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of People-Enviromental Studies

SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO IAPS: SEEKING FOR INTEGRATED SUSTAINABILITY Petra Schweizer-Ries NATURE OF WELL-BEING. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN A BIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE Nicola Rainisio

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International Association for People-Environment Studies aims to improve the physical environment and human well-being.

Submissions Whilst we encourage all our members to submit material, any submission for inclusion in the Bulletin should be written to high standards of English grammar and punctuation. To help the review process, we kindly ask you have the material checked by a fluent English speaker before submitting it to the Bulletin. Please, send your contributions for the next issue by e-mail to Giuseppe Carrus, at the following address: bulletin.iaps@gmail.com All manuscripts should be written in Times New Roman 12 pt., double-spaced. The maximum word length for articles is 2000 words. Include names, affiliation and full contact details of all the authors.

Instructions on how to become an IAPS member, or to renew your membership, are available on the IAPS webiste: iaps-association.org

Bulletin of PeopleEnviromental Studies. Autum 2013 Number 40 ISSN: 1301 - 3998

www.iaps-association.org Editor Giuseppe Carrus Editorial Team Aleya Abdel-Hadi Ricardo García-Mira Corina Ilin Ombretta Romice Kevin Thwaites Clare Twigger-Ross

Photo Credits All photographs included in this list are under a Creative Commons license: Attribution-noncommercial 3.0 Unported. Cover / Page 7: City View Tokyo by Tom Purves*. Page 2: city scapes by sandeep MM*. Page 5: Auckland City by Sids1*. Page 25: Warsaw by aromano*. Page 27: Warsaw by aromano*.

Page 35: Teide from above by Javier Peláez*. Page 35: Trip to Israel by acroll*. Back / Page 6: City by bluebus*.

* Flickr user

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Editorial Committee Angela Castrechini Arza Churchman José A. Corraliza Tony Craig Sandrine Depeau Edward Edgerton Ferdinando Fornara Birgitta Gattersleben Bernardo Hernández Maria Johanson Florian Kaiser Peter Kellett Marketta Kitta Roderick Lawrence Jeanne Moore Enric Pol Massimiliano Scopelliti Hulya Turgut David Uzzell


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IAPS Board 2012-2014 Edward Edgerton, President

Corina Ilin

University of the West of Scotland / School of Social Sciences / Psychology Division High St. Paisley, UK

West University of Timisoara, Department of Psychology Timisoara, Romania Sigrun Kabisch

Department of Psychology, University of A Coruña A Coruna, Spain.

Department of Urban and Environmental Sociology / Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ Leipzig, Germany

Tony Craig, Treasurer

Petra Schweizer-Ries

Social, Economic and Geographical Sciences/ The James Hutton Institute Aberdeen, Scotland, UK

Bochum University of Applied Sciences Bochum/Germany. Forschungsgruppe Umweltpsychologie/ Universität des Saarlandes Saarbrücken, Germany

Ricardo García-Mira, Secretary

Aleya Abdel-Hadi

Prof. Emeritus of Interior Architecture/ Fine Arts, Helwan University Cairo, Egypt

Ian Simkins

Chartered Landscape Architect/ Experiemics LTD Consultancy of Experiential Landscape UK

Claudia Andrade

Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Cis-IUL Lisboa, Portugal

Kevin Thwaites

Department of Landscape/ University of Sheffield Sheffield, UK

Giuseppe Carrus

Department of Education Sciences/ University of Roma Tre Rome, Italy

Clare Twigger-Ross

Collingwood Environmental Planning Limited – Technical Director London, UK

The IAPS Board is now structured into four workgroups, each with a lead responsible member. Management: Responsible: Eddie Edgerton (President). Members: Ricardo Garcia-Mira (Secretary), Tony Craig (Treasurer) and Aleya Abdel-Hadi (Membership/Listserve). Tasks: finances, membership, profile, constitution, elections, meetings, conference voting, general liaison, and the public face of IAPS. Published Outputs: Responsible: Giuseppe Carrus (Bulletin). Members: Clare Twigger-Ross (Newsletter), Claudia Andrade (Newsletter) and Ian Simkins (Website). Tasks: bulletin, website, newsletter, bibliography, publicity. Conference related activities: Responsible: Sigrun Kabisch. Members: Clare Twigger-Ross (YRW), Corina Ilin, Petra Schweizer-Ries (YRW) and Claudia Andrade (YRW). Tasks: Young Researchers Workshop, Hall of Fame, conference support. Networks Responsibles: Kevin Thwaites and Ian Simkins. Tasks: Iaps networks coordination.

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Bulletin Summary TOC

P. 6-7

1. Presidential address (E. Edgerton) 2. Editorial address (G. Carrus) THEORETHICAL REFLECTIONS AND RESEARCH EXPERIENCES

6 74 P. 9-33

1. Sustainability science and its contribution to IAPS (P. Schweizer-Ries) 9 2. From real places to theme park cities (A. Portella) 13 3. Paths of sustainability (R. Cervinka et al.) 17 4. An IAPS Conference Experiment to reduce CO2-Production of Scientific Meetings (C. Watson et al.) 20 5. The ‘old town – new image’ project and local community contribution (A. Pawlikoska) 23 6. Psychosocial dimensions behind energy saving and mobility(K. Landeros, P. Andeane) 30 P. 34-39 SHORT PAPERS 1. Place Attachment And Identity In Non-Natives (H. Casakin, C. Ruiz, B. Hernández) 2. The stadium of the spectator (S. Manca) 3. Nature of well-being (N. Rainisio) CONFERENCE REPORTS 1. A Coruña 2013 (R. García-Mira) 2. Mexico 2013 (R. García-Mira) 3. CIP 2013 (Z. Cruz, C. Bolzan) PROJECT REPORTS

Phenotype (R. Lawrence) NEWS FROM THE NETWORKS

34 36 38

P. 40-43 40 42 43 P. 44-45 44 P. 46

IAPS Housing Network (R. Lawrence, R. Johansson, N. Jean-Baptiste) 46 P. 47-49 CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT Timisoara 2014 (C. Illin)

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BOOK REVIEW

P. 50-51

Le confort au travail (A. Dominikowski)

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NEW VOLUME ANNOUNCEMENT

P. 52-53

1. Solving complex problems a handbook (W. Schönwandt, K. Voermanek, J. Utz, J. Grunau, C. Hemberger) 2. Readings on the Prestige Disaster (R. García-Mira)

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Presidential address,

by Eddie Edgerton Dear IAPS member,

Welcome to the final IAPS bulletin of 2013 and the second bulletin that has been produced in electronic format; I hope you will agree that the new electronic format fulfils the wishes and expectations of the IAPS community.

Whilst 2013 represents an ‘in-between’ year in terms of the IAPS’ biennial conference, it has still been a busy and productive year, not least due to the excellent and well-attended symposium that was held in A Coruña in June. Many of the discussions that took place at this symposium focused on the desire for additional, smaller IAPS events that would provide further opportunities for dialogue and exchange between IAPS members. Some interesting proposals were discussed and we hope to make announcements about this in 2014.

As IAPS President, I recently attended the 4th Latin American Environmental Psychology conference (CIPA) that was held in Mexico City in September; this event was also attended by the IAPS Secretary (Ricardo Garcia Mira). This was a highly stimulating event that showcased much of the excellent research in environment-behaviour studies that is being conducted to address both general environmental issues and those that are specific to Latin America. It also provided an opportunity to connect with IAPS members in various Latin American countries whilst at the same time

allowing us to promote IAPS to a new audience. However, at the same time it is with great sadness that I have to report the tragic death of Ana Maritza Landázuri-Ortiz. Ana Maritza was instrumental in organising this conference and the previous CIPA conferences and in forging strong links with IAPS. The conference concluded with a very moving and appropriate tribute to Ana Martiza and on behalf of IAPS I would like to dedicate this edition of the Bulletin to Ana Martiza. 2014 also promises to be a busy and exciting year, not least with the biennial conference in Timisoara in June 2014. However, there are many other initiatives to look forward to such as the publication of the IAPS 22 Post-Conference Book, upcoming Board elections and a highly topical, thematic edition of the next IAPS Bulletin, to name but a few.

I would like to end by thanking you all for your support and continued membership of IAPS. I hope to see you in Timisoara in 2014 and wish you all a very peaceful Christmas and a prosperous New Year. Dr Edward Edgerton, IAPS President

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Editorial address,

Giuseppe Carrus Welcome to this issue number 40 of the Bulletin of People-environment Studies. This is the second issue published in the new electronic format. As editorial team, we hope that the IAPS members will keep on appreciating this new format. So far, the reactions to the first issue have been positive and supportive, as it emerged from many informal talks that we could have during the last months within many of you.

In the present issue, as usual, you will find a good mix of contribution from different disciplinary fields, treating different topics, from different countries and continents, and from young and less young scholars.

You will also find important news about the forthcoming 23rd IAPS Conference in Timisoara. We hope that many will attend and enjoy the conference, the young researcher workshop, and all the related events. It will certainly be another great IAPS Conference, in an undoubtedly fascinating town and country.

The next issue of the Bulletin will be dedicated to a special theme of “Places for democracy”, which was discussed in the occasion of the last Board meeting held in June 2013 in A Coruña. All the IAPS community will soon receive news and updates on this project, with a more detailed call for contributions. Let me close this address by remembering, with sadness, the departure of our sweet friend and colleague Ana Maritza Landázuri. This is a great loss, for her family, for the environmental psychology community in Mexico and Latin America, and for IAPS at large. Her closest friends and colleagues at UNAM, and those of us, who had the luck of knowing and meeting Ana Maritza in the occasion of various conferences during these years, will certainly keep the remembrance of an extraordinary person. We dedicate this issue of the Bulletin to the memory of Ana Maritza.

Also, this issue contains interesting reports from past IAPS events, book reviews and announcements, research projects reports, and news about the networks, all coming from key figures in our association.

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OBITUARY ANA MARITZA LANDÁZURI-ORTIZ

ENG

ESP

We have lost our friend and colleague, Ana Maritza Landázuri in a tragic traffic accident at her native Mexico City. She was born and grew up in Mexico City, where she got her BA in psychology, a Master in Neuroscience and her Doctor’s degree in Environmental Psychology at Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM). She was an enthusiastic professor at UNAM’s Iztacala campus and influenced many young students to become involved in careers in Environmental Psychology. She carried out research on Habitability and demonstrated that several architectural traits affected this. She also became involved with restorative environments in a research stay with Professor Terrence Lee at St. Andrews University and continued to research this topic until her death. One of her main achievements was the organization of three Latin-American Environmental Psychology Congresses, in teamwork with Serafín Mercado, Alejandra Terán and José Gómez-Herrera, which allowed environmental psychologists South of the Rio Grande border to gather to exchange research, experiences and points of view. They were important opportunities for debate as well as for the establishment of collaboration agreements for academic projects. One important aspect of the way she set up these encounters was that she invited prominent environmental psychologists and other professionals in related areas, which attended to enrich the conference. They were vital to the integration of the discipline. It was in this process that she started contact with IAPS, obtaining benefits in both directions. She was involved in the organization of the fourth event, which, due to its size and international composition, came to be called International Conference, when she regrettably passed away. This conference took place from the 23 to the 27 of September of this year. Several members of IAPS, including its president, Edward Edgerton, attended it. It was a great success, due to a great extent, to Maritza’s involvement.

Hemos perdido a nuestra gran amiga y colega, Ana Maritza Landázuri Ortiz. Falleció en un trágico accidente el 1º de septiembre de 2013. Ella nació y creció en la Ciudad de México; obtuvo su licenciatura en psicología, maestría en Neurociencia y doctorado en psicología ambiental en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Fue una profesora entusiasta en el campus Iztacala de la UNAM. Muchos jóvenes estudiantes optaron por el área de psicología ambiental debido a su influencia siempre positiva y su entrega a la docencia y la investigación. Realizó investigaciones en habitabilidad de la vivienda, demostrando que la afectan varios rasgos arquitectónicos, y prosiguió con entornos restauradores en una estancia de investigación con el profesor Terence Lee en la Universidad de St Andrews, investigación que continuó posteriormente. Uno de sus principales logros fue la organización de tres encuentros latinoamericanos de psicología ambiental, trabajando en equipo con Serafín Mercado, Alejandra Terán y José Gómez Herrera, lo que permitió a psicólogos ambientales al sur de la frontera del río Grande reunirse para intercambiar experiencias de investigación, y puntos de vista. Fueron importantes oportunidades para el debate, así como para el establecimiento de acuerdos de colaboración para proyectos académicos. Un aspecto significativo de la manera en que ella preparó estos encuentros fue que invitó a destacados psicólogos ambientales y otros profesionales en áreas relacionadas, que asistieron a enriquecer el congreso. Esto ha sido vital para la integración de la disciplina. Fue en este proceso que comenzó el contacto con IAPS, obteniendo beneficios en ambas direcciones. Ella estuvo implicada en la organización del cuarto evento, que, debido a su tamaño y composición internacional, pasó a llamarse Congreso Internacional, cuando lamentablemente ella falleció. Este congreso se llevó a cabo del 23 al 27 de septiembre de este año. Varios miembros del IAPS, incluido el actual Presidente, Edward Edgerton, asistieron. Fue un gran éxito, debido en gran medida, a la participación de Ana Maritza.

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Theorethical reflections and research experiences

1. SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO IAPS: SEEKING FOR INTEGRATED SUSTAINABILITY

Dr. Petra Schweizer-Ries University Professor for Sustainability Science University of Applied Sciences Bochum petra.schweizer-ries@fg-upsy.com

1. IAPS & SUSTAINABILITY

This contribution builds up on the discussions during the IAPS-symposium on “sustainable environments in a changing global context: Identifying opportunities for innovative spaces and practices in contexts of crisis” in A Corunia at the roundtable “Sustainability – still a sparkling and fuzzy challenge in transdisciplinary projects” (Schweizer-Ries, Cervinka & Senik, 2013). It was designed to support a discussion inside IAPS on sustainability approaches and to strengthen the IAPS sustainability network on its focus towards a joint understanding of sustainability and to find joint endeavours to work on a further refinement of the understanding, researching and realising of sustainability at IAPS. As a discussion basis the four approaches from Martens & Schilder (2011) were taken up, modified and presented. This stimulated many discussions already during and after the session. The presented paper now wants to overcome the earlier concept of three (or later four) pillars of sustainability (see e.g. Hagemann & Hauff, 2010), where economy (especially the way of functioning of the current economic system) seems to have the same value like nature and society.

In the presented concept mainly two aspect are important: The conservation of the flora and fauna. This includes the protection of natural resources and the prevention of ecological climate change. As resources are depleted currently (some forever) and the world climate changes, there is a demand to change the current anthropological use-system. If we do not change it, there is the danger, that we cannot survive. The creation and conservation of social justice and a cultural climate of peace and harmony. This is mainly concerned with the question of how to distribute the available resources to be conserved in a fair way among the humans living in different cultures and continents also differently affected by e.g. climate change. Especially the consumption patters of the leading economies are not designed to save resources and take care of all different aspects of the production and recycling process. On the other hand emerging economies and so called developing countries are affected by climate change. This definitely is an unjust distribution. Concepts like the 2000-WattSociety, are targeting towards a more fair distribution e.g. of energy consumption (Schulz, 2007).

· ·

Only these two aspects, nature protection and humanity, should be in the centre of our concern for a sustainable development of mankind on earth. Economic aspects, policies, technologies and individual lifestyles etc. are means to fulfil these two basic and huge demands, protecting and creating peace and a durable resource use. Figure 1 is illustrating the unjust distribution of resource uses according to Medows’ global village idea (Medows, 1991).

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Figure 1: 80% of the resources are used by 20% of world’s population (according to Medows, 1991; painted by Ameneh Nourinejadfard, Bochum, 2013).

During the discussion at the network symposium member of IAPS agreed to come to a new form of sustainability. Now called the “integrated sustainability”. This overcomes even the Brundland Definition and the deep belief in our industrialised societies that we need economic growth for our wellbeing. Recent sociological publications show, that wellbeing and happiness is not necessarily coming together with economic wealth (Oswald & Wu, 2011). The post-carbon and fair society is urgently needed. Science can help to further develop new, more sustainable systems in working together with local actors, organisations and communities that really want an integrated sustainability. IAPS may be one of these organisations. Others are also on the way (see e.g. the path approach described by Cervinka, Kadoch & Schweizer-Ries in this volume).

2. THE DIFFERENT QUALITIES OF SUSTAINABILITIES

In our society sustainability is now widely used and also misused in the sense that many things are named “sustainable”. The word is used like “durable”, but in the eyes of the sustainability science sustainable development is much more then making something to last longer, like it has been described before and will be more explicated after. This paper is attempting to clarify the use and understanding of sustainability with the help of the four categories according to Martens & Schilder (2011). As these categories are still under discussion and further developed, all comments and further reflections are highly welcome. Also the boundaries of the categories should not be seen as sharp, but more as an overlap between the categories. It is also not intended to stamp the categories as good and bad, although there are preferences of the author and IAPS, like discussed on the event. Anyhow each IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013

category is targeting towards sustainable development and not ignoring the actual status of our planet. Diverging from Martens & Schilder (2011) we – at the IAPS-collegium – where clear after all the discussions, that we need to come to – what we called according to the recommendation of Hüliya Turgut – “integrated sustainability” and that this is possible, if we take the wisdom of traditional and newly developing sustainable cultures into account. This means to follow a joint learning process and the wish to follow this target to realise an integrated sustainability. Different “categories” of Sustainability that exist in our Societies, mainly the so-called industrialised societies, strongly believing in the power of markets and modern technologies. We may come back to other cultures and traditions, where society was more in the centre of the development, like called “community approach” in the presentation of Wehrmeyer, Emmert, Farsang et al. (2013).


