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Intelligent Pneumatics AND INDUSTRY 4.0

DIRECTORY Valve electronics with sensors

Four piezo pilot valves

Four diaphragm poppet valves




SENSORS Innovative Designs & Publishing • 3245 Freemansburg Avenue • Palmer, PA 18045-7118


Nonprofit Organization US Postage PAID Bolingbrook, IL Permit #323


Yates Industries has long had a reputation for excellence in the manufacturing of tie rod cylinders. They uphold that reputation when it comes to their state-ofthe-art cylinder configurator. Cylinder configuration isn’t just for engineers any more. That’s why Yates refers to it as the “people’s configurator.” And it’s more than just templates and plugging in dimensions. There’s even a new feature that allows for attaching accessories to the drawing. In the end, you get the specific tie rod cylinder you need. And it all starts with submitting your specifications with just six simple clicks. Just what you’d expect from Yates Industries; a third generation manufacturer of high performance cylinders with quick turn around times, quality support and the convenience of three locations.

Go to to try out our cylinder configurator today.

Yates Industries, Inc.

Yates Cylinders Alabama

Yates Cylinders Georgia

23050 Industrial Dr. E. St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 Phone: 586.778.7680 Fax: 586.778.6565

55 Refreshment Place Decatur, AL 35601 Phone: 256.351.8081 Fax: 256.351.8571

7750 The Bluffs Austell, GA 30168 Phone: 678.355.2240 Fax: 678.355.2241



Features 10 SELECTING THE BEST SENSORS FOR STEERING SYSTEMS Improved manageability, introduction of various assistance functions, vehicle stability, or reduced tire wear are the key factors that keep steering at the forefront of mechanical optimization.





18 COST-REDUCING MODERN PNEUMATICS Effective pneumatic systems need properly sized, installed, and maintained components from compressors to work stations.







20 DETERMINE THE CAUSE OF No Flow, Low Flow, High Flow


22 PROPORTIONAL VALVE Selection—LVDT or no LVDT? 24 INTELLIGENT PNEUMATICS Move Fluid Power into the 21st Century






PUBLISHER’S NOTE: The information provided in this publication is for informational purposes only. While all efforts have been taken to ensure the technical accuracy of the material enclosed, Fluid Power Journal is not responsible for the availability, accuracy, currency, or reliability of any information, statement, opinion, or advice contained in a third party’s material. Fluid Power Journal will not be liable for any loss or damage caused by reliance on information obtained in this publication.

Cool under pressure

compact pressure transmitters

The Econoline is intended for cost-effective hydraulic pressure monitoring. Use only as directed. Product includes 316L stainless steel, 1/4 inch NPT-male pressure connections, pressure ranges up to 10,000 psi, and could be compatible with new and existing hydraulic systems. Common side effects include increased durability and measurement reliability. Contact Keller America right away if you experience lead-times greater than 3 days with other manufacturers. Warning: In many cases, the desire to switch to all Keller instrumentation can occur as this indicates a high degree of customer satisfaction. In such cases, contact Keller America toll-free: 877-253-5537 or Email: for assistance. CIRCLE 504




When I was asked to write this article, after the initial panic attack, I struggled for three months on what to write about. For the most part, I was thinking, “Why me?” Then it finally dawned on me, “Why not me?” I am a very successful fluid power professional. It is hard to believe this summer is 30 years since I did my first hydraulic internship. As I continued to ask the “5 Why’s” to my success, it came down to three key factors: mentorship, integrity, and knowledge.

MENTORSHIP Luckily for me, I have had several very strong and supportive mentors throughout my career, starting with my first internship in 1988. When I would ask hydraulic questions, the response was always, “Put it on the test stand and you tell me.” Thanks Jim Brooks. And having supervisors say, “I heard everything she just said and she is 100% correct,” when customers would call to double-check my solutions. Thanks Mike Cannestra. I remember when Dick Fontecchio told me when I was scared to death to try outside sales, “If you ever want to move up in this industry, you need outside sales experience. Try it for 5 years and if you don’t like it, we will make adjustments.” During my transition to outside sales, there were several distributor owners who took me under their wings to show me the ropes. Thanks Al Havlin, John Menge, and several others. Once I was doing outside sales, I pretty much never looked back. The support shown by these mentors contributed to my success. I think it is important for all of us to look around our networks. Is there a place you can step up and give back?

INTEGRITY Integrity means different things to different people. To me, integrity is quite simple: Do what you say you will do. If you say you will respond by Friday, respond by Friday. If you acknowledge to deliver on a specific date, you deliver on that date. If you don’t know the answer, say you don’t know the answer. If you tell your kids you will be at their game, be at their game. Customers, colleagues, and family will always respect and appreciate the truth, even if it isn’t what they want to hear. Why is integrity so important? Let’s be honest. Your word is really all you have in this world. Are you living with integrity?

KNOWLEDGE While working in the fluid power industry, I have never stopped learning. From my first internship when I played on the test stands, to changing companies where I had to learn a completely new aspect of fluid power, there was always something new to learn. If you are a valve and manifold person, learn filtration. If you are a cooler person, learn about hydraulic power units. Check out the new H.I.T. (Hybrid Integrated Tanks) for some new and innovative hydraulic tank technologies. Oil conditioning sensors and proportional technology for the mobile market have made significant strides in the last 30 years. The International Fluid Power Society has several new certifications. When was the last time you took a course to learn something new? Being confident, knowledgeable and operating with integrity will gain you respect in this industry. Throw in the invaluable support of strong mentors and success is the only outcome. I want to take this opportunity to thank all those mentors, colleagues, and customers I have met these past 30 years. The support and respect you have shown along this journey is the reason I love this industry and career. I look forward to another 30 years.



INNOVATIVE DESIGNS & PUBLISHING, INC. 3245 Freemansburg Avenue, Palmer, PA 18045-7118 Tel: 800-730-5904 or 610-923-0380 Fax: 610-923-0390 • Email: Founders: Paul and Lisa Prass Associate Publisher: Bob McKinney Editor: Candace Nicholson Technical Editor: Dan Helgerson, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPSD, CFPMT, CFPCC - CFPSOS LLC Art Director: Quynh Vo Eastern Region Account Executive: Norma Abrunzo Western Region Account Executive: Cindy Hamm Director of Creative Services: Erica Montes Accounting: Donna Bachman, Sarah Varano Circulation Manager: Andrea Karges

INTERNATIONAL FLUID POWER SOCIETY 1930 East Marlton Pike, Suite A-2, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003-2141 Tel: 856-489-8983 • Fax: 856-424-9248 Email: • Web: 2018 BOARD OF DIRECTORS President & Chairperson Dean Houdeshell, PE, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPE, CFPS, CFPIHT, CFPMHT, CFPMHM - Cemen Tech Inc. Immediate Past President Richard Bullers, CFPPS - SMC Corporation of America First Vice President Timothy White, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPMIH, CFPMMH, CFPMIP, CFPMT, CFPMM - The Boeing Company Treasurer Jeff Kenney, CFPIHM, CFPMHM, CFPMHT - Hydradyne, LLC Vice President Certification Denis Poirier, Jr., CFPAI/AJPP, CFPCC, CFPHS,CFPIHM - Eaton Corporation - Hydraulics Group Vice President Marketing & Public Relations Scott Nagro, CFPS - HydraForce, Inc. Vice President Education Kenneth Dulinski, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPECS, CFPHS CFPMIH, CFPMMH Macomb Community College Vice President Membership & Chapter Support Rocky Phoenix, CFPMHT, CFPMHM - Open Loop Energy DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE Chauntelle Baughman, CFPHS - OneHydrauics, Inc John A. Bibaeff, Jr., PE, CFPS - Lamb Services, Inc. Randy Bobbitt, CFPS - Danfoss Power Solutions Elisabeth DeBenedetto, CFPS - Argo-Hytos Brandon Gustafson, PE, CFPE, CFPS, CFPIHT, CFPMHM - Graco, Inc. Jeffrey Hodges, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPMHM - Altec Industries, Inc. Lynn Nordquist, CFPS - Skarda Equipment Company Robert Post, CFPHS - AFS Technology Edwin Rybarczyk, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS - E. R. Consultants, Inc. Scott Sardina, PE, CFPAI, CFPS - Waterclock Engineering Mohaned Shahin, CFPS - Parker Hannifin Randall Smith, CFPHS, Northrop Grumman Corp. HONORARY DIRECTORS John Groot Robert Sheaf, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPE, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPMT, CFPMIP, CFPMMH, CFPMIH, CFPMM IFPS STAFF Executive Director: Donna Pollander, ACA Communications Manager: Adele Kayser Technical Director: Thomas Blansett, CFPS, CFPAI Certification Logistics Manager: Susan Apostle Certification Coordinator: Kyle Pollander Bookkeeper: Diane McMahon Administrative Assistant: Beth Borodziuk

Fluid Power Journal (ISSN# 1073-7898) is the official publication of the International Fluid Power Society published bi-monthly with four supplemental issues, including a Systems Integrator Directory, OffHighway Suppliers Directory, Tech Directory, and Manufacturers Directory, by Innovative Designs & Publishing, Inc., 3245 Freemansburg Avenue, Palmer, PA 18045-7118. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part of any material in this publication is acceptable with credit. Publishers assume no liability for any information published. We reserve the right to accept or reject all advertising material and will not guarantee the return or safety of unsolicited art, photographs or manuscripts.


