Page 1

of People-Enviromental Studies

AUTUMN 2015 - #43


Editor: Ricardo GarcĂ­a Mira Identity and pro-environmental behavior Future thinking and environmental protection: A research agenda Reframing the relationship between stakeholders and scientists BLUE AND PINK IN ACADEMIA: PERCEPTION OF SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO PEOPLE-ENVIRONMENT STUDIES Does neighbourhood attachment mean to care for and to maintain it? Technology and innovation in adapting architectonic tradition aiming for a sustainable future in the middle east




International Association for People-Environment Studies aims to improve the physical environment and human well-being.

Submissions Whilst we encourage all our members to submit material, any submission for inclusion in the Bulletin should be written to high standards of English grammar and punctuation. To help the review process, we kindly ask you have the material checked by a fluent English speaker before submitting it to the Bulletin. Please, send your contributions for the next issue by e-mail to Ricardo García Mira, at the following address: bulletin.iaps@gmail.com All manuscripts should be written in Times New Roman 12 pt., double-spaced. The maximum word length for articles is 2000 words. Include names, affiliation and full contact details of all the authors.

Instructions on how to become an IAPS member, or to renew your membership, are available on the IAPS webiste: iaps-association.org

Bulletin of PeopleEnviromental Studies. Autumn 2015 Number 43 ISSN: 1301 - 3998

www.iaps-association.org Editor Ricardo García Mira Editorial Team Aleya Abdel-Hadi Giuseppe Carrus Corina Ilin Ombretta Romice Kevin Thwaites Clare Twigger-Ross

Editorial Committee Angela Castrechini Arza Churchman José A. Corraliza Tony Craig Sandrine Depeau Edward Edgerton Ferdinando Fornara Birgitta Gattersleben Bernardo Hernández Maria Johanson Florian Kaiser Peter Kellett Marketta Kitta Roderick Lawrence Jeanne Moore Enric Pol Massimiliano Scopelliti Hulya Turgut David Uzzell

Photo Credits All photographs included in this list are under a Creative Commons license: Attribution-noncommercial 3.0 Unported. Cover: Domkyrkan, Lund by Ulf K*. Page 2: IMG_5907 by Brian Jeffery Beggerly*. Page 5: Getting Dark in Dubai by Michael Theis*. Page 11: Polar bear, Saint-Felicien zoo, Quebec by Aramisse*. Page 12: Summer Safari Day Camp by Cristina Santisteven*. Page 14: fissure by Dave Appleby*. Page 14: Retrieving the Drop by Kathryn Hansen*. Page 15: 2014 People’s Climate March NYC 5 by Stephen Melkisethian*. Page 22: Reading by Pedro Ribeiro Simões*. Page 23: St. James Parish Library (11) by Michael Sauers*. Page 25: Málaga by Leo Hidalgo*. Page 27: Cälle by Leo Hidalgo*. Page 27: Málaga compacta by Leo Hidalgo*. Page 35: Matanzas Inlet Guided Hike by GTM NERR*. Page 35: Fundy Biosphere Reserve - New Brunswick by Tony Webster*. Page 36: Morning mist in the eucalyptus forests... by Malte Karger*.

Page 37: Pelican by Andrew Miller*. Page 38: Photo by GTM NERR*. Page 39: Baby gray whale watching by Sam Beebe*. Page 44: NTNU by Jaime Pérez*. Page 46: 365 weekly theme, #41.3, yellow by GmanViz*. Page 46: University of Michigan School of Education by Carl Berger*. Page 49: asbl Atomium vzw by Axel ADDINGTON*. Page 53: Välkommen till Lund by mroach*. Page 53: Pink Cherry blossom by Susanne Nilsson*. Page 55: Bonn by aschaefer77*. Page 60: Granada, Spain by Living-Learning Programs*. Page 65: Sombreado y reflexionar 1 by Miguel Saavedra*. Page 66: Over-Consumption by Jeremy Blanchard*. Page 67: ‘Rood op geel’ Plantage Middenlaan Amsterdam by FaceMePLS*. Back: Alnarp manor by David Lebech*.

* Flickr user IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015


IAPS Board 2012-2015 Ricardo García Mira, President

Petra Schweizer-Ries, Membership

University of A Coruña Spain

Conference support, YRW. Bochum University of Applied Sciences, Germany

Giuseppe Carrus, Secretary

Kevin Thwaites, Networks

University of Roma Tre Italy

University of Sheffield UK

Clare Twigger-Ross, Treasurer

Sigrun Kabisch, Conference support, YRW

Collingowood Environmental Planning Ltd. UK

Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Germany

Tony Craig, Website, Membership

Seungkwang Shon, Membership

The James Hutton Institute Scotland, UK

Dongshin University South Korea

Claudia Andrade, Website, Newsletter

Karina Landeros, Networks, YRW

YRW. Lisbon University Institute Portugal

National Autonomous University of Mexico

Ian Simkins, Website, Networks

Caroline Hagerhall, Membership

Experiemics, Experiential Landscape Research UK

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Sweden

The IAPS Board is now structured into four workgroups, each with a lead responsible member. Management Responsible: Ricardo García Mira (President). Members: Giuseppe Carrus (Secretary), Clare Twigger-Ross (Treasurer), Seungkwang Shon (Membership/Listserve) and Tony Craig (Website). Tasks: finances, membership, profile, constitution, elections, meetings, conference voting, general liaison, and the public face of IAPS. Published Outputs Responsible: Ricardo García Mira (Bulletin). Members: Giuseppe Carrus (Bulletin), Claudia Andrade (Newsletter), Tony Craig (Website) and Ian Simkins (Website). Tasks: bulletin, website, newsletter, bibliography, publicity. Conference related activities Responsible: Sigrun Kabisch (Conference Support, YRW). Members: Petra Schweizer-Ries (Conference Support, YRW), Karina Landeros (YRW) and Claudia Andrade (YRW). Tasks: Young Researchers Workshop, Hall of Fame, conference support. Networks Responsibles: Kevin Thwaites and Ian Simkins. Members: Karina Landeros (Networks, YRW). Tasks: Iaps networks coordination.



Bulletin Summary EDITORIAL ADDRESS Editorial address (R. García Mira)

P. 7

7 P. 8-34


Identity and pro-environmental behavior (S. Clayton) Future thinking and environmental protection: A research agenda (T. L. Milfont) Reframing the relationship between stakeholders and scientists (G. Polhill, V. Pandur, I. Macsinga, A. Dumitru, I. Omann, M. Kammerlander)

8 13 16

Blue and pink in the academia? Perception of scientific contributions to people-environment studies (B. Cortés, V. Sevillano)


Does neighbourhood attachment mean to care for and to maintain it? (M. C. Hidalgo, B. Hernández Ruiz, P. Moreno)


Technology and innovation in adapting architectonic tradition aiming for a sustainable future in the middle east (I. S. Fardous, A. Bennadji)

28 P. 34-46


Position paper of the German Mab National Committee Sustainable and alternative lifestyles in Europe A call for University partners to Examine the changing culture of sustainability on your campus

34 40 45 P. 47-50


IAPS policy on supporting the participation of early career researchers in research meetings IAPS policy in promoting cooperation with the strategic plans of the european commission

47 49 P. 51-56


24 IAPS Conference Nature-based solutions to climate change in urban areas and their rural surroundings International Conference on environmental psychology th


51 54 56


P. 57-64


Repair café contributes to a sustainable society repair cafe IAPS Board meeting at the University of Granada European Congress of psychology International Workshop pressure-cooker on “Theories of change in sustainability transitions”

57 59 62 64 P. 65-67


Pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace: the role of universities Do norms matter? the role of normative considerations as predictors of pro-environmental behaviour “Can you feel it?” the role of feelings in explaining pro-environmental behavior

65 66 67 P. 68-69


URBS. Journal of Urban Studies and Social Science The journal of Integrated Design Research (JIDR)

68 69 P. 70-71


American Psychologist. Expanding the Role for Psychology in Addressing Environmental Challenges Nature Climate Change. Psychological research and global climate change

70 71 P. 72-74


Fostering Reasonableness: Supportive Environments for Bringing Out Our Best Special Issue: Positive and Environmental Psychology Schools for the Future