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In the following pages the four sustainability categories are presented briefly as approaches, where we can build on to reach a sustainability that can support our basic demands of protection of natural resources and social justice:

loss of capital, that has to be produced by other means. Loss of natural elements is only a problem, if later we detect that we could have used this creature for e.g. cancer healing (like it was the case with one species of frogs).

2.1 SUSTAINABILITY AS A TOPIC

More and more companies and persons detect sustainability as an important topic, as an important market force. Environmental protection is seen and done, when it helps in the same time to save money and effort. Resource depletion is not the main issue here, as they are supplemental by others. If the oil is gone, we take gas or we develop other technologies that help to fulfil the energy demand that we are producing within our societies. Other solutions could be e.g. solarbased production of electricity, as solar power is theoretically unlimited. Also we have to manage to adapt to changes we are provoking, e.g. as a response to rising sea level (as a result of global warming) we can use floating homes and islands, where we might maintain our living standard even better than at present. The market is regulating itself. When the resources come to their end, they get more expensive and therefore are used less. There will be always something left, we can use. The market is in the centre of this thinking and the market mechanisms have to be supported. People are seen as one form of capital that works inside the market. Green Technology is used as long as money can be earned with it. Sustainability reports of organisations can show, how advanced these are: making environmental protection and earning reputation and customers with it. The danger of green washing is very high in this way of thinking.

Technology is seen as the main factor that can help to solve the prevention of unsustainable living.

2.2 WEAK SUSTAINABILITY

Also the so called “weak sustainability” approach is following a traditional, western market approach and supposes that the market will rule and regulate the value of nature. Birds e.g. can be capitalised and calculated in economical value that we are loosing if one of the species is gone (Constanza, D’Arge, Groot et al., 1997). The loss of biodiversity is then mainly an aspect of

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Resources are divided in those that are necessary (un-supplemental) and those that can be missed (supplemental). E.g. the climate protection is necessary (un-supplemental), because until now, it does not seem to be technically controllable. The “weak sustainability” relies on the strong belief that an efficiency revolution can help. With technical means resources can be saved, e.g. in energy efficient devices. Still not solved in this approach is the so-called rebound effect that shows, that with more and more energy saving devices energy consumption is still increasing. Or with increasingly lighter materials heavier cars are produced. This thinking realises that the market has to be regulated somehow, as e.g. the real cost are not always paid (externalisation of costs). Technology is seen as the main factor that can help to solve the prevention of unsustainable living, mainly concerned with natural resource depletion.

2.3 STRONG SUSTAINABILITY

This approach includes all three sustainability strategies: Consistency Strategy (staying in the natural cycle, not using more than is naturally produced and not emitting more than can be cleaned by nature, e.g. using renewable energy sources with the principle of reversibility), Efficiency Strategy (being as efficient as possible in profit and expenses e.g. supplying the same energy service like heating, lighting, transport with less energy demand) and Sufficiency Strategy (thinking about what is really needed, e.g. rethinking the energy service demand and reducing where ever possible). Among sustainability scientists, it is agreed that only with all these three strategies the huge resource depletion and further global warming can be stopped. This approach involves social justice and peace in the centre of all human activities and not economy. Needs should be fulfilled equally and technology, policy and economy are there to support the two main targets: 1) conservation of the natural environment for human use and 2) equal distribution of these resources. Targets are followed like the 2000 WattSociety or to reach 2t CO2/person/year.


12 2.4 INTEGRATED SUSTAINABILITY

Integrated Sustainability is of course seen from the human side, but does not put the humans in the centre only. It steps away from the anthropocentric view and is targeting to reach a harmony in-between individuals, societies and with nature. The basic idea is, that the cultivation goes with the natural cycles and no irreversible changes are made. Basic principles are resilience and societal justice. We can use nature as a resource, but we should not consume it (like the model of Cradle-to-Cradle advices us (Braungart & McDonough, 2009)). It is also oriented to the “bien vivir” or “good life” and is based on the belief that there are enough resources on the planet to fulfil all our basic needs and live in happiness and peace. See here also the principle of Sumak Kawsay, implemented in the Ecuadorian Constitution (García Álvarez, 2011). This approach is going beyond the Brundland definition that still builds up on the idea of economic growth and westernised wealth. It refers to new models of post-growth societies (Paech, 2012) and a new understanding of what is important for societies and individuals. At the moment our basic understanding of it is the cultivation of nature and society in the way, that we can use (not consume!) resources over a long time and reach a just and peaceful living among societies and inside individuals. Rogers developed the idea of a “fully-functioning-

person” as a target that cannot be fully reached but seen as a good target to come closer (Rogers, Lyon & Tausch, 2013), accordingly we should think about a “fully-functioning-society” as a target to overcome the depletion of natural systems and humanity.

3. SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE & IAPS

Initiated in Friibergh, Sweden in 2000, sustainability science is still a very young “kind of discipline” including a huge diversity of subjects and methods. According to Kates, Clark, Corell et al. (2001) applied and basic scientific affords are clearly value laden and cannot be solved by one discipline only, therefore is inter- and transdisciplinary, also transepistemic when taking different approaches of knowledge production into account (SchweizerRies & Perkins, 2012). Unifying is basically, that researchers in this science are taking over responsibility to work towards sustainable development inside science and society. Now it is the question of what quality of sustainability are we targeting at, when seeing the four different ones described above. Three knowledge types can help to support a sustainable development (Riemer & Schweizer-Ries, 2013): Creating system knowledge about natural and societal systems and their interrelated patterns. Also their changes

over time should be monitored and documented. Experiencing and further developing transformational knowledge on socio-technical-systems and cultures. Elaborating target knowledge on how an integrated sustainability could be. The discussion at the Symposium about the IAPS sustainability network developed in the direction of having joint case studies, like the Bochum University of Applied Sciences on its way towards sustainable development (see also Cervinka et al. 2013) and joint actions like the “low-carbonconference-experiment” (Watson, Schweizer-Ries & Craig, 2013). In interchange with the culture & space network and the housing network, we argue now, that we need an integrated sustainability approach that still has to and can be developed inside IAPS.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Herewith I want to thank all the discussants at the IAPS-symposium on “sustainable environments in a changing global context: Identifying opportunities for innovative spaces and practices in contexts of crisis” in A Coruña among others namely Aleya Abdel-Hadi, Giuseppe Carrus, Tony Craig, Demet Eryildiz, Martina Ferrucci, Ricardo García Mira, Corina Ilin, Roderick J. Lawrence; Derya Oktay, Jennifer Senick, Hülya Turgut.

References • Adam, B., & Groves, C. (2007). Future matters: action, knowledge, ethics. Leiden: Brill.

• Braungart, M. & McDonough, W. (2009). Cradle to Crade: Remaking the way we make things. London: North Point Press.

• Cervinka, Kadoch & Schweizer-Ries (in press). Paths of Sustainability: An Initiative To Foster Integrated Sustainable Develpoment and Collaboration in Theory and Practice. This issue. • Constanza, R., D’Arge, R. Groot de, R., Farber, St., Grasso, M. Hannon, B., Limburg, K. Naeem, Sh. O’Neill, R., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P. & von den Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387, 253 – 260.

• García Álvarez, S. (2011). El sumak kawsay y la política económica del gobierno (Política pública). En La Tendencia. Revista de Análisis Político. Diálogo, renovación y unidad de las izquierdas. Quito: FES-ILDIS, 12, 82-86. • Hagemann, H. & Hauff von, M. (2010). Nachhaltige Entwicklung – das neue Paradigma in der Ökonomie. Marburg: Metropolis.

• Kates, R., Clark, W., Corell, J., Hall, M., Jaeger, C., Lowe, I, McCarthy, J., Schellnhuber, H., Bert Bolin, B., Dickson, N., Faucheux, S., Gallopín, G., Gruebler, A., Huntley, B., Jäger, J., Jodha, N., Kasperson, R., Mabogunje, A., Matson, P., Mooney, H., Moore, B., O’Riordan, T. & Svedin, U. (2001). Sustainability Science. Science, 292, 641-662.

• Martens, J. & Schilder, K. (2001). Sustainable Development. In J. Krieger (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2nd ed., pp. 813–815). Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Medows, D.H. (1991). The Global Citizen. Washington: Island Press.

• Oswald, A. & Wu, St. (2011). “Well-being Across America”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 93, 1118-1134.

• Paech, N. (2012). Liberation from Excess. The Road to a Post-Growth Economy. Munich: Oekom-Verlag.

• Rogers, C., Lyon, H. C., & Tausch, R. (2013). On Becoming an Effective Teacher - Personcentered Teaching, Psychology, Philosophy, and Dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon. London: Routledge.

• Schulz, T.F. (2007). Intermediate steps towards the 2000-Watt society in Switzerland: An energy economic scenario analysis. ETHZ: Dissertation. • Schweizer-Ries, P. & Perkins, D. (2012). Sustainability Science: Transdisciplinarity, Transepistemology, and Action Research. Umweltpsychologie, 16(1), 6-10.

• Schweizer-Ries, P., Cervinka, R. & Senick, J. (2013). Sustainability – still a sparkling and fuzzy challenge in transdisciplinary projects. In P. Schweizer-Ries (Chair), Sustainable Environments in a Changing Global Context: Identifying Opportunities for Innovative Spaces and Practices in Contexts of Crisis. Symposium conducted at the meeting of International Association People-Environment Studies (IAPS), A Coruña, Spain. • Watson, Ch., Schweizer-Ries, P. & Craig, T. (2013). An IAPS Conference Experiment to reduce CO2-Production of Scientific Meetings. THIS ISSUE.

• Wehrmeyer, W., Emmert, S. , Farsang, A., Kondili, E., Stasiskiene, Z., Venhoeven, L. & Vitterso, G. (2013). New Futures and News ways to get there: Examining School Pupils’ and Experts’ Transition Pathways across 6 EU countries. Sustainable Environments in a Changing Global Context: Identifying Opportunities for Innovative Spaces and Practices in Contexts of Crisis. Symposium International Association People-Environment Studies (IAPS), A Coruña, Spain.

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2. From real places to theme park cities: What is the matter with ours cities? Adriana Araujo Portella Professor at Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil Pos-doc in Planning at University College London, UK PhD. in Urban Design at Oxford Brookes University, UK adrianaportella@yahoo.com.br

I was always curious to know why many people like to spend holidays in theme park cities or water parks built in front of real beaches instead of going to the real city itself. Why does this preference for artificial urban settings happen? Is it related with the high level of aesthetic order that this kind of environment sometimes offers, or with symbolic values attributed to these places? And what we, as architects, planners and urban designers, need to do to make people stop to spend time in these places, and give more value to real public spaces? This report contributes to this contemporary discussion bringing back well-known references of aesthetic empiric studies and branding the city experiences. As said by the environmental psychology architect researcher Ralf Weber (1995, p.113): “the more orderly a configuration, the higher its aesthetic value”. According to Gestalt principles, high visual quality of public places consists in the “good form” or “pragnanz” of the city. “Good” in this case concerns how elements in an aesthetic composition are related to each other such as regularity, orderliness, simplicity, symmetry and so on. Jon Lang (2005) says that the visual quality of open spaces is essential to experiencing cities and the perceptions of their quality; the high visual

quality of places built by street morphology, squares, parks and buildings that face public areas forms the international images of cities such as London, Paris and Rome. Jan Gehl (2001) also argues that the extent and character of outdoor life can be influenced by physical planning. He suggests that there is a relationship between outdoor visual quality and outdoor activity. Although user evaluation can be influenced by particular experiences, preferences and feelings, the perception of order is evaluated as positive by almost all people. Jack Nasar (1998) already identified that ordered streetscapes are evaluated positively by people who live in different cultures and physical environments. On the other hand, disordered public spaces are evaluated negatively because observers are exposed to a series of disconnected aesthetic elements which provoke user saturation. This saturation experience means that people lose the enjoyment of variety, and their senses become insensitive to the succession of visual stimulus without order. In this sense, people will prefer to live and spend holidays in an ordered setting instead of a chaotic place. In this way, urban design principles can help to attract people to places through the improvement of the visual quality of urban areas. Harley Sherlock (1991) in his book ‘Cities are good for us’ says that cities need to have “decent environments”, without which people and their activities will eventually melt away. According to him, the expression “decent environment” does not mean simply pleasant buildings. This term has to mean that users feel pleased and interested with the streetscapes as a whole. To be able to get this, it is important to know that formal and symbolic factors influence user satisfaction with public space. The final image that users have of places

Figure 1: New York and Las Vegas in USA, respectively. The image of these cities is composed of physical and symbolic factors (Source: Andreia Portella, 2013; Naoumova, 2012). IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013


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results from their perception and cognition of both these factors. In this way, the character of cities is built by physical characteristics of buildings, public spaces, and symbolic meanings attributed to those by users. For example, the character of cities as New York and Las Vegas in the United States is formed by physical and nonphysical elements of the urban space related to shopfronts, advertisements, buildings, landscape and so on (see Figure 1). Regarding this context, we need to realize that, as the German researcher Anna Klingmann (2010) defends in her book ‘Brandscapes: Architecture in the Experience Economy’, we are no longer consuming just places and architecture but sensations, symbols and lifestyles created by the image that those products create through our cognition process. People consume brands and the symbols associated to these by what Thorns (2004) calls global culture. Goods, architecture and public places begin to have more than utilitarian value; they become part of identity, personality, self-image, social position, attitude and aspirations of people (Marshall & Wood, 1995). According to Sharrett (1989) and Goss (quoted in Jameson 1984), in fact, it is not the material object that is desirable by people, but the image associated with these objects. The idea of “privatised branded cities” comes into this context: branding of streets, districts and entire cities refers to the application of marketing the city and urban tourism strategies and specific aesthetic controls in order to create and promote images of places

associated with specific products or dream lifestyles. The problem is that, in some cases, this approach can harm the original character of places by promoting manufactured streetscapes. There are a lot of examples that can be used to illustrate this problem; here we are going to discuss Celebration and Seaside in the United States, ‘Marina’ in Egypt, and Gramado and ‘Eco Parque’ in Brazil. The cities of Celebration and Seaside, in Florida, are examples of historical theme environments designed under the banner of the New Urbanism. Seaside was founded in 1981 in the Gulf of Mexico coast of Florida, and has been recognized as a theme resort city for wealthy people. According to Joe Moran (2003), this city is nothing less than a fake urban site. It became very popular as being the main filming location of the movie ‘The Truman Show’, which is an American satirical social science fiction film portraying the life in this kind of fake urban environment. Celebration was founded fifteen years late (1996) and it is known as the first Disney city where the image of public spaces is entirely created and controlled by Disney’s management. The design approach adopted in Celebration refers to the promotion of an artificial scenario, where building facades, historic features, and public spaces are designed as a thematic park, such as Disney World and Disneyland. The first idealization for Celebration was a branded place: an artificial paradise with mid-fifties futuristic technology and automation. Alternatively, managers opted to create an idealized re-interpretation of an ideal American

city, which may have existed before the twentieth century; free of visual pollution and aesthetic disorder (Klein, 2000). Trying to promote the life style of cities at the end of nineteenth century, city managers in both those cities missed one important issue: the city is dynamic and an integral part of society changes, in terms of culture and period of time. The image of these places is just an illusion. In addition, in fact both cities do not have real public spaces because city managers control everything. These managers define the kind of activity that can happen in all areas of the city. Unlike other cities where public areas, such as squares and even parks, can be sites for community discussion, protests and political rallies, the only type of activity that is welcome in Celebration is that ones decided by its managers (Klein, 2000). The freedom to live in this manufactured city free of aesthetic chaos costs other freedoms. According to Klein (2000), the families who have chosen to live in Celebration are living a branded life style. The same kind of brand environment can be found in the northern coast of Egypt. ‘Marina’ is a gated community which is designed and built to be reminiscent of Venice canals; in the canals of Marina the gondoliers wear striped shirts as in the Grand Canal in Venice (see Figure 2). The Marina has a 750 meters long beach and its downstream surface is 800 meters. It comprises 34 villas, 264 flats and 672 cabins as well as a center for administrative, commercial, medical, religious as well as entertainment services. In a field trip research to this

Figure 2: Gondoliers in Marina, Egypt, wearing striped shirts as in the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy (Source: author, 2010). IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013


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Figure 3: Streetscape in Gramado with contemporary buildings named ‘Neo-Bavarian’ (Source: author, 2013).

place in 2010, a young Egyptian woman said to me that Marina was the most beautiful place that she already saw; and in that time she was living in Alexandria, the city created by Alexander the Great in 333BCE and the most important city in the ancient world. In the south of Brazil, there is a city named Gramado where the local authority has designed and adopted restrictive aesthetic controls related to building facades in order to create a historical theme scenario. This manufactured environment is promoted through marketing the city and urban tourism strategies. The image of Gramado as the “Brazilian Switzerland” is advertised though city guides, glossy brochures, postcards, magazines, newspaper and so on. The idea of promoting Gramado as a city which is reminiscent of Alpine settings is inspired by the fact that the majority of its population is descendants of immigrants from Switzerland, Germany and Italy, and the architectural style brought by them was mainly Bavarian