NEW PROBLEM: Cascading Cylinders What is the maximum stroke if the blind end of each cylinder is connected to the rod of the previous cylinder? How many different discrete positions are there?

Cascading Cylinders





2 x 16 x 1

2 x 32 x 1

What is the maximum stroke if the blind end of each cylinder is connected to the rod of the previous cylinder? How many different discrete positions are there? BY ERNIE PARKER, CFPAI, CFPSD, CFPS, CFPMM, CFPMT, CFPMIP, CFPMMH, CFPMIH The teaser is posted on the IFPS website ( and also printed in the Fluid Power Journal. Submit your information via the website, or fax it to 856-424-9248 attn: Donna Pollander. Those who submit the correct answer before the deadline will have their names printed in the Society Page newsletter and in Fluid Power Journal. The winners will also be entered into a drawing for a special gift.


Solution to Previous Problem: TOTAL ENERGY NEEDED E (Total) = (m x g x h) + (m x g x S) E (total) = Total energy due to free falling object (Joules) M = Mass (kg) G = Gravitational acceleration (9.8m/sec²) H = Height of object above shock absorber (meters) S = Stroke length of shock absorber (meters) E = (100 x 9.8 x 1) + (100 x 9.8 x .1) (980) + (98) = 1078 Joules WINNER OF THIS TEASER: John Krebsbach FPE Automation



Up to 6,000 PSI Operating Pressure—Coupled or Uncoupled Full 4:1 Safety Factor Superior Flow Characteristics—Minimal Pressure Drop RoHS Compliant Plating Multiple Port Options—Female NPTF, Female SAE O-Ring, Female BSPP, Code 61 & 62 Flange Port/Head P.O. Box 6479, Fort Worth, TX 76115 V. 817/923-1965 CIRCLE 505





Too Busy to Leave Your Office? No problem, IFPS has you covered.


INTERACTIVE HYDRAULIC SPECIALIST STUDY MANUALS Whether you are studying for the Hydraulic Specialist (HS) Certification test or simply want to enhance your existing hydraulic skills in a convenient and flexible environment, the new Interactive HS Study Manual is here to help. Cost: Visit to order ($349 and immediate access)


ANIMATED HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS Visually seeing a circuit perform along with a description of operation can increase the comprehension of a particular component’s operation and its function within the circuit. These animated presentations can be used by: • Anyone   interested learning component function and circuit operation • Instructors   to assist in Hydraulic Specialist (HS) Certification review training • Individuals   to enhance their preparation to take the HS Certification test. Cost: $99 for a flash drive containing 30 color-coded, animated .mp4 or .wmv files of each circuit operation using ANSI recognized color designations.



ONLINE HYDRAULIC SAFETY AWARENESS TRAINING – SELF PACED IFPS offers online Hydraulic Safety Awareness Training courses. Courses provide an awareness of hydraulic hazards in the workplace, in-depth reviews of potential exposures to injury from hydraulic systems, and ways to reduce risk and eliminate hazards for workers, equipment, companies and the environment. Four (4) online hydraulic safety awareness training courses are offered: • Exposure   Level • High   Risk Maintenance Level • Hydraulic   Safety in Construction • Fluid   Injection Awareness Cost: varies


ONLINE TRAINING – SELF PACED Each course delivers a broad-based understanding of the most important fluid power subject matter concepts. Courses begin with the basics: physics laws, systems basics and design, basic analysis, and basic components,



then demonstrate how these systems apply to our industry and how they work and interact with each other. Each training course features approximately 12-16 hours of trade-specific e-training filled with simulations, assessments, quizzes, tests, learning labs, and more. Completion of the online training courses does not constitute IFPS Certification; however, after completion of the course, you may be better prepared to take the appropriate IFPS certification test. Online courses are listed below: • Mobile   Hydraulics Course* • Industrial   Hydraulics Course **  • Industrial   Mechanical Course * • Mobile   Electrical Course *  • Industrial   Pneumatics Course * • Industrial   Electrical Course * • Electrical   Theory * • AC/DC   Motors and Drives * • Diesel   Engines * • PLC   Fundamentals + *available in metric, ** available in metric, Spanish, and Spanish (metric), + available in Spanish Cost: IFPS Members only $99

IF P SO nlin O pp eT or t rai un i n in v is i t ie g tw s ww cal . i f ps l 80 .org 0-3 08or 600 5.

ONLINE CERTIFICATION REVIEW TRAINING – SELF PACED Online Certification Review Training is offered for the following certifications through CFC Industrial Training, Inc.’s Learning Management System. This is an excellent tool to prepare for IFPS certification at your own pace from your own computer. (IFPS Members receive a discount): • Job   Performance (for mechanic & technician certifications) • Mobile   Hydraulic Mechanic (written test review) • Mobile   Hydraulic Mechanic written and Job Performance (as a bundle) • Connector   and Conductor Cost: varies


ONLINE WEB SEMINARS IFPS holds web seminars every other month. Members may view a list of archived web seminars by visiting Cost: Free for IFPS Members; $40 for non-members.


Newly Certified Professionals JULY 2018 CONNECTOR & CONDUCTOR (CC) Christopher Frosig, The Boeing Company Grant Harvey, The Boeing Company Scott Hoglund, The Boeing Company David Maslar, The Boeing Company Huy Nguyen, The Boeing Company Lindsey Roby, The Boeing Company Jerry Sample, Controlled Fluids Inc. Ryan Schweizer, The Boeing Company Tsvetan Tsanev, The Boeing Company Company HYDRAULIC SPECIALIST (HS) Aaron Darnell, Danfoss Power Solutions Co. Matthew Darnell, Flow Products Inc. Seth Stansbury, Supreme Integrated Technology Sreeju Unnikrishnan, Jubail Technical Institute INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC MECHANIC (IHM) John Cain, Attica Hydraulic Exchange Corp. Mark Estrada, Central Technology Center

Chris Schumpert, Attica Hydraulic Exchange Corp. David Waypa, Attica Hydraulic Exchange Corp. Dean Wyatt, Attica Hydraulic Exchange Corp. Mark Fiore, Dynamic Power Systems MOBILE HYDRAULIC MECHANIC (MHM) Collins Acheampong, Altec Industries, Inc. Jonathan Alabran, Altec Industries, Inc. Nicolaie Bajanaru, Altec Industries, Inc. Kent Burke, Altec Industries, Inc. Jim Carrico, Wisconsin Public Service Noah DeWeese, Altec Industries, Inc. Brian Ellerton, Altec Industries, Inc. Alfred Fusco, Altec Industries, Inc. Myles Gasvoda, Altec Industries, Inc. Matthew Hodder, Altec Industries, Inc. Joe Jay, Altec Industries, Inc. Matthew Lance, Altec Industries, Inc. Matthew Paul Matthew Polewczynski, We Energies Michael Ponchaud, We Energies Richard Pulvermacher, Peoples Gas Daniel Scharplaz, Altec Industries, Inc.

Eric Sindt, Altec Industries, Inc. Nicholas Teesdale, Altec Industries, Inc. Luke Velde, Wisconsin Public Service Peter Vue, Wisconsin Public Service Chris Schumpert, Attica Hydraulic Exchange Corp. Dean Wyatt, Attica Hydraulic Exchange Corp. PNEUMATIC MECHANIC (PM) Thomas Brennan, Altec Industries, Inc. PNEUMATIC SPECIALIST (PS) Tim Whitacre, Cross Company SPECIALIST (S) Holds HS and PS Certifications Andrew Aurand, Parker Hannifin

SHOCKING NEWS! ONLY AMETEK’S 958A LDT RESISTS 1,000 G’S. Today’s extreme operating environments can shake the life out of ordinary hydraulic cylinder position sensors. Our 958A LDTs are different: • Highest shock & vibration ratings in the industry (lab tested to 1,000g shock and 30g random vibration) • Programmable zero & span • Diagnostics built into every unit • 48mm package with stroke lengths to 100" • Multiple connector options to suit your needs • Operating temperatures from –40°C to 105°C • Competitively priced

© 2018 by AMETEK Inc. All rights reserved.





Certification Testing Locations Individuals wishing to take any IFPS written certification tests can select from convenient locations across the United States and Canada. The IFPS is able to offer these locations through its affiliation with The Consortium of College Testing Centers (CCTC) provided by National College Testing Association (NCTA).   To register for a written certification test: 1. Fill out an IFPS certification test application including your desired location by visiting 2. Submit your application with payment to IFPS headquarters. 3. Upon receipt of your application, you will be e-mailed instructions.

