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Fortalece destrezas de pensamiento más alto Beneficios cognitivos:   (conciencia metalingüística, creatividad, sensibilidad para comunicarse) Beneficios sociales:   Integración, apreciación de otras culturas

Beneficios económicos:

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Destrezas bilingües en comercialización, necesitado por gobiernos y negocios

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Beneficios personales:

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Bienestar psicológico, auto confianza, sentido de pertenencia

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Beneficios comunicacionales:

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Beneficios culturales:   Mayor tolerancia, menor racismo y mayor sentido intercultural

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Beneficios académicos:

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La alfabetización en varios idiomas permite el acceso a una literatura más extensa, una red de comunicación más amplia, las conexiones y vínculos internacionales

Mayor facilidad para aprender un tercer idioma. Incrementa los logros de aprendizaje en general - impacto en otras asignaturas

Lingüista John Maher, de “International Christian University” en Tokio (2002). The Practical Linguist: Make the most of the bilingual advantage. The Daily Yomiuri. Japan.


Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa Daniela Bramwell y Virginia Sanguinetti, Traducci贸n 11 de septiembre 2009 IIDEA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito


1.  2.  3.  4. 

Antecedentes Juego: Mitos del Multilingüismo Estado actual de la investigación Preguntas y discusión general


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Madre de tres hijos (formados en los idiomas inglés, español, alemán y parcialmente en francés) con raíces japonesas. Enfoque de disciplinas entrelazadas, comparando hallazgos en neurología, psicología, pedagogía, antropología cultural y lingüística. 20+ años de investigación comparativa basada en estudios de casos de familias (Japón, Ecuador, EEUU, Canadá, Francia, Suiza, Alemania).


1. Momento apropiado (las ventanas de oportunidad) 2. Aptitud

3. Motivación 4. Estrategia 5. Consistencia 6. Oportunidad y apoyo en el hogar, escuela y comunidad 7. La relación lingüística entre los primeros y segundos idiomas 8. Hermanos

9. Género 10. Ser zurdo o diestro como muestra de la dominancia hemisférica para los idiomas 11. ¿Qué factor no está listado? Tokuhama-Espinosa, T. (2000). Raising Multilingual Children: Foreign Language Acquisition and Children


¿Cree Usted que la declaración es verdadera o falsa?   ¿Por qué?  

(Orígenes: Éstas son declaraciones realizadas por profesores, doctores y padres de familia a quienes conocí mientras elaboraba mi investigación.)


Al aprender más de un idioma, el niño puede sufrir una “sobrecarga del cerebro.”


Ciertos idiomas son mรกs fรกciles de aprender que otros.


Las personas multilingües son más creativas que las monolingües.


El multiling端ismo puede causar problemas de lenguaje, tales como el tartamudeo y dislexia.


Es imposible para un adulto aprender un nuevo idioma tan rĂĄpido como un niĂąo.


Los adultos no pueden aprender a hablar un idioma extranjero sin un acento.


La habilidad de hablar varios idiomas es un tipo de inteligencia.


Cuando un niĂąo aprende dos idiomas desde que nace, estĂĄ aprendiendo los dos idiomas tan eficazmente como si fueran un primer idioma


  Las imágenes del cerebro muestran que las personas que han aprendido dos idiomas desde que nacieron los tienen ubicados en el mismo sitio del cerebro que los monolingües.   Las personas que aprenden el segundo idioma después de los 7 meses de edad, utilizan otras áreas del cerebro para procesar sonidos o a veces no perciben sonidos que no existan en su idioma nativo.


1.  2.  3. 

Los idiomas están separados y no se superponen. El segundo idioma está aprendido a través del primero. Los idiomas tienen un lugar separado en el cerebro pero se superponen en algunas ocasiones.


No se recomienda que aprendan a leer y a escribir en dos idiomas a la vez.


Hasta el momento, en las investigaciones realizadas acerca de los cerebros de las personas triling眉es no se ha podido encontrar un patr贸n en el aprendizaje de los idiomas.


Al nacer, los niĂąos estĂĄn preparados a aprender cualquier idioma sin tener acento.


Se ha comprobado que los multilingües son más rápidos en tareas de la memoria de trabajo que los monolingües.


Un ni単o de nueve a単os tiene el cerebro del mismo tama単o del de un adulto; por lo tanto, aprenden idiomas de la misma manera.


La mayor parte del mundo es monoling端e.


Cuanto mรกs idiomas se sabe, mรกs fรกcil es la adquisiciรณn de uno nuevo.


