used through the meter (kWh or MJ) multiplied by the tariff or rate which is the cost of the energy being supplied per unit of energy ($/kWh or $/MJ). Some retail tariffs have a peak rate; some may also have off-peak and shoulder rates. Some tariffs are also ‘stepped’, meaning there is a different rate for the first consumption bracket compared to next brackets. Understanding your tariffs means you will know when your energy is costing more. Distribution charges are the costs associated with transporting the energy to your business from the point of creation (e.g. from the power station), based on your usage. Figure 2.2 shows where on your bills you cover the cost of the provision of electricity and natural gas.

Where do the charges in your energy bill come from? The Australian Energy Regulator has produced a fact sheet explaining what is behind the cost of electricity and natural gas.

Billing Period You will need to know the billing or supply period to determine how much energy you use on average each day, week or month.

Figure 2.3

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2 Energy supply

2 ENERGY SUPPLY

Peak demand Average peak demand over the period

What is peak demand? Peak demand is your greatest demand for electricity over a billing period. It is the largest electrical load you placed on the grid at any given point-in-time. You are essentially paying for the energy company to have that much electricity available to you should you need it. Peak demand charges are usually ‘stepped’ with a number of different tariffs. Peak demand charges are in addition to usage charges. Peak demand for this customer occurred at 2pm on 5/7/2012 at 265kVA. For the remainder of the month the average of their peak demand was around 200kVA. Figure 2.3

Managing peak demand will save you money: In this example if the peak demand was set at 200 kVA as an average load then exceeding this during this period would have resulted in the customer paying an additional $748 during this billing period. Constantly exceeding the set peak demand set at 200 kVA every month would result in additional charges equivalent to nearly $9,000 over a 12 month period.

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2 Energy supply

National Meter Identifier

Energy consumed over the billing period (kWh)

Billing Period Line loss

Energy Consumption Tariffs These are the unit costs for each of the Energy Consumption charges.

Consumption charges

Network charges

Demand Steps & Tariffs Consumption History Monthly energy usage and associated greenhouse gas for the past 12 months.

Demand tariffs stepped according to usage levels (e.g. step 1 = 100kVA, step 2 = 150kVA)

Figure 2.4

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As a commercial customer you are likely to be charged for peak demand on your electricity bill in addition to usage. Peak demand is your greatest demand for electricity over a billing period. It is the largest electrical load you placed on the grid at any given point-in-time. You are essentially paying for the energy company to have that much electricity available to you should you need it. Peak demand charges are usually ‘stepped’ with a number of different tariffs. You can manage/reduce your Peak demand by managing when you start-up and operate your equipment. Your bill will also include renewable energy and emissions charges. These will vary from state to state, depending on the schemes in place as well as the pass through cost for the Clean Energy Future carbon price. Charges are based on your total energy usage. Key things to know from your bill: • The cost of the energy you are using: energy has a different cost per unit at different times of the day, as reflected in your tariffs. Your retailer will be able to tell you when the tariffs start and end • When you use energy: knowing when you use energy will also put you in a better position to negotiate with your retailer • Your peak demand and how that relates to your average demand • Your energy use across the year and how it varies.

2.3 Green energy products Energy retailers offer a range of ‘green’ energy products across electricity and gas. Green energy products do not improve your energy efficiency by themselves and can cost more than standard energy. However, they do reduce the overall environmental footprint and carbon emissions associated with your energy use. They also display a commitment to good environmental practice and energy use.

2.3.1 Green Electricity The purchase of a green electricity product means that renewable energy sourced from the sun, wind, water or waste is purchased by your electricity retailer on your behalf. The most widely known is the Government accredited GreenPower. You can generally buy green electricity directly from your energy retailer in percentages of your total usage (e.g. 10% GreenPower). Green electricity products can be used to reduce the overall carbon emissions of the electricity you purchase.

2.3.2 Green Gas The purchase of green gas products usually means that the retailer will purchase offsets on your behalf to offset the greenhouse gas emissions generated from your usage of gas.

2.3.3 ‘Green’ claims If you use ‘green’ energy and want to make public claims about your good energy practices be mindful there are laws and Australian Competition and Consumer Commission guidelines for false and misleading statements. Go to: http://transition.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/815763 for Green marketing and the Australia Consumer Law for more information.

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2.4 Get the best deal – negotiate with your retailer One of the simplest and quickest ways to reduce your energy costs is to: • Negotiate with your retailer: ensuring you are taking advantage of competitive rates is the first step to cost savings • Shop around: the retail energy marketplace is competitive and retailers have the latitude to negotiate on both supply and distribution rates • Consider other supply options: you can now get solar power purchase agreements where a solar provider will cover the cost of installing and maintaining a solar system on your roof and will sell you back the electricity over a 10 to 25 year supply contract – often at rates lower than grid electricity.

Electricity and Gas Markets In New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland and the ACT, both the electricity and gas industries have been deregulated for business consumers. This means that you are free to choose your electricity and gas retailer and can shop around for cheaper rates.

Consider going on a contract. Retailers offer significant financial incentives to encourage you to enter a contract. The length of the contract will also influence the cost. However, contracts can contain clauses that can cost you more if you invest in energy efficiencies resulting in lower overall store demand. On the flip side, if your actual demand is higher than the agreed maximum you will be penalised for that billing period and the higher actual demand would apply for the subsequent billing year. When approaching your retailer, make sure you have all of your billing information available so they can help you to get a better deal.

2.5 Get more electricity for your money – improve your power factor It is possible you are not getting to use all the electricity you pay for - check the power factor of the electrical supply on your site. Power factor is the ratio between the power that is supplied to your site (kVA) and the power that is actually used (kW). It is a measure of how efficiently an installation uses electrical energy. A power factor of 0.9 or less should be corrected. A power factor of 0.85 means 15% of the electricity delivered to the site is wasted before use - it makes good sense to get the most from the energy you pay for. A power factor of 0.98 (meaning a 2% loss) is best practice and commonly achieved. Power factor correction equipment can be installed at your site distribution point to ensure you get more of the electricity you paid for. The savings made through the installation of power factor correction equipment often result in an investment payback of around two years or better. When considering a power factor correction unit project you should also discuss other opportunities for energy efficiency as it could affect your payback.

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2.6 Use less - the cheapest energy is the energy you don’t use The key to reducing your energy bills is to reduce your usage: • Reduce your energy usage: the cheapest energy is the energy you do not use • Try to minimise the use of ‘expensive’ energy: understand which operations and what equipment uses energy during the periods when you are charged a higher tariff. Explore the opportunity to undertake these activities at a different time • Reduce your peak demand: by reducing the largest load you require you will reduce your bill. This can be as simple as ensuring that your equipment does not all start at the same time, but rather starting it sequentially over a few minutes.

2.7 Control energy costs - create your own energy Once you have optimised your energy efficiency you can consider ways to generate your own energy, known as distributed generation and reduce your reliance on grid electricity and mains gas including: • Solar hot water systems to replace gas or electric hot water heaters or preheat boiler water • Grid connected solar PV system (solar panels) or small wind turbine to offset grid-electricity • Cogeneration system to generate heat and electricity usually from natural gas. A decision to generate your own energy should be based on its suitability for your business’ mode of operation, energy cost structure, future business needs and a solid investment business case.

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You can reduce your peak demand without reducing your usage Peak demand charges are essentially charges in return for your energy provider having that much electricity available to you should you need it. You can reduce it by managing when you start-up and operate your equipment.

Grid connection When considering generating electricity on your site make sure the investment analysis, including cost of connecting that system to the grid, stacks up. The cost of connection can often exceed the cost of the equipment to generate the electricity.

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2.8 Action planning checklist The following list of potential actions for your store’s Energy Action Plan will help you reduce your energy cost: Tick

Action

Cost

Benefit

Simplicity

Shop around: the retail energy marketplace is competitive and the retailers have the latitude to negotiate on both supply and distribution rates.

-





Consider going on a contract: retailers offer significant financial incentives to encourage you to enter a contract. The length of the contract will also influence the cost.

-





Negotiate with your retailer: ensuring you’re taking advantage of competitive rates is the first step to cost savings.

-



Try to minimise the use of ‘expensive’ energy: understand which operations and what equipment uses energy during the periods when you are charged a higher tariff. Explore the opportunity to undertake these activities at a different time.

$





Reduce your peak demand: by reducing the largest load you require you will reduce your bill. This can be as simple as ensuring that your equipment does not all start at the same time, but rather starting it sequentially over a few minutes.

$$$





Improve your power factor: utilise more of the energy you pay for. Power factor correction equipment generally has a payback of around two years.

$$



Generate your own energy: reduce your reliance on grid electricity and natural gas by using solar hot water and solar PV. Electricity from a diesel generator can make sense during peak times.

$$$



Cost

$ = lowest cost (payback < 2 years), $$ = payback is between approximately 2 and 3 years, $$$ = highest cost (payback > 3 years).

Benefit

 = lesser energy efficiency (< 10% overall savings),  = between 10 and 15% energy savings,  = greater energy efficiency (> 20% energy savings).

Simplicity

 = requires external/technical expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house but may require some external expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house.

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2 ENERGY SUPPLY

23

Ancillary services charge

For provision of services necessary for system operation, such as voltage control.

Clean energy future carbon price

The carbon price represents the pass through of the national price on carbon, which came into effect on 1 July 2012. It is levied on both the usage and distribution aspects of your energy supply. If you are purchasing a clean energy product you may not have the charge levied against the usage element of your bill.

Distribution Charges (or Network Charges or SAC)

This is the charge you incur for the delivery of electricity and maintenance of the poles and wires. This amount is charged by your distributor to your retailer who then passes the charge onto you.

Environmental footprint

Demand for the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural capital as an impact based on the consumption of natural resources.

Electrical load

The sum of all energy use requirements placed on a circuit.

Emission charges

See Clean Energy Future carbon price.

Distribution Loss Factor (DLF)

A number multiplied by your metered energy usage to account for electricity losses between the transmission point and your site.

Kilowatt hour (kWh)

This is the basic unit the retailer uses to charge you for your usage of electricity: 1,000 watts used for one hour. Ten 100-watt light bulbs, used for one hour would consume one kilowatt hour of electricity.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

LPG is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases (propane or butane) used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles.

LRET charge

Renewable Energy Target (RET) is split into two parts: the Large-scale Renewable Energy Target (LRET) and the Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme (SRES). For more information on the LRET go to http://ret.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/About-theSchemes/Large-scale-Renewable-Energy-Target--LRET-/about-lret.

Marginal Loss Factor (MLF) A number representing the electricity losses between the electricity generator and the transmission control point. Market participation charge (or AEMO Pool fees)

The Australian Energy Market Operator operates the energy markets and systems and also delivers planning advice in eastern and south-eastern Australia. This charge is their main revenue stream.

Megajoules (MJ)

This is the basic unit of energy used in the natural gas industry: one million joules. Simple comparisons between megajoules and other forms of energy are: 3.6MJ = 1kWh; 16MJ is equivalent to the energy generated by approximately one kilogram of wood.

The number that uniquely identifies the gas metering point at your address. Meter Installation Reference Number (MIRN) Metering charge

Costs of providing and maintaining electricity meters, including smart meters and data.

National Meter Identifier (NMI)

The number that uniquely identifies your electricity installation.

Off-peak/shoulder electricity

Electricity that is consumed at either a time of the day or a day of the week, when system demand is low. The price for off-peak and shoulder electricity is generally a cheaper electricity rate than at other times of use. This will depend on your tariff.

Peak demand

Peak demand is the greatest demand for electricity over a period; that is, it is the largest electrical load you placed on the grid. It is measured in kVA or kilo-Volt-Amps. It is not usage, it is a point-in-time measure of demand.

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Glossary of terms â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Energy supply


24

2 ENERGY SUPPLY

2 Energy supply

Purchasing offsets

Purchasing a carbon offset results in reducing carbon dioxide emissions or greenhouse gases in order to compensate for an emission made elsewhere.

SRES charge

Renewable Energy Target (RET) is split into two parts: The Large-scale Renewable Energy Target (LRET) and the Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme (SRES). For more information go to http://ret.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/About-the-Schemes/Smallscale-Renewable-Energy-Scheme--SRES-/about-sres

Tariff (or Rate)

A tariff (sometimes referred to as a rate) is a pricing structure that you have to pay for each unit of energy you consume. There are retail tariffs as well as network tariffs.

VEET and ESS charge

The Victorian and New South Wales Governments have both introduced energy savings schemes to promote more energy efficient activities by subsiding those activities through energy efficiency certificates under the program. Under these schemes energy retailers are liable to surrender a certain number of certificates based on the schemes annual targets and the total amount of energy consumed by its customers. This liability is similar to existing environmental charges and is levied upon electricity customers. On electricity bills the Victorian scheme is known as VEET (Victorian Energy Efficiency Target) and the New South Wales scheme is known as ESS (Energy Savings Scheme).

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MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE 3 Managing your energy use

3


26

3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE

3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE 3 Managing your energy use

Supermarket retail trends1 are pushing stores to become more energy intensive as they are carrying more fresh-food products, frozen-food aisles are expanding, food-safety temperature requirements are tightening and demand for prepared food is growing. Understanding energy demand, otherwise known as consumption or use, is an important step to identifying where the greatest efficiencies could be achieved to reduce energy costs. It is important to acknowledge that not only is energy used within your own retail store but it is consumed along the whole supply chain. Beginning with your suppliers such as farms, dairies, bakeries and beverage manufacturers, through to processors, packers and wholesalers, then distribution centres, before being used by transportation companies to deliver products to your store. In this section we will focus on the energy demand within you supermarket or liquor store.

3.1 Energy use within the Australian food, grocery and liquor retail industries The majority of a storeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy consumption is common to a handful of uses such as refrigeration, lighting, heating, cooling and ventilation. Contributing to over 75% of energy consumption from electricity sources, it can be broken down as shown in Figure 3.1.1.

Figure 3.1.1: Energy use in the average Australian supermarket Source: Australian Grocery and Food Council (2003)

1 Energy Star, 2008.

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3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE

27

Most Australian supermarkets rely heavily on the use of electricity to provide the store with facilities and services (with gas commonly used for water heating and in some cases cooking and space heating).

3 Managing your energy use

Ausmart, an Australian retail industry service and equipment provider, determined typical supermarket electricity use for stores that have air conditioning and those without, as shown in Figure 3.1.2.

Figure 3.1.2: Average Australian supermarket electricity use (with and without air conditioning services) Source: Ausmart (2012)

3.2 Managing energy demand A strategic approach to managing energy demand will allow you to better understand your energy use. It will support the implementation of technologies, processes and practices that will drive performance improvements across your store and operations. Managing energy effectively will result in decreased costs, improved profitability, reduced carbon emissions and reduced waste. The first step to determine how far along your energy management journey you have travelled is to use an Energy Management Matrix (refer Figure 3.2.1) to identify and describe your current level of energy management. You do this by: â&#x20AC;˘ Highlighting which level (0-4) applies to your organisation under each of the six energy management themes (policy, organizing, staff motivation, tracking, staff awareness and investment.) â&#x20AC;˘ Drawing a line between each highlighted box. This will uncover the extent to which your approach to managing energy is balanced or unbalanced. Your approach is balanced if you are on the same level for all six themes. It is unbalanced if you are further ahead in some themes than others. If your approach is unbalanced it will highlight the themes that need additional resources to be improved.

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3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE

Refer to Appendix for an interactive version of the Energy Management Matrix. You can choose to manage your own energy use to get your energy costs down or engage an external provider to assist you. If you choose to engage an external service provider you may wish to refer to Section 1.1, for further information on what to consider and the questions to ask when selecting external expertise. 3 Managing your energy use

The following sections have been prepared to help you to develop and implement your own energy management system. Level

Energy Management

Organising

Staff motivation

Policy

4

Tracking monitoring

Staff awareness/

and reporting

training and

systems

promotion

Investment

Energy

Clear delegation

Formal and

Comprehensive

Marketing the

Positive

management policy,

for responsibility

informal channels

system sets

value of energy

discrimination in

action plan and

for energy

of communication

targets, monitors

efficieny and the

favour of energy

regular review have

consumption.

regularly exploited

consumption,

performance

saving schemes with

commitment of top

by energy manager

identifies faults,

of energy

detailed investment

management as

and energy staff at

quantifies savings

management

appraisal of all new

past of a corporate

all levels.

and provides

both within the

building, equipment

budget tracking.

organisation and

and refurbishing

outside it.

opportunities.

strategy. Energy management fully integrated into management structure. 3

Formal energy

Energy manager

Energy committee

Monitoring and

Program of staff

Cursory appraisal

management

accountable to

used as main

targeting reports

training awareness

of new building,

policy, but no active

energy committee

channel together

for individual

and regular publicity

equipment and

commitment from

representing all

with direct contact

premises based on

campaigns. Some

refurbishment

top management.

users, chaired by

with major users.

sub-metering, but

payback criteria

opportunities.

savings not reported

employed as for all

a member of the

effectively to users.

other investment.

Unadopted energy

Energy manger

Contact with major

Monitoring and

Energy unit has

Investment using

management

in post, reporting

users through ad-

targeting reports

ad-hoc involvement

short-term payback

policy set by energy

to ad-hoc

hoc committee

based on supply

budget setting.

criteria only.

manager or senior

committee, but line

chaired be senior

meter data.

Some ad-hoc staff

departmental

management and

departmental

manager.

authority unclear.

manager.

An unwritten set of

Informal contacts

Cost reporting

Energy manager

Informal contacts

Only low-cost

guidelines. Energy

between energy

based on invoice

complies reports

used to promote

measures taken.

management

mangaer and a few

data.

for internal use

energy efficiency.

the part-time

users.

managing board. 2

1

awareness and training.

within technical department.

responsibility of something with only limited authority and influence. 0

No explicit policy.

No contact with

No information

No accounting

No promotion of

No investment in

No energy manager

users.

system.

for energy

energy efficiency.

increasing energy

or any formal;

consumption.

delegation of

efficiency in premises/sites.

responsibility for energy consumption

Figure 3.2.1: Energy Management Matrix

Source: Based on BRECSU 1993 Energy Management Matrix.

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29

This section is probably the most important section of the Handbook â&#x20AC;&#x201C; effective implementation of an energy management system will underpin the effectiveness of all other energy efficiency improvements. The energy management system process outlined in this section is aligned with all the other sections of the Handbook and to the self assessment tool and fact sheets.

Establishing an energy management system should be the first step in any approach to managing energy use. An energy management system will help you to build business value by establishing lasting processes to monitor and enhance energy efficiency. The scope of an energy management system should be aligned with existing business priorities and systems. The key elements to an energy management system are:

Organise management resources

COMMITMENT

Formalise an energy management policy or incorporate energy into other business systems

Appoint an energy champion and establish an implementation plan

UNDERSTANDING

Set up an energy use and monitoring system

Undertake a self-assessment of your store Engage an energy auditor PLANNING Develop an energy action plan

Implement a staff awareness and training program IMPLEMENTATION Implement projects from energy action plan

Regular reporting and annual review MANAGEMENT & MONITORING

Figure 3.3.1: Overview of an energy management system

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3 Managing your energy use

3.3 Developing an energy management system


30

3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE

3.3.1 Commitment

Sustainability and leadership

3.3.1.1 Leadership, management resourcing and responsibility

3 Managing your energy use

Your commitment is the foundation of an effective energy management system. In order to be effective you must have clear energy performance objectives and allocate sufficient resources to implement and manage the system to ensure it benefits your business. The commitment should be communicated across all levels of your business, starting with the business owner or manager and including all staff. 3.3.1.2 Establishing an energy management policy An energy management policy is an important document that demonstrates your commitment to improving energy performance. An energy management policy can either exist as an individual policy document or as by integrating energy management objectives and commitments into existing policy statements (such as environment or quality policies). The energy management policy should establish an overall direction for energy management. It should also state how energy management is aligned with any broader continuous improvement efforts: identify energy management objectives, identify accountable and responsible staff, specify energy performance targets and the timeframe within which the objectives will be achieved.

Metcash established a company wide sustainability policy in November 2008. This policy demonstrates solid leadership backing for the establishment of site energy management systems and policies. The policy can be found at http://www. iga.com.au/igafresh/ site_files/s1001/files/ iga_sustainability_ policy_aug11.pdf

As all subsequent actions will be reviewed against this policy it should be supported by new strategies for energy management, decision-making and improvement planning. Refer to Appendix for an example of an Energy management policy.

3.3.2 Understanding 3.3.2.1 Appointing an energy champion and an energy team The energy champion is typically responsible for overseeing the development and implementation of the energy management system. Development and implementation of a best practice energy management system requires the involvement of staff from many different areas and functional roles across the business. The energy team should include people with operational and technical knowledge, finance and business representatives with the authority to make business decisions. The establishment of an energy team may reveal additional training and skill development opportunities, which may form a useful development pathway for participating staff.

Figure 3.3.2 Example of an energy management policy

One of the key roles for the energy team will be to engage the organisation to build energy efficiency into its culture and empower employees to develop and implement new initiatives that are consistent with achieving the organisationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy performance objectives. There is often no one better suited to identifying how to make a business function more (energy) efficiently than the person who is involved in the function each day.