TESTING DATES FOR ALL LOCATIONS: October 2018 Tuesday, 10/2 • Thursday, 10/18 November 2018 Tuesday, 11/6 • Thursday, 11/22 December 2018 Tuesday, 12/4 • Thursday, 12/20 January 2019 Tuesday, 1/8 • Thursday, 1/24 February 2019 Tuesday, 2/5 • Thursday, 2/21 March 2019 Tuesday, 3/5 • Thursday, 3/21 April 2019 Tuesday, 4/2 • Thursday, 4/25 May 2019 Tuesday, 5/7 • Thursday, 5/23



ALASKA Anchorage, AK Fairbanks, AK ALABAMA Auburn, AL Birmingham, AL Huntsville, AL Jacksonville, AL Mobile, AL Montgomery, AL Normal, AL Tuscaloosa, AL ARIZONA Flagstaff, AZ Glendale, AZ Mesa, AZ Phoenix, AZ Prescott, AZ Safford, AZ Scottsdale, AZ Sierra Vista, AZ Tempe, AZ Thatcher, AZ Tucson, AZ Yuma, AZ ARKANSAS Bentonville, AR Hot Springs, AR Little Rock, AR CALIFORNIA Aptos, CA Arcata, CA Bakersfield, CA Encinitas, CA Fresno, CA Irvine, CA Marysville, CA Riverside, CA Salinas, CA San Diego, CA San Jose, CA San Luis Obispo, CA Santa Ana, CA Santa Maria, CA Santa Rosa, CA Yucaipa, CA COLORAD0 Aurora, CO Boulder, CO Colorado Springs, CO Denver, CO Durango, CO Ft. Collins, CO Greeley, CO Lakewood, CO Littleton, CO Pueblo, CO DELAWARE Dover, DE Georgetown, DE FLORIDA Avon Park, FL Boca Raton, FL Cocoa, FL Davie, FL Daytona Beach, FL Fort Pierce, FL Ft. Myers, FL Gainesville, FL Miami Gardens, FL New Port Richey, FL

Orlando, FL Panama City, FL Pembroke Pines, FL Pensacola, FL Plant City, FL Sanford, FL Tampa, FL Winter Haven, FL GEORGIA Albany, GA Athens, GA Atlanta, GA Carrollton, GA Dahlonega, GA Dublin, GA Dunwoody, GA Lawrenceville, GA Morrow, GA Oakwood, GA Statesboro, GA Tifton, GA Valdosta, GA HAWAII Laie, HI IDAHO Boise, ID Coeur d ‘Alene, ID Idaho Falls, ID Lewiston, ID Moscow, ID Nampa, ID Rexburg, ID Twin Falls, ID ILLINOIS Carbondale, IL Carterville, IL Champaign, IL Decatur, IL DeKalb, IL Edwardsville, IL Elk Grove, IL Glen Ellyn, IL Joliet, IL Malta, IL Peoria, IL Springfield, IL INDIANA Bloomington, IN Evansville, IN Fort Wayne, IN Gary, IN Indianapolis, IN Kokomo, IN Lafayette, IN Lawrenceburg, IN Madison, IN Muncie, IN New Albany, IN Sellersburg, IN South Bend, IN Terre Haute, IN IOWA Ames, IA Cedar Rapids, IA Iowa City, IA Ottumwa, IA Sioux City, IA Waterloo, IA KANSAS Lawrence, KS Manhattan, KS Wichita, KS

KENTUCKY Bowling Green, KY Covington, KY Highland Heights, KY Louisville, KY Morehead, KY LOUISIANA Bossier City, LA Monroe, LA Natchitoches, LA New Orleans, LA Thibodaux, LA MARYLAND Arnold, MD Bel Air, MD Frederick, MD Hagerstown, MD La Plata, MD Westminster, MD Wye Mills, MD MASSACHUSETTS Boston, MA Bridgewater, MA Danvers, MA Haverhill, MA Holyoke, MA MICHIGAN Ann Arbor, MI Big Rapids, MI Dearborn, MI Dowagiac, MI East Lansing, MI Flint, MI Grand Rapids, MI Kalamazoo, MI Lansing, MI Livonia, MI Mount Pleasant, MI Sault Ste. Marie, MI Troy, MI University Center, MI Warren, MI MINNESOTA Brooklyn Park, MN Eden Prairie, MN Granite Falls, MN Mankato, MN Morris, MN MISSISSIPPI Goodman, MS Mississippi State, MS Raymond, MS University, MS MISSOURI Cape Girardeau, MO Cottleville, MO Joplin, MO Kirksville, MO Park Hills, MO Poplar Bluff, MO Rolla, MO Sedalia, MO St. Joseph, MO St. Louis, MO Warrensburg, MO MONTANA Bozeman, MT Missoula, MT

NEBRASKA Bellevue, NE Lincoln, NE North Platte, NE Omaha, NE

Gresham, OR Medford, OR Oregon City, OR Portland, OR White City, OR

NEVADA Henderson, NV North Las Vegas, NV Winnemucca, NV

PENNSYLVANIA Bethlehem, PA Bloomsburg, PA Blue Bell, PA Gettysburg, PA Harrisburg, PA Lancaster, PA Newtown, PA Philadelphia, PA Pittsburgh, PA York, PA

NEW JERSEY Branchburg, NJ Lincroft, NJ Sewell, NJ Toms River, NJ West Windsor, NJ NEW MEXICO Albuquerque, NM Clovis, NM Farmington, NM Portales, NM Santa Fe, NM NEW YORK Brooklyn, NY Buffalo, NY Garden City, NY Middletown, NY New York, NY Syracuse, NY NORTH CAROLINA Apex, NC Asheville, NC Boone, NC Charlotte, NC Durham, NC Fayetteville, NC Greenville, NC Jamestown, NC Misenheimer, NC Pembroke, NC Raleigh, NC Wilmington, NC NORTH DAKOTA Bismarck, ND Fargo, ND OHIO Akron, OH Cincinnati, OH Columbus, OH Fairfield, OH Findlay, OH Kirtland, OH Lima, OH Maumee, OH Newark, OH Rio Grande, OH Toledo, OH Youngstown, OH OKLAHOMA Altus, OK Bethany, OK Edmond, OK Norman, OK Oklahoma City, OK Stillwater, OK Tonkawa, OK Tulsa, OK OREGON Bend, OR Coos Bay, OR Eugene, OR

SOUTH CAROLINA Beaufort, SC Charleston, SC Columbia, SC Conway, SC Greenwood, SC Orangeburg, SC Rock Hill, SC Spartanburg, SC TENNESSE Blountville, TN Clarksville, TN Collegedale, TN Gallatin, TN Johnson City, TN Memphis, TN Morristown, TN Murfreesboro, TN Nashville, TN TEXAS Abilene, TX Arlington, TX Austin, TX Beaumont, TX Brownsville, TX Commerce, TX Corpus Christi, TX Dallas, TX Denison, TX El Paso, TX Houston, TX Laredo, TX Lubbock, TX Lufkin, TX Mesquite, TX Weatherford, TX Wichita Falls, TX UTAH Cedar City, UT Kaysville, UT Logan, UT Ogden, UT Orem, UT Salt Lake City, UT VIRGINIA Daleville, VA Lynchburg, VA Norfolk, VA Roanoke, VA Virginia Beach, VA WASHINGTON Bellingham, WA Bremerton, WA Ellensburg, WA Olympia, WA

Seattle, WA Shoreline, WA Spokane, WA WISCONSIN Fond du Lac, WI La Crosse, WI Milwaukee, WI WYOMING Casper, WY Laramie, WY Torrington, WY ASIA Kindom of Bahrain AUSTRALIA Rockingham, WA CANADA Calgary, AB Edmonton, AB Fort McMurray, AB Lethbridge, AB Lloydminster, AB Olds, AB Red Deer, AB Abbotsford, BC Burnaby, BC Castlegar, BC Delta, BC Kamloops, BC Nanaimo, BC Prince George, BC Richmond, BC Surrey, BC Vancouver, BC Victoria, BC Brandon, MB Winnipeg, MB Bathurst, NB Moncton, NB St. John’s, NL Halifax, NS Brockville, ON Hamilton, ON Mississauga, ON Niagara-on-theLake, ON North Bay, ON North York, ON Ottawa, ON Toronto, ON Welland, ON Windsor, ON Côte Saint-Luc, QB Montrea, QB Montreal, QB Melfort, SK Moose Jaw, SK Nipawin, SK Prince Albert, SK Saskatoon, SK Whitehorse, YT ENGLAND London, ENG NEW ZEALAND Taradale, NZ UNITED KINGDOM Elgin, UK



CFPAI Certified Fluid Power Accredited Instructor CFPAJPP Certified Fluid Power Authorized Job Performance Proctor


OCTOBER 25, 2018

CANbus for Mobile Proportional Valve Systems

Presented by Randy Bobbitt, CFPS, Danfoss Power Solutions What you will learn: CAN basics • CAN Protocols • Advantages and Disadvantages

CFPAJPPCC Certified Fluid Power Authorized Job Performance Proctor Connector & Conductor CFPE Certified Fluid Power Engineer CFPS Certified Fluid Power Specialist (Must Obtain CFPHS, CFPPS) CFPHS Certified Fluid Power Hydraulic Specialist CFPPS Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Specialist CFPECS Certified Fluid Power Electronic Controls Specialist CFPMT Certified Fluid Power Master Technician (Must Obtain CFPIHT, CFPMHT, & CFPPT) CFPIHT Certified Fluid Power Industrial Hydraulic Technician CFPMHT Certified Fluid Power Mobile Hydraulic Technician CFPPT Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Technician CFPMM Certified Fluid Power Master Mechanic (Must Obtain CFPIHM, CFPMHM, & CFPPM) CFPIHM Certified Fluid Power Industrial Hydraulic Mechanic CFPMHM Certified Fluid Power Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic CFPPM Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Mechanic CFPMIH Certified Fluid Power Master of Industrial Hydraulics (Must Obtain CFPIHM, CFPIHT, & CFPCC) CFPMMH Certified Fluid Power Master of Mobile Hydraulics (Must Obtain CFPMHM, CFPMHT, & CFPCC) CFPMIP Certified Fluid Power Master of Industrial Pneumatics (Must Obtain CFPPM, CFPPT, & CFPCC) CFPCC Certified Fluid Power Connector & Conductor CFPSD Fluid Power System Designer CFPMEC (In Development) Mobile Electronic Controls CFPIEC (In Development) Industrial Electronic Controls CIRCLE 102




By Dr.-Ing. Jacek Zatrieb, Global Smart System Consultant (Mobile & Industrial), Rota Engineering Limited

Selecting the


Whether in the case of autonomous driving, precision farming, or intelligent controls for construction machines, steering is becoming increasingly important. Improved manageability, introduction of various assistance functions, vehicle stability, or reduced tire wear are the key factors that keep steering at the forefront of mechanical optimization.

