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of People-Enviromental Studies

25th IAPS Conference (Rome) 9-13 July 2018 Transitions to sustainability, lifestyles changes and human wellbeing: cultural, environmental and political challenges

Editor: Ricardo García Mira Anticipated psychosocial effects of the Zapotillo dam project on Temacapulin’s inhabitants The influence of city centre environments on the affective and restorative walking experience Research projects: SCOPE, CONNECTING Interview with Necdet Teymur

WINTER 2018 - #45


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International Association for People-Environment Studies aims to improve the physical environment and human well-being.

Submissions Whilst we encourage all our members to submit material, any submission for inclusion in the Bulletin should be written to high standards of English grammar and punctuation. To help the review process, we kindly ask you have the material checked by a fluent English speaker before submitting it to the Bulletin. Please, send your contributions for the next issue by e-mail to Ricardo García Mira, at the following address: bulletin.iaps@gmail.com

Bulletin of PeopleEnviromental Studies. Winter 2018 Number 45 ISSN: 1301 - 3998

All manuscripts should be written in Times New Roman 12 pt., double-spaced. The maximum word length for articles is 2000 words. Include names, affiliation and full contact details of all the authors.

www.iaps-association.org

Instructions on how to become an IAPS member, or to renew your membership, are available on the IAPS webiste:

Editor Ricardo García Mira

iaps-association.org

Editorial Team Tony Craig Sigrun Kabisch Taciano Milfont Adriana Portella Henk Staats Clare Twigger-Ross

Editorial Committee Aleya Abdel-Hadi Giuseppe Carrus Angela Castrechini Arza Churchman José A. Corraliza Sandrine Depeau Edward Edgerton Ferdinando Fornara Birgitta Gattersleben Bernardo Hernández Corina Ilin Maria Johanson Florian Kaiser Peter Kellett Marketta Kitta Roderick Lawrence Jeanne Moore Enric Pol Ombretta Romice Massimiliano Scopelliti Kevin Thwaites Hulya Turgut David Uzzell

Photo Credits All photographs included in this list are under a Creative Commons license: Attribution-noncommercial 3.0 Unported. Cover: Rome Rooftops - May 2015 - Dome City 1 by Gareth Williams*. Page 2: DSC01741 Rural housing, Mkuze by Paul Seligman*. Page 5: Chicago buildings - view from the Willis Tower by jphilipg*. Pages 8-10: Temacapulín, Jalisco by Colectivo Ecologista Jalisco*. Page 10: Temacaravana... by José Esteban Castro*. Page 10: VII Reunión... by José Esteban Castro*. Page 11: Temacaravana... by José Esteban Castro*. Page 12: no_a_la_presa by Adapting to Scarcity*. Page 16: Anna Bornioli. Page 17: Bristol cityscape by Nick*. Page 18: UK - Bristol - Clifton - The Paragon by Harshil Shah*.

Page 19: Clare Street, Bristol by Robert Cutts*. Page 22: Luisa Lima & cols. Page 22: Escadinhas da Barroca, 8A/B by Paulo Valdivieso*. Page 24: Marcus Collier & cols. Page 27: Derya Oktay. Pages 30-31: Fredy Monge. Pages 33-34: Helena Martinez & Isabel Lema. Pages 35-36: Nathalie Jean-Baptiste & cols. Page 45: Yolanda Barbeito. Pages 46-47: Gruppo Symposia Back: Colosseo de Roma by KasoKaishyap*.

* Flickr user

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IAPS Board 2016-2018 Ricardo García Mira, President, Bulletin Editor

Taciano Milfont, YRW

Victoria University of Wellington New Zealand

University of A Coruña Spain Tony Craig, Secretary

Adriana Portella, Membership, Bulletin, Website

The James Hutton Institute Scotland, UK

Federal University of Pelotas Brazil

Clare Twigger-Ross, Treasurer

Collingowood Environmental Planning Ltd. UK

Petra Schweizer-Ries, Website, Membership

Bochum University of Applied Sciences, Germany

Caroline Hagerhall, Membership

Seungkwang Shon, Conference support

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Sweden

Dongshin University South Korea

Sigrun Kabisch, Conference support, Publications. Helmholtz Centre for

Ian Simkins, Networks

Environmental Research Germany

Experiemics, Experiential Landscape Research UK

Karina Landeros, YRW

Henk Staats, Conference support, YRW

National Autonomous University of Mexico

Universiteit Leiden The Netherlands

The IAPS Board is now structured into four workgroups, each with a lead responsible member. Management Responsible: Ricardo García Mira (President). Members: Tony Craig (Secretary), Clare Twigger-Ross (Treasurer), Petra Schweizer-Ries (Membership), Adriana Portella (Membership). Tasks: finances, membership, profile, constitution, elections, meetings, conference voting, general liaison, and the public face of IAPS. Published Outputs Responsible: Ricardo García Mira (Bulletin). Members: Sigrun Kabisch (Publications), Adriana Portella (Bulletin, Website), Petra Schweizer-Ries (Website) Tasks: bulletin, website, bibliography, publicity. Conference related activities Responsible: Sigrun Kabisch (Conference Support). Members: Karina Landeros (YRW), Taciano Milfont (YRW), Seungkwang Shon (Conference support), and Henk Staats (Conference support, YRW). Tasks: Young Researchers Workshop, Hall of Fame, Conference support. Networks Responsibles: Ian Simkins (Networks). Members: Karina Landeros (Networks, YRW), Caroline Hägerhäll (Networks). Tasks: IAPS networks coordination.

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Bulletin Summary EDITORIAL ADDRESS Editorial address (R. García Mira)

P. 7

7 P. 8-19

CONTRIBUTIONS

Anticipated psychosocial effects of the el Zapotillo dam project on Temacapulín’s inhabitants (B. Jiménez, V. Barrios, T. Flores) The influence of city centre environments on the affective and restorative walking experience (A. Bornioli)

8 14 P. 20-25

RESEARCH PROGRAMS

Sustainable communities, organizations and places (SCOPE)

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Coproduction with nature for city transitioning, innovation and governance (connecting nature) (A. Dumitru, R. García Mira)

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P. 26

INTERVIEW

About architecture, teaching and research interview with Necdet Teymur (D. Oktay)

26 P. 29-36

PAST CONFERENCES

International Forum of Social Sciences: Interdiciplinary dialogues on climate change, disasters and governance (F. S. Monge, W. Mamani)

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International Conference of Environmental Psychology (ICEP) – Theories of Change and Social innovation in transitions towards sustainability

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IAPS 2017 Symposium. Knowledge for climate-proof urban development in rapidly changing environments

35 P. 37-42

OBITUARY

Necdet Teymur Gilles Barbey Paul Oliver SerafĂ­n Mercado Domenech

37 39 40 41 P. 45

NEWS

IAPS board meeting - A Coruna (Spain) - august 29th 2017

45 P. 46-47

NEXT CONFERENCES

Short presentation of the 25 IAPS conference in Rome 2018 for IAPS Bulletin th

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New publications section for IAPS members This is an announcement of a new publication section which will be included in future issues of the Bulletin. Those members who have recently published an article in a well evaluated or high ranked journal, as well as a book or book chapter with a relevant publisher, please send your reference with a brief abstract about the content of your publication, to: adrianaportella@yahoo.com.br by March 15th, and it will be included into the next issue.

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Editorial address,

by Ricardo García Mira Here we are again with a new issue of the bulletin of IAPS, with an eye on our next IAPS Conference in Rome. Organized by Giuseppe Carrus and his team of collaborators, the conference will address as a main theme the “Transitions to sustainability, lifestyles changes and human wellbeing: cultural, environmental and political challenges”. The conference will address a wide range of topics in the field of people-environment studies, and IAPS will provide multiple responses to present day social and environmental challenges, through its research networks. More than 500 abstract proposals, 125 posters and 36 papers for the Young Researchers’ Workshop are currently under evaluation. These numbers speak for themselves of an organization that continues to be an international benchmark in our field of research. We are eager to revisit “the eternal city” to debate, strengthen our research ties, and make new proposals that contribute to a greater or lesser extent to build a more just, safer and more livable world. In this issue we include new articles about two relevant topics. On the one hand, Bernardo Jiménez, Verónica Barrios and Tania Flores analyze the impact of the construction of a dam in Temacapulín (Jalisco, Mexico), placing the emphasis on the psychosocial, environmental and health impact factors produced by the anticipation of forced displacement of the population, experienced as a disaster, and the absence of participation in the risk management process. On the other hand, Anna Bornioli (who won the IAPS Young Researchers Award in 2016 in Lund) discusses the concept of place as a product of personal experiences and implications, introducing the debate about the geographical idea of place, the activators of restorative and affective potential of built scenarios, as well as aspects that have to do with the memory of place, place attachment, and place identity as elements that play an important role in the restorative experience. These two related topics are highly relevant and are central to the field of people-environment studies. The Bulletin also includes the presentation of two research projects that are being carried out in Lisbon and A Coruña, in collaboration with other European universities, under the coordination of Luisa Lima, Paula Castro and others in the case of SCOPE (Sustainable communities, Organizations and Places), and Adina Dumitru and Ricardo García Mira (under the general coordination of Marcus Collier, from Trinity College Dublin) in the case of CONNECTING Nature (CoproductioN with NaturE for City Transitioning, InnovatioN and Gobernance). SCOPE is focused on the person-environment relationships from a socio-psychological perspective with involvement of other disciplines such as architecture or biology, and it is an interdisciplinary project including different levels of analysis and diverse methodologies such as discourse analysis to investigate social representations as well as attitudes and perceptions of risk. On the other hand, the CONNECTING

project, among other aspects, focuses its interest on cities facing climate change and on potential solutions that rely on the responsible use of natural resources. Sustainable urban transitions require the establishment of a system of indicators to assess the impact of such solutions for a broad range of desirable objectives, as well as the implementation of a methodology that facilitates that cities at the forefront of sustainable transitions (Front Runner Cities) can export their procedures and learning to other cities that have adaptation programs and potential for such solution development (Fast Follower Cities). We also dedicate space to three conferences in which IAPS has had an effective involvement. On the one hand, the International Forum of Social Sciences, organized by Professor Fredy Monge Rodríguez and Walter Mamani Tapia (National University of San Antonio Abad of Cusco, Peru), which opened a large space for interdisciplinary dialogue on climate change, disasters and governance. Secondly, the International Conference on Environmental Psychology, organized by Ricardo García Mira and Adina Dumitru (University of A Coruña), in coordination with the 4th Division of Environmental Psychology of the IAAP, which focused the debate on theories of change and social innovation in transitions towards sustainability. Finally, another successful conference was the Symposium on Knowledge for Climate-Proof Urban Development in Rapidly Changing Environments, which took place in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, organized by Nathalie Jean-Baptiste and Wilbard Kombe (Ardhi University) in collaboration with the IAPS network of Housing. In recent months we have seen some of our dearest companions leave. Thus, in May 2017 we said goodbye to Gilles Barbey, who was the second President of IAPS since its founding in 1981, elected at the Berlin Congress in 1984. Just one month later, in June 2017, Necdet Teymur died, and we were left with Derya Oktay´s interview carried out a few months before his death, which was a reflection of his approach to research and architecture as an academic. Ashraf Salama dedicates affectionate words to his human quality and academic trajectory, to which I have also added some comments from other IAPS members who knew him and wanted to express their warm farewell. In August of 2017, Paul Oliver also left us, a great specialist in the field of vernacular architecture, to whom we dedicate the words that Hulya Turgut, David Uzzell and Kevin Nute. Finally, and very recently, in September of 2017, Serafín Mercado Domenech from the National Autonomous University of Mexico died, with whom I had a very close relationship, and to whom friend and colleague Professor Patricia Ortega dedicates an obituary, highlighting his figure and legacy. All of them left footprints that will be difficult to erase in their respective fields of work, but also on a personal level, especially those who shared their friendship. May they all rest in peace.