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3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE

31

3.3.2.2 Implementing a monitoring and reporting system

This system will be critical to support the completion of an energy audit and action planning.

3.3.3 Planning 3.3.3.1 Undertaking a self-assessment of your store Energy saving opportunities in your business can be identified through a simple assessment right through to an audit, in which current energy use is quantified and recommendations for energy efficiency improvements identified. As part of this program a self-assessment tool has been developed to enable you to identify quick actions and provide you with a plan that demonstrates the costs and benefits of energy efficiency within your store. 3.3.3.2 Engaging an energy auditor Following the self-assessment you may wish to engage an auditor to assist with the identification of specific recommendations for some of your larger plant and equipment that can be costed with return on investment and/or payback periods calculated to build the business for energy efficiency. An audit may include: • Reviewing your current bill and negotiating with your supplier to reduce tariffs and network charges. Auditors do this all the time and know what is likely to be acceptable • Investigating the usage of all types of energy consumed and energy using equipment within the building, complex or plant • Identifying the energy usage of all major heating and cooling applications and its percentage against total energy use • Identifying cost-effective measures to improve the efficiency of energy use • Estimating the potential energy savings, indicative budget costs and payback periods for each recommended action. Reviewing energy management strategies, including monitoring systems and evaluation process. An energy audit can be conducted by the energy champion who has been trained and has expertise in carrying out energy audits, or by engaging an energy auditor/consultant.

Employee engagement Employees are an important resource and can contribute ideas that are either low or no cost activities such as simple changes to work procedures and practices including: • Equipment running for no purpose or early/late equipment start-up and shutdown times • Unnecessary heating and cooling • Excessive lighting levels or lighting in areas that are vacant • Incorrect thermostat settings.

Self-assessment tool The self-assessment tool has been developed to assist you to identify efficiencies within your store based on the information provided within this Handbook. By answering each question within each section of the selfassessment tool on each of the major consuming areas within your store you will be able to understand where efficiencies can be made in relation to costs and benefits and actual percentage savings. At the end of the selfassessment you will be presented with an action plan that can be used to track your progress in relation to implement energy efficiencies within your store.

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3 Managing your energy use

A system should be established to collect, analyse and report on your organisation’s energy costs, consumption and where energy is used. Regular monitoring and reporting will assist the organisation to: • Understand current energy use, energy costs and energy consumption trends • Create energy performance KPIs and targets • Establish an energy performance benchmark and compare future performance against the benchmark • Support the decision-making process regarding the implementation of projects to achieve energy performance improvement objectives • Confirm savings from energy efficiency investments.


3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE

32

3.3.3.3 Developing an action plan An energy management action plan guides a company’s efforts to improve energy efficiency. It represents a commitment to saving energy. It creates a management and operational plan through which energy efficiency objectives and requirements can be developed, monitored and realised. 3 Managing your energy use

It is important to assess the current energy status of the company before developing an action plan. This initial review is most often done as part of an energy audit and is the means by which a company establishes its current position with regard to energy use. The scope and detail of the plan will depend upon the resources available, especially time. The plan should focus on low cost, energy saving practices and procedures as well as energy saving technologies, especially when there are opportunities for an upgrade, maintenance or other changes to plant and equipment. The plan will document energy saving opportunities and help you to prioritise them according to payback periods, cost/benefit or return on investment. It will provide you with a plan of your opportunities and allow you to keep track of what needs to be done, when and who is responsible. An action plan will identify resources, budgets, proposed implementation timelines and financial returns for each activity. The types of initiatives identified through an audit and included in an action plan include: • • • • • •

Negotiation with your energy supplier Changes to operational procedures Review of maintenance as it affects efficient use of energy Modification or replacement of existing plant and/or equipment Further in-depth studies of potential to reduce energy use of particular plant or processes A commitment to ongoing training and information dissemination to increase awareness among staff.

An example of an energy action plan is as follows: Energy Action Plan Project

Project

Cost

cost ($)

savings

Grant ($)

Payback

Energy

Responsible

Completion

(years)

savings

person

date

Store

April 2013

(kWh/MJ)

($/year) Low cost/no cost projects Lighting motion detectors

$250

$86

2.9

860kWh

manager

Install motion detectors in back of house and corridor and rest rooms. Capital projects Power factor correction upgrade

$16000

$7000

2.3

n/a

Install and commission power factor correction equipment

Store

November

manager

2013

Store

September

manager

2012

to improve power factor from 0.82 to 0.95. Completed projects Air-conditioning thermostats

$1200

$1530

0.8

Install and commission thermostatic control of air-

1,268 kWh

conditioning system in front of house

Refer to Appendix for the full size energy action plan worksheet with a provision for Government rebates and grants.

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33

Populating the energy action plan is made easy with a list of action checklist items at the end of each of the equipment sections. Refrigeration – Section 4.1 3 Managing your energy use

Lighting – Section 4.3 HVAC – Section 4.2 Hot water – Section 4.4 Electrical appliances and equipment – Section 4.5

3.3.4 Implementation 3.3.4.1 Staff awareness Educating staff will assist with building awareness of energy issues, creating motivation and raising the profile of energy management. 3.3.4.2 Energy efficiency action plan Energy saving initiatives should be implemented in order of priority as set out in the action plan. The progress of individual projects will need to be closely monitored to ensure they stay within budget and achieve the energy target within the specified timeframe.

3.3.5 Controlling and monitoring 3.3.5.1 Regular reporting and reviews Frequent and high quality communication practices are a key factor in a successful energy management system. Consistent reporting across all levels of the business will provide transparency and accountability and help to maintain support for the program. A continuous feedback process should be used, promoting the flow of information on policies, plans, ideas, decisions and performance. A regular (annual) review of the energy management system should be undertaken to ensure it is operating in line with any relevant standards and to ensure it is providing the greatest value to the business.

Glossary of terms – Managing your energy use Energy audit

An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows for energy conservation in a building, process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output of the system.

HVAC

Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning.

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3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE

Appendix â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Energy management matrix Level

Energy management

Organising

Staff motivation

policy 3 Managing your energy use

4

Tracking monitoring

Staff awareness/

and reporting

training and

systems

promotion

Investment

Energy

Clear delegation

Formal and

Comprehensive

Marketing the

Positive

management policy,

for responsibility

informal channels

system sets

value of energy

discrimination in

action plan and

for energy

of communication

targets, monitors

efficieny and the

favour of energy

regular review have

consumption.

regularly exploited

consumption,

performance

saving schemes with

commitment of top

by energy manager

identifies faults,

of energy

detailed investment

management as

and energy staff at

quantifies savings

management

appraisal of all new

past of a corporate

all levels.

and provides

both within the

building, equipment

budget tracking.

organisation and

and refurbishing

outside it.

opportunities.

strategy. Energy management fully integrated into management structure. 3

Formal energy

Energy manager

Energy committee

Monitoring and

Program of staff

Cursory appraisal

management

accountable to

used as main

targeting reports

training awareness

of new building,

policy, but no active

energy committee

channel together

for individual

and regular publicity

equipment and

commitment from

representing all

with direct contact

premises based on

campaigns. Some

refurbishment

top management.

users, chaired by

with major users.

sub-metering, but

payback criteria

opportunities.

savings not reported

employed as for all

a member of the

effectively to users.

other investment.

Unadopted energy

Energy manger

Contact with major

Monitoring and

Energy unit has

Investment using

management

in post, reporting

users through ad-

targeting reports

ad-hoc involvement

short-term payback

policy set by energy

to ad-hoc

hoc committee

based on supply

budget setting.

criteria only.

manager or senior

committee, but line

chaired be senior

meter data.

Some ad-hoc staff

departmental

management and

departmental

manager.

authority unclear.

manager.

An unwritten set of

Informal contacts

Cost reporting

Energy manager

Informal contacts

Only low-cost

guidelines. Energy

between energy

based on invoice

complies reports

used to promote

measures taken.

management

mangaer and a few

data.

for internal use

energy efficiency.

the part-time

users.

managing board. 2

1

awareness and training.

within technical department.

responsibility of something with only limited authority and influence. 0

No explicit policy.

No contact with

No information

No accounting

No promotion of

No investment in

No energy manager

users.

system.

for energy

energy efficiency.

increasing energy

or any formal;

consumption.

delegation of

efficiency in premises/sites.

responsibility for energy consumption

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3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE

35

Energy management policy

Company logo

Company strives to use energy in the most efficient, cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner possible. Under this policy, energy management will play a key role in support of our plan to maximise profitability, strengthen our competitive position and provide customers with the highest quality products. Our efforts to reduce energy use will also support our commitment to our employees, the environment and the communities in which we are a part. Company will work towards continuously improving energy performance. We will establish specific implementation plans by DD/MM/YYYY and will have made significant achievements in this area within X years’ time. Company’s objectives under this policy are the following: • Maximise energy performance, reduce operating expenses and increase shareholder value by actively and responsibly managing energy consumption • Demonstrate commitment to our community and leadership in our industry, by reducing environmental impacts associated with energy use. To achieve these objectives Company has committed to: • Compliance with all energy management laws, regulations and Codes of Practice in existing operations, upgrades and new developments • Operating practices that seek to minimise impacts through works and management practices, continual improvement, training and the use of new technology • Improve employee awareness and encouraging the sharing of experiences and expertise • Management review of energy objectives and targets • Communication of this policy • Consultation within Company, within the supply chain and with other relevant bodies, community groups and neighbours about energy management matters of common concern. Company will endeavour to meet or exceed an energy management target to reduce intensity (MJ/unit) by XX% by DD/MM/YYYY. This policy shall apply to all of Company’s facilities, business units, employees and contractors in service to our business. Signature Name Position DD/MM/YYYY

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3 Managing your energy use

Appendix – Energy management policy


36

3 MANAGING YOUR ENERGY USE

Appendix â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Energy action plan Energy Action Plan Project 3 Managing your energy use

Project

Cost

cost ($)

savings

Grant ($)

Payback

Energy

Responsible

Completion

(years)

savings

person

date

Store

April 2013

(kWh/MJ)

($/year) Low cost/no cost projects Lighting motion detectors

$250

$86

2.9

860kWh

manager

Install motion detectors in back of house and corridor and rest rooms.

Capital projects Power factor correction upgrade

$16000

$7000

2.3

n/a

Install and commission power factor correction equipment

Store

November

manager

2013

Store

September

manager

2012

to improve power factor from 0.82 to 0.95.

Completed projects Air-conditioning thermostats

$1200

$1530

0.8

Install and commission thermostatic control of air-

1,268 kWh

conditioning system in front of house

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REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS 4.1 Refrigeration systems

4.1


38

4.1 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

4.1 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS Supermarkets can consume up to 2.25 GWh of electricity per annum from refrigeration systems alone, depending on their size and assuming the plant and equipment operations times are similar. That is similar to the amount of electicity used by 300 to 400 Australian households per year. Refrigeration systems are the largest energy consumers in supermarket and liquor stores, consuming between 50% and 70% of your site energy use, are an obvious first area to start to look for efficiencies within your operations.

An example of typical energy consumed by refrigeration systems according to store size is shown in Figure 4.1.1:

2,500,000

kWh per annum

4.1 Refrigeration systems

If you are a small retail outlet paying, for example,15 cents per kWh for your electrcity, then you could be spending $75,000 a year on electricity just for your fridges and freezers. If youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re a large store that could be as much as $330,000 per year.

2,000,000

1,500,000

1,000,000

500,000

0 refrigeration systems in a typical supermarket 1 Figure 4.1.1: Energy use from Small

Medium

Large

The systems described within this Handbook will be representative of those usually found in retail operations such as yours. Improving the efficiency and reducing the load on a refrigeration plant can improve its reliability and reduce the likelihood of a breakdown. It is also equally important to understand the energy use of the refrigeration system in the context of your whole store. Considering the system and interrelated impacts across your whole store is key to achieving and maintaining energy savings. Improving the efficiency of your refrigeration system may not always result in an identified saving if another piece of equipment has to work harder to compensate e.g. the air conditioning has to work harder if the cold air return has been switched off.

1 Carbon Trust, Chilling Energy Costs, 2012

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Energy saving does not need to be expensive. According to the Carbon Trust up to 20% of energy use can be cut through actions that require little or no investment to refrigeration systems. Typical savings can be found as shown in Figure 4.1.2.

More efficient equipment Control

4.1 Refrigeration systems

Mantenance

Figure 4.1.2: Typical energy saving opportunities Source: Carbon Trust

Energy used by supermarket cabinets can be further broken down into percentage energy use by low temperature (freezers) and medium temperature (chillers) as follows: It can be seen in Figure 4.1.3 that the majority of energy consumed by freezers and chillers is used by the plant and equipment. A smaller percentage of energy is consumed by other services used by the cabinet, such as lights, fans, defrost heaters and anti-sweat heaters. 50% Services

40%

Plant and equipment

30%

20%

10%

0 Low Temperature Plant (Freezer)

Medium Temperature Plant (Chiller)

Figure 4.1.3: Energy use breakdown by consumption in a typical supermarket1 Source: Refrigeration Roadmap, Carbon Trust

1 Carbon Trust, Chilling Energy Costs, 2012

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According to the Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air conditioning and Heating (AIRAH), typical electricity use of refrigeration systems can be broken down by percentage consumption as shown in Figure 4.1.4.

70% 60% 50% 4.1 Refrigeration systems

40% 30% 20% 10% 0 Compressors

Condenser fans

Evaporator fans

Defrost heaters

Figure 4.1.4: Typical energy use breakdown by refrigeration plant and equipment Source: Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air-conditioning and Heating

Improvements to modern refrigeration systems has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 15% to 40%. Improving simple operational practices with minimal expense can often reduce energy costs by 15% or more. Changes to your refrigeration system should always be undertaken in consultation with your maintenance or service provider. This will ensure that the options are both feasible for your system and take into consideration the effect of any change on other energy consuming equipment installed within your store. It should be noted that federal and state based acts that require service providers to be appropriately licenced to make changes and modification to refrigeration plant and equipment. For example, all technicians who handle fluorocarbon refrigerants are to be licenced by the Australian Refrigeration Council.

The purchase cost for a typical cabinet is approximately 25% of the total cost to run the system (including electricity consumption) over the course of the equipmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s working life. The more energy efficient the cabinet, the less the running costs will be over the life of the system.

The following sections have been prepared to help you to understand what efficiencies could be achieved within your store. If you require the assistance of an external service provider, refer to Section 1.1, for further information on what to consider and the questions to ask when selecting external expertise.

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4.1.1 Refrigerated display cabinets 4.1.2.1 Cabinet location Display cabinets should be located in a cool area and not in direct sunlight to keep energy consumption low. Plan out where display cabinets are located within your store to maintain comfort levels. Avoid locating them close to draughty environments as air movement can have an effect on open-fronted cabinets by increasing energy consumption by up to 95%. 4.1.2.2 Stocking levels and times 4.1 Refrigeration systems

Over stocking your refrigerated areas and display cabinets can change how they operate and decrease their efficiency by as much as 10% to 20% per system due to: • Increased store air mixing with refrigerated air increasing compressor loads • Increased running times of compressors • Increased system temperatures • Increased loss of refrigerated air • Increased defrost requirements. Over filling refrigeration systems can also reduce cold airflow around products, reducing the performance and efficiency of the refrigeration system. Blocking the grills in a multi-deck cabinet will force useful cold air into the shopping aisle, making the refrigeration plant work harder to maintain correct product temperatures. Reducing loading times will minimise the infiltration and reduce heat gain to food as well as reducing energy use. 4.1.2.3 Air leakage In frozen display cabinets the heat load across the insulation can be as high as 17% of the total heat load. Improving cabinet insulation will improve system efficiencies. Fitting transparent doors on open fronted chilled display cases can result in up to 30% reduction in energy consumption. After adding doors, cabinets will require recommissioning and the chilled refrigerator pack will require resetting, to ensure that the highest possible energy efficiency gains are achieved.

Losing cold air from refrigeration systems will mean that your store’s heating system will have to work harder to compensate for the temperature differences. Minimising cold air loses as well as heat infiltration will increase the efficiency of your store.

Adding doors to open display cases will reduce the amount of cold air spilling into the store. This cold air may have been reducing the heat load on your air conditioning system. You should review the settings and efficiency of your air conditioning system after your have fitted the doors. It is likely that the operational cycle of your air conditioning will increase as a result. Likewise, the reduction in cold air spilling into your store will reduce the operational load on your heating system. With approximately 60% to 80% of the heat load occurring through the front of open front multi-deck cabinets, air curtains are a good opportunity to reduce infiltration. Dual and triple air curtains reduce infiltration and cold air escaping from the display cabinets and onto the shopping aisle. They have been available in upright open cases in Europe for over 10 years and could be considered as part of store refurbishment or during new store design (see Section 8). It is important to remember that air curtains, whilst good, are not as effective as glass doors.

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Closing the gap between the air discharge grill and the air return grill reduces the movement of ambient air into the display case will result in lowering the operational load of the unit and saving energy. Low rises may assist to reduce cold air losses where there are no doors fitted to chilled display cases. Installing radiant heat reflectors can reduce radiant heat gains in open-top freezer cabinets by approximately 25%. 4.1.2.4 Product temperature

4.1 Refrigeration systems

Make sure that the products loaded into cabinets have not been left in an ambient temperature area where they may have warmed up slightly above the refrigerant temperature. This is also an important food safety issue. 4.1.2.5 Store humidity Introducing dry air to your store can reduce the energy consumed by open cabinets through reducing the heat load on your systems. This will lead to less condensation and frost formation, reductions in defrost cycles, decrease in antisweat heater energy requirements and improvements in the temperature stability of products. 4.1.2.6 Mandatory Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) Refrigerated display cabinets manufactured in or imported into Australia and New Zealand must comply with Minimum Energy Performance (MEPS) requirements which are set out in Australian Standard (AS) AS 1731.14-2003. The scope of commercial refrigeration MEPS includes both remote and self-contained refrigerated display cabinets, primarily used in commercial applications, for the storage of frozen and unfrozen food. The standard also defines minimum efficiency levels for â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;high efficiencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; refrigerated display cabinets. Only products which meet the specified efficiency levels can apply this term to promotional or advertising materials. The Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for commercial refrigeration are set out in AS 1731.14-2003 as total energy consumption per total display area (TEC/TDA) in kWh/day/square metre for various unit types. The test procedures for commercial refrigeration are the specified parts AS 1731. Refer to the government web site for all MEPS ratings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.energyrating.gov.au. AS1731 or MEPS does not apply to refrigerated vending machines, cabinets intended for use in catering and similar non-retail applications. However, MEPS for vending machines is under consideration.

4.1.2 Refrigeration plant and equipment efficiencies In this section a number new technology improvements will be explored that can be implemented within your store to reduce energy consumption. Although mainly relating to existing plant and equipment. The importance of regular maintenance and monitoring program for your store will also be explored. 4.1.2.1 Commissioning and recommissioning To optimise the operation of your refrigeration plant, commissioning and recommissioning should be undertaken, by a qualified technician, after you have installed new equipment or implemented some of the changes recommended within this document. Recommissioning can be as cost effective as the changes applied to your system. This enables your technician the opportunity to reset and calibrate your plant and equipment, in addition to potentially solving other problems that you may not know existed. It may also help you to understand your current operational needs and assist in lowering future maintenance costs.

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Compressor condensing temperatures should be set at the lowest possible level, as every 1oC of overcooling can result in between 3% and 5% reduction in energy efficiency1. Once you have reduced the condensing temperature within your compressors other areas for energy efficiency that could be investigated would include: • Installing a floating or variable head pressure control valve to allow the condensing temperature to adjust in line with outside and ambient temperatures • Programing the compressors to run under summer conditions to allow the temperature to float down in the winter months, saving even more energy for stores located within cooler climates.

Many refrigeration systems are run on a ‘set and forget’ basis, particularly where the plant’s head pressure is concerned. The lack of flexibility in setting the head pressure leads to unnecessary energy consumption, due to temperature fluctuations or compressor power consumption.

Installing floating or variable head pressure controls assist to optimise the head pressure of the refrigeration plant while taking into account operational factors, such as minimum compression ratios and oil separation and variables such as ambient conditions and plant load. When head pressure is optimised, the combined power consumption of the high-stage compressor and the condenser fan is minimised. Depending on your system condensing and section temperatures, typical average annual energy savings could be between 9% and 35% of high stage pressure power consumption with a payback of between <4 and <1 year2. If you can’t reduce the More compressor control can also be achieved by installing a variable speed drive (VSD) to modulate the capacity of the compressor instead of relying entirely on slide valve controls to reduce compressor speeds. Potential energy savings that could be achieved using VSD’s on a number of positive displacement compressors could be greater than 10% of energy used by the compressors themselves.

condensing temperature within your compressor, increasing liquid pressures can lead to a reduction in energy consumption anywhere between 20% to 30%.

The following table shows the potential savings from the installation of a VSD for a 5.5 kW and an 8.5 kW screw compressor motor operating for 8,000 hours per year. In these cases, payback can be less than three years. More compressor control can also be achieved by installing a variable speed drive (VSD) to modulate the capacity of the compressor instead of relying entirely on slide valve controls to reduce compressor speeds. Potential energy savings that could be achieved using VSD’s on a number of positive displacement compressors could be greater than 10% of energy used by the compressors themselves.