As soon as the mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the axle is dispensed with for any reason, it must be replaced by a closed loop control circuit, where the detection of the steering angle of the axle is required. Particularly in cases where the steering is optionally offered, an important question arises: “How can the position detection be accomplished?� The integration in the hydraulic cylinder offers an elegant solution since its interfaces remain unchanged and no changes need to be made to the comparatively complicated elements, such as the vehicle axle, which contributes to the cost and development time reduction. The requirements for the sensors and their architecture result from the obligatory safety analysis. For this purpose, search for a range of products that meet this requirement: The sensors of the LR and LV series are already in the field in the phase of the advanced prototype testing or the series deliveries. As with the existing systems, new products remain faithful to the Hall



technology, the design, and the arrangement variants (inside the piston rod or externally on the cylinder tube) reminiscent of the components known from the current production. The LR series consists of two complete sensor circuits, which have been packaged in a common sensor tube. In the LV series, the higher-ranking sensor is monitored internally by an almost identical subordinated circuit. The signal processing within both sensor series is digital. The electrical interface can be configured with flexibility: As standard, the connection is made via a CAN-Bus interface, and the readings of the two channels and a plausibility message are outputs in a common CAN-Bus protocol. Alternatively, if desired, the output signal can be defined as current or voltage with the option of reversing one of both outputs. As a result of the increased circuit complexity, the sensor tube diameter of the LV/LR series is slightly larger than that of the standard sensors, the axial dimensions remain unchanged compared to the serial versions, so the accommodation of the sensors has usually

been problem-free for the steering cylinders with the dimensions following the state of the art. The development of the safety-relevant sensors for the steering systems is subject to special requirements, in addition to the design and process FMEA, the risk analysis, the individual development steps have to be carried out and documented according to the defined processes and criteria. The sensors are used under extreme ambient conditions: the cylinder is usually attached to the vehicle axle, resulting in the immoderate vibration load, temperature change, and pressure pulsation. The suitability of the sensors for this application is repeatedly verified and confirmed within the framework of the validation tests during the progressive development process. The mechanical properties are checked by the vibration tests, the vibrational spectrum is chaotic or pure sinusoidal, in each case with the superimposed temperature change, in which the entire range of working temperatures is provided. The specific values for the acceleration, its


density and the test time depend on the values, typical for the location of the steering cylinder, which is usually attached to the non-sprung vehicle axle, and are agreed between the vehicle manufacturer and the component supplier. In order to minimize the test duration, the timelapse effect is used and the stress values are set accordingly higher. The transferability of the results and the limits of the test equipment must, of course, be taken into consideration. The sensor located in the middle of the cylinder is exposed to the changing pressure. Although the pressure during steering is comparatively low, pressure surges coming from the road are transmitted directly to the sensor structure. This strain is also simulated by the corresponding pulse test. Further on, in a sequence of the environmental tests, the stresses within the individual components are generated by different temperature gradients in order to check the structural integrity and tightness. Within the framework of the approval procedure, the sensors have been issued with the UN / ECE R10 certificate, which confirms the compliance of the prescribed requirements with respect to the immunity against radiated and conducted disturbances, as well as the requirements for the limitation of unwanted radiated and conducted emissions and is mandatory for the road service approval. In production process, following the relevant automotive regulations, the greatest emphasis is placed on the uniform practice of the supply chain, the agreed documentation and labeling in order to meet all requirements for the traceability. At the end of the manufacturing process, all sensors are proven for reliability in a high-temperature cycling test. The test extends over several hours and uses the established correlation between the ambient temperature and the failure rate. The test is carried out under operating conditions, and the communication with each unique sensor is recorded and logged. After the test, each sensor receives a DMC tag with an individual part number. Consciously, there were no absolute figures called in this article, essentially to protect the experience of our partners. The tests, which are based on the specifications of several manufacturers, however, allow the conclusion that the solutions developed are well suited for the broad market campaign. As described above, based on the experience gained during the prior development projects, the running mass production of the sensors and the accomplished maturity of the products, these new sensors offers potential customers their support and expertise as part of common development projects of the customer tailored position sensors for the demanding road applications, as well as the high product reliability in the mass production.


Stops Leaking


HYDRAULIC LINES SAVE TIME SAVE MONEY SAVE LABOR SAVE OIL For more information contact Mike Pearl at 914.980.8890 or email:

• • • • • • • • • •

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Figure 1: The refuse truck hydraulics being tested. The trucks are manufactured by FM5 Industrial Developments of Zaragoza, Spain, part of the FERRUZ Industrial Group.


IF YOU STUDY IT, YOU CAN By Tim Gessner, Delta Computer Systems Inc.

To improve how a hydraulic system works, including reducing the amount of energy it consumes, you need to record and analyze data on how it currently operates and analyze it. That’s what Luis Javier Berné of IhBER S.L. of Zaragoza, Spain is doing. IhBER designs hydraulic systems and distributes hydraulic system components. The company previously developed the designs for all of the hydraulic controls of a side-loader refuse truck (see Figure 1), including the control system that powers the lifting arm. Though the system works fine, IhBER engineer Berné has been analyzing its operation to see if it could be improved. Berné’s work played a large role in his studies leading to a Ph.D. at Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, LABSON Fluid Power Laboratory, in Terrassa (Barcelona), Spain. “Our original hydraulic design objectives were fulfilled satisfactorily, but I’m very interested in energy efficiency and we want to continuously



improve the system to stay ahead of our competitors in that regard,” said Berné. “A key metric is fuel consumption. Our current design needs 55% less energy for the same machine cycle in the same conditions in comparison to the newest truck of the most important competitor, but there is still a big potential for improvement.”


“The first step in my analysis is to identify the main energy losses in the current hydraulic system,” said Berné. “The second step is to create and validate a simulation model of the current system. Finally, I will propose different innovative solutions in the simulation model and analyze their impact on the energy efficiency.” The most significant sources of energy loss being analyzed by Berné include: •   Losses due to moving several actuators (Figure 2) at the same time with only one pump. The pump must Figure 2: Refuse guarantee the highest truck arm extension, pressure demanded by lifting and rotation the actuators, so in the axes. less loaded actuator lines,


Figure 4 (top): Plot generated by RMCTools Plot Manager tracks the position of all axes over time. Figure 3 (bottom): The RMC200 motion controller (in blue) connects to 32 analog data acquisition channels in this installation.

IMPROVE IT there is energy loss. It is not easy to minimize these losses without using one pump per actuator, and this solution would be very expensive. • Losses   associated with the control of positive (overrunning) loads. Theoretically, an overrunning load (i.e., a load moving under its own weight or momentum) doesn’t need energy to be moved, but actually most hydraulic systems spend a lot of energy to control the load accelerations or decelerations (e.g., creating back pressure, throttling return flow, feeding oil to the opposite actuator chamber, etc.). • Energy   needed to move the system without the refuse bin (the weight of the lifting arm structure itself).

DATA ACQUISITION SOLUTION In order to do his work, Berné needed a solution for data acquisition that could handle lots of


channels with a high sampling rate. He selected the RMC200 multi-axis motion controller, which at first glance, may be a surprising choice to use in a data acquisition application that by itself doesn’t involve controlling motion. “But high-performance motion controllers are designed to gather sensor data with high precision and at great speed,” he said. “Another reason for choosing to use a motion controller is because when the analysis and simulations are complete, I will update the controls of the real hydraulic system with the new solutions. I chose the RMC200 because it is easy to use and the software provided with it has powerful plotting capabilities.” The RMC200 controller can handle position and pressure/force control of up to 32 motion axes simultaneously, which translates to the ability to interface to up to 64 total position or pressure transducers. In the case of Berné’s system (see Figure 3), the RMC200 processor was built out with five A8 cards, each offering

up to 8 analog input channels, for a total of up to 40 possible data points analyzed. “In order to study the energy consumption of the refuse bin lifting system, I need to measure and record, in different load conditions, the actuator positions (to calculate actuator speeds and thus flows) and pressures at several circuit points,” said Berné.