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Anticipated psychosocial effects of the el Zapotillo dam project on Temacapulín’s inhabitants

Bernardo Jiménez Centro de Estudios Urbanos Universidad de Guadalajara. bjimdom@hotmail.com Veronica Barrios Universidad de Guadalajara. barrios.veronic@gmail.com Tania Flores Universidad de Guadalajara. tania.flores.delatorre@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This study arises from the menace the Mexican government has thrived since 2005 to evict the townspeople of Temacapulín, Jalisco to build the dam El Zapotillo with the argument of supplying water for two cities. The defense of the Temacapulín territory motivated young adults, adults and older people to participate in this investigation which presents how these people have grown as a community while trying to save their town. The study recuperates the experiences of the participants through a group interview in which the memories of the town, the present living and the future dreams of the townspeople were narrated. This study presents the anticipated effects of the announced dam on the people. They live the project of the dam as a disaster for their lives, families and town. This is not an exaggeration considering various negative evaluations that have been made to large dams in the world. Key words: psychosocial effects, forced displacement, psychosocial trauma.

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Temacapulín is a town in western state of Jalisco, Mexico, 132 kilometers northeast of the city of Guadalajara. It is located in a small valley, surrounded by mountains and abundant in thermal waters. The Jalisco State government in 2005 threatened to flood the town in order to build the Zapotillo dam in order to provide water to the cities of Guadalajara and León. This study is a part of a psychosocial expert report, required by the legal association that supports the town. The people narrate the experience as a disaster. Large dams have negative evaluations, such as Tyrtania (1992), writing about the Miguel Aleman dam, says: “The region looks more like a disaster zone. You can’t bathe in the water from the reservoir without getting a rash. To this day there are lots of serious public health problems, high levels of violence and chronic malnutrition” (p. 107). This lived reality coincides with Charles Fritz (1963), cited by Peek & Mileti, (2002),1 as well as Porfiriev (1995) notion of disaster, conceived as social constructions characterized by danger, loss and disrupture of daily routine so that extraordinary measures are required.

The conceptualization of psychosocial effects is based on the psychosocial and social traumas described by Martin-Baró (1989), trauma, emotional perturbations, short and long term effects were consulted on studies by Bland, O’Leary, Farinaro, Jossa & Trevisan, (1996), as well as the victims with greater risk referred by Shannon, Lonigan, Finch & Taylor (1994). The anticipated impacts of dams on migrants due to forced displacement were consulted on Hwang, Xi, Cao, Feng and Qiao (2007) research on positive correlations between depression and forced migration, as well as on 1998 O´Sullivan and Handal’s findings on disturbed social support networks do to relocation. As to the social impact of large dams the study contemplates studies by Goldsmith and Hildyard (1984, cited by Tyrtania, 1992), Cernea (2004), Scudder (2004) and Ferradas (1999). In short, the dams’ problems are: kill rivers, water pollution, cause methane emissions, corrupt corporations and governments behind more expensive projects and human rights violations.

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METHOD

The group interview The interview is a part of the psychological studies with the objective of knowing the psychosocial impact of the construction of the dam on the Temacapulín’s inhabitants upon a solicitation from the Lawyer’s Collective (COA) that legally supports the population and to respond to the expertise report. A qualitative methodology and subsequently the realization of a group interview was decided to be the most adequate form to study this social phenomena. The questions of the expert’s report were disaggregated in psychosocial themes and categories. These were restructured in an interview guide format. The interview took place the 24th of July of 2010 in the Urban Studies Center of the University of Guadalajara premises and had two and a half hours duration. The participants were Temacapulín inhabitants and people who lived at the moment on Guadalajara but held a close link to their town. All accepted previously to attend. The COA Lawyer called the interview and they were the ones to decide who would participate in the interview, being a total of 20 participants of ages around 17 and 89


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years old, predominantly women over 60 years old. The number exceeded what was expected and recommended, which is of 10 people, but instead of being a problem the group was very well complemented. The investigation team for the interview was made up of an observer, an interviewer, an interview assistant and a reporter. During the interview a transcription was made, as well as an audio and video recordings. The interview was processed with the data analysis program Atlasti version 6.2, identifying the segments corresponding to codes. The codes were defined according to the psychosocial categories of the interview guide and then organized. The organization responded to the expertise report’s questions with codified segments of the interview but at the same time differentiated by the temporality of the stories and events in a before, during and after the threat of the construction of the dam. The structure of the organized codes for each item in the questionnaire for data analysis in the Atlas-ti 6.2 described are the following: Characteristics of the population; Collective and family ties; Psychosocial effects because of the menace and Changes in labor and economic aspects. ANALYSIS

Characteristics of the population The population characterizes itself as pacific, home-based, hardworking, and harmonious. They are used to enjoy recently harvested products and perform activities together in the surroundings. The traditions narrated are related to specific settings, such as going on picnics to the river. During the evenings women would crossstitch outside. The inhabitants of TemacapulĂ­n subsist of agriculture and money sent by migrants. The economic crisis expelled some inhabitants who migrated leaving lands and activities focused in animal goods were diminished. TemacapulĂ­n is described as installed in between four hills. They have always enjoyed of the landscape. The full moon nights were a motive to enjoy nocturnal games for the youngsters. IAPS - BULLETIN 45 | WINTER 2018


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Collective and family ties Seniors are considered as an important part of the family and community; they are included in diverse activities. They narrate stories of their grandparents. The death of seniors is perceived as a loss to the community’s strength. This community describes the relationship between its habitants as if it were a great family. They are used to welcome the migrants when they come home. The time spent with the family is very valuable; vacation has been the ideal time to share with those who migrated to the United States and other cities. Events in the community are rapidly known among its members. These people also recognize themselves as healthy and longevous. Families consisted of 8 to 14 members. Those who live in Guadalajara are used to constantly visit because their roots are there and this is also taught to their children.

PSYCHOSOCIAL, LABOR AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Participants have observed anxiety in the children who don’t play, they are distracted and worried about the announced migration. The older people have deteriorated, they live worried, many of them can’t work anymore, thus their subsistence outside of Temacapulín is complicated. Some have died very worried about the dam. The population in general has noted the loss of tranquility, now they are continuously thinking in what moment they are going to be driven out. The family coexistence has been affected because the time used before for family gatherings now is used to talk about the preoccupations around the dam. In general they have turned distrustful especially of the visitors who were very welcomed before now are questioned. The construction of the dam was accompanied of constant strong noises generating anxiety. Police patrols

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intimidate them. This has provoked insomnia, increased hypertension and diabetes. They consider that the houses where they will be relocated will make them feel suffocated because they are too small. Upon this problem they experiment impotence, irritability, some have reacted by socially isolating themselves. The threat of displacement generates insecurity. Families have argued because of the differences they have on the dam. Other preoccupations in the community and in the families are that if the dam is built their dead ones would end up underwater. They are afraid that if something happens if they oppose the dam project it will not only be them to be assaulted or killed. They are also worried that their children will die in the struggle. Children are preoccupied as they imagine that their town will be flooded. The construction, maintenance and remodeling of the homes is much diminished. The threat of relocation has driven them to live new


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experiences, manifesting publically against the dam project and receiving social support, and this makes them feel stronger. They understand the future only from what they as inhabitants decide for their town. CONCLUSIONS

The key factor that explains the persistence of the movement for the defense of Temacapulín is the strong identity of its people, which includes the dynamic relationship between the individual and the collective, strongly linked to the geographic location of the town. The isolation of the place has contributed to the development of its autonomy and their appreciation of the environment. There is a fluid integration amongst environment, daily life and religion that is imprinted upon the forms of subsistence in the middle of poverty: what matters is the territory and it is the foregoing conglomerate which integrates the culture, enjoyment as well as the reproduction of customary rituals, strongly rooted to the place. Since ancestral times the Temacapulín people have given life to a town sustained by agriculture and recently on tourism. The threat of relocation has imposed a destructive interruption in the way of life of the

inhabitants as well as of the migrants who are still linked to Temacapulín. Now, worry about the future prevails. The uncertainty of their territory is such that their plans for the future have halted, generating anguish. The conditions of life that the Federal and State Governments, along with the State’s Water Commission, have created, through threats, a fragmented community life, causing fear, setting one neighbor against another, and provoking a state of generalized mistrust. The Temacapulín people do not visualize having a full life outside of their native land. They cannot conceive living in small housing, on unfertile lands, without the orchards in their patios, without the church, nor the thermal waters and the opportunity to visit their dead. Everyone would be affected economically, culturally and socially because there is no longer any way to proceed from one day to the next in the manner built by generation after generation within the extended family and in a whole town. That is what usually guarantees the failure of settlements built by dam constructors working with purely technocratic logic, expelling populations, destroying their integrated way of life, desecrating their ecosystem and

polluting their environment. Dams are enterprises whose construction is often imposed, sometimes by the use of force, whose construction extends over an indefinite period of time and is linked with the privatization of the water supply. On June 29, 2017, the governor of Jalisco, based on a UNOPS (United Nations Office for Project Services) study paid by his own government that has been criticized for its bias and by ignoring the affected population, stated that the curtain of the dam will be at 105 mts. (the initial project indicated 80 mts., which would not flood Temacapulín). All this despite three trials won and a legal amparo in favor of the town people who continue in resistance and are joined at present by farmers of the affected region, citizens, universities, specialists and NGOs.

Footnotes 1

Fritz, C. (1963), cited by Peek & Mileti, (2002), An event, concentrated in time and space, in which a society, or a relatively self-sufficient subdivision of a society, undergoes severe danger and incurs such losses to its members and physical appurtenances that the social structure is disrupted and the fulfillment of all or some of the essential functions in the society is prevented (p. 655).

References

• Bland, S.H., O’Leary, E.S., Farinaro, E., Lossa, F. & Trevisan, M. (1996). Long term psychological effects of natural disasters. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 18-24.

• Cernea, M. (2004) Social impacts and social risks in hydropower programs: preemptive planning and counter-risk measures. Keynote address: session on social aspects of hydropower development. United Nations Symposium on Hydropower and Sustainable Development. Beijing-China: 27-29 October.