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Neurología Lingüística (Neurolinguística) Socio-Psicología Teoría de la Educación, Planificación curricular


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Los bilingües lidian con niveles de abstracción antes que los monolingües (1) Los bilingües aprenden a realizar cambios entre reglas de lenguaje a un ritmo mayor que los monolingües (2) Los bilingües aprenden a inhibir- o a no prestar atención-a un aprendizaje previo, destreza que depende del desarrollo la corteza prefrontal (3). Los bilingües usan más su cerebro que los monolingües (3). Los multilingües son más creativos que los monolingües en 30 de 33 estudios (4).

1. Suzanne Flynn professor of linguistics and second-language acquisition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Ellen Bialystok, professor of psychology at York University in Toronto. 2. Adele Diamond, director of the Center for Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Waltham. 3. Patricia Kuhl of the University of Washington . 4. Lena Riccardelli (1992).


¿Qué motivación existe para aprender un segundo idioma?    

Psicológica/Emocional Social/Educacional


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Rol: La Memoria Emocional Consecuencias deseadas obtenidas (premios) o escape/evasión de consecuencias desagradables no deseadas

Pregunta: ¿Qué importancia tiene esto en el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras?


“Cuando un concepto lucha con una emoción, la emoción casi siempre gana.”


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Rol: Imitar modelos positivos Ser parte de un grupo o ser un miembro valioso de una comunidad

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Pregunta: ¿Qué importancia tiene esto en el aprendizaje de lenguas

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extranjeras?


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Un niño debería estudiar su lengua nativa primero y, después de consolidarla, estudiar otras (Narváez, 2009). Aprendiendo dos lenguas simultáneamente el niño se confunde y baja su inteligencia (Gutiérrez, s.f). Un niño que aprende dos lenguas no se sentirá seguro en ninguna de ellas (Gutiérrez, s.f). Un niño bilingüe tiene problemas de identidad, crecerá con el sentimiento de no pertenecer a ninguna de las culturas involucradas y de no ser aceptado por ninguna de ellas (Gutiérrez, s.f). Los bilingües tienden a traducir de su lengua más frágil a la más fuerte (Gutiérrez, s.f). Los verdaderos bilingües nunca mezclan las dos lenguas (Gutiérrez, s.f). Las personas bilingües tienen que traducir conceptos de su idioma débil a su idioma fuerte (Kandolf, 1998).


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Todos los que son bilingües desde nacimiento tienen gran facilidad como traductores (Kandolf, 1998) Los bilingües verdaderos nunca confunden sus idiomas. Los que se confunden son semi-bilingües (Kandolf, 1998). Los niños que aprenden a ser bilingües desde pequeños nunca se sentirán a gusto en ninguna de las dos culturas (Kandolf, 1998). Algunos programas son capaces de enseñar un segundo idioma en cosa de días o semanas, así que no hay razón por la cual aprender un segundo idioma debería tomar mucho tiempo si la persona se encuentra motivada (Kandolf, 1998). La facilidad para aprender un idioma está directamente relacionada con el nivel de inteligencia de una persona. Los bilingües tienen doble personalidad. Una persona mayor de cierta edad nunca podrá ser bilingüe.


Ejes: 1.  2.  3.  4. 

Generalidades del Bilingüismo y Multilingüismo Metodologías en la Enseñanza de Idiomas Multilingüismo y Multiculturalismo Políticas de la Enseñanza de Idiomas Extranjeros y Marco Legal


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Fitting Two Languages in One Brain: http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/ 122/12/2207 Centre for Cognitive Brain Imaging: www.coglab.psy.cum.edu One Brain, Two Languages: http://www.life-slc.org/knowledge-base/researchhighlight-one-brain-two-languages-how-bilinguals-manage-language-control Brain and Language Lab: http://brainlang.georgetown.edu/ Ling 001 Language in the Brain: www.ling.upenn.edu MIT Encyclopaedia of Cognitive Science: www.cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Front/introduction.html Montreal Neurological Institute: www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca Multilingualism in the Brain: www.unibas.ch/multilingualbrain.html Neurolinguistics: Lsadc.org/Menn.html Neuroscience for Kids: www.faculty.washington.edu/chudler/image.html NSF-SBE-BCS Linguistics: www.nsf.gov/sbe/bcs/ling/start.htm Univ. Cambridge Neurolinguistics: www.wbic.cam.ac.ak/


