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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

2012

Vol.2

ISSN 2225-7063 CHALLENGES OF EDUCATION

INTERNATI NAL J URNAL F SCIEN E

2012 VOLUME 2




INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE (ISSN 2225-7063)

SECOND ISSUE 2012

VOLUME 2

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International Journal of Science

ISSN 2225-7063



EDITORIAL BOARD Prof. Dr. Zorica Kuburic University of Novi Sad, Serbia Prof.univ.Dr. Iulian Boldea Universitatea “ Petru Maior”, Târgu-Mureş, România Prof. Alessandra de Falco Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Brazil Asoc. Prof. Constantine Andoniou The American University in the Emirates, United Arab Emirates Dr. Giovanni Ercolani Nottingham Trent University, England Dr. Edmond Çali Università Degli Studi Di Napoli “L’Orientale”, Italy PhD Ines Rolo Amado De Montfort University, United Kingdom PhD Kais Al-Momani University of Technology, Sydney, Australia PhD Cand. Ivana Kojadinovic University of Belgrade, Serbia Second Issue Coordinator Ms. Martha Zimbber IJOSC is published by “Mankind Tracks” ctr. International Journal of Science | No.2




INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE ISSN 2225-7063 VOLUME II. - 2012 CHALLENGES OF EDUCATION

© 2012 “Mankind Tracks” CTR. for Second Edition © 2012 The copyright to the essays in this volume belong to the authors. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanically, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

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International Journal of Science

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Martha ZIMBBER

Introductory note

5

Heidi L. Maston

Communication in the distance education classroom: Can you hear me now?

6

Elsa Zela | Luljeta Mine | Vasillaq Mine Need analysis in esp for students of food technology Daniel Xerri

Poetry Teaching and Multimodality: Theory into Practice

14 32

Giuseppe Gagliano Disinformation and subversive agitation in the alterglobal movement

48

Darina Çoni (Kacollja) | Adrian Papajani The Position of Women during Ottoman Empire and King Zog’s Period in the District of Elbasan

63

William J. Barry

Is Modern American Public Education Promoting a Sane Society?

69

Edmond ÇALI

“The Winter of the Great Solitude” by Ismail Kadare - Test of Dissidence against Communism and Socialist Realism.

82

The Linguistic Articles in “Hylli i Dritës” (1914-1944) Journal

95

Suela Kastrati

Olivera Z. MIJUSKOVIC From Plato’s Academy to Modern Education as the most Important Resource

100

Marisa KЁRBIZI | Gentian SHYTI Resemantisation of the Prodigal Son Myth through Autodiegetic narrator – The snake of the House, by Arjan Leka

109

Roland LLESHI

116

Notes on Contributors International Journal of Science | No.2

Is Modern Slavery a Security Issue?

126




Martha ZIMBBER

Introductory note International Journal of Science is a scholarly open access, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal focusing on Human, Social and Natural Sciences. It is an academic journal that adheres to the highest standards of peer review and engages established and emerging scholars from anywhere in the world. International in scope and authorship, the International Journal of Science bridges academic communities together. Its scope is to bring close disciplines and continents with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience. IJOSC has a particular interest in policy-relevant questions and interdisciplinary approaches. It serves as a forum for review, reflection and discussion informed by the results of recent and ongoing research. It is published quarterly in one language edition: English. IJOSC Second Issue will be sent to our contributors and subscribers worldwide. Site visitors are encouraged to read it online. Special thanks go to ISSUU for publicizing and marketing this issue. The forthcoming issue of International Journal of Science will be “Balkans flavor�. Senior scholars, researchers and PhD students are invited to submit their proposals on the following topics, concerning Balkans Issues: History Economy Balkans Spirit Art and Literature Democracy Politics Human Rights Education

Ethnography Archeology Media Wild-life Environment Languages Demographics Balkans Future, etc.

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International Journal of Science

ISSN 2225-7063



Heidi L. Maston

Communication in the distance education classroom: Can you hear me now? Abstract: Communication theories abound. They analyze how the individual, small group and large groups deliver, receive, and assimilate information. They predict how the user interprets the information and accepts or rejects its message. They then assess the subsequent outcome of that loop and provide for a recommendation process of follow thru or message rejection. Throughout the 20th and into the 21st century technologies were created and are now implemented at an ever increasingly rapid pace. As the technologies continue to advance in design it has become imperative that the distance education classroom is carefully designed with the student’s needs in mind. No longer is it appropriate to allow the corporate technology developers to drive the educational needs of the student and assign their product to the user simply because the user has not clearly defined, and stated, their own needs. Some institutions have attempted to develop classrooms and learning models specific to their culture, others have not. The result has been a random increase of best practices that are simply one institutions gains that may not translate to another campus and thus leaves the student at an every growing level of frustration with their distance education experience. An analysis of the role of the theories of communication, distance education and the duties and responsibilities of each participant in the cycle of interaction illuminates the discussion for appropriate implementation, utilizations, and direct quantifiable learning gains for the student and organization. There is a disconnect in the research and practical application field of communication theory in distance education. This article addresses that gap. Keywords:

communication theory, distance education, transactional distance, interaction, systems dynamics, learner interface interaction,

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intrapersonal communication, interpersonal communication, small group communication, mass communication, nonverbal communication.

Introduction Communication theories abound. They are based on how the individual and the group deliver and receive information and the subsequent outcome of the loop. There are many conceptual bases for an examination of technology based communication in the 21st century. As technologies have evolved and access has increased there is a need to assimilate technology into education, corporate environments, and social/ societal proximities. The environments hailed as progressive and evolutionary are those which identify, incorporate, and rigorously utilize the available technologies. This provides for a greater collaborative environment by allowing all necessary parties to participate from their own location and at their own discretion. Many organizations have experienced the benefits of these new technologies by becoming the early adopters, it is obvious that the communication gap in the time and distance model combined with the worker skill sets necessary for utilization is proving to be prohibitive to many institutions. While many corporations are finding the solution to this workforce gap by outsourcing to better trained populations the current U.S. educational system is scrambling to train and educate its workforce to meet its own needs. In an attempt to encourage, facilitate and meet this need, distance education (DE) has been growing in popularity. It has become apparent to the education system and workforce there is a lack of communication skills and appropriate training in the synchronous and asynchronous forums of DE and an understanding of the impact on these systems of education. While most research and analysis of the DE classroom in the 21st century focuses on the best communication technologies of the environment, the core issue of 1) how communication skills in the environment are to be identified, 2) effectively implemented, and 3) what recommendations for bridging that gap can be made has mostly been overlooked.

Theories of Distance Education Transactional distance is a function of dialog and structure. The distance decreases with dialog, increases with structure, in order that a classroom with

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International Journal of Science

high interaction and less rigidity will have increased levels of engagement to the students (Moore, 1974). Theory of interaction proposes that there are three forms of communication learning within the DE classroom: learner –instructor; learner-learner; and learnercontent. The interaction between the various parties is unique and the required or accidental relationships between the pairings determine the success, or failure, of the classroom’s participants (Moore, 1989). Systems dynamics examines the relationship between dialog and structure in transactional distance. They concluded that as learner control and dialogue increases transactional distance decreases (Saba and Shearer, 1994). Learner interface interaction asserts that the technology utilized in the learning environment will have a direct impact on the student’s interaction and participation in the classroom by increasing or decreasing the distance between the student, content, and instructor (Hillman, Hills, and Gunawardena, 1994). Social presence is a social factor model to examine computer networking environments that create specialized electronic social environments for students and collaborators working in groups (Feenberg and Bellman, 1990). This list represents the foundations of understanding the utilization of the technologies in relation to the effects on the learners of distance in the time and space continuum of communication.

Theories of Communication Intrapersonal Communication The concept of intrapersonal communication is attributed to George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) an American philosopher and social theorist. While much work was being done in this field, it was Mead who solidified the ideas of I and self into a working, and verifiable, source of dialogue (Aboulafia, 2008). Intrapersonal communication is the dialogue that occurs within oneself, to oneself and remain internal as part of a self check analysis. The dialogue is such that the individual plays all roles in the communication cycle: sender, receiver, message, and noise. It is within this framework of this loop that the factors of distortion and truth become situationally relevant to the individual. It is the purposeful inner exchange that provides the self-edit and clarity modes necessary for processing information and forming opinions. Intrapersonal communication is the gatekeeper of the self.

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Interpersonal Communication The recognition of interpersonal communication as the true starting point in the communication process is universal. Communication can be seen as the process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding. Interpersonal communication is the occurrence of this process in a closed environment although it can be expanded to include one sender with an audience of two to four individuals. Leon Festinger (1919-1989) was a student under Kurt Lewin and followed his early sociological findings by focusing on the study of interpersonal communication. Interpersonal communication is used in a variety of organization and educational venues. It is the means of communication in meetings, dialogue and professional and personal relationships. It is often highly intimate due to the relationships between the participants and includes its own jargon, social cues, hidden meanings, and nonverbal assignments. To the outsider the exchanges prove to be exclusive in nature and do not invite, without a formal request, participation into the conversation. While these boundaries are easily reinforced face-to- face question remains of what happens when interpersonal communication is taken to the DE forum? Several limiting factors increase in intensity and influence in the realm of DE in an educational situation that employs technology. The inclusion rates in such forums increase with technology implementation. The limiting factors of technology assisted interpersonal communication center around dialogue constructs such as: nuance, subtext, universal jargon, shared meaning, nonverbal cues, and cultural meaning of given words, lingo and situations. Solutions to these limitations are the very social actions that do not generate a positive interaction in the face to face world. They begin with the ability of the outside participant to enter the interpersonal circle of shared meaning environment established on common interest, inquiry, or need. The barriers listed above are easily broached due to the nature of the technology that creates an open dialogue forum where questions, answers, suggestions and requests from outsiders are part of the process. The perceived anonymous nature of the environment decreases the apprehension that is felt by the outside participant. The increased accessibility to these forums combined with the decrease in intrapersonal dialogue provides a venue that accepts the outsider’s inclusion into the forum and creates open communication culture, norms and climate. Small Group Small group communication and dynamics has been examined based of evidentiary research within the context of religious, educational, political, and

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social change organizations. The ability of one dynamic leader to influence seemingly countless individuals within a system is one of great study. Kurt Lewin, during his time at MIT in the 1930 – 1940’s , studied group dynamics as they related to his earlier work on action research in the social community. It was during this period, and the three decades that followed, that much attention was paid to the development of a theoretical framework upon which today’s communication models are based. While small group communication is technically different from interpersonal and mass communication due to size and venue only, the resultant characteristics of the small group are influenced by those differences. A small group can consist of five individuals up to hundreds and more, depending on venue. What distinguishes the small group is the perceived ability of the message sender to have a personal, unique and distinct impact on the receivers in a closed environment. Therefore, a small group can be defined in terms of size and scope from that of a classroom with many students or an arena with thousands of attendee’s. The message of the small group is designed to be directly impactful to the immediate receiving participants and the emotional responses of the participants are calculated to be unique, individualistic in nature, and meaningful in context. It is through this shared meaning of context, time, space and point of view combined with the powerful pressures of groupthink (a phenomena first identified and named by Irving Janis in 1972) that the small group gains its momentum to catch, hold and transform crowds. This influence is powerful both in the model of content exchange and in the psychology of the group. If the message is carefully designed and sent out it takes very few individuals in the audience to pick up the message and transform it into a reality for the rest of the individuals involved using various forms of positive feedback including calculated body language, facial expressions, and tones. The inherent danger in this is obvious in history with the rise of political, religious, and social leaders who began their tyranny with an absolute knowledge and control of their crowds. Small group communication has its place in DE and, with the advent of increased synchronous technologies and Web 2.0 and 3.0 application tools, the ability to successfully cull, develop and influence the small group arena is expanding and becoming a reality in the 21st century classroom. As communication tools increase in sophistication so does the student. The ability for small groups to be influential in the DE classroom is in direct correlation to the number and location of the students. The spectrum of influence of the message sender is no longer limited to the participants located in immediate and direct proximity but rather the individuals are regional, national and global – thus automatically infusing a greater

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breath of perspective, reality, opinion and understanding into the classroom in an increasingly role changing capacity. This spectrum of influence is re-defining the phenomena of small group communication and allowing the audience to not only act as participants and receivers of a singular message but to become contributors to the dialogue of global knowledge. Mass Communication The greatest range of impact comes from mass communication although it is not necessarily known for being the method of delivery for the greatest sustaining influence. The identification and study of mass communication began in 1937 with the work of Paul Lazarsfeld. It was formally named mass communication in 1955 with the increase in research of the influence of radio on the population. This form of communication is identified by its reach, scope, and ability to touch the greatest number of people, regardless of recipients’ desires to receive the message. Mass communication seeks to of affect a behavioral change, pattern, or thought. While the message may not necessarily be case specific to any particular individual, the model of mass communication does hold one trait in its coffers of influence that is unique from the other types of communication theory examined above, it is the only mode of communication during which there is not direct synchronous feedback from the receiver of the message. Mass communication in DE is increasing in popularity and effectiveness with the advent of Web 3.0 artificial intelligence (AI) based on a greater personalization of content and match with AI intuitive programming. The ability of institutions to match a potential student’s needs and interests in an advancement to the once randomness of the traditional marketing message. Mass communication allows for messages to be sent to a greater number of students as well as passive and secondary learners. While the influence of mass communication is broad and far reaching the measureable outcomes of feedback are more difficult to quantify. Studies are continuously conducted as to the influence of mass media on culture, education, spending patterns and social change but, due to the removed nature of the message from the sender and the lack of an immediate feedback, the impacts of mass communication can only be studied at a pre or un determined time in the future. As the 21 century educational technologies evolve there is a shortening of this feedback resulting in a greater understanding of the influence and results with a faster message adjustment to best influence the receiver of the message. It is clearly projectable that the asynchronous gap in delivery of mass communication will soon become bridged and a synchronous method of quantifying data will be a true deliverable in the mass numbers of mass communication. www.ijosc.net | International Journal of Science


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Nonverbal Communication The art of saying nothing while saying everything is a gift of few and the folly of many but it is a mode of communication that has been employed before the use of language and print. Nonverbal communication is the intention use of body, tone, positioning, timing, and breathing involved in the any communication transaction. Essentially it is speaking without saying a word. George Herbert Mead (1932) coined the concept of nonverbal communication to explain this communication dynamic. Nonverbal communication is used in all modes of face-to-face interaction. It is not defined by size of audience, intent of message, or by scope of influence. There are elements of truth in any nonverbal delivery that indicate the truth or deception in any message. It is general knowledge that 70 – 90% of all communication is nonverbal. In absence of its utilization, what becomes of the rest of the message? Enter the realm of technologies in the 21st century DE classroom and nonverbal communication comes to a screeching halt. The synchronous communication style of text based dialogue creates a classroom where nuance is lost and the message is up for interpretation based on the receiver’s perspective of meaning. When there is an absence of nonverbal cues, tone of voice and word and body stance a great portion of the original message is lost. As technologies continue to advance, and the tools placed in the 21st century classroom include items such as cameras, speakers and microphones, a greater portion of the message is received however this requires a higher level of synchronous timing and technological skill than straight text delivery and format. Presently this issue of missed content due to insufficient message media remains unanswered and unsolved. Predictions for a solution may lie with the advent of Web 3.0 tools.

Conclusions Communication is evolutionary in execution and developmental in its delivery. While research and analysis of the DE classroom in the 21st century focuses on the best communication technologies of the environment, the core issue of how communication skills in the environment are to be identified and effectively implemented and what recommendations for bridging that gap can be made has mostly been overlooked. This analysis of the impact and interplay of the varying models of communication on the intent of a DE system demonstrates the cycle of influence that these two project upon each other. It is simpler to assume that all communication is forthright and the impact of the scope of dialogue is negligible at best and minimal at its worse, however with each interaction (intrinsic or extrinsic to the system of origin) the variables of influence change the formula of success or failure. By understanding the theories of DE, communication, and recognizing their on each other the design of a learning an environment can be beneficial for all. International Journal of Science | No.2


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BIBLIOGRAPHY •

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• • • •

Aboulafia, M. (2009). “George Herbert Mead”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (Summer 2009 Edition) Edward N. Zalta (ed.) Retrieved August 10, 2009: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2009/entries/mead/ Adler, J. (2008). “Epistemological Problems of Testimony”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) Retrieved August 10, 2009: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/ entries/testimony-episprob/ Heider, F (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hillman, D., Willis, D., & Gunawardena, C. (1994). Learner-interface interaction in distance education: An extension of contemporary models and strategies for practicioner. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8 (2), 31-42. Janis, I (1972). Victims of groupthink; a psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. Katz, Elihu, and Lazarsfeld, Paul F. (1955). Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communication. New York: Free Press. Moore, M. (1997). Theory of transactional distance. Keegan, D., ed. “Theoretical Principles of Distance Education (1997), Routledge, pp. 22-38. Saba, F. , & Shearer, R. L. (1994). Verifying key theoretical concepts in a dynamic model of distance education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8 (1), 36-59.

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Elsa Zela | Luljeta Mine | Vasillaq Mine

Need analysis in esp for students of food technology Abstract This paper discusses the results of need analysis of the students of the first two semesters who study English for Students of Food Technology at the Agricultural University of Tirana (AUT), Albania. Need analysis is not a once-forall activity. It should be a continuing process in which the conclusions drawn are constantly checked and reassessed. (Drobnic, 1978). The main part of the paper discusses the need based approach in course design and aims to find out what Food Technology major students at AUT want to learn in their English for food technology classes and what ways can help them to achieve better results in acquiring their degree, preparing for postgraduate studies, taking exams or getting a job. The study is conducted on a group of 50 students, with the use of questionnaire surveys in the beginning and the end of 2 semesters.. The paper discusses the results of need analysis of the group. It suggests what content areas should be included in English for Food Technology courses and how they should be taught. The paper is concentrated on the 3 key words of target needs: necessities, lacks, wants and on the issues such as: what the students want to do after graduation; how much they are motivated to learn English; what they think their levels of proficiency are; what skills of English they think they need to improve; and whether what the teacher plans to teach matches what they want to learn.

Key words: need analysis, need assessment, ESP, learner-centered, wants, lacks, needs.

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1. Introduction English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is considered as a trend of learning English, as a second or foreign language with a strictly utilitarian aim. It emerged during the Second World War and it has been developing ever since. The determining role played by the USA during the period of its emergence not only influenced historical events but also exerted a strong pressure on international trade and business relationships. As a result, world science and technology transfer have also been conditioned by the mastery of English which is established now as the first international language. According to (Hutchinsons and Waters, 1987), the growth of ESP was brought about by a combination of three important factors: the expansion of demand for English to suit particular needs and developments in the fields of linguistics and educational psychology. English was introduced in Albania during the communist regime, but due to military and economic relationship between Albania and the former Soviet Union, Russian language prevailed in Education system. The importance of English was highlighted only after the fall of communism in the early 90-s when the country became open to the world. The reasons were similar to those of post second World War, the expansion of the country in scientific, technical and economic activity. English for Specific Purposes was involved in curriculum in Agricultural University of Tirana only 6 years ago. It was started with the faculty of Economics and Agro-business and followed by other faculties of the University such as Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Faculty of Agriculture. English for Food Technology is taught by the lecturers of English Language to the students of the first year for the bachelor degree. The course which covers 60 lessons in total for the duration of one academic year involves a revision of basic grammar, introduction to general technical topics, food technology context and food technology terminology extracted from topics around food, meals and meal planning, nutrients, food additives, etc.

2. Literature review The importance of need analysis (also known as needs assessment) is crucial in the process of designing and carrying out any language course. Needs analysis was firmly established in the mid-1970s (West, 1998). In its initial stage, needs analysis was mainly concerned with linguistic and register analysis and needs were www.ijosc.net | International Journal of Science


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seen as discrete language items of grammar and vocabulary, (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998) Its vital role has been acknowledged by various scholars and authors (Munby, 1978; Richterich and Chancerel, 1987; Hutchinson and Waters,1987; Berwick, 1989; Brindley, 1989; Tarone and Yule, 1989; Robinson,1991; Johns, 1991; West, 1994; Allison et al. (1994); Seedhouse, 1995; Jordan, 199; Hamp-Lyons, 2001; Finney, 2002). Needs analysis has gone through many stages, with the publication of Munby’s Comunicative Syllabus Design in 1978, situations and functions were set within the frame of needs analysis. The role of need analysis in any ESP course in indisputable. For Johns (1991), needs analysis is the first step in course design and it provides validity and relevancy of all subsequent course design activities. The term “need analysis” according to Iwai et al , generally refers to the activities that are involved in collecting information that will serve as the basis for developing a curriculum that will meet the needs of a particular group of students. Brindley (1989) and Berwick (1989) offer ways to distinguish between needs identified by analysts and those expressed or experienced by learners while West (1994) presents an overview of needs analysis in language teaching, including its history, theoretical basis, approaches to needs analysis, etc. Hutchinsons and Waters, 1987 defines ESP as an approach to course design which starts with the question “Why do these learners need to learn English?” They also argue that this should be the starting question to any course, General or ESP. What distinguishes ESP for general English is not the existence of a need as such but rather an awareness of the need. Many definitions have been used to identify “needs”. The terms include objective and subjective needs (Brindley, 1989) perceived and felt needs (Berwick, 1989), target/situation/goal oriented needs and learning needs, product- oriented and process-oriented needs, (Brindley 1989), necessities, wants and lacks (Hutchinsons and Waters, 1987).They define ‘necessities’ as the type of need determined by the demands of the target situation, that is, what the learner should know in order to work effectively and efficiently in the target situation. Hutchinson and Waters argue that to identify necessities alone is not enough to understand ‘needs’ Since learners is the major variable in ESP, it is necessary to know what learners want and lack. . It should be mentioned that learners needs not always correspond to the needs perceived by course designers and teachers. That is why course designers need to evaluate first what learners already know. The target proficiency needs to be matched against the existing proficiency of learners. The gap between the two can be referred to as learners lack. A necessities analysis corresponds to a target situation analysis, TSA suggested by Dudley –Evans and St.

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John (1989), a wants analysis correspond to a learning situation analysis, LSA and a lack analysis correspond to present situation analysis PSA. Hutchinsons and Waters argue that ‘there is no necessary relationship between necessities as perceived by sponsor or ESP teacher and what the learners want or feel they need’. They view necessities, wants and lacks in two different perspectives: one is perceived by course designers, that is an objective viewpoint and the other is perceived by learners, that is a subjective viewpoint. In order to explain the differences in perspective , Hutchinsons and Waters use a diagram suggested by Richard Mead (1980) in discussing motivation of students taking ESP courses in the faculties of Medicine, Agriculture and Veterinary Science at a university in the Middle East. These students of the Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine were not motivated by their subject –specified texts. They did not to study these subjects. They wanted to become medical doctors, but there were not enough places in the faculty of Medicine.

3. The study The primary function of need analysis is to express and to determine the final objectives to which English language learning is put (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987). The other function of a needs analysis is to take into account the students’ initial needs, including learning needs and also to investigate students’ strength and weakness at the start of their language course. The present paper aims at analyzing students; subjective perception of their necessities, wants and lacks as well as objective viewpoint perceived by course designers and teachers.

3.1. Participants Among the students of Biotechnology and food, a group of 50 students has been randomly selected to answer a questionnaire designed to take information on 15 points. The age of the group, varies from 18-25. They took part in the survey at the beginning and in the end of two terms during the academic year 2010-2011. Two main reasons have influenced the decision of selecting such a category of students. Firstly they are mature enough to make an evaluation about their level of achievement of English. According to Robinson(1989:398), students are normally adults, albeit young adults, rather than school children. Secondly those students

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are concerned with the needs analysis that is presently conducted, and it is felt that their opinions must be taken into great consideration. In fact they constitute one of the reliable sources of information. As Chambers (1980:60) put it; “Richterich and Chancerel (1987) authoritatively suggest three separate sources of information: the student, the student’s employer and the teaching organization”. This paper aims at analyzing the information taken from the first source, the student.

3.2. Method In order to gather the relevant information for a needs analysis, Robinson (1989: 396-398) suggests that two important factors must be taken into consideration and concern the learner and his learning environment. The first factor deals with the requirements and objectives that must be attained by the learner during the period of his training. The second concerns the aims and purposes after his training as for instance when the learner applies for a job or occupation, and the way he uses his experience of English for real communicative purposes required in such a job. For needs analysis, Robinson (1991) sees three main sources of information as being necessary: the students, the language teaching institution including the administrators, and the student’s employer. For Mackay (1978: 21) it is up to the language teacher who must be well informed about the situation to determine what should be the needs of the learner: “In order to design and teach effective courses, the teacher and planner must investigate the uses to which the language will be put.” The main reason for such an argument is the fact that Mackay thinks that the learner can make mistakes in his choices and decisions: “The linguistically unsophisticated confuse and conflate skills, or simply do not distinguish them at all” (Mackay, 1978: 21): “Hence, it is the responsibility of these language teachers involved in planning courses for given groups of learners for specific purposes, to determine accurately what these specific purposes are. Then the teacher is one step nearer to being able to translate these needs into linguistic and pedagogic terms in order to produce and teach an effective course. There are basically two formal ways of gathering the necessary information: by a questionnaire to be completed by the learner or teacher, or by means of a structured interview.”(Mackay, 1978: 21) The questionnaire must be elaborated under certain conditions: “If a questionnaire is to be used, the teacher must determine what kind of information about what he requires and design questions to elicit this information.” (Mackay, 1978: 21)

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The students in my study answered two questionnaires. Some content and types of questions of the two questionnaires overlap and some are totally different. They both include open and closed questions.

3.3. Analysis Question 1 Do you consider English important for your studies? - Yes - No Table 1:

Importance of English

Importance of English

No.

%

Yes

44

88%

No

6

12%

The question was part of the first questionnaire in order to get an understanding of the students viewpoint regarding the importance of English, and to see YES NO if they are motivated in learning it further. The Table indicates that 44 12% 88% students out of 50 consider it to be important, so it can be inferred Diagram 1: Importance of English that the students’ motivation in general is high. We expect the motivation to be related to the specified needs. Kennedy and Bolitho (1984:14) say that “ If it is possible to find out a student’s motivation for learning English and match the content of the course to this motivation, the chances of successful language learning are increased.”

in %

Question 2 Do you have any professional activity in addition to studying? - Yes - No

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Table 2:

Do you have any professional activity in addition to studying

Additional activities

No.