• Ferradas, C. (1999). Report of Social Impacts of Dams: Distributional and Equity Issues- Latin American Region. Contributing Paper. Thematic Review 1: Social Impacts of Large Dams Equity and Distributional Issues. World Commission on Dams. • Fritz, Ch. (1963). Disaster. In R.K. Merton & R. A. Nisbet (Eds.) Contemporary social problems (pp. 651.694). New York: Harcourt Press.

• Goldsmith, E. & Hildyard, N. (1984).The Social and Environmental Effects of Large Dams. Cornwall: Wadebridge Ecological Centre.

• Hwang, S., Xi, J.,Cao, Y.,Feng, X. &Qiao, X. (2007). Anticipation of Migration and Psychological Stress and the Three Gorges dam project, China. SocSciMed, September 65(5), 1012-1024.

• Martín-Baró. I. (1989) Psicología social de la Guerra: diagnóstico y psicoterapia. San Salvador: UCA Editores. • O’Sullivan M, Handal P. (1998) Medical and psychological effects of the threat of compulsory relocation for an American Indian Tribe. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health. Vol. 2(1) pp. 3-19.

• Peek, L. & Mileti, D. (2002).The History and future of Disaster Research. En Bechterl, R. & Chuchman, A. Handbook of Environmental Research. New York: Wiley.

• Porfiriev, B. (1995). Disaster and disasters areas: Methodological issues of definition and delineation. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 13(13), 285-304. • Shannon, M. Lonigan, C. Finch, A. & Taylor, C. (1994). Children exposed to disaster: I. Epidemiology of Post-traumatic symptoms and symptom profiles. Journal of the American academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(1), 80-93. • Scudder, T. (2006) The Future of Large Dams. London: Earthscan.

• Tyrtania, L. (1992) La evolución de los lagos artificiales: el impacto ecológico de la presa Miguel Alemán. Alteridad, 2(4), 103-108.

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The influence of city centre environments on the affective and restorative walking experience 1

Anna Bornioli PhD Student Centre for Transport and Society University of the West of England, Bristol Anna2.Bornioli@live.uwe.ac.uk

This PhD thesis explored the influence of the built environment on the affective walking experience. In fact, while urbanisation trends are increasing, levels of walking in urban settings are decreasing, despite to the important health, social, and environmental benefits of walking (Robertson et al., 2012). However, while there is a rich literature on the restorative benefits of walking in nature, not many studies addressed the potential positive benefits of walking in attractive urban areas. However, according to the United Nations (2014), by 2050 66 per cent of the world’s population will live in cities. In addition, recent research has shown how experiencing nature is a rarity for most urban dwellers (Cox et al., 2017). Therefore, it is important to explore what elements of the urban realm can have positive effects on people’s health, especially during walking. A novel theoretical framework was applied, combining two main disciplines: environmental psychology literature on environmental affect (Russell and Pratt, 1980) and psychological restoration (Stress Recovery Theory - SRT: Ulrich, 1983; Attention Restoration Theory – ART: Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989), and the geographical literature on

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PhD thesis extended abstract

walking and place. Specifically, this research introduced in the debate on restoration the conceptualisation of place from human geography (Tuan, 1977; Relph, 1976). Geographers conceive places not just as mere physical settings, but as the result of the interactions between the individual and the environment. ART and SRT argue that it is exposure to natural environments that can promote restoration. The restoration literature abounds with examples of studies examining the synergic benefits of physical activity and the mediating effect of natural environments. In debating the dichotomy nature versus urban, and the moderating effect of settings on affective variables, scholars tend to associate urban environments with negative effects, such as stress and psychological discomfort (Ulrich et al., 1991). However, it is argued that in past decades, the tendency was to select for research studies ‘grey’, unattractive urban places such as commercial and industrial areas (Johansson, Hartig, and Staats, 2011), urban outskirts (Hartig et al., 2003) or streets with heavy motor-traffic (Van den Berg, Jorgensen, & Wilson, 2014); in doing so, the potential for some urban environments also to offer restoration was downplayed, as already noted by some scholars (e.g., Karmanov and Hamel, 2008). In fact, according to restoration theory, any environment that possesses one or more restorative properties can be restorative (Kaplan and Kaplan 1989). In line with this, more recently, scholars have shown that some urban contexts can have restorative effects, and these have included a modern urban development near Amsterdam docks (Karmanov & Hamel, 2008), a historic panoramic site (Fornara, 2011) and the city of Stirling (Roe

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& Aspinall, 2011). Still, and as noted by Hartig et al. (2003) and Fornara (2011), there is a substantial lack of literature assessing the impact of “attractive” urban places on affective variables. It was the intention of the current thesis to address this imbalance, and to investigate the affective and restorative potential of non-grey urban settings. In addition, research indicates that personal characteristics such as socio-demographics and personal experiences and attitudes can influence affective and restorative experiences (e.g., Ratcliffe and Korpela, 2016). Therefore, it seems important to examine more fully the role of socio-demographics and personal characteristics of participants, especially looking at past experiences, memories, and attitudes. However, previous empirical research on restoration is heavily based on student participants, as highlighted by reviews of the evidence (e.g., MacMahan and Estes, 2015). Arguably, this group has specific sociodemographic characteristics and, potentially, a specific set of values, attitudes, and experiences, thus not allowing a deep analysis of the role of personal characteristics on affective experiences. Therefore, another aim was to explore whether the affective and restorative walking experience differs between populations.

The following main questions were addressed: - In what ways can walking in urban environments support affect? - How can the mobilities and environmental psychology literatures be integrated to inform a critical realist study of the affective benefits of walking in city centre environments? - What is the role of motor traffic and architectural styles on the affective and restorative benefits of walking in urban settings? - To what extent two different populations (employees and students based in Bristol) experience different affective and restorative walking experiences? - What are enablers and barriers to a positive affective and restorative

Figure 1: ∆relaxation per setting. Note: Difference between pre–post scores on relaxation scale in five settings. Maximum score is 16. The y-axis shows the change in relaxation (post minus pre-test scores); a bar above the y-axis represents an increase in relaxation. Error bars (95% confidence intervals) are shown.

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walking experience in urban contexts other than presence of natural elements? 
 To what extent does the affective walking experience influence walking intentions?

A mixed-methods strategy was adopted. First, an online experiment with residents of Bristol (UK) (n=385) compared affective outcomes (stress, hedonic tone, and energy) of walking in five settings in Bristol city centre following a video-simulated walk. Participants were 386 individuals (69% females) ranging in age from 18 to 87 years old, mainly white British (82%). 130 were undergraduate Psychology students, and 255 were employees of public and private organisations based in Bristol city centre. Each respondent was randomly assigned to one of 5 environmental simulations. A 1-minute video of a simulated walk was filmed for each environment, a popular tool in the literature (Van den Berg et al., 2014). Three recognisable leisure-oriented streets in the city of Bristol were selected, identified as places where residents go to shop, eat, and stroll: - Pedestrianised historic environment (PedHist): The historic heart of Bristol, dominated by neoclassic buildings. IAPS - BULLETIN 45 | WINTER 2018

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Pedestrianised modern environment (PedMod): A modern complex of public spaces, green areas, residential buildings and leisure areas. Pedestrianised mixed environment (PedMixed): A built area with green and historic elements close to the Bristol Cathedral. Commercial area with traffic (CommTraf): A commercial street with traffic in the shopping area of Bristol. Park: An urban park in Bristol City Centre.

Second, a sub-sample of 14 participants (employees and students) that had previously participated in the experiment was involved in photo and video-elicited interviews based on a real walk. The aim was to explore perceptions, practices and activities, or social interactions related to in-situ experiences. Data were then analysed using thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006) and considered in the context of ART (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989) and SRT (Ulrich, 1983) as well as literatures on walking and place (e.g., Tuan, 1976). Quantitative results showed that the simulated walks in pedestrianised areas without green elements were associated with affective benefits, as


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Figure 2: Historic elements are symbols of the identity of Bristol.

Figure 3: A well-kept garden triggers sense of community. IAPS - BULLETIN 45 | WINTER 2018

opposed to a commercial area with traffic. In addition, the pedestrianised mixed area was associated with affective benefits not statistically different from those in the park setting. Importantly, the commercial area with traffic was the only built setting associated with an increase in stress and a decrease in hedonic tone. Figure 1 shows pre-post stress scores in the five settings. In addition, some differences between the two populations (employees and students) emerged, as students experienced higher affective benefits following the simulated walks in the pedestrianised historic setting and in the park. In addition, students became significantly more stressed following the walk in the commercial area with traffic. The qualitative phase aimed to explain these findings in more detail. Enablers and barriers of restoration in the urban context were identified. Among the barriers, it was found that motor traffic, poor aesthetics, and city busyness have a negative impact on affective variables. These results contributed to explain why the commercial area with traffic was the only setting associated with


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negative affective outcomes. Arguably, the role of traffic, city busyness, and poor aesthetics could also be the common denominator in those studies that found that urban walking is not restorative (e.g., Johansson, Hartig and Staats, 2011; Hartig et al., 2003). On the other hand, presence of nature and an engagement with place were among the enablers of a positive affective and restorative experience. Specifically, it emerged that personal associations, engagement with Bristol’s identity, and sense of community support affect and restoration: 1. Personal memories, habits, and associations related to place, such as memories of home triggered by a shop or a building can stimulate hedonic tone, happiness, and relaxation. This set of results also contributed to partially explain the differences in affective experiences between the student and employee populations identified in the

quantitative phase. In fact, students tended to associate positive memories to nature, due to the fact that they had spent most of their life in natural-rural, rather than urban, settings. As a consequence, their walking experience in the park and in the pedestrianised historic setting was significantly more restorative than for the employee group. 2. Engaging with Bristol’s identity can promote positive affect and cognitive recovery. For example, experiencing a “sense of history” in historic areas can prompt curiosity, imagination, and pride (Figure 2). 3. A connection with community, triggered by social events, active frontages and public spaces, can aid positive affect and enhance perceived safety (Figure 3).

Generally, these ideas mirror Relph (1976) and Tuan’s (1977) IAPS - BULLETIN 45 | WINTER 2018

conceptualisations of place as the product of personal experiences and involvements. By introducing in the debate on restorative environments the geographical idea of place, the enablers of the affective and restorative potential of built settings were identified. In line with previous research, it was found that place memory (Ratcliffe and Korpela, 2016), place attachment (Ratcliffe and Korpela, 2016) and identity (Morton, van der Bles, and Haslam, 2017) have a role in restorative experiences. Findings also contributed to explain why visiting a historic site (Fornara, 2011) and walking in a historic centre – among a group of individuals with poor mental health, Roe and Aspinall (2011) – presented restorative features, and this is related to the meanings associated with the identity and history of place. Finally, a separate set of mixed quantitative-qualitative analysis


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showed that affective experiences of walking influence future intentions to walk. In fact, multiple regression analyses highlighted that affective experiences (stress and hedonic tone) predict walking intentions and mediate the role of perceived aesthetics. This revealed that a positive affective and restorative walking experience can encourage walking intentions, thus confirming that affective experiences influence approach/avoidance behaviours (Ulrich, 1983; Mehrabian and Russell, 1974). Therefore, it is highlighted the policy need to identify how urban walking can be relaxing, pleasant, and restorative, in order to increase walking levels in urban contexts. To conclude, this thesis found that some non-natural, non-grey settings can support affective and restorative experiences, and barriers and enablers of a positive affective walking experience were identified. In addition, this research has examined the policy implications of affective and restorative experiences, and has revealed that a positive affective walking experience can encourage walking.

References • Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology [online]. 3 (2), pp.77-101.

• Cox, D. T., Hudson, H. L., Shanahan, D. F., Fuller, R. A., & Gaston, K. J. (2017). The rarity of direct experiences of nature in an urban population. Landscape and Urban Planning, 160, 79-84. • Fornara, F. (2011). Are “attractive” built places as restorative and emotionally positive as natural places in the urban environment? In M. Marino Bonaiuto, M. Bonnes, A. M. Nenci & G. Carrus (Eds.), Urban diversities - environmental and social issues (pp. 159-169). Hogrefe Publishing.

• Hartig, T., Evans, G. W., Jamner, L. D., Davis, D. S., & Gärling, T. (2003). Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(2), 109-123.

• Johansson, M., Hartig, T., & Staats, H. (2011). Psychological benefits of walking: Moderation by company and outdoor environment. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 3(3), 261-280.

• Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. Cambridge University Press. • Kaplan, S. (1987). Aesthetics, affect, and cognition: Environmental preference from an evolutionary perspective. Environment and Behavior, 19(1), 3-32. • Karmanov, D., & Hamel, R. (2008). Assessing the restorative potential of contemporary urban environment(s): Beyond the nature versus urban dichotomy. Landscape and Urban Planning, 86(2), 115-125.

• Matthews, G., Jones, D. M., & Chamberlain, A. G. (1990). Refining the measurement of mood: The UWIST mood adjective checklist. British Journal of Psychology, 81(1), 17-42. • Mehrabian, A. and Russell, J.A. (1974) An Approach to Environmental Psychology. [online]. The MIT Press.

• Morton, T.A., Van Der Bles, A.M., and Haslam, S.A. (2017) Seeing our self reflected in the world around us: The role of identity in making (natural) environments restorative. Journal of Environmental Psychology [online]. 49 pp.65-77. • Ratcliffe, E. and Korpela, K. (2016) Memory and place attachment as predictors of imagined restorative perceptions of favourite places. Journal of Environmental Psychology [online]. 48, pp.120-130.

• Relph, E. (1976) Place and Placelessness. Pion London.

• Robertson, R., Robertson, A., Jepson, R., & Maxwell, M. (2012). Walking for depression or depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 5(1), 66-75. • Roe, J., & Aspinall, P. (2011). The restorative benefits of walking in urban and rural settings in adults with good and poor mental health. Health & Place, 17(1), 103-113.

• Russell, J. A., & Pratt, G. (1980). A description of the affective quality attributed to environments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(2), 311.

• Staats, H., Jahncke, H., Herzog, T. R., & Hartig, T. (2016). Urban options for psychological restoration: Common strategies in everyday situations. PloS One, 11(1). • Tuan, Y. (1977) Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience [online]. U of Minnesota Press.

• Ulrich, R. S. (1983). Aesthetic and affective response to natural environment. In Behavior and the natural environment, 85-125. Springer US.

• Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., Losito, B. D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M. A., & Zelson, M. (1991). Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11(3), 201-230. • United Nations. (2014). World urbanization prospects. UN.

• Van den Berg, A. E., Jorgensen, A., & Wilson, E. R. (2014). Evaluating restoration in urban green spaces: Does setting type make a difference? Landscape and Urban Planning, 127, 173-181.

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RESEARCH PROGRAMS

SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES, ORGANIZATIONS AND PLACES (SCOPE) CENTRO DE INVESTIGAÇÃO E INTERVENÇÃO SOCIAL, CIS-IUL INSTITUTO UNIVERSITÁRIO DE LISBOA, ISCTE-IUL

Within SCOPE

SCOPE researchers: Luísa Lima

Sílvia Luís

Paula Castro

Miriam Rosa

Susana Batel

Daniela Craveiro

Maria Jesus-Fernandes

Leonor Bettencourt

Sibila Marques

Margarida Santos

Carla Mouro

Tânia Santos

Cláudia Andrade

For more information, contact: luisa.lima@iscte.pt

SCOPE’s Vision

SCOPE is a thematic research line focusing on peopleenvironment relations from a socio-psychological perspective, and often involving trans-disciplinary collaborations (with e.g., sociology, architecture, biology). It gathers senior and junior researchers investigating social and societal issues related to the environment, with the goal of contributing to create sustainable communities, organizations, and places. To develop better understandings of peopleenvironment relationships, SCOPE researchers work with multiple research designs and methods, and address diverse of levels of analysis. We also have wide-ranging theoretical interests in the area of people-environment relations, from discursive and social representations approaches to attitudes and risk perceptions.

SCOPE members’ interests cover a broad spectrum of themes, with projects funded by the European Union and the Portuguese science foundation (including doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships), as well as by contracts with the local government and industry. Below are examples of research topics currently or recently developed by us, organized in two broad themes.

1. Relations in Place
 This domain of research gives particular emphasis to the physical attributes of the space (natural and built), and studies place-situated individual experiences (e.g., restorative properties, well-being) and social interactions (e.g., relational uses of public spaces). For example, in a project with the University of Seville, L. Lima and colleagues used both architectural observation and the responses of the residents to promote aging in place at a neighbourhood in Lisbon. L. Bettencourt, P. Castro and colleagues are engaged in analysing (by observation, interviews and questionnaire studies) how processes of inter-group segregation and/or integration happen in different public places of an inner-city Lisbon community undergoing rehabilitation and gentrification, and how they are affected by place identification and perceptions of place continuity. This domain also focuses on place attachment, identity and memory as key aspects for understanding how communities respond to social change and to environmental and social risks in both natural and urban places. L. Lima and colleagues, in a project with Lisbon Municipality researchers, used local identity and social

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norms to promote recycling at the parish level in Lisbon. C. Mouro and P. Castro (2016) within the project LIFE Habitat-Lynx-Vulture show how injunctive community norms and agreement with laws creating protected areas contribute towards local residents’ engagement in communicative actions that seek to defend biodiversity conservation. They also show (2016) how these residents use detailed and vivid local knowledge for resisting the experts (hegemonic) views of local publics as ignorant, but partially reproduce the expert’s views of them as uninvolved.

2. Citizenship and sustainability The second domain of research looks at societal innovations for sustainability to grasp how these affect interpersonal and intergroup relations and shape individual and collective action. For instance, L. Lima and colleagues (2015) participated in different projects where community attitudes towards wide changes in the landscape were assessed. Following these studies, a line of research was developed on the dehumanization of local communities by the experts during these encounters. Risk perceptions are a particular topic of interest in this line of research. In the project ADAPT-MED [http:// circle-2.wixsite.com/adapt-med], L. Lima and S. Luís (2017) examined the effectiveness of current practices of decision making, at the regional and local levels, in promoting adaptation to climate change in three coastal Mediterranean areas. The project also aimed to promote the engagement of the different types of stakeholders in this processes. P. Castro and colleagues also address adaptation to climatic, ecological and policy transformations in Natura 2000 protected Mediterranean coastal areas in the project Memotrade [https:// memotrade.wordpress.com/]. The analysis of the press coverage of a case of local resistance to new recreational fishing laws (Castro et al., 2017) shows the identity, representational and argumentative motives contributing to the public sphere success in opposing the policy sphere by twice altering the

“Place attachment, identity and memory, three key aspects for understanding how communities respond to social change and to environmental and social risks” “Taking into account proposals from different disciplines allows to understand why people oppose the construction of new renewable energy infrastructures”

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laws, demonstrating how claims about what can be done in public places, like the coast, can also be broader claims of citizenship that bring the political into the environmental and vice versa. Analysis of interviews to artisanal fishers demonstrate in turn how representations drawn of citizenship are used for grounding contestation of the institutions governing their profession, namely presenting them as an authoritarian Other breaching the imperatives of democratic citizenship. S. Batel and colleagues (2016a,b) have argued how for better understanding ecological practices it is crucial to consider the consequences of the socio-economic and political contexts of contemporary societies -namely, neo-liberal capitalism - and associated power relations for the socio-psychological, cultural and institutional processes associated with those practices. Batel and colleagues (2015) also empirically illustrated how if we take into account proposals from different disciplines we can better understand why do people oppose the construction of new renewable energy and associated infrastructures in rural landscapes and, specifically, that opposition is based on sociopsychological, cultural and institutional processes, happening from local to global scales. Researchers at SCOPE are also interested on how individuals, groups and communities conceive social change and modify their behaviours to achieve it. In particular, M. FernandesJesus and L. Lima (2017) are analysing sustainable lifestyles (ex: veganism, voluntary simplicity and political consumerism) and its intersection with collective forms of political and environmental action. In addition, M. Fernandes-Jesus, M. Rosa and colleagues are analysing the role of socio-psychological dimensions (ex: identity, efficacy, personal responsibility, emotions) in predicting collective action in environmental issues. R. Bertoldo and P. Castro have shown how ecological actions (e.g. recycling) are better predicted by personal norms and environmental identity than by social norms. And also how injunctive social norms


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predict personal norms better when participants are more identified with the group, while descriptive social norms predict them more directly. And looking specifically to the workplace, C. Mouro and P. Duarte are currently analysing how sustainability policies and practices at the organisational level, and co-workers injunctive and descriptive norms, intervene in the adoption pro-environmental behaviour reported by workers. S. Marques, L. Lima, D. Craveiro and S. LuĂ­s participate in the Horizon 2020 project INHERIT [https://www. inherit.eu/], an 18-partner consortium coordinated by EuroHealthNet. It aims to understand how lifestyle and behaviour change support the transition to more sustainable societies, while considering the socio-economic contexts that people live in. Currently ongoing, this project examines whether policies, practices and innovations in the areas of living (green space and energy efficient


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housing), moving (active transport) and consuming (food and beverages) effectively contribute to achieve a ‘triple-win’: protecting the environment, improving health and contributing to greater health equity. Another ongoing project integrating environmental, psychosocial and economic dimensions is the Innovec’EAU project [http://innovec-eau.univ-perp.fr/]. L. Lima and S. Luís participate in this study of wastewater discharges

of establishments for elderly people, where the consumption of pharmaceuticals is very high, with the aim of implementing pilot technologies to treat and monitor drugs residues onsite.