1 Carbon Trust, Chilling Energy Costs, 2012 2 NSW Office of Environment & Heritage, Energy Saver Technology Report, Industrial refrigeration and chilled glycol and water applications, July 2011

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When upgrading or replacing fans and motors ensure that they are appropriately sized for the load. Choose high efficiency motors when replacing existing motors. High efficiency motors offer 3% to 4% reduction in energy consumption for similar cost. Combined with choosing the correct and often smaller size, this makes for a significantly lower operating cost.

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The following table shows the potential savings from the installation of a VSD for a 5.5 kW and an 8.5 kW screw compressor motor operating for 8,000 hours per year. In these cases, payback can be less than three years. Energy consumption 5.5 kW motor with no VSD

Energy consumption 5.5 kW motor with VSD

Energy consumption 18.5 kW motor with no VSD

Energy consumption 18.5 kW motor with VSD

Annual energy use (kWh)

44000

35200

148000

118400

Annual energy cost

$4400

$3520

$14800

$11840

4.1 Refrigeration systems

Annual enegry saving

$800

$2960

VSD cost

$1295

$3460

Payback

1.5 years

1.2 years

Assumptions: 8000 operating hours per year; 20% reduction in energy consuption due to VSD; electricity cost 10 cents/kWh. Figure 4.1.5: Variable speed drive efficiencies

Source: Energy efficiency best practice guide â&#x20AC;&#x201C; industrial refrigeration; Sustainability Victoria 2009

Care must be taken when installing VSDs to ensure that the machine is suitable for variable speed operation. Ask your service provider to provide a detailed analysis of minimum speed for the lubrication system and the seals5. 4.1.2.3 Condensers Installing VSDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s on condenser fans can reduce typical operating costs in the order of 2% to3% of total refrigeration costs5. Variable-speed fans on air-based evaporators can also result in a good return depending on operating conditions. In both circumstances the fan speed control should be linked to the compressor head pressure management system and ambient conditions. 4.1.2.4 Evaporators Replacing thermostatic expansion valves (TEVs) with electronic expansion valves will enable better evaporator superheat control and therefore more efficient usage of the evaporator. 4.1.2.5 Defrosting and system heaters Minimising the number of defrosts for frozen food cabinets saves energy. Intelligent defrost controls will ensure that evaporator units are only defrosted as and when needed instead of defrosting at scheduled or pre-set times. Defrost controls with temperature cut-out will avoid unnecessary heating. Alternatively, using natural or off-cycle defrost times to further reduce energy use.

Consideration should be given to using a speed controller or a variable speed drive on fans and motor to control flow rates. In most instances reducing evaporator fan speeds by 20% can immediately reduce energy consumption by nearly 50%.

Anti-fog window film can be installed on to glass doors and cabinets, instead of using anti-sweat heaters to prevent the build-up of condensation. Manufacturers claim that the need for anti-sweat heaters can be greatly reduced or eliminated, saving over 900 kWh per door, which would equate to over $130 per door per year. This will be dependent on the store conditions e.g. air conditioning, heating, humidity levels and proximity to external air sources (doors). If anti-sweat heaters are still required, switching them off after hours will also save energy. 5 Go to PDF document http://ww2.gpem.uq.edu.au/CleanProd/food_project/Food%20manual%20Part%204%20-%20Energy.pdf

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4.1.3 Insulation, lagging and seals Above and beyond any of the opportunities for efficiencies mentioned above, it is important to maintain air tightness and the thermal integrity of any system by sealing all leaks and ensuring that the insulation is in good condition and free from damage.

Evaporator drains should also be insulated and sealed to prevent unwanted air from being drawn from the outside into refrigeration and freezer systems. This will also prevent ice build-up resulting from the moisture in the unwanted air. Make sure the doors on your freezers, refrigerators and display cases seal tightly and repair any damaged door seals. Repair and fix old, worn gaskets. Installing strip curtains into open-fronted cabinets can save up to 30% of the energy used by the cabinet. Installing strip curtains on all freezer rooms and medium temperature rooms can save up to 5% of the energy used by the rooms. Well-fitting night blinds can reduce energy use by up to 15% to 35% when used outside of trading hours. However, the level of energy saving achieved is a function of the ambient temperature of the store, how well the blinds fit and the length of time they are used. It should be noted that they will not be applicable for stores that operate 24 hours a day.

4.1.4 Lighting Upgrading cabinets by investing in more efficient lamps will not only help you to save energy. Through reduced consumption by the lighting system, it may also reduce the heat load within the cabinet itself resulting in even greater savings. New technology such as LED lighting has the ability to achieve both. With longer life expectancies and less maintenance, the return on investment could be less than three years. More energy efficient systems that produce more light and use less energy, often means it is possible to remove additional lamps due to the increased lighting levels of the new lights. More information on lighting technology is detailed in Section 4.3.

4.1.5 Refrigerant gases Refrigerant gases are topped up when your systems in repaired and maintained. Selecting the correct gas and ensuring sufficient is in the system helps your equipment to operate efficiently. The costs of nearly all refrigerant gases have risen dramatically due to a range of factors, so minimising leaks and understanding your requirements can save you money. According to AIRAH3, doing nothing could mean that refrigeration systems will lose their optimum refrigerant charge over time, adversely affecting their operating efficiency and overall energy use. System efficiencies that reduce over time could potentially lead to increased ongoing electricity costs at best and premature system failure at worst.

3 AIRAH. (August 2012). Low Emission HVAC&R, Fact Sheet 2 - The HFC Refrigerant Levy - Managing the financial and associated risks.

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All refrigeration pipework should be insulated to prevent unwanted heat gain. Insulation should be sufficiently thick enough to prevent condensation forming and to protect against adverse weather conditions and sunlight.


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Industrial refrigeration systems (including food processing and cold storage systems) and commercial refrigeration systems (i.e. supermarket systems) can have gas leakage rates up to 16% and 23% per annum, respectively4. Leakages of refrigerant can reduce a systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s efficiency by 40% and should be kept to less than 2% of the annual charge5. As a result you should require your service technician to report the volume of recharging at every service and maintain a record over time. This will enable you to can observe the relationship between refrigerant leakage and energy efficiency. The type of refrigerant gas can also affect the efficiency of a system by up to 10%. For instance changing from R404a to R407 is sometimes recommended but the outcomes are dependent on a number of factors that your service technician should address. 4.1 Refrigeration systems

Old refrigeration systems are generally more likely to leak refrigerants and cause energy efficiency losses. If your refrigeration system is older than 10 years you should consider replacing it because the cost of replacing the system may be less than the operating cost of an old system. When you do consider replacing your refrigeration system, consider a system that uses alternative refrigerants, like hydrocarbons or CO2, because they are more energy efficient and not subject to the SGG levy. See Section 5 for more information on the choice of refrigeration gases for refrigeration and freezer systems.

4.1.6 Heat recovery and reuse Heat recovered from your plant and equipment can be used to heat your store and preheat water that can be used by your store for washing and cleaning or used to preheat boiler hot water. Heat can be recovered from fridge and freezer condensers and compressor lubrication oil and then be directed to an inline heating coil with the mechanical system or hot water system to pre-heat the air or water. The size and type of refrigeration systems will dictate the viability heat recovery. The type of heat recovery unit will also depend on your store makeup and might include the installation of a de-superheater or other similar units. Energy savings could be up to 4% of energy used to heat hot water or up to 30% of reduced boiler energy consumption. Refer to Section 4.2 for more information on store heating and Section 4.4 for hot water heating.

4 Australian National Greenhouse Accounts, National Greenhouse Accounts Factors, Australian Government, Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, July 2012. 5 Go to PDF document http://ww2.gpem.uq.edu.au/CleanProd/food_project/Food%20manual%20Part%204%20-%20Energy.pdf

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4.1.7 Action planning checklist

Tick

Action

Cost

Benefit

Simplicity

Educate staff to use night blinds when appropriate

-





Ensure stock and sales doors are closed as frequently as possible

-



Only fill cabinets to maximum fill lines

$





Ensure all grills are free from blockages and cabinet insulation is in good condition

$





Reduce loading times and close doors when restocking

$





Implement a cleaning program

$





Set compressor condensing temperatures as low as possible (where relevant)

$



Check for refrigerant gas leaks and maintain the correct levels of refrigerant gas within the systems

$



Locate your cabinets out of areas that receive direct sunlight and in the case of open cabinets areas that do not receive drafts

$



Program compressors to run under summer condition (where relevant)

$



Install strip curtains on cool room doorways

$



Install electronic expansion valves

$$



Install a floating or variable head pressure control valve

$$



Investigate the fitting of doors to open cabinets and radiant heat reflectors to open top freezer cabinets

$$



Implement a preventive maintenance program

$$



Install VSD’s on compressors, condenser and evaporator fans

$$



Install night blinds where appropriate

$$



Consider replacing old systems with alternative gases

$$$



Install an airlock at the point of access

$$$



Cost

$ = lowest cost (payback < 2 years), $$ = payback is between approximately 2 and 3 years, $$$ = highest cost (payback > 3 years).

Benefit

 = lesser energy efficiency (< 10% overall savings),  = between 10 and 15% energy savings,  = greater energy efficiency (> 20% energy savings).

Simplicity

 = requires external/technical expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house but may require some external expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house.

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The following list of potential actions for your store’s Energy Action Plan will help you improve the energy efficiency of your refrigeration and freezer systems:


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4.1 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

Glossary of terms â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Refrigeration and freezers

4.1 Refrigeration systems

Ambient temperature

Where the surrounding temperature is the same as internal temperature of the store.

Anti-sweat heater

A system for removing condensate or sweat from glass door display cabinets.

Air curtain

Device used for separating two spaces from each other using downward air pressure, usually where one is conditioned and the other is maintained at a different temperature.

Chiller

A generic name for a packaged refrigeration system that often includes a compressor, evaporator heat exchanger, condenser water heat exchanger and control system.

Compressor

Device that accepts gaseous refrigerant from the evaporator and compresses it to a higher pressure before it is sent to the condenser for heat rejection.

Condenser

Device for rejecting heat from the refrigeration system into the atmosphere.

Coefficient of

A measure of the efficiency of a refrigeration system performance (COP) defined as cooling duty (kW) / input power (kW).

Defrost heater

An electric heater in or under the freezer evaporator coil. This heater is turned on regularly to melt off accumulated frost so air can pass freely though the coil, giving up heat.

De-superheater

A device that captures the discharge gas of the compressor and recovers the heat in the process.

Dry air

Air that has low relative humidity and almost 0% water vapour.

Electronic expansion valves (EEV)

Valves that control the flow of refrigerant entering a direct expansion evaporator in response to signals sent to them by an electronic controller rather than by mechanical means.

Evaporator

Heat exchanger where refrigerant fluid is changed from liquid to gaseous state absorbing heat in the process expansion valve.

Expansion valve

Valve that is used to reduce the pressure in the refrigerant, allowing it to change from hot to cold liquid.

Head pressure

Pressure of gas exiting a refrigeration compressor.

Heat recovery

The process of recovering waste heat from refrigeration system for other purposes, such as preheating hot water.

Heat load

Amount of heat required to be removed within a certain period of time.

Radiant heat reflectors

Reflectors used to filter out radiant heat (infrared rays) emitted by a light or heat source.

Refrigerant

Heat exchange fluid that is vaporised and condensed in the refrigeration cycle to achieve cooling.

Refrigeration/ cooling load

The amount of heat that must be rejected from an area to keep a refrigerated area or process within permissible limits.

Recommissioning

Readjusting settings on cabinets and refrigeration plant to optimise its operation following changes and/or upgrades to the system.

Solar gain

Heating of a process or area from exposure to sunlight.

Suction pressure

Pressure of refrigerant at the intake end of the compressor.

Temperature lift

The difference between evaporative and condensing temperatures of a refrigerant.

Thermostatic expansion valve (TEV)

A refrigerant metering device that maintains a constant evaporator temperature by monitoring suction vapour superheat.

Variable-speed drive (VSD)

A control mechanism that allows control and variation in (VSD) the speed of a pump or other drive system such as a refrigeration compressor.

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4.2 HVAC

4.2


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4.2 HVAC

4.2

HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

A Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system controls the temperature, humidity and quality of the air. It provides customer comfort for a better shopping experience and helps maintain product quality. HVAC systems use about 21% of a supermarket’s energy consumption.

Combined heating, ventilation and cooling accounts for 21% of supermarket energy use.

4.2 HVAC

As the name suggests, HVAC is a system made up of three separate components (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) that should be considered together and in conjunction with your refrigeration system as they interact closely together to maintain a conditioned environment. Fine tuning each component with the refrigeration plant and equipment to behave as one system is the best way to save energy and money. Supermarkets have specific requirements for their HVAC systems: • Maintain air temperature and humidity to preserve the quality of the products e.g. excess heat and low humidity can dry out products, excess humidity can spoil products due to mould • Maintain a comfortable environment for customers and staff • Manage the cool air released from refrigeration and freezer cabinets • Manage the excess heat generated by food preparation areas such as kitchens or bakeries. Figure 4.2.1 shows the heat and cold loads in a typical supermarket. The role of the HVAC system is to balance these loads, maintain air quality across the day and compensate for seasonal influences throughout the year.

4.2.1 Energy consumption of HVAC systems Five factors determine the energy consumption of a HVAC system. Working through each of these will identify opportunities to reduce energy costs associated with heating and air conditioning. 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

External impacts – The extent to which the external environment impacts affect the internal temperature and humidity of the premises. This is affected by the design, layout and operation of the building. Indoor environmental requirements – The required temperature, humidity and air quality. The energy use of a HVAC system increases as the need for precise control of the temperature, humidity and air quality increases. Internal thermal sources – Heat is generated by lighting, equipment (e.g. refrigeration), operations (e.g. kitchen or bakery) and people. All these heat and cold sources impact on how the temperature within the building affects the air conditioning system and how it must compensate for them, which increases energy use. HVAC system efficiency and effectiveness – If the system is not designed appropriately to provide heating cooling and air conditioning, where it is needed in the store, then it will not operate at its peak efficiency. Operational control – If the system is being used, when it is not necessary or cannot be easily switched off when it is not required, then energy consumption will be higher than necessary.

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Figure 4.2.1: Specific and cumulative thermal loads of a typical operating supermarket over a 24 hour period There are three approaches to providing heating: 1. 2. 3. Cooling

Heating coils which heat the air as is passes through the ventilation system ducts. Gas fired blowers located around the store to heat to store during colder periods. Hot water radiators that heat the space directly. The hot water is heated using a hot water heater or a hot water boiler and piped to the radiators.

There are three approaches to providing cooling: 1.

2.

3.

Chillers that chill water for pumping to cooling coils that draw the heat out of the air as it is blown over them in the ventilation system ducts. A separate condenser or cooling tower removes the accumulated heat from the water as part of the refrigeration cycle in the chiller. Air conditioners that cool a refrigerant running through an evaporator coil that draws the heat out of the air as it is blown over it. A separate condenser releases the heat that builds up in the refrigerant. A compressor pumps the heat between the evaporator and the condenser. The evaporator and the condenser may be located separately or in the same cabinet depending the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design. There may be one larger system or there may be several smaller, independent systems operating throughout the building. Air or water from a cooling tower can be used to draw the heat out of the refrigerant more effectively. Evaporative coolers that cool external air through evaporation. These systems require the building to be ventilated to allow warm air to be expelled from the building as the cooler evaporative air is pumped into the building. Evaporative coolers are really only suitable for hot dry climates and require frequent maintenance. An additional system may also be required to manage the humidity of incoming air. Be mindful that evaporative coolers can result in condensation build up on glass door refrigerators and within open refrigerated cabinets.

Humidity

Systems may also have humidifiers or de-humidifiers that add or remove moisture from the air. These systems may be stand alone or integrated into the cooling system. Most air conditioners provide some degree of humidity control.

Pumps

Pumps circulate hot and chilled water around the building HVAC system.

Fans

Fans to extract the stale air from the building and introduce external air into the building.

Controls

Controls switch the various pieces of equipment on and off and adjust the air and water flow rates, temperatures and pressures. The controllers will use temperature sensors throughout the system to determine what pieces of the HVAC system to activate. The key to an effective control system is its operation of the systems cooperatively rather than having them fight against each other to balance the overall building environment.

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Heating


52

4.2 HVAC

HVAC systems can be quite complex and you should consult an experienced HVAC service engineer when seeking to better understand the nature of your HVAC system.

4.2.3 Opportunities to improve HVAC energy efficiency There are many opportunities to reduce energy consumption of your HVAC system and significantly reduce your energy costs. Below, a number of opportunities have been considered against the five factors that affect HVAC energy efficiency, which you could discuss with your service providers:

Due to the complex interrelated nature of HVAC components and other systems, it is recommended that you only make changes to your HVAC system with the input of your service contractors.

4.2.3.1 External impacts

4.2 HVAC

Mitigate the negative and harness the positive external environmental impacts that can affect the internal temperature and humidity of the premises. Opportunities to reduce energy usage in relation to the external impacts include: External heating

Use the external ambient temperature on warmer days and radiant heat from the sun to warm the internal environment of your premises. You can install windows or skylights to allow the radiant heat of the sun into the building whilst managing the potential overheating, lighting and glare impacts with window tinting and blinds. Ventilation fans can be install to bring in warm air from outside. Where the air enters the building should be considered in relation to the physical location of hot and cold equipment within the store.

External cooling

During cooler days, air can be brought directly into the premises without any conditioning. As with warm air, where the air enters the building should be considered in relation to the physical location of hot and cold equipment within the store.

Balancing equipment heat and cold loads

Review the physical store layout to ensure that heating and cooling loads are not affecting each other e.g. refrigeration cases should be located away from the bakery so their refrigeration systems do not have to balance the increased heat during baking. The physical location of heating and cooling loads is best considered as part of Zoning strategy for your HVAC system.

Zoning

Zone areas of the supermarket that have different heating and cooling needs and manage each of them as separate areas within your HVAC system. Zoning allows decentralisation of control enabling each area to have a different temperature, without affecting another. Ensure that your conditioned zones (e.g. sales floor) are physically separated from the unconditioned zones (e.g. back room) and or the external environment (i.e. through air locks or air curtains).

Positive store pressure

Maintaining the store under a positive pressure eliminates the leakage of unconditioned outside air into the building, changing the thermal comfort of customers and staff. Air infiltration may also lead to the buildup of humidity, which has a negative impact on refrigeration energy use and performance (longer defrost and higher door heater consumptions).

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4.2.3.2 Indoor environmental requirements The energy use of an HVAC system increases as the need for precise control of the temperature, humidity or air quality increases. It is important to assess the temperature and air quality needs of your premises and products rather than just operating at the highest possible setting, as this is often the most energy intensive. Opportunities to reduce energy usage in relation to indoor environmental impacts include: Temperature set points

Temperature set points should be set and checked regularly to meet the comfort requirement of customers and staff, taking into account ambient outside temperature. It is important to consider the external temperature as the customers entering the store are likely to be dressed for the external environment and they may become uncomfortable if the store temperature is significantly cooler or warmer.

Diagram of ‘dead band’ control indicating recommended temperatures 0oC

5oC

10oC

15oC

20oC

Heating is on until temperature reaches 19oC

25oC

30oC

35oC

40oC

Cooling is on when temperature exceeds 24oC

Heating and cooling

Figure 4.2.2: Dead band temperature set points Source: Carbon Trust Remember that you can also ensure that the comfort of your staff is maintained if you offer seasonally appropriate uniforms (e.g. short sleeves in summer). Humidity management

Controlling relative humidity is very energy intensive. Lower humidity is not always best for the produce and hence food quality plays a role in deciding the optimum control strategy. Make the minimum and maximum humidity set points as wide as possible if absolutely necessary. From an energy efficiency perspective, it is more economical to de-humidify using a HVAC system rather than to create frost in the refrigeration coils and doors.

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Typically in setting the set point for your HVAC system you would set a ‘dead band’ to ensure that the heating system and the cooling system were not functioning at the same time. Figure 4.2.2 shows a 5 degrees celcius ‘dead band’ where neither heating nor cooling is operating.


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4.2 HVAC

4.2.3.3 Internal sources Balancing the impact of other sources in the building on the HVAC and the impact of the HVAC on other systems is an important way to reduce HVAC system energy consumption. Opportunities to reduce energy usage in relation to internal heat sources include: Refrigeration cooling

Refrigeration and freezer cabinets and displays expel significant amounts of cold air into the store. Many cabinets are open 24/7, some are closed off at night with blinds that trap a significant proportion of the cold air, others have doors to contain the cold air but still release it when customers or staff opens the doors. This cold air must be balanced by the HVAC heating system.

4.2 HVAC

Closing off the refrigeration cabinets or freezers with thermal blinds traps the cold in the cabinet decreasing both heating and refrigeration energy consumption. Lighting waste heat

Inefficient lighting within the store produces waste heat. This heat is balanced by the HVAC cooling system. By introducing more efficient lighting you are also reducing your heat load and your HVAC system running costs – you are essentially saving money twice.