(Daros & Barroso, 1995). The results from interviews with the City Council officers show that the local authority supports the demolition of original buildings, and their replacement by contemporary architecture designed to look like the originals. This kind of architecture, which can be referred to as “pastiche” has been changing the identity of Gramado (see Figure 3). The results from the systematic observations of the main streets in this city indicate that almost all original buildings have been demolished and replaced by their “clones”. Critics argue that the approach adopted by the local authority is wrong, and the visual character of Gramado should comprise the preservation of the historic heritage (Daros & Barroso, 1995). This assumption is supported by Levi (2005), who argues that the important historical attributes of a place can be lost by the development of historical theme environments. However, Gramado is recognized as a very popular tourist destination in Brazil, suggesting that people do like

Figure 3: Eco Parque in Brazil; wire fence isolating the real beach of the waterpark. The second picture has a sign on the fence that says ‘don´t touch the fence’ (Source: author, 2012). IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013

the manufactured ordered streetscape promoted by the local authority. This city has been experiencing increasing economic development, and the tourist industry has become the main source of jobs for local people. In Brazil another situation is happening with a significant frequency: waterparks are become very popular with many people, they prefer these places instead of real beaches in a country with 7,491km of coastline. On the southern coast of Bahia there is a waterpark funded in 1997 named ‘Eco Parque’; it comprises toboggans, swimming pool with waves and a complete infrastructure for tourists. It can receive up to 5,000 people daily, and the fanny thing is that the beach just in front of the park is clean and has warm water. However, many tourists pay around 100 euros per person to spend a day in an artificial swimming pool full of chlorine, and be looking the ocean through a wire fence (see Figure 3). The aesthetic controls designed and applied in these places attempt


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to create urban sites that look what a group of town planners and investors may believe that is the ideal image of a city, town or public space. Studies of Relph (2007, 1976), Auge (2000, 1995), and Arefi (1999) describe these kinds of places as “non-places”. These authors say that “non-places” are related to an infusion of images and ideas from elsewhere, irrespective of local context, reflecting places that could be anywhere. According to Gottdiener’s study (1997), this kind of built environment has extended from designed parks, such as Disney World, to the urban space itself. However, there is one factor that all these fake urban sites have in common: ordered streetscapes, safety and an image of a wealthy lifestyle. The conclusion is that people will prefer ordered places, which increase the perception of safety and wealthy life, even if these are fake urban sites. The importance of historic symbolism seems to be overcome by the high value of order on user perception of urban environments. In this way, we need to search how to rescue the visual quality of our real cities and make

people come back to spend their free time in the real word, living theme parks just for recreation as the Disney parks. Concepts of legibility and imageabity need to be integrated by local authorities in urban renewal projects. Legibility embraces character and sense of place with clarity and helps wayfinding (Butina & Bentley, 2007; Urban Design for Retail Environments, 2002). A highly imageable city would be well formed, contain very distinct ordered parts, and be instantly recognizable by people (Nasar, 1998). In this way, legibility and imageability increase user perception of personal safety and make people become more familiar with their surroundings. Strategies applied by local authorities to improve legibility and imageability of public areas can be seen in the cities of Bristol and Bath in England. One of the aims of the development plans adopted in these cities was to create a comprehensible and ordered image of the city by means of relationship between signs, routes, street furniture design, public art, publicity and marketing (Kelly & Kelly, 2003). These

practices emphasize the importance of legibility in terms of landmarks and the relationship to existing and past urban form. In the light of the issues presented above, this report ends highlighting the importance of high visual quality in urban sites as it promotes safe, better behaviour from users and create interaction between people and local authorities in order to get a better sense of community. As defended by Lang (2005) and Curran (1983), the perceived quality of a city is very much dependent on the visual quality of its streets, which depends on the relationship established between formal factors such as lengths of blocks, cross sections, widths of roadbeds and sidewalks. In this way, the key to create attractive and pleasure places for people lies on the application of urban design principles that take into account order, legibility and imageability in projects of urban revitalization. This can be the answer to end the growing of fake urban environments across the world.

References • Arefi, M. (1999). Non-place and Placelessness as Narratives of Loss: Rethinking the Notion of Place. Journal of Urban Design, 4 (2), pp.179-193. • Auge, M. (1995). Non-places: Introduction to an Anhropology of Supermodernity. New York: Verso.

• Auge, M. (2000). Non-places. In Ad. Read (Ed.). Architectually Speaking, Practices of Art, Architecture and Every Day. (p.7). London: Routledge. • Butina, G. W. & Bentley, I. (2007). Identity by Design. London: Architectural Press.

• Curran, R. (1983). Architecture and the Urban Experience. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

• Daros, M. & Barroso, V. L. M. (2000). Raizes de Gramado – V Encontro dos Municipios Originarios de Santo Antônio da Patrulha (Roots of Gramado – V Meeting of the Cities Originary from “Santo Antonio da Patrulha”) (2 Ed.). Porto Alegre: Edicoes Estacoes. • Gehl, J. (2001). Life Between Buildings. Copenhagen: The Danish Architectural Press.

• Gottdiener, M. (1997). The Theming of America: Dreams, Visions, and Commercial Spaces. Boulder: Westview.

• Jameson, F. (1984). Postmodernism or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. New Left Review, 146, pp.53-93. • Kelly, A. & Kelly, M. (2003). Building Legible Cities 2. Bristol: Bristol Cultural Development Partership. • Klein, N. (2000). No Logo. London: Flamingo.

• Klingmann, Anna. (2010). Brandscapes: Architecture in the Experience Economy. Cambridge: The MIT Press. • Lang, J. (2005). Urban Design, a Typology of Procedures and Products. London: Architectural Press.

• Lasansky, D. M. & McLaren, B. (Eds). (2004). Architecture and Tourism: Perception, Performance and Place. Oxford: Berg. • Levi, D. J. (2005). Does History Matter? Perception and Attitudes toward Fake Historic Architecture and Historic Preservation. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 22(2), pp.148-159.

• Lynch, K. (2007). “The Image of the Environment” and “The City Image and its Elements”. In M. Larice & E. Macdonald. The Urban Design Reader. (pp.153-166). New York: Routledge.

• Marshall, N. & Wood, P. (1995). Services & Space. Key Aspects of Urban and Regional Development. New York: Longman Group limited. • Moran, J. (2003). Celebration, Disney’s Deam Town. American Studies Resources Centre, Liverpool Community College, Liverpool. Retrieved September, 2004, from www.americansc.org.uk. • Nasar, J. L. (1988). Environmental Aesthetics: Theory, Research and Applications. Cambridge: University Press.

• Proto, F. (Ed.). (2006). Mass, Identity, Architecture, Architectural Writings of Jean Baudrillard. Chichester: Wiley-Academy. • Relph, E. (1976). Place and Placelessness. London: Pion.

• Relph, E. (2007). Prospects for Places. In Larice, M. & Macdonald, E. The Urban Design Reader. (pp.121-124). New York: Routledge.

• Sharrett, C. (1989). Defining the Postmodern: the Case of Soho Kitchen and El International. In D. Kellner (Eds.). Postmodernism, Jamenson, Critique. (pp.162171). Washington, DC: Maisonneuve Press. • Sherlock, H. (1991). Cities are Good for Us. London: Paladin.

• Thorns, D. C. (2002). The Transformation of Cities, Urban Theory and Urban Life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. • Thorns, D. C. (2002). The Transformation of Cities, Urban Theory and Urban Life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. (2004)

• Urban Design for Retail Environments. (2002). Produced by the Building Design Partnership with support from CABE and English Heritage for the British Council of Shopping Centres (BCSC). London: BCSC. • Weber, R. (1995). On the Aesthetic of Architecture, a Psychological Approach to the Structure and the Order of Perceived Architectural Space. San Francisco: Ashgate Publishing Company. • Zatti, E. B. (Ed.) (1999). Raizes de Gramado (Origins of Gramado). Gramado: Metropole.

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3. PATHS OF SUSTAINABILITY: An Initiative to Foster Integrated Sustainable Development and Collaboration in Theory and Practice Ing. Dr. Renate Cervinka Assistant Professor. Institute of Environmental Health, Center for Public Health renate.cervinka@meduniwien.ac.at

Aaron Kadoch, AIA Assistant Professor. Division of Interior Architecture, College of Professional Studies, The University of WisconsinStevens Point

Dr. Petra Schweizer-Ries Professor for Sustainability Science, University of Applied Sciences Bochum, Teaching and Research Laboratory Sustainable Development renate.cervinka@meduniwien.ac.at

The aim of this initiative is to define, discuss and foster “Integrated Sustainability“ within the IAPS community. The first example will be a sustainability path, which is to be established on the grounds of the Bochum University of Applied Sciences in Germany. This path will connect several “nodes” which make different aspects of technical and social sustainability-approaches visible, virtually and real. It is planned to report on the project at the next IAPS conference, on the internet and in scientific publications. All interested parties within IAPS and beyond are warmly invited to join this initiative. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AS CENTRAL CONCERN

Since 1992, the idea of sustainable development impacts politics and science. Although sustainability resounded throughout the world and formed sustainability sciences

in Friibergh, Sweden in 2000, the underlying concept still remains fuzzy and needs further clarification, a shared theoretical basis and a joined action (Cervinka & Schmuck, 2010; Schweizer-Ries, Cervinka & Senick, 2013). From our observation sustainability researchers and practitioners within IAPS are keen to develop theoretical initiatives yet grounded with innovative, and realistic methodologies. A series of contributions at the last network symposium in A Coruna, Spain, 2013 entitled: “Sustainable Environments in a Changing Global Context”, were dedicated to this task. In her contribution Renate Cervinka first presented the outline on the development of a sustainability path developed together with Petra Schweizer-Ries in Bochum/Germany, which was subsequently enriched via a broad discussion on theory and practice with colleagues from different fields and origin. We would like to acknowledge the vivid discussion and contributions to the path-idea during the meeting. THE SUSTAINABILITY PATH IDEA

It is the idea to create “paths of sustainability“ linking several sites called „nodes“ as metaphors for physical and virtual modes of connecting, collaborating and learning across geographic and disciplinary boundaries. “Nodes” (Kadoch, 2013) which are linked by “Paths” (Cervinka, 2013) are key conceptual components of the idea. The actions to create this path with the nodes will require transdisciplinary collaboration, joined research and will include teaching activities on the process of sustainable development at site. This will build the ground for networking, enhancing education and supporting a social paradigm shift towards an “Integrated Sustainability” (Schweizer-Ries, 2013) within the organisation where it is applied. The process starts with designing a path on the grounds of the Bochum University of Applied Sciences in Germany (BO) linking several sites (node 1-7), the so called “Bochum Sustainability Path”. This path is thought to connect several sites at the campus where different aspects of sustainability can be experienced. So far, at least seven nodes are proposed at Bochum (figure 1).

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Figure 1: Overview of the University of Applied Sciences Bochum with seven nodes.

This path is suggested to start at node 1, the open space beside the BLUE BOX (figure 2), to skirt the main entrance (node 2), passing the atrium (node 3), going along the biotope to the local canteen with a social green space in front of it (node 4), then passing the International Geothermal Center of Excellence (node 5), to the Teaching and Research Laboratory Sustainable Development (node 6), leading to the solar car lab (node 7). Further nodes and activities can be developed later. The path could even be continued outside the BO into the City of Bochum.

Figure 2: Free space next to the Blue Box at the BO. IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013


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The “Bochum Sustainability Path” will be based on recent theoretical considerations concerning “Integrated Sustainability” (Schweizer-Ries, 2013) and has to be carefully planned in detail and in a participative way. The design of the nodes at the BO will take place in both a physical form and on the internet. It will visualize the technical process behind the project and will provide further information as an approach for teaching activities regarding sustainability, which will remain even after the construction phase is completed. Certain aspects and key principles of the “Paths of Sustainability”-project will be studied and documented whereby it can serve as a micro-level case study. This will prove as a testing ground for creating a “Path of Sustainability” and an example of a “Node” at one University involving students, teachers, service staff and other actors of the city of Bochum. OUTCOME TO FOSTER SUSTAINABILITY

There are four main outcomes of the project. The first is to establish a best practices approach to creating “Integrated Sustainability“ through the example of the “Bochum Sustainability Path”. At this path it is possible to directly experience sustainability at especially devoted sites. This real path serves as a model for future actions there and elsewhere. The second concerns the development of theory. It supports the development of an “Integrated

Through the example of the “Bochum Sustainability Path” is possible to directly experience sustainability at especially devoted sites.

Sustainability” paradigm, along the planned and realised actions accompanied by transformative research processes. The third is that we intend to spark discussion, documentation and publication on integrated sustainability within the IAPS network as well as the larger IAPS community. The “Bochum Sustainability Path” can be used as an example to discuss and further develop

the idea worldwide and in the same time to foster integrated sustainability at the BO. We are already in discussion with other representatives from universities to join the initiative. A project proposal to search for financing is in preparation. And fourth, we hope for a transfer of the model to other places. It should not stay within universities, but connect these with their respective cities and regions. Also other organisations and institutions could start to connect themselves within this growing network of integrated sustainability.

FUTURE PLANS

We look forward to presenting a concept and first steps into realising the idea in Timisoara, Romania at the next IAPS conference in 2014. Again we welcome all parties from all over the place to join this challenging initiative. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We like to thank all discussants at the conference not be named on an individual basis for their valuable comments on our presentations. The following colleagues however, were involved in deeper discussions and gave us many important advices for the further development of our idea: namely Aleya Abdel-Hadi, Giuseppe Carrus, Tony Craig, Demet Eryildiz, Martina Ferrucci, Ricardo García Mira, Corina Ilin, Roderick J. Lawrence; Derya Oktay, Jennifer Senick, and Hülya Turgut. Further, we acknowledge support from coworkers from Renate Cervinka for work on the manuscript.

References • Cervinka, R. & Schmuck, P. (2010). Umweltpsychologie und Nachhaltigkeit [Environmental Psychology and Sustainability]. In: Linneweber V., Lantermann E.D. & Kals E. (Eds.) Enzyklopädie der Psychologie. Band 2 Spezifische Umwelten und umweltbezogenes Handeln [Specific Environments and environment-related action] (595641). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

• Cervinka, R. (2013, June). How to communicate options carved out under a wrong headline: lessons learned from restoration research. In P. Schweizer-Ries (Chair), Sustainable Environments in a Changing Global Context: Identifying Opportunities for Innovative Spaces and Practices in Contexts of Crisis. Symposium conducted at the meeting of International Association People-Environment Studies (IAPS), A Coruña, Spain. • Kates, R., Clark, W., Corell, J., Hall, M., Jaeger, C., Lowe, I, …Svedin, U. (2001). Sustainability Science. Science, 292, 641-662.

• Schweizer-Ries, P. (2013, June). Sustainability Science and its contribution to the IAPS: Seeking for strong sustainability. In P. Schweizer-Ries (Chair), Sustainable Environments in a Changing Global Context: Identifying Opportunities for Innovative Spaces and Practices in Contexts of Crisis. Symposium conducted at the meeting of International Association People-Environment Studies (IAPS), A Coruña, Spain.

• Schweizer-Ries, P. & Perkins, D. (2012). Sustainability Science: Transdisciplinarity, Transepistemology, and Action Research. Umweltpsychologie, 16(1), 6-10.

• Schweizer-Ries, P., Cervinka, R. & Senick, J. (2013). Sustainability – still a sparkling and fuzzy challenge in transdisciplinary projects. In P. Schweizer-Ries (Chair), Sustainable Environments in a Changing Global Context: Identifying Opportunities for Innovative Spaces and Practices in Contexts of Crisis. Symposium conducted at the meeting of International Association People-Environment Studies (IAPS), A Coruña, Spain. • Kadoch, A. (2013, June). The Collaboration of Virtual and Physical Architecture: A Comparative Study of Digital and Physical Design Processes. Poster session presented at the meeting of International Association People-Environment Studies (IAPS), A Coruña, Spain.

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4. An IAPS Conference Experiment to reduce CO2-Production of Scientific Meetings CALCULATION OF CO2-EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH AN IAPS CONFERENCE (GLASGOW)

Chris Watson, Architect C Watson Consultancy Limited, New Zealand mobile phone +64 21 158 7874

Dr. Petra Schweizer-Ries Professor for Sustainability Science, University of Applied Sciences Bochum petra.schweizer-ries@hs-bochum.de

Dr. Tony Craig Social, Economic and Geographical Sciences Group, The James Hutton Institute tony.craig@hutton.ac.uk THE IDEA OF CO2 REDUCTION FOR SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS

At the A Coruña Network Symposium on Sustainable Environments in a Changing Global Context: Identifying Opportunities for Innovative Spaces and Practices in Contexts of Crisis, a discussion raised the topic of CO2-emissions for flying to conferences and the possibility to reduce them. During the meeting of all three networks (“Culture and Space in the Built Environment”, “Housing”, and “Sustainability”) the attendants asked the IAPS sustainability network to explore the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from IAPS conferences as one of its own joint actions. This paper proposes an experimental low carbon IAPS conference for one of the next network symposium and invites collaboration.