%

Yes

22

44%

No

28

56%

in % YES

NO

56%

44%

Diagram 2.

The question was asked in the first questionnaire and 28 students out of 50 did not have a professional activity. The aim of the question was to get a clear picture of the learner’s social environment and its influence in the learning process.

Do you have any professional activity in addition to studying

Question 3. If yes, What is it? a. Working in a national institution b. Working in a private company c. Others (please specify) Table 3: Nature of additional activities Options

No.

%

Working in a national institution

2

9%

Working in a private company

16

73%

others

4

18%

Nature of additional activities Working in national insitution Working in a private company Others 9% 73% 18% Diagram 3:

Nature of additional activities

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The aim of this question was to get a better understanding of the additional activities carried out by the students who responded “yes” in question number 2.


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Question 4. Do you use any English in your job? -Yes -No Table 4:

Use of English at job

Use of English in additional activities

No.

%

Yes

12

60%

No

8

40%

in %

This question also was addressed to those who responded “yes” in question number 2. The last three questions are related with each other and their objective is to identify the student in his social environment as well as to see the students’ motivation to learn if the English is essential in their job.

YES

NO 60%

40%

Diagram 4

Use of English at job

Question 5. What is/are the skill(s) you have most concentrated on?

(Please classify in order of importance giving 1 to the most important to 4 to the least important)

a. b. c. d.

listening speaking reading writing

Table 5: Skills concentrated on Options

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Rank 4

Listening

14 29.2%

12 25 %

13 27.1 %

9 18.7%

Speaking

23 46 %

24 48 %

2 4%

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Reading

10 21.3%

7 14.9 %

13 27.6 %

17 36.2 %

Writing

2 4.5%

5 11.1 %

19 42.2%

19 42.2%

Looking at the above tables, it can be viewed that the speaking skill is the most preferable by the students (46 %) followed by listening and reading skills, while less preferable is the writing skill. Identifying the learners’ need in relation to skills is an important step in drawing a successful curriculum.

Question 6: What is/are the skill(s) you feel more confident to use now?

(Please classify in order of importance, giving 1 to the most important to 4 to the least important)

a. b. c. d.

listening speaking reading writing

Table 6:

Skills you feel confident to use

Options

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Rank 4

Listening

20 48%

11 20 %

10 20%

9 12%

Speaking

17 72%

17 16%

13 8%

2 4%

Reading

11 22%

11 14%

13 26 %

19 38 %

Writing

2 4%

10 12 %

14 44%

20 40%

Questions 5 and 6 are related together so as to make a comparison between the learners ‘wants” and the achievement regarding the skills at the end of the course. As it can be seen from the table there is a shift from speaking to listening. An explanation is the lack of confidence expressed by the students toward an “active” speaking and increased knowledge in “passive” listening

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Question 7 Would you say that, at the present time, your level in English is: a. very low ? b. low ? c. good ? d. very good Table 7: Options a

Level in English N1

N2

8 16%

3 6%

b

29 58%

27 54%

c

13 26%

14 28%

d

0%

6 12%

Question number 7 was asked twice, in the beginning and in the end of the course so as to make a comparison of students’ perceived achievement and to understand whether, according to the them, the course has been successful or not. As it can be seen there is improvement for every level but also there is a considerable number of students who lack knowledge in English at the end of their studies. Question 8. How would you describe your attitude towards English language learning at the beginning of your studies: a. favorable b. unfavorable

Table 8:

Attitude towards English language learning at the beginning of your studies

Options

No.

%

a

37

74

b

13

26

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Question 8 was asked at the beginning of the course in order to get a clear picture of the attitude of the students towards English learning. The table shows that 74% of the students think positively and have a good attitude toward learning English while 26% do not.

Question 9. Do you find the number of hours provided for English learning: a. too much ? b. sufficient ? c. just reasonable d. not sufficient Table 9:

The number of hours provided for English learning

Options

No.

%

a

3

6

b

7

14

c

18

36

d

22

44

Considering the fact that time is an essential factor in ESP courses, this question tends to take the students’ needs in relation to the period of time in which the learning has taken place. The ESP course is taught during two semesters in a total of 60 hours at the faculty of Food Technology. As the table illustrates, the students perceive that the time in disposal for the English course is not enough (44 %) Question 10 Do your Food Technology teachers encourage you to use specific documentation written in English? - Yes - No Table 10:

Teachers encourage you to use specific documentation written in English

Options

No.

%

Yes

33

66

No

17

34

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From the table we notice that “yes” represent 66 % of students’ responses while “no” 34 %. The results are encouraging because the use of books and other resources written in English is very useful in language progress. Question 11: If yes, what are the objectives of the use of this specific documentation? a. To develop your knowledge in relation with the whole program of Food Technology b. To write summaries/essays according to Food Technology teacher’s instructions c. To prepare Food Technology examinations d. To write a dissertation thesis at the end of the third year. e. Others (please specify) Table 11:

The objectives of the use of this specific documentation

Options

No.

%

a

22

46

b

10

21

c

5

10

d

11

23

e

0

0

The table illustrates clearly that knowledge gained through reading is the one that students have been working more and interests them more (46%). This is related to the use of recommended reading, course assignment in different subjects, using dictionaries etc. Question 12. Considering your acquired knowledge of English, you have become able to: a. Listen to lectures in English - Yes - No b. Speak English fluently. - Yes - No www.ijosc.net | International Journal of Science


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c. Read general English easily. - Yes - No d. read scientific English easily - Yes - No e. write English correctly. - Yes - No f. listen to conferences/talks presented by experts in English - Yes - No g. exchange views with foreign experts in formal and informal situations - Yes - No h. Write reports on Food Technology in English - Yes - No i. find a job where English is required. - Yes - No j. conduct further research. - Yes - No Table 12:

Considering your acquired knowledge of English

Options

Number of “Yes”

Number “No”

a

34 69.4%

15 30.6%

b

27 55.1%

22 44.9%

c

41 82%

9 18%

d

29 60.4%

19 39.6%

e

26 54.1%

22 45.9%

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24 49%

25 51%

g

23 47.9%

25 52.1%

h

32 65.3%

17 34.7%

i

25 52.1%

23 47.9%

j

31 64.6%

17 35.4%

27

This is a question asked at the end of the course. The table presents the answers about certain abilities expected by the students. Reading (82 %) is the ability students most feel confident in, followed by listening and speaking (69.4% and 55.1% respectively). The question is very useful in terms of target needs and the answers give essential information about what is the best for students interest in the process where the learner is the centre.

Question 13 Do you think the current curriculum offered by the department of Food Technology is compatible with your future goal? - Yes - No Table 13: Options

Compatibility of current curriculum offered by the department of Food Technology with future goals Yes

No

No 1

22 51.2%

21 48.8%

No 2

35 71.4%

14 28.6%

This is a question involved in both questionnaires, in the beginning of the course as well as in the end. At the beginning of the course student hesitated to answer the question and some of them did not answer. This is related to the fact that the learner is not always aware what his needs are. But at the end of the

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course the number of the replies increased and most of them were in favor of the curriculum as they found it to be related to their would be profession. Question 14. Which of the following languages would you like to study most? a. English b. French c. German d. Italian e. Spanish f. Other Table 14:

Languages studied most from students

Options

No

%

a

38

76

b

5

10

c

3

6

d

2

4

e

1

2

f

1

2

As it was expected, the majority chose English as the most favorable language to study. This reflect their attitude and awareness that English is very important to carry on with their studies and to get a job in the future. Question 15 Which of the following is the reason you study English? a. for everyday life b. for work and academic purposes c. for others Table 15:

Reason to study English

Option

No

%

a

13

27.1

b

31

64.6

c

4

8.3

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In contradiction to Miller (2001), the participants in the questionnaire pointed out the need to study English for work and academic purposes. In fact 31students out of 48 responses declared that the reason they studied English for option b, while 13 students wanted to learn it for every day use. This reflects the work and study- oriented attitude of the students of food technology.

4. Conclusion From the analysis of the questionnaire it can be noticed that certain questions have not been answered fully. This problem is known to be as one of the disadvantages of the questionnaire. This may be as a result of the form of certain questions which present either a lack of comprehension or an unwillingness to answer them. Perhaps it may be that their difficulties are of another type which has not been identified yet. The analysis of the students’ questionnaire has helped us discover lacks and wants perceived by the students.

4.1 Lacks Even though the students’ responses revealed a higher confidence in their abilities regarding their proficiency in English for Food Technology, the survey analysis showed that students did not feel satisfied with their level of English and also lacked knowledge on English grammar and communicative skills.

4.2 Wants The students motivation to study English is considered to be high. Among the reason that came out from the questionnaire, the possibility to find a good job in the future prevailed in the responses followed by the importance of English language to carry on postgraduate studies such as Masters and Phd. A considerable number of replies stressed the fact that with the visa liberalization in Albania, students considered English to be their “passport’ to travel to European countries.

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4.3 Necessities There is a general awareness among the students that learning English is a strong necessity in order to get a good job or to carry on further with their studies. After having been studying English for General Purposes for nearly 4 -8 years, student felt that English for Specific purposes was what they needed at this stage of their studies. However, most of the students thought that studying English during 2 semesters was not enough.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Berwick, R. (1989). Needs assessment in language programming: from theory to practice. In R.K. Johnson (Ed), The second language curriculum. (pp.6378). Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press. 2. Brindley, G.P. (1989). The role of needs analysis in adult ESL program design. In R.K. Johnson (Ed), The second language curriculum. (pp.63-78). Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press. 3. Dudley-Evans, A &. St. John, M.J. (1998). Developments in English for Specific Purposes: A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 4. Hutchinson,T. and Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes: A learning-centred approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 5. Jordan, R.R. (1997). English for academic purposes: A guide and resource book for teachers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 6. Jenkins, S., Jordan, M. K. and Weiland, P. O. (1993). “The role of writing in graduate engineering education: A survey of faculty beliefs and practices”. English for Specific Purposes, 12, pp. 51-67. 7. Kennedy, C. and Bolitho, R. (1984). English for Specific Purposes. Hong Kong: Macmillan Publishers Limited. 8. Mackay, R. and A.J Mountford (1978). “The Teaching of English for Special Purposes: Theory and Practice”. In R. Mackay and A.J 9. Mead, R. (1980) Expectation and sources of motivation in EAP. In C. Kennedy (Ed.), English language research journal No.1. University of Birmingham. 10. Miller, L. S. (2001) Needs analysis in a university English conversation program. English Teaching, 56, 113-139 11. Mountford (Ed.). English for Specific Purposes: A Case Study Approach, pp. 2-20. London: Longman. 12. Richterich, R. and Chancerel, J.L. (1987). Identifying the Needs of Adults Learning a Foreign Language. Prentice-Hall International 13. West, R. (1994) Needs analysis in language teaching. Language teaching, 27, 1-10.

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Poetry Teaching and Multimodality: Theory into Practice Abstract This article discusses the theoretical concepts underpinning a multimodal approach to poetry teaching and considers a number of ways in which this can be adopted in practice. It discusses what is entailed by the concept of multimodality and examines the claims made about the benefits of employing a multimodal approach. It reviews the literature on multimodality and examines how teachers may blend a variety of techniques and resources in order not just to engage their students with poetry but also to activate language learning. In particular, this article examines how by tapping students’ visual and digital literacy skills they are enabled to create video poems, podcasts, hypertexts and wikis, all of which represent new ways of using language and experiencing poetry. Through constant reference to the research carried out so far, this article seeks to show how by means of a multimodal approach poetry can act as a springboard for the development of students’ language proficiency and creative engagement. Key words: poetry, multimodality, student engagement, digital technology

1. Introduction In recent years one of the most influential approaches to the teaching and learning of poetry is that emphasising multimodality, which is increasingly renowned as an effective way of enhancing students’ engagement. This is probably due to the idea that ‘contemporary culture is marked by an intense pluralism

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and heterogeneity’ and hence poetry can no longer be simply ‘evaluate[d]…in terms of its formal devices’ but ‘an interdisciplinary outlook’ is required (Gilbert, 2006, pp. 1-2). This article examines the theoretical foundations of a multimodal approach to poetry teaching and evaluates different ways in which theory can be translated into practical applications. It is because of the potential of digital tools as a means of engaging students as well as an awareness of the possibility that in some educational contexts students might not be availing themselves fully of such potential, that ample room is given to a discussion of the use of multimedia and hypermedia in the classroom. Ultimately, the chief interest of this article is to show that by means of a multimodal approach teachers can enable students to enter a poem, play with the English language and transform poetry into a performance.

2. Multimodality Multimodality is defined as ‘the use of several semiotic modes in the design of a semiotic product or event, together with the particular way in which these modes are combined’ (Kress and Van Leeuwen, 2001, p. 20). For Dressman (2010) it is ‘the crafted integration of two or more ways, or modes, of communication, so that their combined meaning as a whole is greater than either mode separately or their simple combination’ (p. 71). This usually, but not exclusively, involves the use of digital technology and it is this particular aspect of multimodality that I consider to be of pressing concern for the purposes of this article. Given the different and evolving ways of communication that contemporary students can utilise to communicate meaning and understand the world, a multimodal approach is necessary. According to the New London Group (1996) ‘One of the key ideas informing the notion of multiliteracies is the increasing complexity and inter-relationship of different modes of meaning’ (p. 78). What relates different design elements (i.e. linguistic, visual, audio, gestural and spatial) to each other are ‘the Multimodal patterns of meaning’ (New London Group, 1996, p. 65). Given that ‘all meaning-making is multimodal’ the latter is considered to be ‘the most significant, as it relates all the other modes in quite remarkably dynamic relationships’ (New London Group, 1996, pp. 80-81). The ‘transformation’ of texts that is allowed by digital technology means that ‘as a way of reflecting on text, exploring and experimenting with it in a new medium can offer insights into and shifts of meaning that can well be characterized as refraction’ (Tweddle et al., 1997, p. 54). Unsworth (2001) refers to ‘technoliteracies’ and in his opinion these will

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not supplant traditional literacies but complement them, especially since ‘hard-copy forms of ‘linear’ texts will continue to co-exist with electronic hypertext for some time’ (p. 281). Hence ‘the work of the English teacher clearly involves developing students’ use of multiliteracies in the composition and comprehension of texts in computer based and conventional formats’ as well as ‘developing students’ metasemiotic understanding and the associated meta-language’ (Unsworth, 2001, p. 282). A multimodal approach presents students with different potentials for engagement with a text: the point of entry, the possible paths through a text and the potentials for re-making it. In multimodal texts, each mode offers a different way into representation and focuses on different aspects of meaning (Jewitt, 2005, p. 7). In Alvermann’s (2009) opinion ‘reaching and teaching adolescents in currently changing times will require a healthy respect for their past, present, and future literacies’ (p. 105). This issue is particularly significant given the fact that most contemporary English syllabi might not yet make any reference to multimodal texts or to any conjunctive literacies.

3. Digital Technology in the Classroom Tweddle et al. (1997) emphasise the fact that ‘the changes enabled and driven by technology have become so far-reaching that for English teachers to ignore them would prove ultimately irresponsible’ (p. 6). In Malta, for example, the process of training teachers to teach by means of ICT has been going on since 1998 and the government admits to investing heavily in ICT training for teachers (Galea, 2001; Zammit, 2004; Ministry for Infrastructure, Transport and Communications, n.d.). However, Zammit and Mifsud (2003) report that computer assisted learning influences teaching least as a pedagogical approach in the foreign language classroom in Malta (p. 145). Despite its ever growing accessibility, Unsworth et al. (2005) generalize by saying that ‘the majority of teachers…are in need of guidance’ (p. 1) when it comes to using ICT in an effective manner in the classroom. This is something that a number of sources also call for (NATE, 2007; Azzopardi, 2008; Ćukušić et al., 2008; Granić et al., 2009). For example, the Institute for Learning (2010) notes that ‘the evidence collected from learners suggested that only a very few teachers are using technology in the most effective way’ (p. 11) while an EU research report states that ‘personal and pedagogic digital competence need to become a priority in both ITT and CPD, because lack of ICT skills and understanding of its benefits is a major obstacle for many teachers’ (Cachia et al., 2010, p. 47).

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Unsworth et al. (2005) believe that ‘the use of computers in English teaching can enhance and extend the engagement of computer-age children with the enchantment of the possible worlds of literary narratives’ (p. 1), what Burn and Durran (2007) call ‘pleasure and critical engagement’ (p. 12). McVerry (2007) believes that ‘In order to construct knowledge in today’s world students must be fluent with multimodal text’ (p. 51) while Bennett et al. (2008) postulate that ‘Education may be under challenge to change’ (p. 783) in order to meet the needs of digital natives. Hughes (2009) maintains that ‘Ignoring this phenomenon in our classrooms would be a mistake. If we do so, we run the risk of losing touch and school may become boring and irrelevant for students as a result’ (p. 18). That is why ‘A common justification for using digital technology in the classroom is its potential for interactivity’ (Hughes, 2009, p. 185), which thus makes it highly relevant to this article’s concern with poetry pedagogy. In Miller’s (2010) opinion this entails revaluating teacher education: ‘Preparing teachers for the 21stcentury digital world…requires teacher educators to take up the pressing issue of effective pedagogical frameworks for multimodal composing’, with the ultimate aim being ‘to engage millennial students in school’ (p. 198). This is confirmed by Cachia et al. (2010) who indicate that ‘Teachers…should receive more support in integrating technology into their teaching’ so that ‘students can express their creativity and innovation with technologies’ (p. 47).

4. No Panacea Despite all its apparent benefits, the multimodal approach must not be deemed to be some kind of magical remedy. Systematic reviews conducted by the English Review Group within the EPPI-Centre sought to ascertain whether the supposed benefits of ICT on literacy learning could be verified by the literature and thus whether policy-makers’ investment in ICT is warranted. They found that even though most studies assume that networked ICT has a positive impact on students’ literacy, ICT needs to be considered one of many tools that can improve and support literacy learning (Andrews et al., 2002). In fact, another review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of ICT on literacy found that most smallscale studies yielded minimal evidence of benefit (Torgerson and Zhu, 2003). This indicates the need to avoid reaching conclusions based on little scientific proof. For example, a Maltese study on ICT as a literacy aid for students reports that teachers and parents are under the impression that digital technology has

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a positive impact on children’s literacy, however, this study merely describes perceptions and does not present any evidence to corroborate such perceptions (Azzopardi, 2008). After reviewing studies focusing on the impact of ICT on literature-related literacies, the English Review Group found that teachers mediate impact and hence they can be considered to be more significant than technology (Locke and Andrews, 2004). Moreover, despite a number of reported benefits, such as an improvement in writing skills, increased collaboration, lesson enjoyment and motivation, the English Review Group could not identify clear and definite evidence of the impact of ICT on the literacy of students for whom English is a second or additional language (Low and Beverton, 2004). Another review investigating the impact of ICT on students’ moving image literacy in English found that to some extent the use of moving image media can lead to improved literacy and an increase in motivation (Burn and Leach, 2004). Andrews (2004) sums up the findings of the English Review Group by saying that ‘Teachers should be aware that there is no evidence that non-ICT methods of instruction and non-ICT resources are inferior to the use of ICT to promote literacy learning’ (p. 210). However, he does concede that ‘ICT can help create more motivated ESL/ EAL learners’ (Andrews, 2004, p. 210). Hence what this seems to suggest is that despite the supposed benefits of ICT, it must not be deemed a panacea for all literacy and student engagement problems. In fact, while underscoring the need for teachers to incorporate digital technology in their English lessons, a National Association for the Teaching of English (NATE, 2007) position paper calls for a ‘truly broad and balanced curriculum’ and thus ‘celebrate[s] all that writing in its many forms has to offer’ and ‘espouse[s] the value of just learning to read, of enjoying reading for the sake of our imaginations and creativity and what this offers to our ability to create, generate and communicate ideas’ (p. 5). Such prudence is also characteristic of a NATE (2009) entitlement document, in which it is stated that ICT ‘has unique potential to extend and enhance students’ learning in English. Used appropriately and imaginatively, it provides possibilities, insights and efficiencies that are difficult to achieve in other ways’ (p. 1). Such a balanced outlook is what informs this article’s inquiry into the role that multimodality plays in the teaching of poetry.

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5. Multimodal Teaching and Learning The notion of multimodality redefines pedagogy because learning itself is reconceptualised, partly because of the impact of new technologies. For example, Kress (2003) argues that ‘the increasingly and insistently more multimodal forms of contemporary texts make it essential to rethink our notions of what reading is’ (p. 141). This is partly because ‘the demands on readers, and the demands of reading, will if anything be greater, and they will certainly be different’ (Kress, 2003, p. 167). In the USA the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) indicates that the definition of literacy for 21st century classrooms goes beyond the traditional ability to read and write print texts but also incorporates the sense of reading and writing multimodal texts (NCTE, 2005, 2008). McBride (2004) feels that those who teach the humanities need to ‘reconceptualise the intersections between the humanities classroom and visual rhetoric’ (p. xix). This is important because just like language and literature, ‘film is a signifying practice through which students make meaning’; its use in the classroom leads to ‘active and engaged viewers who must participate in the viewing experience in order to create meaning’ (McBride, 2004, p. xiii). According to Jewitt (2005) ‘The multimodal character of new technologies requires a re-thinking of learning as a linguistic accomplishment’ (p. 8). In her opinion ‘The almost habitual conjunction of ‘language’, speech and writing, with learning is…especially paradoxical in relation to technology-mediated learning’ given that speech and writing are ‘a small part of a multimodal ensemble’ (Jewitt, 2005, p. 2). For Kress et al. (2005) ‘A multimodal approach is one where attention is given to all the culturally shaped resources that are available’ (p. 2). They consider it ‘essential’ due to ‘the ways in which it creates new kinds of identity for students and teachers’ (Kress et al., 2005, p. 14). It may actually lead to a reevaluation of the teacher/learner hierarchy: ‘changing learners in changing times may eventually alter how we, as teachers and teacher educators, view the expert/novice relationship’ (Alvermann, 2009, p. 102). This is particularly significant when one takes into consideration the traditional role of poetry teachers as gatekeepers to a poem’s meaning. The adoption of a multimodal approach has implications for the teaching and learning of writing in particular. Kress (2010) claims that ‘Writing, previously the canonical text par excellence, is giving way to image’ (p. 133). Genres have become ‘fluid and insecure; representation, understood now as multimodal, is no longer dependably canonical. There is choice. What genre to use; how to reshape it; what modes to use for what purpose and for which audience’ (Kress, 2010, p. 132). Archer (2010) feels that ‘understanding how language and images

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interact to create meaning is crucial for reconceptualising writing pedagogy from a multimodal perspective’ (p. 209). In her opinion ‘We need to redefine writing pedagogy through the development of metalanguages that will facilitate awareness and analysis of multimodal textual construction’ (Archer, 2010, p. 212). Edwards-Groves (2010) argues that the act of reconceptualising ‘writing and text construction as the multimodal writing process…balances the more dominant written-linguistic modes of text construction…with dynamic elements of design’ (p. 63). She urges teachers to ‘step slowly with their students in learning to write multimodally and adjust pedagogical practices’ (Edwards-Groves, 2010, p. 63). This is especially pertinent to educational contexts in which an inordinate amount of emphasis is placed on traditional writing practices.

6. A Multimodal Approach to Poetry Teaching A multimodal poetry teaching methodology is seen as having the potential to be effective in boosting students’ engagement. Dymoke and Hughes (2009) are convinced of ‘the powerful, dynamic and multimodal nature of poetry which is…a key justification for its inclusion in a 21st-century curriculum’ (p. 93). They remind us of the fact that the word text originates from the Latin verb texere, meaning to weave, and highlight the example of ‘a digital space’ within which ‘a multimodal text can be woven by many makers who are also users/readers of that text’ (Dymoke and Hughes, 2009, p. 93). Hughes (2009) thinks that ‘we have suppressed poetry’s multimodal nature too long within the confines of the print text… Students are immersed daily in new media, the cultural tools of their time, and we must redefine our literacy practices in order to stay relevant’ (p. 230). According to Blake (2009) a multimodal approach helps teachers to ‘develop an engaged enjoyment and appreciation of poetry’ as well as ‘creative and critical thinking’ (p. 28) during their lessons. Dymoke (2009) argues that ‘poetry is a playful, multimodal medium rather than one destined to be stranded for ever on the printed page’ and she urges teachers to do their utmost to keep it so: If you leave poetry on the page in your classroom you will be in danger of sounding its death knell: it is an organic, enriching communication tool, which taps into all our senses and is constantly renewing and reinventing itself to afford us new ways to express ourselves… If poetry is to flourish in any future English curriculum and in your classroom and if you are to flourish as a creative poetry teacher, then you should embrace the multimodal experiences poetry can offer (pp. 80-81).

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Snapper (2009) agrees with this and claims that ‘Teachers also know that poetry can be ‘brought to life’ for students by translating it from the printed page to other media’ (p. 2). The benefits of this seem to be clearly evident in the classroom as attested by an Ofsted (2009) report that describes how amongst a number of lessons deemed ‘fun’ by students, one particular poetry lesson was observed to make use of ‘a range of media to stimulate imagination’ (p. 12). This approach was ‘particularly suited to a class where English was not most students’ first language’ (Ofsted, 2009, p. 12), a characteristic of most contemporary international English learning contexts.