72 73 74


Editorial address,

by Ricardo García Mira The IAPS is opening its doors again with this new edition of the Bulletin of People-Environment Studies, accessible free of charge for the scientific community, and more committed to a lower impact on the use of natural resources with this electronic edition. This edition includes reflections by Susan Clayton on research into pro-environmental behaviour that she carried out, concerning individual factors that predict pro-environmental behavior, and more specifically the role of environmental identity and social context that could favor the birth of said environmental identity to train people who act responsibly with nature. Taciano L. Milfont invites us to consider how the psychological phenomenon of future thinking can involve us more in environmental matters concerning respect for nature. Taciano takes on the relevance of the experience of the temporal dimension in relation to short and long-term interests, together with the social dilemmas that generate conflict about benefits and immediate and future consequences, thereby distinguishing between people with present thinking and people with future thinking and their different styles of environmental involvement. Gary Polhill and a group of researchers from the GLAMURS project, which I am currently coordinating under the auspices of the European Commission, reflect on the concept of sustainable lifestyles based on the meeting with representatives from over 20 initiatives for sustainable lifestyles. The meeting was held last June in the city of Timisoara (Romania), to take a deeper look at the discourse of sustainability and to cover the lack of knowledge networks that enable the exchange of ideas and experiences to promote the analysis of individual, social, cultural and economic variables implied by changes in lifestyle. Beatriz Cortés and Verónica Sevillano draw our attention in this edition to the bias that still exists in academic research in the field of people-environment studies, and how this bias, often subtle, and other times more evident, discriminates against the visibility of work done by women, thereby affecting their role in the development of diverse scientific disciplines in our field of study. Maria-Carmen Hidalgo, Bernardo Hernández and Pilar Moreno explore the relationship between neighborhood attachment and pro-environmental behavior in residential city environments, questioning the relation between attachment or identity and the maintenance and preservation of the neighborhood, which could be more related to the significance of social standards in the neighborhood or the culture of maintenance by neighbors . We have also included the work being promoted by Israa Fardous and Amar Bennadji at the Robert Gordon University, which takes us into the discourse of the integration of elements of traditional cultural architecture in a more contemporary context in which technology and innovation can act as facilitators or barriers to cultural contextualization and the psychological welfare of the addressees, users or occupants of new environmental designs. Our section on IAPS policies tells us of two key aspects that do not go unnoticed for the IAPS today. In the first place, we are talking about the support our organization lends to researchers who are starting out on their career, so that they can take part in research meetings that could have a significant impact on their PhD work, by paying part of their expenses. This edition contains the second call corresponding to 2015, aimed at researchers who wish to take advantage of this aid in 2016. Secondly, we describe the role IAPS plays in promoting cooperation with the development of new

European research agendas and European Commission strategic plans that hold a special interest for our members. We provide information about the meetings Sigrun Kabisch and myself, Ricardo García Mira, have been invited to take part in this year by the European Commission, to discuss the design of the 3rd Horizon 2020 Strategic Plan for the period 2017-2020, and the Strategic Program of the Urban Europe Joint Programming Initiative (JPI), at whose work sessions we have been especially active. The Board thus fulfils another commitment we acquired at the General Assembly. As far as scientific events are concerned, the most important one is the 24th IAPS Conference next year, on which Maria Johanson and Caroline Hägerhäll are working hard. It will be held in Lund and Alnarp from 26 June to 1 July 2016. The topic of the conference, “The human being at home, work and leisure. Sustainable use and development of indoor and outdoor spaces in late modern everyday life”, illustrates very well a topic on three human contexts that are currently undergoing significant social, spatial and environmental transformations, with implications on research and policy levels, and which require new spaces for discussion. The Call for Papers has been launched and you will find further details in this edition. As for cooperation with other organizations, we foresee the organization of a joint Symposium with the Environmental Research Design Association, EDRA, something we are currently working on. At the same time, we have expressed our desire to collaborate with the IAAP Environmental Psychology Division in the organization of their upcoming international congress on Applied Psychology, which will take place in A Coruña in July 2017, organized by my research group. At the latest meetings of the IAPS Board and at the AGM, held in Granada in June 2015, significant new agreements were adopted, detailed herein, and among which we could highlight the continuation of the promotion of our participation in our Young Researchers Workshop with greater economic support, and the IAPS publication policy by means of supporting the Advances in People-Environment Studies series, edited by David Uzzell with Hogrefe Publisher. The new IAPS web site is underway – it is now more modern and user-friendly, and will enable more complete and uniform access to the IAPS research networks. Also included in this edition are certain research programs of interest, sent in by members Lenelis Krusse (UNESCO Program on Man and the Biosphere), Robert Marans (on Sustainability at Universities) and also our own research group (on sustainable lifestyles and the green economy), in which many of our best-known members are involved. We have also new PhDs in The Netherlands (Martijn Keizer and Danny Taufik) and in Spain (Adina Dumitru)! Congratulations to all of them! Brief abstracts of their dissertations are included. Finally, I would like to remind you that in March 2016 there will be elections to the IAPS Board to fill some of the positions that will be vacated in June 2016. We would like to encourage any member who wishes to present his/her candidature to do so within the deadlines that will be published at the time. Please do not forget to send in your contributions, conference and meeting announcements, book reviews and news you wish to see published in the next edition of the Bulletin of People-Environment Studies.

Warmest wishes to everyone, Ricardo García Mira President



Identity and pro-environmental behavior

Susan Clayton Department of Psychology The College of Wooster sclayton@wooster.edu

Serious threats to a healthy natural environment, such as climate change and loss of biodiversity, have led psychologists to extensively investigate the determinants of environmental concern and pro-environmental behavior. Well-established models such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Value-Belief-Norm theory (Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, & Kalof, 1999), have demonstrated the importance of psychological concepts such as attitudes, values, and norms in determining behavior. More recently, a number of researchers have found that important additional variance can be explained by incorporating concepts related to identity (Mannetti, Pierro, & Livi, 2004). People’s sense of themselves as, for example, a person who recycles (a behavior-based identity), a resident of a community (a place-based identity), or an environmentalist (a role-based identity) seems to be important in predicting environmental behavior, over and above the constructs specified by the above models (Whitmarsh & O’Neill, 2011). Identities are important to behavior for several reasons. First, identities direct attentional focus: given the vast amount of information with which we are routinely bombarded, we are more likely to direct attention to events that are self-relevant. Similarly, self-relevant events are likely to evoke a stronger emotional response, and thus are more likely to be remembered. If I strongly identify as a resident of a particular area, threats to that area – e.g. from climate change – are more likely to attract my attention and concern. Importantly, identities also convey social and personal norms.

If I define myself as an environmentalist, I probably have some sense of what environmentalists are expected to do, think, and feel in a given situation. One identity that is relevant to environmental behavior is an environmental identity: a sense of oneself as connected to and interdependent with the natural world. Although an environmental identity sounds somewhat abstract, research suggests that it is a significant self-definition for many people. Environmental identity, as I have defined it (Clayton, 2003, 2012), is a stable sense of connection to some part of the nonhuman natural environment, based on history, emotional attachment, and/or similarity, that affects the ways in which we perceive and act toward the world; a belief that the environment is important to us and an important part of who we are. The natural environment seems to be a particularly rich source of identity, based in early, emotionally-rich experiences (Chawla, 1999); the opportunity to engage in self-reflection (Herzog, Black, Fontaine, & Knotts, 1997); and a sense of connection. I developed the Environmental Identity scale (EID) to measure individual differences in the strength of this identity. Research in a number of countries has demonstrated that the EID scale is high in reliability and validity (Olivos & Aragonés, 2011; Tam, 2013). It has been found to predict environmental concern, self-reported environmental behavior, sustainable gardening practices, and concern about climate change. It is also associated with particular ways of thinking about the world, such as lower social dominance orientation, higher collectivism, support for animal rights, and perceived similarity of zoo animals to humans (Clayton, 2012). These results demonstrate that environmental identity is related to our mental models of the relationship among different entities as well as to emotional responses. My current concern with environmental identity is in understanding its relevance to a social context. How do other people contribute to the construction of an environmental



identity? And how can our social institutions support it? One way in which environmental identity might be constructed is through broad cultural socialization that emphasizes a value for the natural environment. To the extent that a society encourages consensus around care for nature, environmental identity should be correlated with a national identity. This is the hypothesis I investigated with Dr. Ahmet Kılınç in Turkey (Clayton & Kılınç, 2013). Using a sample of 808 university students, we examined the correlations among national identity, environmental identity, Turkish beliefs about the value of nature, and environmental concern and behavior. Although national identity was not correlated with environmental concern or behavior, it was correlated with environmental identity and with supportive cultural beliefs, which were in turn correlated with environmental concern and behavior. Thus it seems that a feeling

of national identity can be related to cultural value for the environment, which in turn relates to environmental identity. Interestingly, in unpublished data examining 500 American citizens, we found no significant relationship between national identity and environmental identity. This suggests that not all cultures share the same emphasis on valuing nature. Indeed, one of the important issues surrounding environmental concern in the United States is its politically contested status. There is a strong relationship between environmentalism and political orientation, and environmental concern has become associated with a left-wing orientation in the US (Guber, 2013). In other words, a politically conservative worldview does not support pro-environmental attitudes and behavior. This presents a significant social obstacle that inhibits political progress on addressing environmental challenges. Politicians on the right are reluctant to be seen IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015