• In A Coruña a discussion about the CO2-Production of the last IAPS conference in Glasgow was prompted by the presentation prepared by Chris Watson (Watson, 2013). • The list of Glasgow IAPS 2012 conference delegates’ home cities of IAPS2012 Conference shows that the delegates flew an average return distance estimated of 7,147 km thus an average CO2e emission per person of 1,656 kg CO2e. This is a total of 2,687,212 km passenger km for our return journeys to Glasgow and home afterwards. This CO2e calculation of flying-related emissions is based on the online calculator http://carbonzero.co.nz/, along with the following assumptions: • People flew from the capital cities of their country • People from the UK and Ireland travelled to Glasgow by train, bus or ferry. This may be an underestimation. All other delegates flew to Glasgow. • Travel distances are assumed to be direct journeys and ignore jetstream effects • Journeys described as “Domestic” are <1,000 km using the carbonzero carbon calculator • Emissions caused by activity other than flying are assumed to be negligible.

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Figure 1: IAPS delegates emited average of 1,656 kg CO2e to attend Glasgow 2012.

The need to reduce the levels of CO2 associated with organisational and professional activities is well established. As an international association, we believe that IAPS has a key role to play in attempt to facilitate international collaboration in the area of people-environment studies, while minimising CO2 emissions. In a sense, trying to reduce the transportrelated emissions associated with IAPS conferences can be seen as a microcosm of the kind of tensions faced by many international organisations and businesses. The Signs of Change Conference (Krumdiek, 2010) demonstrated that

video conference technology can allow people to communicate without flying. Whilst there are no renewably powered aircraft, conference journeys of several hundred kilometres are easy on more sustainable vehicles such as trains and buses. The IAPS2013 symposium was transmited through the University of A Coru単a TV channel, and this can be seen as an important step in demonstrating the use of these new communication technologies for IAPS events. The fact that such innovations are already taking place, alongside the aforementioned request for the IAPS sustainability network to organise such an CO2reduced event, clearly indicates the IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013

willingness of the IAPS membership to positively contribute to the effort to reduce CO2e emissions and to embrace the challenge of trying to collaborate internationally at the same time as reducing the amount of associated flying. The map here visually represents the flights associated with the Glasgow conference, with a scale going from dark red indicating a large number of people flying to yellow indicating a small number of people flying.

VISION OF A LOW CARBON SYMPOSIUM MEETING

The sustainability network has been asked to propose an experiment for


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the next symposium in-between the next two main IAPS conferences, after Timisoara. Therefore such an event would take place in 2015. The proposed symposium should be designed to help IAPS members meet the challenge of reducing emissions associated with network events. In addition, the decentralised, joint symposium will take case studies on sustainable development at Universities into its thematic focus (see also the contribution of Cervinka, Kardoch & Schweizer-Ries, this issue). Therefore not only reducing CO2 with the fardistance joint experiment, but also supporting local Universities on their way towards sustainable development worldwide. Case studies will be presented and further investigated, which work on this purpose. At the moment the realisation is planned as follows:

• Several main conference venues would take place around the world. All the Universities/Institutes should be interested or already on the way to join the “Paths of Sustainability” endeavour. The event should be used locally to show the connection with the other Universities/ Institutes on their way towards integrated sustainability inside the IAPS sustainability framework. Also it should be used to facilitate and stimulate progress towards sustainable development in the University. Interchange will be supported in-between the Universities. • It will be displayed and coordinated under one joint symposium topic. Starting the meetings in the beginning at the international dateline and ending some hours later on the end of the date line. • It will work like linked mini-

conferences (see example of Krumdiek (2010) in New Zealand) with joint keynote presentations. The miniconferences will be linked during the keynote presentations only and for interchange of the actual results directly after. All other presentations will be available in parallel and the results of each case study site will be displayed on a joint web site. • The local mini-conferences will concentrate on the contributions of invited speakers and discussion groups to support the development of sustainable organisational practices at their own universities. This will include scientific and practical contributions. • All IAPS members should be able to join. Each one who joins and pays the conference fee will be IAPS member. Also Universities can join that are not selected as main conference event sites. They could meet e.g. for the keynote speeches and local summaries with following local discussions with reduced conference fees. • Many more attendants will be able to join in this way and local meeting will bring together about 30 local attendants “only” (means 30 by 7 = 210), keeping the local logistic efforts to the minimum. • Calculation of emissions and member feedback and evaluation of the ecofriendly conference will be done on-line and later on. It will be also evaluated of how attendants felt interconnected locally and globally, as well as the attendants from far distance. • Finally it will be evaluated on subjective accounts of the University presidents, selected students and teachers, of how the event supported local efforts to become more sustainable.

Fewer conference travel miles would likely reduce travel costs and also mean that more people would meet face-to-face with colleagues and visit places in their own continent rather than transcontinental locations. An eco conference can make it much easier for members to attend who wish to avoid flying-related CO2e emissions, would facilitate conference attendance for those who have less money for expensive international flights, and hopefully benefit those with commitments that limit their time away from home. In addition, ecofriendly teleconferences may also be an opportunity for IAPS to attract many more members.

UNIVERSITIES WILLING TO PARTICIPATE

At the moment case studies are thought about in Germany/Bochum University of Applied Sciences, Romania/ Timesoara, United Kingdom/The James Hutton Institute, Turkey/Maltepe University, Brasil/Receife, Spain/ A Coruña and the Asia/Pacific region. Other Universities are welcome to join and bring in their past experience. The joint event should make IAPS more well-known, globally interlinked and sustainable then it already is. NEXT STEPS

In order to progress this proposal further, the IAPS sustainability network are seeking ideas and suggestions in order to take this seed idea and transform it into a real event in the year 2015. Interested members are invited to get in touch with us by email. We hope to be in a position to be able to formally announce this conference in Timisoara in 2014.

References • Cervinka, R., Kadoch, A. & Schweizer-Ries, P. (this issue). PATHS OF SUSTAINABILITY: An Initiative to Foster Integrated Sustainable Development and Collaboration Amongst IAPS Members and Beyond. • Krumdiek, S. (2010), Signs of Change Conference www.signsofchange.org.nz/

• Watson, Ch. (2013). IAPS Sustainability. Book of Abstracts. International Association People-Environment Studies (IAPS), A Coruña, Spain, June 2013..

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5. The ‘old town – new image’ project and local community contribution Anna Pawlikowska-Piechotka Dr Eng. Architect Faculty of Tourism and Recreation WWF, AWF University Warsaw, Poland anna.piechotka@gmail.com

Introduction: It is a fact that in the past Polish towns and cities have functioned as popular tourist destination, but heritage tourism and especially one of its segments – urban tourism – has grown significantly nly in recent years. As a result of socio-economic transformation, more income, higher levels of education, growing awareness of our country, globalisation process (access to EU) and better tourist infrastructure (transport, accommodation) now we could experience much more bigger tourists interest in our historic cities. Today especially Cracow and Warsaw have been visited by millions of tourists per year. Needless to underline that the main attraction for tourists there are the historic centres of these cities, Old Town in Warsaw and Old Town in Cracow (Przybyszewska-Gudelis, 1997). Research question and methods: As tourism develops in historic centres, it brings with it recognisable ecological, cultural, social and economic impacts. Today the tension clearly exists between users of ‘shared space’, between visitors and those who work and live in and around heritage sites. Our research study (conducted by the author in the Institute of Tourism and Recreation AWF University Warsaw, 2010-2011) was about enquiry the phenomenon of heritage tourism and its impact on Old Town in Warsaw local community members. We were interested both in negative and positive consequences, in revealing socio-cultural impacts that cultural tourism have on historic district residents (host community). One of the important parts of our survey was to identify the role of heritage tourism in Old Town regeneration. We intended to shape our research in form of applied one and hoped to find a solution for sustainable heritage tourism development. To measure these issues from different perspectives we used combination of methods as we have aimed to achieve a balance between quantitative and qualitative approaches: academic studies of published resources and spatial plans (quantitative secondary data analysis) as well as the case study - primary data in form of observations, semi-structured and structured interviews conducted between local community and local

authority representatives (Dallen 2003; Finn 2000; Page 2003; Phillimore 2004; Smith 2006). Results and Conclusions: Our research showed that the most important aspects of physical damage at historic properties are wear and tear, litter, pollution, noise and vandalism. Mass of tourists (throngs of people filling narrow streets) and anti social behaviour of tourists were the major disruptions listed by local community members of Old Town in Warsaw. Some locals mentioned the lack of shops with food and very high prices at few groceries which are today in minority among numerous restaurants, banks, fancy boutiques and souvenir shops – targeting with their offer to tourists and much less interested in residents of Old Town group. Sadly very active Association of Old Town Residents (founded in 2000) cannot contribute as effectively in shaping the spatial policy as potentially it could, because most of its members have not legal rights to their apartments. Without clear position they are treated only as tenants of communal properties and as a ‘weak’ partner for Warsaw Municipality and Old Town Local Authority. KEY WORDS

Historic cities, sustainable tourism, heritage conservation, local community. INTRODUCTION

It is a fact that in the past Polish towns and cities have functioned as popular tourist destination, but heritage tourism and especially one of its segments – urban tourism – has grown significantly in recent years. As a result of socioeconomic transformations, more income, higher levels of education, growing awareness of our country, globalisation process (access to EU) and better tourist infrastructure (transport, accommodation) now we could experience much more bigger tourists interest in our historic cities. Moreover our cities as tourist destination offered to Western European visitors some fascinating but relatively low-cost cultural experiences. Interestingly although many Polish historic cities are currently attempting to diversify their tourism offer (as spa tourism) – cultural and heritage tourism remained the most popular form. Today especially Cracow and Warsaw are visited by millions of tourists per year (in 2009: Warsaw by 8 900 000 and Cracow by 4 100 000), coming from Poland (71%) and abroad (29%). The average period of staying is about 6 days, but Warsaw and Cracow are also visited by millions of one-day excursionists, not staying

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overnight (Warsaw by 3 200 000 per year). Needless to underline that the main attraction for tourists and one-day excursionists are the historic centres of these cities, Old Town in Warsaw and Old Town in Cracow, both sites having UNESCO World Heritage Site status (Goetz 2005, Paszucha 1992; Pawlikowska-Piechotka 2009; Przybyszewska-Gudelis 1997; Smith 2003, WM 1999). Residents of Old Town in Warsaw form a very special community group and living among historic monuments they developed a strong sense of tradition and heritage. Most of local community members have been living in Old Town since 1950, having got a communal apartment there after the Second World War reconstruction. They truly care for historic fabric preservation, restoration and maintenance, being very proud of its tradition and symbolic meaning. But as tourism develops in this historic centre, it brings with it recognisable ecological, cultural, social and economic impacts. The re-introduction of the market economy has changed the landscape and to meet tourist demands many B&B, hostels, restaurants, night clubs were founded - replacing grocery shops, milk-bars and local bookshops. Today one can notice that the tension clearly exists between users of ‘shared space’; between visitors to Warsaw Old Town and those who work and live in and around heritage site. On the other hand the development of tourist industry is more than a question economic necessity; it is a chance to contribute to better protection of historic monuments and in broader perspective – to urban regeneration. In consequence this situation calls for new solutions in establishing the sustainable interrelationships between the preservation of heritage potential of Old Town, tourist development and local community expectations.

Today one can notice that the tension clearly exists between users of ‘shared space’; between visitors to Warsaw Old Town and those who work and live in and around heritage site.

RESEARCH QUESTION AND METHODS

Our research study (conducted by the author in the Institute of Tourism and Recreation AWF University Warsaw, 2010-2011) was about enquiry the phenomenon of heritage tourism and its impact on Old Town in Warsaw local community members. Recognised

was the necessity of developing a fully integrated, interdisciplinary approach in addressing the complex issue of Old Town. We were interested both in negative and positive consequences, in revealing socio-cultural impacts that cultural tourism have on historic district residents (host community). In our research we included the analyse of various stakeholders (as local authority, tourism industry, host local community members) priorities and visions of sustainable tourism development, focusing on following key elements: • identifying focal group of stakeholders for Warsaw Old Town and determining potential interests groups (also issues of consensus building) within historic urban space of Old Town; • examining interests groups needs, expectations, vision for ‘sharing space’ and analysing how far these are fulfilled. We regarded this part as important, because one of the important parts of our survey was to identify the role of heritage tourism in Old Town regeneration and new strategies for planning process with local community considered as an important partner. We intended to shape our research in form of applied one and hoped to find a solution for sustainable heritage tourism development. To measure these issues from different perspectives we used combination of methods as we have aimed to achieve a balance between quantitative and qualitative approaches: academic studies of published resources and spatial plans (quantitative secondary data analysis) as well as the case study - primary data in form of observations, semi-structured and structured interviews conducted between local community and local authority representatives (Ashworth 1993, 1992; Dallen 2003; Finn 2000; Hall 2000; Law 2002; Page 2003; Phillimore 2004; Smith 2006).

CASE STUDY THE OLD TOWN IN WARSAW

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Warsaw Old Town (in Polish: ‘Stare Miasto’ or colloquially simply: ‘Starówka’) is the oldest historic district of Warsaw. It is bounded by Vistula River Valley at the East, Central District at south and West and New Town at the


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North. The Old Town Market, located at the centre of Old Town, well known of numerous restaurants, cafes and souvenir shops, is one of Warsaw’s most prominent tourist attractions. Surrounding streets feature medieval architecture such as the city walls, the Barbican and St. John’s Cathedral. Old Town in Warsaw was established in the 13th century. Initially surrounded by an earthwork rampart, prior to 1339 it was fortified with brick city walls. The town originally grew up around the castle of the Dukes of Mazovia that later became the Royal Castle. The Market Square (in Polish: ‘Rynek Starego Miasta’) was laid out sometime in the late 13th or early 14th century, along the main road linking the castle with the New Town at the North. Until 1817 the Old Town’s most notable feature was the Town Hall built before 1429, eventually demolished in 1817. Castle Square (a forecourt to the Royal Castle) has got a regular plan in 1644 to become a honourable setting for the Sigismund Column. In 1701 the square was again rebuilt by Tylman von Gameren and later enlarged in 181821 by the architect Jakub Kubicki. In the late 1930s, during the presidency of Stefan Starzyński, the municipal authorities began refurbishing the Old Town and restoring it to its former glory. The Barbican and the Old Town Market Place were partly restored. These efforts, however, were brought to an end by the outbreak of the Second World War. In September 1939, during the invasion of Poland, much of the district was badly damaged by Nazis, who targeted the city’s residential areas and historic landmarks in a campaign of terror bombing. Few years later, some of the hardest - fought battles of the Warsaw Uprising took place here. After the Warsaw Uprising (August-October 1944) what had been left, was blown up by German Army, utterly destroying the historic urban structure. The Old Town, as practically the whole left river bank town was a sea of rubble and ruins, of Warsaw’s 957 historical buildings 782 were completely demolished, 141 were partially destroyed and only 34 escaped annihilation (WCCO 1993). Most of the inhabitants of Old Town were killed by Nazis and the surviving were then moved out of the city. The

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remaining buildings were demolished and on 17th of January 1945 less than 5% of the houses were still habitable. After the Second World War, the Old and New Town were meticulously rebuilt with the use of the original bricks whenever it was possible. All decorative elements (or parts of) were reused, reinserted into original places. Often Bernardo Bellotto’s (Canaletto) 18-th century vedutes were used as a source of information, helpful during reconstruction planning process. The line of the houses along north side of the Main Market (Dekert Side) were linked together in the post-war reconstruction and today their interiors house the Historical Museum of the City of Warsaw. A permanent exhibition shows plans, views, models and archive photos documenting the history of Warsaw from its beginning until contemporary period. The last historic monument to be rebuild was the Royal Castle (restored in 1971-1981), today the great landmark commanding the Castle Square. The Old Town reconstruction was very expensive, both in terms of money and of communal effort. Despite the political feelings and attitudes in the post-war time, the Polish workers together with ‘inteligencia group’ (middle class professionals) worked very hard, determined to rebuilt their city heritage. Strong motivation and remarkable speed have gained worldwide admiration. Warsaw Old Town has been placed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites as ‘“an outstanding example of a near-total reconstruction of a span of history covering the 13th to the 20th century’. Following the political changes after 1989 and the opening up for foreign tourists, Old Town in Warsaw quickly has been recognised as a major tourist attraction. Today it has a wealth of shops, restaurants to potter around in. However, walking through the Old Town narrow streets, it is hard to believe that practically most of the buildings are less than 60 years old. The so-called ‘Decree on Municipalisation’ (October 1945) about ownership and use of land in Warsaw cancelled private property rights to land. In such a situation the ‘old’ residences of Old Town were for example given a communal apartment at Praga District


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and prestigious apartments at Old Town were offered to the ‘specially selected’ group of artists, scientists and high-ranked communist party members. It was not only about the unique location, but also the much less restriction normative. At reconstructed historic buildings regulations allowed to occupy much larger space and to enjoy higher living standards. Contemporary Old Town residents (about 20 000) are representatives of next generation, children and grandchildren of the first, post-war generation who inhabited the deserted district. This group of successor’s members usually have only some tenant ship rights (usually temporary) to occupy the apartment. Very rarely one can get a permission to buy an apartment from state (or rather gmina), many have no ‘strong’ legal rights to apartment he/ or she lives in, but merely the temporary ‘communal order’. The lucky ones, those having full ownership rights, often take chance to sell the property on the free real estate market. The prize for one square meter of apartments located at Old Town is one of the highest in Warsaw (usually more than 5 000 EURO/ m2). It is necessary to underline that the standard prize for living space in Warsaw is about 2 000 EURO/ m2. Most of the ground floor commercial spaces (shops, restaurants) are owned by local authority (Self-government) and are

being let through the open auctions. The prices are very high (as it is popular tourist space) and no local grocery is able to make profit. No doubts that this space is used for luxury restaurants, cafes, art galleries and souvenirs shops with silver and amber jewellery. Interviews with various stakeholder groups’ representatives showed that there is no one vision for sustainable tourism, shared by local host community, conservatory office, local government and tourist industry. We can observe now rather individual (Association of Warsaw Friends, Association of Old Town Local Community) than institutional efforts to practice sustainable tourism at Old Town in Warsaw. Warsaw Strategy of Spatial Development (WMO 2007) has rather general recommendations. Therefore this indicates a challenge in shaping proposals for sustainable tourism planning. The important question remains how to make all stakeholders feel responsible to contribute in this process and how to create a balance among their interests through democratic process of making decisions in the Local Spatial Plan for Old Town in Warsaw (system giving equal weight to all legitimate voices). In 2010 the very promising step towards improvement of local self-government and democracy was Warsaw City Council decision to start two interesting IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013

projects ‘Contribute in Architectural Relics Conservation Programme’ and ‘Old Town New Image’, both directed to local community members and intended as a new intiative to encourage people to express opinions and feel responsible for their housing estates maintenance and historic values of the Old Town better preservation (www. um.warszawa.pl/konsultacjespołeczne).