ANALYZING THE DATA Figure 4 shows the positions of all of the axes, plotted over time using plot manager software. In addition to axis positions, Berné also used this software to plot system pressures, looking for anomalies. “Besides monitoring the raw positions and pressures around the system, I can filter signals and calculate flows and power losses in the loop,” Berné continues, “and the RMC200 gives



me the results just after the measurements are made, without needing to spend a lot of time in signal post-processing.” The tests allowed Berné to clearly identify the sources and magnitudes of the energy losses with different loads (see Table 1). Now he is working on developing solutions using a mechatronic modeling and simulation package called 20-Sim from Controllab Products B.V. in the Netherlands.

PROTOTYPING DIFFERENT ARCHITECTURES Berné’s next step is to build a real prototype using the hydraulic system configurations that offer the best performance as indicated by the simulation data in order to verify the results using the real hardware. The existing refuse-lifting hydraulics uses a variable displacement piston pump and a load-sensing proportional valve. “Even though load sensing with proportional valves

is commonly used elsewhere in the hydraulics industry, it is by far more efficient than what our competitors have been using,” said Berné. “Yet we believe that a different system architecture may be even more efficient, enabling our customer FM5 to maintain their competitive advantage well into the future.”

NEW ARCHITECTURES OFFER MORE CONTROL FLEXIBILITY Berné is experimenting with hydraulic system architectures that incorporate multiple proportional valves (see Figure 5) instead of using one proportional valve, the use of several simple proportional valves (for example, 2/2 cartridge proportional poppet valves), one valve per path: P to A, P to B, A to T, B to T, and sometimes A to B (regeneration). This enables fluid paths to be opened in different percentages, allowing pressure drops to be tailored to lower a load without needing to supply fluid flow in the opposite actuator chamber.

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Table 1: Per Berné’s analysis, without improving the hydraulics architecture, 75% of the energy supplied by the hydraulic pump does not convert into useful energy in moving the load.

Percentage of total energy consumed

Total Pump output energy


Useful energy moving the load


Energy loss in load control hydraulic valves (overcenter type)


Energy loss due to the use of one pump for several actuators


Energy loss in other valves


Energy loss in tubes and hoses


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Figure 5: IhBER’s Berné suggests that this 4-valve configuration offers more control flexibility than if only one servo valve were used.

The system shown in Figure 5 is more difficult to control (four or five output signals needed instead of one), but the flexibility is considerably higher. “Flexibility means for me that there are lots of valve opening combinations to consider in setting control levels to minimize energy consumption,” said Berné. “Control of such a system would be difficult with a conventional mobile controller, but the multi-axis control capability and the use of visual programming tools that the RMC200 controller offers will make the work much easier.” The cost of the refuse bin dumping system using the new system architecture doesn't need to be much higher because 2/2 proportional poppet valves are less expensive than the spool ones that were previously used, and the added cost of the new multi-axis motion controller will be more than compensated-for by the increased fuel economy.





NFPA Continues Endorsement of Manufacturing Day 2018 NFPA recently registered for the second year in a row to endorse MFG Day. This year’s MFG Day will be Friday, October 5. Manufacturing Day℠ is a celebration of modern manufacturing meant to inspire the next generation of manufacturers. NFPA supports events like these both through our own programs and by promoting programs that align with our objectives, like MFG Day. “NFPA member companies report that workforce development is ranked highest among the industry’s challenges. As a result, one of NFPA’s primary strategic priorities is growing the fluid power workforce. Initiatives like Manufacturing Day℠ demonstrate to students the benefits of choosing careers in the industry. MFG Day allows students to witness the same positive company cultures that advocate for creation, innovation, and aptitude that I see when I visit our members’ facilities.” -Eric Lanke, NFPA President and CEO Traditionally, MFG Day has consisted of facility tours. However, NFPA’s Student Career Connections program allows for other options as well, including: •  Employee Q&A: Engineers explaining to students what ‘a day in the life’ is like, how they got into the industry, etc. •  Team Project: Engineers work with students to help assemble a fluid power classroom kit By engaging in this program, members can share their expertise with students, promote their companies and career opportunities to the local community, and make meaningful connections with educators.

If you’d like to get involved with any of these options or have an idea of your own for MFG Day, contact Stephanie Scaccianoce at

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FAMTEN TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY CONNECTS NFPA MEMBERS TO HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS This past summer, six high school teachers from four local high schools attended the FAMTEN (Fluid Power and Applied Mechatronics Training and Employment Network) high school teacher training held at Waukesha County Technical College in Wisconsin. Four local NFPA member companies attended the training and/or the networking lunch to connect with the teachers. The interaction between the teachers and NFPA members was valuable for both sides. They shared stories, exchanged contact information, and everyone left knowing that this would definitely not be the only time we saw each other. The group was trained by a Festo representative on the Festo MecLab Mechatronics Training System. The MecLab covers a variety of objectives, including pneumatic and electrical actuators, sensors, and controllers.

FAMTEN provides a pathway that connects local technical colleges with industry partners and high school teachers to create awareness and interest in fluid power. WCTC is the first FAMTEN technical school hub, and this fall the high school portion of FAMTEN will launch in these high schools with students learning about fluid power through the MecLab system. High school students will ultimately be trained for careers at local NFPA member companies. Industry is an essential part of this program as they will be mentors to the teachers and students and will provide guest speakers, factory tours, internships, and employment opportunities. Many thanks to our NFPA members who are participating in and supporting this program: Festo Didactic, FORCE America, HUSCO International, Poclain, and Price Engineering.

NFPA will be working to launch FAMTEN hubs in communities across the U.S. where members are located and workforce needs are abundant. If you would like to become involved in the committee that decides on future FAMTEN locations, please contact Eric Lanke at

Jon Schmidt, Chief Engineer Neff Press, Inc. St. Louis MO

Complex motion? Can do. Why does Neff Press®, an industry leader in high-speed hydraulic production presses, integrate Delta RMC controllers into its precision can-making line?

“Delta provides some highly advanced tools for tuning axes very quickly and accurately. That has been our best experience versus other motion controllers we’ve used.” “…the smoother motion and synchronization between axes enabled by the Delta controller has allowed us to increase our output by 25%.” Look to Delta RMC motion controllers and graphical RMCTools software to make complex motion design so much easier than any alternative. Give yourself a break and call 1-360-254-8688 or visit Find the Neff can-making case study or one about your own industry or application. Watch a training video to see how easily Delta can put complexity in the can for you. Delta RMC Motion Controller Family

1-2 Axis

Up to 8 Axis

Up to 32 Axis CIRCLE 109







By Linda Caron, CMSE®, Certified Machinery Safety Expert (TÜV Nord), Global Product Manager, Factory Automation, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Pneumatic Division




As modern pneumatic components become more complex, knowing what to look for in plant becomes more critical. Identifying cost savings and issues that can be remedied before they become major system issues can save thousands of dollars in unplanned downtime and rebuild. Effective pneumatic systems need properly sized, installed, and maintained components from compressors to work stations. A few wrong choices, however, can lead to everything from wasted energy to system failures. Consider the following steps when looking to maximize the performance of your company’s all-important pneumatic components.


Extending the life of a vehicle requires regular maintenance and oil changes. Pneumatics is no different. Compressed air is dirty and must be treated properly. Every system requires some form of ongoing maintenance. This will ensure lubricators are not left to run dry, filters are cleaned and contaminants are removed from rust, metal shavings, water, and unwanted oils. Many oils used in compressors are not suitable for the sealing system in pneumatic components. Yellow filter elements could be a sign that there is a problem in your compressed air system from FRL ASSEMBLY compressor oils. Finally, if you hear a hiss you have a leak and this quick, easy fix will save you money.



This buzz word is all about avoiding a components failure and being proactive to maintenance rather than reactive. Get some help in this area with sensors. It’s better to know your car is low on tire pressure than the surprise of a flat. A flow sensor that fits in line with an FRL unit, or is installed at a work piece, can identify blocked filters that would otherwise go unnoticed. Blocked filters restrict air supply, allow contaminants to build, generate additional heat and eventually degrade a system to the point of failure. Sensors are available for almost every component in the plant. Continuous position sensors can be used on cylinders to determine the function of the cylinder and show over time if heat or wear is generated. 18


Right sizing equipment is critical in the specification process. Don’t buy what you don’t need. Oversizing costs money and waste’s valuable energy. Use pneumatic zoning on a manifold to mix pressures, to add vacuum to the application or to manage the use of supply pressure. Pressure boosters are another valuable alternative to oversizing the flow from a compressor to the largest workpiece. Simple steps can also be taken such as locking your regulators. This prevents workers from adjusting a systems overall pressure in a bid to get more air to individual workstations. Opening a regulator to increase flow can damage a sealing system, waste energy, or even cause physical harm.


Safety costs money but work place injuries cost more. Thirteen people die every day in the US due to industrial accidents. Consider areas on a machine where you can be trapped or entangled or injured. Look at the value of a risk assessment. If you can’t design out risk you must look at light curtains, interlocks, machine guarding or safety exhaust products to block or prevent hazards. Call in OSHA for help if you don’t know where to start. They are willing to work with you to get your plant up to safe standards.




The world is migrating to low cost EtherNet based plant floor connectivity. Many companies still use hardwired solutions. Consider looking at networked based connectivity and switching from trunks of wire to a simple EtherNet port. IO-Link is another opportunity to save because you can run field level devices back to the IO-Link master which saves in time, wiring, component cost and troubleshooting. Todays advanced network nodes come with many advantages such as prognostic data for predictive maintenance, built in sensors for shorts, over current, cycle counting, thermal management‌. The list goes on.