BEYOND SCOPE

As part of our joint activities, we regularly meet to discuss current work and develop collaborations with colleagues from different theoretical and disciplinary backgrounds. SCOPE

members also steadily collaborate with doctoral programmes (https:// www.iscte-iul.pt/course/48/phdprogram-in-psychology; http://www. lisp.pt/ Lisbon PHD in Psychology) and masters courses, such as the interdisciplinary Masters in Environmental and Sustainability Studies at ISCTE-IUL. Interested Students and Doctorate colleagues may find more information and our contacts at www.cis.iscte-iul.pt/ _Research_SCOPE.

References • Batel, S., & Adams, M. (2016). Ecological Crisis, Sustainability & Social Worlds: Developing a Critical Agenda. Papers on Social Representations, 25, 1-1.

• Castro, P., & Mouro, C. (2016). ‘Imagining ourselves’ as participating publics: An example from biodiversity conservation. PUS, 25, 858-872.

• Batel, S., Devine-Wright, P., Wold, L., Egeland, H., Jacobsen, G., & Aas, O. (2015). The role of (de-)essentialisation within siting conflicts: An interdisciplinary approach. JEP, 44, 149-159.

• Fernandes-Jesus, M., Carvalho, A., Fernandes, L., & Bento, S. (2017b). Constructing community-driven responses to climate change: potentiality, ambivalence and avoidance in the Transition movement. Under review

• Batel, S., Castro, P., Devine‐Wright, P., & Howarth, C. (2016). Developing a critical agenda to understand pro‐environmental actions: contributions from Social Representations and Social Practices Theories. WIRE: Climate Change, 7, 727-745.

• Bertoldo, R., & Castro, P. (2016). The outer influence inside us: Exploring the relation between social and personal norms. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 112, 45-53.

• Bettencourt, L., & Castro, P. (2016). Diversity in the maps of a Lisbon neighbourhood: Community and ‘official’ discourses about the renewed Mouraria. Culture and Local Governance, 5, 23-44.

• Castro, P., Seixas, E., Neca, P., & Bettencourt, L. (2017). Successfully Contesting the Policy Sphere: Examining Through the Press a Case of Local Protests Changing New Ecological Laws. Political Psychology, DOI: 10.1111/pops.12388.

• Fernandes-Jesus, M., Lima, M.L., & Sabucedo, J.M. (2017a). Changing identities to change the world: Identity motives and politicization in lifestyle politics. Under review

• Luis, S., Freitas, F.E.P., Rodrigues, N., Nogueira, A.J.A., Roseta-Palma, C., Lima, M.L., et al. (2017). Beliefs on the local effects of climate change: Causal attribution of flooding and shoreline retreat. Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, under review. • Marques, S., Lima, M.L., Moreira, S., & Reis, J. (2015). Local Identity as an Amplifier: Testing its Moderating role in the Relationship between Perceived Justice and Attitudes towards New Projects. JEP, 44, 63–73.

• Mouro, C., & Castro, P. (2016). Self–other relations in biodiversity conservation in the community: representational processes and adjustment to new actions. JCASP, 26, 340-353.

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COPRODUCTION WITH NATURE FOR CITY TRANSITIONING, INNOVATION AND GOVERNANCE (CONNECTING NATURE)1

CONNECTING researchers at the University of A Coruña (Spain): Adina Dumitru Ricardo García Mira

For more information, contact: adina.dumitru@udc.es BRINGING CITIES TO LIFE, BRINGING LIFE INTO CITIES: CONNECTING NATURE H2020 PROJECT

Connecting Nature is a €12m five-year project funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 Innovation Action Programme. With 29 project partners from industry, local authorities, local communities, NGOs and research in 16 countries, the project aims to position Europe as a global leader in the innovation and implementation of nature – based solutions. Under the coordination of Dr. Marcus Collier, from Trinity College Dublin, our partnership will work with 11 European cities who are investing in multi – million euro large scale implementation of nature–based projects in urban settings. We will form a community of cities that fosters peer to peer learning and capacity building among front runner cities who are experienced in delivering large scale nature-based solutions, and fast follower cities

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who have the desire to implement large scale naturebased solutions but lack the expertise. As knowledge and expertise increases, so too will our community to include new members (multiplier cities). At the same time, project partners will develop policy and practices necessary to scale up urban resilience, innovation and governance using nature-based solutions. The project´s approach will be open and innovative, fostering the development of co-operation between local governments, SME’s, academic research and community partners to produce a tool kit and guidebook for cities seeking to deliver nature-based solutions in their locales. A team of environmental psychologists, urban planners, ecologists, sustainability and governance researchers from different European universities and research institutes, led by Dr. Adina Dumitru and Prof. Ricardo García Mira, from the People-Environment Research Group of the University of A Coruna (Spain) and members of IAPS, will take on the challenge to define indicators and measure the impact of these urban initiatives on climate change adaptation, health and well-being, social cohesion and sustainable economic development in a host of European cities. Innovative actions to foster the start-up and growth of commercial and social enterprises active in producing nature-based solutions and products will also be an integral part of the project´s work.

Adapted from: www.connectingnature.eu IAPS - BULLETIN 45 | WINTER 2018


25 NATURE-BASED SOLUTIONS EXPLAINED

Cities have become a point of intersection of problems characterized by complexity and uncertainty, among which are the negative effects of climate change, increasing physical and psychological health problems triggered by features of city life, inequality, alienation, dwindling economic opportunities for many, social fragmentation and conflict. At the same time, they have been hailed as sites of experimentation and direct democracy, and as constituting the most appropriate scale for coproduction of solutions (García-Mira & Dumitru, 2014). Transforming cities into vibrant, sustainable and resilient living places has become a key global priority, reflected in numerous policy documents, city-to-city agreements, and calls for design and implementation of innovative solutions to tackle multiple problems. As the world urban population is estimated to raise to 70 % by 2050 (United Nations Report, 2014), this interest has been reflected in concerted efforts from diverse actors to find creative solutions to the manifold problems they confront. Against this background, naturebased solutions have been proposed as a unifying concept that could capture both the end goals and the pathways or methods through which to support transitions to vibrant, healthy, resilient and sustainable communities in urban environments. Naturebased solutions have been defined as “actions which are inspired by, supported by or copied from nature” (EC, 2015) and have recently emerged as one of the main policy drivers for transitioning cities since these fulfill multiple, simultaneous objectives.

These interventions use natural features to address societal challenges and mitigate the exposure of the population to environmental hazards and other risks related to climate change and dense urbanization, as episodic rainfall, biodiversity loss, or urban heat islands, to name just a few examples. They “seek” a better synthesis of natural processes and ecosystem functions with architecture and urban infrastructure through acts of creation, preservation and ecological restoration” (Hartig et al., 2014; Farr, 2008), and are thought to improve how quickly both nature and people might adapt to change, thus making cities more resilient (Sussams et al., 2014). So, what does an urban naturebased solution look like? Street trees, parks and urban green areas provide a range of natural benefits such as intercepting dust, toxins and noise, sheltering and cooling property, sinking carbon and buffering flooding. They also provide spaces for recreation, fostering well-being, and a host of other social benefits. However, thinking on naturebased solutions has evolved to include more benefits, such as increased biodiversity, species conservation, energy production and waste management; while promoting social cohesion using collaborative processes. This means that the ideal naturebased solution uses a comprehensive co-design and co-creation of ideas process, with strong innovation possibilities, leading to multiple ecological, environmental and social gains. It is a big task; but this approach will ultimately change the way we make and manage our urban areas, and lead to more resilient and sustainable urban living.

URBAN CHALLENGES

Most innovation occurs in cities, but cities are also the location where most of today’s major and urgent challenges occur; challenges such as rapid climate and environmental change, complex water and waste management, adverse health and well-being, changes in social cohesion and migration patterns. Nature-based solutions can provide an entry point to addressing these challenges. While the benefits of nature-based solutions are clear and can directly address the challenges outlined, the development and implementation of nature-based solutions has been slow, uneven and, in many cases complex; requiring efforts across many disciplines. Issues like “silo thinking”, managing social cohesion and tackling the deficit of knowledge that exists around naturebased solutions need to be confronted when developing plans to introduce nature-based solutions in cities. Connecting Nature has taken these challenges on board and will devise and test approaches using multi-disciplinary methods where solutions are designed and created collaboratively that will lead towards the creation of resilient, greener, healthier cities, leading to a more sustainable living for their citizens. More information: www.connectingnature.eu

References • European Commission [EC] (2015). Towards an EU research and innovation policy agenda for nature-based solutions & re-naturing cities. 1207 Final report of the Horizon 2020 expert group on “Nature-based solutions and re-naturing cities.” Brussels.

• García-Mira, R. & Dumitru, A. (2014). Urban Sustainability: Innovative Spaces, Vulnerabilities and Opportunities. A Coruña, Spain: Deputación Provincial de A Coruña and IEIP.

• Hartig, T., Mitchell, R., de Vries, S., Frumkin, H., 2014. Nature and health. Annu. Rev. Public Health 35, 207–228. 1386 doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182443 • Sussams, L.W., Sheate, W.R., & Eales, R.P. (2015). Green infrastructure as a climate change adaptation policy intervention: Muddying the waters or clearing a path to a more secure future?. Journal of Environmental Management, 147, 184-193. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.09.003.

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INTERVIEW

ABOUT ARCHITECTURE, TEACHING AND RESEARCH INTERVIEW WITH NECDET TEYMUR (*) BY DERYA OKTAY

Below is the interview held with Prof. Dr. Necdet Teymur, who was an invited speaker at a seminar organized by the Faculty of Architecture. The interview reveals Professor Teymur’s approach to research and architecture as an academic. Necdet Teymur (B.Arch., METU, 1968; M.Arch., METU, 1969; PG Diploma, Bouwcentrum, 1969; Ph.D, Liverpool University, 1978) was an (Emeritus) Professor of Architecture at METU (1995-2001), Ankara, and served as the Dean of the Faculty between 1997-2000. He was a Visiting Professor at University of D⟞e (2001-2003), and previously taught at several British universities, such as South Bank, Dundee, UCL-Bartlett, Oxford, Kingston, and Manchester. He was the founder and Director of the Centre for International Architectural Studies and Postgraduate Course in International Architectural Practice at Manchester University. Dr. Teymur has been active in UIA as a member of the Professional Practice and Education Commissions drafting the first ever UIA Guidelines on Architectural Education; as well as in IAPS and DRS. He is an Associate Editor of Journal of Architectural and Planning Research (USA), Environments by Design (UK) and Datutop (Finland); and was the Editor of Design Research (1982-87) and the Bulletin of PeopleEnvironment Studies (1995-98). He is the author of Environmental Discourse, Architectural Education, City as Education (1996), Learning from Disasters (1999), and Re: Architecture - Themes & Variations (2002), in addition he co-authored to a number of international books. (*) Published with the authorisation of the Research Advisory Board at Eastern Mediterranean University.

∎ D.O.: Based on your experience, how do you see the relationship between teaching and research?

N.T.: Teaching in an academic institution has to be based on prior knowledge obtained by research. Some may be included in textbooks, but many others are published in scientific journals. Both academics and students need to do research to improve the existing knowledge.