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Our research showed that the most important aspects of physical damage at historic properties of Old Town in Warsaw are wear and tear, litter, pollution, noise and vandalism. Mass of tourists (throngs of people filling narrow streets) and anti social behaviour of tourists were the major disruptions of everyday life listed by local community members of Old Town in Warsaw. Some locals mentioned the lack of shops with food and very high prices at few groceries which are today in minority among numerous restaurants, banks, fancy boutiques and souvenir shops – targeting with their offer to tourists and much less interested in the group of permanent residents of Old Town. Sadly very active few years ago Association of Old Town Residents (founded in 2000) cannot contribute as effectively in shaping the spatial policy as potentially it could, because most of its members have not


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legal rights to their apartments. Without clear position they are treated only as tenants of communal properties and as a ‘weak’ partner for Warsaw Municipality and Old Town Local Authority. However, what must be underlined, in February 2010 Warsaw Municipal Office initiated consulting meetings with local community regarding Old Town Spatial Management, project ‘Old Town New Image’ (developed on the ground of ‘Norway Grants’ programme). On 30th of September 2010, on 5th of October 2010, 13th of October, 19th of October 2010 and 26th of October 2010, during the series of recent meetings with Warsaw Municipality and the General City Conservatory of Monuments, local community members listed the following remarks concerning heritage tourism: necessity to shift public safety level (CCTV monitoring), litters, public toilets, question of parking places reserved for local residents, restaurant open air gardens blocking pavements. The representative of disabled residences explained the necessity to provide ‘barrier free’ urban space, safer for elderly, disabled and caretakers with prams - showing that these improvements will be also important for tourists. In many cases it is necessary to get the conservatory of monuments permission to change the historic buildings to create ramps or wider passages. One of the important issues was the information tourist system (with suggestions to use late prof Jan Zachwatowicz suggestions), including ‘touch maps’ for people with sight impairments. It is to be underlined that most of the local community members were aware of the many advantages connected with tourism development (as preservation of architectural relics and job creation). It is very difficult to measure exactly these effects (especially intangible impacts as promotion of better knowledge and understanding of Polish culture, tradition and history). It is clear that the further development of tourism requires taking into account not only conservatory programmes but also the views of various stakeholders (local community and special-interest groups representing restaurants and shops holders, NGOs). As each stakeholder group has a different set of needs and opinions relating to use the

We have no doubts that a present planning process should be revised and more integrated approach to local planning.

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historic urban fabric, it is necessary to solve potential conflicts and achieve a balance between the voices. Although this theory is not popular in the tourism planning (Getz 2005) it seems that the effort to identify, legitimate and make people feel involved and responsible should be the core of the sustainable tourism philosophy. The example of successful project “Old Town New Image” (2010) proofs that Warsaw local community is ready to cooperate both with self government and government institutions. If the goal is to minimize environmental and cultural damage, optimize heritage tourist satisfaction, conserve and preserve cultural values of the Old Town and provide improved living standards and quality of life for residents – it is necessary to make all stakeholders (that can affect or are affected by tourism) contribute to shape sustainable heritage tourism strategy within Old Town in Warsaw. Hopefully the results of making ‘all of the groups’ concern of sustainable tourism development might establish more balanced and long-term effect in achieving goals. However in order to obtain an equilibrium between the potential tourism growth, conservatory needs and quality of host community life, all stakeholders’ interests and objectives regarding tourism development must be incorporated in to the Local Planning process (conservatory, hosts and visitors). All in all we have no doubts that a present planning process should be revised and more integrated approach to local planning will be applicable as an attempt to solve spatial conflicts and to build higher tolerance between local community members and tourist when sharing the historic space. Although UNESCO and ICOMOS provide a comprehensive set of universal guidelines, it is recognised that each historical place (as having unique values) requires an individual approach and spatial planning process could not be standardised too much. Therefore our proposal of integrated planning process for Old Town in Warsaw was aimed to address the unique feature and specific nature of this site and to find a balance between conservation needs, heritage tourism development and local community expectations (Fig. 1; Table 1).


29 SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE TOURISM STRATEGY – OLD TOWN WARSAW OLD TOWN

Conservatory recommendations; Safeguarding the cultural and natural values

Meeting needs and expectations of the local host community in terms of quality of life

Satisfying the demands of tourists and the tourism industry

Fig. 1 Sustainable heritage tourism – sustainability goals of the main stakeholder groups (proposal for: Old Town Warsaw) Source: Research survey AWF University Warsaw (Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland grant: ds-144).

Phase

Integrated planning process

Outcomes

1

Goals, objectives and priorities identification

2

Establishing goals within tourism development, local community expectations and conservation requirements; identifying issues and options; collecting and interpreting data

Shaping possible spatial planning scenarios

Clear statement of plan purpose

3

Examine trends in urban tourism (future development trends), identify conservation policy and philosophy (readiness for changes), determine local community goals; preparing draft plan and draft programmes for implementing the plan

Draft plan created – spatial strategy of development

4

Presenting assumptions of draft plan, identify community primary values, key issues and problems (through interviews and workshops), identify potential areas of spatial conflicts (local community, travel agencies, government institutions and NGOs – main stakeholders of Old Town in Warsaw)

Creation of Local Plan for Old Town in Warsaw

Statement of agreed vision of spatial policy for sustainable tourism development for Old Town

5

Potential sustainable heritage tourism development, conservatory recommendations, solutions to spatial conflicts and constrains of shaping ‘tolerant space’, details of infrastructure support (technical, social, cultural, tourist services), programme for architectural relics protection and historic urban structure regeneration; evaluate potential impacts of plans and implementing programmes

Implementation

Revise objectives and strategies Prioritised programme of infrastructure and conservatory works for Old Town in Warsaw

6

Devise implementation mechanism – programme of work, organization issues, responsibilities, timelines; identify changes to existing legislation

Consultation

Implementation strategy

7

Review and monitoring

Review and adopt plan-implementing programmes

Concise Local Plan for Old Town document outlining all prior stages 1 to 6

Review and monitor implementation procedures

Periodic reports on implementation and further recommendations for Old Town Local Plan amendments

Consultations

Table 1: Sustainable heritage tourism – integrated planning process proposal (Old Town Warsaw). Source: Research survey AWF University Warsaw (Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland grant: ds-144).

References • Ashworth Gregory J. (1993) ‘Heritage Planning: an approach to Managing Historic Cities’. In ‘Managing Historic Cities’ ICC Kraków pp. 27-49 (Poland).

• Phillimore Jenny, Goodson Lisa (2004) ‘Qualitative Research in Tourism’ Routledge New York (US).

• Dallen J. Timothy; Boyd Stephen W. (2003) ‘Heritage Tourism’, Prentice Hall Harlow (UK).

• Smith K. Melanie (2003) ‘Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies’ Routledge New York (US).

• Ashworth Gregory J. (1992) ‘Whose history, whose heritage? Management means choice’. In ‘Managing Tourism in Historic Cities’ ICC Kraków pp. 57-67 (Poland). • Finn Mick, Elliott-White Martin (2000) ‘Tourism & Leisure Research Methods’, Pearson Longman Harlow (UK).

• Goetz Donald, Seldjan Timur (2005) ‘Stakeholder involvement in sustainable tourism: balancing the voices’. In ‘Global Tourism’ (ed. Theobald William F.), Elsevier Burlington, pp. 230-248 (UK). • Hall C. Michael (2000) ‘Tourism Planning’, Prentice Hall Harlow (UK).

• Przybyszewska-Gudelis Romana (1997) ‘Problemy rewitalizacji miast przez turystykę’ In ‘Kulturowe aspekty turystyka i gospodarki turystycznej’, PST Warszawa (Poland). • Warsaw Capital City Office WCCO (1993) ‘Warsaw Physical Development’, Polish Urban Planning Society Warsaw (Poland). • Warsaw Municipality (1999, 2007) ‘Warsaw Development Strategy’, Warsaw (Poland) www.Um.warszawa.pl/konsultacje społeczne.

• Law Christopher M. (2002) ‘Urban Tourism’ Continuum (UK).

• Page Stephen, Hall C. Michael (2003) ‘Managing Urban Tourism’ Prentice Hall Harlow (UK).

• Paszucha Marek (1992) ‘Historic City Tourism and Polish Tourism Policy’. In ‘Managing Tourism in Historic Cities’ ICC Kraków pp. 37-43 (Poland).

• Pawlikowska-Piechotka Anna (2009) ‘Planning for Tourism and Recreation’ [‘Zagospodarowanie turystyczne i rekreacyjne’], Novae Res Gdynia (Poland).

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6. Psychosocial dimensions behind energy saving and mobility: the case of air pollution in Mexico City Karina Landeros-Mugica Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. karinapsicologia@gmail.com

Patricia Ortega-Andeane Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. patricia.andeane@gmail.com

Earth´s atmosphere is an environmental element shared and enjoyed by everyone; since no one owns it, it is available for all to use and so, for abuse. As an unlimited resource it can be accessed by everyone, however its overuse can threaten anyone. This common value is increasingly damaged by the emissions of industries, energy use and transportation, namely air pollution (Hardin, 2007). Multiple nations have become interested in preserving or improving air quality. The US. Environmental Protection Agency has generated control policies and established standardized limits for air pollutants emissions, in order to allow an optimal development using natural resources without harming the environment (EPA, 1996). Any sustained increase of pollutants in the atmosphere represents an environmental and health risk. Air pollution is one of the greatest challenges for megacities around the world and certainly to Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Nowadays, MCMA population has exceeded 21 million inhabitants resulting in the expansion of transportation and energy demand, with over 4.5 million private vehicles circulating within this area (Mugica, Figueroa, & Hernandez, 2010). Industry and fossil fuels, used for energy production, are the main sources of pollutants such as carbon monoxide, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone precursors (Molina L. & Molina, M., 2005). The presence of these substances in the air has been associated with chronic respiratory diseases, decreased respiratory capacity, headaches, eye irritation, stress, asthma, heart disease, lung cancer and premature deaths (CAM, 2011). Recently, the World Health Organization has classified particulate matter and outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans (IARC-WHO, 2013). In addition, the geographical

features of MCMA have led to increase pollutants emissions, atmospheric concentration and population vulnerability (SMA-GDF, 2006). Everyday decisions taken by the people, such as whether to use public transport or how to reduce energy consumption will have repercussions in air quality. On the other hand, inhabitants are constantly exposed to inhale a large amount of pollutants increasing health risks. Due to the fact that the human being plays a double role as a receptor of the effects and as a cause of air pollution is that the intervention of the social sciences turns out to be crucial (Jacobson & Price, 1990). The adopted lifestyle of a person is shaped by several psychological, social and cultural factors; empirical findings in social and environmental psychology research have shown the influence of psychological factors on pro-environmental behavior. The willingness to perform environmentally friendly actions may be affected by perception, attribution of control (Brand, 2002), locus of control (Hines, Hungerford and Tomera, 1987), internal attribution (Bamber & Moser, 2006), subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (Bamberg, Hunecke & Blobaum, 2007), personal factors, causal attribution (Biel & Thøgersen, 2007), judgment, expectations and moral responsibility (Kaiser & Shimoda, 1999). When people feel they have control in performing anything, it is more probable that they will take an active attitude; the opposite happens when they feel that other persons have the control, so they decide to become passive and expect others to respond (Rothbaum, Weisz & Snyder, 1982). Also, engaging with behaviors favorable to the environment, is determined by sensing the obligation to do so, this is bolstered by the social consequences and the perceived responsibility to act (Abrahamse, Steg, Gifford & Vlek, 2009). Thereby, personal norm will be comprised of the evaluation of what is right or wrong (moral judgment), the social acceptance (approval of significant others, like parents) and the perceived need for laws to regulate actions (Tyler, 2006). The interpretation of present behavior relies on the available information, that is, how many people does it (consensus), if this kind of behavior is present in other tasks (distinctiveness) and how frequently it is done (consistency). Then, an action is explained by individual efforts and skills (personal attribution), what does performing the behavior provides (behavioral attribution) or by a specific situation

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(circumstantial attribution). If it is done frequently, then it is due to individual skills, but if a few people do it just sometimes, then it is because of the circumstance (Tukey & Borgida, 1983). By that means causal attributions are formulated, and people take the decision whether or not to repeat certain behavior (Schwarz, 2008). Psychological dimensions are relevant predecessors on behaving toward environmental protection by a set of intentional actions that respond to social and individual needs (CorralVerdugo, 2002). From the foregoing, this research aims to understand how the relationship among control perception, personal norm and attribution have influence in the use of public transport and household energy consumption in the inhabitants of MCMA, due to the health risk that air pollution represents for them.

METHODOLOGY

From an intentional quota sampling, 211 inhabitants of MCMA were selected (aged between 15 and 65 years old). An instrument was especially developed and validated; its dimensions are: perceived personal control, moral judgment, approval of significant others toward favorable and unfavorable behaviors with the environment, perceived need of laws, personal and circumstantial attribution towards public and car transportation and household energy saving, and the frequency of public transport use and energy saving at home. For analysis purposes, the sample was divided in four groups: frequent users (n=48) and occasional users of public transport (n=57), frequent savers (n=55) and occasional savers of household energy (n=47). A discriminant analysis was performed to examine those

dimensions that influence the frequency of pro-environmental behavior. The total score of each dimension were included as predictive variables and the frequency of use and saving were considered as discriminating variable.

FINDINGS

In the case of public transport use, a significant function consisting on seven dimensions, was found (Wilksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Îť=.50, x2=68.14, df=5, p<.001), it had an Eigen value of .997, a 100% of explained variance and canonical correlation of .707. The classification results revealed that 83% of the original grouped cases were classified appropriately. Figure 1 illustrates the means for each dimension considered by group.

Figure 1: Means of the psychological dimensions for frequent and occasional users of public transport.

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Related to the household energy saving, a significant function integrated for seven dimensions was found (Wilksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Îť=.64, x2=43.11, df=5, p<.001), it had an Eigen value of .60, a 100% of variance is explained and canonical correlation of .60. The classification results revealed that 83.3% of cases were grouped appropriately. Figure 2 illustrates the means for each dimension considered by group.

Figure 2: Means of the psychological dimensions for frequent and occasional savers of household energy.

DISCUSSION

The ones, who use public transport the most frequently, perceived they could control, solve and avoid air pollution, feel the moral obligation of using collective transport (subway or BTR) to improve air pollution and sense that parents or children will support that transportation choice and discourage frequent car use. Aside of these, they explain public transport use due to the effort made and believed that carâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s use is allowed by circumstance. On the contrary, those with occasional usage perceived less personal control, not necessarily felt they must use public transport or that their inner social

group approved it. Frequent use of the car is due to personal factors and is recognized as an acceptable behavior along with cheating the vehicle emissions control. Regarding the inhabitants that frequently save energy at home, they felt capable and skillful, with the moral obligation of acting properly to improve air quality and think the existence of laws are necessary. Also, the social group recognized environmental responsible actions, like unplugging appliances, and disapproved negligent ones, like carelessness. The interaction of these dimensions is different on each IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013

behavior, control perception, social approval, the felling of acting in order to improve air quality and a personal attribution increase the frequency of pro-environmental behaviors. While energy saving is affected by age and perceived need of laws, public transport use were influenced by a circumstantial and not personal attribution of car use. Since different kinds of behavior cause air pollution, it must be addressed differently than other environmental problems caused by actions bearing the same nature (water). Besides, this reaffirmed the relevance of including different psychosocial variables and considering the environmental features.


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The fact that some variables that precede both behaviors were the same, led us to conclude that a general model can be inferred. Also, the described findings allowed us to offer to the problem of air pollution both theoretical and empirical contributions. Sociocultural provide insights into the social processes through which individuals and groups create conceptions of the environment and seek a relationship between psychological constructs with the intention to predict behavior, or even modify it (Catalan, 2008). In Mexico, the latest “Program to Improve the Air Quality in the MCMA” (PROAIRE 2002-2010) acknowledges the importance of social and individual aspects through inclusion of some strategies to educate, inform and engage the public (CAM, 2011). It would be fairly said, that the responsible institutions only undertake the technical aspects of air pollution, when they should also evaluate the people’s point of view.