6.1 Blending Visual and Print Media The blending of visual and print media is perhaps the most popular form of multimodality. Albers (2006) describes a multimodal approach to teaching poetry in which ‘the visual mode may support students’ initial learning of concepts and approaches to analysis, followed then by the written mode, or the poem’ (p. 87). In McVerry’s (2007) opinion ‘The nature of poetry as a genre, with its reliance on imagery offers a wonderful opportunity to develop awareness in students about the role of multimedia in meaning making’ (p. 53). The visual is given a lot of importance by the literature on pedagogy and some consider it to be the key to student engagement (Kress, 2003). For example, in my experience video poems do make a difference to student engagement; the opportunities they afford for discussion, critical thinking and collaboration mean that students are not only honing their linguistic skills but a host of other literacies as well. This seems to tally with research conducted in the USA and in the UK with ESL students, which identified a number of benefits to the act of using video poems in the classroom. These benefits are not solely of a linguistic nature even though video poems can provide students with a means of developing their language proficiency and making them more active readers. Miller (2007) affirms that as soon as digital video composing is practised in the classroom ‘what can happen is startling: merging curriculum with student lifeworlds, democratizing media production, repositioning students as competent, bridging from multimodal to academic and critical literacies’ (p. 79). She reports that the results of one particular digital video project show how students developed into ‘more active readers and composers as they pursued their own understandings through digital video composing. In orchestrating the visual, music, and narrative for a poetry video…the teachers and their students

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performed their knowing; it was dynamic, evolving, and constructed’ (Miller, 2007, p. 71). Comparably, McVee et al. (2008) describe how as students began to think about how a poem could be represented visually, aurally, or through onscreen movement, they focused on how to communicate the meanings that they wanted others to experience. This moved them away from fears that they would not produce a “correct” interpretation. Instead, they were intent on exploring various modalities to communicate meanings they were discovering (p. 132). The above is in concordance with the idea that ‘A poem accompanied by visual images can be seen as a new text, a different way of performing the poem’ (Hughes, 2009, p. 204). Moreover, visual poetry is considered an effective means of encouraging students to enjoy the reading and discussion of poetry (Templer, 2009). The NATE (2008) project report entitled ‘Making hard topics in English easier with ICT’ contains a number of case studies that specifically deal with the teaching of poetry in a multimodal manner, especially through the incorporation of visual technology. For example, Mortlock (2008) discovered that lowachieving students’ ‘motivation, self-esteem and understanding of the poetry was improved by their use of Movie Maker to create short videos about poems they were studying’ (p. 33). Similarly, Charles (2008), using Movie Maker with students whose first language was not English, realized that ‘his students gave much more spontaneous responses than in the normal classroom situation and gained confidence in expressing their own opinions’ (p. 39). These students not only ‘used the poetry to expand and explore their own views of the world’ but their ‘use and knowledge of the English language increased’ (Charles, 2008, p. 41). Moreover, ‘poetry in the curriculum could be explored in an engaging and entertaining manner’ (Charles, 2008, p. 41). Tippings (2008) ‘had previously found that students in her school, particularly the boys, were resistant to poetry’, however, the act of presenting poetry in a visual manner through the use of ICT ‘resulted in increased engagement and sustained interest through a series of lessons’ (p. 45).

6.2 Reviving the Aural Tradition Audio recordings of poetry have of course long existed and thus there is nothing really new about poets recording their poems. However, the Internet has allowed teachers and students to gain access to a huge amount of poetry recordings and to use them during their English lessons. Both poetryarchive.org

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and poets.org are highly popular collections of such recordings and they have the added advantage of offering teachers a wealth of teaching ideas. Talking about how teachers may adopt a multimodal approach to the teaching of poetry by using the resources of the Poetry Archive, Blake (2008) says that the recordings of poets reading their own work make poetry a more magical and swirling matter of expression and interpretation, something linked to real people and their individual voices and not the nigh-on-impossible Enigma code-breaking activity that it often seems to get represented as in the daily workings of School English (p. 28). Sprackland (2008) agrees with this and claims that by listening to a poet reciting a poem, students are provided with ‘a powerful source of insight, understanding and enjoyment’ (p. 30). Even though audio recordings of poetry have long been in existence, some teachers have taken this a step further and are asking students to produce their own recordings by means of digital technology, which helps make the whole process more powerful and accessible. Digital technology makes it easier for students not only to record their own poems or thoughts about poetry but also to publish these online in the form of podcasts, thus motivating students by providing them with a real audience. The poetryfoundation.org serves as a good model of how to go about it while there exist a variety of websites that allow students to create podcasts and publish them online and thus reach a wider audience. Research seems to suggest that students not only develop a strong engagement with poetry by means of podcasts but they also enhance a variety of language skills, especially speaking and listening. Murphy (2008), for example, encouraged her students to analyse the language of poetry by collaboratively producing podcasts and found that they ‘developed speaking and listening skills, learnt new ICT skills, really engaged with the poems they were studying – and perhaps most importantly seemed to be having fun’ (p. 107). In a similar fashion McMillan used podcasting to improve students’ close analysis of the language in poetry and ‘results appear to show pupils talking engagingly, enjoyably and knowledgeably about poetry – often with [an] increased awareness of language’ (p. 113). One of the reasons for this is that ‘students regard speaking for a real audience as motivating’ (McMillan, 2008, p. 117). The Internet is partly what provides students with such an audience and it forms an integral part of a teacher’s multimodal approach because it ‘is making it possible to revive the aural tradition and restore to us the imaginative joys of listening. Real, concentrated listening is a creative as well as an interpretive experience’ (Sprackland, 2009, p. 22).

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6.3 Hypertexts The creation of hypertexts is another means of using a multimodal approach to poetry teaching. A hypertext is, simply put, a text that is linked to other texts by means of hyperlinks. It allows students to create dynamic texts that in a way cease being linear. When a traditional print poem is transformed into a hypertext or when students write a hypertext poem the latter is opened up by means of a number of hyperlinks that illustrate how the students have interpreted the imagery and diction in the poem while engaging in textual and linguistic experimentation. Thus the resulting poem does not have a definite sense of direction. It can be read in a variety of ways and readers can choose where they want to go. According to recent research this element of reader empowerment is the main value of hypertext poems. A hypertext not only allows students to read poetry in a dynamic and non-linear manner but it also allows them to be creative and engaged writers of poetry (Kendall, 1998). Hughes (2009) explains that With the use of hypertext, new possibilities exist that allow students more power over their own texts and those of others. They can explore and create their own texts in multi-sequential ways… The hyperlinks also encourage readers to shape their involvement with the poem, to decide what to read and how to read it (p. 188). However, even though a medium like hypertext has ‘a significant impact on teaching literature’ it does not ‘relieve us of the duties of teaching reading, writing, and critical thinking’ (Browner et al., 2000, p. 130).

6.4 Wikis Wikis, a series of web pages that can be edited through a browser, are a great way of encouraging students to collaborate in writing and editing poetry. There exist a number of very popular poetry wikis that are specifically aimed at ESL students and some of them are characterised by the fact that they devote a substantial amount of room to what students can gain in linguistic terms from the reading of poetry. It is relatively easy for a teacher to set up a poetry wiki and by reserving a section of the wiki to language games students can be encouraged to develop an increased awareness of language while reading, writing and discussing poetry. Studies show that wikis not only help students to bolster their language skills but they also make teachers more confident writers. Dymoke and Hughes (2009) emphasise the idea that by using a digital tool like a wiki, teachers not only ‘gain confidence in their ability to write poetry and to reflect on themselves as writers’

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but can also learn to ‘exploit the multimodal affordances of the wiki for composing and teaching poetry more fully’ (pp. 101-102). Richardson (2008) found that using a wiki for poetry teaching purposes facilitated ‘conversations about poetry’ between different groups and ‘gave all students, no matter what ability, a voice and enabled them to ask questions themselves and interrogate texts naturally’ (p. 65).

6.5 Other Forms of Multimodality Besides the different digital media discussed above, teachers can also emphasise poetry’s multimodal nature by means of activities like poetry slams, during which students compete at performing published or original poetry and which are sometimes modelled on popular TV talent shows (The Guardian, 2009). These ‘help young people to gain confidence through a dynamic engagement with the written and spoken word’ (Dymoke, 2009, p. 81). By being ‘both inclusive and challenging’ such activities allow students ‘to gain a much greater understanding and appreciation of how language and structure create effects and convey meanings’ (Dymoke, 2009, p. 82).

7. Conclusion The focus of this article has mostly extended to the use of digital media because this particular aspect of multimodality is a key priority for all those teachers hoping to engage digital natives with the reading of poetry. As Hughes (2009) points out ‘Immersing students in a digital environment that serves as a model for their own digital performances views performance as a purposeful and creative process interwoven with other literacy events’ (p. 228). Multimodality allows teachers to harness poetry’s communicative potential, however, despite all the advantages of a multimodal approach, teachers are still the most significant factor when it comes to inspiring students’ reading habits. Digital technology has the potential of making the learning experience a more engaging one and of lifting a poem off the printed page but it is certainly not the panacea for all the challenges that teachers face when attempting to engage students with poetry.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Albers, P. 2006. Imagining the possibilities in multimodal curriculum design. English Education 38(2), pp. 75-101. • Alvermann, D.E. 2009. Reaching/teaching adolescents: Literacies with a history. In: Hoffman, J.V. and Goodman, Y.M. eds. Changing literacies for changing times: An historical perspective on the future of reading research, public policy, and classroom practices. New York: Routledge, pp. 98-107. • Archer, A. 2010. Multimodal texts in Higher Education and the implications for writing pedagogy. English in Education 44(3), pp. 201-213. • Blake, J. 2008. The magpie teacher on poetry and storytelling. NATE Classroom 4, pp. 27-29. • Blake, J. 2009. Using the Poetry Archive in the English classroom. English Drama Media 13, pp. 24-28. • Browner, S., Pulsford, S. and Sears, R. 2000. Literature and the Internet. New York: Garland Publishing. • Cachia, R., Ferrari, A., Ala-Mutka, K. and Punie, Y. 2010. Creative learning and innovative teaching: Final report on the study on creativity and innovation in education in the EU member states. Luxembourg: European Union. • Charles, T. 2008. Poetry for SEN and EAL students. Making hard topics in English easier with ICT [Online]. Sheffield: NATE, pp. 39-44. Available at: http://www. nate.org.uk/cmsfiles/ict/h2t/NATE_Hard_to_Teach_Case_Studies.pdf [Accessed: 27 March 2012]. • Dressman, M. 2010. Let’s poem: The essential guide to teaching poetry in a highstakes, multimodal world. New York: Teachers College Press. • Dymoke, S. 2009. Teaching English texts 11-18. London: Continuum. • Dymoke, S. and Hughes, J. 2009. Using a poetry wiki: How can the medium support pre-service teachers of English in their professional learning about writing poetry and teaching poetry writing in a digital age? English Teaching: Practice and Critique [Online] 8(3), pp. 91-106. Available at: http://education.waikato.ac.nz/ research/files/etpc/files/2009v8n3art6.pdf [Accessed 26 February 2012]. • Edwards-Groves, C.J. 2010. The multimodal writing process: Changing practices in contemporary classrooms. Language and Education 25(1), pp. 49-64. International Journal of Science | No.2


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• Hughes, J. 2009. Poets, poetry and new media: Attending to the teaching and learning of poetry. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag. • Jewitt, C. 2005. Technology, literacy and learning: A multimodal approach. London: Routledge. • Kress, G. 2003. Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge. • Kress, G. 2010. Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. Abingdon: Routledge. • Kress, G., Jewitt, C., Bourne, J., Franks, A., Hardcastle, J., Jones, K. and Reid, E. 2005. English in urban classrooms: A multimodal perspective on teaching and learning. Abingdon: RoutledgeFalmer. • Kress, G. and Van Leeuwen, T. 2001. Multimodal discourse: The modes and media of contemporary communication. London: Arnold Publishers. • McBride, K.D. 2004. Introduction. In: McBride, K.D. ed. Visual media and the humanities: A pedagogy of representation. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, pp. xi-xix. • McMillan, C. 2008. Using podcasting to improve close analysis of language in poetry. Making hard topics in English easier with ICT [Online]. Sheffield: NATE, pp. 113-130. Available at: http://www.nate.org.uk/cmsfiles/ict/h2t/NATE_Hard_to_ Teach_Case_Studies.pdf [Accessed: 27 March 2012]. • McVee, M.B., Bailey, N.M. and Shanahan, L.E. 2008. Using digital media to interpret poetry: Spiderman meets Walt Whitman. Research in the Teaching of English 43(2), pp. 112-143. • McVerry, J.G. 2007. Power of posting poetry: Teaching new literacies. Language Arts Journal of Michigan 23(1), pp. 51-56. • Miller, S.M. 2007. English teacher learning for new times: Digital video composing as multimodal literacy practice. English Education 40(1), pp. 61-83. • Miller, S.M. 2010. Reframing multimodal composing for student learning: Lessons on purpose from the Buffalo DV project. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education 10(2), pp. 197-219. • Mortlock, C. 2008. Engaging with poetry. Making hard topics in English easier with ICT [Online]. Sheffield: NATE, pp. 33-38. Available at: http://www.nate.org.uk/ www.ijosc.net | International Journal of Science


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cmsfiles/ict/h2t/NATE_Hard_to_Teach_Case_Studies.pdf [Accessed: 27 March 2012]. Murphy, K. 2008. Analysing the language of poetry through podcasts. Making hard topics in English easier with ICT [Online]. Sheffield: NATE, pp. 107-112. Available at: http://www.nate.org.uk/cmsfiles/ict/h2t/NATE_Hard_to_Teach_ Case_Studies.pdf [Accessed: 27 March 2012]. National Association for the Teaching of English. 2008. Making hard topics in English easier with ICT [Online]. Sheffield: NATE. Available at: http://www.nate. org.uk/cmsfiles/ict/h2t/NATE_Hard_to_Teach_Case_Studies.pdf [Accessed: 27 March 2012]. National Council of Teachers of English. 2005. NCTE position statement: On multimodal literacies [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncte.org/positions/ statements/multimodalliteracies [Accessed: 26 March 2012]. National Council of Teachers of English. 2008. NCTE position statement: Definition of 21st-century literacies [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncte.org/ positions/statements/21stcentdefinition [Accessed: 26 March 2012]. New London Group. 1996. A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review 66(1), pp. 60-92. Ofsted. 2009. English at the crossroads: An evaluation of English in primary and secondary schools, 2005/08. London: Ofsted. Snapper, G. 2009. Editorial. English Drama Media 13, pp. 2-3. Sprackland, J. 2008. The Poetry Archive. NATE Classroom 4, p. 30. Sprackland, J. 2009. The ear is the best reader. English Drama Media 13, pp. 21-23. Templer, B. 2009. Poetry in motion: A multimodal teaching tool. Humanising Language Teaching [Online] 11(5). Available at: http://www.hltmag.co.uk/ oct09/sart06.htm [Accessed: 4 April 2012]. Tippings, L. 2008. Enlivening the study of poetry with Year 8. Making hard topics in English easier with ICT [Online]. Sheffield: NATE, pp. 45-47. Available at: http://www.nate.org.uk/cmsfiles/ict/h2t/NATE_Hard_to_Teach_Case_Studies.

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pdf [Accessed: 27 March 2012]. • Tweddle, S., Adams, A., Clarke, S., Scrimshaw, P. and Walton, S. 1997. English for tomorrow. Buckingham: Open University Press. • Unsworth, L. 2001. Teaching multiliteracies across the curriculum: Changing contexts of text and image in classroom practice. Buckingham: Open University Press. • Unsworth, L., Thomas, A., Simpson, A. and Asha, J. 2005. Children’s literature and computer based teaching. Maidenhead: Open University Press. • The Guardian. 2009. Who’s got the P factor? [Online]. Available at: http:// www.guardian.co.uk/education/video/2009/jul/07/poetry-primary-schools [Accessed: 21 March 2012].

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Giuseppe Gagliano

Disinformation and subversive agitation in the alterglobal movement Overview The analysis and study of the operating methods of social movements and the ideological content linked to the same, can easily be traced on the basis of open sources, which after adequate reinterpretation using the methodological approach to sociology of social movements, and the French school of psychological warfare, those of Géré and Pisano in particular, reveal the significant role that alterglobal movements play in the social destabilization of political (both local and national), military (national, NATO, and USA), economic (nationals and supernational), and training (public schools and universities) institutions. In demonstration of the above, Part 1 of this essay will focus on a number of highly significant Italian alterglobal movements with an initial analysis of the No Dal Molin movement using the sociological approach to social movements, and in particular, the analyses made by Gianni Piazza and Loris Caruso (partially considered in previous articles). Our attention will then be directed to an analysis of the military infrastructures developed by the Comitato Pace e Disarmo (Peace and Disarmament Committee) originating from a study group of the Rete Lilliput network in Italy’s Campania region. We will then consider the sociological analysis of the No TAV Movement made by Donatella Della Porta, the leading Italian expert on alterglobal movements. Lastly, we will analyze the Onda (Wave) movement in light of the thought of social movement sociologist Loris Caruso. Part 2 of this essay will concentrate on the role played by disinformation in the context of the alterglobal movement and a number of highly significant alterglobal movement documents through an analysis of the same using Géré’s approach, on one hand, and using Pisano’s interpretative grid to contextualizing the operating methods of the alterglobal movement, on the other.

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Part 1 1 According to the sociologist Gianni Piazza: “the first demands of No Dal Molin movement were mainly focused on health and environmental issues due to the increase of pollution (air, water, noise, electromagnetic and radioactive pollution), which the enlargement of the American base would cause, besides the negative economic impact on the residents’ business; yet, the entry of other players in the network of the protest (environmental association, pacifist movements, anarchic groups and more radicals opponents such as social centers and trade unions) widened the interpretative patterns to other themes: from the rights of local communities to decide on the use of their territories, to repudiation of war, of Us and NATO bases and of the militarization of the territory. The No Dal Molin mobilization goes past the Nimby principle, not only because the players involved are not just local people (citizens committees), but also groups and associations with universalist identities (ecologists, trade unions, far left and extraparliamentary parties); but also because those who protest are concerned both with local and global issues, turning it into a NOPE mobilization, with heavy pacifist and antimilitarist features (local people do not want military bases neither in their ‘backyard’, nor in someone else’s), investing directly the national and supranational level of government”1. Once detected the reasons, not less important are the protests carried out by the society and antagonist movements: “No Dal Molin diversifies the protests: from the occupation of Vicenza’s railway station, to the permanent garrison in front of the disputed airport; from the sit-in in front of Montecitorio to the organization of the national demonstration of February 17th, which involved around 200,000 people across the streets of Vicenza. (…) In the meantime, once the works of construction have begun, the mobilization goes on with many initiatives, among which the occupation of the prefecture (…), of the railway tracks, the occupation of the site of the civilian airport and the roadblocks”22. In few words – to emphasize the national and supranational impact of these demonstrations – quoting Piazza would be sufficient. Regarding the Italian scene, Piazza observes: “No Dal Molin mobilization hardly affected the national government as well, influencing the decision of the newborn Democratic Party to break its alliance with the far left wing (Sinistra Arcobaleno) at the latest 1. Francesca Longo – Antonello Mangano – Gianni Piazza – Pietro Saitta,Come i problemi globali diventano locali, Edizioni terrelibere.org, 2009. 2. Ibidem, pp. 24-25

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political elections”3; and concerning the international front: “despite the change of the Us administration from Bush to Obama, American and Italian politics regarding Camp Ederle does not change, as recently stated the national security vice-president of the Congress, Loretta Sanchez: ‘We will discuss the Dal Molin case at the G8 as well, but (…) there will not be any reassessments. All the decisions have already been taken by both governments. The plan and the budget have been voted by the Congress’ (Mancassola in www.ilgiornaledivicenza.it 16/04/09). Nevertheless, the protest of Vicenza is still affecting the decisions of the Us government, bringing the Pentagon to considering the idea of moving the F16 based in Aviano (Udine) to Poland, due to the increasing ‘hostility’ towards American installations which started with the extension of the base in Vicenza.”4 The protest against the Dal Molin military airbase in Vicenza began in 2006 and was organized by the Coordinamento dei comitati cittadini and the Osservatorio contro le servitù militare. The ideological composition of the first organization – Caruso points out – has Catholic and trade union origins (as assessed by Caruso), while the second, born in 2006, was developed by activist social centers, Emergency, Ya Basta!, the CGIL national trade union, the Verdi/ Green party and the ARCI Italian Recreation and Cultural Association (which among other initiatives, this organization had promoted events against both the European Gendarmerie and the Carabinieri Peace-keeping Training Center). The reasons behind the protest lie in the little or entire lack of use of instruments of democracy in the decision-making process that led to the Italian government’s consent to the expansion of the US military airbase in Vicenza, in its radical critique of the moderation and opportunism of the moderate Left led by Romano Prodi, in its rejection of political parties as institutions and of representative democracy in general, in the profoundly anti-military pacifism that was both Catholic and non-sectarian at the same time, in its refusal of consumerism and capitalism, and lastly, in the policy of power politics dictated by political realism. The operating methods enacted include – using Pisano’s expression – the techniques typical of subversive action: the collection of signatures to petitions – supported by both the Lega Ambiente Environmental Defense League and the Rete Lilliput network –, the legal action (appeal to the TAR Regional Administrative Court through the Codacons Consumer Defense Association), the torchlight procession, the occupation of the square in front of City Hall, the Argentine practice of beating pots and pans as drums, the unauthorized entry into the Vicenza Prefecture and 3. 4.

Ibidem, pp. 26-27. Ibidem, pp. 27-30.

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City Council meeting, the occupation of the Basilica built by Palladio and Vicenza Airport, roadblocks outside the airbase and obstructing the laying of optical fibre in the airbase area. Statistics show as many as 42 protest demonstrations in 2007. The efficacy and numbers of these demonstrations gradually decreased in the following years, however: “they are having more and more trouble involving in the protest the ample sectors of the local population that they had succeeded in involving in previous years. The definitive groundbreaking of construction work eroded the basis for the sense of efficacy of protest actions. (...) It may be said that the opposition to the new airbase was defeated.”5. The Yes to Dal Molin movement – in other words, the citizens in favor of the expansion of the airbase – was composed primarily by centrist-rightwing coalitions in the Vicenza City Council, Confindustria, the Association of Italian Industries, Confcommercio, the General Commerce Confederation, Confartigianato, the craft sector’s labor organization, and Confagricoltura, the Italian Farmer’s Confederation, a coalition that did not prove capable of obtaining significant consensus with the public or effectively contrasting the protest movement, however. Despite their wavering and ambiguous stance, there is no doubt that the RC Renewed Communist Party, the PCDI Italian Communist Party, the Verdi/Green party and the CGIL national trade union provided significant support, at least at the outset. Thanks to support from organizations of this kind, the number of people who took part in the demonstration against the expansion of the military airbase eventually reached 15,000 participants. Catholic organizations like Famiglie per la Pace (Families for Peace), the previously mentioned Rete Lilliput network, ACLI, the Italian Catholic Workers’ Association, the Beati costruttori di pace, and AGESCI, the Italian Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Association were particularly significant in their opposition to the expansion of the airbase. Internal divisions in the centerleftwing coalition (the support given by Prodi and Parisi to the expansion of the airbase contrasted with the opposition of the radical left) had a profound political significance: “The Dal Molin question contributed to the fall of the Prodi government. Two senators – Rossi and Turigliatto – nearly became local heroes in both Vicenza and Val di Susa because they were considered counter-examples to the existing model of politician”6 characterized by opportunism and doublecrossing. In other words, we cannot fail to note, first of all, the determinant role played by the activist social centers and the local trade unions; secondly, the significance of Catholicism (the ACLI, the Beati i costruttori di pace, the Rete 5.

Loris Caruso, Il territorio della politica. La nuova partecipazione di massa nei movimenti No Tav e No Dal Molin, Franco Angeli, 2011, p. 86. 6. Ibidem, p. 79.

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Lilliput network, and AGESCI); thirdly, as occurred during the war in Kosovo, also this case revealed the ambiguous role of the antagonist left – and particularly the RC Renewed Communist Party and the PCDI Italian Communist Party – who were more interested in using this public dissent to expand their own electoral base than in meeting the real needs of the population; fourthly, despite the complex articulation of these demonstrations and their wide consensus, their objectives were not obtained also due to the strong bonds between Italy and the United States of America. In conclusion, above and beyond the ideological differences and the different choices of operating methods that distinguished the Catholic coalition and the antagonistic left in their opposition to the Dal Molin airbase, it is undeniable that these organizations composed and continue to compose the centre of gravity of the Italian alterglobal movement. At the end of his book, Caruso draws analogies between these antagonist movements and the 1968 movement (in the criticism by both of representative democracy and traditional leftwing parties) with their anti-Americanism, radical anti-Militarism, and the combat techniques that demonstrate the extreme threat to national security posed by the No Global movement. The book issued instead by the Comitato pace e disarmo on NATO and USA military bases in Italy is extremely important for our purposes especially due to the proposals and the critical observations it contains. On the whole, the book is characterized by its explicit advocacy of radical pacifism. The first part of the book is particularly interesting for the statements made by the Bishop of Caserta Monsignor Raffaele Nogaro, who believes that the production of arms is an absolute evil in itself and that humanitarian operations in the form of warfare export only violence, and that the so-called peace-keeping missions are nothing but armed invasions. From the purely institutional point of view – the prelate points out – the Catholic Church should explicitly condemn the increase of Italy’s military expenditure. As regards the ideological advent of the Comitato pace e disarmo (Peace and Disarmament Committee), the editor states that it was the creation of a Rete Lilliput study group on the presence of military bases in Italy: in particular, Angelica Romano sanctions the complete legitimacy of the use of physical obstruction, telephone obstruction, unauthorized occupation, popular protest laws and permanent garrisons as legitimate means of nonviolent protest. A large part of the book is dedicated to a detailed analysis of the US infrastructure in Italian territory and its cost. Particularly significant are the authors’ highly critical observations of the increasingly closer bonds between universities and the military and defense industry institutions in Napoli, forms of cooperation perceived as the militarization of both the territory and the university

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world. The feasible alternatives are provided towards the end of the book, and may be easily summarized as follows: the NATO and US military bases must be eliminated or converted for civilian use, unarmed, non-violent civilian defense must be pursued, and lastly, conscientious objection by the scientists involved in the development and construction of arms must be promoted.