as supportive of environmental policy, which is inconsistent with the way in which they have defined their political identity. To gain further insight into the relationship between political identity, environmental identity, and environmental concern, I conducted some on-line experiments using a sample of US citizens obtained on MTurk (Clayton, Koehn, & Grover, 2013). Participants’ attitudes toward the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico (Study 1) or toward climate change (Study 2) were assessed, along with political orientation, environmental identity, and emotional responses. (There was also an experimental manipulation of the framing of the environmental problem in each study, but that is not relevant to the current discussion.) EID was correlated with a liberal political orientation in Study 1, but not in Study 2. Both EID and political


orientation were independently associated with responses to the environmental problem. Those high in EID, or more liberal, experienced more negative affect, held people more responsible for addressing the problems, and perceived greater injustice in response to the Deepwater Horizon; they assigned greater responsibility for addressing the issue and perceived more harm to result from climate change. This research shows not only that individual identities are important, but also that identities have a significant impact on the interpretation of environmentally harmful phenomena as well as on reactions to them. Given that identity is so important in responses to issues affecting the natural environment, and that an environmental identity in particular appears to have a strong and broad impact, how can we create and nurture a strong environmental identity? As stated above, national culture can be important. Early experiences are also significant. Research with French colleagues has unearthed a strong relationship between a rural childhood and an environmental identity (Prévot, Clayton, & Mathevet, 2015), probably due to the opportunities for direct experiences of natural environments that are afforded. Neither national culture nor rural childhood, however, lend themselves to interventions. For the past decade or so, I’ve been examining zoos as locations in which social interactions can foster environmental identity. Zoos are promising locations for several reasons. They are popular: they draw large and diverse audiences, so any effect of zoo visits has the potential to affect many people. They have an explicit conservation mission. They are widely trusted.

And they present people with the opportunity to encounter “nature” with a social group. The social interactions that take place in a zoo context can affirm a value for the natural world as well as promoting socially-shared understandings of the relationship between humans and the rest of nature. Parents in particular cite the opportunity to promote moral development in their children by emphasizing values, empathy, and responsibility (Fraser & Sickler, 2009). The zoo provides opportunities to stress the responsibilities of citizens to care for others. In observational studies at a number of American zoos, my research assistants and I coded verbal and behavioral interactions among social groups to look for evidence that people were creating a shared identity with the animals they observed (Clayton, Fraser, & Saunders, 2009). We found that a significant proportion of zoo visitors made some attempt to connect to the animal, through means such as verbal comparisons of animals and humans, physical imitation, or attempt to interact with the animal. We also found that social interactions at the animal exhibits often included a component that expressed, defined or created a relationship between the humans and the animals. This was demonstrated by anthropomorphizing comments, physical imitation, encouragement of interactions between people and animals, and a tendency to use personal rather than impersonal pronouns (Clayton, Fraser, & Burgess, 2011). Does this matter? Other evidence showed that people who said they felt a sense of connection to an animal they had seen during their zoo visit were more likely to support efforts to protect that animal and its species (Clayton, Fraser, &




Saunders, 2009). More recent research, reporting on surveys of over 7000 zoo visitors in the US, and thousands more in South America, affirmed the impact of a zoo visit in two ways. First, zoo visitors were shown to be significantly more concerned about global climate change than a representative sample of US citizens. Second, concern about climate change was significantly related to measures assessing a sense of connection to animals or to nature in general (Clayton, Luebke, Saunders, Matiasek, & Grajal, 2014; Luebke, Clayton, Kelly, & Grajal, 2015). Thus, experiences at the zoo may serve to nurture an environmental identity that creates a feeling of interdependence with the natural world, which in turn promotes attention to and concern about environmental issues such as climate change.

A growing body of research evidence indicates that experiences with elements of the natural world have the potential for an important impact on the ways in which people think about themselves, and on their values, perceived responsibilities, and behavior with regard to environmental issues. These experiences are created (or not) and interpreted through a social context. The development of a sense of environmental identity may be an important precursor to a caring orientation toward the natural environment. Future research should further investigate ways in which social contexts and institutions can facilitate an environmental identity. In addition, the possible co-benefits of environmental identity as a source of social capital through shared values and meaning is a topic that merits further investigation.

References • Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

• Guber, D. L. (2013). A cooling climate for change? Party polarization and the politics of global warming. American Behavioural Scientist, 57, 93–115.

• Clayton, S. (2003). Environmental identity: A conceptual and an operational definition. In S. Clayton & S. Opotow (Eds.) Identity and the natural environment (pp. 45-65). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

• Luebke, J., Clayton, S., Kelly, L., & Grajal, A. (2015). Global climate change attitudes and perceptions among South American zoo visitors. Zoo Biology, in press.

• Chawla, L. (1999). Life paths into effective environmental action. Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 5-26.

• Clayton, S. (2012). Environment and identity. In S. Clayton (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Environmental and Conservation Psychology (pp. 164-180). New York: Oxford.

• Clayton, S., Fraser, J., & Burgess, C. (2011). The role of zoos in fostering environmental identity. Ecopsychology, 3, 87-96.

• Clayton, S., Fraser, J., & Saunders, C. (2009). Zoo experiences: Conversations, connections, and concern for animals. Zoo Biology.28, 377-397. • Clayton, S., & Kılınç, A. (2013). Proenvironmental concern and behavior in Turkey: The role of national and environmental identity. Psyecology, 4, 311-330.

• Clayton, S., Koehn, A., & Grover, E. (2013). Making sense of the senseless: Justice, identity, and the framing of environmental crises. Social Justice Research, 26, 301-319. • Clayton, S., Luebke, J., Saunders, C., Matiasek, J., & Grajal, A. (2014). Connecting to nature at the zoo: Implications for responding to climate change. Environmental Education Research, 20, 460-475. • Fraser, J., & Sickler, J. (2009). Measuring the cultural impact of zoos and aquariums. International Zoo Yearbook, 43, 103-112.

• Herzog, T.R., Black, A.M., Fountaine, K.A., & Knotts, D.J. (1997). Reflection and attentional recovery as distinctive benefits of restorative environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 17, 165-170. • Mannetti, L, Pierro, A., & Livi, S. (2004). Recycling: Planned and self-expressive behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 227-236.

• Olivos, P., & Aragones, J.-I. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Environmental Identity scale. Psyecology, 2, 65-74.

• Prevot, A.-C., Clayton, S., & Mathevet, R. (2015, August). Environmental concern is not mediated by university education. Paper presented at the International Conference for Conservation Biology, Montpelier, France.

• Stern, P., Dietz, T., Abel, T., Guagnano, G. & Kalof, L. (1999). A value-belief-norm theory of support for social movements: The case of environmentalism. Human Ecology Review, 6(2), 81-97.

• Tam, K.-P. (2013). Concepts and measures related to connection to nature: Similarities and differences. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 34, 64-78.

• Whitmarsh, L., & O’Neill, S. (2010). Green identity, green living? The role of self-identity in determining consistency across-diverse pro-environmental behaviours. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 305-314.



Future thinking and environmental protection: A research agenda


Taciano L. Milfont Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand) taciano.milfont@vuw.ac.nz

We are experiencing unprecedented environmental issues. We need to achieve a more sustainable use of the limited natural resources in other to mitigate (and adapt to) these issues. Underlying mitigation and adaptation actions is a greater orientation towards the future. There are two main temporal dimensions related to this. First, there is a great temporal lapse between our actions and the environmental consequences of our actions. Second, it seems clear that individuals concerned about environmental sustainability are thinking about not only what is happening now but also considering the positive impact of their action into the future. My colleagues and I have developed an ongoing research program examining the extent to which psychological time, and in particular future thinking, is related to greater pro-environmental engagement and whether increasing future thinking can be used to increase pro-environmental engagement. I provide an overview of our work in the present piece. A theoretical discussion of temporal aspects in terms of psychological distance is presented elsewhere (Milfont, 2010), as is a more detailed discussion of the associations between future thinking and pro-environmental engagement (Milfont, & Demarque, 2015).