Currently, there is little research on the field of psychosocial variables associated with air quality and the present study marks a starting point in the evaluation of cognitive variables, like attribution, in the ongoing research to solve air pollution. Because of the central role that humans play as producers and recipients of air pollutants, decision makers should include this perspective, within an interdisciplinary approach, in planning public policies and in the design of informative or educational campaigns that promote environmentally friendly actions. If economic, social, cultural and personal variables that characterize each group are identified, their needs can be attended more precisely and therefore campaigns and programs can target certain misconceptions, which will change perceptions and attributions in order to make people behave kindlier with the environment.

References • Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Gifford, R., & Vlek, C. (2009). Factors influencing car use for commuting and the intention to reduce it: A question of self- interest or morality? Transportation Research Part F. Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 12, 317-324. • Bamberg, S. &Moser, G. (2006). Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of environmental psychology, 27, 14-25. • Bamberg, S., Hunecke, M. y Blöbaum, A. (2007). Social context, personal norms and the use of public transportation: Two field Studies. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 27. 190 - 203. • Biel, A. & Thøgersen, J. (2007). Activation of social norms in social dilemmas: A review of the evidence and reflections on the implications for environmental behaviour, Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, 93-112.

• Brand, K. (2002). Conciencia y Comportamiento Medioambientales: estilos de vida más verdes. M. Redclift & G. Woodgate (coord). Sociología del medio ambiente: una perspectiva internacional. Madrid:McGraw Hill.

• Comisión Metropolitana Ambiental. (2011). Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México 20011-20120. México: SEMARNAT.

• Corral-Verdugo, V. (2002). Psicología de la conservación: El estudio de las conductas protectoras del ambiente. En: V. Corral-Verdugo (Ed.). Conductas protectoras del ambiente. Teoría, investigación y estrategias de intervención. México: CONACYT–UniSon.

• Kaiser, F. & Shimoda, T. (1999), Responsibility as a Predictor of Ecological Bahaviour, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 243-253.

• Molina, L. y Molina, M. (2005). La calidad del aire en la megaciudad de México. Un enfoque integral. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica. • Mugica, V., Figueroa, J. & Hernández, A. (2010). Evaluación y seguimiento del Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México 2002-2010. México: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana–Azcapotzalco.

• Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J. & Snyder, S. (1982). Changing the world and changing the self: A two-process model of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 5-37.

• Schwartz, A. (2008). Covariation-based causal attributions during organizational crises: Suggestions for extending Situational Crisis Communication Theory. International Journal of Strategic Communication 2(1), 31-53. • Secretaria del Medio Ambiente–Gobierno del Distrito Federal. (2006). Gestión Ambiental del Aire en el Distrito Federal. México: GDF.

• Tukey, D. & Borgida, E. (1983). An intrasubject approach to causal attribution. Journal of Personality, 51(2), 137-150.

• Tyler, T. (2006). Psychological perspectives on legitimacy and legitimation. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 375–400.

• Environmental Protection Agency. (1996). Air Quality criteria for particulate matter. 1. Washington DC: Office of research and development.

• Hardin, G. (2007). Sustainability: managing limited resources. In: R. Gifford (Ed.). Environmental psychology. Principles and practice. Canada:Optimal books. • Hines, J., Hungerford, H. & Tomera, (1987). Analysis and syntesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: A meta-analyis. Journal of Environmental Education. 18. 1 - 8.

• International Agency for Research on Cancer-World Health Organization. (2013). Outdoors air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/iarcnews/index1. php?year=2013

• Jacobson, H. y Price, M. (1990). A framework for research on the human dimensions of global environmental change. Barcelona:Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme. IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013


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Short Papers

1. PLACE ATTACHMENT AND IDENTITY IN NON-NATIVES OF CITIES FROM ISRAEL AND TENERIFE

Hernan Casakin Ariel University casakin@bezeqint.net

Cristina Ruiz Universidad de La Laguna cruizpa@ull.es

Bernardo Hernández Universidad de La Laguna bhdezr@ull.edu.es

This report is based on a summary of the article “Diferencias en el desarrollo del apego y la identidad con el lugar en residentes no nativos de ciudades de Israel y ciudades de Tenerife” (Differences in place attachment and place identity in nonnatives of cities of Israel and cities of Tenerife), accepted for publication in Estudios de Psicología (Psychological Studies). In the recent decades, place attachment and place identity have been largely researched in the environmental psychology domain. This has led to a vast number of definitions and theoretical positions with regard to how these two bonds may relate to each other. Place attachment is generally known as the

emotional bonds that individuals develop with certain places to which they feel attracted, and where they have intentions to stay (Low, 1992). On the other hand, place identity is considered to be a fundamental component of the identity of people and their self (Proshansky, Fabian and Kaminoff, 1983). Not many studies were conducted simultaneously on place attachment and place identity, and even few were carried out from a cultural perspective. Most research focused on people with long time of residence in place, and therefore they showed high levels of attachment and identity (Brown, Perkins, and Brown, 2003). Hernandez, Hidalgo, Salazar-Laplace and Hess (2007) suggested that while place attachment can be established relatively quickly, the development of identity may take longer. An open question, however, is whether the evolution of these emotional bonds might be affected differently by culture and time of residence. Casakin et al. (In press) aimed at investigating the development of place attachment and place identity in places where culture and bonds of membership of immigrants differ. These researchers analyzed whether non-native residents from Tenerife and Israel differ in their levels of place attachment and place identity, when considering time of residence. It was suggested that immigrants of Israel will have a higher level of place identity than those of Tenerife, whereas no difference in place attachment will exist for the two groups. Place identity in Israel was expected to develop rapidly, whereas in Tenerife it was predicted to evolve slower than place attachment, as found by Ruiz, Hernandez and Hidalgo (2011). In order to test these predictions, a questionnaire with scales of attachment and identity to the city (Hernandez et al. 2007) was administered to a sample of 138 non-native residents living in the island of Tenerife, and 141 non-native residents living in the State of Israel.

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As expected, no differences were found between non-native residents of Tenerife and Israel with regard to place attachment. However, a linear relationship between time of residence and place attachment was observed in Tenerife. In contrast, significant differences were found for place identity of residents living only a few years in the territory that was higher for those of Israel. Again, a significant linear relationship between time of residence and place identity was observed for the residents of Tenerife. When considering the group as a whole, identity resulted higher in Israel, which suggest that links were developed independently of the time living in that territory.

Moreover, Israeli residents living a few years in the territory developed higher identity than attachment bonds. In contrast, immigrants with a short time of residence in Tenerife showed to have higher attachment than identity bonds. This last finding is in line with other studies carried out in Spain (Hernández et al., 2007; Ruiz, Hernandez and Hidalgo, 2011). When analyzing the different groups over time, it was found that nonnative Israeli residents develop higher place identity than place attachment. However, non-native Tenerife residents were characterized by having higher levels of place attachment. Results of this study are of considerable importance since

they confirm that aspects such as territory and culture may affect the development of place attachment and place identity. These undermine studies arguing that identity depends on attachment, and therefore develops more slowly (Hernández et al., 2007; Ruiz, Hernandez and Hidalgo, 2011). In the present work, place identity seems to depend more on the beliefs, meanings, and values attributed to place as part of the self, than the daily relationship that people develop with their environments. A consequence of this is that in certain territories would be possible to develop or maintain an identity with place, even with low levels of attachment.

References • Brown , B., Perkins, D.D., & Brown, G. (2003). Place attachment in a revitalizing neighborhood: individual and block levels of analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 259–271.

• Casakin, H., Ruiz, C. & Hernandez, B. (in press). “Diferencias en el Desarrollo del Apego y la Identidad con el Lugar en Residentes No Nativos de Israel y Tenerife” (Differences in Place Attachment and Place Identity in Non-Native Residents of Israel and Tenerife). Accepted for publication in Estudios de Psicología (Psychological Studies).

• Low, S. M. (1992). Symbolic ties that bind: place attachment in the plaza. En I. Altman, & S. M. Low (Eds.), Place attachment. New York: Plenum Press.

• Proshansky, H. M., Fabian, A. K., & Kaminoff, R. (1983). Place-identity: Physical world socialization of the self. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, 57-83.

• Ruiz, C., Hernández, B., & Hidalgo, M.C. (2011). Confirmación de la estructura factorial de una escala de apego e identidad con el barrio. Psyecology, 2, 157-165.

• Hernández, B., Hidalgo, M. C., Salazar-Laplace, M. E., & Hess, S. (2007). Place attachment and place identity in natives and non-natives. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 310-319. IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013


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3. THE STADIUM OF THE SPECTATOR: A PSYCHO-ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DESIGN FEATURES AND PERCEIVED comfort & safety

Sara Manca

2. OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESIS

Department of Psychology of Developmental and Socialization Processes, Sapienza, University of Rome, Italy sara.manca@uniroma1.it

This short paper is based on a Master’s Degree Dissertation in Psychology of Social, Organizational, and Work Processes, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy Working with people rather than for them. A sentence stated by Robert Sommer (1983) that include the essence of the “social” design which is based on the collaboration between designers, social scientists, and users (Gifford, 2002). This kind of perspective is in line with the general scope of Environmental Psychology, that aims at identifying accurate guidelines for the design and the development of built and natural spaces through the study of the relationships between people and the environment. Starting from these assumptions, the present dissertation focuses on a specific and yet understudied environment, i.e. the football ground. The interest for this target place derives from the accidents, such as fire emergencies and clashes between supporters, that also recently affected the Italian football grounds, . These events may be linked both to design weaknesses (i.e. absence of open spaces, reduced corridors and exit doors) and to the need for crowd control, as reported by Canter and colleagues (Canter, Comber, & Uzzell, 1989) for explaining similar accidents occurred in British football grounds during the 1980s. According to these scholars, spectators’ perceived safety and behaviours are related to the spatial-physical features of the stadium. In particular, following a “user-centered” perspective (see Gifford, 2002), it was shown that the partition walls, which were built up for separating and protecting the occupants, can become a real trap, representing one of the main limitations of modern football grounds (Canter et al., 1989). Furthermore, the clear separation through barriers or partition walls among different sectors of the stadium (i.e. Curve, Grandstand, Stand) may render more salient the ingroup/outgroup belongingness (Social Identity Theory, see Tajfel, 1978), thus arising the potential conflicts between supporters and, consequently, making more likely the occurrence of violent behaviors. In this perspective, the physical space becomes a reflection of the social dynamic, mirroring a deeper psychological distance between opposing groups. In order to explore the relationship between design features and stadium users’ perceived comfort and safety, a set of semi-structural interviews was prepared, on the basis of the qualitative data emerged in the study led by Canter and colleagues (1989).

The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to explore the relationship between football ground design features and users’ perceptions of comfort and safetyrelated issues through an explorative research of qualitative nature; 2) to create a set of items covering the dimensions of perceived environmental quality of the stadium environment. It is thus hypothesized that the stadium’s design features play a role in spectators’ perceived comfort and safety. 3. METHOD

3.1. Participants The interviews were administered in the city of Cagliari (Italy) to a sample of 20 individuals attending football grounds. The interviewees have an average age of 30 years and the gender distribution indicates the presence of 13 men (65%) and 7 women (35%). The interviews involved a majority of individuals attending the Sant’Elia Stadium in Cagliari (85%), followed by football grounds located in Milan (10%) and Bologna (5%). The sector mostly frequented by spectators was the Curve (50%), followed by the Stand (35%), the Grandstand (5%) and the Guests sector (5%).

3.2. Tool and Procedure The tool was a semi-structured interview, which was developed on the basis of those issues emerged as central to the experience of spectators inside and outside the stadium (see Canter et al., 1989). In particular, it has been built up a conceptual grid concerning an intersection of the physical setting (i.e., inside the stadium vs. outside the stadium) and the question focus (i.e., general vs. particular). A total of 15 questions has been created, 6 of them more general and the other 9 more specific. The six general questions are related to transportation, motivation underlying the choice of sectors, possible improvements of the stadium features, and a final question aimed to explore the subjects’ assessment as concerns the differences between Italian and British football grounds (the latter described in the last two decades as the model to follow for best practices). The nine more specific questions concerned specific dimensions such as comfort, safety, violence, and emergency. Specifically, the investigation of comfort has been referred to indoor and outdoor features of the stadium, through two questions aimed to identifying which elements make more comfortable the users’ experience. Security has been examined with four questions concerning, as before, the internal and external features, with a particular focus on the sectors and

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areas perceived by the spectators as more secure. Referring to emergencies (i.e., fires, wall collapses, clashes requiring police intervention and ambulances), two questions have been formulated, regarding respectively the inside and outside of the stadium, which are considered as distinct sub-areas with different characteristics and operating methods. Finally, as regard violence, one last question has been included in order to investigate which structural or cultural factors weighed on the expression of aggressive and violent behavior inside and outside the stadium. The interviews were all led and audio recorded by the author of the present dissertation. The length of the interview was of about 1 hour. Interview data were examined through a qualitative content analysis, by using the same conceptual grid elaborated for the development of semi-structured interview. 4. Results and discussion On the whole, the analysis of the interviews show an important weight of design features for the comfort and the perceived safety of the stadium’s spectators. Concerning comfort, it seems that it would be increased by a greater distance between seats, by the absence of walls and barriers, in order to guarantee a good visibility, and by the design of a covered stadium. Furthermore, they were highlighted the relevance of a good lighting indoor and outdoor, the presence of restaurant, bar, museum, and entertainment services, the number and cleanliness of toilets, and aesthetics appearance of the stadium (i.e., colours and materials). As regards security, the

interviewees focalized their attention to the stability of the stadium, the number of security exits, the presence of open spaces, the absence of barriers, and lighting characteristics. Moreover, a specific interest was pointed to the surrounding area, which was described as abandoned, with inadequate lighting, scarce presence of law enforcement, and unsafe parking. Regarding emergency, the interviewees have described football grounds as unsuitable, due to a poor presence of emergency services (i.e., law enforcement, ambulances, and firefighters), and, one more time, to an absence of wide spaces necessary in case of danger. Finally, concerning violence, a relevant point is constituted by the enforcement and observance of norms and laws considered inappropriate by people. However, the reason underlying the occurrence of violence events has to do with design features (e.g., barriers or partition walls, seats too close) that turn football ground into a cage instigating rebellion episodes. The outcomes and content of these interviews have then been used for creating a set of items measuring the indicators of perceived environmental quality of the stadium. As a framework reference for the structure of the tool, they were used the most recent versions of the Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators PREQIs (see Bonaiuto et al., 2006; Fornara et al., 2010). In particular, it was formulated a set of 41 items covering 9 distinct dimensions (i.e., visualized space, practiced space, transportation, reception services, emergency services, social climate, norms and rules, perceived internal security, perceived

external security) .A refined version of this tool has been recently administered .in a study aiming at a first validation of such instrument (see Manca & Fornara, 2013).

5. Conclusion Outcomes of this explorative research have shown an important weight of design features of the stadium on users’ perception of comfort and safety. In particular, spectators feel more at ease when they perceive the stadium as aesthetically pleasant, with open spaces and seats in each sector, and when the access and the exit from the place are comfortable, confirming what emerged in previous studies concerning football grounds (Canter et al., 1989). This suggests that design features should be always taken into account in the management of football events, in order to increase spectators’ safety and, consequently, to promote positive feelings which can help to avoid the occurrence of negative reactions. In conclusion, the content of the qualitative interviews run in this study have underlined the overall need of a design which follows both the “usercentered” perspective (i.e., by focusing on the direct place experience of the occupants) and the “evidence-based” guidelines (i.e., by making design decisions on the basis of the best available research findings, see Hamilton, 2003) in order to build functional and spectators-oriented football grounds. Further research is needed on this specific environment in order to detect the relative weight of different design features in influencing the stadium experience of the spectators.

References • Bonaiuto, M., Fornara, F., & Bonnes, M. (2006). Perceived residential environment quality in middle- and low-extension Italian cities. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée, 56, 23-34.

• Canter, D., Comber, M., & Uzzell, D.L. (1989). Football in its place. An environmental psychology of football grounds. London: Routledge. • Fornara, F., Bonaiuto, M., & Bonnes, M. (2010). Cross-validation of abbreviated Perceived Residential Environment Quality (PREQ) and Neighbourhood Attachment (NA) Indicators. Environment & Behavior, 42, 171-196. • Gifford, R. (2002). Environmental psychology: principles and practice. Canada: Optimal Books.

• Hamilton, K. (2003). The four levels of evidence-based design practice. Healthcare Design, 3, 18-26.

• Manca, S., & Fornara, F. (2013). Perceived safety, comfort and satisfaction related to the stadium experience. In R. Garcia Mira & A. Dimitru (Eds.), Book of Proceedings of the IAPS (International Association of People-environment Studies) Network Symposium “Sustainable environments in a changing global context. Identifying opportunities for innovative spaces and practices in contexts of crisis.” (pp. 249-250). A Coruña (Spain), 25-28 June 2013. • Tajfel, H. (Ed.) (1978). Differentiation Between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.