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ERIC/CLL Resource Guides on Line www.cal.org/ericcll/faqs/rgos/flint.html Current Research in Bilingual Education www.cal.org/ericcll/minibibs/Bilingual.html Centre for Linguistics www.arts.uwa.edu.au/LingWWW/LIN101-102/NOTES/Socio6.html Ask a Linguist Tutor, submit a question www.linguist.emich.edu/~asktutor/ Multilingual Munchkins www.multilingualmunchkins.com Multilingual Sites www.widomaker.com/~ldprice/multi.html Clearinghouse for Multicultural/Bilingual Education www.weber.edu/mbe/htmls./mbe.htm Bilingual Web Sites www.as.miami.edu/english/faculty2/bpearson/bsg/BL.html Educational Links www.sf.bilingual.net/links/index.html Bilingual Families www.nethelp.no/cindy/biling-fam.htm Centre for Research on Bilingualism www.biling.su.se Language Academy Clearinghouse-Online Educational Links www.sf.bilingual.net/lr/index.html


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The Human Languages Page www.june29.com Foundation for Endangered Languages www.ogmios.org Ethnologue-Languages of the World www.sil.org/ethnologue/ethnologue.html Numeral Systems of the World's Languages http://homepage.renren.com/eugenechan/ Language Guesser-What Language Is It? www.xrce.xerox.com/research/mltt/tools/guesser.html Bilingual Education Network www.redmundial.com/ben.htm AGORA Language Marketplace www.agoralang.com The National Capital Language Resource Center www.cal.org/nclra On-Line Dictionaries in hundreds of languages www.yourdictionary.com European Year of Languages 2001 www.eurolang2001.org Facts About Languages www.linguasphere.org


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M채giste, E. (1984). Learning a third language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 5(5), 415-421. M채giste, E. (1986). Selected issues in second and third language learning. In J. Vaid (Ed.), Language processing in bilinguals: Psycholinguistic and Neurolinguistic perspectives (pp.97-122). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Martin-Jones, M and Romaine, S. (1986). Semilingualism: A half-baked theory of communicative competence. Applied Linguistics, 7, 1, 26-38. (further reading) Medgyes, P. (1999). The non-native teacher (revised 2nd edition). Ismaning, Germany: Hueber Verlang McLaughline, B., Blanchard A.T., & Osanai, Y. (1995). Assessing language development in bilingual preschool children. NCBE Program Information Guide Seris, 22. Meijers, and Sanders, M. (1995). English as L3 in the elementary school. Review of Applied Linguistics 107-108, 59-78. Murphy, S. (2002). Second language transfer during third language acquisition. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Musumeci, D. (1996). Teacher-learner negotiation in content-based instruction: Communication at cross-purposes. Applied Linguistics 17(3), 286-324. Nissani, H. (1990). Early childhood programs for language-minority children. FOCUS Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education. Washington, DC: NCBE.


Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Ogasawara, N. (edition Editor). (2004 May 6). Book discussion forum on LINGUIST List 15.1440. Review: Psycholing/Acquisition: Cenoz, et al. (2003). Announced at http://linguistlist.org/issues. Pavlenko, A., / Jarvis, S. (2001). Conceptual transfer : New perspectives on the study of crosslinguistic influence. In E. Nemth (Ed.), Cognition in language use: Selected papers from the 7th International Pragmatics Conference, Volume 1 (pp.288-301). Antwerp, NL: International Pragmatics Association. Philipson, R. (2004). English yes, but equal language rights first. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL. Poulisse, N. and T. Bongaerts (1994). First language use in second language production. Applied Linguistics 15(1), 36-57. Ramirez, J. D., Yuen, S. D., & Ramey, D. R. (1991). Longitudinal study of structured English immersion strategy, early-exit and late-exit transitional bilingual education programs for language-minority children. Final report to the U.S. Department of Education. Executive Summary and Vols. I and II. San Mateo, CA: Aguirre International. Rivers, W.-P. (1996). Self-directed language learning and third language learner. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (30th, Philadelphia, PA, November 22-24. Rolstad, K. (1997). Effects of Two-way Immersion on the Ethnic Identification of Third Language Students: An Exploratory Study. Bilingual Research Journal 21(1).