In our first study examining the extent to which future thinking is associated with environmental engagement, we examined an extended conceptualisation of social dilemmas (Milfont & Gouveia, 2006). Social dilemmas are situation in which individual interests and collective interests are at odds, which yields a social conflict. An extended conceptualisation also distinguishes a temporal conflict between short-term and long-term interests. Measuring human values to tap into the social conflict dimension, we confirmed past studies by showing that individuals reporting greater levels of endorsement of altruistic values (equality, social justice) have higher levels of pro-environmental engagement compared to those who report greater endorsement of egoistic values (power, influence). Extending past research and examining the expanded conceptualisation of social dilemmas, we also measure participants’ temporal orientation to tap into the temporal conflict dimension. We showed that futureoriented individuals demonstrated more pro-environmental engagement compared to present-oriented individuals, and that the influence of future orientation on pro-environmental engagement was reliable over and above the influence of altruistic values. We then conducted a meta-analytical summary of the empirical literature examining the relationship between future thinking and pro-environmental engagement (Milfont, Wilson, & Diniz, 2012). Our meta-analysis summary confirmed that future-oriented individuals are more environmentally conscious compared to present-oriented individuals. Having stablished the correlational association between temporal



orientations and pro-environmental engagement, we then tried to establish this association experimentally. If future thinking is indeed predictive of greater pro-environmental engagement, we should observe greater behavioural intentions to protect the environment for those experimentally induced to think about the future. This was exactly what we observed in a Canadian sample (Arnocky, Milfont, & Nicol, 2014, Study 2). Using a betweensubjects design and a priming paradigm, participants were randomly allocated to either read a scenario requesting them to think about their lives in four years from now (future condition) or to think about their current lives (present condition). Extending our correlational findings, we showed that participants induced with a future mind-set displayed greater behavioural intentions towards environmental conversation compared to participants induced with a present mind-set. We have replicated this experimental effect more recently with a New Zealand undergraduate sample (Watson, & Milfont, 2014). Again, participants in the future mind-set condition (M = 4.70, SD = 1.07) showed subsequent greater pro-environmental intentions than participants in the present mind-set condition (M = 4.12, SD = .75), t(49) = 2.24, r = .30, p = .030.

political party and support for climate change action was weaker for parents compared to non-parents. We then used Erikson’s theory of psychological development, and in particular the generativity versus stagnation stage, to propose the concept of environmental generativity. We argued that parents (as compared to non-parents) might feel more inclined to preserve the environment for their children, so that parenting may help prompt an environmental generativity. We tested whether generativity concern, accessed with the Loyola Generativity Scale, would predict pro-environmental engagement (Milfont & Sibley, 2011). We found that generativity concern predicted preservation attitudes and self-reported ecological behaviour even after controlling for socio-demographic variables (age and sex) and after controlling for future thinking and altruistic values. These findings suggest that the desire to leave a social legacy and provide positive guidance for others (indexed in our studies by parental status and generativity concern) is associated with environmental concerns. This motivation to leave a positive legacy is expanded to also leave a legacy regarding environmental protection, which we termed ‘environmental generativity’ (see also Zaval, Markowitz, & Weber, 2015).


We have extended the research on future thinking by considering parental status. To the extent that being a parent should lead to a greater future thinking as a result of greater consideration for the welfare and wellbeing of their offspring, parental status might influence environmentally related variables. In a general population sample in New Zealand, we found that parental status moderated the associations between climate change action and voting intentions to liberal/conservative political parties (Milfont, Harré, Sibley, & Duckitt, 2012). The positive association between support for a liberal political party and support for climate change action was stronger for parents compared to non-parents. Moreover, the negative association between support for a conservative



The present review has so far examined how individuals thinking about their future might motivate environment protection. Could individuals’ considerations about the future of their societies could also motivate environmental protection? This was the main question of our study published recently in Nature Climate Change (Bain et al., in press). We collected data from more than 6000 participants in 24 countries to examine whether individuals are more motivated to act if they believe mitigating climate change will promote a better society in the future. Using the ‘collective futures’ framework (Bain, Hornsey, Bongiorno, Kashima, & Crimston, 2013; Milfont, Bain, Souza, Gouveia, & Kashima, 2014),


we showed that emphasising the social benefits of acting on climate change, such as economic development and a more caring community, can motivate people to take action. CONCLUSION

Noam Chomsky (1970/1999) wrote that “Social action must be animated by a vision of a future society, and by

explicit judgements of value concerning the character of this future society” (p. 100). Our ongoing research program provides empirical support for this assertion. Social action directed to protecting natural resources is motivated by individuals’ considerations of the future consequences of their actions and projections about the future of their society.

References • Arnocky, S., Milfont, T. L., & Nicol, J. (2014). Time perspective and sustainable behaviour: Evidence for the distinction between consideration of immediate and future consequences. Environment and Behavior, 46, 556-582.

• Bain, P. G., Milfont, T. L., Kashima, Y., Bilewicz, M., Doron, G., Garðarsdóttir, R. B., Gouveia, V. V., Guan, Y., Johansson, L.-O., Pasquali, C., Corral-Verdugo, V., Aragones, J. I., Utsugi, A., Demarque, C., Otto, S., Park, J., Soland, M., Steg, L., González, R., Lebedeva, N., Madsen, O. J., Wagner, C., Akotia, C. S., Kurz, T., Saiz, J. L., Schultz, P. W., Einarsdóttir, G., & Saviolidis, N. M. (2015). Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world. Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2814

• Bain, P. G., Hornsey, M. J., Bongiorno, R., Kashima, Y., & Crimston, D. (2013). Collective futures: How projections about the future of society are related to actions and attitudes supporting social change. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 523-539. • Chomsky, N. (1970/1999). Language and freedom. Resonance, 4, 85-104.

• Milfont, T. L. (2010). Global warming, climate change and human psychology. In V. CorralVerdugo, C. H. García-Cadena, & M. Frías-Arment (Eds.). Psychological approaches to sustainability: Current trends in theory, research and practice (pp. 19-42). New York: Nova Science.

• Milfont, T. L., Bain, P. G., Souza, R. V. L., Gouveia, V. V., & Kashima, Y. (2014). Examining how projections about the future of society are related to present-day climate change action. Psico, 45, 361-370.

• Milfont, T. L., & Demarque, C. (2015). Understanding environmental issues with temporal lenses: Issues of temporality and individual differences. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine & W. van Beek (Eds.). Time perspective theory, research and application. Essays in honor of Philip Zimbardo (pp. 371-384). New York: Springer. • Milfont, T. L., & Gouveia, V. V. (2006). Time perspective and values: An exploratory study of their relations to environmental attitudes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26, 72-82.

• Milfont, T. L., Harré, N., Sibley, C. G., & Duckitt, J. (2012). The climate-change dilemma: Examining the association between parental status and political party support. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 2386-2410. • Milfont, T. L. & Sibley, C. G. (2011). Exploring the concept of environmental generativity. International Journal of Hispanic Psychology, 4, 21-30. • Milfont, T. L., Wilson, J., & Diniz, P. K. C. (2012). Time perspective and environmental engagement: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Psychology, 47, 325-334.

• Watson, S., & Milfont, T. L. (2014, August). Future thinking and pro-environmental engagement: An experimental study. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Time Perspective, Warsaw, Poland. • Zaval, L., Markowitz, E. M., & Weber, E. U. (2015). How will I be remembered? Conserving the environment for legacy’s sake. Psychological Science, 26, 231-236.



Reframing the relationship between stakeholders and scientists COPRODUCING KNOWLEDGE ON SUSTAINABLE LIVING WITH ACTIVISTS INVOLVED IN INITIATIVES ACROSS EUROPE Gary Polhill Information and Computational Sciences, The James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, UK. gary.polhill@hutton.ac.uk Vlad Pandur Department of Psychology, West University of Timisoara, Romania. vlad.pandur@e-uvt.ro Irina Macsinga Department of Psychology, West University of Timisoara, Romania. irina.macsinga@e-uvt.ro Adina Dumitru People-Environment Research Group, University of A Coruña, Spain. adina.dumitru@udc.es Ines Omann Department of Environmental Politics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany. ines.omann@ufz.de Moritz Kammerlander Sustainable Europe Research Institute, Vienna, Austria. moritz.kammerlander@seri.at