A standard known as DIN ISO 8573-1 governs the filtration levels required for a system. This identifies the solids, water and oil that should be separated out of a well-functioning system. Required levels of filtration are defined down to the micrometer. This standard was recently updated, so ensure you are still in compliance. Cleaning the intake filters at the compressor sounds simple: Remove the compressors filter and clean it. But the related procedures can vary, depending on whether the system relies on a reciprocating, rotary screw or rotary centrifugal compressor. Maintenance manuals can offer some important guidance. WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM




Determine the Cause of NO FLOW



t ro u b l e s h o ot in g

w flow, or high flow.


ositive displacement he fluid is physically displaced by the pumps pumpingdeliver flow the fluid is physically e pump. Figure 51 because illustrates the pumping action displaced nlet and transports by fluid the teethchamber around the theinpumping from the inlet gear joins at the outlet and exits the pump. the of the pump to the outlet of the pump. Figure 1 the same for each revolution of the input shaft, illustrates thevaries, pumping action of a gear pump as st the close fitting parts actual measured lume if the pump is in good condition. gear action divides flow at the inlet and transports fluid in the teeth around the outside of the gears

ll not deliver flow at the outlet, there is something as they turn. The fluid from each gear joins at the fluid and is not obstructed or open to atmosphere, and exits the pump. amount of fluid e input shaft, outlet has not sheared. What thisThe means is pressure against load will causes the pump to simply the same the apump deliver is approximately

for each revolution of the input shaft, regardless of output pressure, and while slippage past the ne or piston pump could be caused by faulty close fitting varies, actual measured delivery to a pressure below the parts requirements of the load, . the pumping is not willchamber be within 5 tosealing. 10% of the specified volume if the pump is in good condition. w. the most likely reason for this could be the If a fixed displacement pump operating at cond but less obvious reason could be the pump splacement. rated beforerpm deciding that deliver a pump flow delivers will not at the outlet, r rated gpm, and then check pump operating there is something wrong with the pump. This at rated pressure, consult with the supplier to assumes the inlet receives fluid and is not cturing process.

means that cylinders under load extend and e by the manufacturer. the cause of "no flow" ng is definitely wrong. the problem of "low flow" ecause it is a matter of establishing how

Figure 1: Pumping action of a spur gear pump

inlet side

outlet side

Fig. 51. Pumping action of a spur gear pump.



obstructed or open to atmosphere, and that the drive gear, which is commonly keyed on the input shaft, has not sheared. What this means is that the pumping chamber cannot be sealed and back pressure against a load causes the pump to simply churn the fluid inside the case. The same symptom on a variable displacement vane or piston pump could be caused by a faulty pump compensator, or one that has been incorrectly set to a pressure below the requirements of the load, but if the compensator is functioning properly, the problem is the same. The pumping chamber is not sealing. Occasionally, a pump will deliver more than rated flow. the most likely reason for this could be the pump is operating at higher than rated speed. A second but less obvious reason could be the pump has been replaced with a pump that has a larger displacement. before deciding that a pump delivers more than rated output, re-check the specification for rated gpm, and then check pump operating rpm. if the pump still delivers more than rated flow at rated pressure, consult with the supplier to determine if the pump was oversized in the manufacturing process. "Low flow" from the pump causes slow cycle rates. This means that cylinders under load extend and retract slower than cycle times given for the machine by the manufacturer. The cause of "no flow" from a pump is relatively easy to find because something is definitely wrong. The problem of "low flow" from the pump is a more difficult problem to isolate, because it is a matter of establishing how much slippage through the pump can be tolerated. That is, how much flow must be lost before the flow is considered to be "low flow," and the pump must be changed out? Some mechanics report that if a pump will deliver 70% of rated volume at load pressure, the pump is still considered to be usable. This would be "low flow," however, when compared to manufacturer specifications. So in many cases, changing the pump because of "low flow" is a



Which one of the following could cause "no flow" from a good variable displacement hydraulic pump? a. Low operating rpm b. Bypassing actuator c. Leaking relief valve d. High operating temperature e. Incorrect pump compensator setting


Which one of the following would not be monitored during a hydraulic pump flow test? a. Flow rate b. Operating rpm c. Test pressures d. Fluid temperature e. Pump displacement


When pressure testing a fixed displacement pump that is not defective, what might be expected to happen as the outlet is restricted? a. Pump will cavitate b. Pump flow will increase c. Pump flow will decrease significantly d. Pump pressure will decrease e. Pump pressure will increase See solutions on page 38.

judgment call. In these cases, manufacturer recommendations should be followed. The standard test for pump "low flow" checks the flow rate in 500 psi increments from 0 psi to relief valve psi at rated pump rpm. This is done by connecting a combination flow meter, pressure gauge, and temperature gauge at the pump outlet. A restrictor valve downstream of the flow meter is used to create back pressure against the pump. A good pump will deliver rated flow throughout the pressure range, whereas a worn pump may deliver rated flow when the system is cold at pressures below 1000 psi, but as the fluid warms up and thins out, the flow will drop off as the pressure is increased. To make a valid judgement about the condition of the pump, and whether it should be replaced, the fluid must be at operating temperature. Be sure the pressure compensator on a variable displacement pump keeps the pump stroked to provide full delivery within the operating pressure range. A weak compensator spring, for example, could allow the pump to de-stroke and reduce pump flow at a lower pressure, which would invalidate flow meter readings as pump pressure is increased by the restrictor valve. WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG



Trelleborg Sealing Solutions announced the launch of a new polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) based O-Ring energized single-acting rotary seal, the Turcon Roto Glyd Ring DXL. This seal is specifically designed to meet the demands of high pressure rotary applications within the oil and gas industry. The device, which is capable of handling pressures up to 70 MPa / 10,153 psi and speeds up to 5 m/s / 16.4 ft/s, provides improved sealing efficiency and reduced friction by balancing the contact force on the dynamic lip under all service conditions, allowing for superior extrusion resistance and low torque.

PREMIER THERMAL SOLUTIONS HIRES JENNIFER HOWE AS REGIONAL SALES MANAGER Premier Thermal Solutions announced the hiring of Jennifer Howe as their new Regional Sales Manager, responsible for all aspects of sales in Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Canada. Reporting to Director of Sales & Marketing Sara McMurray, Howe joins Premier Thermal Solutions with 17 years of sales experience. For the last four years, she has worked in additive manufacturing selling capital equipment in many different verticals including automotive, medical, and aerospace. She has been recognized for her commitment to customer centricity, trustworthiness, and creating customer loyalty.

PREMIER THERMAL SOLUTIONS ADDS ADDITIONAL OIL QUENCH AND TEMPER CAPACITY Premier Thermal Solutions announced plans to increase oil quench and temper capacity at its Atmosphere Annealing Mt. Hope Facility in Lansing, MI. Through the enhancement of an existing roller hearth tray furnace, the facility will double its oil quench capacity. The additional capacity is in response to increasing demand seen from many of the industries that Atmosphere Annealing serves including automotive, energy, heavy equipment, heavy truck, and rail. The furnace will be online in Q1 of 2019. “The expansion not only provides us with additional capacity to meet our customers growing demand, it also provides additional back up processing capabilities to further protect our customers’ critical supply chain,” said Steve Wyatt, president of Premier Thermal Solutions.







As proportional valve technology becomes more commonplace, new people are continuously tasked with applying, installing, and diagnosing proportional systems. When selecting a proportional valve for a given application, there are many features to take into consideration: flow rating, spool ratio and center condition, onboard electronics versus separate driver, and communication protocols, plus many features that are often specific to a particular manufacturer. One fundamental choice is whether or not to select a valve with spool position feedback or Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). In a competitive market, a common thought is “the accuracy is not required so we decided to save cost.” Unfortunately, that common thought often becomes the case. However, let’s consider the ways an LVDT will benefit the end-user once the system is in the field.



 ACCURACY An LVDT monitors spool position sends the actual position to a driver or controller, which then sends a corrected signal to the valve’s solenoid. Due to internal friction, a valve without LVDT will have an accuracy of 1-2%, typically adequate for most applications. When we use a valve with LVDT, that accuracy will be advertised in the 0.1% range, a level that many will consider unnecessary for their simple application.  RESPONSE Because the feedback loop corrects in milliseconds, we can have a valve with LVDT that will shift 0 to 100% in 10 milliseconds in some cases. Compare this to a non-LVDT valve that will have a step response in 30-50 milliseconds. This is increasingly important in systems with changing commands that must be followed closely.

 RELIABILITY As discussed above, the ability for a valve with LVDT to correct its position is very helpful in instances where a valve may have to overcome silting after sitting at the zero position for a long time, particularly at higher system pressures. In most systems, fluid cleanliness is adequate (perhaps not ideal) and non-LVDT valves perform just fine. However, for more critical systems, perhaps there is a value for using a valve that is more likely to break free of such silting. For example, a valve without LVDT used to control a cylinder at 30% speed will only get 30% of the solenoid’s force to shift the spool, which may not be enough to move a spool that has silted in place. With an LVDT, the driver will see an error and correct, possibly driving 100% current to the solenoid in order to achieve position. For this reason, some manufacturers will list a higher maximum current for a valve with LVDT than for one without.