Exhausting conditioned air

Exhaust fans (e.g. in a kitchen or bakery) that remove conditioned air from the building increase the demand on the HVAC system for higher volumes of conditioned air. This can be alleviated with the introduction of ‘make-up’ air (air that is introduced to an environment that cancels out other air potentially entering an area with extraction fans operating) positioned locally at the point of extraction. Exhausting large quantities of conditioned air without balancing it with inflows also creates negative pressure in the store. Refer to Section ‘4.2.3.1 External Impacts – Positive store pressure’ for more information on the impacts of negative pressure.

Refrigeration waste heat

The refrigeration systems that cool the cabinets and display cases also produce heat (at the condenser). Refrigeration condenser heat can be reclaimed to preheat the ventilation inflow air when heating the building in winter and/or to preheat the hot water systems feed water.

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4.2.3.4 HVAC system efficiency and effectiveness

Performance check

Check the performance of key components such as compressors, condensers, evaporators, furnaces and filters. This should be a part of the planned preventative maintenance schedule.

Preventative maintenance

Proper, proactive maintenance will maintain system efficiency and extend equipment life. A preventative maintenance schedule should include: • Cleaning filters • Cleaning evaporator and condenser coils and fins • Checking for refrigerant coolant leaks and check/recharge refrigerant • Cleaning and sealing ducts • Checking compressor motor oil, belts and fan assembly • Checking that the thermostat is operating correctly.

Sensor calibration

Humidity and temperature sensors that control the HVAC unit should be calibrated periodically. Even a small error in the percentage of calibration can cause the HVAC unit to provide a less optimum environment for the store. It is recommended that you contact a HVAC specialist for advice around temperature settings.

Air balancing

Air balancing is required to ensure the amount of air in a given HVAC zone is the amount required to balance the given gain (or loss) of heat in that particular area. Undertaking measurements to ensure the balance is being maintained is critical to reveal if the system is operating to expectations.

Install fan shutters

Fitting shutters to ventilation, exhaust and extraction fans to seal them when they are not in use is a simple way to ensure that conditioned air does not leave the building and that unconditioned (external) air does not enter the building unnecessarily.

Re-commissioning

Re-commissioning is a systematic process of assuring that a building performs in accordance with design and your operational needs. It ensures that all systems are operating at an optimum level of performance.

Upgrading units

Replacing older, inefficient heating and air conditioning units, with more modern and efficient units can save a significant amount of money through reduced operating costs (energy and maintenance) and improved reliability. Before upgrading ensure that the new system is appropriately sized as sizing is a key factor influencing operational efficiency.

Install variable speed drives (VSDs)

Install VSDs on fan blowers to regulate the motor speed according to the cooling demand. The payback on the installation of VSDs is often around two years.

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Opportunities to reduce energy usage by improving HVAC system efficiency and effectiveness include:


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4.2 HVAC

4.2.3.5 Operational control The way in which an HVAC system is controlled has significant impact on the energy it uses. Opportunities to reduce energy usage by improving the control of your HVAC system include: HVAC operating hours can be different to opening hours

Decreasing the HVAC system’s operating period is one of the easiest ways to save energy and money with your HVAC system. Your HVAC system does not need to be operating continuously to provide a comfortable environment. It may be necessary to switch on the system when the store opens or wait until it everyone leaves to switch it off. You may be able to set it to come on a hour, for example, after staff have started work or you may be able to switch it off an hour before the store closes, as the temperature will be maintained for the final hour without the HVAC system operating.

4.2 HVAC

If you do need the system to be operating outside of normal operating hours then install a bypass switch, with a timer, that will turn on the system for a set period but then switch off again. Unoccupied settings

If you must leave the HVAC system on when the store is unoccupied consider whether the ‘dead band’ can be widened to decrease the energy the system uses during these times. The ‘dead band’ parameters will be dependent on the potential impacts on products.

Utilise off-peak tariffs

Cooling and heating during off-peak periods can reduce the cost of operation as the building’s thermal mass can maintain the temperature past store opening time.

Night cooling

Night cooling is a process where the warm air built up in the building, over the course of a day, is extracted during the night and replaced with cool night air using only the ventilation system (no cooling). This can also be a very efficient means of cooling the thermal mass of building over the course of the night.

Avoid simultaneous heating and cooling

Ensure that your heating and cooling equipment are never operating at the same time. You can set a ‘dead band’ to prevent this from occurring – refer to ‘4.2.3.2 Internal environmental requirements – Temperature set points’ for more information.

Ventilation fans

Ensure that ventilation fans are not left operating when they are not required. This is most effectively achieved by interlocking them to the HVAC control system.

Ventilation before air conditioning

Use air conditioning only when ventilation does not eliminate heat gain within the building.

Electronic control

If the HVAC unit is mechanically controlled, a computer-based controller could generate significant savings. For example, a digital thermostat to switch the system on and off according to temperature through to an Energy Management System (EMS) that controls all aspects of the HVAC system.

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4.2.4 Action planning checklist

Tick

Action

Cost

Benefit

Simplicity

Set heating to switch on at 19°C and cooling to switch on at 24°C. Creating a ‘dead band’ where neither heating nor cooling are operating will save you money.

$





Review the operating needs of your store and decrease HVAC operation where possible e.g. turn off one hour before store closing, switch the system to a less energy intensive setting overnight.

$





Close off the refrigeration cabinets or freezers with thermal blinds to trap the cold in the cabinet when they are not in use. This will decrease both the HVAC and refrigeration energy consumption.

$$





$



Check the performance of key HVAC equipment to ensure they are operating at optimum levels.

$

Implement a preventative maintenance program for filters, refrigeration evaporators and compressors, ducting, motors and thermostats.

$



Use the ventilation system to create a positive pressure in the store so the HVAC system does not have to condition uncontrolled air inflows.

$$



$$



Use external warm air to heat or cold air to cool the store via the ventilation system before using the heating or cooling systems.

$$



Install energy efficient lighting to decrease the waste heat load from lighting.

$$



Install shutters on fans to prevent air from entering or leaving the building unnecessarily. Install VSDs on fan motors to more efficiently control airflow.

$$



Introduce night cooling to replace the warm air built up in the store during the day with cool night air using the ventilation system.

$$



Reclaim refrigeration condenser waste heat to preheat the ventilation inflow air when heating the building in winter.

$$

Upgrade old, inefficient HVAC equipment to new, more efficient equipment that is appropriately sized for the task.

$$$



Implement a cleaning program for filters and duct-work.

Install an electronic thermostat to control the store temperature to set points.

Cost

$ = lowest cost (payback < 2 years), $$ = payback is between approximately 2 and 3 years, $$$ = highest cost (payback > 3 years).

Benefit

 = lesser energy efficiency (< 10% overall savings),  = between 10 and 15% energy savings,  = greater energy efficiency (> 20% energy savings).

Simplicity

 = requires external/technical expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house but may require some external expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house.

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The following list of potential actions for your store’s Energy Action Plan will help you improve the energy efficiency of your HVAC system:


4.2 HVAC

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4.2.5 Resources 1.

2.

Guide to Best Practice Maintenance and Operation of HVAC Systems for Energy Efficiency, Australian Government www.climatechange.gov.au/en/publications/hvac-hess/best-practice-guide.aspx Heating, ventilation and air conditioning, Carbon Trust, 2012 www.carbontrust.com/media/7403/ctv046_heating_ventilation_and_air_conditioning.pdf

Glossary of terms â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

4.2 HVAC

Chiller

A generic name for a packaged refrigeration system that often includes a compressor evaporator heat exchanger, condenser water heat exchanger and control systems.

Condenser

Device for rejecting heat from the refrigeration system into the atmosphere.

Compressor pump

Device that accepts gaseous refrigerant from the evaporator and compresses it to a higher pressure before it is sent to the condenser for heat rejection.

Decentralisation

A series of controls that enable different areas to have a different temperature, without affecting another.

Dehumidifiers

A device that removes excess moisture from the air.

Evaporative cooler

A system or process in which the heat is removed from an object by the evaporation of a liquid coolant, also, the process involves pre-cooling outside air before passing through a space.

Evaporator

Heat exchanger where refrigerant fluid is changed from liquid to gaseous state absorbing heat in the process expansion valve.

Furnace

A component of an HVAC system that adds heat to air through a heat exchanger.

Humidifiers

A device for keeping the atmosphere moist in a room.

Radiant heat

Allowing sun to infiltrate the building to warm the internal environment.

Refrigerant

A fluid that absorbs heat at low temperatures and rejects heat at higher temperatures.

Refrigerant charge

The amount of refrigerant gas contained in a system.

Recommissioning

Re-adjusting settings on cabinets and refrigeration plant to optimise its operation following changes and/or upgrades to the system.

Skylights

An overhead window, as in a roof, that allows daylight to enter a building negating the need to rely on lighting systems.

Temperature sensors

A temperature sensor is a device, typically, a thermocouple, that provides for the temperature measurement through an electrical signal.

Ventilation system ducts

Ducts that allow fresh air to enter a building.

Variable speed drive (VSD)

A control mechanism that allows control and variation in (VSD) the speed of a pump or other drive system such as a refrigeration compressor.

Zoning

The ability to control HVAC systems through separate sensors allowing different temperature to be maintained in different areas.

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4.3

LIGHTING


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4.3 LIGHTING

4.3 LIGHTING Lighting plays an extremely important role in attracting customers and making sales. Used effectively, it can draw customers into your store, highlight your products, set the mood and facilitate the buying experience. The key to energy efficient lighting is balancing initial investment, operational and maintenance costs, whilst implementing lighting schemes that bring out the best in the products on display. With careful consideration and planning it is possible to reduce lighting costs and whist efficiently displaying your merchandise. When talking about lighting efficiency, it is tempting to start by looking at the lights themselves but there are many ways to reduce the cost of lighting that do not involve lamp replacement. There are also many opportunities for costeffective retrofits to an existing lighting system and it is possible to simultaneously increase lighting levels and use less energy if the most efficient technology and practices are used.

Lighting accounts for 15% to 20% of supermarket energy use. It is a good starting point when looking to reduce energy costs. Improvements often cost very little to implement and savings can be in the order of 30% to 80%.

Before engaging product suppliers, refer to Section 1.1, for further information on what to consider and the questions to ask when selecting external expertise. 4.3 Lighting

You can cost-effectively improve the performance of your lighting system by undertaking the following: • Decide the function of lighting across the different areas of your store – consider lighting levels, types of light and colour • Map your existing lighting levels, types of lights and the wattage of the lamps. Determine to what extent your existing system achieves the desired functions • Implement a cleaning and maintenance program for your lighting system. This will reduce your lighting energy use immediately. Make sure you recheck your lighting levels after cleaning – you may have more light than you thought • Identify opportunities to improve the lighting performance of your store – use light coloured paints or increase the use of natural light • Reduce the use of your existing lights where possible – get staff to turn them off when they are not needed, remove lamps where lighting levels are higher than necessary, implement simple controls to automatically switch them off when no one is around or when it is day time • Upgrade aging lamps and lights with cost-effective energy efficient versions that produce more light and use less energy. This often means it is possible to remove additional lamps due to the increased lighting levels of the new lights.

4.3.1 Lighting function Quality lighting in a supermarket or bottle shop calls for different approaches in the various departments: bakeries, meat, produce and general packaged foods, along with the built-in lighting in refrigerated cases (see Appendix for further details). In addition, the entryway needs to attract the customer and the checkout area must provide enough light to make the sales transaction easy. This is achieved through the effective use of different types of lighting spreading different coloured light in various ways to create the overall desired effect.

4.3.2 Mapping your lighting system and calculating lighting load Before embarking on a process to improve the functionality or energy efficiency of your existing lighting systems you must first get a sense of your current system and it’s power (wattage) use. This is best done by creating a lamp schedule - a list of all the types of lights used in your premises and their wattage. This is best completed for each section of your premises (e.g. store room, checkout, etc.) and matched against the corresponding floor area for that

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4.3 LIGHTING

section. This will provide you with a measure of the total power used by lights in each section or by floor area (e.g. kW per m2) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; each of which are excellent metrics to use as a base line for energy efficiency improvements.

61

Make sure your lighting energy cost is working for you.

When building an understanding of your existing lighting system it is also useful to note where each light fitting is switched and what other fittings are on the same switching circuit. This will be helpful when considering the viability of automated lighting control systems. Once you have mapped the existing lights in your building you could then measure the lighting levels produced in each area. From this you could then determine the relationship between how much power is being used by lights in a given area and how light it is in that area. This information will be valuable when prioritising efficiency improvement opportunities.

Understand your lighting levels, power usage and how your lights are controlled across your premises before you embark on an efficiency project.

4.3.3 Lighting Maintenance

Most lamps, except LEDs, generate less light as they age but continue to use the same amount of energy so lighting levels should be monitored and older lamps changed out when their performance starts to degrade. Unclean lamps also produce lower levels of light and excess heat that must be balanced by your air conditioning system so cleaning lamps regularly (e.g. every six months) reduces your lighting and air conditioning costs. Figure 4.3.1 shows the effect of a maintenance program on the performance of your lighting system

Failed fluorescent tubes use around 25% of the lamp wattage as the ballast is still trying to turn on the tube.

Lamp replacement

80

2nd clean

1st clean

Brightness (%)

100

Dirty lights have lower lighting levels and produce excess heat that increases air conditioning costs.

60

40

0 2000

4000 1

6000

8000

2

3

10000

Hours of use Years of use

Figure 4.3.1: Effect of maintenance on lighting levels (luminance)

Source: Australian Standard AS1680, Code of practice for interior lighting and the visual environment

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Maintaining your existing lighting systems ensures that your existing lights continue to operate at their peak lighting capacity.


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4.3 LIGHTING

4.3.4 Improving the lighting performance of your store Before replacing your existing lights with more efficient lighting you can redesign your lighting to create an environment that better utilises both artificial and natural light: • Remove anything that blocks the flow of light or feels heavy from above, e.g. overhangs in the aisles, which makes it feel like enough light is not getting through to the area required • Painting interior walls light colours to reflect more light around the space • Implement day-lighting strategies to reduce the needs for artificial lighting Turning on a fluorescent by opening blinds, installing skylights or windows. Use reflective films to light uses the same control glare and radiant heat transfer through windows. amount of energy as

4.3.5 Efficient use of existing lighting

running it for five seconds and a fluorescent light can be switched on approximately 6600 times before it will fail to start.

4.3 Lighting

Using your existing lighting systems more efficiently is the easiest way to reduce your lighting energy costs. There are many areas in a supermarket or bottle shop where simple actions can have a big impact on lighting costs including: • Excess number of lamps in areas where lighting levels are higher than Comparing the cost of necessary replacing the bulb with • All the lights are operating at full power when the store is closed to the cost of electricity, if customers e.g. when stacking shelves, during stock takes or when cleaners the light is not going to operate be used for 10 minutes • External signage lighting remains on during the day or more it should • Security lighting is on during the day or when there are no people in the be switched off. area • Warehouse and cool room area lighting is left on when there are no staff working in the area. • Lights are left on in offices, lunchrooms, plant room and rest rooms when they are vacant.

In a supermarket there are a number of cost-effective techniques that can be employed to reduce lighting energy use without replacing existing lights. Switch off unnecessary lighting Encourage staff to turn off lights that are not needed e.g. when they are leaving a space unoccupied. Putting up clear signage indicating which switches control the lights in which areas will increase the ability of staff to manage lighting effectively. Remove unnecessary lamps Reducing the number of lamps or fittings (known as ‘de-lamping’) in a given area whilst still providing sufficient light is a very effective, no cost option to reduce lighting energy use. Australian Standard AS1680 provides the recommended minimum lighting levels however in supermarkets the light levels often exceed the requirements of AS1680 as aesthetics guides decisions around lighting levels. Install automated controls Implementing automated controls is one of the most effective ways to ensure that energy savings in your lighting systems are maintained over the long term. Automated control of lighting systems can include something as simple as the installation of a motion detector in one room through to the implementation of a building-wide management system. The function is still essentially the same; it turns off the lights when they are not required.

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Some cost-effective examples of lighting system automation equipment are detailed below. This equipment is often configured together, for example, a daylight sensor and a motion detector that control security lighting. Motion detectors

Useful to control the lights in an area that is used intermittently e.g. a storeroom or cold store where staff are in and out every 10 minutes, a rest room where lights can be turned off if it is unoccupied, a car park where the security lights may not be needed for five hours but must turn on if a person enters the area.

Light-level sensors

Useful to control lights that are only required when there is a certain level of light e.g. illuminated street signage that functions without light during daylight hours and only needs illuminating at night, external security lighting that is only required to turn on when it is dark outside.

Timers

Useful to control when lights turn on and off according to the time of day e.g. to switch in sync with store operating hours.

Dimmers

Dimmers can be used to reduce energy consumption when 100% lighting levels are not required e.g. when the store is closed and staff are restocking shelves aisle lighting levels could be reduced to 66% or when store cleaners are working lighting levels could be reduced to 33%. Remember in all cases you must still provide safe work lighting levels that are consistent with AS1680.

Segmented switching

Reconfigure your lighting systems so that three separate circuits control the lights in each area. This way you can switch only one circuit on and achieve 33% of ‘store open’ lighting levels, two circuits and achieve 66%, or three circuits for 100%. This significantly reduces lighting costs when 100% is not necessary e.g. stacking shelves (66% lighting equal 33% saving) or when cleaners are in operation (33% lighting equals 66% saving).

Interlocks

Enables a lighting system to synchronise with another system (e.g. security) or equipment (e.g. refrigeration electronic control system) in the building. For example, switching the internal lights off when the security alarm is set. This would usually interlock with the security ‘armed’ signal and a timer to give staff tie to exit the building.

Building Management Systems

A Building Management System (BMS) can also be used to control all the lights in the premises (in addition to HVAC systems). It can control the lighting levels based on the presence of staff or customers, the time of day, the level of daylight in the area or whether it is within or outside trading hours. A BMS is not a low cost solution but it does provide the ability to control the whole premises and can yield substantial energy savings over time.

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Not all lighting systems can be dimmed – check your fitting to determine if the driver is dimmable.


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4.3 LIGHTING

4.3.6 Upgrading to more efficient lighting hardware Once you have reduced the use of your existing lights to its most efficient functional level, consider replacing the lamps in your light fittings with more efficient equivalents or upgrading the fittings entirely. This simple action will result in a 30% to 80% improvement in energy efficiency for the same lighting output.

4.3 Lighting

Lighting applications within a supermarket where this can create significant efficiencies at very little cost include: Incadesent bulb • Replace incandescent globes with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Compact fluorescent bulbs last up to eight times longer than incandescent bulbs and use 20% of the energy. Dimmable CFLs are now available and can save up to 40% of energy consumption of a non-dimming CFL • Replace incandescent halogen bulbs with equivalent LED bulbs to reduce energy use by 73% • Engage an electrician to replace T8 fluorescent tubes with T5 fluorescent tubes using a T8-T5 adapter to reduce energy use by Halogen down light 33% • Engage an electrician to replace twin fluorescent tube fixtures with a single fluorescent tube fixture incorporating a reflector to reduce energy use by 65%. Consideration should be given to require lighting levels, as this does not provide the same light output – an excellent solution if you have excess lighting levels • Replace incandescent or fluorescent exit signs with long lasting LED exit signs • Install dimmers on lighting fixtures with an electronic ballast so that the light intensity can be adjusted T5, T8 and T12 tubes • Replace Mercury Vapour lamps in high bay lighting with more efficient lamps e.g. Metal Halide or Low Pressure Sodium lamps to reduce energy use by 38 - 65% • Engage an electrician to replace fluorescent tubes in refrigerated cases, cabinets and glass door freezers with LED tubes as they use less energy and produce less heat that reduces the load on the cabinet refrigeration system. Twin T8 tubes without There are also smaller changes you can made which should be carefully considered in terms of financial payback before proceeding: reflector • Replace T8 halophosphate tubes (magnetic ballast) with T8 triphosphor tubes (electronic ballast) as it has 20% greater light output so less lighting fixtures are necessary to achieve the same light levels. • Replace magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts. The ballast controls the starting and operating voltages so that the right amount of light is emitted. An electronic ballast reduces energy use by 10% to 20% per unit, extends the life of the tube and reduces flickering. High bay • Install autotransformers on fluorescent lights. They improve efficiency of existing fixtures by 3% to 4% by reducing the startup voltage of a lamp to a lower level without a significant difference in lighting levels. A detailed description of the common types of lights is included in Appendix.

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CFL

LED down light

T5 with T8 fitting

T5 with reflector with T8 fitting

LED tube

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There are other more boutique types of the lamps and fittings that may also be applicable if you are customising your store fit out. For more information on these options engage a professional lighting consultant but be sure to highlight the importance of the principles of energy efficient lighting outlined in this guide. A list of lighting upgrade options with the generic payback for each upgrade option is provided in Figure 4.3.2. Energy and cost savings associated with typical lighting upgrades Quantity of

Cost

Typical

Energy

Typical

GHG

Energy

luminaires

reduction

capital

Saving (kWh

simple pay

reduction

Reduction

($p.a.)

cost ($)

p.a.)

back (yr)

(tCO2 p.a.)