The GLAMURS project has been funded under the Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission to study transitions to sustainable lifestyles and a green economy in Europe. One of a number of projects looking at this question, GLAMURS is focusing on the prospects of learning from and more widely adopting grassroots initiatives aimed at starting or continuing a transition towards sustainable lifestyles. Central to its work are seven case studies across Europe covering a diverse range of activities: • organic food production and energy self-sufficiency initiatives in the Danube-Bohemian Forest on the borders among Austria, Germany and the Czech Republic; • Transition Town Halle in Central Germany; • agricultural production co-operatives in the Rome peri-urban area, Italy; • repair cafés and renewable energy initiatives in the Rotterdam-Delft-The Hague region, The Netherlands; • ecovillages and intentional communities in Banat-Timis, Romania; • food (consumer) co-operatives and environmental protection organisations in Galicia, Spain; • workplace change and flexible working in the Grampian region of Scotland. Sustainability is, of course, a heavily contested domain of discourse, both in terms of what it means, and in the degree to which considerations of it should inform our everyday lives. However, for ‘contested’, one could equally read ‘multidimensional’, and although the environmental dimension is most commonly associated with the concept, there are economic, social and individual angles too. All these have to be in place for a system to work: the failure to deliver any one dimension creates a motivation to change. From a (clinical) psychological perspective, it is



somewhat ironic that in supposedly creating lifestyles that are more convenient, incidence of depression is both growing and higher in wealthy industrialised countries, with poor diet, lack of physical exercise, lack of time outdoors, lack of sleep, and social isolation being possible explanations (see, e.g. Hidaka, 2012). With increasing inequality adversely affecting social sustainability (and, it is argued, e.g. by Stockhammer (2015), economic sustainability), it is difficult to understand why we are choosing to live lives that also harm ourselves and the environment. In a workshop with policymakers held by the GLAMURS project, one of the issues identified with the more widespread adoption of prosustainability attributes of lifestyles was the lack of knowledge networks allowing the exchange of ideas, experiences and access to support. In the GLAMURS project, we wanted to do something to address the lack of knowledge networks, and set ourselves the challenge of hosting a case study exchange among these seven case studies, with the joint purpose of addressing research questions and providing an opportunity for case study participants to meet with and learn from each other. One of the research questions we were interested in was how the stakeholders experienced their interaction with science, specifically with respect to their reflections on being the case study of a large European research project, how science could be more useful and relevant to their initiatives, and their impression of science and scientists more generally. Perhaps more than the other social sciences, psychology creates the perception that those being studied are passive experimental ‘subjects’ about which the learned professor will find something interesting to communicate to his (sic) fellows. Snobbery about ‘folk psychology’ suggests that individuals have little ability to understand and theorise about themselves. Indeed, the fact that researchers in projects such as GLAMURS do not necessarily themselves make efforts to be more sustainable, either in their personal

Figure 1. Map showing locations of case studies in the GLAMURS project.

Figure 2. Some of the sessions in the case study exchange meeting used open-air facilities provided by Stanciova, one of the ecovillages in the GLAMURS project.

lives or in their careers (international projects, and disseminating their findings at conferences, typically entail a significant amount of travel), lends further weight to this perception in a project focused on sustainability. Participation in sustainable initiatives is then almost like some other ‘disorder’ of academic interest to the discipline: what makes these ‘funny’ people behave in this ‘strange’ way? Since Gibbons et al. (1994) coined the term ‘Mode 2’ research to describe multidisciplinary problemoriented ways of working and thinking in academia, scientists have been trying to find ways of transcending disciplinary boundaries, and even the so-called ‘ivory tower’ itself in transdisciplinary research (see, for IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015

example, Lawrence and Desprès’s (2004) special issue of Futures) when addressing research questions that are not studied purely for their own interest. Despite a large number of research projects adopting transdisciplinary and Mode 2 research principles, these have yet to permeate the popular perception of science and scientists, which still exists on a spectrum between Shelley’s Victor Frankenstein and Hergé’s Cuthbert Calculus. Exercises such as the case study exchange therefore have a potentially important role to play in research projects in breaking the barriers between scientists and the people they are studying. The case study exchange in the GLAMURS project took place over a


Figure 3. Graphic recording was used to capture the essence of this and other discussions in the exchange.

few days in Romania in mid-June 2015, and involved a mixture of formal and informal activities aimed at breaking down social, cultural and linguistic barriers to interaction, as well as addressing the research questions of the exercise. Due to the nature of the initiatives, many of them have expertise in working with people and designing workshops. It is also consistent with transdisciplinary principles that the agenda was not controlled entirely by the research team. Activities were therefore designed and participated in both by the case study representatives and by the project researchers. One of the more imaginative activities involved participants each individually choosing a sound to express their desire for a more sustainable life, which then had to be developed from a cacophony into a song. One of the sessions in the exchange was dedicated to the relationship the case study participants had had with the researchers in GLAMURS, and how more generally the relationship between scientists and stakeholders could be improved. This session used ‘World Café Rules’, in which people are encouraged to focus on what is important to them, share their own opinion, and ‘emphatically as well as actively’ listen to others by trying to understand what they are saying. The results of this session were interesting, and contain important

lessons for scientists. Noting the ‘publish or perish’ cliché of the scientific career, the outputs of scientific research are chiefly in literature that stakeholders find inaccessible both because of financial and institutional barriers to the journals themselves, and because language in the articles is aimed at a specialist audience. Hence, scientists are perceived as being too theoretical, and serving their own interests rather than those of the community. Consequently, members of the public interested in research are unclear how to put its findings into practice. The perception of scientists that they think they have a monopoly on the truth, raised in the session, arguably stifles debate and constrains interaction with stakeholders, It can mean they are reluctant to speak or express themselves for fear of finding their observations disregarded or even derided because they are not consistent with fashionable scientific opinion. This matter is related to scientists being seen as failing to recognise subjectivity and lacking emotion: we “interpret reality only with the brain and less with the heart,” as one participant observed on a post-it note. There is then a gap between scientists and, as phrased in the meeting, “common people.” This gap is not necessarily narrowed through the interactions IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015

between scientists and case study participants in research projects. Rather, to the extent that stakeholders are made to feel that they are subjects of study, they are dehumanised as second-class participants in the work, and suspicious about the aims of the scientists. In a reflection day at the end of the exchange, some solutions were proposed. The most radical of these were around funding, with ideas to move to crowd-sourced funding models for science, or even (with specific attention to researching transitions to sustainable lifestyles) to give the money to initiatives and have them contract the scientists to do the research they need. Classical contracting systems for research projects do indeed provide little flexibility for true transdisciplinary research. Deliverables and tasks, planned at the time the proposal was written, are difficult to change in the light of interaction with stakeholders. Some of the researchers in GLAMURS who spoke to their case study representatives after the meeting reported that the representatives were surprised to learn how constrained scientists were; how little freedom scientists have in comparison with the representatives’ preconceptions. Given the contracting mode for GLAMURS, this realisation by some of the stakeholders is a considerable benefit of the workshop. Traditional modes of interaction with the subjects of study make only a limited provision for change: it is only the scientific knowledge of the researchers and their audience in the research community that is affected. With increasing focus by funding bodies on the impacts and outcomes of research, it is clear both that the traditional approach to engagement with stakeholders will not deliver what is expected, and that models of contracting research need to change. Indeed, Lang et al.’s (2012) review of transdisciplinary research practice in sustainability science concludes that the changes in academic institutionalisation will need to be broader than that, if it is to realise its ambitions. Some solutions proposed during the reflection day arguably push the scientific community too far. Accepting alternative (non-scientific) knowledge is particularly difficult if that knowledge challenges scientific ways


Figure 4. A group photo of the participants in the case study exchange meeting.

of knowing, even if scientific advances often begin from commonsense observations of reality. Intuition, visions, faith and feelings are not authorities a scientific mind can readily accept at face value, but are often the ways of knowing that start the kind of transformative community activity on which GLAMURS is founded. Inevitably, scholars have speculated about ‘Mode 3’ research as the next step from Gibbons et al.’s (1994) Mode 2. Barnett (2004) focuses on knowing in the context of uncertainty and complexity, and is sceptical that the problemfocused approach of Mode 2 can devise solutions that are sustainable in the sense of avoiding unintended consequences. Huff and Huff’s (2001) model of Mode 3 research is community-driven, and is concerned more generally with the human condition. They contrast “multiple modes of knowing” in Mode 3 with the disciplinary and transdisciplinary proprietary approaches of Modes 1 and 2. This leaves open the door for emotions and intuitions to play a role in whatever remains of science.

Other solutions are, to some extent, already being addressed by the scientific community. Although viable institutional frameworks to manage it have yet to be fully established, there is a growing interest in open access publishing, which at least breaks down institutional barriers to accessing scientific literature. Furthermore, there is increasing encouragement for scientists to engage in other media for dissemination, such as the social web. Blogs and video diaries also offer an opportunity not available in academic journals for scientists to write and talk about their feelings as well as their findings. Although work may be needed to counter the perception of narcissism sometimes associated with such activities before they are more widely adopted, one suggestion from the reflection day was that the participants were interested in viewing scientists as ‘storytellers,’ transforming the academic discourse into a story to share with the community. Blogs and videos are perfect media for this form of dissemination. In the meantime, transdisciplinary and action research concepts are developing new ways for scientists to work with stakeholders, aimed at breaching the

barriers between them, and enabling links between research and practice. ‘Publish or perish’ summarises everything that is wrong with the scientific contribution to living more sustainably. Papers written in technical language to specialist audiences in academic journals are not going to save the world and its inhabitants from the short- or long-term effects of harmful lifestyles. Neither are the solutions to this pressing challenge going to be something that scientists devise and then prescribe to the wider community. Rather, discovering how different individuals and communities in different places can live sustainably needs to be something we all do together. Acknowledgements: The work described here was funded by the European Commission’s Framework Programme 7, under Theme SSH.2013.2.1-1, grant agreement number 613420 (GLAMURS). We are grateful to Wouter Spekkink for helpful comments on an earlier draft, and to Adrian Popa, the graphic facilitator at the meeting. Photographs are by Moritz Kammerlander.