2 In the essay by Donatella della Porta and Gianni Piazza, both the objectives and the methods of anti-TAV protest movement by both local communities and other social and cultural elements (coming from the worlds of trade unions, pacifism, anarchy, environmental defense, etc.) are interpreted in terms of social movement sociology. As is commonly known, the protest against high-speed trains was started in 1990 through the coordination of various environmental protection associations, which together with other associations effectively mobilized in 1991 against a convention organized by Confindustria, Fiat, the FS National Railways and the Regional authorities, promoted in support of the validity of the principles behind the TAV. The associations involved in the mobilization were particularly significant Gruppo Habitat, founded by Lega Ambiente, the WWF, and Prenatura. These organizations were subsequently joined by local associations, trade unions, and the lower Val di Susa mountain communities. In this phase lasting from 1995 to 1997, the protest campaign was constructed to both defend the territory and support the rights of local populations to decide their own destiny. Starting in 2003 – thanks also to the involvement of similar French associations – the protest began taking form in direct action, and more specifically, through occupation, roadblocks on the motorway, and counter-cultural and counter-informational events that culminated in the peaceful protest march in 2003 by 20,000 people. The importance of the motives for protest was such to drive the COBAS local trade unions, the Verdi/Green party, and the RC and PCDI political parties to support the claims of the citizens. An important role was also played by the activist social centers, especially in the creation of the so-called anti-TAV protest campgrounds. The scale of the citizen’s protest brought persons of unquestionable popularity and credibility on the Italian religious pacifism panorama – Padre Zanotelli, first, and then also Don Vitaliano della Sala – to make their own contribution to the protest, which intensified further in 2005 when the associations above were joined by various student unions, the FIOM-CGIL national trade unions, the ARCI, the World Social Forum, and numerous smaller anarchist movements. The essay’s authors ascribe particular interest to the role played by the activist social centers,

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their widespread counter-information activity, and all the experience and skill in organizing protest activity they brought to the local protest movement. Another important antagonist is the trade union, and there is no doubt that alongside the COBAS locals also the FIOM national union played an important role. The authors naturally focus their attention on the protester’s most urgent issues: firstly, the defense of public health and value of the territory endangered by irrational objectives of economic development (the development of tumors linked to the use of asbestos and uranium), secondly, the economic uselessness of the TAV and its extraordinarily high cost (a project they define as exorbitant and unnecessary, a mega-project of environmental destruction and waste of precious natural resources); thirdly, the need for the protection of the territory and the intrinsic incompatibility of the project, an idea that comes from the awareness of Lega Ambiente and the Verdi/Green party of the need to limit the waste of energy and the need to implement an alternative model of development, combined with the awareness that this public work is the work of speculators and profiteers; fourth of all, the need to improve local public transport, healthcare and social services instead of dedicating such enormous resources to a project that brings such little benefit to the local population; and fifth of all, the need for self-determination, or in other words, the use of democratic consultation in the context of participative democracy. In terms of protest method or protest repertories – defined by the sociology of social movements as a resource for those without power because protesters rely for success on the activation of other groups in the political arena rather than the direct use of power – the authors start from the concept of widespread information, in other words, from the awareness of the protest committees that the real information on the costs and damages of this project has intentionally been withheld. In other words, only a counter-information campaign would be capable of defining on a scientific basis both the real damage to the environment and human health on one hand, and any feasible alternative strategies on the other (as also documented by the study commissioned by the Association of Mountain Communities). Alongside the world of information, nonviolent action represented the most common form of protest together with the presìdi – which soon became authentic political laboratories, above all together with the activist social centers – protest campgrounds, the use of antagonistic legal action (appeals to the TAR, the hearings of the commission for the petitions submitted to the European Union), the theatrical performances, the gigantic banners, the hunger strikes, the candlelight vigils, the boycotting of the banks funding the TAV project, and counter-information through Internet and therefore through the construction of web pages for both logistic-organizational and public

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awareness purposes (in addition to symbolic and protest effect). In the opinion of the authors, the response provided by political institutions both centrist-right and centrist-left consisted in: 1) passive exclusion strategies (by failing to inform the citizens and involve them in significant decisions, for example); 2) attempts at economic compensation proposals; 3) the militarization of the territory, and lastly, 4) attempts to divide and separate the protesters through selective cooptation.

3 The analysis made by Loris Caruso of the Onda (Wave) movement – an important Italian student movement that arose between 2008 and 2009 – places initial attention on its protagonists: the students, teachers, and workers who protested by occupying university and high school structures, the strikes, the demonstrations, and counter-information in paper and computerized form. At the national panorama level, despite wavering and, all things considered, the opportunism and exploitation by certain parties of the radical left like the PRC and PDCI, these parties certainly played an important role together with the Students Union inked to the PD; even if also the Sinistra Critica (Critical Left) and the Postoperaismo area (post-factory worker faction), the latter two components present primarily in Rome, also undoubtedly played significant roles. In the context of computerized counter-information, Retescuola (The School Network) contributed to the development of the infrastructure of the Onda (Wave) movement between 2008 and 2009. Caruso points out the important contributions to the Onda movement made by the No-TAV movement and the movements against the construction of the bridge over the Strait of Messina and the expansion of the US airbase in Vicenza. The degree of complexity of the Onda movement was such to involve the nation’s leading provincial capitals, from Rome to Torino, Milano, Bologna, Pisa, Palermo, Catania, and Firenze. The Onda movement was formed of an authentic network capable of creating social and political protagonists around determined issues. Concentrating his attention on the Onda movement in the Milano area, the author emphasizes that among the various social forces that played significant roles in the Milanese mobilization against university reform, the self-managed activist social centers must certainly be included, together with the trade unions and the various student unions. On the other hand, especially in Milano, the student movement was able to rely on strong support from the parliamentary and extra-parliamentary left. Trade union support came primarily from the CGIL national trade union and local trade unions, and was predictably expressed through the strikes that began in October, 2008. The nerve centers of the strikes were located at the Faculty of

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Political Science, the Brera Academy, the Politecnico, and the Bicocca. Together with the strikes, student demonstrations and assemblies offered another vehicle for encounter and communication, in addition to instruments like manifestos, handbills, banners, and counter-information via Internet, and even a new method of protest: lessons in open air. The essay appropriately mentions that the world of training and education provides a significant basin for mobilization, noting how the Onda movement was able to count on support from a number of protagonists in the alterglobal movement. In Milano as in Rome, the Onda movement openly manifested its distrust in the representative democracy of the political parties and staked a claim to a more participative democracy and an expanded democracy, in the same way as during the protests against the expansion of the military airbase in Vicenza and the TAV high-speed railway line in Val di Susa.

Second part 1 According to Gèrè – President of the French Strategic Analysis Institute – disinformation consists in the processing and deliberate communication of false information that has been explicitly masked and manipulated in order to present every appearance of authenticity. It is therefore clear that the line between disinformation and propaganda is fine indeed, to the point that disinformation can be referred to as “black” propaganda. The difference lies in the means of transmission and intentions. As regards the alterglobal movement and the USA’s war against terrorism in particular, the position that the alterglobal movement in its entirety has assumed following the 9-11 attacks can be easily summarized in a dichotomy typical of a cognitive approach to the history of disinformation: war is an intrinsic evil because it is not an instrument suited to the settlement of conflicts between nations. Combating terrorism through the instrument of warfare is entirely unacceptable: the roots of Islamic terrorism lie in the injustice created by neoLiberal globalization. The alterglobal movement sees in US policy and its choices an evil that is just as bad as Islamic terrorism on one hand, while indicating its own choices the only possible course of action and delegitimizing existing military and political institutions, on the other. In order to illustrate the disinformation procedure being enacted by the alterglobal movement, its fundamental documents must be considered. The first is undoubtedly the Statement on Globalization issued by the World Social Forum held in Beirut in November 2001, whose authors believe

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that the USA’s war against terrorism is merely an excuse to increase its worldwide hegemony and increase the gap between rich and poor nations. The second, with a similar dichotomy in interpretation, was drafted by the Assembly of the People’s UN spokesman Flavio Lotti in Autumn 2001, and portrays a world afflicted by a shocking number of wars and attacks against the planet’s biosphere and natural resources promoted intentionally by neo-Liberalism on one hand, with the alterglobal movement as the only political entity capable of offering a realistically feasible political and economic alternative, the only entity capable of opposing the war against terrorism and the world’s current injustice and disorder, on the other. The third document to be taken into consideration was produced by one of the leading Italian Catholic pacifist associations, the Rete Lilliput network, in 2006, and states that it is useless to hide the merciless logic of war behind expressions like “humanitarian intervention” or “exportation of democracy” because wars are merely a consequence of a neo-Liberal economic system and are never an acceptable alternative. In this regard, a large part of the alterglobal movement claims that the vast majority of military campaigns waged by nations, particularly those by the USA and Israel, are on the same level as their avowed enemies: Islamic terrorism. Terrorism and the war against terror are the two sides of the same coin. A document issued in 2002 by the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre – the fourth document to be considered – states that the war against terrorism has struck down civil and political rights, that the war against Afghanistan was waged using terrorist methods, and that its primary scope is the preservation of US dominion. Equally significant are the concepts, expressed in the fifth document to consider, issued by the Attac Italia movement: the war(s) started by the US serve only to expand the nation’s military dominance and proceed hand in hand with the process of neo-Liberal globalization, in the context of which NATO becomes globalization’s armed right hand (this is the definition provided in most of the documents issued by Western Communist parties during the Cold War and in the documents signed by exponents of the Far-left from ‘68 through ‘77). One of the leading Italian representatives of the alterglobal movement, Attilio Agnoletto, expressed himself in the same way: the world today has no choice but to take the side of either neo-Liberalism or the alterglobal movement, a statement produced by a Manichean vision of the world. Also in regard to the Middle Eastern question, the position assumed by most of the alterglobal movement is quite clear and consists in an absolute refusal of the wall built by Israel in defense against terrorist attacks, in acknowledging the subjugation of European political powers, Italy, in particular, to the US and Israel, and in legitimizing the Palestinian people’s right to self-defense. Of similar interest are the thoughts of Mao Valpiana, director of

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the most prestigious Italian pacifism magazine, Azione non violenta (Non-violent action) founded by Aldo Capitini in 1964. The article by Valpiana we now consider was published as an introduction in celebration of one of the most important media events in the history of Italian pacifism: the Perugia-Assisi March held in November, 2011. The author’s thoughts can be easily organized around two central issues. The first is fairly obviously and attempts to provide readers with some idea of the dramatic proportions of the world situation: the world is becoming more and more insecure due to poverty and starvation, climate change, unemployment, mafias and organized crime. (...) Over one billion people suffer from malnutrition and lack drinking water; (...) the struggle against the unemployment of young people must become a national priority 7. The second issue is summarized in a presentation of the solutions to be applied: we must stop making war and shift from military security to human security, from national security to common security; (...) against the perverse logic of national interests, away from a profit-based market and global competition; (...) and away from the financial speculation that is creating a political crisis in Europe while creating a dramatic increase in poverty8. Valpiana’s remarks must be reformulated in order to understand their real meaning through a simple process of linguistic decoding. Military security, as known by one and all, is guaranteed by military institutions, and consequently the illegitimacy of military security means supporting the idea of dismantling existing military institutions and their related military industries; the rejection of the concept of national security substantially means rejecting the arrangement of political realism and therefore the rejection of the choices made by all the Western and other nations in the planning of their foreign policy. His unappealable condemnation of the market and global competition amounts to an immediate refusal of capitalism; likewise, the criticism of international finance is nothing but a radical refusal – if only implied in this article – of the international economic institutions and central banks. Also the author’s guidelines for solution: invest in solidarity and cooperation, implement a new policy of non-violence and a new non-violent political culture, spreading the culture of peace at schools, promote and defend human rights, invest in the prevention of conflicts, promote disarmament, introduce new green, non-polluting technologies and lifestyles that are not based on individualism or commoditization, strengthen responsible civil society, and promote participative democracy9, must be clearly reformulated in order to reveal the author’s true intentions: firstly, in complete agreement with the radical pacifism movement, the author emphasizes 7. Mao Valpiana, “Appello per la pace e per la fratellanza dei popoli” 25 settembre 2011, Azione Non violenta, novembre, 2011, p. 4. 8. Ibidem, p. 5. 9. Ibidem, p. 6

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the need to transcend the modus operandi of current politics and to remodel it to the dictates of the pacifism outlined by Aldo Capitini. Secondly, he intends to use schools as vehicles for systematic propaganda campaigns against the military and capitalism, relying on cooperation from teaching staff and school directors; thirdly, his hypothesized investment in preventing conflicts essentially means that the management of conflicts (previously performed by State, foreign ministers, and defense ministers) must be coordinated by pacifist organizations. Fourthly, the promotion of disarmament clearly alludes to the need to dismantle existing military industries; as regards the introduction of green, non-polluting technologies – and this fourth aspect, this alternative indicated by Valpiana – aims at replacing the current industries based on oil or nuclear energy with other types of energy (solar, wind power, biomass) managed under monopoly by companies or industries controlled by the pacifist movement. Lastly, and this is the fifth aspect, the participative democracy indicated by the author is nothing but the replacement of the existing representative democracy with a form of democracy that gives space and real power to the alterglobal movements and its representatives, who would in this way come to replace the present directors of Western nation policy. In short, the path indicated by Valpiana is undoubtedly a wide-ranging political program that aspires at radical changing the Western world’s political and economic configuration.

2 Utilizing the French methodological approach to psychological warfare – and that of Gèrè, in particular – we may easily interpret the modus operandi of the alterglobal movement in regard to the themes outlined above and in light of the following key concepts defined in the greatest clarity by Gèrè. Firstly, the alterglobal movement’s intellectuals and political personages can be considered to every sense and effect agitators: “The use of this little laboratory instrument (mixers or stirrers) used by students when handling chemicals describes the activity of the individual assigned the name through metaphor remarkably well: he or she ‘agitates’ a determined environment. At the start, the term was fairly depreciatory. The ‘professional’ agitator ran the risk of being accused of being manipulated by foreign powers with the goal of destabilizing the nation and its social order. Soon, however, the term came to be adopted by revolutionary organizations who structured agit-prop as an working information structure. Can an agitator be a propagandist? Of course. And also a disinformer? Although the answer to that depends on the context, the objectives, and the methods chosen to influence public opinion, it goes without saying that an agitator will never

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refuse to disinform. Agitators conduct their political and strategic activity through manifestos and pamphlets that challenge established ideas and distort acquired ideas”10 agitators who implement – through planned psychological action – intoxication “This procedure is nearly identical to disinformation, and consists in the circulation of false news articles or generating an inverse conception of reality in a given individual. Practiced in times of both peace and war, the purpose of intoxication is to falsify the judgment of decision-makers and upset the activities of organisms”11 and the demonization of the adversary “This disinformation technique has been widely used throughout history. A group or a government utilizes facts, stories and rumors to present the adversary as a power of evil that carries things to a higher level beyond the realm of reason and calibrated judgment in order to crystallize animosity according to purely moral criteria, even in regard to an entire people itself. The operation is based on the capacity of Manichean constructions to radicalize opinions in areas of conflict and preclude the use of rational critical judgment. Far from examining subtle distinctions and objectively evaluating the logic of the other, this is the story of ‘Might makes Right’ and ‘God is on our side’”12. In the end, the alterglobal movement’s delegitimization of existing military and political institutions in the eyes of world opinion aims at profoundly modifying its perception of reality – and especially civil society’s political and cultural choices on one hand – and presenting itself as the only alternative entity capable of managing the world’s political and economic power on the other.

3 The analyses of Pisano regarding non-conventional conflict that enable interpretation of the operating methods of alterglobal movements are equally interesting. His analyses theoretically classify the versatility of new wars with the denomination of low intensity non-conventional conflict. This conflict arises when two or more players – might they be states or not – want to achieve subversive or violent aims using neither the rules of representative democracy nor conventional war ones. Especially, low intensity non-conventional conflict is carried out by subversive agitation, terrorism, onset, civil war, revolution, coup, the formation of illegal or semi-illegal networks or misinformation. Well, in order to have a strategic classification of antagonist movements, we will focus on subversive agitation, and onset or insurgency. Subversive agitation, carried out by individuals belonging 10. François Géré, Dictionnaire de la désinformation, Armand Colin, 2011, p. 109. 11. Ibidem, p. 218. 12. Ibidem, p. 172.

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to political parties, to parliamentary or extra-parliamentary movements, aims to achieve political, ideological or religious targets using misinformation, incitement to civil disobedience, passive resistance, occupation of buildings, criminal damages, infiltration in peaceful demonstrations and in national or non-national structures to get them out of hand and, in the end, to use means of communications for psychological warfare. The ideological context that feeds the subversive agitation can be inspired by Marxism, Leninism, anarchism, radical environmentalism, nationalism, theocracy and far right universe. In any case, at least at the ideological level, religious and non-sectarian radical pacifism is a fundamental component in the alterglobal movement. Onset or Insurgency can follow the subversive agitation and implies partial or total territory control and national resources through illegal political organizations and paramilitary forces. Of course the onset involves armed fights and most of all implies significant operational planning skills that are carried out by guerrilla warfare and civil war as has occurred in Val di Susa.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Vittorio Agnoletto, Prima persone. Le nostre ragioni contro questa globalizzazione, Laterza, 2003 • Alla ricerca dell’Onda. I nuovi conflitti nell’istruzione superiore, a cura di Loris Caruso, Alberta Giorgi, Alice Mattoni, Gianni Piazza, Franco Angeli, 2010 • Attac Italia, Guerra globale permanente, “Attac Italia”, 20 settembre 2002 • A.V, Francesca Longo-Antonello Mangano-Gianni Piazza-Pietro Saitta, Come i problemi globali diventano locali, Edizioni terrelibere.org, 2009 • Dichiarazione di Beirut, Per una pace globale e una giustizia sociale, Concetti chiave, numero speciale, Mappe dei movimenti, maggio 2002 • Dichiarazione di Porto Alegre, Resistenza al neoliberismo, alla guerra e al militarismo, Concetti chiave, numero speciale, Mappe dei movimenti, maggio 2002 • François Géré, Dictionnaire de la Désinformation, Armand Colin, 2009 • Gagliano Giuseppe, The Social Network, the alter-globalization movement, and counter-forums,International Journal of Science,Volume I February 2012 • Rete Lilliput, Ripudiare le guerre e agire la nonviolenza, “Rete Lilliput”, 17 luglio 2006 • Flavio Lotti, Guerra e pacifismo: dall’Afganistan alla Palestina, Concetti chiave, numero speciale, Mappe dei movimenti, maggio 2002 • Vittorfranco Pisano, Lineamenti di intelligence e sicurezza nel mondo contemporaneo, LUNIG, 2009 • Quaderni Satyagraha n. 14, Napoli chiama Vicenza. Disarmare i territori, costruire la pace, a cura di Angelica Romano, Gandhi Edizioni, 2008 • Mao Valpiana, “Appello per la pace e per la fratellanza dei popoli” 25 settembre 2011, Azione Non violenta, novembre, 2011

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Darina Çoni (Kacollja) Adrian Papajani

The Position of Women during Ottoman Empire and King Zog’s Period in the District of Elbasan The family represents the social unit where the protection of its members is done with maximum effort, but at the same time, because of the negative feelings, it risks to be converted in the unit with high physical and psychic riskiness for its members. Problems in the family are historically considered even as a social problem because of the social consequences that it transfers to the society. This is why family and its problems have been historically studied. The family is a dynamic structure that changes and tries to adapt to the changes as well as to the inner and outer demands. Therefore, with the increasing of the economic and social difficulties the family is involved to these vortexes by converting them to inner issues. “In front of such risks that have affected the social organization, the family looms from the society in such a way that collects a set of interactive mechanisms, while they return to the interdependent and fundamental functions that the family is entailed to and it should face (primary socialization of the children and the psychological stabilization of the adults and of the married people), and to contribute to the limits and the final values of the social system” (Donati, P., 2009, 62). Having lived with all these vortexes for a long time, they become source of later social explosions. So, these transition periods with powerful social and economical vortexes that Albania has passed these last twenty years, combined with the long Communist period and with the Period of King Zog, with a patriarchal and modern tradition ,they have influenced the inner relationships of the families. The woman has historically been oppressed and obliged to do hard works. Discrimination for women exists their birth. In Albania, especially in Elbasan, there was a tradition that a family should have as many boys as possible in their family hearth, because boys were more evaluated than women. “ In cases when a boy was born, people fired their rifles many times -

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two, three, five or seven times. When a boy was born it was said: “ The pillars of the house are cheered” ,“ When a girl is born the pillars of the houses start crying”. (Tirta, M. 2003:318). Because of the long Ottoman rule, many Ottoman norms and behaviors where introduced. “The juridical status which accepted Islam regarding women, the norms that were imposed, the familiar and social life that it organized, were in contradiction with the Christian civilization of Europe. Islam accepted polygamy with four wives; it allowed even women without “marriage” or limits for those who had the means to keep them; whereas the Christianity banned the polygamy and the women that were not married. Such a moral philosophy and such a practice with the partner caused the depravity from the birth. Polygamy and concubinage weakened the moral values of the family and of the population. When a man lives only with his wife, he creates trust for her honor and loyalty. If he cohabits with other four women or with unlimited number of women, then, in these conditions he cannot be concerned about honesty and loyalty on the part of women. They lose their moral value and do not make sacred principles, upon which the family is established and operates. Muslim men, in order to protect their honor, created their familiar prison called harem which was legislated as a final mechanism for the servitude of the woman and her exclusion of social life. Albanians accepted Islam by imitating Turkish people by enslaving even their wives” (Kabo, P; 2006, 49). Elbasan County, where the majority of people supported Islam for many reasons, started to adapt even the social and familiar behaviors under this new religion. Therefore, the marriage with many women was not spread in Elbasan and in Albania, but the enclosure of women as slaves at their homes became massive in this county. So, women began to cover and they did not leave the house after they reached the age of thirteen. “It was the county’s custom that the girls 12-13 years old were not allowed to show up in public uncovered. However, from the enclosure of that age till the age of engagement sometimes there 10 years passed, a period of the physical development which also resulted in many changes in their physiognomy. The boys secretly could send a wise woman from their relatives to the house of the bride to see the beauty and the cleverness of the woman that they were supposed to marry. (Meksi, Th., 2010:363). The groom, when he first enters in the room where the bride stays, raises her veil. It was the first time when the groom could see his wife’s face, unless they were known in their childhood.” (Meksi, Th., 2010:388). These norms were so much adapted to the inhabitants of Elbasan, that even the Christian women started covering themselves, whereas the Muslim’s families started to close the second floors windows, in a way that the brother could not see his brother’s wife. In the Muhammedan villages near Elbasan, there were rules

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determining the windows that, like the laws of the house, protected the women from the curious eyes. In Godolesh, one brother who lived at the upper floor of the two store house was obligated to close the window that was opened, as it viewed from the yard of the kitchen’s brother; otherwise the womankind of his brother’s family would not walk freely in the yard. (Hasluck, M., 2005:67). Women also did not show up when there were guests in the house. “It was a custom for women not to show up to the guests’ eyes even after their engagement. It was comprehensible for men guests but it was so incomprehensible for women guests” Meksi, Th., 2010:365. Another phenomenon that could be observed at those times was that women from the villages used to come to town uncovered and they were those who could do the shopping because their husbands could not move freely because of their enemies“. Evliya Çelebi during the year 1670, in her description of Elbasan presents the women from the city as wrapped in long clothes, wearing yashmaks and wrapped with cheesecloth; while the women and the girls who came during the shopping days from the villages are presented unwrapped. (Meksi,Th., 2010:361). It became so disturbing for the moral of that time, so that Shefqet Tugut Pasha in the military operation of 1910 ordered here in Elbasan, that rural women must wear yashmaks when they returned to the town. I remember that the women of Shushice, Polis villages and they that were from the villages near Dumre, obeyed this rule when they went to the town, but when they returned, having crossed the Shkumbin’s bridge, they took off their yashmaks by taking them tucked into their underarm until they could reach home. (Meksi, Th., 2010:361) Therefore, the violence against women had returned to the institution, they had to stay closed all the time and to do the housework and to raise their children, whereas the man should work outside and should entertain himself and nobody has not the right to say anything to him. “In the hammam of the city, many men gathered and followed delightfully the beautiful dances of the women and their sharp look that excited them. (Meksi, Th., 2010:326). Women were mostly servants rather than wives. These kinds of patriarchal customs, according to the researcher, Thanas Meksi, would reached to some points such as: “The men never called his wife by her name, but he used several exclamatory words like, oj, moj, mori etc; the bride also had never used her husband’s name directly with the conversations with others, but she used pronouns such as: he and this, because she was shy. ( 2010:392) Despite King Zog’s efforts to create a Western state, it was so difficult under these conditions. The emancipated reforms in the religious sphere were implemented during the Empire of King Zog. He undertook many reforms for the emancipation of the religious life in Albania, and he approved the law of abolition of yashmaks, he www.ijosc.net | International Journal of Science


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approved the Orthodox Church, and created a secular state. King Zog insinuated something that is it still discussed in Europe even nowadays: “Muslims by faith and Europeans by the culture”. He opened for the first time the mixed schools where Muslim’s children and Christians’ children could learn together. That was a revolution in the Albanians’ mentality while even some popular intellectuals were against this idea. Gjergj Fishta in 1938-1939 wrote “The union even can be less achieved only between Christians and Muslims in Albania, for whom not only their beliefs, but even the same moral and social principles that are diametrically between each other and very few of them, less than one third of them do not have the idea of the motherland, nation, and that of the civilized society. Therefore, it is really a deception to confirm that with the mixed schools could be achieved the national union in Albania (Beqja, H., 1995:96,97)”. However, in reality not everything worked out, it was really difficult that five hundred traditions could be served immediately without creating a popular resentment. Vicker.M gives a clear situation about this. “In January 1937, in oder to make his country more secular, westerner and more modern, the King Zog proposed the unwrapped of Muslim women, the elimination of Albanian –European mixed costumes for women, and the building wooden ties in a way that villagers could not continue to sleep on the ground. In March, it was considered a punishment offence for each woman covering her face completely or partly. In the south, this issue was enough to cause disturbances. A revolt that was crushed since it began on May 1937 was led by Ethem Toto, a southern Muslim, and a former Minister of Interior. Two main factors were hidden after that revolt; the southern Muslims’ conservative elements were against the King Zog’s reforms, especially against the divesting of their wives.” Vickers.M., 2008: 214). Thus, according to Meksi, in 1929 in Albania came into force the civil code, which according to the depositions of the civil registry office, the act of marriages must be fulfilled in the office, in front of the registrar, but women were wrapped up, enclosed and they could not go to offices to fulfill these kinds of formalities. This situation alarmed not only women, but also men; therefore the government of that time, made some concessions in order not to make things worse for all the people.(2010:365). Consequently, for the enforcement of the law we can mention Roberto Morozzo who says: His government (Zog’s government) will be western from its principles and eastern regarding their fulfillment. (2000; 86) “For the situation of the women in Albania Olga Plumbi, who was one of the missionaries for the feminist cause and movements during the years 1920-1940 at the First Congress of the Union of AntiFascist Albanian Women (in November 1944) highlighted: “The woman completely isolated from the social and political life, could not understand that the main

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obstacle for her liberation was the social system. Between this system and the woman stood the man. In all her efforts, it was the man who was her main obstacle. In case she raised her voice everyone looked her strangely. When foreigners tried to give a conception for the Albanian woman’s condition, they used to write: “A little higher than my dog and below my horse—woman wiped her eyes as if it was just woken up from a deep sleep and she asked: What do you want?” Therefore, it was natural that in our country our feminist efforts have continued for nearly a century with so little results. (Dervishi.Z., 2011, 153)

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Donati,P: Manuale di sociologia della famiglia, Editori Laterza & Figli Spa, Bari 2009 • Hasluck, Margaret : Kanuni, Ligji i pashkruar, shtëpia botuese Lisitan, Tiranë 2005 • Meksi,Thanas: Etno Folku Elbasanas, shtëpia botuese Edlora, Tiranë 2010 • Tafani,V:Shqipëria dhe Elbasani në Syrin e Udhëtarëve të Huaj, shtëpia botuese Sejko, Elbasan 2003 • Shabanaj.H: Aspekte Ekonomike në Prefekturën e Elbasanit 1944-1948, shtëpia botuese Sejko, Elbasan 2003 • Dervishi.Z: Gratë në turbulencat e mendësive dhe realitetit politik, shtëpia botuese Emal,Tiranë 2011 • V. Olson,Mancur:Ngritja dhe rënia e kombeve, Shtëpia Botuese “Dituria’’ Tiranë 1999. • Dyrmishi, Demir: Punëtorët në Shqipëri, Shtëpia Botuese ‘’Album’’ Shkup 2001. • Gjeçov, Shtjefen: Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit, Shtëpia Botuese “Albinform’’ Tiranë 1993. • Myshketa, Hysen: Kujtime e shënime pak edhe si historike, Shtëpia Botuese ‘’Acustica’’ Bari 1999. • Vickers Miranda: Shqiptarët, një histori modern,Shtëpia Botuese Bota Shqiptare” 2008 • Tirta,Mark : Etnologjia e Shqiptarëve , Shtëpia Botuese “Geer’’ Tiranë 2003

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William J. Barry

Is Modern American Public Education Promoting a Sane Society? Abstract: This article discusses the concepts of intelligence and quality as core issues which are driving American school children to accept a way of being which encourages orienting themselves toward other citizens with disdain, mistrust, and with a suspicion toward the importance of working authentically in collaboration with other people. I propose in the article, though a research based and Transpersonal Living Educational Theory (TLET) approach, the need for American public education to evolve from places of information into places of transformation. Transforming public schools into learning communities which understand and respect the multiple intelligences of oneself and others and of a concept of quality which aims at developing holistic health. The article promotes a concept of intelligence and quality which celebrates the diversity of life which makes a democratic society strong in the face of serious challenges to the fabric of its existence. In essence, this article is about how we can reform American public education to create a sane society so as to contribute to an imaginative world community of collaboration, creativity, and competency. Key Words: American public education, quality, learning, sane society, critical theory Transformational Quality (TQ) theoryŠ, intelligence, social justice, bullying, discrimination, humanistic education, pedagogy, Transpersonal Living Educational Theory (TLET), empathy, world citizen, Congruent Nero-Linguistic Programming (CNLE) Š.