100

3252

15000

14040

4.60

14.80

60

New twin 28 W T5 fluorescent luminaire

100

1722

8500

7800

4.90

8.30

33

New single 28 W T5 luminaire

100

3553

13000

15600

3.70

1650

67

Linear LED replacement lamps,

100

2940

16000

11180

5.40

11.80

48

100

1722

8000

7800

4.60

8.30

33

Upgrade options

Twin 36 W T8 linear fluorescent luminaire Retrofit single 36 W T8 refector and electronic ballast kit

2 x 24 W T8 to 28 W T5 conversion kits

50 W MR16 low voltage dichroic halogen light lamp 35 W IRC halogen lamp

100

1651

1200

5200

0.70

5.50

31

35 W IRC halogen lamp with electronic

100

2015

3200

7020

1.59

7.40

42

100

3454

6000

13000

1.70

13.80

77

New 16 W LED luminaire

100

4086

8000

12740

2.00

13.50

75

15 W compact fluorescent lamp

100

3517

5500

13000

1.00

13.80

77

100

3962

10000

13000

2.50

13.80

77

100

4723

20000

16120

4.20

17.0

62

100

6504

25000

18980

3.80

20.0

73

100

5476

25000

15600

4.60

16.5

60

100

6604

32000

18980

4.90

20.0

73

New 250 W metal halide luminaire

100

9011

30000

42120

3.30

44.60

38

4 x 54 W T5 fluorescent luminaire

100

11964

65000

53560

5.40

56.70

48

New 150 W LED luminaire

100

17236

80000

73320

4.60

77.70

65

200 W induction lamp luminaire

100

14117

80000

57720

5.67

61.10

51

100

5893

30000

27300

5.10

28.9

51

New 150 W LED luminaire

180

10922

144000

47840

13.18

50.7

41

New 300 W induction lamp luminaire

100

8582

10000

36140

11.65

38.3

31

replacement New 13 W compact fluorescent luminaire PAR lamps and other halogen downlights New 35 W ceramic metal halide luminaire New 27 W LED luminaire (non-dimmable) New 2 x 18 W compact fluorescent (DALI dimmable) New 27 WLED luminaire (DALI dimmable) 400 W mercury vapour luminaires

400 W metal halide luminaires New 320 W pulse-start metal halide luminaire

500 W linear lamp shovel and box floodlight New 150 W metal halide luminaire

10

2472

3000

12012

1.20

12.70

66

New 90 W LED luminaire

10

3288

9000

14924

2.70

15.80

82

Figure 4.3.2: Energy cost savings associated with typical lighting upgrades (not including operational servicing costs* Source: Energy Efficient Lighting â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technology Report, p vi-vii, New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage, 2012.* The inclusion of operational servicing costs would increase the attractiveness of LEDs due to their significantly longer operational life

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transformer 10 W LED replacement lamp


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4.3 LIGHTING

4.3.7 Action planning checklist The following list of potential actions for your store’s Energy Action Plan will help you improve the energy efficiency of your lighting system: Tick

Action

Cost

Benefit

Simplicity

4.3 Lighting

Remove lamps from light fixtures in areas where there is more than sufficient lighting levels or duplicate lighting. Repeat this if you upgrade lamps and fixtures.

-



Remove lamps where there is more light than necessary.

-



Label light switches to encourage staff to switch off lights when not in use.

$

Clean lamps and fixtures regularly (every six months).

$

Replace failed lamps.

$

Remove unnecessary overhangs that block the light.

$

Install autotransformers on fluorescent lights.

$

Install dimmers or segregate switching to decrease lighting levels in the premises to minimum safe levels when operating outside of customer trading hours e.g. shelf stacking, cleaning.

$$



Install motion sensors to switch off lights in areas which are not always occupied e.g. warehouse, cool rooms, rest rooms, staff rooms.

$$



Install daylight sensors to switch off lights that are not required during the day e.g. security, car park, external signage.

$$



Replace spotlight halogen bulbs with LED bulbs.

$$



Replace T8 florescent tubes in refrigerated cases, cabinets and glass door freezers with LED tubes to reduce energy and refrigeration costs.

$$



Paint interior walls a light colour.

$$



Replace twin T8 florescent tubes with a single T8 with reflector.

$$



Replace fluorescent magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts to reduce energy use and enable dimming.

$$

Replace fluorescent lit exit signs with LED lit signs.

$$

Investigate the opportunity to increase the use of natural light with windows, solar tubes and skylights.

$$$



Cost

$ = lowest cost (payback < 2 years), $$ = payback is between approximately 2 and 3 years, $$$ = highest cost (payback > 3 years).

Benefit

 = lesser energy efficiency (< 10% overall savings),  = between 10 and 15% energy savings,  = greater energy efficiency (> 20% energy savings).

Simplicity

 = requires external/technical expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house but may require some external expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house.

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4.3.8 Resources 1. 2. 3.

Energy Efficiency Exchange – Lighting Opportunities, Australian Government, 2013 eex.gov.au/technologies/lighting/opportunities/ Energy Efficient Lighting Guides, Carbon Trust (UK), 2013 www.carbontrust.com/resources/guides/energy-efficiency/lighting Energy Efficient Lighting - Overview Guide, Carbon Trust (UK), 2012 www.carbontrust.com/media/13067/ctv049_lighting.pdf

Autotransformer

An autotransformer can be used for step-up, step-down and split phase output balancing purposes

Electronic ballast

An electrical device for starting and regulating fluorescent and discharge lamps.

Mechanical ballast

A mechanical device for starting and regulating fluorescent and discharge lamps, which is less efficient than an electronic ballast.

Skylight

An overhead window, as in a roof, that allows daylight to enter a building negating the need to rely on lighting systems.

Appendix – Common types of lights Some of the common types of lights that are suitable for supermarkets available are shown below. Incandescent Incandescent globe

90% of the electricity used by an incandescent globe is lost to heat. Common replacement of incandescent globes with compact fluorescent lamps.

Halogen bulb

Halogen lamps work like incandescent globes but have a thicker filament that allows hotter operating temperatures. Halogen bulbs are typically used for task specific lighting, for example where it is important to get true colour on specific surface. The bright white light emitted from halogen lights is generated using less than 10% to 20% of the energy of an incandescent globe and halogen globes longer lasting than incandescent bulbs. Halogen bulbs can get hotter than other bulbs and should not be used in areas where they are likely to come in contact with flammable material. The additional heat created by halogen bulbs creates a significant load on a buildings air conditioning system if a lot of bulbs are used.

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Glossary of terms – Lighting


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4.3 LIGHTING

Fluorescent A fluorescent tube is a type of gas discharge lamp. There are two main types of fluorescent bulbs, the tube and compact bulbs. Fluorescent lights are usually more suitable for general lighting rather than spot lighting that requires a narrow focus beam.

4.3 Lighting

Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)

Compact fluorescent bulbs last up to eight times longer than incandescent bulbs and use 20% of the energy. Dimmable CFLs are now available and can save up to 40% of energy consumption of a non-dimming CFL.

T12 tubes

A fluorescent T12 tube is the predecessor to the T8 and is the least efficient fluorescent tube and can easily be replaced with T8 tubes.

T8 halophosphate tubes

The halophosphate T8 has been replaced by the triphosphor T8. It has 20% greater light output so less lighting fixtures can be used to achieve the same light levels.

T8 triphosphor tubes

The triphosphor T8 is available with electronic ballasts which not only have a power savings, but also a soft start and better current control which helps to extend the tubeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life. They also have reduced brightness depreciation compared to a standard T8 and a longer lifespan, lasting around 16,000 hours (electronic ballast).

T5 tubes

The T5 tube is thinner than a T8 tube. The standard T5 uses 28 watts, producing104 lumens per watt compared with 36 watts used by a T8 that produce 92 lumens per watt. Due to their electronic ballasts T5s are dimmable. A T5 is a different length to T8 and have different lamp holders. They are ideally suited to new installations rather than retrofits. Although there are T8-T5 converters (shown in the picture) that enable a T5 to be placed into a T8 fitting which reduces the cost of the upgrade. There are also adapter versions that incorporate a reflector (see Reflectors below).

Reflectors

Reflectors increase the proportion of light that reaches the area to be lit. This means a smaller number of tubes can be used to provide the same level of brightness.

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Electronic ballasts

Electronic ballasts control voltage in fluorescent lamps and allow dimming. Tubes controlled by electronic ballasts are 20% more energy efficient compared with the more common magnetic ballasts (which do not allow dimming).

Autotransformers

Autotransformers reduce the start-up voltage of a lamp to a lower level. Lamps connected to an autotransformer 3% to 4% more energy efficient without a significant difference in lighting levels.

High Intensity Discharge (HID) High intensity discharge lamps are significantly brighter than a fluorescent lamp.

4.3 Lighting

Mercury vapour (MV) MV lamps are the oldest and least energy efficient of high intensity discharge lamps. They lamps are low cost and have long lamp life but their brightness decreases by up to 40% over their life span. Most indoor mercury vapour lamps have now been replaced by metal halide lamps.

Metal Halide (MH) lamps

MH lamps produce 60% more light than an equivalent MV lamp. They are more appropriate than High Pressure Sodium lamps when colour identification is important (e.g. in a retail display or outdoor security). A metal halide retrofit kit is available for mercury vapour lamps, producing more light for the same energy input. Alternatively, the fitting can be changed. T5HO (high output) fluorescent tubes can be used in place of MH lamps. Replacing MH lamps with an equivalent T5HO configuration can reduce energy consumption by up to 50%.

High pressure sodium HPS lamps produce twice as much light as an equivalent MV lamp. HPS light has a yellow tint and may not be suitable for applications where colour identification is important. HPS (HPS) lamps lamps are good for storage areas and car parks.

Low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps

LPS lamps are the most efficient for of HID lamp. They emit a yellowish light so are applicable in the same way as HPS lamps.

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4.3 LIGHTING

Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Light Emitting Diodes are energy efficient, produce very little heat and are very versatile due to their small size.

4.3 Lighting

LED tubes

The LED tube is an ideal replacement for T8 fluorescent lamps in areas where additional heat is an issue e.g. refrigerated cabinets.

LED spot light

LED spot lights are an ideal replacement for halogen spot light without the issue of excess heat they are more suitable for fresh, cold and frozen food areas.

LED strip lighting

LED strip lighting comes in all forms and a variety of colours so it is very flexible in its applications e.g. display cabinets, signs and shelving.

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4.4 Hot water heating

4.4

HOT WATER HEATING


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4.4 HOT WATER HEATING

4.4 HOT WATER HEATING Hot water is used for cleaning of equipment and the premises and also in the operation of the amenities and kitchens1. The energy used to create hot water accounts for about 4% of total energy consumption in supermarkets.

Hot water heating accounts for 4% of supermarket energy consumption.

Hot water heating systems can easily become inefficient as system losses are often difficult to measure or notice. The most effective way to reduce the energy consumption of your hot water system is to use less hot water. This section explores the opportunities to reduce hot water costs including using less hot water, improving the efficiency of your existing hot water system and upgrade options to replace your existing system.

4.4.1 Types of hot water heating systems 4.4.1.1 Electric storage Electric storage hot water systems hold water in a tank and use electricity to power a heating element within the tank to raise the temperature of the water to the desired temperature. These systems were once very common. However, there are two drawbacks with these systems: 1. 2.

Once the hot water is used you have to wait until a new tank-full of water is hot again before it is ready for use. The system has to keep heating the water in the tank to keep it at the desire temperature just in case it is required.

4.4 Hot water heating

4.4.1.2 Inline gas-fired Inline gas-fired hot water systems use a gas burner to directly heat the feed water pipe that supplies hot water. The burner is regulated to control the temperature of the water leaving the system. These systems are superior to electric hot water systems as they provide a continuous flow of hot water. If more hot water is needed than one system can supply, a second or more systems can be added to fulfil the desired capacity. 4.4.1.3 Heat pump Heat pumps work by extracting heat from the surrounding environment and transferring it to water, like a refrigerator in reverse. Heat pump systems heat the water and store it in a tank until it is needed. Heat pump systems usually use electricity to ‘top-up’ the heat in the water to ensure it is at the desired temperature. 4.4.1.4 Waste heat recovery Waste heat from equipment in your store can be harnessed to heat water e.g. a heat exchanger utilising waste heat from a refrigeration system compressor to heat the feed water to a storage tank that holds the water until it is needed. Generally waste heat is used as a first stage water heater to provide ‘free’ heated water to a second hot water system that ‘tops-up’ the heat in the water to ensure it is at the desired temperature. 4.4.1.5 Solar hot water Solar hot water systems work by using the sun’s thermal energy to heat water. These systems commonly run water through a series of pipes that are exposed to the sun, often on a roof. The water is then returned to a storage tank. Like waste heat pump and waste heat systems, other fuels or heat sources are often used to supplement solar energy in order to maintain a continuous flow of hot water during extended, night or morning operation. 1 The hot water considered in this section is distinct to the hot water that may be created by and used in a heating system – these systems are closed-loop and do not consume hot water if they are running properly.

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4.4.2 Energy consumption of hot water heating systems The energy consumption of your hot water system is dependent on the type of system you have, what fuel it uses, how much hot water you use, when you use it and how much you use each time.

73

The best way to save energy on hot water is to use less hot water. Unless you have a storage tank that loses heat.

Systems that deliver the highest fuel efficiency may not be the most cost effective as the cost of the fuel must be taken into account. The cost-effectiveness of a hot water system can be measured as cost per unit of hot water e.g. $ per 1000 litres. Cost effectiveness is different to energy efficiency as different fuels have different cost per unit of heating capabilities. Figure 4.4.1 shows the comparative cost per GJ for each energy source and the associated efficiency with which that energy can be applied to heat water. Energy source

Fuel cost (excl. equipment)

Fuel efficiency

Solar

$0

70% to 90%

Waste heat

Low*

70% to 90%

Heat pump

$25-35/GJ

Up to 400%**

Natural gas

$4-7/GJ

70% to 90%

Electricity

$25-35/GJ

Up to 100%

* Essentially $0 if equipment producing waste heat is working at peak efficiency for its intended application. ** It is difficult to represent overall efficiency with a heat pump. The coefficient of performance (COP) of a heat pump may be as high as four, meaning four units of heat are produced for one unit of electricity.

4.4.3 Opportunities to improve hot water heating energy efficiency 4.4.3.1 Consume less hot water There are a number of actions you can take to limit your use of hot water: Eliminate leaks

Any leaks in your hot water system are causing your system to lose water that has already been heated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; hot water you have already paid for. Find and repair any leaks as quickly as possible. The staff on the shop floor can act as your eyes and ears in detecting any leaks.

Use efficient fittings

Use efficient nozzles, taps and flow restrictors wherever possible. It may involve an initial cost but will soon pay off in both water and energy savings.

Separate hot and cold outlets

Using separate hot and cold-water outlets instead of a combined mixing tap, together with effective work procedures, will save hot water, as no hot water will be used when only cold is required.

Use hot water appropriately

Ensure that hot water is not being used for jobs for which there are more suitable alternatives. Hot water may be easily accessible, however it comes at a significantly higher cost than cold water.

Consider higher system pressure

Consider the application of high-pressure systems for cleaning or other appropriate uses. High-pressure cleaning systems use more electricity but less hot water than low-pressure systems â&#x20AC;&#x201C; itis a trade off.

Use cold water cleaning products

Specify the use of cleaning products and methods that do not require the use of hot water.

More water efficient equipment

When purchasing new or replacement equipment or appliances for your store, specify equipment that uses less hot water or does not require hot water at all.

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4.4 Hot water heating

Figure 4.4.1: Fuel efficiency of water heating systems

Source: Energy Efficiency Best Practice Guide: Steam, Hot Water and Process Heating Systems, Table 4, p22, Sustainability Victoria, 2009


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4.4 HOT WATER HEATING

4.4.3.2 Improve the efficiency of your existing system There are a number of actions you can take to improve the efficiency of your existing hot water system: Lower hot water temperature

You can save significant amounts of energy by reducing the temperature of your hot water supply to the minimum required by local health authorities.

Reduce heat losses

Reduce heat losses by checking, improving or refitting insulation and lagging to hot water tanks, pipes, joints and valves. In some cases, shifting from centralised to decentralised heating equipment can also be advantageous when seeking to reduce heat losses.

Maintenance

Implementing a proactive maintenance schedule for your hot water system will ensure it continues to operate at peak efficiency. This involves checking and fixing leaks, servicing equipment (e.g. burners) and maintaining temperature set points.

Turn it off when not needed

If you have a system with a holding tank and hot water is not required for a day, switch it off. The insulated holding tank will retain the heat in the water for a period of time dependant on the quality of the insulation.

Harness waste heat

You may be able to harness waste heat to pre-heat the feed water to your existing hot water system by installing a heat exchanger to capture the wasted heat from the store plant and other equipment e.g. refrigeration compressors.

4.4.3.3 Upgrade to a more energy efficient system

4.4 Hot water heating

Before upgrading your hot water system you should first consider the way you use hot water. Do you use it continuously or in batches? Do you need it available 24 hours a day, during the day or only at night? The answers to these questions may rule out some systems e.g. if you only use hot water first thing in the morning then perhaps a solar hot water system is not the most efficient system for your needs.

Connecting two hot water systems together can create a more efficient system.

When considering which system to select, consider tankless systems that produce hot water on demand. These systems only use energy when hot water is needed, thereby saving energy and reducing cost. Before purchasing the new system be sure to select the correct size for your needs. Selecting the correct sized system will reduce both the upfront capital cost of the system and reduce the running costs. Note that this is more relevant for systems with storage tanks than systems that heat water on demand. The most efficient hot water system will be one that utilises a low or no-cost fuel (e.g. ambient air temperature, waste heat or solar). This makes heat pumps, waste heat recovery or solar heating attractive.

If you need hot water a long way from the main hot water system consider a small local hot water system. It will prevent the wasting of water in long transfer pipes.

However, as per Section 4.4.1, these systems usually need to be connected to a second stage system that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;tops-upâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; the temperature to the desired level. If you have access to natural gas then an inline gas-fired hot water heater is the most efficient. If you do not have access to natural gas then perhaps an electric system will be more appropriate. A two-stage system has the potential to substantially reduce your hot water costs.

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Some example of stores and energy efficient systems are: A store with a daytime and early evening hot water need, located in an area with high levels of sunlight, access to natural gas.

A solar heater as the first stage with an inline gas-fired water heater as the second stage.

A store with a 24/7 hot water need, located in an area with high ambient temperatures and no natural gas.

A heat pump as the first stage heater with an electric hot water system with a holding tank as a second stage. Consideration should be given to usage flow rates and volumes when specifying the holding tank size.

4.4.4 Action Planning Checklist

Tick

Action

Cost

Benefit

Simplicity

$



$$





Review and reduce hot water use where possible.

-





Set your hot water temperature to the lowest appropriate temperature.

-





Review your use of hot water and use cold or no water where possible.

-





Upgrade to a more efficient hot water system.

$





Turn off your storage hot water system if you do not require it for extended periods of time.

$





Specify cleaners use cold water and suitable cleaning products.

$



Eliminate leaks from your hot water system including tanks and piping.

$



Install efficient water fittings where you use hot water.

$

Install separate hot and cold outlets instead of mixers. Encourage staff to use only the cold tap unless hot water is really necessary.

$

Reduce heat loses by upgrading/repairing pipe and tank insulation.

$

Undertake routine maintenance on your hot water system and heater.

$

Harness waste heat from other equipment to preheat the feed water for your hot water system.

$$



Use high pressure cleaners where it will save energy. When buying new equipment specify water and energy efficient models.

Cost

$ = lowest cost (payback < 2 years), $$ = payback is between approximately 2 and 3 years, $$$ = highest cost (payback > 3 years).

Benefit

 = lesser energy efficiency (< 10% overall savings),  = between 10 and 15% energy savings,  = greater energy efficiency (> 20% energy savings).

Simplicity

 = requires external/technical expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house but may require some external expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house.

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The following list of potential actions for your store’s Energy Action Plan will help you improve the energy efficiency of your hot water system:


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4.4 HOT WATER HEATING

Glossary of terms â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Hot water heating Ambient temperature

Where the surrounding temperature is the same as internal temperature of the store.

Centralised heating equipment

A common central system that supplies hot water to a number of different areas.

Decentralised heating equipment

A series of discrete hot water systems specifically sized and located close to the area of use for the hot water.

Heat exchanger

A device for transferring heat from one medium to another.

Heat pump

A device that transfers heat from a colder area to a hotter area by using mechanical energy.

System losses

An amount of water, expressed as a percentage, lost to leaks, seepage and unauthorised use.

Tankless system

On-demand hot water system that does not use a storage tank to store hot water.

Waste heat

Rejected or escaping heat from furnaces of various types after it has served its primary purpose.

Waste heat recovery

An energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from hot streams with potential high energy content, for example refrigeration systems.