References • Barnett, R. (2004) Learning for an unknown future. Higher Education Research & Development, 23 (3): 247-260.

• Lang, D. J., Wiek, A., Bergmann, M., Stauffacher, M., Martens, P., Moll, P., Swilling, M. and Thomas, C. J. (2012) Transdisciplinary research in sustainability science: practice, principles, and challenges. Sustain Sci, 7 (Supplement 1): 25-43.

• Hidaka, B. H. (2012) Depression as a disease of modernity: explanations for increasing prevalence. J Affect Disord, 140 (3): 205-214.

• Stockhammer, E. (2015) Rising inequality as a cause of the present crisis. Camb J Econ, 39 (3): 935-958.

• Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P. and Trow, M. (1994) The new production of knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. London: Sage. • Huff, A. S. and Huff, J. O. (2001) Re-focusing the business school agenda. British Journal of Manegement, 12: S49-S54.

• Lawrence, R. J. and Desprès, C. (2004) Futures of transdisciplinarity. Futures, 36 (4): 397-405.



Blue and pink in the academia?


Beatriz Cortés Department of Psychology, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) Beatriz.Cortes@uclm.es

Verónica Sevillano Department of Social Psychology and Methodology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain) veronica.sevillano@uam.es

Author Note: Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Beatriz Cortés, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha (Spain). Email: Beatriz.Cortes@uclm.es Our thanks to the IAPS members who participated in this study

On June 9th 2015, Sir Tim Hunt, a scientist and Nobel Prize winner, sparked off criticism when he said - at the World Conference of Science Journalists in Korea - that women in laboratories “fall in love with you and when you criticize them, they cry” (MacLellan, 2015). The Royal Society distanced itself immediately from these comments. Also, the University College London (UCL, 10th June 2015) reasserted its institutional commitment to gender equality and confirmed, in a brief statement, that Sir Hunt had resigned from his position as Honorary Professor. The scandal triggered on social media by those controversial remarks may be considered by some people as a sign of contemporary sensitivity and concern for gender mainstreaming or gender equality in research careers. Nonetheless, if we look at the history of science, we can observe that feminist approaches focus our attention on the longstanding invisibility of female scientists (Beltrán, Maquieira, Álvarez, & Sánchez, 2008; González-García, & Pérez-Sedeño, 2002; Oreskes, 1996) which some attribute (Dio Bleichmar, 2006) to a culturally constructed oblivion. Although gender has for decades been a prominent concept in social sciences, the myth of the absence of female pioneers in the history of academic psychology has only recently been discredited (García-Dauder, 2005). Moreover, in this domain, and



considering the increasing presence of women in scientific endeavour, a gap still exists in comparison with men in terms of productivity and eminence (QuiñonesVidal, López-García, Peñaranda-Ortega, & Tortosa-Gil. 2004; Diener, Oishi, & Park, 2014); a gap which offers evidence of the pervasiveness of subtle bias (Cikara, Rudman, & Fiske, 2012). Can we suspect that there is a similar pattern of findings concerning the visibility of women in the realm of people-environmental studies (PES)? Should we steal a glance at the field through a gender lens? The purpose of this paper is to explore possible disparities between sexes in the academic perception of scientific contributions to environmental psychology and peopleenvironmental studies. Therefore, so as to identify gender bias in the social perception of PES as a scientific discipline, an on-line survey in three languages (Spanish, English and Portuguese) was distributed through 7 professional and academic mailing lists: APA Div.34 (N = 25; 5.14% out of the total number of list members), Conservation Psychology (N = 22; 2.83%), Environmental Psychology (N = 20; 4.77%), IAPS (N = 40; 5.55%), EDRA (N = 10; 2.06%), PSICAMB (N = 12; 20.34%) and REPALA (N = 13; 5.58%)1. One-hundred and forty two participants (56% women; 69% teaching PES; M age 46 years (SD = 14.8) completed the survey. Questions included were, among others: a) founders of PES, b) most important authors, c) oversights of women authors, and d) gender equality perceptions in the discipline. Preliminary results reveal a coherent pattern as we review.

• Although both genders believe that they have mentioned more women than they actually have, among those who mentioned female researchers, 66% were women. DYADIC VISIBILITY OF CO-AUTHORS

Only 21% of the participants mentioned women as authors.


• Linda Steg is the most mentioned author and she is linked to the topic that is now considered to be the most important in the field (Giuliani & Scopelliti 2009): environmental behavior and sustainability (see Table 1). PERCEPTION OF IMBALANCE IN THE RECOGNITION OF WOMEN’S SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO PES

• Both gender-participants perceive that the contributions of womenauthors are less represented in the history of the discipline in their respective countries and also in the international arena. Nonetheless, this perception is more prominent in women-participants (see Figure 1).


• Only 21% of the participants mentioned women as authors. • Additionally, among the 42 authors who received at least 5 mentions, 23.8% were women. • Faced with the question Have you included any woman among the authors’ names cited so far? 76.2% of women participants state that they have, vs. 58.3% of men (χ2= 6.6, Phi = .21, p = .037).

• The prominent visibility of Rachel and Stephen Kaplan, both as pioneers and relevant authors, suggests the existence of a dyadic visibility bias, that is, an increase in the visibility of authors as a couple2 (Cortés & Sevillano, 2014). • Looking at all the different names cited (N = 341), there are two additional dyadic references only mentioned once: on the one hand, Mª Carmen Hidalgo and Bernardo Hernández; on the other hand, Suzanne C. Gagnon Thompson and Michelle A. Barton. Taking into account that articles associated with these researchers are extremely popular3, the fact that both these co-authors are only mentioned once confirms the hypothesis of the low visibility of female authors.



• Faced with the explicit demand of mentioning female authors, among the people who recognize their previous omission (N = 43), only 65% (N = 28) add an answer.



% (N)

Linda Steg

19.9 (28)

Wesley Schultz Terry Hartig

Roger Ulrich

Robert Gifford

Stephen Kaplan Kevin Lynch

Paul C. Stern

19.1 (27) 19.1 (27) 17.7 (25) 16.3 (23) 15.6 (22) 15.6 (22)

Kaplan & Kaplan

15.6 (22)

Gary Evans

12.8 (18)

Irwin Altman

Harold Proshansky Florian Kaiser

14.2 (20) 12.1 (17) 11.3 (16)

Rachel Kaplan

11.3 (16)

Daniel Stokols

9.9 (14)

Roger Barker

James Gibson

11.3 (16) 9.2 (13) 9.2 (13)

Table 1. Most mentioned authors in Person-Environment Studies.

Figure 1. Imbalance in the recognition of women’s scientific contributions to Person-Environment Studies at local (right) and global levels (left).

• As a result, Rachel Kaplan, Linda Steg and Mirilia Bonnes received 5 more mentions; Setha Low 3 more; María Amérigo, Arza Churchman, Lenelis Kruse and Esther Wiesenfeld emerged from oblivion (2 mentions), and the 45 remaining women authors received one mention only.

Examining this portrait in which women are considerably less mentioned demands future research. However, considering that participants in the study perceived an absence of gender parity in the reporting of disciplinary developments, it can

be asserted that the opportunity for change exists. Therefore, we hope that the initial concern of feminism to integrate women in all fields of science may be refreshed in PES with our collective commitment to the transformation of education, practice and research. The Special Issue of Psyecology devoted to gender and environment may be considered an invitation to develop sensitivity to the gender perspective, overcome gender blindness and reduce the gender gap (Cortés, 2014). Could we refresh Arza Churchman and Irving Altman’s pioneer intellectual lineage IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015

with regard to women-environment relationships? Could we bring hidden values to light and transform micro social processes that build, consolidate or legitimize inequalities, taking into account “that the practical problems of everyday life are, in fact, issues that simultaneously and intrinsically involve men, women and children, not women alone”? (Churchman & Altman, 1994; p. 11). The effort of overcoming androcentricity in the actual realm of scientific practice demands the rewriting of history in order to recover forgotten women or typically female


traditions that, despite having made outstanding contributions, have been muted by an official history which overhauls disciplines on the names of a few major characters, theories or successful practices, yet forces others aside (González-García & PérezSedeño, 2002).