Is American public education through its understanding of intelligence and quality promoting a sane society? As an American and American educational leader

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and philosopher, I want to believe we are. As an American educational leader, I want to believe we are committed to protecting students and teachers who are unable to protect themselves from discrimination, social injustice, bullying, and other maleficence. What I want to believe, and what is reality, however, may be in many respects antithetical to the reality of what American public education is and stands for in the early epoch of the 21 century. If we look at the meaning of quality and intelligence and how we as an American culture are educating school children from elementary school though university we can see a crisis of educating for a sane society with troublesome clarity. In plan terms, Krishnamurti (1953) defined intelligence as, “... the capacity to perceive the essential the, what is; and to awaken this capacity, in oneself, and in others, is education” (p.14). When we look at intelligence as it is promoted and defined by the modern American public system it is eerie to discover public education is both veiling our ability to improve our authentic intelligence and distorting our capacity to perceive what is. Modern public education’s hyperfocus on creating a system of haves and have nots, a culture of ever present interpersonal competition and strife, quantitative grades and test scores as evidence of long lasting success, and the unjust ranking of students against each other has created a simulacrum of democratic education (McLaren 1989; Oakes 1985; Oakes and Lipton 1992). Erich Fromm (1955) wrote more than sixty years ago in his book, The Sane Society, “The task of impressing on people the guiding ideals and norms of our civilization is, first of all, that of education. But how woefully inadequate is our educational system for this task. Its aim is primarily to give the individual the knowledge he needs in order to function in an industrialized civilization, and to form his character in the mold which is needed: ambitious and competitive, yet co-operative within certain limits; respectful of authority, yet “desirably independent,” as some report cards have it; friendly, yet not deeply attached to anybody or anything (p. 344).” I am a critical educational theorist. This means I embrace a healthy balance between intellectualism and social change (McLaren 1989; Kincheloe and McLaren 2007; Shor 1992) as the purpose of public education. Intellect should be understood as developing the skills and habits of being an effective thinker, problem solver, and having skills and knowledge relevant to the culture one lives within (Gardner 2000, 1999, 1993, 1991). Social change should be understood as referring to change that leads society toward a more democratic, fair, just, imaginative and creative, caring,

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and humanistic way of being (Dewey 1938/1997; Frankl 2000, 1984; Kohl 2004, 1998, 1994; Kohn 2004, 2000, 1999, 1996 1986; Kozol 1991, Noddings 2005, 2002, 1995, 1984; Sergiovanni 1992). The challenge of introducing progressive reform in the American public education system for promoting a sane society is formidable. Public schools as social institutions of learning are often fraught with mistrust, power struggles, and a rigid system of haves and have nots, and a fanatical embrace of behaviorist and statistical techniques to address, assess and promote learning and discipline (Holt 1995; Leonard 1991, 1987, 1978; Postman 1969; Rogers 1969; Sizer 1992; Spring 1991). A sane society requires shared agreements about the meanings and dispositions of intelligence and quality consummate with a democratic culture and social norms to support the agreements (Habermas 1984; McCarthy 1984; Rorty 1999). Public educators and school leaders in a sane society are responsible to care deeply for the sanctity of humanity, the holistic health and well-being of students and encourage people through role modeling and systems of learning to promote equality, freedom, justice, and to challenge the status quo (Giroux 1997, 1981, 1983; Freire 2001, 1998; hooks 1994; Postman 1969). A sane society is earnestly concerned with students’ search for meaning, freedom, and responsibility for the health of the world (Glasser 2002, 1999, 1998, 1992; Frankl 2000, 1984) as the most important goals of education. A sane society promotes an “I-You/We” (Buber 1958; Freire, 2001) orientation toward other people as the best way to approach interpersonal relationships. This opposed to ‘I-It/Them’ orientation toward other people whereby people interact without witnessing the humanity of each other and address each other in a ‘quid pro quo’ manner for the purpose of selfish manipulation (Buber 1958). Knowledge is constructed and not simply unearthed as an objective thing in itself (Brooks and Brooks 2003). Knowledge is contingent, relative, and is always in a state of refinement; therefore, educators necessarily need to problematize knowledge so as to not promote false ideology, myth, and be misled by simulacrum (Baudrillard 2001, 1994; Foucault 1980; Freire 1985). Knowledge is never absolute. It is always relative. One of the most important questions a member of a sane society considers when interpreting a knowledge claim is whom does this knowledge benefit and hurt and what can I do to improve, negate or substantiate a knowledge claim (Whitehead 2008)? People cannot gain knowledge like receiving money and putting it in the bank. Freire (2001) coined this type of approach to knowledge as the ‘banking concept of education’. We do not receive knowledge in a virgin state and store it in the brain as objective information about a static reality. Knowledge is messy,

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constantly evolving, and contingent on a knower’s perspective because a static reality does not exist (Bache 2008; Bohm 1994; Capra 1996; Combs 2002; Ferguson 1997; Leonard 1991, 1987, 1978; Pirsig 1974; Sheldrake 2009; 1995) A democratic based education places students’ needs first and bureaucratic institutional needs second. It considers the status quo as always in need of questioning and possible revising. It is education that helps people learn basic skills and knowledge so as to optimize a person’s potential to be self-actualized and selfdirected who is free, thinks critically, and acts with self-abnegation when necessary in improving the social and intellectual milieu of the places a citizen works, lives, and plays (Dewey 1938/1997; Maslow 1968; Moffat 1994; Palmer 1993; Zohar and Marshall 1999). The human brain intrinsically has a plethora of different intelligences to aid people to understand and navigate successfully the world (Csikszentmihalyi 1998, 1996; Egan 1997; Gardner 2005, 2000, 1991; Grof and Bennett 1992; Lazear 1991; Leonard and Murphy 1995; Lovelock 1979; Wilber, 2000, 1998). A sane society meets the unique needs of its members’ multiple intelligences. What is the meaning of quality? Pollitt and Bouckaert (1995), Quality Improvement in European Public Services, noted the fact that quality has become a ‘central term in our contemporary rhetoric’ (p. 3). Yet they wonder, ‘Is everyone really pursuing the same objective, or do different groups have different things in mind when they adopt the ‘quality’ vocabulary’ (ibid, p.3)? Pirsig wrote (1974), “Quality… you know what it is, yet you don’t know what it is. But that is self-contradictory. But some things are better than others, that is, they have more quality. But when you try to say what the quality is, apart from the things that have it, it all goes poof! There’s nothing to talk about. But if you can’t say what Quality is, how do you know what it is, or how do you know that it even exists? If no one knows what it is, then for all practical purposes it doesn’t exist at all. But for all practical purposes it really does exist…What the hell is Quality? What is it?” (p. 178). A sane society identifies the meaning of quality as a concept which rejects domination, oppression and unjust treatment of people (Freire 2001; Glasser 1998; Kincheloe and McLaren 2007; Kohn 2004; Noddings 2005; Rogers 1980, 1969). This highlights the importance of questioning and challenging the status quo and seeking social justice in our quest for intelligence and quality and increasing students’ awareness of the intricate and critical relationship between politics, power, and knowledge generated within a school community and the larger community outside the classroom walls (Foucault 1980; Apple 1999, 1996).

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Neil Postman’s (1969) urged his reader’s to realize that the status quo of American public school education often sends a message contradictory to the freedom and sanctity of life American culture is founded upon. Democratic based education effectively facilitates students’ search for meaning and fosters students’ skill and ability to challenge and improve upon the status quo (Frankl 2000, 1984; Krishnamurti 1995, 1971). The guidance of such writers as Henry Giroux (1997, 1983), Michael Apple (1996, 1992), Ira Shor (1992), and Paul Tillich (2000) encourage people to transcend the destructive culture of positivism, where prediction and control rule the day, and embrace a critical approach to education that is progressive and promotes freedom and recognizes modern education as a political process of enculturation into the status quo. The current American public education status quo often promotes inequality due to non-collaborative methods of pedagogy, authoritarian regimes of training, and punitive discipline as an acceptable means to an end in learning and knowing (Kincheloe 2010; Kohl 2004, 1996; Kohn 1999, 1996). I propose a major reason for the misguided notions of intelligence and quality in modern American public education is a misunderstanding of the meaning of ‘the pursuit of happiness’ which is a natural right uniquely recognized by the American constitution. America is unique in embracing happiness as a universal right of human beings; however, this right since its inception has been conceptualized more as a simulacrum than a reality. Habermas urged his readers to rethink what the ‘pursuit of happiness’ means if we authentically care for the wellbeing of one another. I believe he professed a profound wisdom of what the ‘pursuit of happiness’ means in a sane society: “The pursuit of happiness might one day mean something different- for example, not accumulating material objects of which one disposes privately, but bringing about social relations in which mutuality predominates and satisfaction does not mean triumph of one over the repressed needs of the other” (Pusey 1995, p. 87). The pursuit of happiness in a sane society would promote collaborative and peaceful means of achieving ‘happiness’. The digital revolution has made the landscape of education and being a citizen of the world change drastically from the days of my grandparents and their parents and grandparents. The American nation born in the late 1700’s occurred when the world population was approximately one million people living on the planet earth. In 1930, there were 2 billion people on the planet. In 1960, there were approximately 3 billion people on the planet earth. In 2001, the population doubled to over 7 billion and there are expected to be 9 billion www.ijosc.net | International Journal of Science


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people on the planet by the 2046. The norms of the past in many respects will not be valid and reliable guides for success in the modern day and in our future. The concept we are a global community is not rhetoric or the fanciful idea of romantics and idealists. It is a pragmatic reality and only if we work in collaboration together as world communities will the planet earth survive (at least for us human beings!). We are a culture that promotes, celebrates, and passively accepts violence and discrimination under the guise of economic, self-protective, and patriotic rationales. When the founding fathers and mothers of the American society created a country based on the unity of people under the auspices each human being is endowed with the inalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, arguably they did not envision our modern public education system. The desire to be superior to others, to have more material wealth and success than others, to be revered for being better than others are the underlying rules of the game for ‘winning’ in American public education. Simply, educating young American citizens to be better than their classmates will not logically lead to bringing a unified understanding of what it means to be a global citizen who contributes to the security, beauty, and creativity of the world community through our culture as Americans. Public education in a democratic society such as America is rightly concerned with the individual growth and development of young citizens. This individual growth and development has; unfortunately, been distorted to mean something incongruous with the intention of an educational experience which promotes a sane society. A sane society requires individuals to be free so that he or she can be in authentic communion with other people and think and act in ways which demonstrate respect for the sanctity of life (McTaggart 2011, 2008a, 2008b). Holistic human growth and development in a sane society requires an education aimed at fostering integrated human beings who seek to consistently improve his or her self, influence the meaningful learning of other people, and transform the social and academic milieu of the places a person interacts (Csikszentmihalyi 1998, 1996; Whitehead 2008). It is an insane society which prizes and celebrates the accumulation of factoids, awards, honors, and the seeking of domination over other people. It is an insane society that reveres symbols as more real than what they represent; holding dearly to simulacrums which are atavistic to holistic, healthy human development. In a sane society the institutions, whatever they may be, are never more important than an individual human life. This is what ultimately separates a democratic life from most others ways of organizing society, such as communism. In communism for instance, an institution can logically be considered more important

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than a human life because after all an institution will more likely than not last longer than the life of a person. Therefore, the institutional needs can be logically argued to be more important than a human life under such an organization of society. In a democratic organization of society, human life, though shorter in life span than an institution, is seen as imbued with sanctity that no institution has the right to preempt. It is questionable in modern American public education if the child is perceived as more important than the institution of school. Public schools most often demand students succumb to the system of public education rather than the institution of schooling adjusting to meet the unique intellectual/psychological, emotional, sociological, and existential learning needs of the learners the institution was created to serve (Apple 1982; Blankstein 2004; Hart 2001). The current situation of standardized academic testing of students and homogenous grouping for learning which are used to categorize and separate students by perceived intelligent level has clearly been shown to be insensitive to the needs of student of differing cultural and socio-economic backgrounds, learning styles, and of special needs (Giroux 1983, 1981; Glasser 2002, 1999, 1998, 1992; Holt 1995; Hooks 1994; Kohn 2000, 1986; Kozol 1991; Noddings 2002). Ranking students against each other in a milieu of constant interpersonal competition, the prizing of materialism over humanism and of quantification over qualitative understanding and learning demonstrates an eerie philosophy that the institution of school is more important and more valuable than the individual lives the institution of school is supposed to serve. The governmental structure of schools philosophically in a democracy should prepare students for the government structure of the larger society students are a member. If public schools, as they currently operate, are an indicator of the type of government students are to embrace and live within, we are treading dangerously on a path of creating a society whose sanity and safety is at risk (Apple 1996; Freire 2001, 1985; Postman 1969. Krishnamurti (1953) admonishment is salient to creating a sane society when he wrote, “We say so easily that we love our children; but is there love in our hearts when we accept the existing social conditions, when we do not want to bring about a fundamental transformation in this destructive society (p. 95)? My Ph.D. research at Nottingham Trent University (Barry 2012a) that led to the creation of Transformational Quality (TQ) theory can humbly serve as a starting point for bringing forth fundamental transformation of the American public education system toward a democratic and humanistic understanding of quality pedagogy and intelligence. TQ theory (Barry 2012b) defines the meaning of educational quality as being concerned with all four dimensions of life: the biological/physical,

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intellectual/psychological/emotional, sociological, and the existential. In these four dimensions of life, quality is understood more than meeting predetermined expectations. Quality is also intimately defined by a student’s ability to effectively transcend the self, connect with other people at a transpersonal level, and experience competency, other people, and life at an ineffable level. The meaning of educational quality through the lens of TQ theory furthermore addresses the eight behaviors conducive to experiencing and eliciting educational quality which are defined by the acronym of C.A.P.A.C.I.T.Y. These behaviors are: C A P A C I T Y

Care for others Autotelic Prepared Alliance with others Choice I/You-Us Training Yearn to succeed

If we are to educate the young citizens of America to be positive contributors to a sane society it is critical all dimensions of living and the eight behaviours of C.A.P.A.C.I.T.Y are embraced in an understanding of educational quality that is nurtured and developed though educational praxis from an early age. The meaning of educational quality as regurgitating static information, seeking domination and superiority over others, and of constant interpersonal competition leads to a narcissistic and violent notion of the purpose of education and uses of intelligence. Without a life-affirming, need-fulfilling, and performance enhancing understanding of the meaning of quality coupled with a search for ‘truth’ and ‘beauty’ in the world, we Americans are more likely being led toward a society which embraces a destructive simulacrum of democracy. It is in the embrace of simulacrums over authenticity that a society puts its sanity at risk. The critical question for we Americans is, “How can we improve the sanity of our society?” The answer to this question starts with each individual exploring the implications of asking, researching and answering questions of the kind, ‘How do I improve what I am doing and enhance my positive influence?’ and holding themselves publicly accountable for clarifying and living as fully as possible their meanings of quality and intelligence in a humanistic, transpersonal, and democratic manner in their living praxis. International Journal of Science | No.2


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• Palmer, J.P., (1993). To Know As We Are Known: Education as a Spiritual Journey. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. • Pirsig, R.M. (1974). Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values. New York: Morrow Quill. • Pollitt, C. & Bouckaert, G. (1995). Quality Improvement in European Public Services. London: Sage. • Postman, N. (1969). Teaching as a Subversive Activity. New York: Delacorte Press. • Pusey, M. (1995). Jurgen Habermas. New York: Routledge. • Rogers, C. (1980). A Way of Being. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. • Rogers, Carl. (1969). Freedom to Learn: A View of What Education Might Become. Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merrill. • Rorty, R. (1999). Philosophy and social hope. London: Penguin. • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1992). Moral Leadership. New York: Jossey-Bass. • Sheldrake, R. (2009). Morphic Resonance: The Nature of Formative Causation. New York: Park Street Press. • Sheldrake, R. (1995). Seven experiments that could change the world. New York: Riverhead Books. • Shor, I. (1992). Empowering Education: Critical Teaching for Social Change. Portsmouth, NH: Henemann. • Sizer, T. (1992). Horace’s Compromise: The Dilemma of the American High School. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. • Spring, J. (1991). American Education: An Introduction to Social and Political Aspects. White Plains, New York: Longman Inc. • Tillich, P. (2000). The Courage to Be. London: Yale University Press. • Whitehead, J. (2008). Using a living theory methodology in improving practice and generating educational knowledge in living theories. Educational Journal of Living Theories, 1(1), 103-126. • Wilber, K. (2000). Integral Psychology. Boston: Shambhala. • Wilber, K. (1998). The Marriage of Sense and Soul. New York: Broadway Books. • Zohar, D. & Marshall, I. (1999). Spiritual Intelligence. New York: Quill.

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EDMOND ÇALI “The Winter of the Great Solitude” by Ismail Kadare - Test of Dissidence against Communism and Socialist Realism. Abstract: “The Winter of the Great Solitude” is one of the main works of Ismail Kadare. The aim of this paper is to analyze dissidence approaches of the book. In the first part of this paper I will short-list some of the elements that contribute to the construction of historical viewpoint of the narrative material of the novel. In the second part, it will be given a strong emphasis to the critical approach of treatment of the above mentioned the topic, as well as Kadare’s personal explanations for this. Due to considerable material, this lengthy paper will be published in two subsequent issues.

Key words: “The Winter of the Great Solitude”, dissidence, historical book, communist bloc, etc.

“The winter of the great solitude” is one of the main works of Ismail Kadare. Along with “Concert at the end of the winter” is in diptych, or perhaps, one of the parts of a great historical book. The close relation between history and literature is one of the emerging ways of the dissidence of Albanian great writer. In the historical novel “The winter of the great solitude”, one of the most important events of modern Albanian history, the division of Albania from the eastern communist bloc, is the part that ensures the co-relation of literature and history. In the first part of this paper I will short-list some of the elements that make up the historical viewpoint of the narrative material of the novel. It is worthy to mention now: the purchase of wheat, from France by the Albanian government at the time of breaking relations with the socialist camp, important historical

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events such as the role of Koci Xoxe, former Minister of Interiors of postwar Albanian and the Albanian-Soviet bilateral meetings in the end of year 1960. In the second part I will emphasize the critical approach to treat the topic as well as Kadare’s personal explanations for this. 1. The approach of Soviet policy towards Albania consists of a very simple fact: Albania has an immediate need for wheat and the community of socialist countries, according to agreements, must provide this. But this agreement is not respected and Albania is forced to buy a large quantity of wheat in the international market, while suffering economic damage, by approaching a French company. French correspondent investigation is an original way to clarify relations between socialist countries: all those investigations are examined by a Western journalist. It is also a way that facilitates the responsibility of the author-narrator in presenting such a delicate issue. We are at a reception organized by the Embassy of the Democratic Republic of Germany in Tirana. French journalist speaks to Romanian commercial attaché. It is one of the most important parts of the book on the above mentioned issue1. Conversation is the continuation of French journalist investigation. Earlier he had met with the director of Alb-Import Ltd. The importance of the repetition in Kadare’s narration can be clearly seen here: one can see the same question and the same answer2, too. After a few pages the same scene is repeated with Chinese cultural attaché3. The argument continues in the interior monologue of the French journalist4. In the second part of the novel “Guests in the castle”, chapter six, the issue of wheat purchase from France is treated in the conversation between Besnik and Jordan, another member of Albanian delegation in a plane that is taking them from Tirana to Moscow5.

1.b. History Modern and contemporary history of Albania is always present in the novel “Winter of the great solitude”. There are pages dealing with World War 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Kadare 1973, pp. 48. Kadare 1973, pp. 49. Kadare 1973, pp. 54 Kadare 1973, pp. 54. Kadare 1973, pp. 100-101.

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II, the postwar years from 1945 until 1949, when Albania began and ended the “brotherhood” relationship with Titist Yugoslavia and especially of breaking of relations with the Soviet Union in the early sixties. These arguments are addressed by examining some sharp topics of Albanian life: Koci Xoxe’s figure, former Minister of Interiors, meetings between the Albanian delegation and the Soviet leadership in November of 1960 in Moscow, the situation in the Pasha Liman military base, bilateral meetings between representatives of two countries in Tirana during the final stages of their ultimate breakup.

1.c. Let’s touch very briefly two other episodes. The first one is a book of memoirs about the war. Kadare has the ability to describe in a few lines the correct perception that some peripheral characters have for the main events of the war. The example of the Besnik’s elderly aunt who reads memoirs of war is emblematic and leaves room for many interpretations. Judgment has to do with words, pages and books. Aunt Rabo resumes reading the book every ordinary morning, after preparing breakfast for her nephew and after her nephew has requested money for a birthday celebration6.

1.d. A traitor to the communist “Internacionale” is trialed in the Albanian partisan court. The second episode has two parts related to each other by one word: the word “Internacionale”. Xhemal Struga, father of Besnik, the novel’s protagonist, is a seriously ill war veteran. His internal monologue during the dinner which was organized in the evening before departure of his son to Moscow includes two historical moments: the first is the present moment, which has to do with his son’s journey as the translator of the delegation. The second has to do with the shooting of a communist exponent by the communist partisans during World War II. These two moments are linked by the word “Internacionale”. At the beginning, Xhemal Struga follows the conversation

6. Kadare 1973, pp. 60-61.

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between his son and his father-in-law, Kristaq, who is a deputy minister7. The second moment is related to the same word, again8.

2.a. “Head of Human Resources”: the party-state control over staff. One way to express dissidence in “The winter of the great solitude” is the description of the party exercising control over life and activity of staff. This is also expressed also by the figure of Raqi, chief of staff of the newspaper where Besnik works. Besnik has just been communicated to appear in the Central Committee of the Party because he will act as a translator in a significant delegation that will go to the Soviet Union. All colleagues are happy and start talking about their trips abroad, whereas Raqi, continues to think of his work. He reckons that he has an important post, with great responsibility, in a delicate mission. He deals with documents containing personal data of all employees of the newspaper. He really feels that he has got enough power9. But sometimes despair catches on Raqi and he sees only the other side of the coin. His secret and reserved documents seem to have no importance to the life and career of his colleagues. List of quoted phrases and definitions of character and behavior of people seem to be useless. All this is a test of fine control that “power” exercises over employees10.

2.b. The signalizations “notebook” Raqi, as representative of the state control apparatus is very diligent in his work. Kadare, with his job description, reveals only a part of the controlling device, which belongs to the whole mechanism of totalitarian state. Raqi shows great care in understanding the risk that his zeal may lead him beyond his powers11.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Kadare 1973, pp. 92. Kadare 1973, pp. 92-93. Kadare 1973, pp. 71-72. Kadare 1973, pp. 72. Kadare 1973, pp. 72-73.

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2.c. The Party controls and inhibits the Ministry of Interiors. The character of Aranit Çorraj is very important in the context of the characters that represent the state control apparatus. He works in the Ministry of Interiors and would have loved to tighten control over all intellectuals in the name of defending the proletarian state. But this is not allowed by the Party. That is why, whenever possible, he expresses his disappointment of the “soft line” of the Party against intellectuals. The opposition between his views to the opinions of comrade B., member of Central Committee of the Party, is one of the most significant examples of dissidence in Kadare. It is emblematic that exactly a member of the Central Committee of Communist Party is forced to step on his “brakes” resulting into the eviction from the Ministry of Interiors of this “harsh” man, a Ministry of Interiors’ official who openly seeks stricter control over the life of management class of the country. The character of Aranit Çorraj is important from the structural point of view regarding the topic of control of society from a totalitarian regime: it is through Aranit’s figure that the story of historic character Koci Xoxe starts to unfold. The “police” control ideas make Aranit appear in an almost laughable way. But when he insists, we realize that Kadare, through his words, wanted to display a good part of “police” control apparatus of the communist Albania12.