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3. NATURE OF WELL-BEING. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN A BIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE Nicola Rainisio University of Milan, Department of Cultural Heritage and Environment nicola.rainisio@guest.unimi.it

Past research in Environmental Psychology stated that visit or simply perceive natural landscapes is clearly linked with some positive psychological outcomes on stress, attention, cognitive functioning, subjective well-being. These effects have been mainly explained using an evolutionary framework, attempting to establish universal processes. Both the ART (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1983; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) and the SRT (Ulrich, 1983; Ulrich et alii, 1991), the main explanatory frameworks produced so far, support the existence of automated processes that trigger these outcomes. Also the mechanisms of the environmental preference have often been explained in this way (Balling & Falk, 1982). Recently, some publications have challenged this classic positions, advancing as possible causalities some perceptual (Joye & van den Berg, 2011), social (Kuo et alii, 1998) , experiential (Ryan et alii, 2010) and identitarian (Clayton & Opotow, 2003) variables. Moreover, various research traditions suggested the possibility to consider other intervening factors (Rainisio & Inghilleri, 2013). Csikszentmihalyi (1975) described the flow experiences as very similar to those collected by other scholars (Kaplan, 1977; Williams & Harvey, 2001) analyzing the shared perception of natural environments. Buijs and collaborators (2009) underlined the importance

of the cultural belonging in the aesthetic judgment of natural landscapes. Also, scholars in Environmental Philosophy and History (i.e. Nash, 1967; Merchant, 2003) suggested that the public meaning of nature has dramatically changed over time and cultures, inviting to consider our relationship with the natural environments as an hystorical ongoing process. These contributions seems to support a vision of the relationship between human wellness and natural environment based on intra- and inter-cultural differences rather than homogeneity and automatic responses. AIMS AND METHOD

The present research project investigated the role of four emerging factors (place attachment, familiarity, perceived flow possibilities and cultural belonging) in influencing preferences and perceived restorativeness about different categories of natural landscapes, the biomes. A self report questionnaire was amninistered to 202 participants to measuring the following constructs: • Perceived Restorativeness: It was mesaured using two scales, PRS (Hartig et al., 1997; Pasini & Berto, 2007) and RRS (Han, 2003). The PRS Scale also contains an item to measure the environmental preference (I like this place). • Place Attachment and Familiarity: three items adapted from the NAS (Bonnes et al., 1997) to measure the place attachment and three new items to measure the familiarity with the biomes. • Perceived Flow Opportunities: They were measured with four items focused on the flow-in nature process. Before answering, participants read a description of the flow experience taken from the Flow Questionnaire (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975).

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H4, underlying a significant intergroup difference for the perceived restorativeness scores.

HYPOTHESES AND RESULTS

Study 1 The questionnaire was administered to 136 participants (only Italians). It was expected that both the preference scores expressed (H1), and the perceived restorativeness scores (H2), were influenced by three emerging factors (place attachment, familiarity, perceived flow opportunities). The results confirmed H1 with regard to place attachment and perceived flow opportunities, which are significant predictors for the environmental preferences. On the contrary, familiarity is only correlated with the preference scale, but not a significant predictor. Similarly, those results have been replicated for H2, founding place attachment and perceived flow opportunities as predictors for the perceived restorativeness, on both the used scales (PRS and RRS).

DISCUSSION

The results substantially confirmed the theoretical framework of the research. They indicated place attachment and perceived flow opportunities as relevant factors to favour the perceived restorativeness and the preference. Conversely, the hypothesized role of the perceived familiarity was not proven. These data suggest overall the need for a deeper consideration of the experiential and affective variables such as causal factors in determining the effects of well-being triggered by the natural environment, together with the philogenetic ones. Furthermore, the perceived restorativeness appeared to vary significantly because of the respondents culture of belonging, and should therefore be revised his classic definition in purely evolutionary and universalistic terms. Further researches should deepen the role of those emerging factors, also proving their importance in an experimental design that includes tools for direct measurement of emotional states and subjective experiences.

Study 2 The questionnaire was administered to 202 participants (Algerians and Italians). It was expected that the environmental preference (H3) and the restorativeness (H4) scores varied significantly following the cultural belonging. The results confirmed only

References • Balling, J.D., Falk, J.H. (1982). Development of visual preference for natural environments. Environment and Behavior, 14, 5–28.

• Kuo, F. E., Sullivan,W. C., Coley, R. L., Brunson, L. (1998). Fertile ground for community: Innercity neighborhood common spaces. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 823-851.

• Buijs, A. E., Elands, B. H. M., Langers, F. (2009). No wilderness for immigrants: Cultural differences in images of nature and landscape preferences. Landscape and Urban Planning, 91 (3), 113-123.

• Nash, R. (1967). Wilderness and the American Mind. New Haven: Yale University Press.

• Bonnes, M., Bonaiuto, M., Aiello, A., Perugini, M., Ercolani, P. (1997). A transactional perspective on residential satisfaction. In Despres C., Pichè D. (Eds.), Housing surveys: Advances in theory, and methods, Quebec, Canada: CRAD Universitè Laval, 75-99.

• Clayton, S., Opotow, S. (2003). Identity and the natural environment: The psychological significance of nature. Cambridge: MIT Press.

• Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

• Joye, Y., van den Berg, A. (2011). Is love for green in our genes? A critical analysis of evolutionary assumptions in restorative environments research. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 10, 261-268. • Han, K. T. (2003). A reliable and valid self-rating measure of the restorative quality of natural environments, Landscape & Urban Planning, 995, 1 - 24.

• Hartig, T., Korpela, K., Evans, G. W., Garling, T. (1997). A measure of restorative quality in environments. Scandinavian Housing & Planning Research, 23, 3–26.

• Kaplan, S. (1977). Tranquility and challenge in the natural environment. In Children, nature and the urban environment. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report, 30, pp. 181- 185. • Kaplan, S., Kaplan, R. (1983). Cognition and environment: Functioning in an uncertain world. Ann Arbor, MI.

• Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

• Merchant, C. (2003). Reinventing Eden: The fate of nature in western culture. New York: Routledge. • Pasini, M., Berto, R. (2007). Una scala per la misura della restorativeness dei luoghi. Quaderni DiPav, 20, 87-102.

• Rainisio, N., Inghilleri, P. (2013) Culture, Environmental Psychology, and Well-Being: An Emergent Theoretical Framework. In Knoop H, Delle Fave A. (Eds.) Well-Being and Cultures: Cross Culture Advancements in Positive Psychology, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 103-116. • Ryan, R.M., Weinstein, N., Bernstein, J.H., Brown K.W., Mistretta L., & Gagné, M. (2010). Vitalizing effects of being outdoors and in nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30 (2), 159-168. • Ulrich, R. S. (1983). Aesthetic and affective responses to natural environments. In I. F. Altman and J. Wohlwill (Eds.). Human behavior and environment: Vol. 6. Behavior and the natural environment. New York: Plenum, 85-125. • Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., Losito, B. D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M. A., & Zelson, M. (1991). Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 201-230.

• Williams, K., Harvey, D. (2001). Trascendent experience in forest environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 21, 249-260.

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Conference Reports 1. IAPS INTERNATIONAL NETWORK SYMPOSIUM 2013 SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTS IN A CHANGING GLOBAL CONTEXT: IDENTIFYING OPPORTUNITIES FOR INNOVATIVE SPACES AND PRACTICES IN CONTEXTS OF CRISIS – A CORUÑA, SPAIN, JUNE 25-28, 2013

Ricardo Garcia-Mira Department of Psychology, University of Corunna ricardo.garcia.mira@udc.es

The IAPS Network symposium was held in A Coruña last June. A high level of debate and involvement of participants produced a stimulating environment for discussion, with the participation of scholars and practitioners from different disciplines, areas, countries, and cultures. Experts from the fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology, architecture, urban design and planning made their contributions to this symposium trying to give answers to significant questions

regarding aspects of people-environment interactions in contexts of crisis. All the papers presented had drawn on relevant theories and applied research results, with a good representation of both qualitative and quantitative studies. The symposium used a format of invited plenary sessions which were organized as panel discussions. There were three of these sessions, where a cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural debate was encouraged by the 10 invited keynote speakers: Roderick Lawrence, Sherry Ahrentzen, Carole Després, Petra Schweizer-Ries, Renate Cervinka, Jennifer Senick, Hülya Turgut, Aleya Abdel-Hadi, Dina Shehayeb, and Derya Oktay. In addition, 131 papers were presented in 31 sessions, 14 of them in 3 specific plenary sessions. Also, 20 posters were presented. In total, more than 180 participants participated in the conference, coming from 38 countries and 130 research centers.

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The plenary sessions of the IAPS Network Symposium (both the invited and the specific sessions) can be watched on line at: www.udctv.es In the site, go to “Actividades”, and click in “IAPS”.

A session of the IAPS Network Symposium – A Coruña, 24th of June 2013

IAPS BOARD MEETING

The symposium was also de venue of the annual meeting of the IAPS board, where a number of relevant issues were discussed, regarding the next 2014 IAPS Conference in Timisoara. A decision was also made about the 2016 IAPS Conference in Lund and Alnarp (Sweden); publications policy; Young Researchers workshop; and other organizational issues.

1. The annual meeting of the IAPS Board – A Coruña, 24th of June 2013.

2. From left to right: Aleya Abdel-­Hadi, Corina Ilin Ricardo García-­Mira, Edward Edgerton, Tony Craig, Sigrun Kabisch, Claudia Andrade, Petra Schweizer-­Ries, Clare Twigger-­Ross, Giuseppe Carrus, and Ian Simkins – A Coruña, 24th of June 2013.

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2. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIORS - MEXICO, 23-27 SEPTEMBER 2013

A new edition of the International Conference on Environmental Psychology was held in Mexico, organized by the Environmental Psychology Group of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The venue was the Faculty of Higher Studies of Iztacala in Mexico. The President of the Conference, Dr José Gómez

Herrera, and the honorary presidents, Professor Serafin Mercado Doménech, Dra. Maritza Landázaru Ortiz†, and MSc Alejandra Terán Álvarez del Rey, were the steering committee of the event. A number of well-known European and American environmental psychologists were invited as speakers at the conference.

The opening ceremony of the Environmental Psychology Conference – Mexico, 23rd of September 2013.

The President of IAPS, Edward Edgerton (right), talk with some of the keynote speakers, Ricardo García-­Mira (left), David Canter (center-­left), and Patricia Ortega (center-­right).

Bridging continents in Environmental Psychology Mexico, 23rd of September 2013.

As a novelty, a new award was established: “The Maritza Landazuri Environmental Psychology Award”. The recipient of the First Edition of this Prize was the young researcher Karina Landeros from the National Autonomous University of Mexico.

Karina Landeros, with the President and the Secretary of IAPS, the recipient of the “Maritza Landazuri Environmental Psychology Award” for young researchers -­Mexico, 27rd of September 2013.

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3. REPORT FROM CIP 2013- XXXIV INTERAMERICAN CONGRESS OF PSYCHOLOGY: KNOWLEDGE, DIVERSITY AND INTEGRATION Zulmira Aurea Cruz Bomfim Federal University of Ceará, Research Laboratory of Environmental Psychology-Locus, Brazil zulaurea@uol.com.br

Camila Bolzan Campos Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil camilabolcampos@gmail.com

The 34th Interamerican Congress of Psychology was held in Brasília between the 15th and 19th of July in Brasil organized by the Interamerican Society of Psychology. Looking for the integration of the Americas under psychology, this congress had integrated many areas of research. The environmental task group was identified as “Environmental, Population and Conservation Psychology” considering some subareas such as theories of environment-behavior relationship, Environmental perception and cognition, Noise, weather, climate, disasters, toxic hazards, Human-environment interface and Millennium developmental goals and psychology. The task group was represented in many activities: 7 papers on the doctoral college, 20 oral presentations, 10 posters, 7 round tables and 10 symposiums. For the last two modalities, was required having participants from more than one country, where the round tables focused on different perspectives from a professional or theoretical topics and the symposium asking for integrated empirical results. This congress has showed that the Environmental Psychology area has been developed substantially in the 3 Americas, having collegues from this 3 continents such as José Pinheiro (Brazil), Hartmut Günther (Brazil), Esther Wiesenfeld (Venezuela), Victor Corral-Verdugo (Mexico) and also from Europe like Juan Ignácio Aragonés (Spain), Ricardo GarciaMira (Spain), Giuseppe Carrus (Italy) and Adina Dumitru (Romania). In the context of the meeting of the task group, beyond the multilateral discussions and exchange ideas, were chosen the new coordinators for the next biennium 2013-2015 from environmental Psychology area to SIP (Interamerican Society of Psychology): Camila Bolzan de Campos (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul) and Zulmira Áurea Cruz Bomfim (Federal University of Ceará-Brazil). The coordinator of the

previous biennium was Professor José Pinheiro (Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte-Brazil). Besides that, was awarded to the professors Hartmut Günther and Isolda de Araújo Günther the Interamerican of Environmental Psychology 2013, recognizing their trajectory in research and enabling professionals into the people – environmental interactions area. The presentation of academics activities performed in all modalities in Congress were marked by massive participation of the task group providing in-depth discussions of current themes of Environmental Psychology in interface with social organization, social psychology, community psychology, proenvironmental behavior, sustainability, participation, culture and work phycology, organization, etc. Cultural activities were also from great importance to the meetings between the people from the task group and the group with the city. Professor Hartmut Gunther conducted a route in a typical Brasilia’s superblock, showing discrepancies between a planned city and the use that is made by its inhabitants in everyday life in Brasilia city, symbol of modern urbanism. Below, a photo of cultural meetings of the group for dinner and sightseeing.

More information about Interamerican Congress held in Brasilia by linking: www.sip2013.org/principal.html

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PROJECT REPORTS

1. POSITIVE HEALTH EFFECTS OF THE NATURAL OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN TYPICAL POPULATIONS IN DIFFERENT REGIONS IN EUROPE (PHENOTYPE): AN EU-FP7 PROJECT

Roderick Lawrence Faculté des sciences économiques et sociales Institut des Sciences de l’Environment, Groupe Ecologie humaine Département de Géographie, Genève, Suisse roderick.lawrence@unige.ch

Roderick LAWRENCE is a project partner in the EU-FP7 project PHENOTYPE which is being funded from 1st January 2012 until 31st December 2015 (Project number FP7ENV-2011-28299615. Indications exist that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and wellbeing, but the multiple interrelations are not well understood. Most of the research has been conducted in the Northwest of Europe and USA. This indicates a need for a more robust evidence based on links between exposure to natural outdoor environments, human activities and their impacts on health and well-being across Europe. Furthermore, inconsistency and variation in indicators for green or natural space have often made it difficult to compare results from different studies. PHENOTYPE is focused on the integration of human health needs, and the translation of the research outcomes into recommendations for policy makers and guidelines for professional practitioners. It will include both positive effects and preconditions for the natural environment to have a positive effect on health. To accomplish this, PHENOTYPE will investigate the interconnections between exposure to natural outdoor environments and positive human health and well-being The underlying pathways will be identified and examined for different population groups. The project will

further examine the effects of different characteristics of the natural outdoor environment, and address the implications for land-use planning and green space management. PHENOTYPE will use an interdisciplinary and integrated approach using the best and most efficient methods to understand the multiple relations between exposure to the natural environment and health. It will specifically translate these findings into potential policies and management practices, taking into account potential regional, social and/ or cultural differences. Stakeholders will play an active role throughout the project.

Spaces that are included are: • Green spaces: roof gardens, city parks, court yards and community gardens. • Greenery’: forests, nature reserves/parks, mountains, and farmland. • Blue spaces: such as canals, ponds, creeks, rivers and beaches.

The importance of both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the natural environment will be assessed by collecting detailed data on these characteristics using a combination of methods of techniques. The focus will be on the day-to-day environments in which people live, other places where they spend time, and the effects on mental and physical health. In order to complete the empirical research, volunteers from different health, cultural and social backgrounds in Lithuania, the Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom are being recruited to complete questions relating to their local environment, their activities and their health when prompted by mobile-phone software, Calfit.

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PHENOTYPE IS STRUCTURED AS FOLLOWS:

Results of the research will be analysed with input from stakeholders from sectors including urban planning, academic and policy development professions, and medicine and public health. The results will be translated into a common language and recommendations to the European Commission and national level organisations for integration in policies directly or indirectly affecting human health. For further information about PHENOTYPE consult: www.phenotype.eu

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NEWS FROM THE NETWORKS

IAPS HOUSING NETWORK BY RODERICK LAWRENCE, ROLF JOHANSSON, AND NATHALIE JEAN-BAPTISTE

roderick.lawrence@unige.ch; Rolf.Johansson@slu.se; nathalie. jean-baptiste@ufz.de The Housing Network was the first IAPS Network founded by Roderick Lawrence in 1986. In 2000, he was joined by Rolf Johansson as coordinator who established the network listserver. This Network has become an international platform for presentations and debate during sessions organized within the biennial IAPS Conferences as well as other international symposia. The contributions at some of these events have been recorded in special issues of journals or monographs. Since its foundation, the IAPS Housing Network has shared and discussed a number of topics related to the way in which People Environment Studies can be applied in housing and residential environments to generate knowledge for researchers and practitioners. The objective has been to bridge the applicability gap between knowledge and professional practice.