The conceptualization of history and the environment, both as products of multiple social constructions, can be traced in people-environmental studies and environmental psychology to the influential role of Carl Graumann, and also to Lenelis Kruse. If “underlying that social construction

is a communication process that may be part of the problem as well as the solution” (Uzzel, 2008), we can surmount the so called constructed oblivion by promoting gender equality in academic careers, and also by including the gender dimension into all phases of basic and applied research.

Footnotes 1

APA Div. 34: American Psychological Association´s division dedicated to Environmental, Population and Conservation Psychology; Conservation Psychology Listserv: Email list located at Colorado College; Environmental Psychology mailing list: Division of the German Association of Psychology (Fachgruppe Umweltpsychologie); IAPS: International Association for People-Environmental Studies; EDRA: Environmental Design Research Association; PSICAMB: Asociación de Psicología Ambiental (Environmental Psychology Association) and REPALA: Red de Psicología Ambiental Latinoamericana (LatinAmerican Environmental Psychology Network).



Dio Bleichman (2006) posits that scientific couples constitute a special case that may trigger both advantages and disadvantages to women (among the latter, the risk of not being recognized without their partner).

Hidalgo & Hernández (2001) is one of the ten “citation classics” from the Journal of Environmental Psychology (Milfont & Page, 2013), and Thompson and Barton (1994) are the authors of a highly quoted article regarding environmental motives.


• Beltrán, E., Maquieira, V., Álvarez, S., & Sánchez, C. (Eds.) (2008). Feminismos. Debates teóricos contemporáneos [Feminisms. Contemporary theoretical debates] (2nd edition). Madrid: Alianza.

• Churchman, A., & Altman, I. (1994). Women and the environment: A perspective on research, design, and policy. In I. Altman & A. Churchman (Eds.), Women and the Environment (pp. 1-15). New York: Plenum Press.

• Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a thousand cuts? Accounting for gender differences in top-ranked publication rates in social psychology. Journal of Social Issues, 68, 263–285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560 2012.01748.x.

• Cortés, B. (2014). Gender and environment. Introduction to the special issue. Psyecology: Bilingual Journal of Environmental Psychology, 5, 125-136. doi:10.1080/21711976.2014 .942510. • Cortés, B., & Sevillano, V. (November, 2014). Percepción social de la psicología ambiental. Olvidos y ausencias desde una perspectiva de género [Social perception of environmental psychology. Oversights and absences from a gender perspective]. I Conference of the Spanish Scientific Society of Social Psychology (XII National Congress of Social Psychology), Seville, Spain. doi:10.13140/2.1.2211.6168. • Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Park, J. (2014). An incomplete list of eminent psychologists of the modern era. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 2, 1, 20-31 doi:10.1037/arc0000006

• Dio Bleichmar, E. (2006). ¿Todas Madame Curie? Subjetividad e identidad de las científicas y tecnólogas [Are all Madame Curie? Subjectivity and identity of women scientists and technologists]. Aperturas Psicoanalíticas, 24. Retrieved from http://www. aperturas.org/articulos.php?id=0000419&a=Todas-Madame-Curie-Subjetividad-eidentidad-de-las-cientificas-y-tecnologas • García-Dauder, S. (2005). Psicología y feminismo. Historia olvidada de mujeres pioneras en psicología [Psychology and feminism. Forgotten history of female pioneers in psychology]. Madrid: Narcea. • Giuliani, M.V. & Scopelliti, M. (2009). Empirical research in environmental psychology. Past, present, and future. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 375-386. Doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.11.008.

• González-García, M. I., & Pérez-Sedeño, E. (2002). Ciencia, tecnología y género [Science, technology and gender]. CTS+I Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencia, Tecnología, Sociedad e Información, 2. Retrieved from http://www.campus-oei.org/revistactsi/numero2/ varios2.htm • Hidalgo, M. C., & Hernández, B. (2001). Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 273-281. doi:10.1006/ jevp.2001.0221.

• MacLellan, K. (June 11th 2015). British Nobel laureate quits job after “trouble with girls” remark. Retrieved from: http//www.euronews.com/newswires/3024205-british-nobellaureate-quits-job-after-trouble-with-girls-remark/ • Milfont, T. L., & Page, E. (2013). A bibliometric review of the first thirty years of the Journal of Environmental Psychology. Psyecology, 4, 195-216. doi:10.1174/217119713806144366.

• Oreskes, N. (1996). Objectivity or heroism? On the invisibility of women in science. Osiris, 11, 87-113. • Quiñones-Vidal, E., López-García, J. J., Peñaranda-Ortega, M., & Tortosa-Gil. F. (2004). The nature of social and personality psychology as reflected in JPSP, 1965-2000. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 435–452. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.86.3.435435.

• Thompson, S. C. G., & Barton, M. (1994). Ecocentric and anthropocentric attitudes toward the environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 14, 149-157. doi: 10.1016/S02724944(05)80168-9 • UCL News (June 10th 2015). Sir Tim Hunt FRS and UCL. Retrieved from http://www.ucl. ac.uk/news/news-articles/0615/100615-tim-hunt • Uzzell, D. (2008). The “ecologization” of psychology: Carl Graumann as an influential figure in environmental psychology, Invited paper to the 2008 IAPS Conference: Urban diversities, biosphere and well-being. Rome.



Does neighbourhood attachment mean to care for and to maintain it?

M. Carmen Hidalgo Dpto. Psicología Social, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Málaga, Spain mchidalgo@uma.es

Bernardo Hernández Ruiz Dpto. Psicología Cognitiva y Organizacional, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain bhdezr@ull.es

Pilar Moreno Dpto. Psicología Social, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Málaga, Spain mpilar@uma.es

Research on place attachment has revealed how a major number of people develop strong affective bonds towards the environment in which they interact in their everyday life, especially the residential environment, and how these affective bonds play an important role in their lives in a manner that they affect many of their behaviours and future decisions. Between these consequent variables, the impact

of place attachment on attitudes such as public acceptance of policy measures or behaviours such as mobility, community participation or pro-environmental behaviour have been studied. In relation to pro-environmental behaviour, we can find several studies that support the notion that place attachment has a positive effect both on environmental attitudes and behaviours. As Carrus, Scopelliti, Fornara, Bonnes and Bonaiuto (2014) sustain in their revision, there are different reasons, theoretical and empirical, for expecting such a positive relationship. Thus, following the theory of attachment (e.g., Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1965), the mother–child bond will drive positive behaviours across the lifespan. Similarly, we should assume that positive affective bonds with one’s place should be associated with behaviours to protect that place. Additionally, Manzo and Perkins (2006), integrating the environmental and community psychology literature conclude that “affective bonds to places can help inspire action because people are motivated to seek, stay in, protect, and improve places that are meaningful to them” (p. 347). The same conception is present in a theoretical model of place attachment by Scannel and Gifford (2010a). The authors suggest that the behavioural component of place attachment can take the form of place-protective behaviours at the specific civic level. Many other authors suggest that individuals with high place attachment may be more likely to behave in an environmentally responsible manner in general (Hines et al., 1987; Relph, 1976; Tuan, 1974). Several empirical studies have supported this theory. Vaske and Kobrin (2001), through structural equation models found that place attachment to a natural place is positively associated with environmentally responsible behaviour in that place. In the same line, Halppeny (2010) found that place attachment have strong relationships with place-specific pro-



environment intentions of a natural park visitors. Also, a study by Carrus, Bonaiuto and Bonnes (2005) showed that feelings of regional pride were positively associated with residents’ willingness to support the institution of two protected areas in Italy. However, as stated by Felippe and Kuhnen (2012), literature on this subject has been considerably more dedicated to preservation of the natural environment than to maintenance of the built environment. In order to break this trend, these authors have carried out a study at the school environment. Results show positive and statistically significant interrelationships between place attachment and maintenance levels of different school areas, although the nature of the study and the shortage of additional confirming information do not allow to validate these results. Moreover, there are few studies analysing the effect that neighbourhood attachment may have on maintenance and preservation behaviour in relation to this neighbourhood. Are neighbours with a major neighbourhood attachment more careful with their environment? Do they care for and protect the environment to a greater extent than those who do not feel attachment for their place of residence?