∎ D.O.: As far as you know, to what extent are the British universities involved in the European Research Area (ERA)? Is there a strong will for integration at international cooperation?

N.T.: Yes, British Universities are involved in ERA. There is a will for integration at international cooperation.

∎ D.O.: One thing that is usually missing from our research environment is the interdisciplinary research both in terms of inter-institutional collaboration and collaboration with ‘others’ in the field, industry, governmental institutions, and so forth. To what degree do the academics working at the British universities manage to carry out interdisciplinary research? And what incentives are presented to researchers in order to encourage/ support such collaborations?

N.T.: Academics at British Universities do carry out interdisciplinary research. There are interdisciplinary Research Councils (eg. Science and Engineering Research Council, Arts and Humanities Research Council, Social Science Research Council, ...). Industry and the Government support research too. All disciplines in UK universities are expected to supply their research and publication records every 4 years (- called “Research Assessment Exercise” - RAE).

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∎ D.O.: From this point, I should ask you the following question: to what extent should we accommodate research in design, and its education? In reporting on architecture and design, it is found that notable advancements often result from systematic inquiry: a study of visual perception might produce a new wayfinding system, or a study of the cultural peculiarites of a group of users may orient the designer towards creating an environmental setting which satisfies their needs and expectations. But we also realize that design is also an intuitive, not a totally methodical, process. So where does applied research - a formal investigation to find a solution to a specific practical problem - fit in?

∎ D.O.: We know that most of the current debates in the European Research Area refers to the synergy between research and PhD programmes, as doctoral training is the core mission of the university. In the British universities (or in the universities you worked at), what mechanisms are introduced for building strong research environments and enhancing the doctoral programmes?

N.T.: In British Universities, doctoral programmes have no course work as in Turkey. It is simply by research. Doctoral Research is independent of the other research projects going on, although the supervisors might involve students in their ongoing research projects. ∎ D.O.: As widely agreed, supervision is a crucial part of doctoral training. To what extent is supervision recognised, and what is being done to motivate the supervisor to increase the quality of his/her dedication? N.T.: Supervision is recognised as part of the lecturers’ duties. But, not all lecturers have research students. In fact, in architecture, PhDs are quite recent innovation. My PhD supervisor in the ‘70s had only a B.Arch degree.

N.T.: Design, by definition, is a multi-faceted (applied) research activity. I was involved in the activities of the Design Methods Movement, and Design Research Society since the ‘70s, and contributed to their conferences, and publications. There have been many conferences, and many good books, on Design Methods.

∎ D.O.: Perhaps, in this context, we should examine how research is perceived and carried out in the design fields, since opinions of what counts as research usually vary. Here, a distinction can be made between “research”, which is oriented toward the discovery of new knowledge, and “scholarship” which is based on interpretation either of preexisting works, or new works. Do you accept this distinction, or can you make a different one?

N.T.: I think it is a valid distinction. The definitions you gave are correct. “Research” is “re-searching” new knowledge, and “Scholarship” is studying existing work to improve one’s knowledge; and to add new knowledge. ∎ D.O.: Thank you very much for creating time for this interview and sharing your ideas with us.

∎ D.O.: What is the expected level of involvement of students of doctoral programmes in teaching activities?

N.T.: Very little. There are no “Research Assistant” or “Assistant Professor” posts in British Universities. There are “Lecturer”, “Senior Lecturer” posts, and they are not tied to Doctoral Programmes. ∎ D.O.: What are the most pressing and frequent research difficulties in your field?

N.T.: There is an uncertainty as to whether architecture, and its education, is a “technical” field, or an intellectual, social, one. The relevant research difficulty is that, depending on which side you are on, the answer would be different. Practicing architects ignore research. IAPS - BULLETIN 45 | WINTER 2018


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CALL FOR PAPERS

BULLETIN OF PEOPLE ENVIROMENTAL STUDIES NEXT DEADLINE TO SEND CONTRIBUTIONS IS FEBRUARY 28th 2018 SUBMISSIONS:

Whilst we encourage all our members to submit material, any submission for inclusion in the Bulletin should be written to high standards of English grammar and punctuation. To help the review process, we kindly ask you have the material checked by a fluent English speaker before submitting it to the Bulletin. Please, send your contributions for the next issue by e-mail to Ricardo García Mira, at the following address: bulletin.iaps@gmail.com

All manuscripts should be written in Times New Roman 12 pt., double-spaced. The maximum word length for articles is 2000 words. Include names, affiliation, a picture, and full contact details of all the authors.

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PAST CONFERENCES

INTERNATIONAL FORUM OF SOCIAL SCIENCES: INTERDICIPLINARY DIALOGUES ON CLIMATE CHANGE, DISASTERS AND GOVERNANCE CUSCO, PERU, 2-5 AUGUST 2017

EDITED BY FREDY S. MONGE RODRÍGUEZ AND WALTER MAMANI TAPIA

The first “International Social Science Forum: Interdisciplinary Dialogues on Climate Change, Disasters and Governance” was held in the majestic Imperial City of Cusco - Peru, from August 2-5, 2017, in the city of Cusco, The Convention Center of the Municipality of Cusco, an event organized by the National University of San Antonio Abad of Cusco and collaboration of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru and the Eclim Research of the University of Zurich. The president of the organizing committee, Fredy Monge, in his inaugural address, said that this International Forum is essential, since it makes visible the important role of academia and science as a motor for social and human development, and generates proposals to make Facing the impacts of climate change on our world. The objectives of this important event for the first time in Latin America and Perú were:

General objective To offer a space for debate and interdisciplinary analysis in order to reflect on the role of Social and Human Sciences, and its proposal in the face of events, phenomena and problems associated with climate change and its implications in current and future society; With the purpose of contributing in the development of a research agenda that strengthens the oint work of science and public management.

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Specific objectives • Promote interdisciplinary dialogue on climate change, glacier retreat and impact on the availability of water resources. • Discuss the contributions of the Social Sciences in the design and execution of public environmental policies and development projects that incorporate adaptation and mitigation actions in the face of climate change. • Identify the contributions of the participation of communities and human groups in the decision-making and initiatives for the design of public environmental policies. • Share methodologies and tools that help in the study of studies of phenomena and problems associated with climate change. During the development of the forum there were a total of 5 peasant communities who groomed, the event with the conferences denominated: Andean and Amazonian communities talk about climate change, as well as 10 lectures of different nationalities (Peru, United States, Switzerland, Spain, Mexico, Canada, Ecuador, among others), 23 working tables, more than 70 papers, and a

total of 620 attendees, and attended by public and private sector authorities, teachers and students. Bernardo Orlove, Mark Carey, Christian Huggel, Christine Jurt, Teofilo Altamirano, Augusto Castro, Susan Clayton, Robert Tobias, Adrian Brugger, Fredy Monge, Ricardo García Mira and Carolina Adler. The topics covered during these 4 days of intense work were: behavior and environment, views on climate change from the different disciplines, risks, dangers and vulnerabilities from the perspectives of the social, natural and human sciences, disaster case studies associated with Climate change, gender and climate change, local and international migration and climate change, Ethical notes in the context of climate change, dialogue between research, development and public management: Needs and perspectives of the public sector And civil society, to name a few. Finally, on the last day, August 6, a field trip was made, a visit that took place in the Community of Chicón, Sacred Valley of the Incas, where he participated in two important Andean ceremonies on reciprocity to Mother Earth And to the water source of life, this ceremony is carried out by a Shaman of the area and aims to guarantee future crops, work activity and healthy lifestyles in the community.

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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (ICEP) – THEORIES OF CHANGE AND SOCIAL INNOVATION IN TRANSITIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY A CORUÑA, SPAIN, AUGUST 30-31 - SEPTEMBER 1 - 2017

A Coruna (Spain) was witness of an exciting conference on Environmental Psychology, under the auspicious of the Environmental Psychology Division of the IAAP. The conference was a place of encounter, debate and interaction around the science and practice of Environmental Psychology and aimed to facilitate state of the art scientific exchange and communication on a number of Environmental Psycholog topics. There was very interesting discussions and debates on cutting-edge theoretical developments and recent empirical studies on the individual and social factors having an impact on transitions towards sustainability. The theme was “Theories of Change, Social Innovation and Transitions towards Sustainability”. Four keynote speakers presented different research perspectives and agendas. 300 papers were selected, structured in 31 sessions and 25 symposia. A total of 45 posters were also presented in two sessions. Finally, a warm social programme included a welcome reception at the City Hall, a tour through the historic parts of the city, and the traditional gala dinner. All this program provided a

chance for for participants to meet and network in a relaxed atmosphere, while also engaging with the 800 year old city. The contributions were included in a Book of Abstracts (downloadable through the Internet) bear eloquent witness to a good potential for research in environmental psychology. The conference fulfilled also the objective of bringing high quality discussions among scientists from this discipline, and it created a shared and reflexive space of knowledge and debate on issues relevant to psychology. The number of presentations was an evidence of the consolidation of the field and of the universal recognition of environmental psychology as well. To sum up, the contributions that have been made to this Conference represent a large step forward in research that help to increase our awareness of the relationships between people and the environment, by supplying new data to other disciplines regarding the transactions that take place. And at the same time they are a major source of information that we hope will be of great use in the training of professionals and in the political decision-making process.

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IAPS 2017 SYMPOSIUM KNOWLEDGE FOR CLIMATE-PROOF URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN RAPIDLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA - 27-29 SEPTEMBER 2017

Organised by Dr Nathalie Jean-Baptiste and Professor Wilbard Kombe, and the IAPS Housing Network, with the support of the Sustainability and Culture and Space Networks. The Symposium was hosted by the Institute of Human Settlements Studies (IHSS) at Ardhi University. The event was very successful, creating a great momentum in Dar es Salaam and having a high impact on the local media. It also had a guest of honor, the Deputy Minister of Education, Science and Technology who praised our collective scientific effort. Sigrun Kabisch participated in the conference representing the IAPS board . Other IAPS members, as Emilie Pinard, Peter Kellett, Rolf Johansson, or Karine Weiss,also attended this event. IAPS was well represented and many activities were supported. Delegates coming from different places from Europe and Africa presented more than 65 papers, and the conference counted with urban scholars, local authorities and developers who discussed about how to reconcile short and long- term objectives for development and associated environmental and social costs. The impression was a great stimulus for other activities that will be organised in the future. Some of the (keynote) speakers included Professor Vanessa Watson (University of Cape Town, South Africa) who talked about “Conflicting rationalities (of knowledge

production): who knows African cities?”; John Lupala, Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania; and Professor Sigrun Kabisch, from the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Germany, who talked about “Urban Transformations towards sustainability: Lessons learned and next steps forward”. The Symposium took a pioneering look at urban development, people and environmental behaviour in Africa and Asia. A great debate took place about the added value of explicitly relating scientific knowledge about climate change to pro-environmental behaviour and city planning. The implications of global environmental changes for land use planning in coastal cities and inland states with low economies was also a matter of discussion, as well as the consecuences in terms of global health challenges and the responsibility of preventing and reducing the impacts of climate change. A publication is in preparation with a selection of the works presented in the conference. The organisers have uploaded many of the photos on the conference website: • www.iaps2017.com and in the photo gallery: • https://iaps2017.com/wrdprs/photo-gallery-day-1/

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OBITUARY NECDET TEYMUR (Died in June, 2017)

On the 7th June 2017 I came to know that Professor Necdet Teymur has passed away. With his departure as an educator, architect, and theorist in architecture, a void in the field of architectural education manifests. His latest academic position was a Professor of Architecture and Dean of the Faculty of Architecture at the Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey. It is with great sadness that one has to write this brief Obituary for Professor Teymur.