2.d. The possible return to the signalization “notebook”. Raqi does his job well. But he hopes that in addition to his normal work, the state could profit from his extra work in a near future, when the accumulated zeal in his personal notebook would gain a great value13. Raqi, chief of staff, feels like his friend Aranit in the Ministry of Interiors does. The control over intellectuals is exercised either by the secret police or any other part of the state structure. Even though the Party claims that Aranit’s control seems a bit excessive, control exercised by state structure is considered to be a normal and necessary routine. 12. Kadare 1973, pp. 73. 13. Kadare 1973, pp. 73-74.

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The details in the “notebook” are just a small proof of control by the state. The effect is exacerbated by the way they appear. There is a list of arguments connected with each-other in order to be considered evidence against employees of the newspaper14.

3.a. History and literature: meetings between senior communist leaders. As it is, in both resources, the works of Enver Hoxha and Kadare’s novel. The Albanian delegation arrives in Moscow. This is all seen by the eyes of the protagonist. Narrator follows his internal monologue in the third person. The communist world is described as it really is in reality: the whole communities of socialist states, as well as the communist parties of other countries, were vassals of the Soviet Union. Consequently, the “petit” Albania who has dared to raise its voice was just casted out. The Soviet Union intends to maintain its areas of influence in all possible ways. Rejection of the Albanian demand for wheat is only the first step of the counterattack coming from the great communist power. Kadare, directly and symbolically (image of the sky divided among airlines) paints the foul scum of the socialist camp. It is one of the many historical elements, the simplicity of which gives a very efficient description of communism of the sixties. And is a fine example of Kadare’s dissidence. In one page we have many passages in the story to prove what has just been said: 1. Albanian delegation gets down from the plane, 2. Besnik steps down from the plane, too with the image of divided sky in his mind, 3. Direct testimonial of the real communism: if you do not accept our dictate, we make you starve of hunger, and forget about all the friendship and the children with bundles of flowers extending a warm welcome to the country of real socialism15. It is the beginning of the fundamental point of the novel: the description of Russia-Albania match. Chapter six pages that follow describe the Albanian delegation settling in a villa on the outskirts of Moscow. Chapter seven gives us the fourth day of the stay of Albanian delegation in Moscow. The delegation returned to villa after the celebrations and military parade in Red Square. A welcome dinner 14. Kadare 1973, pp. 74. 15. Kadare 1973, pp. 103-104.

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is held during the evening in Kremlin. There is a conversation between Enver Hoxha and Kosigin. It refers only to what the top Soviet leader said: - We love and respect you. Moreover, you personally, Comrade Enver – said Kosigini to Enver Hoxha at the main table. They looked each-other into the eyes and to Enver Hoxha that seemed as if another voice said with a comforting tone “my condolences to you” ... - We love you - repeated Kosigini, and his hand, mechanically, with a gesture of indefinite idleness, showed the room, as if it meant that all that shining light could not be other than sparkling love and hope16. At the official dinner it was taken under consideration the behavior of Nikita Khrushchev17. His attention is directed only to Enver Hoxha. Khrushchev now thinks about the answer that he will give to the Albanian leader’s attitude18. Enver Hoxha was a communist leader, but different from other leaders. He does not speak Russian, is silent, has a sad face and is getting ready to protest against Khrushchev19.

3.b. The Story. The chapter eight of the novel is important to outline the structure of the novel and history-literature connection. Enver Hoxha’s meetings with Russian leaders mentioned in this chapter is documented by published material in the works of Enver Hoxha. The meeting between Enver Hoxha and Andropov is preceded by a description of the arrival of Andropov at the villa where Albanian delegation is accomodated. Meanwhile, the Russian Communist party has delivered a document to the Chinese delegation. China-Russia match is touched superficially and not treated in details20.

3.c. The meeting between Enver Hoxha and Andropov21. It is the core of the historical part of the novel. These pages of chapter eight provides details of the meeting between the Albanian delegation and the Soviet 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Kadare 1973, pp. 111 Kadare 1973, pp. 118-119 Kadare 1973, pp. 119. Kadare 1973, pp. 119. Kadare 1973, pp. 126-127. Please refer to Hoxha 1980, pp. 412-413.

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Union one. Such details show the excellent relations between the two countries before the problems with the military base of Pasha Liman, the Bucharest meeting, the role of Russian ambassadors, the buying of wheat from France,the pressures exerted by the Soviet side, the perception of the Soviet Union for the role of small countries like Albania. There is information on the Hungarian events of 1956 and the resolve of the Berlin issue. But to put this all together, this is an ugly part of the 1960 communist world. Here are pages 127-128 of Kadare’s books and pages 355-357 of the work of 19 of the series of works of Enver Hoxha. It’s just one of the examples of historyliterature connection.

Ismail Kadare, “The winter of the great solitude”, pg. 127-128. When he heard wooden stairs cracking, he turned away immediately. Enver Hoxha was going down the stairs alone. Andropovi smiled and made towards him, but the face of Enver Hoxha looked stony. - Sorry that I came without notice, - began to speak Andropov, but Enver Hoxha did not let continue. - This morning I was informed that Khrushchev wants to see me tomorrow at eleven o’clock, - said Hoxha His gaze remained somewhere between Andropov and Besnik. While Besnik was translating, the smile, which disappeared for a moment, covered Andropov’s face. However, the face of Enver Hoxha, was too gloomy. Anger was in the corners of the lips. - I decided to respond positively to the invitation, but just now I read your material backbiting Albania and that Albania is not listed as a socialist country. Andropov froze for a moment and opened his hands.

Enver Hoxha, WORK 19, June 1960 - December 1960, Publishing House “November 8”, Tirana, 1975, pg. 607. pg. 355. “Whether Albania is a socialist country or not, this is not decided byKhrushchev, but ruled the Albanian people with wars and with its blood.” Conversations held with J. Andropov in Moscow. November 8, 1960 Comrade Enver Hoxha: Today I was informed Khrushchev has expressed interest to meet me tomorrow at 11. I intended to respond positively, but today I read the Soviet material which listed Albania as a non-socialist country. J. ANDROPOVI: What material is this, I do not get it, tell me which material you have in mind specifically? Comrade Enver Hoxha: The material of the Soviet Communist Party addressed to the Chinese Communist Party (1). (1) It is the 125-page letter of the Central Committee of Communist Party of the Soviet Union on November 5, 1960 directed the CC of Communist Party of China, which ignored

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-What material? - said Andropov baffled. -Why are you surprised? –said Hoxha with an open disdain. It’s a material of Soviet Communist Party addressed to the Chinese Communist Party. Andropov let his hands down. Sad apathy started to crawl on his face. -Your statement is very serious, - he said with a fading voice. -Yes, very serious, -said Hoxha. - Please tell comrade Khrushchev that it’s not his decision whether Albania is a socialist country or not. -Enver Hoxha eyes frowned. It is decided by the Albanian people with its blood - he turned his back and was ready to climb the stairs. Andropov extended his arm as if to grab thin air. -Comrade Enver. Enver Hoxha turned his head. There was a light in his eyes that seemed bad to Andropov. After two days, we will have a general meeting of parties, - said Enver Hoxha continuing to climb stairs – You will have our opinion there. Good bye! Andropov remained stiff, his eyes stuck on the stairs. -Now what?-he said to himself softly. Then he saw Besnik and realized that he heard. So he turned to grab the door and went out.

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the existence of People Republic of Albania as socialist country and denigrated the Labor Party of Albania. f. 356 J. ANDROPOV: But that was a letter to China, what has Albania got to do with it? Comrade Enver Hoxha: And it finally parted my ways with Khrushchev. J. ANDROPOV: I do not understand. What does that paper say for you? E. H. : Read it and you will see. J. ANDROPOV: I have. I know the material very well. I collaborated in preparing it. But your statement, Comrade Enver, is a very serious statement. E. H.: Yes, serious. Tell Khrushchev, he cannot decide whether Albania is a socialist country or not. It is ruled by Albanian people with wars and blood. The Labour Party of Albania has decided that, while walking on Marxist-Leninist path. I speak for my country, my people and my country. J. ADROPOV: This is a very serious statement. I can only show remorse concerning that. f. 357 E. H.: You will hav*e the opinion of our Party in the general meeting. There. Bye! Published for the first time according to records kept during the conversation, found in the Central Party Archive.


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3.d. The meeting between the two delegations At the beginning, the excellent relations between the two countries, is mentioned. The description is very detailed. By comparison to published documents in the Works of Enver Hoxha, the historical reconstruction of the meeting is very accurate. For these reasons we suggest reading the version of Kadare first and that of Enver Hoxha after. Repetition is very important in Kadare’s works: in a few pages there is a same formula aka the forgiveness from the Soviet side that has not notified in advance for the arrival of the delegation. Enver Hoxha is described so realistically: therefore we could not understand the criticism or negative feedback from the communists soon after the publishing of The Winter of the Great Solitude, nor the reactions of “right wing” disparagers always accusing Kadare as “somehow mixed with the communist regime”. Let us follow the meeting Hoxha-Soviet delegation: many issues are touched: - The question of Pasha Liman military base is a technical thermometer that measures the tension between the communist bloc and Albania; - the confrontation between the Soviet Communist Party and the Party of Labor of Albania had begun immediately after Stalin’s death and therefore a fundamental step was the Bucharest meeting, evocated by Soviet side; - the attitude of Soviet diplomats quoted in the novel is just one example of numerous cases of Soviet intervention in internal affairs of other socialist countries; - once again emerges the issue of wheat purchased in France. The line expressing relations between the two countries are significant: Enver Hoxha, accusing the Soviets of acting as dealers. The issue of grain purchased from Albania in France was treated in the novel only from the Western perspective. Now this issue is treated by those who are directly concerned with it: the Albanian leaders and those Soviets. By Enver Hoxha’ lines emerge the heaviest charges that may be made against the Soviet Union; - pressures suffered by the Albanian side. In his speech, Enver Hoxha remembers to the Soviet side the great military presence at the reception on November 7; - What plans had in mind “the homeland of socialism” with a small socialist country: Soviet communist leaders could not hide the plans that they have for the development of socialism in a small country like Albania. The fate of nations seems to depend on their theoretical debates; - The issue of Berlin. www.ijosc.net | International Journal of Science


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3.e. Meeting between Hoxha and Khrushchev The ninth chapter of the novel deals with a different key moment in relations between the Soviet Communist Party and the Party of Labor of Albania: another meeting between the Albanian delegation and Soviet party. At this meeting, Nikita Khrushchev is present22. It is important to underline the description of the history in this literary work: the comparison between the book pages and the documents from the archives published at selected works of Enver Hoxha, we may find a solid base of historical materials consulted by the author for writing this part of the novel. The desire to provide readers, at any cost, a faithful testimony of respect for Marxism-Leninism and to protect the independence of the country by the “small” Communist Party of Albania, even in the hardest moments of the antagonism with the Union Soviet “new revisionist superpower”, provides an overview of the relentless fall of the communist empire. Ismail Kadare, hitting the heart of the communist world - the Soviet Communist Party, in order to protect the Albanian Communist Party activity, strikes inevitably, all the socialist system. The division between the two countries, between the two parties concerned, between their leaders, at this point loses the priority the second plan, because the principles that govern all the socialist camp are criticised. The crisp division made by Kadare: Soviet leaders (traitors of socialism) = bad / Albanian leaders (defenders of Marxism-Leninism) = good, makes it possible for the writer to communicate through his artistic message of all evaluations of the communist world, where Albania itself was a rejoicing part of. From the structural point of view the story presents the characteristics of Kadare’s prose: the analysis of character through a detailed physical description, repeated analysis of the inner world, dialogue, perfect syntax and repetition of the same arguments in the second meeting between the two delegations. Nothing is left out in the story: there is a precision in describing the time and the premises where the meeting is held.

22. Kadare 1973, pp. 152-160, and pp. 372-381 of Works 19 from Enver Hoxha. Find reference for this meeting also in Hoxha 1980, pp. 419-434. For this stage of relations between Albania-Soviet Union please refer the rest of Chapter 12 from the Series of Enver Hoxha’s memoirs, aptly entitled “From Bucarest to Moskwa”, in Hoxha 1980, pp. 365-425 and Chapter 13 “Final Act”, pp. 427-449.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Proceedings of Conference ¨Letërsia si e tillë. Probleme të vlerësimit të trashëgimisë sonë letrare¨ Albanian Science Academy, Albanian Institute of Linguistics and Literatureë, Tiranë, Toena, 1996. • Aliu, Sinani, Çapaliku, Çobani. Letërsia bashkëkohore shqiptare. Tiranë-Tetovë: Albas, 2001, pp. 252 • Belluscio, Giovanni “Ismail Kadare in italiano, tra riscritture e ‘mistificazioni’”, në SCARSELLA 2008, pp. 31-50. • Brahimi, Razi Duke ndjekur procesin letrar, Artikuj dhe shënime kritike, Shtëpia botuese “Naim Frashëri”, Tiranë, 1989, pp. 319. • F. Dado, Floresha Intuitë dhe vetëdije kritike, Onufri, Tirana, 2006, pp. 383, pp. 28-49, 107-163. • Faye, Éric Conversazioni con Kadaré, Ugo Guanda Editore, Parma, 1991, pp. 111; [titulli origjinal Ismail Kadaré Entretiens avec Eric Faye]. • Gjoka, Behar Kadare i rilexuar, Princi, Tiranë, 2008, pp. 284. • Hoxha, Enver Hrushovianët, Kujtime, Tiranë, 1980, pp. 461. • Hoxha, Nexhmije Jeta ime me Enverin, (Kujtime I), Tiranë, Lira, 1998, pp. 400. • Hoxha, Nexhmije Jeta ime me Enverin, (Kujtime 2), Tiranë, Neriada, 2001, pp. 391. • Jakupi, Muharrem “Proza e Kadaresë dhe raportet e saj me poetikat moderne”, në Rrjedhat e letërsisë bashkëkohore shqiptare, Prishtinë, 2005, pp. 165-184. • Kadare, Ismail “Për një thellim të karakterit socialist të letërsisë sonë”, (“Nga diskutimet në Kongresin II të Lidhjes së Shkrimtarëve dhe Artistëve të Shqipërisë”), Nëndori, Botim i posaçëm, 1969, pp. 210-217. • Kadare, Ismail Dialog me Alain Bosquet, Tiranë, Onufri, 1996, pp. 189. • Ismail Kadare, Dimri i vetmisë së madhe, Tiranë, Naim Frashëri, 1973. • Ismail Kadare, Kohë barbare, Nga Shqipëria në Kosovë, (Biseda), Tiranë, Onufri, 2000, pp. 297. • Elio Miracco, Analisi di temi del romanzo ‘Kështjella’ di Ismail Kadare, Roma, 2007, pp. 83.

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• Enea Nauni, Kadareja i panjohur, (Laokonti filloi të flasë I), Tiranë, 1993, pp. 208. • Alessandro Scarsella (a cura di), Leggere Kadare. Critica Ricezione Bibliografia, Biblion Edizioni, Milano, 2008, pp. 187. • Shaban Sinani, Një dosje për Kadarenë, (II, Studime, intervista, dokumente, Botim I plotësuar), Tetovë, Albas, 2005, pp. 1-71, 83-95, 177-184. • Giuseppina Turano, “Ismail Kadare, scrittore d’Albania. Un breve profilo”, në SCARSELLA 2008a, pp. 17-30. • Alfred Uçi, Grotesku kadarean, (Sprovë estetike për analizë stilistike), Tiranë, Onufri, 1999, pp. 167. • Kadri Ujkaj, Kryqëzimi modern i gjenive, Tiranë, Onufri, 2001, pp. 95. • Aleksandër Zotos, “Diktaturë dhe letërsi: mendime dhe shembuj rreth disa krijimeve të Dritëro Agollit dhe të Ismail Kadaresë”, në AAVV 1996, pp. 251278.

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Suela Kastrati

The Linguistic Articles in “Hylli i Dritës” (1914-1944) Journal Abstract “Hylli i Dritës” Journal was established one year after the declaration of Independence (1913). Albanian linguistics of that period were faced with the task of dissemination of the language and its teaching in schools. Literary Commis Scodra (1916-1917), set out some key spelling rules that contributed to further the contiguity of two Albanian dialects. Many articles on literary language problem were published in “Hylli i Drites” Journal, addressing important linguistic issues, such as: standard language, dialectology, lexicology, lexicography, etc. Key words: “Hylli i dritës” Journal, Albanian standard language, dialectology, lexicology, lexicography

Problems with standard language and the culture of language. We will consider here the important issues with our language; like, the problem with the language of literature through the article “About the problem of the language of literature” written by Justin Rrota where he calls on intellectuals and writers in particular that it is their duty to meet such a “vital need”, as he considers the language of literature The culture of language. The short-lived “Hylli i Dritës” Journal is also known for its patriotic activities and outstanding contributions to our culture, to awaken the national spirit and emphasize problems that concerned many Albanians,

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particularly some writers, that our national language was being affected by several “injustices”. An article that tackles this issue and raises such concern is “Who are we to disfigure the language”, written by Antonin Fishta in 1933. Reviews: These include articles of critical character such as; “Remarks after the remarks” written by Justin Rrota and “Linguistic Issues” by Mati Logoreci. “Remarks after the remarks”, an article written by Justin Rrota, is a review about linguistic study of Dom Ndre Mjeda titled “Remarks on articles and possessive pronouns of Albanian Language “ (1934). Another critical article titled “Linguistic Issues”, written by Mati Logoreci, was built in the form of a polemical criticism with Mr. Alexander Xhuvani. The author takes under his consideration, as he notes, the “Albanian Syntax” and “Criticism on the Albanian language dictionary” works of A. Xhuvani. Problems of lexicology, lexicography and phraseology are also addressed in the pages of the “Hylli i Drites” magazine. The above mentioned issues were thoroughly elaborated in 6 articles entitled “On Albanian Dictionary” written by Shpend Bardhi (alias Mustafa Merlika) and about 6 articles entitled “Phraseology” written by Aleksander Sirdani. The work of Shpend Bardhi, “On Albanian Dictionary”, is divided into two subparts respectively titled “The words of young Jung in the” critique “of A. Xhuvani “and “”The wheat and rye” in the vocabulary of K. Tasit”. Both these sub-articles are built in the form of a polemical criticism directed respectively to A. Xhuvani and K.Tasi.

Problems of onomastics and dialectology. The above mentioned included two issues: The first one analyzes the article entitled titled “For a linguistic atlas of Albanian language” written by Benedikt Dema, which reflects the first endeavors to project an atlas of Albanian language. The second issue reviews problems of Onomastics. This includes about eight articles entitled “Topomonastics Dictionary” written by Gelasius. Follows suit the entitled articles “On the national treasure” written by A. Fishta and “Toponomastics of Kurbin” written by Llupi.

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Problems of the alphabet, spelling and phonetics. In these articles are included, as can be easily understood, a number of important studies that were devoted to issues of the alphabet, spelling and phonetics, which are mainly associated with the name of Justin Rrota, but also to A. Marlaskaj, V. Dukagjini etc. The monograph “On the history of the Albanian alphabet” written by Justin Rrota, is also included in these articles. This monograph depicted and brought examples of the first documents of Albanian language, by writers of XIV-XIX centuries and from different alphabets of diverse societies, which, as a rightly asserted by the researcher J. Kastrati, is a living testimony to the development of writing of our language over the centuries. The spelling problems of Albanian language are treated in several articles by V. Dukagjini, A. Marlaskaj, J. Rrota and I AM (pseudonym). In the article “Palatine of Albanian language”, the author who uses the pseudonym I AM, speaks of Albanian language as a wealthy language in the sounds and Palatine which, in his opinion, have always presented difficulties. The author examines the Palatine of our language, starting from the Istanbul Congress (1879) until the Congress of Monastir (1908).

Problems of albanian grammatology. “Hylli i drites” exposed problems of grammatology of Albanian language. This issue was elaborated by Justin Rrota. Though the main concern was the Albanian grammar, it was also emphasized a part of speech - the verb. Rrota, concerned with the above and other problems, devoted himself to works and articles “About Albanian grammatology” and “The analysis of Noun Cases and their historical development” published in the “Hylli i Drites” Journal. This study, as we shall see, revolves around ablative. In this paper, the author will examine all types relevant examples of ablative.

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Problems of the history of albanian language and its relation to other languages. In this chapter are reviewed a series of articles concerned with the problems of the history of written Albanian language, the origin of the word Albanian and its relations with other languages ​​such as; Romanian, Greek, etc. Similar articles and studies are published by the following authors, too; J. Rrota, E. Çabej, M. Sirdani, K. Floqi, O. Myderrizi, N. Jokli, G. Caragata, etc.. As stated above, we note that “Hylli i Drites” journal, temporarily published from 1913 to 1944, has paid special attention to the main issues of our language which was still in consolidation by that time period.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Jup Kastrati .1980. Historia e gramatologjise shqipe. Prishtine. • Gjovalin Shkurtaj. 1997. Dialektologji. Tirane. • Gjovalin Shkurtaj, 1999. Sociolinguistika. Tirane.

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Olivera Z. MIJUSKOVIC

From Plato’s Academy to Modern Education as the most Important Resource 1.1. Plato’s Academy as the beginning of institutionalize of knowledge Knowledge as a basic resource for any open society is the main factor of stability and progress. The need to study the reality and the world that surrounds man as the subject, appeared first in democratic societies. The basis of democracy was the old-Greek society embodied in the cities of countries - policy. Athens known as the polis gave birth to one specific form of spirituality - philosophy. Philosophy (lat. Filo, Filein - love, Sophia-wisdom) could be developed only in this form of social and cultural milieu, it was a free spirit and curiosity about the essential truth of reality and the cosmos. As such, it became the foundation of modern science and education system of today. Mythical consciousness that is both prevalent in the Eastern despotism, it is understandable because all attention was directed to the monarch as the central figures of culture, religion and education. The myth is in such state arrangements have found fertile ground for a man as a subject did not have the freedom to really examine the facts surrounding it, and regarding him as an individual. Great ideas of fate that rules the world, and great buildings that were typical of such societies represented a tangible reflection of the size admiration towards the prince. In Athens and the Hellenic world in general, the philosophy was the one who freed the human mind plays a summary of the inevitability of the fate of the government people’s lives. On the trail of such pulses, acne is the first school like the Academy, the famous university which was driven by Plato. Even the beginning

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of philosophy associated with a label that is a symbol of the Oracle at Delphi - “Know thyself”. Plato’s Academy was the first school of philosophy within the university that held its statute, rules of conduct, dormitories for students, libraries, classrooms, museums, etc. For classes at the Academy students come from areas of Greece and the Mediterranean. Philosophy is the basis for the awakening of human subjectivity and its questioning of the world around them. This questioning is the beginning of the human spirit needs to penetrate the essence of the world that surrounds him and which he is a part. Athens as a democratic state is enabled the transition from mythical to the philosophical consciousness that is the backbone of today’s education system and the modern world, especially Europe and USA. Democracy is the achievement of autonomy and subjectivity of the human spirit and thus the basis for the development of philosophy as a theoretical 2. Plato`s Academy in Athens (theoria) and practical (praxis). Philosophy emerged from many of today’s serious science like cosmology (cosmologia), politics (political techne)1 , the law (ars, lege)2, aesthetics (aesthetica), odern education as the most important resource economy (oikonomia)3 and many others. Philosophy is always a question about ‘How?, Why?, What?, Why? These issues are as common and typical children, they are so important to develop a deeper analysis of what is now engaged in modern science and education system. The beginning of institutionalize of knowledge through the first school we encounter but the ancient Greeks. In the first place we will based on Plato and his Academy. The Academy is not the only school of philosophy, nor the first, but it is one of the most important step is to institutionalize education and dissemination of knowledge to as many people today. Education itself is the most important 1. In ancient Greek understanding of politics was different from the society. Political and social life were identical. Society in the modern sense of the word did not exist. It was all politics. The etymology of the word roots drawn from the Greek word polis city, state, or from the Latin word politia-way of life and of government. 2. The right is the legacy of ancient Rome. However, his legal philosophy and a school based on the Hellenic philosophical and their theoretical domination Romans have never reached. For this reason in philosophical circles says that the Roman pale copies of ancient Greek culture and their spiritual and cultural traditions 3. This word comes from ancient Greek word oikos-household and was the second meeting of the Hellenic Center, or household, life hidden from public view. In the oikos, which consisted of family members and slaves, there was a duty to raise funds for life. Hence arises the economy as a science in its present form.

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resource, and cause and consequential is the very arrangement of society. Evidence for this claim is just as Athens, the cradle of democracy and philosophy. Only a free spirit and questioning of reality can lead to progress in the community. It is no accident that in societies where a man was not free in the true sense of the word, there was a developed educational system in a way that would be scientific and without admixture of the mythical consciousness, ideology or religious dogma. Plato is significant for being the founder of “free education”. This meant free education is the education of young people (men only) in the philosophical, political and practical-ethical milieu. His idea was also to create an exemplary form of the state system as it sophocracy. The idea of sophocracy is based on the fact that only philosophers would be kings, or kings to be philosophers. We conclude from this that a good education and a condition for the success of a society and its citizens. Plato’s Academy can be seen in the first period- Old Academy of Plato, and after his death- New Academy. On his trail and as his pupil Aristotle founded the Lyceum. After the Academy, from the third century BC Established two high schools: Stoic and Epicurean. These four high schools have outlived its founders and teachers, and were under the full influence during the Middle Ages. Because of the frequent trips to Sicily, instead of Plato’s school led some of his students. After Pato’s death lecturers have changed, but have faithfully nurtured his basic thought. One of the most famous teacher of Plato’s successor was his nephew Speusippus, who is known for being the idea of replacing the numbers. At the head of the Academy after it comes Xenocrates, Polemo then Athenian, then Crates from Athens. This is the period of so-called Old Academy which dealt with primarily by exposing and commenting a doctrine of truth-telling. In contrast, the period of the New Academy is engaged in questioning the truth and clear it criticizes. For these reasons the new academy is linked to skepticism. Her principal teachers were Arcesilaus, Carneades, and Philo of Larissa.