Roderick and Rolf have jointly decided that it is an appropriate time to hand over the coordination of this Network to IAPS members of a younger generation. They are agreed that a gradual transfer of this role is appropriate. They are delighted that Dr. Nathalie Jean-Baptiste, who works at the Department Urban and Environmental Sociology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig, has agreed to take on this responsibility. Given that the IAPS 23 Conference will be held in Timisoara from 23 to 27 June 2014 this is an appropriate venue and time to transfer roles between the present and future coordinators of the IAPS Housing Network. A symposium (in addition to a Network Meeting) will be organized at the IAPS 23 Conference to address any housing issues related to the theme of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Housing the vulnerable; vulnerable housing; living in a vulnerable world....â&#x20AC;?. If you are interested in participating in this Symposium please contact the IAPS Housing Network Coordinators.

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CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENTS

CALL FOR PAPERS THE 23rd IAPS CONFERENCE TRANSITIONS TO SUSTAINABLE SOCIETIES: DESIGNING RESEARCH AND POLICIES FOR CHANGING LIFESTYLES AND COMMUNITIES 23 – 27 JUNE 2014, TIMISOARA, ROMANIA

Dr. Corina Ilin The Organizing Team Coordinator cilin@socio.uvt.ro

Dear colleagues, We cordially invite you to contribute to the 23rd IAPS Conference “Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities”. The event will take place in Timişoara, Romania, at the West University of Timişoara, from the 23rd to the 27th of June 2014. According to IAPS mission (www.iaps-association. org), the 23rd IAPS Conference will address the study of the interrelations between people and their socio-physical surroundings and the relation of this field to other social sciences. Like other Eastern European countries, Romania has experienced the transition from totalitarian regimes towards democracy. Today we face the environmental consequences of political and economic decisions made many years ago. Environmental transition, a process started after the political regime changed, became synonym with Environmental Europeanization. Its main aim is the improving of the

environment’s quality, by developing institutional structures and environmental policies according to the international norms. This experience is interesting not only for local researchers (Romanian and East European), but also for all IAPS members aiming to contribute to behavioral and societal changes entailing the transition to sustainable paths in Europe. Some difficulties in implementing these international norms for environmental protection include: unequal economic development, different levels of priority on political agendas, and perceived social injustice. Furthermore, the recent developments in Europe have shown that our systems are also undergoing important transitions. The economic crisis in Europe has revealed important vulnerabilities and risks within our systems, sometimes pushing environmental issues off the political agendas; but, if well oriented, the latter can also create windows of opportunity for devising and implementing models of growth and consumption within more sustainable parameters. All subjects of debate are meant to continue the IAPS Conferences tradition of bringing together research, policy and practice, and promote multi-disciplinary approaches and critical thinking. The Conference aims to continue its tradition as an open forum for the exchange of ideas, experiences and good practices regarding the environmental issues of our society and their challenge for building a sustainable future. The Conference seeks to explore the following challenging themes, and invites answers to questions derived from them, along the following lines:

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• Over the past several years it has become clear that capacity building is central to the quest for sustainable development. If society is going to realize the goals of Agenda 21, the ability of regional organizations, national governments and civil society to address the principal challenges of sustainable development must be reinforced by mobilizing substantially more human, scientific, technological, organizational and institutional resources and capabilities, and by enhancing the abilities of stakeholders to evaluate and address crucial questions related to policy choices and different options for development. These processes will be increasingly based on their socio-technological innovative component. • Which are the main hindrances to human, institutional, and infrastructure, capacity building? • How can we encourage and enable developing countries to identify and address their capacity building needs to access, use and produce data and products on a sustainable basis? • Which are the best ways of enhancing access to data and information, on a real-time/near real-time basis, and of encouraging information and infrastructure sharing? • How can the coordination of participating organizations be optimized as they seek further resources for identified capacity building priorities? • The growing concern for direct democracy, social and environmental justice, and derived ecologically-harmonious urbanism, leads to alternatives to the current policies regarding communities’ life development. What can these alternatives be? Corroborated with the spatial cognition representing the places of urban comfort and affective identity of communities in time and space, the contributors are invited to explore whether such zones can represent “nodes” or forum spaces (either physical or symbolic-virtual) of direct social democracy regarding the communities’ life and whether, in the era of social networking the exercise of democracy still depends upon having a literal commons where people can gather as citizens in public spaces open to all. Contributions are expected to present research that relates to any of the following conference topics:

The impact of policy makers in building sustainable societies 1. Sustainable use and management of natural resources 1. 1. Integrated water resources management 1. 2. Land degradation and desertification 1. 3. Renewable energy initiatives and energy conservation projects 2. Integrating economic development and environmental protection 2. 1. Conflict and environment 2. 2. Health and environment 2. 3. Tools for sustainable production and consumption 3. Emerging issues and challenges for sustainable development 3. 1. Environmental education 3. 2. Training for natural resource management 3. 3. Capacity building for children and youth

2. Overcoming the gap between behavioral change and urban planning & design in sustainable societies 2. 1. Place attachment 2. 1.1. Place attachment and pro-environmental behavior 2. 1.2. Place identity and climate change adaptation 2. 1.3. Sense of place and resilience to change 2. 2. The influence of urban restorations on the interaction between people and nature 2. 2.1. The influence of urban restorations on inhabitants’ behavior 2. 2.2. Vulnerability, resilience, and restoration 2. 2.3. Raising people’s interactions through heritage building and urban landscape restoration 2. 3. Environmental attitudes and urban design 2. 3.1 Behavioral patterns and sustainable urban design 2. 3.2. Travel attitudes in urban spaces encouraging alternative means of transportation 2. 3.3. Urban designs encouraging social activities 2.4. Role of built environments on physical and mental health 2. 4.1. Virtual and physical architecture 2. 4.2. Positive and sustainable work environments 2. 4.3. Built environments, emotions and health 3. Engaging communities in the transition to sustainable societies 3. 1. Developing community engagement for a sustainable lifestyle 3. 1.1. Achieving safety through community engagement 3. 1.2. Poverty and economic crisis 3. 1.3. Social representation of sustainable consumption 3. 1.4. Community participation in the building process of social and cultural facilities 3. 2. Designing policies for transition to a sustainable society 3. 2.1. Governance and participation for sustainability 3. 2.2. Designing policies for low carbon greenhouse gas emissions 3. 2.3. Change agents for a sustainable society

4. Communities resilience and socio-cultural change: transitions from traditional to modern societies 4. 1. Transition towns and inhabitants’ life satisfaction 4. 1.1. Psychological implications of living in a transition town 4. 1.2. Urban pathways of change 4. 1.3. Food Sensitive Planning and Urban Design 4. 2.Risk perception of socio-cultural change 4. 2.1. Emotions and attitudes to change 4. 2.2. Risk, management and sustainability 4. 2.3. Social actors, social movements and risk perception 4. 3. Community resilience 4. 3.1. Community resilience in case of disasters, war or terrorism 4. 3.2. Modeling community resilience 4. 3.3. The role of policy makers in overcoming disasters

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5. Transitions to sustainable societies: direct democracy, spatial cognition and ecological design 5. 1. Effective ways in urban design - traditional vs. new consultative models 5. 1. 1. New environments for direct/social democracy 5. 1. 2. The open urban space designed as civic art 5. 1. 3. Participatory decision making 5. 2. Spatial cognition 5. 2. 1. Spaces of communities’ comfort and identity and the future urban planning 5. 2. 2. Urban comfort and affective belonging zones as forums of direct social democracy 5. 2. 3. Social networking vs. physical commons 5. 3. Ecological design 5. 3. 1. The ecological development/design principles and the guidelines of new urbanism’s smart growth 5. 3. 2. Towards an integrated theory of socio-technological innovation 5. 3. 3. Interdisciplinary studies of ecosystem dynamics and socio-cultural trends REGISTRATION & SUBMISSION

Registration and submission of abstracts will be handled via an online procedure. For abstract submission it is necessary to register first. Registration starts on 25th September 2013. Submitted abstracts must be around 500 words in length. Please indicate a conference theme number to which your presentation relates to. Deadline for abstract submission is 25 November 2013. Authors will receive notification of acceptance by the 25 January 2014.

• Poster Session. This allows participants to present their work in a visual manner rather than during a traditional session. All posters will be exhibited in a common area and be visible to all participants during the conference. Submissions for a poster session are also done via abstract. Please note that printing posters is the responsibility of the participants and these should be in A1 size, 841 x 594 cm, and portrait. • Young Researchers Workshop Presentation. These are individual contributions from ongoing PhD work and will be chaired by a senior colleague that will act as a mentor. • Case Studies. These can be presented by an individual or a group and should contain specific work within an area of research, policy or practice relevant to the Conference’s themes. Each presentation should last maximum 15 minutes. They will all be collected in our website for reference. Submission format for case studies: 1,500 words total / 200 words abstract. Please, refer to which of the Conference Themes it relates.

The Conference programme will also include keynote contributions, thematic networks meetings and thematic excursions. The scientific programme will also be accompanied by a very exciting social programme. For more information on the Conference theme, relevant dates, fees, venue, etc., please visit the conference website at www. iaps2014.timisoara.org On behalf of the organizing committee, we are looking forward to hearing from you soon. We are waiting for you in Timisoara in 2014!

SECTIONS

The Scientific Committee invites submission of abstracts for contributions to one of the following:

• Individual Oral Presentation related to one of the conference themes • Symposium for an entire thematic session. Proposals should include the name of the chair, the title, a description of the symposium content, name of all contributors and the title of their proposed oral presentations if they are known at that point. An abstract and the title of the respective symposium should be also included in the proposal. Please note that all contributors to submitted symposia need to register individually.

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BOOK REVIEW

Book review by Annkatrin Dominikowski, Master in Work, Organization and Personel Psychology, Université Paris Descartes and Universitat de Barcelona “LE CONFORT AU TRAVAIL – QUE NOUS APPREND LA PSYCHOLOGIE ENVIRONNEMENTALE”. LILIANE RIOUX, JEANNE LE ROY, LOLITA RUBENS, JOHANNA LE CONTE. QUEBEC: PRESSES DE L’UNIVERSITÉ LAVAL, 2013. 270 PP.

Usually, we try to create comfortable living environments in our houses or apartments. Anyhow most of us do not care creating a pleasant atmosphere in the place they spend 8 hours a day or more: the workspace. Companies such as Google or Accenture have already implied several new concepts, on how the workspace can be designed, serving both employee and organisation. To work in a comfortable environment can raise employee productivity through several factors. Not least because of the fact that an employee who feels comfortable in the workplace will more likely be higher motivated. An organisation should have a high interest in their employees’ motivation IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013

and well-being. Motivated and satisfied employees will not only do a good job but also have fewer sickness absences. The central question of the book presented here is on how we can create a comfortable and stimulating work environment, helping the employee to optimise performance. “Le confort au travail” is a psychological scientific publication, released in 2013 by the Presses de l’Université Laval under the direction of Liliane Rioux, Jeanne Le Roy, Lolita Rubens and Johanna Le Conte. The authors are scientists in the field of environmental and organisational psychology. In addition, several international known authors have contributed chapters.


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The first partâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s focus lies on architecture and composition of the work environment and how physiological, but also functional comfort can be provided. Moreover, new scientific findings on noisy work environments are presented. The second part emphasises psychological comfort in the workspace and the importance of the employeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attachment to their work place. Finally, the last part of the book discusses resulting consequences for organisations and which questions are raised due to them. The part by Ferdinando Fornara, Marino Bonaiuto and Mirilia Bonnes is illustrated by a study on hospital staff. Throughout the whole book, the theory is underlined by recent studies and meta-analysis in the field.

more connected and people have the possibility to work from home, companies should have a thorough interest in recent research on telecommuting. This new work form however, raises questions and problems regarding direct communication and the employeesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; feeling of affiliation with the company. The book is supposed to be for students, scholars, professionals and anybody interested in psychological and physiological comfort in the workplace. Therefore it tries to cover the field of comfort in the workplace with the help of literature reviews and scientific studies, not least to give indications for organisations and advice on managerial strategies. Even though it gives indications for practice, scientific studies dominate the book, which makes it rather drawnout for the reader in some parts. It would have been helpful to have concrete indications for practice and examples on how adjustments on work comfort have already been used in different companies such as Google or Accenture.

The book distinguishes between the concept of physical and functional comfort in the workspace, and actual psychological comfort, which was seen as rather unimportant a few years ago. Anyhow, nowadays the effects of an unsatisfied employee are much better known, as well as the negative consequences, such as low productivity, sickness absence or even acts of sabotage. David Uzzell informs the reader about how physical and functional comfort can be improved through the presence of plants in the workspace.

The book disposes interesting findings on work comfort and provides up-todate scientific studies. Anyhow, for professionals it lacks a focus on real life examples, practice and intervention.

An interesting part for professionals, which most chapters seem to share to a certain extent, is the promotion of a workspace design to improve communication between employees and between employees and the company. Optimising idea sharing and communicating appear to be a crucial point when it comes to designing the work environment.

Over more, Nigel Holt provides the reader with noteworthy additional knowledge on noisy work environments. In contrast to common assumption, noise is not only disturbing, but can also be stimulating. New findings on telework and telecommuting are broadly discussed by Enric Pol, Enric Net and Ramon Ferrer. As our world gets more and

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NEW VOLUME ANNOUNCEMENT

SOLVING COMPLEX PROBLEMS. A HANDBOOK.

Authors: SchĂśnwandt, W., Voermanek, K., Utz, J., Grunau, J., Hemberger, C. 2013 Jovis: Berlin. eISBN: 978-1-60805-413-8, 2012 English, 208 Pages.

Also available as e-book (October 2013). When youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated,

multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific, systematic and problem-oriented as well as action-oriented solutions. In doing so, knowledge is created that goes beyond discipline limits while conflicts of values and of interests are integrated into the solution process. Only if one knows exactly where to start and what must be borne in mind is the task of IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013

solving complex problems doable and ultimately successful. This book is addressed to architects as well as to urban and spatial planners, and likewise to politicians and managers. After all, all these different professionals are repeatedly confronted with the task of handling complex, multidisciplinary problems which cannot be solved by applying routine solutions but, indeed, can be successfully addressed by applying the problem-solving system described in this book. For further information use the following link: www.jovis.de/index. php?idcatside=3919&lang=2


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BUILDING BRIDGES, BLURRING BOUNDARIES

Readings on the Presge Disaster Contribuons from the Social Sciences Ricardo García Mira (Editor)

Summary

(There is also a Spanish version available)

English version 16,5 x 24 cm 289 pages So cover ISBN: 978-84-932694-4-9 30 € (VAT included) Shipping costs: 8 € Total: 38 €

To order, fill out this form and email it, together with a scanned copy of the bank slip, to: xoanvicenteviqueira@gmail.com Your name: Address 1 City Post code

This book addresses the complex issues surrounding the Presge disaster and thus pretends to be a necessary and sensive exploraon of the prevenon, migaon and management of environmental problems within the larger objecve of designing pathways to a sustainable future in Europe. Finding soluons to environmental problems demands the acve involvement of social organizaons, industry and government agencies, working together within a framework of shared responsibility required by the objec ve of a more sustainable world. A social science perspecve is necessary if we are to really understand the role of key human factors and social processes involved in the management of disasters. In this book, relevant academics, professors and researchers from a diversity of countries, scienfic disciplines, and research domains, present a variety of approaches to the conceptualizaon of the disaster from the perspecves of environmental psychology, polical science, environmental educaon, environmental economy, environmental law, and environmental journalism. This diversity of perspecves is guaranteed to generate debate and favour the understanding of disasters and of its applicaons to the process of policy-making.

Ricardo García Mira is Professor of Social and Environmental Psychology at the Faculty of Educaonal Sciences and Director of the People-Environment Research Group of the University of A Coruña, Spain.

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Contents

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Acknowledgements. Preface. I. INTRODUCTION 1. The Presge: an approach from the social sciences. 2. The legend of the Presge: Construcng polical reality. 3. Communicaon, another catastrophe. II CONTRIBUTIONS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. 4. Communicaon and management strategies during the Presge crisis. 5. Differing tudes and aribuons between vicms and volunteers. 6. Exploring cognive representaons of cizens in areas affected by the disaster. 7. Coping with a threat to quality of life. 8. Psychology, parcipaon, and environmental policy-making. III. THE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CONTEXT. 9. The Presge disaster: Lessons in environmental educaon for the global society. 10. Environmental educaon in mes of catastrophe: The educaonal response to the shipwreck. IV. THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS. 11. The economic analysis of catastrophes: the assessment and calculaon of damages in the fishing and tourist industries. 12. Esmang the sort-term economic damages from the Presge oil spill in the Galician fisheries and tourism. V. CRIMINAL LIABILITY. 13. Possible criminal liabilies in the Presge case. VI. CHRONOLOGY. 14. The chronology of a disaster.

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Useful for... This book is a useful tool for researchers, students and policy-makers, as well as in the teaching of disciplines related to environmental psychology, polical science, environmental educaon, environmental economy, environmental law, enviromental journalism.

IAPS - BULLETIN 40 | AUTUMN 2013


Editor Giuseppe Carrus University of Roma Tre, Department of Educational Sciences, Experimental Psychology Laboratory. CIRPA â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interuniversity Research Centre in Environmental Psychology Via Milazzo 11B â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 00185 Rome, Italy Phone: +39 06 57339819 E-mail: giuseppe.carrus@uniroma3.it URL: www.uniroma3.it

International Association for People-Environment Studies aims to improve the physical environment and human well-being.

Profile for IAPS ASSOCIATION

IAPS BULLETIN Nº40  

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