My first interaction with Nec, as his colleagues and friends called him, goes book to communications through letters - post mail and faxes in 1995, then our first face to face interaction took place at a seminar in Monte Verita, Switzerland organized by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture in Geneva and EPFL – Eco École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in March 1998 on architectural education in developing countries. He presented a thought-provoking talk, which was later written as a book chapter entitled Architectural Culture and Epistemological Diversity. This was a very influential contribution, which paved the way for a collegial engagement and mutual interaction until 2007, when I invited him to write a chapter for the book “Design Studio Pedagogy: Horizons for the Future, 2007”. His chapter “Vitruvius in the Studio: What is Missing?” was a great intellectual contribution, in which he discussed models, myths, and fallacies in architectural education and the need to re-position its entire system. Over a decade or more we collaborated on various activities and met in Ankara, Cairo, Geneva, Istanbul, Paris, to names a few places. Our collaboration included the management of various sessions of the IAPS Education Network as well as through his notable international contributions to the UIA/ UNESCO Commission for Architectural Education.

In my interactions with him, and I believe many colleagues will share this with me, Nec was so kind, helpful, and supportive. He enjoyed exceptional nurturing qualities as well as theoretical abilities that blended teaching and scholarship, inspiring important values of discipline and commitment to the field of architectural education in its fullest sense. Some of his important publications include: Environmental Discourse (1982); Rehumanizing Housing (1988) with Tom Markus and Tom Woolley; Architectural Education: Issues in Educational Practice and Policy (1992); Housing: Design, Research, and Practice (1993); City as Education (1996); Re-Architecture (2002). As of the very early international pedagogues who contributed to theorising and researching architectural education, Nec’s works placed emphasis on the need to learn from the city and from the everyday urban environment. He leaves a legacy of writings, thoughts and ideas about architectural education, curriculum development, and approaches to teaching and learning in architecture and urbanism. Ashraf M. Salama, PhD Professor and Head of Architecture University of Strathclyde Glasgow United Kingdom

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“Necdet Teymur was the founder of the IAPS Education Network, which was funded based on a call from him in 1992, who continued to lead it up to 1998 when Ashraf Salama and Joy Potthof joined him in convening the activities of this Network. The role of Teymur was key in generating critical discourses on education and design pedagogy. His work and contributions to the field of people-environment studies have been recognized by many of our colleagues in IAPS, as well as by other professional and academic organizations. We will remember Necdet Teymur and his professional trajectory in many things he shared with all of us when he was part of the conveners’ team of the Education Network, when he organised the Ankara conference, or when he was the IAPS Bulletin Editor. Rest in peace.” Ricardo García-Mira “Necdet Teymur was a key member of IAPS, serving on both the Board and the Executive Committee for many years. He co-organised the IAPS 11 Conference in Ankara ‘Culture Space History’ in 1990, he was a driving force in the establishment of the IAPS Education Network in 1992 and he also edited the IAPS Bulletin. He was a prolific author and his keen intellect will be sorely missed.” Sue Ann Lee “My deep condolences for his family” Satoshi Kose “Time we are living ... time of farewells... But also time of awards and acknowledgments for the contribution to our transdisciplinary and transnational field, as the Nected, now, or Gilles Barbey two weecks ago. Thanks Nected, thanks Gilles. Full support to the respective families.” Enric Pol

“I am very sorry to know such bad news, but he left his legacy” Serafín Mercado-Doménech “I remember Necdet Teymur as a warm and highly intelligent person. The conference he and others organized in Turkey was especially wonderful and a lot of effort was made to help the IAPS members understand the history, present and future of his beloved country. The excursions were especially informative and fascinating. Necdet was also very engaged with architectural education and with encouraging educators to write papers and have wonderful discussions about how eb could contribute to architectural theory and design. Many of his own insightful books and papers were on this very topic. His participation and support made IAPS an important organization for architectural educators. As we participated in the conferences we learned about approaches to architectural education in other countries and different ideas about how to integrate architectural research in education and practice. I also remember Necdet as a kind and generous host when I went to London. He had all kinds of suggestions for things to do, and connected me to the UK educational scene. As so many others, I loved Necdet and have missed his participation at IAPS. I send love and sympathy to his family.” Julia Robinson “Necdet, our colleague and friend, is suffering no more. It is now time to remember his contribution to the field of peopleenvironment studies and his numerous years of commitment to IAPS as you noted. My sincere condoleances to his wife and son.” Roderick Lawrence “I too am very sorry about our loss Necdet Teymur. Condolences to all of us.” Derya Oktay

“Well spoken, Enric. Necdet had a significant impact on IAPS in the early years, and his enthusiasm and commitment to people– environment studies was apparent for all to see. Turkey has played an important part in IAPS and the awareness of members to the interesting and innovative work going on there is undoubtedly the result of the early involvement of scholars like Necdet and Haluk Pamir who was, if I recall correctly, another key figure in organising the Ankara conference. This paved the way for further academic initiatives, not least of which the outstanding contribution that colleagues such as Hülya Turgut (and Peter Kellett) have made in establishing the Culture and Space Network. But today we remember Necdet who, as Editor of the Bulletin and through his involvement in academic/practitioner gatherings, made such an important contribution to making IAPS the organisation it has become.” David Uzzell “I remember the clever and friendly person I met in Ankara and later in UK with great affection. Love from Birgit” Birgit Cold

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OBITUARY GILLES BARBEY (Died in May, 28th 2017)

“Gilles will be remembered as the IAPS President elected at the IAPS Conference in Berlin in 1984. However his involvement in people-environment studies extendes back to the Architectural Psychology Conference in Strasbourg, France, in 1969. Gilles was a fully qualified architect, strongly committed to bringing research into architectural teaching and practice. His contribution was remembered at the IAPS Conference in Lund last year. May he rest in peace.” Roderick Lawrence “Very sad news, I met him several times and was very touched by his passion for our subject and kindness of personal approach. A big hug to you whom I know were very fond of him, and please pass my condolences to his family.” Ombretta Romice “Thank you for letting us know. Please convey my sincere condlences to his family.” Satoshi Kose It is with great sadness that I received the news of Gilles Barbey’s death. May He Rests in Peace. He was a Great Man. My deep condolences to his wife Beatrice, to his family and to us all as we have known him from a long time. I have met him the first time in Greece some twenty five years ago.” Aleya Abdel-Hadi “This is really sad news. Gilles and I, and until 2007 also Carl Graumann, were very good friends ever since the first conference at Strasbourg 1969, at that time still under the name Architectural Psychology. We have met so often, also in his house at Colombier. We worked together and made many plans and always liked the interdisciplinary discourse between architecture and psychology, and ,of course, other disciplines which were represented in the IAPS family. I served as an IAPS board member with him and I attended almost all IAPS conferences from the very beginning. After

a few years of no letter exchange and no information about a new address he wrote one of his wellknown postcards full of new information in June last year. I wrote back a 2-page letter, but not before December, unfortunately. Gilles was a wonderful person and I am very sad.” Lenelis Kruse. “This is really sad news. Gilles Barbey was the President of IAPS during the period between 1984 and 1992. He was really the second President after Rikard Küller. He was honored during the last Conference held in Lund last year. A Diploma and a lapel pin was delivered to him during the opening ceremony of the Conference, where I underlined his efforts for continuing the work of Rikard of consolidating the organization and laying the foundations for a greater linkage between disciplines, mainly between psychology and architecture, and thus expanding the focus of IAPS, as I wrote in the Editorial Address of the last issue of the IAPS Bulletin. Rest in peace.” Ricardo García-Mira “Let me add my feelings to those you have already expressed for this sad news. Please, pass on my deepest condolences to Gilles’ family, if you have the opportunity. I hope we could do something to remember again Gilles in the future Iaps events.” Giseppe Carrus “Bad time we are living... time of farewells... But also time of awards and acknowledgments for the contribution to our transdisciplinary and transnational field, as the Nected, now, or Gilles Barbey two weecks ago. Thanks Nected, thanks Gilles. Full support to the respective families.” Enric Pol

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OBITUARY PAUL OLIVER (Died in August, 15th, 2017)

“Paul Oliver, renowned blues and vernacular architecture scholar, passed away peacefully yesterday (August 15th 2017). He was my co-supervisor for my PhD thesis during my studies in Oxford Bookes. He gave s a great support for founding of IAPS Culture & Space Network. Rest in Peace, my dear Professor, Paul Oliver.” Hulya Turgut “Paul was an exceptional scholar whose knowledge of and contribution to the field of vernacular architecture was unsurpassed. I have such a fond memory of the first time I met him. We were both contributing to a conference in Seoul, and he and his wife joined me for dinner in the hotel on the first evening. It was only half way through the meal – probably in relation to something Paul casually said – that I realised that he was THE Paul Oliver who was a world leading expert on blues music, whose books, reviews and newspaper articles were essential reading for anyone who was interested in this music. I was so excited to be having dinner with him and the opportunity to talk to him about the blues …, and occasionaly architecture. He will be greatly missed.” David Uzzell “Bon Voyage, Paul. You changed so many minds for the better.” Kevin Nute

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OBITUARY SERAFÍN MERCADO DOMENECH (Died in City of Mexico in December 2nd, 2017)

A wonderful human being is the best way to describe Dr Mercado, as well as a tireless advocate for scientific psychology in Mexico. His contribution to the UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico) and to Mexican psychology began during his time as a student at the College of Psychology in the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters. After spending a productive period during an academic exchange in the prestigious Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas, with Dr Riley Gardner, one of the founders of cognitive psychology, in 1962 he returned to Mexico to continue his studies and present his B.A. dissertation on The Principles of cognitive control: some theoretical considerations and a research programme, which made him the first student to graduate from the psychology programme of the UNAM.

He worked on a number of projects dealing with the development of programmed learning and also semantic meaning, the latter providing the basis for the development of the semantic differential in Mexico as part of a transcultural study coordinated by Dr Charles Osgood.

Another significant feature of his academic career was promoting a scientific approach to the discipline, initially at the University of Veracruz, where he was named Director of the School of Psychology and subsequently Director of the Faculty of Science. While there, together with a distinguished group of young psychology graduates from the UNAM, he developed a curriculum which has made the School a focal point for people interested in state-of-the-art psychological research and theoretical innovation.