1.2. The need for knowledge as the key resource of today’s advanced society The importance of Greek culture in the modern European and world culture, is seen in how one operates a progressive society of today and on what grounds.

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Athens, the cradle of spirituality spread its influence in the Middle Ages, and then to the modern era of science, technology, practical philosophy. Social system of most developed countries of the world their ideas is sought precisely the philosophical thoughts that have emerged in the Academy, Lyceum and other major philosophical schools. Advanced science its progress could not put the boxes only their narrow professional sphere, but many of the decision problem solve for answers in philosophy. This is particularly evident in the development of technology after World War II, in the field of bioengineering and medicine. Then atomic science is not able to organize in a way, and not to set boundaries within the ethical and philosophical questioning about its meaning. Medicine is a practice field that has progressed rapidly due to the digitization and dissemination of knowledge, but is also an area that is fragile because it handles human life. The new medical ethics that sets or attempts to provide a framework in which she, as such, could not cope with the dilemmas associated with abortion, euthanasia, cloning and genetic engineering, organ donation and the like. Philosophy and its educational achievements and those that begin to resemble a modern and progressive world of where the errors in the past, and warns that it is forgotten that it allows to repeat the mistake again. It is therefore important to start with an education and spirituality of modern civilization, and to consider the topic of today’s advanced education as one of the most important resource of any society. The modern national economy depends primarily on the quality of human resources. The resources themselves are useful particularly for applications only when they invest in their quality and only then did they know the primary factor in development. In this case the system of education is the foundation of growth and development of social infrastructure, such as for example the energy system, legislation, industry or economy. Benefits or deviations occur with globalization and the growth of IT and information technology. Examples of practical life, such as the demographics of society and negative selection, outdated or not applying certain rules of the institutions of the society and legislation are the main brakes positive change. Of crucial importance are the ministries of education (national policy) and international convention related to education that are made in international institutions such as UNESCO, OECD, Council of Europe, European Commission, ILO and others. These organizations recommend to their members and dictate the implementation of national reforms to improve the education system. Here it is primarily concerned society that requires lifelong learning. Lifelong learning is the concept of human resource development through: 1. organisation learning (training or education); 2. formal learning (school system); 3. unformal or informal learning.

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The main conclusion is that the concept of learning in advanced modern societies and must last a lifetime. This means that it cannot be a lifetime to go to school, but learning for certain age groups may be made in organizations (business, courses, seminars, etc.). Developed society is a society of knowledge, continuous learning society. The modern system of education implies pervasive system and cooperation of school and unschooled companies and organizations. In modern society, schools should not be the only institution for the development of knowledge resources, otherwise the society will not be considered an advanced society. Modern society means education for all citizens regardless of age, and this includes self-education. Knowledge is the main determinant of survival and development of modern societies of today. In today’s digital age, knowledge is to undergo one type of transformation. This implies that the pursuit of truth as it was practiced in ancient times, into knowledge that is competence. Competence is necessary to survive through the possession of information in changing social environment. It is no coincidence that today’s society 21st Century called- society of knowledge. In such an environment is the focus of an educated man who is the holder of all social movements and changes, but also a stabilizing factor. Corporate philosophy that modern society the government decades after World War II and requires the constant acquisition of new knowledge and skills and their introduction into the teaching program of school and out of school way.4 Future in today’s education belongs to individuals and educational institutions that can successfully overcome: accelerated learning, creative thinking, better memory. Secure a job after education may be in the hands of those who are flexible conditions 5 STATE-literacy and life expectancy, statistics, comparative review 100 BELGIUM CANADA 96.6% 75.4 yr DENMARK 100% 74.9 yr INSLAND 100% 78.4 yr JAPAN 100 78.4% 80.7 yr LUXEMBOURG 100% 74.9 yr NORWAY 100 % 76.5 yr SWITZERLAND 100 % 77.7yr U.S. 95.5% 74.4 yr

BENIN 37.5% 50.4 yr BURKINA FASO 23.0% 43.0 yr BURUNDI 48.1% 42.5 yr CHAD 53.6% 47 yr CONGO 80.7% 49 yr ETHIOPIA 38.9% 47.3 yr GUINEA-BISSAU 36.8% 45.1 years MADAGASCAR 80.2% 53.8 yr MALAWI 60.3% 37.6 yr

4. a.) Learning-the acquisition of knowledge and skills. b.) Training-the acquisition of new skills potrenih exclusively for teamwork, leadership, organization, under strictly defined rules. c.) Training-practicing already acquired knowledge and skills necessary for functioning within a system of working in large corporations. d.) Developing knowledge involves changes in attitudes and values if they require applications to come. e). Education-acquisition and permanent updating of scientific knowledge in a broader business practice to improve the scientific or research institutions or companies. f). Converting knowledge into a resource-management in all aspects of human society. Management in this sense of responsibility for the acquisition of knowledge and quality of work an individual performs a pressure rate of change, uncertainty and time complexity of the environment.

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Conclusion: It has been shown that in countries where less investment in education that life expectancy is shorter, more debt and are in constant circulus viciosus of poverty, economic slavery, starvation and lack of education, unlike countries with high stom literate people .

and the time and who constantly innovate the old and acquire new knowledge. Education of a country should go in the direction of what it really takes a social climate. Most profitable investment today is an investment in education. This is because the investor to return in a few years, and his forthcoming secure profits and capital. The result of uneducated workers in the case of social sciences is uncritical society, not enough writing and able to make decisions about the essential importance of the future of a country in political and social decisions. The result of uneducated workers in the natural and economic sciences is the loss of market and non-competitiveness of a corporation. Learning and investment in the education system, regardless of the type of science is thought (social or natural) leads to the advantage of a company or firm in relation to another, creating a positive competition and constant updating, which is most important for progress. The twentieth century is called a century of telecommunications. The invention of telecommunication systems and knowledge contributed to the fact that the pace of life speeds up and the information has become one that is most important resource in society. The education process in this regard has taken a central position and is therefore defined by a number of theories about knowledge, its possible applications on the functioning of the process. Although the knowledge of such information, not as true as was the case with the ancient schools, became the holder of the company, it has also become an indicator of their own obsolescence. In older times, when there were no telecommunications had to go up to several dozens of years, perhaps hundreds of years to prove that some knowledge or scientific theory is not correct, while the emergence of telecom establishing the accuracy of knowledge several times rapidly. This entails the ongoing process of learning in the 21st century should not be an option, but the responsibility of each individual as a holder of an advanced society. The European system of education is twofold: a dual model (“binary model�) and a unique model. In the U.S. and some parts of Europe other than the established university education at the state level, there are other forms of education through the institue and similar institutions. It is therefore considered that in the U.S. school system is extremely heterogeneous. Dual modeel education includes university and non-university education. University education has to date failed to preserve the traditional characteristics. These features reflect the fact that part

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of the system of higher education and provide adequate academic and scientific research achievements. Non-university education is also part of higher education, but is primarily focused on vocational guidance and training of experts for a special interest group. Has experienced a boom in the sixties. Crucial to his development as economic factors due to rapid industrialization and the need for adequately qualified labor force with which the school was quickly trained to operate. With all of this is a critical and financial factor is available for wider social strata who did not have enough funds for the continuation of academic education. More schools have experienced a boom and are still distributed in major European countries like Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Greece, Netherlands, Portugal, Great Britain, Norway, Switzerland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, etc. This is a chance that the less wealthy societies train their people for its prosperity, and scientific staff at the University would have been stronger and there would be no inflation as a diploma today because polava private universities in transitional societies. The unique model of education has the intention to integrate all higher education institutions in a university with a broad spectrum of competence. Germany had a failed attempt at this sort of unification, as well as Sweden, Spain, Italy and Austria. It is interesting to note that in Italy and Austria are traditionally strong technical high school and college as such was not necessary. This formeducation is essential for both the individual and the economy of the entire country. Education is better in vocational schools, the university selects naboljih candidates and there is no gap in wages and the employment of candidates, and all are equally good at their job, either a master or scholar. This is reminiscent of Plato’s ancient division of labor. Research of Stanford University (USA) has shown that all human knowledge is created to the 1900. year. With the advent of telecommunications and a jump of science and technology but it has doubled in 50 years. There is an assumption on every 5-8 or 10 years human knowledge doubles. This information acts as a curiosity, but has a direct impact on everyday life. This growth of knowledge leads to all highly educated and professionally perfected society has a feature of the potential for growth in living standards, quality of life and increase income to the individual and the social income. It is difficult to predict what kind of knowledge will be need every ten years. It means continuous improvement in order to maintain their positions and were in step with the times. Any country that wants to be an innovative company must have the respect and investment in science and every form of education. For example, should look at measures of the greatest world powers and their associated programs for this segment. The Japanese have changed the eighties on the national level.

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Investments are redirected to the petrochemical and heavy industry on the human mind and knowledge that does not spend a lot of raw materials. And they were right. In the United States is equal employment in higher education institutions with employees in the industry. They are equally represented here and the social and natural sciences in order to create a balance in society. The priority of the British Kingdom of the education of all citizens. How serious is the intention of speaking and the appointment of Under Secretary of State for Lifelong Learning. World’s largest corporations because of the competitiveness that are going to learn faster than the competition and makes the concept of knowledge organization. An example of this is Microsoft, led by Bill Gates. Intellectual capital is what helps it to practical use. Scandia companies from Sweden, which was first patented by the 1995th in this strategy. Leif Edvinsson is the first in the history of the director of intellectual capital in the wo UNESCO states in its study the role of education in overcoming the contradictions and differences 21st century. These differences are mainly reflected in the differences between local and global, universal and individual, between modern era and tradition. For these reasons, learning is necessary for knowledge to work for co-existence, for existence. However it should be noted that the diploma does not mean safe positions in the workplace, because if there is personal commitment, willingness to teamwork, innovation, creativity and continuous learning, no title of the paper will be useful. Human society and political systems are changing, the study experienced a continuous growth and for this reason it is necessary to work on yourself to the community as a whole would be better and the benefits. From Plato to the Academy of Bologna, knowledge is the one resource that seems to svaremeno society and the state exist as such and that the quality of human life on a higher level and standard. Progress is possible only with continuous improvement.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Jean Brun, Platon et L`Academie, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1960 • Milenko A. Perović, “Istorija filozofije”, Grafomedia, Filozofski Fakultet Novi Sad, 1997 • Ljubomir Kocić, Eksperimentalna pedagogija, Institut za pedagoška istraživanja, Prosveta Beograd, 1983 • Roger Ikor, Škola i kultura ili Univerzitet-plen životinja, BIGZ, Beograd, 1980 • Dragiša M. Mihajlović, Pedagoški i društveno politički spisi, Zavod za izdavanje udžbenika Republike Srbije, Beograd, 1971 • Nova škola i putevi do nje, Grupa autora, Tematski broj Zbornika Instituta za pedagoška istraživanja broj 21, Beograd, 1988 • Etore Đelpi, ŠKOLA BEZ KATEDRE , BIGZ , biblioteka XX vek , teorija obrazovanja, pedagoška alternativa u čijoj se osnovi nalazi ideja o permanentnom i antiautoritarnom obrazovan, Beograd, 1977 • Petar Savic, Nova skola-demokratski preobražaj škole i društva, Školski PTT centar, 1997 • Ljubomir Tadic, “Nauka o politici”, BIGZ, Beograd,1996

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Marisa KËrbizi | Gentian SHYTI

Resemantisation of the Prodigal Son Myth through Autodiegetic narrator – The snake of the House, by Arjan Leka Abstract: Resemantisation of myths in literature is a normal occurrence. The revival of the familiar myths and their resemantisation are processes without which the whole literature cannot be understood, the least of all contemporary literature. Literary myth depends on many sustainable data which can help us build a mythical scenario: (…) but in the middle of this steady data even some variations are possible, they are signs of life and freedom of literature1. This means that under the mythical viewpoint, reality is a flexible system and not static at all. This is the reason why certain works based upon myths are so particular and outstanding. Sometime they present semantic stability with the other invariants, other times pure innovations. The scope of this paper is to analyze the resemantization of the prodigal son myth, in a new context, in contemporary merciless life-style, successfully presented by one of the most outstanding Albanian writers, Arjan Leka. The dissipated son that abandons the family obligations and runs after adventures is resemantised. At the Snake of the house, he not only abandons his father but he casts him away. By the biblical myth, his return is inevitable because this coincides with the moral function of myth, recovering what is saint. In the novel of Arjan Leka, the one who wants to return is his father, but his son does not miss him. The only door that opens to the character-narrator is Saint Pieter’s door. Keywords: myth, resemantization, prodigal son, moral, Albanian writer, etc. 1. Brunel, Pierre (1992) Mythocritique, Thèorie et parcours,Paris: Presses Universitaries de France, pp.39

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The Snake of the house, Arjan Leka’s literary work, at the very title suggests a reading relied on the knowledge of the myths. The myth of snake is closely related to the Albanian viewpoint and culture. According to Stjepčević, at the “Cult symbols of Ilyrians”, myth goes like this: after Cadmus married Harmonia, they gave birth to a boy whom they called Illyrious. When Illyrios ( Albanian mythical ancestor) was born, smoke surrounded his body. The smoke, (spiral-styled snake) is considered for a long time as a totem, fear and worship object. But the main concern of this study is the resemantisation of another myth, that of the prodigal son (a well-known myth of different varieties, the most important of which is in the Bible). The dissipated son that abandons the family obligations and runs after adventures is resemantised. At the Snake of the house, he not only abandons his father but he casts him away. By the biblical myth, his return is inevitable because this coincides with the moral function of myth, recovering what is saint2. In the novel of Arjan Leka, the one who wants to return is his father, but his son does not miss him. The only door that opens to the character-narrator is Saint Pieter’s door. Myth’s transformation is expected because as Brunel says transferring of the primitive myth’s (religion product, belief), in literature it could be considered as a process that makes clear the transformation from what is saint to desecration.3 The parent-child relation according to the biblical myth, symbolizes the relation God – Sinner, that is why it is characterized as an unconditional, sublime and divine love. The relation child-parent at the Snake of the house turns into grotesque. The difference between sublime and grotesque – according to Burke – is quite the same as that between darkness (symbolizing the mystic) and the light. The descent from the divine sphere to the human one is associated with grotesque alienation of the sanctity of the myth. Resemantization of myth is related to the big cultural and social changes that have happened to the outlook of the contemporaneous man. Myth tells, this is its primary function4. That’s why is almost impossible that it cannot be influenced from the changes in the value system that happens in contemporary, because as Frick says the novel is a world meta physic structure. The way the author narrates on myth is very original. The narrative conversation starts in media-res, with the son that casts his father out of home 2. Brunel, Pierre (1988) Dictionnaire des mythes litteraires. Paris: Editions du Rocher, pp.10 3. Brunel, Pierre (1988) Dictionnaire des mythes litteraires. Paris: Editions du Rocher, pp.10 4. Brunel, Pierre (1992) Mythocritique, Thèorie et parcours,Paris: Presses Universitaries de France, pp.39

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(the situation is tragic, because the father is casted away his own house). Through analeptic narration goes from present to the past not following a chronologic order. The narrator is autodiegetic5 bouncing easily from the confession of event to the confession of thoughts and feelings of his experience. This happens by following no time rules at all (the present, the near past and far past are entwined together). As Leon Edel emphases the long literary work written in the first person is prejudiced to have not enough stability and flow connection6. Another reason is that the mind of an old man finds it difficult to close the door of the past; Memories “attack” him leaving no possibilities to choose. The events get focused through the perspective of narrator-character, the father. The transition from the present to the past happens often because the narrator tries to understand his son’s reaction (casting off the house) through the analysis of his life in the past. The lasting of anachrony is larger than the confession of words “(dialogue between father and son). All that has remained from narrator’s life is only his past because, as an old man, he has arrived at the end of the pot of life, where is only blood and mud left. Analyses at the relationship with the son, between present and the past, does not help to understand the grotesque invalidation of the father figure. His past is full of love, care and sacrifices for his son and grandson, but he does not get anything like that back from his offspring. He tries to understand but everything seems absurd and with no sense at all. My son screamed after her: “At the madhouse hospital! (…) He stayed there frozen with one leg on the white square tile of the hallway and with the other leg on the black one (…) Perhaps I take a step and get out of that imp black square with a good superstition in soul7 The narrator-character makes a naïve justifying of his son’s actions through strength of a black superstitious element (the standing on the black square) exercises on him. At the beginning, the father believes that his son is under the influence of that black power which forces his son to cast his own father away in the place that he hates so much. The tragic words of his son echo continuously in his ears like an absurdity that cannot be accepted easily. According to Saussure words express our experience on 5. Genette, Gerrard (1983) Nouveau discours du récit, Paris: Seuil, pp. 174 6. Edel, Leon (1979)”The Figure under the Carpet,” Telling Lives, Washington DC: New Republic Books, pp. 30 7. Leka, Arjan (2005) The snake of the house, Tiranë: Ideart, pp. 12

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things; they don’t express nor reflect them8. That is why the narrator encounters difficulty to understand their meaning. The order of his son expressed with an elliptic sentence is repeated in his memory in different moments and it is impossible for him to give it a comprehensive meaning. And now, get away from my house! Out! (…) Ooooout! And here comes this son of mine that screams over my face “get out of my house! Out! Don’t know why it would have felt less painful to hear “Out of our house” Out! (…) It looks like that is enough for my son to jet me out from home and deport me who knows where. Out!9 Even though the narration at the Snake of the house is generally singular, (is told only once, what happens once) the moment of casting out returns many times on narrator’s mind. Through repetition of the narration (words of his son) are well formed the hurt feelings of his father I order to face the turn of life, that he never thought would come. The narrator-father rarely speaks. His narration is materialized through internal monologue. This is characterized as a confession technique that explains every thought that comes to the mind to the character. These thoughts may be considered non-related impressions that lead to free associations or sequences of thoughts and feelings that are structured in a rational manner. Through the internal dialogue, the thoughts, feelings and memories of the narrator-father are well-formed. To the imperative language of the son, he answers back with his memories. (One of his biggest sins is unconditional love for his son, love that made him forget the whole world). The lack of reasoning of the man who is in front of him matches the images of the deeply felt past. “I knew I was going to die one day. Yes, I knew about the problems that come with old age but, it seems a bit too extreme to jet me out of house this way, as they squeeze a pustule. Maybe I got it all wrong! I have never thought it this way. At least not from that day when pigeons chose our attic to lay their eggs; that day we 8. Jeferson, Ann dhe Roby, David (2006) Teoria moderne letrare, Tiranë: Albas, , pp.97 9. Leka, Arjan (2005) The snake of the house, Tiranë: Ideart, pp. 7, 8, 10

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thought luck decided to open its doors for us too; I remember that day. I remember it well, because I threw a bet to my wife who of them would give birth first, my wife or the pigeons10. Thoughts and memories often play the role of an anticlimax that according to Harmon and Holman is considered a display of details in such a way that something very unimportant and worthless happens while something big was expected.11 The event is interrupted to give room to discursive narration. While father is expected to leave home (built by his own hands) memories are introduced to the stream of narration. Anticlimax, as a narrative structure, is inserted in central part and facilitates the transition through time from present to the past. Even though the father’s memories are related with his past, the narrator shows more features of a rather flat character than a traditional one. According to Benet’s Reader’s Encyclopedia the flat character is distinguished by the absence of the details in its characterization12. It is suitable for the works where the event is of more importance than the character. Some features of flat character are: a) he has no past b) he often is unfriendly/not social c) he is characterized through physical and emotional features d) he can be an archetype Even though how the memories of the narrator come through internal monologue, he shows fewer features of the volume character. This happens because the main purpose of it is not the display of a biographic-chronological view of life, but a diagram of his feelings, a duality between the love for his son and the others’ fault (father’s, wife’s, priest Gjon’s). The physical and psychologist description of the father-narrator is absent. The name of the narrator, which for Wellek and Warren is the easiest way of characterization and individualization of the character13 is absent, as well. And in a grotesque way he is only a date, the 24th of December. The description of the character through this very important date in the Christian belief (Christmas Eve, day of birth of the lovely son of God) is an insoluble sign of the spiritual relation between him and his descendant. He is characterized as a father without the son (his son is going to be born some hours after, when the clock strikes 10. 11. 12. 13.

Leka, Arjan (2005) The snake of the house, Tiranë: Ideart, pp.10 Harmon, E. and Holman, H.(1996) A Handbook to Literature, NJ: Prentice Hall., pp.105 Benet’s Reader’s Encyclopedia (1996) 4th ed., ed. Bruce Murphy, NY: HarperCollins, pp. 203 Uellek, R. Uoren, O. (1993) Teoria e letërsisë, Tiranë: SHBE, pp.208

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the bell 12 a.m). He is going to be dead (the 24th of December will be over ), when the Son will come (25th of December midnight). Paradox that is created from the juxtaposition of these two concepts (life and death) is “extinguished” on the narrator’s mind. To him, death and birth are close related to one another. The message is clear to old man troublesome mind. His prodigal son will come back, pledging for his father forgiveness, after his own death. That is why death is a sweet thought to him. It means to understand that the others will miss him. Going away from this world is like a final rescue for him, just to hear from inside the grave one more time his son praying: Alas, father wish you were alive! Your name may never be forgotten! For that tobacco and brandy that I bring you at the tomb, make it happen that my son and your grandson moves away from that white-square tile and finish this story now 14 Through the life-death and oblivion-remembrance binominal, it is emphasized the repetition of the archetypal behavior of the dissipated boy through generations. The relation of cause and consequence cannot be understood analyzing the chronologic relationship father – son (what has the father done to deserve the expulsion) but the relation son – father (the narrator has done quite the same with his ancestor). Abandonment derives genetically in the veins through generations. This expulsion should be the beginning of the revenge of my father on me and not the revenge of my son over me (…) I still do not have any idea of the place where my son is taking me while I, myself, sent my father straight to the asylum, right away.15 The words of the narrator express a tragic truth, which seems like it exists outside us until the moment it touches us. The life cycle which begins with the sending to the asylum the ancestor and then being sent to the hospital by the descendant testifies the: abyssus abyssum invocat. The compensation for the done deeds (the concept which all the religious beliefs are built on) is valid for all. Despite the fact that the punishment may start up in the sky or down on earth, it just happens, always. The expression of this commandment through the myth of the prodigal boy makes readers very sensitive. In the end, in whatever relation humans can enter to, is inevitable for them not to feel a bit of a child (son/daughter) and a bit of a parent (father/mother), whether in blood relation or not. 14. Leka, Arjan (2005) The snake of the house, Tiranë: Ideart, pp.14 15. Leka, Arjan (2005) The snake of the house, Tiranë: Ideart, pp.16

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Benet’s Reader’s Encyclopedia (1996) 4th ed., ed. Bruce Murphy, NY: HarperCollins. • Brunel, Pierre (1992) Mythocritique, Thèorie et parcours,Paris: Presses Universitaries de France. • Brunel, Pierre (1988) Dictionnaire des mythes litteraires. Paris: Editions du Rocher. • Edel, Leon (1979)”The Figure under the Carpet,” Telling Lives, Washington DC: New Republic Books. • Genette, Gerrard (1983) Nouveau discours du récit, Paris: Seuil. • Harmon, E. and Holman, H.(1996) A Handbook to Literature, NJ: Prentice Hall. • Jeferson, Ann dhe Roby, David (2006) Teoria moderne letrare, Tiranë: Albas. • Leka, Arjan (2005) The snake of the house, Tiranë: Ideart. • Uellek, R. Uoren, O. (1993) Teoria e letërsisë, Tiranë: SHBE

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Roland LLESHI

Is Modern Slavery a Security Issue?1 Abstract Security studies encompass an extensive range of security issues under its wings; yet, the issue of modern slavery somehow remains under-explored. It is often covered under the study of organised crime, or human trafficking, but it has rarely gained the salience of being studied as a separate security subject. This paper attempts to uncover some of the complexities one faces to comprehending modern slavery from the perspective of different security theories. Critical Security Studies, Human Security and Securitization offer valuable contributions on how we understand the world of slavery. Modern slavery is a global phenomenon found in the poor and affluent countries, and the threats generated by it make it a particular security issue that needs further studying. It is thus the author’s intention to highlight the issue of modern slavery from a security perspective and offer an analysis on the subject. Key words: Copenhagen School, Critical Security Studies, Human Security, Emancipation, Securitization, Modern Slavery.

Introduction Modern slavery resembles much what we recall from history, only it is a lot more complex to monitor and control. It is a multi-billion dollar illegal business 1. The author holds a BA in International Relations from Nottingham Trent University and it he currently undertaking an MA in Politics, Security and Integration at the School Of Slavonic and Eatern European Studies at University College London.

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undermining every aspect of human rights. Modern slavery is as ‘modern’ as it can get, it doesn’t travel on ships, bought in exchange for animals, or have a life span, it is simply a continues ‘illicit’ business procedure whereby individuals regardless of gender, age or ethnicity are bought and sold, controlled and exploited by criminals across borders. It would be ill advised to even consider writing about security without taking into account the Copenhagen School as it has equipped analysts, scholars and students with essential tools for policy making and studying security. Yet, it is the ‘critical’ aspects of security we are interested in for this paper. Critical Security Studies (CSS) allows us to focus on the individual as the main referent object. It is thus the CSS (Welsh School), which serves as the principle theoretical approach guiding the analysis here. Moreover, although it is often critiqued for its vagueness and ambiguity, Human Security also offers valid theoretical contributions. This paper begins by (a) providing a security definition relevant for the topic, (b) questions the importance of the referent objects in security studies (c) uses the securitization theory to analyse whether modern slavery has been securitized, (d) applies human security to test whether modern slavery is a security issue and (e), utilises the concept of emancipation to demonstrate how security can be achieved.

Security definition Krause and Williams (1997: 6) argue, “Security is a contested term, one with multiple meanings, some of which are not at all necessarily logically linked to conventional understanding.” The definition of security provided by the Welsh School is conceptually different to that offered by the Copenhagen School. While the Copenhagen School defines security as being about “existential threats to survival,” (Buzan et al 1998: 21), for the Welsh School security is about “the absence of threats” and that the aim of security is to achieve ‘emancipation’ (Booth 1991: 319).