4.4 Hot water heating

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4.5

4.5 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT

77

4.5 Electrical appliances

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT

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4.5 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT

4.5 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

AND EQUIPMENT

There are many electrical appliances and equipment used throughout a supermarket. The choice of equipment and the way it is used impacts on energy consumption. The energy cost of a piece of equipment includes it’s direct energy consumption plus the indirect impact it may have on the energy consumption of another system. For example, a cooktop extraction system has a fan that uses energy to extract the hot air from the cooktop. However, in addition to the fan’s energy use, the extraction system exhausts conditioned air, which must be replaced by the supermarket’s HVAC system. The energy cost of an Therefore, there is a dual energy cost to extracting the air from the cook top unless appliance or piece ‘make up’ air is introduced at the cook top. of equipment made There are two factors that influence the direct and indirect energy cost of equipment: • The way the equipment is used • The energy consumption, or load rating (kW), of the equipment. This section covers the direct energy consumption of equipment. The indirect energy impacts on other systems is considered in other sections of the Handbook: • Refrigeration (section 4.1) • Heating, ventilation and cooling (section 4.2) • Lighting (section 4.3) • Hot water heating (section 4.4).

up of its direct energy consumption plus the impact it may have on the energy consumption of another system in your store.

4.5.1 Energy efficient use of appliances and equipment 4.5 Electrical appliances

The efficient use of equipment will save you energy and money. The way equipment is used is often a greater contributor to energy efficiency or inefficiency than the energy use of the equipment itself. There are several simple ways you and your staff can reduce energy cost. 4.5.1.1 Switch it off It is common for all equipment to be switched on at the beginning of the day and be left on all day regardless of the need. This is extremely inefficient and reduces equipment life. All supermarkets can save money by implementing a simple policy of switching equipment on when it is needed and off after you have finished using it. This often requires consistent training due to staff turnover. Alternatively, you can set automatic controls to switch off equipment. This could be as simple as installing a timer, on your energy using equipment, set to switch on and off at times that suit your business. For example, you could set non-perishable, stand alone, drinks fridges to switch off at night. 4.5.1.2 Turn it down For equipment that cannot be turned off, consider turning it down to the lowest level possible. 4.5.1.3 Standby power Standby power is the electricity a piece of equipment uses when it is plugged in but not ‘on’. In some equipment it can be nothing, in some it can be as high as 5% to15% of full load.

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The function of ‘standby’ is to reduce the time the equipment takes to commence operation when the operator wishes to use it. The trade-off is that it uses a proportion of the equipment’s normal load to maintain this state. Standby power consumption is only adding value to your business if the equipment is required with such frequency and the start-up time is sufficiently long as to make switching it off between uses unsatisfactory for operators. Equipment suppliers or manufacturers will be able to tell you how much standby power is consumed by each of your pieces of equipment. To minimise your standby power costs you should review the functionality of each piece of equipment and associated your operating procedures. Your operators will likely be the best source of information on how to improve the operation of your equipment with standby power in mind. 4.5.1.4 Maintenance All equipment requires maintenance to ensure its continued efficient operation and to prolong its operational life. This can be as simple as frequent cleaning by operations staff or may require servicing by an experienced technician. Equipment that is dirty and/or not maintained generally breaks down more frequently, creates excess heat, uses more energy and has a shorter operational life.

4.5.2 Energy efficiency of appliances and equipment Once you have improved your efficiency of operation, you should consider the efficiency of the equipment itself. When it comes to increasing the efficiency of your equipment, the greatest opportunity exists at the time of purchase, although there are some opportunities to upgrade your existing Always understand equipment so it operates more efficiently. how you intend to use a piece of equipment When considering the function of new or replacement pieces of equipment before you buy it. the energy consumption in both standby and operational states should be considered in light of the operational needs of the business e.g. runtime versus standby time.

In Australia there are mandatory minimum performance standards for the energy efficiency of common household, commercial and light industrial equipment. These standards are designed to improve the environmental performance and reduce the running costs of this equipment to the consumer. There are two aspects to the scheme: those products that carry an energy rating labels and those that are registered under the scheme to meet the performance standards. Make sure you look for the energy-rating label and compare the performance of the equipment you are selecting. Products that are registered under the minimum energy performance standards are listed on the Energy Star website at http://reg.energyrating.gov.au/ comparator/product_types/. Those that are more likely to be relevant to supermarkets include: dishwashers, commercial refrigerators, freezers, televisions, commercial chillers, commercial air conditioners, electric motors, hot water heaters and lighting lamps. Ensure when you are upgrading your equipment that you use the energy-rating information available to make the most appropriate purchase for your business as energy efficiency can vary significantly.

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4.5.2.1 Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS)


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4.5.2.2 Equipment and appliances The following table details the energy efficiency opportunities for various pieces of equipment and appliances that are used in supermarkets. Refrigeration, heating and cooling, lighting and hot water equipment are covered in more detail earlier in this Section of the Handbook. Remember that the energy cost of running the equipment over it’s life is likely to be significantly more than the upfront cost of the equipment. You can determine the cost of running the equipment by: 1. 2. 3.

When considering a range of options for new equipment, seek specialist help to ensure you get the most cost effective and efficient system that will suit your needs.

Obtaining the energy load (kW or MJ) for the equipment from the supplier. Determining the anticipated life time usage of the machine based on its usable life e.g. a meat slicer used for 2 hr/day x 300 days/yr x 10 yrs = 6,000 hours Calculating the energy cost = energy load (0.25kW) x the life time usage (6,000 hours) x energy cost ($0.12/kW) Opportunities with existing

Considerations for new

Ovens

• Determine pre-heat duration and install timers to switch on the minimum time prior to utilisation • Switch it off immediately at the end of the cooking cycle (or earlier if possible as ovens will retain heat for a period).

Select an oven that has: • A higher energy rating • The ability to finely control the preheat, cooking and cool down cycle Sufficient insulation so that it does not waste heat externally • The capacity to recover waste heat for use in other systems e.g. store heating.

Exhaust hoods

• Turn off exhaust hoods when the kitchen is idle • Position the hood as close as possible to the cook top • Install a variable speed drive on the hood fan and install hood controllers to adjust the exhaust fan speed in response to changes in temperature, smoke, or vapour • Consider the impact of extraction on the HVAC system – supply ‘make-up’ air to the cook top to balance extracted air volumes.

Select a hood that: • Automatically switches off once the cooking has ceased • Includes a variable speed fan, sensors and controller • Can be installed close to the cook top • Has a make-up air supply to balance the extracted air volumes.

Cook tops

• Automatic shut off sensors can be used to turn off cook tops when not in use by sensing the presence of a pot.

• Install induction type cook tops – they are 10% to 15%1 more efficient than other methods.

Deli mincers / slicers

• Determine if they use energy in standby. If so, switch them off when not in use.

• Minimise the electrical load where business appropriate e.g. a 15mm slicer uses 250W and a 12mm slicer uses 150W. Do you need to cut to 15mm or will 12mm be sufficient? • Switch them off when not in use.

Dishwashers

• Fill it up before switching it on, do not run it half empty.

• Select a dishwasher that has a higher energy rating • Fill it up before switching it on • Use the cold wash cycle where appropriate.

4.5 Electrical appliances

Equipment

1 www.richmond.gov.uk/carbon_trust_food_preparation_and_catering-2.pdf, 25 February 2013

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• Switch it off when it is not in use to minimise standby power consumption • Use a timer to set on and off times automatically.

• Select a microwave oven that has: • A higher energy rating • A lower standby power usage.

• Place refrigerators in the coldest part of the kitchen Refrigeration away from heat sources like ovens (back of house) • Keep the doors closed • Perform regular maintenance, defrosting and cleaning.

• Select a fridge or freezer that has a higher energy rating.

Vending machines

• Install timers at the power points to turn them off outside of store hours (only if they contain nonperishable food items – discuss with vendor).

• Contact the responsible vendor and ask them to improve the energy efficiency of their equipment.

Cash registers / point-of-sale terminals

• Install timers at the power points to turn them off outside of store operating hours.

• New POS terminals are up to 40% more efficient2, due to more energy efficient chip technology that produces less heat can be used in tighter spaces without the risk of overheating.

Televisions

• Install timers at the power points to turn them off outside of store operating hours.

• Select computers and peripherals that have a higher energy rating Replace plasma flat-screens with LED LCD flat-screens.

Computers, monitors and peripherals

• Install timers at the power points to turn them off outside of store operating hours.

• Select computers and peripherals that have a higher energy rating • Replace CRT monitors with LED LCD monitors.

4.5.3 Action planning checklist

Tick

2

Action

Cost

Benefit

Simplicity

Switch off all equipment when it is not in use, even if it has a standby mode.

-





Review all equipment to understand how much power it uses in ‘standby’ mode. Switch off equipment that uses power in ‘standby’ mode.

-





Turn down any equipment that cannot be turned off in between uses.

-



Purchase new equipment that is energy efficient – use the Energy Rating label and the MEPS website (www.energyrating.gov.au) to determine its efficiency.

$





When determining the cost effectiveness of new equipment consider the energy cost over its lifetime as well as the capital cost (this can be found on the MEPS website).

$





Undertake regular maintenance and cleaning.

$



Cost

$ = lowest cost (payback < 2 years), $$ = payback is between approximately 2 and 3 years, $$$ = highest cost (payback > 3 years).

Benefit

 = lesser energy efficiency (< 10% overall savings),  = between 10 and 15% energy savings,  = greater energy efficiency (> 20% energy savings).

Simplicity

 = requires external/technical expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house but may require some external expertise,  = can be undertaken in-house.

http://greenerworking.com/wheres-your-next-big-energy-savings-to-be-found-try-the-cash-register, 25 February 2013.

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The following list of potential actions for your store’s Energy Action Plan will help you improve the energy efficiency of your equipment and appliances:


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4.5.4 Resources 1.

2.

Good energy practice guide – Improve energy efficiency and increase profits in shop bakeries; Department of Industry, Science and Resources; February 2001. www.ret.gov.au/energy/Documents/best-practice-guides/energy_bpg_bakeries.pdf Food preparation and catering; Carbon Trust; March 2008. www.richmond.gov.uk/carbon_trust_food_preparation_and_catering-2.pdf

Glossary of terms - Electrical appliances and equipment

4.5 Electrical appliances

Chillers

A generic name for a packaged refrigeration system that often includes a compressor, evaporator, heat exchanger, condenser water heat exchanger and control system.

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors

A vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source of electrons or electron emitter) and a fluorescent screen used to view images.

Energy load

The rate at which energy is used at any given time.

Energy rating

A laboratory tests the energy-saving performance of a device and assigns a rating of how effectively the device/equipment controls energy loss.

Exhaust hoods

Metal covering, normally over a cooktop, leading to a vent that exhausts smoke or fumes.

Exhaust fan

A fan that removes air out of an enclosure or area.

Megajoules (MJ)

This is the basic unit of energy used in the natural gas industry; one million joules. Simple comparisons between megajoules and other forms of energy are 3.6MJ=1kWh; 16MJ=energy consumed by burning about 1kg of wood.

Peripherals

An auxiliary device that is connected to a host computer to expand its capabilities (mouse, keyboard, hard drive etc.).

Standby power

The electric power consumed by electronic and electrical appliances while they are switched off (but are designed to draw some power) or in a standby mode. This only occurs because some devices claimed to be ‘switched off’ on the electronic interface, but is actually in a different state than if they were disconnected from a power source e.g. the plug was removed from the power point.

Timers

An automatic mechanism for turning on and off a device at pre-set times.

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REFRIGERANTS


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5 REFRIGERANTS Inefficient and incorrect use of refrigerant gases and gas leakage costs money, is energy inefficient and is environmentally damaging. By not understanding and controlling your use of refrigerants you could be running equipment inefficiently, risking breakdowns and unknowingly leaking expensive gases. In addition to the indirect release of greenhouse gas emissions through the use of electricity and other sources of energy, the direct release of refrigerant gases can be as much as 14% of the overall greenhouse gas footprint of a typical supermarket, with supermarkets leaking up to 20% of its charge per annum. The vast majority of refrigeration systems in Australia use synthetic/fluorocarbon refrigerants that are subject to the Synthetic Greenhouse Gas levy (SGG levy). The following describes the considerations that you need to take into account to ensure your refrigerant use is managed with care from a cost and safety point of view. All refrigerants are dangerous and need to be handled with care by a competent person. The OPSGG Management Act requires that people handling synthetic refrigerants are licensed by the Australian Refrigeration Council. As a result your refrigeration and air conditioning system will have to be serviced by a licensed contractor. By definition you are reliant on your refrigeration and air conditioning contractor to know how to service your refrigeration system for optimal performance. Incorrect refrigerant handling can be very expensive through loss of energy efficiency, expensive refrigerant leakage and the risk of a catastrophic refrigerant leak. In a paper prepared by KAV Consulting for the French Association of Refrigeration (Visser, July 2011) the total greenhouse gas emissions from Coles supermarkets in Australia in 2010 was estimated to be as follows: 81% - Electricity 14% - Refrigeration leakage 3% - Waste 2% - Other 5 Refrigerants

Figure 5.1: An average supermarkets total greenhouse gas emission sources When considering greenhouse gas emissions from retail refrigeration systems, it is important to consider not only the type of refrigerant gas used in your systems, but also how much you consume per annum or the amount of leakage from you plant and equipment. Under the Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Act (1989) synthetic greenhouse gases are now subject to a carbon equivalent levy. The levy, which came into effect on 1 July 2012, applies to high global warming potential (GWP) gases such refrigeration gases, at the point of import, depending on their global warming potential based on carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-e). As shown below the levy reflects the unique GWP of each species of fluorocarbon refrigerant. The purpose of the levy is to encourage reduced use of high GWP refrigerants (synthetic refrigerants, also referred to as fluorocarbon refrigerants).

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The effect of the levy is to increase refrigerant gas costs. It is a price incentive to change the way all industries handle and manage refrigerant gases, through improved maintenance practices, system design and alternative gas selection. The price increases are based on the Clean Energy Future price of $23/tonne CO2-e, which is scheduled to rise to $25.40/tonne by 2014/2015. Refrigerant gas impact on the environment is based on their respective global warming potential (GWP). The global warming potential is the index used to convert relevant non-carbon dioxide gases to a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) by multiplying the quantity of the gas by its GWP. Examples of the GWP for a number of typical refrigerant gases is presented below: Refrigerant gas impact on the environment is based on their respective global warming potential (GWP). The global warming potential is the index used to convert relevant non-carbon dioxide gases to a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) by multiplying the quantity of the gas by its GWP. Examples of the GWP for a number of typical refrigerant gases is presented below: Gas

GWP

HFC-404a

3260

HFC-410a

1725

HFCF-22

1700

HFC-407c

1526

R134a

1410

HFC-134a

1300

The highest the GWP the more it contributes to the changing climate.

Source: AIRAH, The HFC Refrigerant Levy - The Clean Energy Future Plan and HFCs, 2012.

With the exception of HFCF-22 (R22), which is an ozone depleting substance being rapidly phased out under the Montreal Protocol, the following import levy cost on gases will apply per kg on top of the purchase price1: 2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

HFC-134a

$29.90

$31.40

$33.02

HFC-404a

$74.98

$78.73

$82.80

HFC-407c

$35.10

$36.85

$38.76

HFC-410a

$39.68

$41.66

$43.82

HFCF-22

$0

$0

$0

5 Refrigerants

Refrigerant

The cost of the levy is passed through the refrigerant supply chain with the resulting margins being added to the wholesale price. The cost increases felt by industries has actually been much larger than the levy, as additional costs have been applied to refrigerant gases based supply chain costs like insurance, security and additional administration costs that have resulted from the change in regulations. The impact on refrigerant prices has been to increase retail prices by 200% to 400% depending on the GWP, refrigerant supply price and degree of margins added through the supply chain. Other prices have increased in parallel due to supply reduction. As a result, it is important that you make sure you are paying a fair/competitive price for the refrigerant supplied by your contractor. 1 Working gases, technology and tax â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the future of coolthâ&#x20AC;Ś Michael McCann, Thinkwell Australia (2012)

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R22 prices are also increasing rapidly due to dwindling supply as a result of the Montreal Protocol. It is will almost entirely phased out by 2015. An example of real prices paid per kg under a price of carbon of $23/tonne for HFC-404a during recent maintenance performance by a store is presented as follows: Base cost

$98/kg

Carbon price equivalent

$80/kg

Import quotas, Handling costs, other costs

$186.10

Net cost

$364.10/kg

% increase

370%

A large Supa IGA would have around 400kgs recharge capacity in an HFC-404a system. • Typical leakage is 20% per annum which equates to 80 kg per annum • Currently this costs $2,400 per annum in refrigerant recharge • At current costs for HFC-404a of approximately $370, this will increase to nearly $30,000 per annum • A major leak causing full refrigerant loss could cost $150,000 after only one episode. The Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heating (AIRAH) listed several risks to refrigeration system owners, including supermarkets. A summary is presented as follows: Risks

Issues

Financial - existing refrigeration/freezer systems

• • • • •

Financial - new/modified plant and equipment

• Costs of higher design and installation standards • New operating and maintenance skills • Costs of recovering and disposing of regulated refrigerants.

Security - theft of refrigerant

• Security arrangements for high value refrigerants either in storage or within systems.

System failure costs Refrigerant leakage replacement cost Total charge loss Insurance Security costs.

5 Refrigerants

Refrigerant quality and supply • Counterfeit refrigerant • Contaminated refrigerant • Unauthorised refrigerant replacement. Energy efficiency

• Reducing refrigerant charge severely impacts system energy efficiency, as electricity prices rise the energy efficiency of existing plant must be addressed.

Compliance with regulations

• • • • •

Perverse outcomes

• Poor and ill-informed design choices leading to an increase rather than decrease in direct and or indirect emissions.

Leak management Refrigerant handling Licensed contractors Monitoring compliance Penalties apply for breaches.

New systems are continuously being developed using a number of different types of gases and in some instances gas mixtures.

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5.1 Alternative refrigerants The alternative refrigerants, that are not subject to the SGG levy, are commonly referred to as Natural Refrigerants including ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons. There may, in time, be low GWP synthetic refrigerants. However, they are not yet available in Australia. Natural refrigerants have been used for over 100 years. They have come back into favour worldwide because they are generally more energy efficient and lower cost. As a result we are now seeing rapid development of natural refrigerant-based technologies in all sectors of the refrigeration and HVAC industries. There are for instance over 500 million hydrocarbon based refrigerators in use worldwide and all of the large cold storage facilities in Australia use ammonia based refrigeration systems. These refrigerants will certainly remain far less expensive than synthetic refrigerants because they are the by-products of larger industrial production systems, such as the petroleum distillation infrastructure and the ammonia fertiliser production process. They are generally considered more energy efficient than synthetic refrigerants and are therefore being adopted by a large number of suppliers in all sectors. Whilst natural refrigerants are frequently referred to as less safe than synthetic refrigerants this view is based on the chemical properties of the various refrigerants, as opposed to the way they are now being used by modern engineered systems. The Australian Refrigeration Association believes that natural refrigerant based technologies will replace the majority of synthetic refrigerant based systems over the next ten years because they are more cost effective, more energy efficient and will be shown to be safe.

Hydrocarbons

• Hydrocarbons are less expensive than synthetic refrigerants and they have global warming potentials below 20 and no ozone depleting potential, are non-toxic, nearly odourless and accomplish many of the specifications required for refrigerants. However, they are flammable • Hydrocarbons mix well with mineral oils making construction and service of refrigeration systems much easier • Specific examples of hydrocarbon gases include: isobutane, propane, propylene and pentane • Hydrocarbons are generally preferred for use in small charge systems like stand-alone air conditioning systems, unitary display cabinets, refrigerators/vending machines. They have also been shown to be appropriate for small cool rooms • Hydrocarbon based systems can deliver energy savings in the order of 20% to 30% versus other synthetic/fluorocarbon refrigeration systems.

Ammonia

• Ammonia has the lowest GWP (0) of all refrigerants suitable for large refrigeration systems. Ammonia refrigeration systems also usually achieve higher energy efficiency than HFC refrigeration systems. Ammonia is toxic and certain ammonia air mixtures can be ignited • In refrigeration systems, ammonia causes high compression end temperatures. Therefore, refrigeration systems for low temperature applications must be designed in two stages with intermediate cooling between both compression stages. Ammonia is not mixable with mineral oil, consequently ammonia refrigeration systems must be planned and installed very carefully with respect to their oil balance • Recently ammonia has been used as the higher temperature stage in CO2 cascade refrigeration systems.

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A summary of the different types of gases and their advantages/disadvantages is presented as follows:


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Carbon dioxide

• Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colourless and odourless gas which is non-flammable with a GWP of 1. Although it is the largest contributor to climate change, its use in technical applications is environmentally sound because the CO2 used in refrigeration involves very low rates of emissions. CO2 is non-toxic in low concentrations, but can be a risk released into an enclosed space in higher concentrations • Sensors and exhaust fans are recommended for such installations • As CO2 provides very good energy efficiency at low condensing and evaporation temperatures, it is often the choice for the low temperature stage in commercial and industrial cascade refrigeration systems alongside e.g. ammonia or hydrocarbons.

Before you consider designing and commissioning a new system there are a number of other technologies and measure that can be put in place to reduce emissions from existing equipment, such as natural refrigerant conversion kits, that may be more appropriate and energy efficient. As refrigeration and freezer systems are complex, you should consult an experienced service engineer when seeking to better understand the nature of your plant and equipment and what efficiency alternatives exist.