He completed his doctoral studies at the College of Education of the University of Texas in Austin, supported by an E.D. Farmer scholarship from the university, where he studied with Dr Carl Hereford, Stanley Feldman and Quinn Mc Nemar. In 1970 he defended his thesis The Utilization of Cognitive Structures of Ordinality in Concept Learning under the supervision of Dr Jack Dunham.

Having completed his doctorate and despite being offered a research position at an US university, he decided to return to Mexico and became part of the academic institution of the UNAM shortly before psychology was disincorporated from the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters and the Faculty of Psychology was created. The creation of the Faculty of Psychology meant that Serafin Mercado played a highly important and influential role in the design of the new curriculum and its corresponding programmes. He always promoted the provision of high quality professional training and was an untiring advocate of the incorporation of scientific content into the undergraduate curriculum.

Thanks to the courses given by Dr Serafin Mercado and his scientific writings many generations of psychologists, in Mexico and Latin America, received an excellent education in both classic and innovative topics in cognitive psychology, the study of cognitive processes and research methods in psychology. His work transcended borders. His book Procesamiento Humano de la Información, published in 1978 by Trillas, was required reading and the most cited text in Spanish in that field, and has been consulted by generations of psychology students and researchers in many different countries.

Another of his major contributions was the impulse he gave to environmental psychology in Mexico, creating the Permanent Seminar on Environmental Psychology in 1981 and subsequently forming part of the academic group which initiated the Master’s degree in Environmental Psychology at the UNAM in 1988, the first such programme in Latin America. His notable contribution to the study of environmentbehaviour interactions was in the field of the “habitability” of urban housing, producing a book of the same name and a number of subsequent publications.

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His academic awards include: the Special Chair “Ezequiel A. Chávez”, from the UNAM, awarded three times; he was considered the “Father of Environmental Psychology in Mexico”, a distinction granted by the Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA) during its congress held in Mexico in 1991; the National Prize for Research in Psychology 2004, granted by the National Council for Teaching and Research in Psychology (CNEIP); the InterAmerican Prize for Environmental Psychology, awarded by the Interamerican Society of Psychology; the National Herman Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz Medal Prize, awarded by the Mexican Institute of Acoustics and the Mexican Acoustic Society; international recognition for “Outstanding work and dedication to the investigation of environmental behaviour”, awarded by the International Association of People and Environment Studies, the same organisation that included him in its Hall of Fame; and the UNAM honoured him with the distinction of Professor Emeritus in 2016.

A further contribution was his work organising scientific and professional meetings on environmental psychology, promoting the collaboration of many academics from the UNAM and other educational institutions, who participated in the Latin American Environmental Psychology Congress.

The exceptional value of the work of Dr Mercado is clearly recognised among those of us who were his students and among his national and international colleagues. His theoretical and methodological contributions have transcended national boundaries and been recognised in Europe, North America and Latin America. His work has also transcended the frontiers of psychology and his influence has extended to architecture, urban design and health studies. Quantity, quality, originality and diversity characterise his 48-year legacy as an academic at the UNAM.

Through his example and inspiration to those of us who were his students, Dr Mercado personified the concept of the ideal university academic: erudite but modest and warm, with bonhomie and moral qualities, he had an extraordinary ability to translate what was complicated and difficult to understand into a clear, concrete and comprehensible discourse. Without doubt he was a great man, academic and psychologist, who will always be in our hearts and thoughts. Rest in Peace Serafin Mercado Doménech. Patricia Ortega Andeane, PhD National Autonomous University of Mexico

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BOOKS

COMPLEX HOUSING: DESIGNING FOR DENSITY (Routledge 2017)

Julia Robinson

I was invited to present the content of my book in the form of an exhibition. Then I realized I wanted to supplement the relatively passive presentations of book and exhibition with an opportunity for people to engage with the question of housing design. So working with a committee of people in the local housing community (architects, landscape architects, developers, financiers and community members), we developed a symposium format intended to engender discussion between the twelve invited Dutch participants and symposium attendees- JWR

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https://www.routledge.com/ComplexHousing-Designing-for-Density/ Robinson/p/book/9781138192508 Julia Williams Robinson, School of Architecture, University of Minnesota, Author

Complex housing combines density, equity and attention to the urban context. This special housing typically includes non-housing functions, a variety of housing types for low, middle and upper income residents, and housing for rental and purchase, in a housing project with diverse inhabitants and a visually rich architectural expression. The book explains the special circumstances that generated Dutch complex housing (a culture of discussion, being below sea-level, a right to housing, the creation of housing corporations, a highly-developed system of planning, etc.). Eight cases are presented, as well as design guidelines for complex housing, and the requisites for replicating complex housing outside the Netherlands.


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URBAN TRANSFORMATIONS. SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH RESOURCE EFFICIENCY, QUALITY OF LIFE AND RESILIENCE

S. Kabisch, F. Koch, E. Gawel, A. Haase, S. Knapp, K. Krellenberg, J. Nivala, A. Zehnsdorf (Eds.) Series Future City. Springer International Publishing, Cham. 2018, 402 p.

The book addresses urban transformations towards sustainability in light of challenges of global urbanization processes and the consequences of global environmental change. The aim is to show that urban transformations only succeed if both innovative scientific solutions and practice-oriented governance approaches are developed. This assumption is addressed by providing theoretical insights and empirical evidence pointing particularly at three dimensions resource efficiency, quality of life and resilience and their interdependencies which are determined here as being central for achieving urban sustainability. The book analyzes different topics of urban transformations towards sustainability form an interrelated social and natural science perspective such as promotion of ecosystem services and land-use conflicts in growing and shrinking cities, efficiency-equity-tradeoffs by dealing with extreme weather events or adjustments of urban infrastructure systems. Human behavior change, participative decision making processes

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and power relations pursuing or hindering urban transformations are discussed within different modes of governance. Case studies from several international research projects illustrate the conceptual approach. Thus, the book reaches far beyond a mere additive description of case studies. It incorporates the results of intensive conceptual exchange and condensed synthesis, resulting from comparisons and evaluations. It provides, based on cross-cutting reflection of single cases and different scales and methods of analysis, general and transferable findings. They do not only consider the scientific sphere but deliberately go beyond it discussing transferability of knowledge into practice, governance options and the feasibility of policy strategies in order to pave the way for sustainable urban transformations to happen today and in the future. The book provides a sound basis for further scientific exchange about urban transformations towards sustainability as the president of IAPS Ricardo GarcĂ­a-Mira stated in the foreword of the book.


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NEWS

IAPS BOARD MEETING - A CORUNA (SPAIN) - AUGUST 29TH 2017 SOME OF THE MAIN AGREEMENTS OF THE IAPS BOARD

• To establish a deadline to update the IAPS conference guidelines in order to reflect the extended timeline after the conference to deal with the preparation of the postconference book. • To increase the efforts in the idea of supporting young researchers participating in the Doctoral Researchers Workshop, in order to request that the Rome conference organisers donate a fee waiver for a number of people attending the workshop.(i.e. those who are selected by the grants panel). • To carry out an online membership survey, in order to collect more opinions, information, or feedback with relevant issues in IAPS. • To impulse a number of organizational aspects in order to improve the membership management in the organization in general, and in the research networks in particular. • To promote the organization of a meeting between the full IAPS board and the convenors within the next IAPS conference in Rome, in order to improve the effectivity and the communication of networks within IAPS. • To give a higher organizational impulse to the Grants for

Researchers in their Early Career for paticipating in meetings and conferences, providing more visibility to the Call. • To open a Call for Expression of Interest for organising the IAPS conferences in 2020 and 2022. • To discuss about the IAPS board after 2018. There will be an election in 2018, and it is necessary to agree now who will be on the independent election panel. Agreed that we should approach Edward Edgerton to chair the panel, and also to ask Roderick Lawrence and Petra Schweizer-Ries (3 panel members). The timetable for the election will be as follows: February: put out the call for nominations, Mar-Apr – election. Results need to be out by mid May. • To discuss the roles from the present board to chair the management committee. Ricardo nominated Tony Craig for president, and Clare seconded this nomination. The election was carried out within the board, and as a result Tony Craig was elected the next President of IAPS, starting after Ricardo concludes his term as president at the Rome conference. It was agreed that Adriana Portella will be the next Secretary of IAPS and Taciano Milfont the next Treasurer.

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NEXT CONFERENCE

SHORT PRESENTATION OF THE 25TH IAPS CONFERENCE IN ROME 2018 FOR IAPS BULLETIN

The 25th IAPS conference will take place from July 8 to 13th 2018 in Rome, Italy. The main theme of the conference is “Transitions to sustainability, lifestyles changes and human wellbeing: cultural, environmental and political challenges”. TOPICS AND THEMES

The conference will cover a wide rang of topics related to people-environment studies. It will be an open and exciting arena for debate for urban planners, architects, psychologists, geographers, urban and housing sociologists, economists, engineers, and environmental researchers.

The topics of the Conference include: • Ecological behaviour, climate change & environmental education • Human health, wellbeing and the environment • Housing, urban design and sustainability • Human relations to nature and resource conservation • Place attachment and place identity • Environmental risks and resilience KEYNOTE SPEAKERS

The confirmed keyonte speakers of the 25th IAPS Conference will be: • Terry Hartig. Uppsala University – Sweden • Ombretta Romice. University of Strathclyde – Scotland, UK • Dan Stokols. University of California – Irvine, USA

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47 WHERE AND WHEN

Rome, July 8-13, 2018 The conference will take place in the Dipartimento di Scienze della Formazione, Università degli Studi “Roma Tre” (Department of Education Sciences, Roma Tre University), located in Via Principe Amedeo 182b. The venue of the conference is right beside the main Rome railway station of “Roma Termini”, close to the Colosseum and the Roman Forum. HOW TO REACH AND STAY

Rome can be easily reached by train or plane. The “Leonardo da Vinci” international airport of Roma Fiumicino is well connected with the railway station. The Roma Termini railway station is located about 5 minutes walk from the buildings of the Dipartimento di Scienze della Formazione. There are a range of accommodation options within walking distance from the conference venue, and of course many other opportunities in the historical city centre of Rome. CONFERENCE WEBSITE

http://iaps2018.com/

ORGANIZERS AND CONTACTS

Conference Chair: Prof. Giuseppe Carrus - giuseppe.carrus@uniroma3.it Organizing Secretariat: Symposia Group - secretariat@iaps2018.com info@grupposymposia.it - www.grupposymposia.it +39 06 39725540

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Editor Ricardo García Mira

University of A Coruna Department of Psychology People-Environment Research Group Campus de Elviña, s/n 15071 - A Coruña (Spain) Phone: +34 610755803 Fax: +34 981167153 E-mail: ricardo.garcia.mira@udc.es URL: www.people-environment-udc.org

International Association for People-Environment Studies aims to improve the physical environment and human well-being.

IAPS BULLETIN Nº45  

IAPS BULLETIN Nº45

IAPS BULLETIN Nº45  

IAPS BULLETIN Nº45

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