FIG 1. FLOW CAPACITY Graphs showing the flow characteristics of two proportional valves from the same manufacturer. Curve 5 on each chart shows the flow capacity of a 28 lpm (nominal) spool. The valve on the left (without LVDT) has a maximum flow capacity of 70 lpm. The valve on the right (with LVDT) has a maximum flow capacity of 80 lpm.

 FLOW CAPACITY A valve without LVDT feedback is open-loop, where a command to the driver will then provide a current to the solenoid coil. This current will, in a linear manner, correspond to a force output. The force of the solenoid shifts the spool against a spring until the spring’s force is equal to the solenoid’s. This balance of forces should occur at a specific spool stroke (e.g., 50%). If internal flow forces prevent the valve from reaching the commanded position, there is no correction factor. Valves with LVDTs are controlled differently. A command signal is given for the spool to shift to a specific position. If the spool does not achieve that position, current may be increased to a much higher value in order to get there. Turbulent flow forces in a valve act to drive the spool back against the solenoid’s shifting force. For this reason, you may see some manufacturers with a “10 liter” spool for a non-LVDT valve have lower maximum flow capacity than a “10 liter” valve with LVDT. Each valve will reach a point where the Bernoulli forces within the valve will overcome the solenoid, but this will happen at a lower value with the non-LVDT valve.

 DIAGNOSTICS Having an LVDT on the valve is a valuable diagnostic tool for the field technician as well as for reliability engineers. If we can see that the spool is shifting as commanded, we eliminate the valve during troubleshooting of complex mechanical movements. This saves considerable time as you can eliminate the valve, driver, and field wiring as an issue, leaving you to focus on other aspects of the system or the machine itself. For some critical applications, it may be desirable to continuously trend the spool position versus the commanded position. If an increased delay of a few milliseconds in actual position can be detected, the valve can then be replaced on a convenient downturn, prior to a hard failure.  CONCLUSION Many may not consider the benefits of spool position feedback, but valuable ideas and experience can clearly demonstrate the merit of LVDT, and just may give your system the edge it needs in a highly competitive market.


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Pneumatic valve technology has remained relatively stable for more than 60 years. Over that period, developments in sealing technology have improved valve service life. Solenoid advances have increased switching speed and reduced power, but the basic directional control valve has not changed – until now. Intelligent pneumatic valves will have a broad impact on fluid power. Intelligent valves deliver the cost and performance advantages of pneumatics, as well as the variable positioning, speed profiles, and low power consumption of electric servo-control. Intelligent pneumatic valves support Industry 4.0 concepts of re-configurable modular systems and smart manufacturing. In short, intelligent valves move pneumatics into a new realm of automation components.



BY FRANK LANGRO, Director - Pneumatic Automation, Festo, and SANDRO QUINTERO, Product Manager - Valve Terminals & Electronics, Festo


ntelligent pneumatic valves are re-configurable Cyber-Physical Systems

The National Science Foundation describes Cyber-Physical Systems as engineered systems that are built from, and depend upon, the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components. The National Science Foundation Directorate for Computer & Information Science & Engineering1 observes, “Cyber-Physical System technology will transform the way people interact with engineered systems – just as the Internet has transformed the way people 24


Before going deeper into the structure and applications of intelligent valves, it’s necessary to take a brief detour and introduce the concept of Cyber-Physical Systems.

interact with information. New smart Cyber-Physical Systems2 will drive innovation and competition in sectors such as agriculture, energy, transportation, building design and automation, healthcare, and manufacturing.” Cyber-Physical Systems are components or products that change functionality based on downloadable algorithms from cloud-based computing. For example, a smart phone can be a video camera, still camera, game console, media player, compass, magnifying glass, computer terminal, translation device, flashlight, GPS device, or any of dozens of other functions, depending on the capabilities of its foundational hardware and downloadable applications. WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG

A Cyber-Physical-based intelligent pneumatic valve has foundational hardware that allows it to change functionality via a downloadable app. In other words, if a fluid power application required proportional control, directional control, and soft stop, a design engineer utilizing a Cyber-Physical valve would not need to specify multiple hardware components. He or she would instead simply specify a single part number for valve hardware, then download an app for each performance requirement. In a Cyber-Physical System, as illustrated in Figure 1, applications change the functionality while the hardware is standardized across applications.



hen a single intelligent valve can replace 50 components, a whole new world opens for fluid power control


Engineers calculate that a single intelligent pneumatic valve part number can replace up to 50 different components.3 This means that a single hardware component delivers the following benefits of standardization: • Fewer   part numbers to order and carry in inventory • Faster,   easier design • Quicker   time to market • Shorter   bills of material with fewer mistakes • Reduced   assembly time and hassles • Simpler   configuration through parameterization, not programming • Quick   and easy valve replacement • Increased   reuse Due to the unique nature of intelligent pneumatic valves, there will be a host of new capabilities, including immediate leak detection and future-fault predictive capabilities based on internal sensors and associated processing power. Valve energy consumption will be reduced by 90% over typical solenoid valves. Learning that one intelligent valve can replace 50 different components, one might visualize a hefty component stuffed with electronics. That is not the case. Just like a smart phone, the intelligent valve is compact, the result of the valve’s unique combination of electronics, mechanics, and software.


FIGURE 2: The conventional onefunction valve FIGURE 3: Key components in the intelligent valve FIGURE 4: • Four 2/2-way valves (diaphragm poppet valves) are connected in a series to form a full bridge • Each diaphragm poppet valve (gray) is proportionally piloted and controlled by two piezo valves (blue)




raditional spool and intelligent valves design contrasted

To better understand the difference between mechanical and intelligent pneumatic valves, it is helpful to look at the component architectures of the two. Mechanical valves have fixed control surfaces that provide a single or small finite number of functions. Figure 2 shows a typical spool design for a directional control valve. The control surfaces, the chamfered edges of the blue spool, are fixed – not changeable. Intelligent pneumatic valves are based on Piezo pilot valves, left, in Figure 3, and diaphragm poppet valves, right. Each Piezo cartridge has two 2/2-way valves. The key benefits of Piezo pilot valves are their exceptionally low power consumption, about 90% less than conventional solenoid valves, their quick action, and pneumatic proportional control. As shown in Figure 4, Piezo pilot valves and poppet valves are linked in a bridge circuit, a circuit that can replicate pneumatic valve functions. TECH DIRECTORY 2018


Thanks to the integrated sensors and proportional control, which allow the valves to be pressurized and exhausted independently, this single valve technology can now be used to execute a range of conventional valve functions and full system solutions as shown in Figure 5. This configuration is ideal for applications with: • Frequent   format changes from pressure, travel time, speed (e.g., >1 x day) • High   demands for constant cycle time (self-regulating) • Protection   and low-vibration requirements (gentle, controlled) • Heavy   loads (>5 kg) • High   diagnostic requirements (e.g., leakage) • High   demands for pressure/flow rate control (>2 proportional valves) • Restricted   access to the drive (“built-in”) • High   energy usage (savings of up to 70%) • Situations   where acceleration and/or speed profiles are required


ntelligent valves require a controller and ethernet communications packaged in a valve terminal

Intelligent valves require a controller to execute application algorithms and to coordinate the interrelated activities of the valves. Figure 7 shows the components of the valve terminal, including valves (piezo and poppet), integrated controller, industrial ethernet communications module, electrical inputs for fast control of specific analog and digital applications, and integrated pressure, stroke, and temperature sensors for data analysis.

Because one valve can replace 50 different components, OEMs and end-users gain the benefits of standardization – a single part number, not 50. These advantages ripple across the lifecycle of a project from concept all the way through design, acquisition, installation, operation, maintenance, and reuse. Cyber-Physical Systems such as intelligent valves are foundational to the evolution of manufacturing, tomorrows Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things concepts. Importantly, intelligent valves are not ideas for the future, but are available today to produce a revolution in fluid power control. FRANK LANGRO is currently the Director of the Pneumatic Automation Business at Festo. Langro has represented Festo in multiple areas in support of the advancement of fluid power. He has participated in the development of national and global standards as a member of the National Fluid Power Association. He has represented Festo as an Industrial Advisory Board member for the Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power (CCEFP), a partnership between industry and several leading universities to steer the direction of fluid power research. Langro also holds four fluid power patents, and has attained a BS degree in mechanical engineering from Hofstra University. SANDRO QUINTERO is the Product Manager - Valve Terminals & Electronics at Festo. He has worked with customers across different industries such as medical, food processing, mining, automotive, and most recently, electronics and assembly. This has allowed him to acquire skills in different areas such as sales, product support, and project management. He earned a Bachelor’s degree in mechatronics engineering from the Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez and an MBA from the University of Texas at El Paso.

Valve electronics with sensors Stroke, pressure and temperature sensors provide optimal control and transparent condition monitoring.



FIGURE 5: Different valve functions can be performed using the same bridge circuit FIGURE 6: Shows an exploded view of the Piezo, poppet, and electronics in an intelligent valve FIGURE 7: VTEM valve terminal

Applications ARE THE KEY TO CHANGING THE FUNCTIONALITY OF AN INTELLIGENT VALVE Valve apps can produce standard pneumatic valve functionality, such as directional control, or they can create a totally new function such as Eco Drive. Apps can be mixed and matched in an almost infinite number of ways to achieve specific functions. Apps in the following list can be parameterized through a Web configuration tool or a PLC. Parameterization leads to faster start up and quicker changes when new functions or refinements are required. The following is a partial list of apps for intelligent valves.