Glossary of terms – Refrigeration gases

5 Refrigerants

Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e)

A measure for describing how much global warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference.

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

Used to convert masses of different greenhouse gases into a single carbon dioxideequivalent metric (CO2-e). In broad terms, multiplying a mass of a particular gas by its GWP gives the mass of carbon dioxide emissions that would produce the same warming effect over a 100 year period.

Hydrocarbon

A chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H).

Refrigerants

Heat exchange fluid that is vaporised and condensed in the refrigeration cycle to achieve cooling.

Refrigerant charge

The amount of refrigerant gas contained in the system.

Refrigerant gases

Chemicals used in a cooling mechanism as a heat carrier which changes from gas to liquid and the back to gas in the refrigeration cycle.

Ozone

Ozone is a colourless, odourless reactive gas comprised of three oxygen atoms. It is found naturally in the earth’s stratosphere, where it absorbs the ultraviolet component of incoming solar radiation.

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WASTE AND RECYCLING


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6 WASTE AND RECYCLING Paper, cardboard and food make up 65% of the weight of the contents of average supermarket waste, while plastic makes up another 11%. These products can be recycled, meaning more than 70% of the waste you generate does not need to go to landfill. By putting these materials in the correct bins your business could save money by reducing waste collection and disposal charges. Waste collection charges vary significantly across Australia dependant on landfill costs and state landfill levies. Although they vary, the consistent trend is the increase in landfill costs, which are passed onto you as the consumer. Increasing landfill fees make it more attractive to increase your recycling performance. Recycling charges are generally more consistent as they are based on the value of the underlying ‘waste’ commodities, which are affected by national and international, market supply and demand.

6.1 Supermarket waste

41% - Cardboard & paper 24% - Food waste 24% - Other 11% - Plastic

Figure 6.1: Typical composition of supermarket waste bins

Source: Industry Fact Sheet – reducing business waste (supermarkets); EPA NSW; November 2012

Typical waste in a supermarket: Types of waste

Specific products and materials

Packaging

Cardboard boxes, foil and trays, metal drums and cans, plastic bottles and drums, glass, pallets, strapping and pallet wrap.

Food

Bakery and butcher scraps and offcuts, damaged perishable foods, canned foods without labels, damaged plastic wrapped foods, broken glass containers, past used-by-date foods.

Maintenance

Engine oil, transmission, power steering, brake and hydraulic fluids, coolants, acid batteries, oil filters and rags.

Office

Paper, cardboard, toner, cartridges, computers, CRT monitors and televisions.

6 Waste and recycling

6.2 How to improve your waste management and recycling performance There are seven steps to improve your waste management and recycling performance:

6.2.1 Conduct a review A good place to start when looking to reduce your waste management costs is to conduct a review of your existing practices. Talk to your department managers about the waste they generate and how it is managed. Talk to the shop floor about existing systems and how they could be improved.

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6.2.2 Measure a performance base line After reviewing existing practices you should undertake a waste audit as a snapshot of what is currently going to landfill and what is being recycled. This is undertaken by sorting through the waste and recycling bins used by your business. A waste audit should be carried out so that you assess a representative sample of the business’ waste – this could involve an assessment of the waste stream over a week or a few days. A link to guidelines for assessing your waste is provided in Section 6.4, reference 1 and sample waste assessment tool is provided in Section 6.4, reference 2.

6.2.3 Commitment The third step in improving your waste management and recycling performance is to establish your commitment. In order to be effective you must have clear waste performance objectives and allocate sufficient resources to implement and manage your approach to waste management to ensure it benefits your business. The commitment should be communicated across all levels of your business, starting with the business owner or manager and including all staff.

6.2.4 Developing an action plan The forth step in improving your waste management and recycling performance is to develop a waste management action plan, which is underpinned by a review of your current waste generation. 6.2.4.1 Creating a waste management action plan A waste management action plan guides a company’s efforts to improve waste management performance. It creates a management and operational plan through which waste and recycling objectives can be developed, monitored and realised. The scope and detail of the plan will depend upon the resources available, especially time. The plan should focus on low cost, waste reduction practices and procedures as well as exploring opportunities to work with suppliers to reduce waste generation and waste service providers to increase diversion of waste from landfill. The plan will document waste reduction opportunities and prioritise them according to cost/benefit or return on investment. It will be a map of your opportunities and allow you to keep track of what needs to be done, when and who is responsible. An action plan will identify resources, budgets, proposed implementation timelines and financial returns for each activity. The types of opportunities that are likely to be identified through an audit and included in an action plan are detailed in Section 6.3.

The fifth step in improving your waste management and recycling performance is to implement your action plan. To get the best outcomes from the implementation of your waste management action plan you will need to work within your business, with your suppliers and waste management and recycling service providers. 6.2.5.1 Working within your business There are a number of things you can do within your business to improve waste management performance: • Appoint a ‘waste champion’ to drive improved waste management performance in your business through the delivery of the Waste Management Action Plan • Involve staff in planning the recycling system and provide training on implementation. Refresher courses can encourage staff commitment and ownership • Clearly label general and recycle bins, for example, use of signage or colour coding to increase distinction • Provide information on recycling outcomes including environmental and economic benefits to motivate staff.

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6.2.5.2 Working with your suppliers As a retailer, avoiding or reducing the creation of waste often requires the support and action of your suppliers. Your existing relationships with your suppliers will assist you to reduce the volume and the cost of packaging waste to your business and it is also likely to reduce the packaging cost for your supplier as well. When considering other types of packaging an assessment of the food safety and the compatibility of different types of packaging should be undertaken. 6.2.5.3 Working with your waste and recycling service providers It is important to monitor and manage your contract with your waste and recycling service providers to ensure you are getting the best value-for-money from your service. Some of the things to consider include:

Consider the following example: you are paying to manage a supplier’s polystyrene shipment packaging. Is that packaging necessary or can it be replaced with plastic reusable boxes that go back to the supplier? This presents an opportunity to engage your supplier on the opportunity to implement the substitute the packaging to reduce the costs for them, their supply chain and the environmental impact of their operations.

• Survey the market periodically to ensure you are getting the best deal for your recyclable materials • If you are improving the effectiveness of the segregation of your recyclable materials then this improves the price your service provider can obtain for them. Negotiate with your service provider for a better deal if you are providing them with a consistently better product • Explore the opportunities to commence a food waste recycling agreement once you have a segregated, uncontaminated food waste stream – this is likely to be a resource you can sell to a recycling service provider. If you already have a contract with a waste collection company, depending on your current agreement, you may need to wait until it expires to start a food waste collection service • Get value-for-money from your provider by ensuring your bins are full when they are emptied (you are likely to be charged on a ‘per lift’ basis regardless of whether your bin is full or not). This is especially important when you are becoming more waste efficient and reducing the amount of waste your business is producing. You may need to contact your service provider to change your bin collection timetable to match your new your waste and recycling volumes e.g. if your bins are not normally full after a week, then consider moving to a fortnightly collection cycle.

6.2.6 Monitoring and reporting results The sixth step in improving your waste management and recycling performance is to monitor and report on your results. Regular bin audits together with reports from your waste management and recycling service providers will enable you to monitor and report on the quantities of recyclables and general waste collected.

6 Waste and recycling

This will provide valuable information on the effectiveness of your efforts, which can also be used to promote the success of the recycling program to staff and customers about your recycling efforts.

6.2.7 Building on experience to achieve continual improvement The final step in improving your waste management and recycling performance is to focus on building on your achievements and learnings to-date. This commitment to continual improvement will underpin future costs savings.

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6.3 Opportunities to save money through improved waste management There are many simple ways supermarkets can reduce waste and save money. It is easiesr to do this if you think in terms of waste hierarchy. How can you avoid, reduce, reuse or recycle?

6.3.1 Avoid Avoiding the creation of waste is the most cost-effective way of dealing with it. Ask yourself the simple question: Do you need it in the first place? Opportunities to avoid the generation of waste include: Give preference to suppliers who will take back their packaging.

Paper and cardboard Food

Plastics

Sell off large quantities of overripe fruit and vegetables at reduced prices or donate it to a food rescue services e.g. Foodbank, Second Bite, Fareshare or Ozharvest.

6.3.2 Reduce Once you have avoided the creation of waste you should then focus on reducing waste generation. Ask yourself: Do we need as much? Opportunities to reduce the generation of waste include: Paper and cardboard Food

Plastics

Buy in bulk. This means paying less for packaging and recycling less material.

Give preference to suppliers who will take packaging back for reuse.

Check stock deliveries and ensure products are undamaged and go immediately to appropriate storage facilities.

Train staff how to handle produce safely to minimise damage and waste.

Educate staff and customers by putting up signs about reducing waste and recycling.

Once you have avoided and reduced the amount of waste you create you should then focus on increasing the reused waste in your business. Ask yourself: Can it be used again? Opportunities to reuse waste you generate include: Paper and cardboard Food

Plastics

Make it easy for customers to use cardboard boxes for packing their shopping by putting them near registers.

Ask your suppliers to deliver goods and produce in reusable containers. Then return clean, undamaged polystyrene foam packaging to your local markets and return pallets to suppliers for reuse.

Reuse packaging for outgoing goods.

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6.3.4 Recycle Once you have explored the opportunities to avoid, reduce and reuse your waste you should then optimise the amount of waste you recycle. Recycling waste will often save you money compared with disposing it to landfill. It may also be that another organisation e.g. a charity, will take your waste and use it directly. This is often a cheaper solution than having it recycled by a waste management provider. Success story Recycling waste materials does not always have to cost you money. Some waste materials are a valuable resource and waste management providers may not charge or may pay to take this resource away if it is properly segregated (i.e. not contaminated with other waste). Ensure you do your research and negotiate the best commercial waste management and recycling arrangements for your business.

Opportunities to recycle the waste you generate include: Paper and cardboard Food

Plastics

Locate recycle bins near where waste is generated.

Engage a commercial contractor to provide recycling bins – it could be cheaper than sending waste to landfill. Recycling can be separated into paper and cardboard, plastic and food (separated for increased value). If your business is situated in a shopping complex, ask the centre management about setting up a recycling service for you and other tenants.

Separate your paper and cardboard from your plastics and food waste avoiding cross-contamination.

6 Waste and recycling

Separate your food waste into fruits/vegetables and meats/dairy, using separate receptacles/bins and remove any contamination i.e. no packaging.

Have fruits and vegetables taken to an organics recycling facility by a separate commercial contractor to be processed into compost, fertiliser and in some instances electricity.

Have meat waste, delicatessan items and dairy products taken away to be used as animal feed. These organic wastes are high in fats and oils so are less suited to composting but a commercial contractor may pay to use them for animal feed.

Donate food items that cannot be sold to consumers or recycled without cost. Charities will often take food items such as non-perishable food items without labels or discontinued items. There are programs that can help connect you with these charities e.g. Foodbank, Second Bite, Fareshare or Ozharvest.

Locate public waste and recycling bins in positions that will make it easier for customers and staff to recycle.

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6.4 Resources 1. Assessing your waste – guidelines; Sustainability Victoria; Dec 2010. www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/SRSB_Waste_assessment_FactSheet.pdf 2. Waste assessment recording sheet; Sustainability Victoria; 2004. www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/SRSB_waste_assessment_recording_sheet.doc 3. Waste volume to weight converter; Sustainability Victoria; 2004. www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/Volume_to_Weight_Calculator.xls 4. Love Food, Hate Waste; NSW Government; 4 Mar 2013. www.lovefoodhatewaste.nsw.gov.au/business/retail/top-tips.aspx 5. Business recycling website and database; Planet Ark; 4 Mar 2013. www.businessrecycling.com.au 6. Industry Fact Sheet – reducing business waste (supermarkets); EPA NSW; Nov 2012. www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/warr/120346bwstsupe.pdf 7. Recycling Solid Waste, Eco-efficiency resources for the food processing industry – Reprocessing waste; Queensland Government; Feb 2010. www.ecoefficiency.com.au/Portals/56/factsheets/foodprocess/waste/ecofoodwaste_fsr4.pdf

Glossary of terms – Waste and recycling The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source of electrons or electron emitter) and a fluorescent screen used to view images.

Hydraulic fluids

A liquid such as oil or water that is used to generate power. That power is created by the compressive force or movement of a liquid in a confined area.

Landfill levy

Levy applied at differential rates to municipal, commercial and industrial levels for prescribed wastes disposed to licensed landfills.

Per-lift

The amount charged per bin collected and emptied.

Supply-Demand

Economic model of price determination in market.

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Appendix â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Waste management action plan Waste Management Action Plan Project

Project cost ($)

Cost savings ($/year)

Waste savings ($/year)

Payback (years)

Waste savings (m3, kg)

Responsible person

Completion date

Low cost / no cost projects

Capital projects

Completed projects

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7 ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF

ENERGY

The two most common sources of energy used in Australian food, grocers and liquor stores are electricity and gas (including piped natural gas and other forms of liquid and gaseous fuels e.g. LPG). There are options available to decrease your electricity and gas purchase and consumption by using alternative energy sources. In Section 2.3, we outlined the ‘green’ energy products offered by energy retailers, including green electricity (e.g. Greenpower) and green gas products. These products can be purchased directly from your energy retailer and can be used to reduce the overall environmental footprint and carbon emissions associated with the energy used by your business. The other alternatives include heat recovery, solar hot water and alternative electricity generation including solar and wind.

7.1 Heat recovery Waste heat can be recovered from your existing equipment (e.g. refrigeration compressors) to offset the need to produce heat yourself (e.g. with your HVAC system). Dependent on how you produce heat in your premises this will decrease your electricity or gas consumption. Waste heat is recovered using a heat exchanger which transfers the heat from one medium (e.g. air) to another (e.g. water). The opportunities to recover heat from your existing supermarket equipment are covered in detail in Section 4 of the Handbook. Examples of supermarket equipment that produces waste heat are: • Refrigeration systems e.g. compressors • HVAC cooling systems e.g. air conditioning compressors • Kitchen cooking equipment e.g. ovens. Waste heat can be used directly or it can be converted into electricity using a waste heat generator. However, this solution is unlikley to be commerically viable in supermarkets at this stage given that electricity prices in Australia, whilst rising, are still relatively low and waste heat found in supermarkets is generally low grade (low temperature) and in small volumes.

7.1.1 The business case A number of factors will go into determining the investment returns of recovering heat from your existing equipment: • The ‘grade’ (termperature) of heat that can be generated through heat recovery • The opportunities to use the recovered heat and the current cost to generate that heat • The capital cost of the heat recovery equipment including the heat exchanger together with the pipes and pumps to transfer the heat to where it is needed.

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7.2 Solar hot water Solar hot water systems were introduced in Section 4.4 of the Handbook as one of the systems that can be used to produce hot water for your supermarket. Solar hot water systems can be very energy efficient as they use free energy from the sun to do most of the heating thereby reducing the cost of creating hot water. Solar hot water systems use the sun to heat mains water by passing it through black tubes located in an area that is exposed to sunlight, normally on a roof (as shown in the photo). The water heated by the sun then stored in a tank ready for use. If the required water temperature is higher than the system can produce, using the sun’s energy, then an additional heating system is used to ‘top-up’ the temperature. This can be done using an electrical element in the storage tank or using an inline gas-fired hot water heater that heats the water up as you use it. Inline gas-fired heaters are more efficient, economical and produce less emissions than an equivalent electric system.

7.2.1 The business case A number of factors will go into determining the investment returns of a solar hot water system for your business:

Depending on climate and location in Australia, hot water from a solar hot water system may not be available all year round and you may need a backup system. Discuss your best option with your local solar hot water supplier.

• The cost currently paid for the fuel that drives your current hot water system e.g. electricty (including any peak network charges) • The temperature requirpments for hot water in your business and what a solar hot water system could produce, which is primarily driven by your location within Australia • The rate and volume of hot water you require.

7.3 Solar power Solar power is created by photovoltaic (PV) panels which are generally fitted on the roof in a northerly direction and at an angle to maximise the amount of sunlight that hits the panels. Solar PV panels generate electricity by converting the energy in sunlight using modules of specially fabricated materials that make up the solar panels. In most cases solar panels are connected to the mains power supply through an inverter. Businesses with solar systems use solar power first before sourcing electricity from the grid and with rising energy prices, an investment in solar power will only improve in value over time.

A number of factors will go into determining the investment returns of a solar system for your business: • The cost currently paid for electricity (including any peak network charges) • How much electricity the solar system would produce which is primarily driven by your location within Australia • How much of the solar electricity production could be utilised at the time of generation and how much would be sold back into the electricity grid. The more of the solar electricity that is used directly and not put back into the grid the better the business case – you pay more for electricity from the grid than the retailers will pay you for electricty you can supply to them.

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There are now innovative pricing models on the market where the solar PV company will pay for the supply, install and maintenance of solar panels on your roof, in exchange for you agreeing to buy the electricity it produces, often at better than market rates for grid electricity.

7.4 Wind power Although not as common as solar energy, wind energy is starting to catch on with retailers around the world. Wind power is generated by a wind turbine which is connected to the grid or a battery system. There are several types of turbines however, for small systems, helical turbines are gaining popularity. Before you can install a wind turbine in an urban area you will need to understand what technology is available and whether there is sufficient wind speeds to make it viable. You will also need to address other issues such as grid connection and local planning requirements. Your wind power provider should provide you with this information in their proposal Sustainability Victoria has produced a guide1 for businesses considering installing a small wind turbine to generate electricity on their site. The guide is designed to assist you to make an informed decision about whether to purchase a wind turbine system and what type of wind system to get.

7.4.1 The business case A number of factors will go into determining the investment returns of a wind turbine for your business: • The cost currently paid for electricity (including any peak network charges) • How much electricity the wind turbine would produce which is primarily driven by your location within Australia i.e. how windy it is • How much of the wind electricity production could be utilised at the time of generation and how much would be sold back into the electricity grid. The more of the wind electricity that is used directly and not put back into the grid the better the business case – you pay more for electricity from the grid than the retailers will pay you for electricty you can supply to them • The cost of the wind turbine • The cost of connecting the system to the grid • The planning permissions required to proceed with the installation.

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Victorian Consumer Guide to Small Wind Turbine Generation, Sustainability Victoria, July 2010; www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/Small_Wind_Generation1.pdf.

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7.5 Other energy sources There are a number of other potential energy sources that exist however their suitability to supermarkets in Australia is limited at this point due to relatively low energy prices. These include: Hydro

Hydro electricity is electricity generated by water, or other liquid, flowing past and turning a turbine that is connected to a generator to produce electricity.

Geothermal

Geothermal electricity is electricity generated from geothermal energy. Generally water is heated up using the geothermal energy and turned into steam. The steam is then used to drive a turbine that is connected to a generator to produce electricity. Geothermal energy is also used to generate heating and cooling directly without the generation of electricity e.g. using a heat pump or an absorption chiller. Some areas of Australia have excellent access to geothermal energy and local expertise should be sought to explore the relevance of this energy source to your business.

Biomass

Biomass, or biological material (e.g. plant materials), can either be converted into an energy product such as biofuel. This fuel can then be used as a liquid fuel to power a generator to produce electricity on your site.

Biogas

Biogas is a combustible gas produced from waste through anaerobic digestion. The gas is used to fuel a gas combustion engine that produces electricity.

Cogeneration

Cogeneration is the generation of useful heat and electricity from one fuel source (also know as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;combined heat and power plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;). Cogeneration plants can run on any fuel however natural gas fuelled cogeneration plants are often the most economically viable.

Trigeneration

Trigeneration is an expansion of Cogeneration where the plant produces heat, electricity and cooling.

Case Studies Milner Meat and Seafood Alice Springs, Northern Territory A 10kW solar PV system was installed, producing over 16,000 kWh per annum, providing 8% of total the electricity consumption of the buiding. The system will result in a saving of almost $4,500 off the annual electricity bill.

Resources 1. Victorian Consumer Guide to Small Wind Turbine Generation, Sustainability Victoria, July 2010. www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/Small_Wind_Generation1.pdf.

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Glossary of terms – Alternative sources of energy Biofuel

A fuel derived directly from living matter.

Chiller

A generic name for a packaged refrigeration system that often includes a compressor, evaporator heat exchanger, condenser, water heat exchanger and control systems.

Compressors

Device that accepts gaseous refrigerant from the evaporator and compresses it to a higher pressure before it is sent to the condenser for heat rejection.

Environmental footprint

Demand for the earth’s natural capital as an impact based on the consumption of natural resources.

Heat recovery

An energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from hot streams with potential high energy content, for example heat from refrigeration systems.

Heat exchanger

A device for transferring heat from one medium to another.

Heat pump

A device that transfers heat from a colder area to a hotter area by using mechanical energy.

HVAC

Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning.

Inline gas-fired water heater

Also known as tankless water heaters, they provide hot water only when required. They do not produce the standby energy losses associated with storage water heaters.

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas. It is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases (Propane or Butane) used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles.

Waste heat

Rejected or escaping heat from furnaces of various types after it has served its primary purpose.