Ruuskanen, D.D.K. Bilingual and Multilingual children: Can my new baby learn two or more languages at home? Ask a Linguist . University of Vaasa, Finland. Sanz, C. (2000). Bilingual education enhances third language acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia. Applied Psycholinguistics 21(1),: 23-44. Schmidt, P. (1991, February 20). Three types of bilingual education equally effective, E.D. study concludes. Education Week, pp.1, 23. Secada, W. G. (1990). Research, politics, and bilingual education. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 508, 81-106. Selinker, L. & Baumgartner-Cohen, B. (1995). Multiple language acquisition: ‘Damn it, why can’t I keep these two languages apart?. In M. Bensoussan, I. Kreindler, & E. Aogain (Eds.), Multilingualism and language learning: 8, 2. Language, culture and curriculum (pp.115-123). Clevendon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Selinker, L., & Lakshmanan, U. (1993). Language transfer and fossilization: The “Multilple Effects Principle.” In S. Gass & L Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (Rev. ed., pp.197-216). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. Sharon, B. (1991). Faulty language selection in polyglots. Language and cognitive processes, 6 (4), 339-350.


Sikogukira, M. (1993). Influence of languages other than the L1 on a foreign language: the case of transfer from L2 to L3. Edinburgh Working Papers in Applied Linguistics 4:110-132. Swain, M. et al. (1990). The role of mother tongue literacy in third language learning", Language, Culture and Curriculum 3(1), 65-81. Schecter, S.R. & Bayley, R. (1997). Language socialization practices and cultural identity: contrastive relevance in bilingual maintenance strategies of Mexicandescent families in California and Texas. Paper given at International Symposium on Bilingualism, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Schmidt, P. (1991, February 20). Three types of bilingual education equally effective, E.D. study concludes. Education Week, pp.1, 23. Secada, W. G. (1990). Research, politics, and bilingual education. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 508, 81-106. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. 1984. Bilingual or not: The education of minorities. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. (transl. by Lars Malmberg & David Crane). Snow, M. A., A. M. Padilla, et al. (1988). Patterns of second language retention of graduates of a Spanish immersion program. Applied Linguistics 9(2),183-197. Snow, C.E., Barnes, W.S., Chandler, J., Goodman, I.F., & Hemphill, L. (1991). Unfulfilled expectations: Home and school influences on literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Swain, M. et al. (1990). The role of mother tongue literacy in third language learning", Language, Culture and Curriculum 3(1), 65-81.


Taboors, P.O. (1997). One child, two languages: A guide for preschool educators of children learning English as a second language. Tokuhama-Espinosa, T. (2000). Raising multilingual children: Foreign language acquisition and children. Westport, CT: Greenwood. Tokuhama-Espinosa, T. (2003). The multilingual mind: Questions by, for, and about people living with many languages. Westport, CT: Praeger Press. Tokuhama-Espinosa, T. (2008). Living languages: Multilingualism across the lifespan. Westport, CT: Greenwood. Toohey K. (2000). Learning English at school: Identity, social relations and classroom practice. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters (background reading) UNESCO. (July-Sept. 2003). The mother-tongue dilemma. Education Today Newsletter. UNESCO. (July-Sept. 2003). UNESCO and multiliongualism. Education Today Newsletter. Valadez, C.. M., MacSwan, J. and MartĂ­nez, C. (1997). Toward a new view of low achieving bilinguals: Syntactic competence in designated "semilinguals." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). http://www.public.asu.edu/~macswan/aera97.pdf


Walsh, J. (2004). Minority voices show strong instinct for survival. The Guardian Weekly. Brighton UK: IATEFL Wei, L. (2000) Dimensions of bilingualism in Wei, L. (ed). (2000). The bilingualism reader. London: Routledge Wei, L., Niklas Miller, & Barbara Dodd. 1997. Distinguishing communicative difference from language disorder in bilingual children. The Bilingual Family Newsletter 14(1), 3-4. Werker, J.F. and Tees R.C. (1984) Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development 7, 49-63. Williams, S., & Hammarberg, B. (1998). Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking world. Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 295-333. Wong Fillmore, L. (1991). When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6 (3), 323-347.


Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa, Ph.D. IIDEA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito Edif. Galileo #101 Telf: 297-1700 x1338 ttokuhama@usfq.edu.ec Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa es Directora del Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo y Excelencia Académica de la Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador.   Tracey tiene su BA y BS de la Universidad de Boston (Comunicación y Relaciones Internacionales), Maestría en Educación de la Universidad de Harvard en Desarrollo Internacional (Ed.M), y recibió su doctorado (PhD) en Educación con su tesis en Neuroeducación / la Ciencia de Mente, Cerebro y Educación / Neurociencia Educacional (Universidad de Capella, EEUU).   Tracey ha sido profesora de alumnos kindergarten-universitario, es autora de cinco libros sobre educación, y trabaja con colegios en 15 países.  


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