The directional control valve function app

The directional control app gives machine builders and end-users the ability to modify the intelligent valve’s standard directional control functions, including replicating 4/2, 4/3, and 3/2 at any time and as often as necessary, even during operation. This enables organizations to respond to many requirements at the touch of a button with a single valve platform.

Four diaphragm poppet valves Actuating the poppet valves individually enables a high degree of flexibility.


The proportional pressure regulation app

This app saves space and hardware costs by combining the functions of two individual and independent proportional pressure regulators in just one valve. The app also handles vacuum.




CONTAINER INSPECTION In this quality inspection process for containers, units were tested for stability and leaks. This process required an even, gentle application of cylinder force with a precise level of force for a specified period. The application required 60 motor controllers, corresponding sensors, 3/2-way valves, and electric cylinders. Eight intelligent valve terminals utilizing the Soft Stop, proportional pressure regulation, leakage diagnostics, and other apps replaced 64 electric cylinders. The replacement of the electric solution in favor of intelligent valves lowered the cost of the system by 70% and the installation space by 65%.


PRE-POSITIONING, GRIPPING, AND SETTING DOWN USING A VACUUM The different formats in this vacuum gripping application often involved manual adjustments. The gripping vacuum and ejector pulse needed to be regulated and checked individually for every format changeover. Utilizing the apps for motion profile and positioning, as well as proportional pressure regulation, intelligent valves reduced format changeover by 20 minutes, lowered the number of components by seven, and reduced installation space by 75%.


POWDER FILLING MACHINE In a powder filling application, an intelligent valve terminal was utilized to control two dosing units. Proportional pressure regulation was one of several apps in this application. Processes controlled included vacuum-based product feed and distribution, adjustable cleaning and ejector pulses, process monitoring via pressure testing, and monitoring and elimination of leakages caused by powder contamination. Utilizing a single intelligent valve terminal meant fewer parts, which reduced procurement complexity.


1. National Science Solicitation 17-529, summ.jsp?pims_id=503286 2. For more information on Cyber-Physical Systems visit the Cyber-Physical System Organization at 3. Festo identified these 50 components that can be replaced by an intelligent valve: 18 directional control valves (9 directional control valves in 2 sizes) 8 pressure sensors (channels 1, 2, 3/5, 4; with 2x 3/2-way valves) 6 pressure regulators (channels 2, 3/5, 4 with 2 sizes) 5 components for previous soft stop applications 4 flow control valves (2x supply air, 2x exhaust air) 3 proportional flow control valves (4/3 and 2x 3/3) 2 proportional pressure regulators 2 shock absorbers 2 external sensors (model-based proportional pressure regulation)

7 Four piezo pilot valves Extremely short switching times, low power consumption, sturdy and durable technology.


The Soft Stop app

Designers can shorten cycle times by up to 70% with this app. The Soft Stop app gives machine builders and end-users the means of implementing highly dynamic yet gentle positioning motion without wear-prone shock absorbers. This reduces maintenance, increases the service life of systems, and enhances productivity.


The leakage diagnostics app

Use of this app leads to lower system downtimes and faster fault detection. Separate diagnostic cycles and defined threshold values enable the intelligent valve to detect and localize individual leaks.



The ECO drive app

This app reduces costs by operating an actuator with the minimum pressure necessary for the load, eliminating the rise in pressure in the drive chamber at the end of the movement and saving energy use by up to 70%.


Other apps include:

• Presetting   of travel time • Proportional   directional control valve • Selectable   pressure level • Model-based   proportional pressure regulation • Supply   and exhaust air flow control











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ADVERTISER INDEX Company............................................... Page.......Circle Adsens Technology Inc.................................11........... 103 Aggressive Hydraulics.................... Back Cover........... 500 Aignep USA.....................................................21........... 111 Ametek Automation and Process Technologies..................................... 7........... 101 Bourdon USA..................................................16........... 108 Bourdon USA..................................................23........... 114 Delaware Manufacturing Industries Corp....15........... 107 DELTA Computer Systems Inc......................17........... 109 Flange Lock....................................................11........... 104 Flow Ezy Filters Inc........................................14........... 106 Hydraulics Inc................................................... 5........... 505 Keller America.................................................. 3........... 504 Main Manufacturing Products Inc................19........... 110 OEM Controls Inc...........................................21........... 112 Premier Thermal Solutions/ NITROSTEEL LLC........................... Inside Front........... 501 Rota Engineering Ltd........................................ 5........... 100 Spectronics Corp............................................. 9........... 102 WEH Technologies Inc...................................23........... 113 Wilkes & McLean Ltd.....................................14........... 105 115 Yates Industries Inc......................................... 1........... 503 Yates Industries Inc.......................................23........... 116 Ad • Web Marketplace


Market information questions?  Contact Eric Armstrong at or 414‐778‐3372.    Hydraulic and Pneumatic Shipments  Raw Index Data, Index: 2013=100  HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SHIPMENTS Raw Index Data, Index: 2013=100 130.0 120.0 110.0 100.0

Fluid Power Industry Trends with NFPA The latest data published by the National Fluid Power Association shows industry shipments of fluid power products for July 2018 increased 14.6% when compared to July 2017 and decreased 8.9% when compared to last month. Mobile hydraulic, industrial hydraulic, and pneumatic shipments increased in July 2018 when compared to July 2017. Mobile hydraulic, industrial hydraulic, and pneumatic shipments decreased when compared to last month. These charts are drawn from data collected from more than 85 manufacturers of fluid power products by NFPA’s Confidential Shipment Statistics (CSS) program. Much more information is available to NFPA members, which allows them to better understand trends and anticipate change in their market and the customer markets they serve. Contact NFPA at 414-778-3344 for more info.

90.0 80.0

April 2018


May 2018


June 2018


Industrial Hydraulic



























Mobile Hydraulic

Total Pneumatic

This graph of raw index data is generated by the total dollar volume reported to NFPA by CSS participants and compared to the average month This graph of raw index data is generated by the total dollar volume reported to NFPA by CSS participants and compared to the dollar volume in 2013.  For example, the July 2018 total dollar volume for pneumatic shipments are 99.5% of the average monthly dollar volum average monthly dollar volume in 2013. For example, the July 2018 total dollar volume for pneumatic shipments are 99.5% of the in 2013.  (Base Year 2013 = 100)  average monthly dollar volume in 2013. (Base Year 2013 = 100)

Pneumatic, Mobile and Industrial Hydraulic Orders Index   Pneumatic, Mobile and Industrial Hydraulic Orders Index  PNEUMATIC, MOBILE AND INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC ORDERS INDEX     140.0     130.0     120.0     110.0     100.0     90.0   80.0 70.0






Total Pneumatic Total Pneumatic

Mobile Hydraulic Mobile Hydraulic

Industrial Hydraulic Industrial Hydraulic

Each point on this graph represents the most recent 12 months of orders compared to the previous 12 months of orders.  Each point can be  Each point on this graph represents the most recent 12 months of orders compared to the previous 12 months of orders.  Each point can be  Each point on this graph represents the most recent 12 months of orders compared to the previous 12 months of orders. Each read as a percentage.  For example, 112.9 (the June 2018 level of the industrial hydraulic series) indicates that industrial hydraulic orders  point can be read as a percentage. For example, 112.9 (the June 2018 level of the industrial hydraulic series) indicates that read as a percentage.  For example, 112.9 (the June 2018 level of the industrial hydraulic series) indicates that industrial hydraulic orders  industrial hydraulic orders received from July 2017 to June 2018 were 112.9% of the orders received from July 2016 to June 2017. received from July 2017 to June 2018 were 112.9% of the orders received from July 2016 to June 2017.  (Base Year 2013 = 100)  received from July 2017 to June 2018 were 112.9% of the orders received from July 2016 to June 2017.  (Base Year 2013 = 100)  (Base Year 2013 = 100)

Total ‐ Hydraulic and Pneumatic Shipments  Total ‐ Hydraulic and Pneumatic Shipments  TOTAL - HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SHIPMENTS 110

Total Hydraulic April 2018


May 2018


June 2018




Total Pneumatic April 2018


May 2018


June 2018


The table above is expressed in terms of cumulative percent changes. These changes refer to the percent difference between the relevant cumulative total for 2018 and the total for the same months in 2017. For example, June 2018 pneumatic shipments figure of 2.6 means that for the calendar year through June 2018, pneumatic shipments increased 2.6% compared to the same time period in 2017. (Base Year 2013 = 100)



70 70

Total Fluid Power Total Fluid Power

Total Pneumatic Total Pneumatic

Total Hydraulic Total Hydraulic

This graph of 12‐month moving averages shows that in July 2018, both hydraulic and pneumatic shipments increased. (Base Year 2013 = 100) This graph of 12‐month moving averages shows that in July 2018, both hydraulic and pneumatic shipments increased. (Base This graph of 12‐month moving averages shows that in July 2018, both hydraulic and pneumatic shipments increased. (Base Year 2013 = 100)


Year 2013 = 100)



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