Appendix – Average daily power production from solar PV systems Average daily production City

1 kW system

1.5 kW system

2.0 kW system

3.0 kW system

4.0 kW system

Adelaide

4.2 kWh

6.3 kWh

8.4 kWh

12.6 kWh

16.8 kWh

Alice Springs

5.0 kWh

7.5 kWh

10.0 kWh

15.0 kWh

20.0 kWh

Brisbane

4.2 kWh

6.3 kWh

8.4 kWh

12.6 kWh

16.8 kWh

Carins

4.2 kWh

6.3 kWh

8.4 kWh

12.6 kWh

16.8 kWh

Canberra

4.3 kWh

6.45 kWh

8.6 kWh

12.9 kWh

17.2 kWh

Darwin

4.4 kWh

6.6 kWh

8.8 kWh

13.2 kWh

17.6 kWh

Hobart

3.5 kWh

5.25 kWh

7.0 kWh

10.5 kWh

14.0 kWh

Melbourne

3.6 kWh

5.4 kWh

7.2 kWh

10.8 kWh

14.4 kWh

Perth

4.4 kWh

6.6 kWh

8.8 kWh

13.2 kWh

17.6 kWh

Sydney

3.9 kWh

5.85 kWh

7.8 kWh

11.7 kWh

15.6 kWh

The rated output is that achieved in perfect laboratory conditions. The CEC design summary software takes these deratings into account when predicting average for any given system. Source: Consumer guide to buying household PV panels, p4; Clean Energy Council; December 2012. http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/resourcecentre/Consumer-Info/solarPV-guide.html

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8 BEST PRACTICE

REFURBISHMENT

Undertaking a refurbishment of your store or developing a new store presents an excellent opportunity to integrate energy efficient technologies into your store at the lowest net cost to the business. This is also the time that a significant proportion of a store’s baseline energy consumption is locked-in in the form of refrigeration and HVAC equipment and lighting. All new store and building refurbishments need to be completed in accordance with the National Construction Code (NCC). The NCC incorporates all on-site construction requirements into a single code. The NCC comprises the Building Code of Australia (BCA), Volume One and Two; and the Plumbing Code of Australia (PCA), as Volume Three. Within the BCA, there is a section that outlines the ‘Deemed to Satisfy Provisions’ for energy efficiency (Part J). Some of the relevant sections that it is contains include: • J0 • J1 • J2 • J3 • J5 • J6 • J7 • J8

Energy efficiencies through measuring and monitoring Building fabric (floors, walls, ceiling, roof construction and minimum insulation requirements) and artificial lighting External glazing and shading Building sealing Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems Artificial lighting Hot water supply Access for maintenance and facilities for monitoring energy use

The Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB) has produced a handbook to explain these energy efficiency elements which can be found here1. By way of a quick reference guide, the aspects of the BCA that relate to energy efficiency in refurbished or new stores are shown in the following table. As the principals of energy efficiency are no different in a new building as they are in an existing building; each element also references other areas in this Handbook that relating to this topic. The following table can be used when planning a new store design or refurbishment, to ensure that you consider best practice and the implementation for energy efficiencies. Working through the example applications, in reference to the information provided within the remaining chapters of this Handbook, with your developer, architect and/or building practitioner during the planning stages, should help to ensure that your building achieves maximum energy efficiencies.

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Applying energy efficiency provisions to new buildings work associated with existing Class 2 to 9 buildings; Australian Buildings Code Board (2010); http://www.abcb.gov.au/en

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This table can also be used as a quick reference guide to ensuring your new building or refurbishment is completed in accordance with the BCA. BCA Provisions

Example applications

J0 Energy efficiency

• Consideration of the orientation • Although more relevant to new building construction, of the building accounting elements of thermal mass and natural ventilation can for sun and wind directions be considered when refurbishing existing buildings. as it relates to thermal performance.

J1 Building fabric Natural lighting

• Sets the thermal performance of building fabric (e.g. R-value) used for roofing, ceiling, walls and floors • Considers the use of natural light to reduce the need for artificial lighting within sales and back-of-house areas.

• Roof and ceiling construction and the use of insulation and of sky-lights to provide additional natural light to the building • New wall construction and insulation materials are consistently being introduced • Floor construction and insulation, specifically where there is an open car park underneath the floor. Related information can be found in Section 4.3 of this Handbook.

J2 Glazing and shading

• Glazing provisions for new or refurbished buildings • Depends on the climate zone, glazed areas, orientation and shading to minimise heat infiltration and maintain cool buildings.

• Use of energy efficient glass and double-glazing to achieve the required R-values set by the code • Shading or glazing to avoid heat gain is efficient and cost effective. Avoiding heat gain can improve the efficiency of other equipment e.g. refrigeration and HVAC systems. Related information can be found in Section 4.2 of this Handbook.

J3 Building sealing

• Sealing conditioned buildings can minimise the loss of conditioned air • Sealing applies to windows, doors, light fittings, sky-lights, exhaust fans, walls, ceilings and floors.

• Installing air locks at the main access door to the store • Fitting self closing dampeners to extraction fans.

J5 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

• Sets the design parameters for new air-conditioned spaces and ventilation systems (including boilers, pumps, fans, piping, ducting) • Applies to the whole system and equipment upgrades or changes.

• Work with your supplier to ensure equipment and the systems as a whole meets the provisions Install variable speed drives on fans where possible • Mechanical system must be considered to work together to compliment the refrigeration system. Related information can be found in Section 4.2 of this Handbook.

J6 Artificial lighting

• Considers theamount of power used of in the lighting systems as a measure of performance.

• Consider the use high efficiency lighting e.g. LEDs in back-of-house areas which may apply to sales areas • Light dimming sensors within the sales area where daylight harvesting can be achieved • Outdoor security lighting should be controlled by daylight sensors / timer switches • Utilise vacancy sensors to rooms that are not occupied all the time. Related information can be found in Section 4.3 of this Handbook.

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J7 Hot water supply

• Equipment upgrades or changes (e.g. piping, outlet, insulation, heat traps).

• Consider installing water efficient fixtures and fittings • Consider solar hot water and heat exchangers added into the refrigeration system to preheat water Related information can be found in Section 4.4 of this Handbook.

J8 Access for maintenance and facilities for monitoring

• Considers the practicality and cost effectiveness of access for maintenance Buildings with a floor area of more than 2,500 m2 must have the facility to record individually the energy consumption of: ○○ Air conditioning ○○ Appliance power ○○ Central hot water.

• Ensure that all plant and equipment can be easily accessed and set-up appropriate maintenance schedules for all equipment • Information related to setting up an environmental management system including monitoring and managing your energy use can be found in Section 3 of this Handbook. Related information on maintenance of different equipment and systems can be found throughout the Handbook.

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9 FINANCIAL SUPPORT PROGRAMS

9 FINANCIAL SUPPORT PROGRAMS There are a number of Government support mechanisms to help reduce the barriers to undertaking action on energy efficiency. There is support in the form of information, links to service delivery agents, funding support to reduce the upfront capital cost of equipment upgrades and financial instruments like loans or leasing arrangements that can also reduce the cost of implementation. The information in this section has been prepared to assist you to understand what grants are available to assist in reducing your energy use and achieve efficiencies within your operations. They have been compiled from a number of sources and are summarised into a table that separate the finding programs based on national or state. The information detailed herein is correct and current as at 28 February 2013.

Disclaimer: The information and data contained herein, has been provided by Equilibrium for general information purposes only and on the understanding that Equilibrium is not providing professional advice on a particular matter. While Equilibrium takes care in the compilation and provision of the information and data, it does not assume or accept any liability for the accuracy, quality, suitability and currency of the information or data, or for any reliance on the information or data. Equilibrium recommends that before relying on the information and data, users should independently verify its accuracy, completeness and relevance for their purposes and that it is up-to-date. This document contains links to web sites that are external to Equilibrium. Equilibrium takes reasonable care in providing the links to the web sites but has no direct control over the content of the linked sites, or the changes that may occur to the content on those sites. Before any action or decision is taken on the basis of any information and data contained herein, the user should obtain appropriate independent professional advice.

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9.1 Financial support matrix This matrix enables you to determine which programs offer support to activities outlined in this Handbook. Most of the programs offer information. However, the other types of support offered are denoted by the following key: A = grant for an audit C = subsidy / grant for capital (upgrades, new equipment) L = finance to support procurement of equipment (leasing, loan)

Low Carbon Australia (Energy Efficiency Program)

L

L

L

L

L

NSW

Energy Efficiency for Small Businesses Program

C

C

C

C

C

R

R

R

R

R

C

C

C

C

C

R

R

R

R

R

Focus Area L

A

Energy Saving Scheme Victoria

L

Sustainability Advantage Energy Saver

A

Smarter Resources, Smarter Business Program

A

Victorian Energy Efficiency Target (VEET) Scheme

R

Queensland

Solar Bonus Scheme

R

Tasmania

Renewable Energy Loan Scheme

L

SA

Resource Efficiency Assistance Program (REAP)

A

NT

ecoBiz NT

A

C

C

C

C

C

ACT

ACT Smart Business, Energy and Water Program

A

C

C

C

C

C

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Energy Efficiency for Medium to Large Organisations

Alterative energy

Program

Australia

New Store design

Hot water

Equipment & appliances

Lighting

Jurisdiction

Energy demand

HVAC

Refrigerators & freezers

Energy supply

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9.2 Australian government Department - Low Carbon Australia

Low Carbon Australia www.lowcarbonaustralia.com.au Contact - (07) 3188 1600 or info@carbontrustaustralia.com.au. Low Carbon Australia has been established by the Australian Government as an independent company with over $100 million initial funding. Low Carbon Australia provides financial solutions and advice to Australian business, Government and the wider community to encourage action on energy efficiency, cost-effective carbon reductions and accreditation for carbon neutral products and organisations. Australian Carbon Trust manages two innovative programs: • An Energy Efficiency Program, to provide finance and advice to eligible businesses and the public sector for the retrofit of commercial properties • The Carbon Neutral Program, which provides accreditation for organisations that have products or operations being certified as carbon neutral under the National Carbon Offset Standard. The Energy Efficiency Program: Australian Carbon Trust intends to invest up to $23.7 million through innovative energy efficiency financing programs with NAB and Eureka Funds Management, All Leasing, Origin Energy, Australia Post and Melbourne City Council. The Carbon Neutral Program: The program s the successor to the Greenhouse Friendly™ initiative initially administered by the department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. It enables organisations to gain certification for offsetting the emissions associated with individual product lines or their business operations.

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9.3 New South Wales Department - Environment and heritage

Energy Efficiency For Small Businesses Program www.environment.nsw.gov.au/sustainbus/smallbusenergy.htm Contact - (02) 8837 6000 or energysaver@savepower.nsw.gov.au. Available to businesses that use up to approximately $20,000 in electricity a year or have up to about 10 fulltime employees. The Program offers: • A subsidised energy assessment and tailored energy action plan • 50% off installation costs up to $5,000 (for businesses using $5,000-$20,000 a year in electricity) and up to $2,000 (for businesses using less than $5,000 a year in electricity) • Coordination assistance by an assessor to install energy saving improvements, at no cost to the business (up to four hours). Energy assessment: Businesses pay only $75 or $150, depending on electricity use, to the assessor at the time of the assessment or when they receive their Energy Action Plan. 50% off costs for energy efficient improvements The subsidy is for implementing energy efficiency improvements as outlined in the Energy Action Plan, including: • • • • • • • •

Lighting and skylights Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and insulation Electric motors Air compressors Commercial refrigeration Boilers Insulation Hot water systems.

Businesses that registered for the Energy Efficiency for Small Business Program before 31 December 2012 and are eligible for matched funding, must have submitted funding applications by 2 April 2013. Eligibility: Available to businesses that spend up to about $20,000 in electricity a year, or employ up to 10 staff.

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Department - Environment and heritage

Energy efficiency for medium to large organisations www.environment.nsw.gov.au/sustainbus/energyauditing.htm Contact - 1300 361 967 or energysaver@savepower.nsw.gov.au. Subsidised energy audits and facilitation to assist NSW businesses identify and implement energy savings. An extra $20 million will allow Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (DECCW) to work with an additional 800 medium to large organisations on leading-edge waste, water and energy saving measures, until June 2013, cutting energy use in these businesses by at least 10%. From 1 January 2013, Energy Saver will provide services to small businesses, as well as medium to large business sites in NSW. Energy Saver will be a single point of business support and helps reduce energy consumption and costs, through: • Subsidising energy assessments and audits • Providing technical support for energy efficiency projects • Providing energy efficiency resources and training. Select from three levels of energy audit (each level exceeds Australian Standard AS/NZS 3598:2000) Audit

Scope

Audit cost (estimate)*

Subsidy

Large organisation contribution (estimate)

Level 1

Operational overview and site walk-through

$2,000 - $15,000

80%

$400 - $3,000*

Level 2

Detailed investigation and analysis

$8,000 - $30,000

70%

$2,400 - $9,000*

Level3 **

In-depth investigation and analysis, often involves sub-metering of equipment

$15,000 - $40,000

50%

$7,500 - $20,000*

**Only recommended if proceeded by Level 2 energy audit

Department - Environment and heritage

Energy saving scheme www.ess.nsw.gov.au/Home Contact - ess@ipart.nsw.gov.au. The Energy Savings Scheme (ESS) requires electricity retailers to save energy by improving energy efficiency in households and businesses. The energy savings target, when the scheme started on 1 July 2009, was 0.4% of electricity sales in NSW and this will increase to 4% of sales by 2014. Over the next decade this will help reduce future rises in household electricity bills by an average of $50 each year, support up to 1000 jobs and stimulate the growing energy efficiency industry with up to $1 billion of additional investment.

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Department - Environment and heritage

Sustainability advantage energy saver www.environment.nsw.gov.au/sustainbus/sustainabilityadvantage.htm Contact - (02) 8837 6000 or sustainbus@environment.nsw.gov.au. Good environmental performance reduces risk, lowers costs, improves productivity and enhances reputation. The Office of Environment and Heritage NSW invites applications and partnerships to boost environmental performance of medium to large businesses. Over 630 organisations are currently working with the Sustainability Advantage Program to: • Manage environmental risk and ensure compliance • Use resources more efficiently • Integrate environmental strategies with business planning • Measure their carbon footprint and manage their emissions • Enhance customer, supplier and community relationships and • Engage and train staff to become an employer of choice. Sustainability advantage makes sense of ‘all the noise about’ sustainability, pinpoints how your business can benefit and provides a clear path for action. Rather than creating extra work, we can help you focus your efforts to enable you to deliver the best results for your company and for the environment.

9.4 Victoria Department - Sustainability Victoria

Smarter Resources, Smarter Business Program www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/www/html/3601-smarter-resources-smarter-business-program.asp?intSiteID=4 Contact - 1300 363 744 or srsbprogram@sustainability.vic.gov.au. The Smarter Resources, Smarter Business Program is a $10 million, three year program that assists medium-sized businesses to improve their resource efficiency. By using energy and materials more efficiently, businesses can reduce their ope rating costs and environmental impacts. The Program provides businesses with: • Access to targeted information, tools and resources to assist businesses to better understand and improve their resource efficiency • Funding assistance to identify and implement resource efficiency improvements • A business support program to facilitate leadership and networking opportunities • A recognition program to acknowledge those businesses that have implemented resource efficient practices. Eligibility: The Program is designed to support medium-sized businesses (defined as having between 20 and 199 employees) operating in Victoria. Commonwealth, State and local government entities, industry and professional associations, are not eligible to apply.

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Department - Essential Services Commission

Victorian Energy Efficiency Target (VEET) Scheme www.veet.vic.gov.au/Public/Public.aspx?id=Home Contact - (03) 9032 1310 during business hours or email your query to veet@esc.vic.gov.au. This â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;tradeable certificateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Scheme is aimed at increasing consumer energy efficiency, reducing emissions and promoting investment, employment and innovation in energy efficiency industries. Accredited installers offer householders and businesses around 30 prescribed energy efficiency activities designed to reduce their energy use. The installers can convert these to Victorian Energy Efficiency Certificates (VEEC). The VEECs are typically sold to large energy retailers in Victoria, which are required by law, to surrender a certain number each year. Under the Scheme, accredited businesses can offer discounts and special offers on selected energy saving products and appliances installed at homes, businesses or other non-residential premises. The bigger the greenhouse gas reduction, the bigger the potential saving. For more details about which products feature on the public registers, visit the Products Register page. If you are interested in installing a category of product that is not listed on a public register, you will need to contact an accredited business directly to see what products they have had approved for use under the scheme. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Water heating Space heating and cooling* Space conditioning* Incandescent lighting replacement Shower roses Refrigerators/freezers Televisions Clothes dryers Pool pumps Standby power controllers In-home displays Motors** Refrigerated Display Cabinets** Refrigeration fans** Commercial lighting upgrades**

* A number of activities in this category are only available to residential premises. ** These activities are only available to the business and non-residential sector.

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9.5 Queensland Department - Energy and Water Supply

Solar bonus scheme www.cleanenergy.qld.gov.au/demand-side/solar-bonus-scheme.htm?utm_source=CLEANEENERGY&utm_ medium=301&utm_campaign=redirection Contact - 13 43 87 or solarbonus@dews.qld.gov.au. The Queensland Government Solar Bonus Scheme (the Scheme) pays eligible customers for the surplus electricity generated from solar photovoltaic (PV) panel systems, which is exported to the Queensland electricity grid. The Scheme is designed to make solar power more affordable for Queenslanders, stimulate the solar power industry and encourage energy efficiency. The Scheme compensates customers for energy exported to the electricity grid whenever they generate more energy than they use - not just the balance at the end of the quarter, but whenever generation exceeds consumption during the day. Customers wishing to join the Scheme will need a solar PV system installed on their premises and have it connected to the electricity grid. To be eligible for the Solar Bonus at the 8 cent rate, customers must: • Purchase and install a new solar PV system or operate an existing system that is connected to the Queensland electricity grid with inverter capacity not exceeding 5 kilowatts • Consume less than 100 megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity a year (the average home uses approximately 7.2MWh a year) • Hold an electricity account with an electricity retailer for the premises where the solar PV system is installed • Have a connection agreement in place with an electricity distributor • Only submit one application per premise.

9.6 Tasmania Department - Economic Development, Tourism and Arts

The Renewable Energy Loan Scheme (RELS) www.development.tas.gov.au/economic/funding/loans/Industry_funding_programs/renewable_energy_loan_ scheme Contact - 1800 440 026 or businesspoint@development.tas.gov.au. The Renewable Energy Loan Scheme (RELS) will assist eligible businesses to purchase and install renewable energy generation facilities or manufacture renewable energy technology. The Scheme includes low-interest loans under the $30 million Renewable Energy Loan Fund announced in the 2010-11 Tasmanian State Budget and associated top-up grants (capped at $100 000) to assist with the commercial viability of eligible projects. Applications will be assessed on a competitive basis and approval of loans may depend on the availability of funds. The scheme will be open until 30 June 2014 and is subject to an annual review.

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9.7 South Australia Department - Zero waste Australia

Resource Efficiency Assistance Program (REAP) www.zerowaste.sa.gov.au/grants/reap Contact - John Blumson (08) 8204 2043 or Andrew Hutcheon (08) 8204 8143 Companies are assisted to measure their resource usage through auditing waste, energy, water, systems and plant efficiency. Funded for Medium to large businesses and companies with less than 20 employees, Zero Waste SA is co-funding the S1K Project, which assesses resource use and provides companies with a written report of where savings can be made. Funding: Zero Waste SA funds 100% of Stage 1 walk-through waste assessment and report. The Stage 2 waste audit and development of a resource management plan is subsidised with the business to a maximum of $25,000.

9.8 Northern Territory Department - Business

ecoBiz NT www.ecobiznt.nt.gov.au Contact - (08) 8999 5309 or ecoBizNT@nt.gov.au. ecoBiz NT is a program that helps Territory businesses adopt resource-efficient practices that are good for their financial bottom line as well as for the environment. It is aimed at small to medium enterprises looking for ways to improve how they do business, while reducing costs and improving their environmental efficiency. The ecoBiz NT advice program is a simple six-step plan to assist businesses begin achieving cost savings and improving their environmental efficiency. Participating businesses may also become eligible for grants that support implementing eco-efficiency initiatives. Grants are available to eligible businesses and projects with grants of 50% up to a maximum of $20,000 to assist eligible businesses.

9.9 Australian Capital Territory Department - ACT Government

ACTSmart Business, Energy and Water Program www.actsmart.act.gov.au/your_business/actsmart_business_energy_and_water_program Contact - 13 22 81 or actsmart@act.gov.au If you are the owner of a business operating in the ACT with electricity bills of up to $20,000 per annum and/or you employ up to 10 full time staff, you may be eligible to join the ACTSmart Business Energy and Water program. The program aims to reduce energy and water use in businesses while lowering operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions. If your business is thinking about upgrading equipment such as lighting, heating or cooling, refrigeration, toilets or tapware, you will only have to contribute half the cost towards upgrading to more energy or water efficient products (up to $5,000).

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Steering Group We would like to recognise and thank some of the contributors to the project, these people gave their time in-kind to be involved in developing the project. Damien Wigley from Equilibrium prepared most of the material with the invaluable input from the steering group. Thank you to;

Louise Rhodes

Craig Lewis

Ian Williamson

Damien Wigley

Joe Giblin

Richard Rothery

Lee McGhie


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