Security, Modern Slavery and the Referent Object While the Copenhagen School has taken the leading role at deepening and widening the concept of security, there are numerous other schools of thought that apply security studies theories across various disciplines. For this essay both, the Welsh School (CSS) and Human Security take central stage. The fundamental question about the rights, and the safety of the citizens as the main referent object, www.ijosc.net | International Journal of Science


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not only undermines what the Copenhagen School stands for – the state strongly retains the main referent object position (Buzan 1993) – but also criticises the legitimacy of the state for not doing enough to deal with modern slavery. CSS aim to change the way we think about security by focusing on the individual, which constitute humanity as a whole (Dunne & Wheeler 2004: 9), rather than think of the state as the main referent object. The threats posed by modern slavery vary accordingly, depending on the position and the power of the states. The socio-political cohesion in a state determines what is a weak or a strong state (Buzan 1991). Whereas weak states do not posses the means (economic, political, military) to provide security for its people, strong states, due to the stability of their institutions, in the majority of cases, can (Buzan 1991: 98-99). Evidence shows that threats posed by modern slavery are found mainly in weak states (Bales et al 2009: 33). Yet, this does not mean that strong states are immune to such threats. Slavery cases can be found even in the most affluent countries. Consider for instance human trafficking and prostitution in the West. A critical approach to security is needed to understand the complexities of modern slavery. Being ‘critical’ in security studies means to critically engage with the discipline, asking questions that would ‘denaturalise the modern state as the starting point for analysis […]’ (Williams 1998: 205). Being critical here implies the study of insecurities generated by modern slavery at the individual, national and international level. It is argued (Fierke 2007: 102) that the ‘traditional understanding of security assumes the duty of the state to protect its citizens.’ No matter how weak or strong, it is the power and the authority of the state that can deal with the threats of modern slavery. An individual does not willingly choose slavery; ‘people are enslaved against their will for the purpose of exploitation’ (Bales 2000: 20). Insecurities are ‘caused by the citizen to the other citizens’ (Krause & Williams 1997: 43). It is mostly we, the “conscious consumer” demanding products and services cheaper and quicker. It is our actions and shopping habits that indirectly support the existence of the slave trade. It is thus us, the ones who defined what human security stands for ‘freedom from want, and freedom from fear’ (Newman 2010: 78), which determine what they want, and what they fear. Modern slavery is also contradictory to the UN definition on human right; ‘[…] human security means protecting fundamental freedoms, protecting people from critical and pervasive threats […]’ (UN Declaration of Human Rights). In addition, the declaration of human rights points out that; ‘no one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms’ (ibid). This is in line with CSS and Human Security Studies argument, which is

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primarily concerned with people’s threat to survival, rather than that of the state. This does not imply that the state should be demoted of its position as a security guarantor, but rather prioritise the security of the individuals.

Securitization of modern slavery Modern slavery is an important lexicon in the policy making of every state, as insecurities generated by the threat of modern slavery (social, economic and political) transcend onto national security threats. Insecurities produced by modern slavery have serious repercussions for the state. This section takes on the challenge of interpreting slavery through the theory of securitization, while retaining the individual as a referent object. The Copenhagen School defines securitization as a ‘process whereby issues are raised above normal haggling of politics’ (Buzan et al 1998: 29), and as an ‘extreme version of politicization’ (ibid: 23). Securitization is a performative ‘speech act’ carried out by securitizing actors who claim that referent objects are existentially threatened, and once the audience accepts it as such, exceptional measures are used to secure the referent object, thus moving the issue outside normal politics (ibid: 23-26). Resembling other illegal activities, modern slavery operates in the shadow; it fuels organised crime and threatens the freedom of many people. Generally, the public is not aware of the threats caused by such a phenomenon, it is only when securitizing actors (media, IGOs, NGOs, political elites) engage in a ‘speech act’ that one realises the potential threats behind it. While the distribution of ‘speech acts’ relies heavily on the media, IGOs and NGOs, it is the state, or rather the international community, that enables the implementation of exceptional measures. Raising public awareness could serve as an important measure as it could call upon the public to refrain from buying any products manufactured by individuals working in slavery conditions, thus eventually reducing the benefits of slave traders. For many, slavery is a thing of the past; in fact, it is very much a thing of the present. It is (Bales et al. 2009) estimated that 27 million people live under slavery condition around the world. Since UN recognises modern slavery as a pervasive international security issue (Welch 2009: 126), it comes as a direct call upon international community to engaged in securitization moves. Therefore, securitization is a ‘call and response’ process whereby an actor labels something as a matter of security and the audience must respond (Roe 2004: 281). The complexities of turning modern slavery into a transnational security issue are

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manifold. So are the complexities of monitoring modern slavery. Yet, as a result of international efforts, modern slavery has gained the salience of a security issue.

Human security Fierke (2007: 149) argues that just like the concept of securitization, human security needs to be analysed in context, to see how its use contributes to the definition of threats and practical solutions. Moreover, she points out that unlike the concept of securitization, which emphasises on the construction and consolidation of referent objects, human security is a reaction to the production to human insecurities (ibid. p. 149). Since the concept of human security was introduced in 1994 (UNDP 2006), it has been increasingly used to guide foreign policies, and applied as a policy tool for aiding international development. Although widely accepted and used by states, human security has been a concept predominantly emphasised in the work of non-governmental organisations (ibid. p. 151). Organisation such as Amnesty International and Anti-Slavery are leading actors in this field. The fundamental agreements encompassing human security focus on three fundamental principles, (1) basic rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, (2) safety of peoples, including basic personal rights, among them subsistence and, (3) sustainable development (Fierke 2007: 146). Yet, the issue of modern slavery, which human security seeks to address violates all three points referred above. We need to read security of modern slavery with a conductive eye, and a deductive perception linked to human rights. The Commission of Human Rights, henceforth CHR, (CHR 2003: 4), defines human security as: ‘[…] protecting the vital core of all human lives in ways that enhance human freedoms and human fulfilment. It means protecting fundamental freedoms that are the essence of life.’ The definition of slavery however paints a different tedious picture. Bales (2009: 31) defines slavery as ‘[…] the threat of violence, physiological, loss of free will and free movement, and exploitation for economic gain.’ While the former definition provided by CHR deviates from a state-centric conception of security and chooses to concentrate on the security of the individual, the latter contradicts heavily with the fundamental principles of human rights and security. CSS and Human Security challenge the state-centric orthodoxy of conventional international security; use of military against ‘external’ threats Newman (2010. p. 77). It is argued (ibid. p. 78) that if security policy and security analysis are to be effective and legitimate, they must focus on the individual as the main referent object.

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Modern slavery is a security issue in many aspects. Not only it causes great insecurities for the individual, it also threatens national security. It violates the basic human rights, increases global risks, fuels organised crime, thus destroying societies and causing instability. Threats caused by modern slavery transcend across countries, threatening the survival and livelihood of many people, thus undermining ‘freedom from fear’ (Newman 2010: 78). Security discourse allows us to move from the idea of threat to that of vulnerability, which is also an important aspect to consider when speaking about modern slavery. Modern slavery targets the most vulnerable people; they are the ones that need protecting. Even when slavery is not a direct threat, it is a dangerous vulnerability, thus a security issue. Hence, this makes human security people-centred, multi-dimensional, interconnected and universal (UNDP 2006: 5). Complying with the human rights criteria is fundamental for ensuring security. However, there is no such thing as human rights for those entrapped in slavery. It is argued (McDonald 2008: 575) that there is ‘no security without human rights.’ Moreover, it is the ‘human security that complements state security, strengthens human development, and enhances human rights’ (CHS 2003: 2). It is thus the individual security we need to focus on first. Although it is a phenomenon predominantly centralised in the developing states (Bales 2007: 96), it is a legal and moral obligation of international community to deal with the issue. The position of the individual as the main referent object is exactly why international community and states should engage in ‘creating and maintaining structures of authority and responsibility that contribute to human security’ (Fierke 2007: 148). The implication of not having the state deal with modern slavery, and other illegal activities would have catastrophic consequences for the people and states alike. CHR (2003: 6) points out that ‘human security is not intended to displace state security, but rather serve as dependents of each other. Without human security state security cannot be attained and vice versa.’ CSS has criticises the concept of human security as being broad, and uncritical, which it is more likely to aid policy makers and governments with an interest of influencing policy (Newman 2010: 92). The reality is that when applying it to modern slavery they share many common features. Both challenge the conventional state-centric military models of security, focus on the individual as the main referent object and are interested in ameliorating human life, thus taking a bottom-up rather than top-down approach.

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Emancipation For CSS emancipation takes central stage when speaking about security. Booth (1991: 319) argues that ‘emancipation is the freeing of people from those physical and human constraints which stops them carrying out what they would freely choose to do’. Freedom and slavery are constructed, not essential categories (Davidson 2010: 345). This implies that, we the people, by engaging in an illegal act, deprive others of their freedom, exploit their labour for personal gain, thus retaining absolute control over another individual. Slavery is an involuntary nature, used for economic exploitation, which often implies acts of violence (ibid. p. 250). Attempting to achieve security under the duress of an oppressor, it is practically impossible under slavery conditions. Security can only be achieved by people and groups if they do not deprive others of it (Booth 1991: 319). The security challenges for dealing with the slave trade are enormous, providing emancipation for the people becomes even more complex. Security and emancipation ‘are two sides of the same coin’ (Booth 1991: 319). Applying the logic of emancipation and security as the same thing to modern slavery makes sense, as oppression becomes a norm slaves begin to accept after many years in entrapment – emancipation is what is needed. Slavery stands at one end of the spectrum, that of exploitation. Its distinguishing feature widely correlates with the fact that human beings are treated as property (Davidson 2010: 246). Slavery and emancipation are contradictory in every aspect. While slavery serves as a cause for insecurities, emancipation is the cause for security. Emancipation, in theory, is security (Booth 1991: 319). The ultimate aim of emancipation is linked with the idea of moving towards a better world (Wyn Jones 1999: 120). The ultimate aim of modern slavery is generating profit, regardless of the threats and insecurities produced. When dealing with emancipation, the Welsh School is sceptic about the role of the state. It disregards their role in politics, but it assumes that states are ‘unreliable, because whereas some are in the business of security, others are not (Booth 1991: 320). This is precisely the problem when dealing with modern slavery, strong states are productive in their fight for emancipation, weak states are not. When the structure of the state lacks stability, emancipation becomes a motive for the international community to join forces in the fight against modern slavery. Here it is important to highlight the economy of the strong state is linked to exploitation of slaves in weak states, which contradicts with

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the whole conceptualisation of security discourse. Despite its complex nature, modern slavery becomes part of a “beautiful” discourse called hypocrisy. This is what slavery is made of after all, hypocrisy. As complicated as it might be, one must ultimately comply with the concept of emancipation, which aims at bringing together ‘theories of good life’, and theories of survival into one comprehensive approach to security (Booth. p. 322). Only by achieving emancipation will modern slavery cease to be a security issue. Until then, modern slavery is just another security issue in the security discourse, a profitable business in the eyes of the organised criminals and a struggle for survival for those entrapped in slavery conditions.

Conclusion While Copenhagen School serves as an important formulator of security studies, it is the ‘critical’ aspect we needed here. Both the CSS and Human Security are theories that focus on the ‘theories of good life’, making them suitable theoretical approaches for this paper. The securitization theory allows us to understand who has the power to securitize. The weak state-strong state approach aids in the understanding of how [in]security is constructed. Although a phenomenon centralised around developing state, the threats posed by modern slavery are an international concern due to its transnational character. The concept of emancipation is an important lexicon for this study, as only by achieving emancipation the modern slavery will cease to exist. In sum, studying modern slavery through a security study prism offers us valuable lessons to understand the phenomenon is a global security issue, yet, in the eyes of an ordinary person this sounds ridicule as one would think of slavery as something of the past, not realising that it is very much something of the present.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Bales, K. Trodd, Z. and Williamson, A. K. 2009. Modern Slavery: The Secret World of 27 Million People. Oneworld. Oxford. • Bales, K. 2000. Disposable People. New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press. London. LA. Berkerly. • Bales, K. 1999. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press. London. LA. Berkerly. • Booth, K. 2007. Theory of World Security. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. • Booth, K. Security and Emancipation*. Review of International Studies. Vol. 17. (1991). pp. 313-326. • Buzan, B. Wæver. O. and Wilde. J. D., 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Lynne Reinner Publishers. London. • Buzan, B. 1991. People, State and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. Harvester Wheatshef. Hertfordshire. • Commission on Human Security. 2003. Human Security Now: Final R e p o r t . New York: CHS. • Davidson, J. O. New Slavery: Old Binars: Human Trafficking and Borders of Freedom. Global Network. Vol. 10. No. 2, (2010). 244-261. Wiley. • Dunne, T. Wheeler, N. J. ‘We the People’: Contending Discourses of Security In Human Rights Theory and Practice. International Relations. Vol. 18. No. 1. (2004), pp. 9-23. Sage Publication. • Huysman, J. Dobson, A. and Prokhovnik, R. 2006. The Politics of Protection: Sites of Insecurity and Political Agency. Routledge. London. • Fierke. K. 2007. Critical Approaches to International Security. Polity Press. Cambridge. • Krause. K. and Williams M. C. 1997. Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases. UCL Press. London. • McDonald, M., Securitization and Construction of Security. European Journal of International Relations. Vol. 14. No. 4. (2008), pp. 563- 587. Sage Publication. • Roe. P. Securitization and Minority Rights. Security Dialogue. Vol. 35. No. 3. (Sept 2004), pp. 279-294. Sage Publication. London.

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• Welch, C. E. Defining Contemporary Forms of Slavery: Updating a Venerable NGO. Human Rights Quarterly. Vol. 31. (2009). pp. 70- 128. The John Hopkins Press. • Wyn Jones, R. 1999. Security Strategy and Critical Theory. Lynne Reinner. London. • United Nations Development Programme. 2006. The Human Security Framework and National Human Development Report. NHDR Occasional Paper 5. New York. UNDP. • United Nations. The Unversal Declaration of Human Rights. Available at: http:// www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml#a4. (Accessed: 19/01/2012). • United Nations on Human Security: Definition of Human Security. Available at: http:// ochaonline.un.org/Home/tabid/2097/Default.aspx. (Accessed: 19/01/2012).

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NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS Adrian Papajani (1958) has graduated the Higher Institute of Pedagogy, in Shkodra, History and Geography Department, in 1982. Currently, he is a Lecturer of “Aleksander Xhuvani” State University, Faculty of Education, Elbasan, Albania. In March 2012 was endowed with the scientific title Professor. Dr. (Reg.No. 106, on 26/03/2012). In July 2002 Mr. Papajani was delivered the degree title “Master of Science”. In January 1995 received the scientific degree “Doctor of Historical Sciences.” (No.3353 Charter Registry Number 5, Diploma No. 23). Darina Çoni Kacollja was born in Elbasan in 1978. She has graduated Tirana State University, Faculty of Social Sciences in 2001. She received her Master Degree in Sociology Issues in 2007. From December 2009 she is attending School of Doctoral Studies, Tirana State University, Faculty of Social Sciences. Work experience:  July 2001 –March 2002, Administrator and Sociologist of “Counseling Center for Women and Girls”, Durres, Albania. April 2002 - September 2004 Coordinator of Albanian Red Cross, Durres Branch project “Prevention of HIV /AIDS”. Actually Darina Kacollja is a lecturer in the Faculty of Social Sciences at “Aleksander Xhuvani” University, Elbasan. Albania. Edmond Çali (1967) has graduated La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, Contemporary Italian Literature (1992) and Albanian Literature and Linguistics (1998). He is a lecturer in Napoli Oriental University, Italy. He holds a Doctoral degree (Dottorato di ricerca in Culture dell’Europa Orientale). His doctoral dissertation is entitled “Il dissenso nella letteratura del realismo socialista albanese-Kasëm Trebeshina, Zef Pllumi e Ismail Kadare”. He has translated many books from Italian into Albanian and vice-versa such as: Italo Calvino Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio, by Italo Calvino. Kosovo: gli Italiani e la guerra, Massimo D’Alema, intervista di Federico Rampini. Lettera a un amico italiano dal Kosovo by Albatros Rexhaj. Processo di unificazione linguistica nella prima metà del XX secolo by Bahri Beci. Il trittico di un complesso by Visar Zhiti, etc.

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127 Elsa Mane was born on May 2nd, 1977 in Tirana. She has graduated the Tirana State University, Faculty of Foreign Languages, in 2000. After a year of teacher training in Stuttgart, Germany, she started working at the Agricultural University of Tirana, as a lecturer of ESP (English for Specific Purposes). She received her Master Degree in Gender and Development focusing on “Academic Career of Women”, in 2008. She has contributed to preparing and compiling different university programs and other educational materials related to English teaching. She has taken part in national, regional and international conferences as an author or co-author with presentations on different linguistic issues. She has authored or coauthored many articles appearing in “Ultimate Teacher”, a linguistics scientific magazine. She is co author of the textbook - “English for Students of Food Technology and Processing”. She is a member of ELTA (English Language Teachers Association of Albania) Association which has been active in Albania since 2002. Giuseppe Gagliano was born in Como and has graduated in Philosophy at National University of Milan, Italy. He has received Master Degree following post graduation Courses: “Strategic Studies and Intelligence”, “International Right and Armed Conflicts”, “Analysis of Intelligence and Peacekeeping Intelligence”. Currently, Mr. Gagliano is President of the Center for Strategic Studies “Carlo De Cristoforis”. Gentian Shyti has graduated Tirana State University, Faculty of Foreign Languages in 1997. Work experience: 2009 - present “Viktoria” ltd. – Center of Foreign Languages, Head of Outreach Development. 2003 - present Mankind Tracks “MA3X” CTR., Founder and President. 1995 – 2003 Language Schools in Albania, LSIA Foundation, Vice CEO 1998 – 1999 Albanian NGO-s Forum, Director of Development Programs, Durres ViceDirector 1997 OSCE - ODIHR, Albanian Elections Monitoring Project, Area Coordinator, Assistant Officer Curently, he is a lecturer of English Language “Aleksander Moisiu” University, Durres, Albania. Heidi Maston is an internationally recognized Distance Education Expert and Consultant with experience as a Keynote and presenter, researcher, author, developer and instructor on all areas related to distance education with a specialization in, and passion for, communication, social networking and virtual worlds. She holds a Doctoral degree in Educational Leadership and Change from “Fielding Graduate” University in

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Santa Barbara California. Additionally, she holds a Master of Science: Master of Distance Education and 5 Graduate Certificates in various components of D.E. from University of Maryland University College and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Speech Communication from “Northwest Nazarene” University. Dr. Maston has successfully merged 15+ years of Social Service work with a variety of demographics into a grounded educational realm. Her intimate understanding of, and experience with, a wide variety of populations is an asset in her chosen educational field. Dr. Maston’s Doctoral Dissertation is titled, “A Delphi Method Study on Triggering Transactional Distance to Improve Students’ Learning: The Instructor’s Rubric.” The results of this study indicate that there are certain combinations of tools and purposeful interactions that can create an improved learning environment for the student. This data produced the Instructor’s Engagement Rubric 1.0 which is available for use. Dr. Maston served on the Board of Directors for the Alliance for Distance Education in California (CA Chapter of the USDLA) 2004 – 2009 and was President of ADEC from 2008 – 2009. Dr. Maston is a member of numerous state, national and global organizations dedicated to distance education, research, and education. Luljeta Mine (PhD Student) was born on May 19th, 1962 in Tirana. She has graduated the Tirana State University, Faculty of Foreign Languages, in 1985. For many years she has worked as a teacher of secondary schools. From 2004, she is a lecturer of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) at the Agricultural University of Tirana. She received her Master degree in 2008 and the Academic title “Docent” in 2010. She has contributed to preparing different university programs related to English language teaching while taking part in national and international conferences with presentations on different linguistic issues. She has authored and/or coauthored many articles in scientific magazines of linguistics as “Gjuha jonë” in Albania and Kosovo, “Ultimate Teacher”, etc. She is the author of the textbook “Forestry and Wood Processing English”. She has translated the following books; “The national Strategy for the Development of Forestry and Pastures in Albania” (2005), “Law for the Forests and Forest Services” (2005), as well as reports of six scientific projects. Her main field of scientific research is Terminology in Forestry and ways of teaching Terminology to students, following her Doctorate Degree studies in the same field. She is a member of ELTA (English Language Teachers Association of Albania) Association.

Marisa Kërbizi (PhD Student) is a Lecturer of Literature in “Aleksander Moisiu” State University, Durres, Albania and Chief Executive Officer at “Mankind Tracks” Ctr. She has graduated Tirana State University in Linguistics and Literature with the Diploma thesis “Interior monologue in Anton Pashku’s novel Oh”. She received her Master Degree in 2008 and currently she is attending the Ph.D Studies.

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129 She is the author of “Introduction to Academic Writing”, University textbook and co-author of “Literature Anthology” High School textbook. She is the book editor of “Philosophy in Metaphor” (by Mimoza Erebara) and has translated of many articles, short stories and poems. Her recent research activities include: Illustration and Writing: Visual Languages, Manchester School of Art, England, 2011, Poster presentation “The black primitive paintings of Maks Velo as the image of his human and artistic philosophy”. International Conference “Literature and Eros”, Tirana University, 2011, paper presentation “The paradigm of dreamlike love in Besnik Mustafaj novel No return summer”. IVth International Seminar of Alb-Shkenca Institute, Tetovo University, Macedonia, 2010, paper presentation “Extradiegetic narration of the serpent myth”. International Conference “Literature and the City” French Alliance and UT, 2012 paper presentation “Characters alienation and Megalopolis”, etc. Mrs. Kerbizi’s main publications include: Interlitteraria, “Estonian Elegy, by Jüri Talvet: A vision of ethnical perspective through forgiveness and love” vol.16/1 – 2011, Tartu University Press, Estonia, p 181-195. GAIA “Gender issues in Albania’s proverbs, Vol.IX, Alb-Paper,Tirana, 2009, p 51-58. Interlitteraria, “The history of Albanian Literature, after the World War II. Some facts toward its revision” vol.15/1 – 2010, Tartu University Press, Estonia, p 246-258 etc.

Olivera Z Mijuskovic was born on July the 31st, 1984 in Vrbas (Novi Sad) in Serbia. She has graduated High School, Socio-linguistic department with the graduation thesis “Nietzsche’s Concept of Imoralism”. During her studies at University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Philosophy she has expressed interested in ethics, philosophy of law, theory of law, politics and aesthetics. She has graduated in the class of Milenko A Perovic, a Ph.D. of Ethics, with the Diploma thesis “The Concept of Law in the Hellenistic-Roman Philosophy”, rated as one of the most accomplished thesis presented. She is currently involved in studying the ancient philosophy and bioethics, paying special attention to the topic of medical ethics, also covered in her Master Studies thesis titled “The Comparison of Bioethics and the Traditional Medical Ethics.” She is also engaged in journalism and humanitarian work. She attends psychological workshops with the role of psychological coordinator, providing assistance to people from different social groups, as well as woring as a lecturer at a medical center, on a course of reproductive and psychological health of youth. Her philosophical essays and thoughts can be found online at wordpress.com. She loves writing and painting. She has been awarded the first prize by the audience for the best article in the “MLS” magazine in Belgrade. Her painting exhibition was held in the cinema hall “Yugoslavia” in Vrbas. She lives in a relation Vrbas (Novi Sad) – Belgrade, Serbia.

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Suela Kastrati (1971) is a full time lecturer in “Aleksander Moisiu” State University, Albania. She worked as a librarian (2000-2005), in “ Gjergj Kastrioti” International Library, Cozenza, Italy, (Centre for Albanian Research). She is a PhD student in Linguistics, Tirana State University, Albania. Her recent research activities include: Analysis of literary articles published in”Hylli i Dritës” Journal 1914-1944, State University of Tirana, 2008. Problems of literary language and language culture, Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research, 2012. Problems of Grammatology treated in ”Hylli i Drites” Journal, “Aleksandër Xhuvani” State University, Elbasan, 2012. Vasillaq Mine was born on December 9th, 1960 in Fier, and has graduated the Tirana State University, Faculty of Forestry Sciences in 1984. His working experience is long and rich in forestry and teaching as well. He has worked in Kukes forest enterprise from 1985 – 1990. From 1990, he is a lecturer at the Agricultural University of Tirana. He received his Doctor Degree in 1996 and the Academic Title “Associate Professor” in 2003. Mr. Mine has a great experience in forest administration, formerly being the General Director of Forest and Pastures in Albania and a full member of European Forest Institute. During the last 20 years, he has followed specializations and trainings abroad mainly in Italy, Germany, France and Spain, specifically in Forestry and Environmental fields. Mr. Mine has a rich experience as a national adviser and consultant in foreign organizations such as FAO, World Bank, EFI-FOPER projects; a leader on 12 National Scientific projects and a co - worker in 10 National and International Scientific projects, as well as experience in developing training courses for forest specialists in Albania in relation with raising awareness of forests and forestry and public participation in forestry. He is author and/ coauthor of numerous scientific articles and conference presentations, in Albania and abroad. He is author of three textbooks and 8 monograph series. His recent scientific work of the last six years is concentrated on Community participation in Sustainable Forest Management issues resulting in the preparation of three management plans of Communal Forests. William Barry is an American educational leader and philosopher. He earned his B.A. in Political Science from Western Connecticut State University, a M.A. in Secondary Educational Teaching and a Sixth Year Certificate in Education Supervision and Evaluation from Sacred Heart University in Fairfield, Connecticut. He is a Ph.D candidate at Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom, with his thesis under examination. He has served as a teacher/counselor for troubled teens at a residential experiential wilderness school, a public school social studies teacher,

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131 an assistant principal, a principal of a Connecticut High School, and an adjunct instructor at two Connecticut schools of graduate education. He has worked as a consultant for New England schools in improving holistic approaches to pedagogy, learning assessment, and promoting social justice in secondary American education. Certified as a practitioner of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), he has successfully used NLP in educational praxis to improve school leadership and student learning.   Currently, he is the Executive Director of the international leadership management company, Living Leadership Today (www. livingleadershiptoday.com).  William Barry is the creator of Transformational Quality (TQ) theory which defines the meaning of educational quality as a life affirming, need fulfilling, and performance enhancing concept. The theory has been used by teachers and himself to improve student learning and social/emotional development at the secondary level in the United States. He is also the creator of Congruent Neuro-Linguistic Expression (CNLE) theory which helps people to congruently express themselves in an intersubjectively valid and reliable manner.

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