Uzell, Pol & Badenas (2002) found a negative relationship between place identity and pro-environmental behaviour in a good environmental quality neighbourhood. Scannell and Gifford (2010b) show an effect of attachment to natural environments, but no effect of attachment to one’s city on pro-environmental behaviours. Nevertheless, on these studies proenvironmental behaviours are assessed concerning natural environments or natural resources such as water and energy preservation. On the contrary, behaviours directly related to care and maintenance of city environments have not been assessed. Therefore, we intend to analyse along this study, the relationship between neighbourhood attachment and caring and protective behaviours of this space. Bearing in mind the theory revision which has been carried out and the studies analysing these variables in natural environments, we can expect a positive relationship. However, the very few studies carried out in city environments show doubts on this relationship. This research is a part of a major study which intends to identify those physical and psychosocial characteristics of the residential environment linked to the maintenance of public spaces.



Participants Within this study, a total of 277 surveys have been completed by residents in four neighbourhoods in Málaga capital city showing different socio-economic characteristics: Teatinos (middle-high class), Nueva Málaga (middle class), Huelin (middle-lower class) and Las Cuevas (lower class). Women represent 51.9% (149 out of 277) and men represent 48.1% (138), the average age of the participants being 38 years old (SD=14.78). Participants identify themselves with a lower social class (9.9%), middle-lower class (28.4%), middle class (53.2%), middle-high class (8.2%) and high class (0.4%).

Instruments The survey was made up by these variables: 1. Neighbourhood attachment and identity: The scale by Hernández, Hidalgo, Salazar and Hess (2007) was implemented. 2. Individual maintenance behaviours in the neighbourhood. Following our own scale based in the Maintenance/ care subscale by Bonaiuto, Aiello, Perugini, Bonnes and Ercolani (1999). It is made up of 11 items in which every participant behaviour


Attachment Identity


Individual maintenance

Neighbours maintenance

Neighbourhood maintenance

Support measures







Individual maintenance




Neighbours maintenance Neighbourhood maintenance





0.17** 0.12*

Table 1: Pearson interrelationships.

in maintaining the environment is assessed; e.g. throwing papers or butts on the floor, respecting green areas or street furniture, etc. 3. Perception of maintenance by other neighbours. Following our own scale made up by 11 items in which the same patterns as in the previous scale are assessed but in relation to the neighbours behaviours. 4. Perception of neighbourhood level of maintenance. Following our own scale made up by 13 items in which it is assessed participants’ perception of the preservation and maintenance conditions of the neighbourhood; e.g. the neighbourhood is properly maintained / preserved.

G. Support to improving measures. Following our own scale made up by 4 items in which it is assessed the support given by residents to pre-emptive measures; e.g. implementing awareness and sensitivity campaigns, or punitive measures for acts of vandalism in the neighbourhood; e.g. fines for throwing rubbish on the street. RESULTS

In the first place, internal consistency of implemented scales is presented. Cronbach’s alpha values are high in

the neighbourhood attachment scale (0.91), identity (0.86), maintenance by neighbours (0.86) and perception of maintenance (0.77), the lowest value being the one for the individual maintenance scale (0.67). The interrelationships amongst variables are found below. As indicated, neighbourhood attachment shows a positive and significant interrelationship with identity with the neighbourhood (r= 0.75), with perception of neighbours behaviour (r= 0.32) and with the preservation conditions of the neighbourhood (r= 0.28). However, this is not the case for the individual behaviour or the support to improving measures. Finally, a stepwise regression analysis was carried out in which the individual maintenance was selected as the variable criterion. Neighbourhood attachment and identity with the neighbourhood variables were not significant, in this case, the variables within the stepwise regression were the perception of neighbours behaviour, the social class and the support to improving measures, providing explanation in total for 20% of the variance.


As stated above, the relationship between neighbourhood attachment and pro-environmental behaviour has mainly been analysed in relation to natural environments focusing in care and maintenance behaviour of these sites, but not in the case of residential city environments. The analysis of different theories such as the attachment theory (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1965) or the place attachment model (Scannell & Gifford, 2010) concludes that a positive relationship between these variables is to be expected, as well as other results arising from different empirical studies (Felippe and Kuhnen, 2012, Halpenny, 2006; Walker and Ryan, 2008). The results arising from this study show that attachment and identity with the neighbourhood do not have a significant relationship with behaviour of maintenance and preservation of the neighbourhood. This variable is due at a 20% to the perception of neighbours’ behaviour, the self-identified social class and the support to improving measures. Thus, the expected relationship between neighbourhood attachment and pro-environmental behaviour (neighbourhood maintenance) is not confirmed by this study. It has been


Adjusted R


Support to measures




Social class




Neighbours maintenance




Table 2: Stepwise regression.



stated how the results of some previous studies in city environments revealed doubts over this relationship. On the other hand, this lack of relationship between both variables may be understood if some studies results are considered. These results would prove that residents in neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic level (in worse preservation conditions), state a high attachment level, in many cases, at a greater extent than those stated in neighbourhoods with better physical characteristics, even though this fact is not linked with a better maintenance of the neighbourhood. Moreover, it is interesting to notice how the behaviour of the neighbourhood maintenance may

be foreseen from variables such as support to educational and punitive measures, on the one hand, and variables of social nature such as the socioeconomic class and the behaviour of neighbours, on the other hand. These results seem to point out the significance of social standards in the neighbourhood itself and the culture of maintenance by neighbours they live with. Nevertheless, new studies are necessary in order to validate these results. These studies would include the analysed variables in this study and objectives measures assessing the level of maintenance in the neighbourhood, thus allowing to monitor the analysed variables. It would also be necessary

to contrast the theory and the results arising of this study with those supporting an opposed relationship. That is to say, that the place attachment is determined by neighbourhood characteristics such as the level of maintenance of the environment, community participation or perception of danger (Vidal, Berroeta, De Masso, Valera y Peró 2013; Tabernero, Martín, Valera y Vidal, 2013). Acknowledgements This article was completed while the authors were members of the research team funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness with the grant PSI2012-37527.

References • Ainsworth, M. & Bowlby, J. (1965). Child care and the growth of love, London: Penguin Books.

• Bonaiuto, M., Aiello, A., Perugini, M., Bonnes, M., & Ercolani, A. P. (1999). Multidimensional perception of residential environment quality and neigh- bourhood attachment in the urban environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 331–352. • Brown, B.B, Perkins, D.D. & Brown, G. (2004). Incivilities, place attachment and crime: Block and individual effects. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24 (3), 359-371.

• Carrus, G., Scopelliti, M., Fornara, F., Bonnes, M. and Bonaiuto, M. (2014). Place Attachment, Community Identification, and Pro-Environmental Engagement. In L. C. Manzo and P. Devine-Wright: Place attachment. Advances in Theory, Methods and Applications. London: Routledge.

• Carrus, G., Bonaiuto, M., & Bonnes, M. (2005). Environmental concern, regional identity and support for protected areas in Italy. Environment and Behavior, 37, 237–257.

• Felippe, M. & Kuhnen, A. (2012). Environmental care and place attachment: Perspectives for sustainability in schools. Psyecology, 3 (2), 145-156. • Halpenny, E. A. (2010). Pro-environmental behaviours and park visitors: The effect of place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 409–421.

• Hines, J. M., Hungerford, H. R., & Tomera, A. N. (1987). Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: A meta- analysis. The Journal of Environmental Education, 18(2), 1−8. • Hernández, B., Hidalgo, M. C., Salazar-Laplace, M. E., & Hess, S. (2007). Place attachment and place identity in natives and non-natives. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 310-319.

• Manzo, L. C., & Perkins, D. D. (2006). Finding common ground: The importance of place attachment to community participation and planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 20, 335–350.

• Relph, E. (1976). Place and placelessness. London: Pion.

• Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010a). Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 1–10.

• Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010b). The relations between natural and civic place attachment and pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 289–297.

• Tabernero, C., Martín, A., Valera, S., & Vidal, T. (2013). Influence of environmental perception of the neighbourhood on place attachment: The impact of the physical care of the neighbourhood. Estudios de Psicología, 34(3), 299-307. • Tuan, Y. F. (1977). Space and place: The perspective of experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. • Uzzell, D., Pol, E., & Badenas, D. (2002). Place identification, social cohesion, and environmental sustainability. Environment and Behavior, 34, 26–53.

• Vaske, J. J., & Kobrin, K. C. (2001). Place attachment and environmentally respon- sible behavior. Journal of Environmental Education, 32, 16–21.

• Vidal, T., Berroeta, H., de Masso, A., Valera, S., & Peró, M. (2013). Apego al lugar, identidad de lugar, sentido de comunidad y participación en un contexto de renovación urbana. Estudios de Psicología, 34 (3), 275-286). • Walker, A.J. & Ryan, R.L. (2008). Place attachment and landscape preservation in rural New England: A Maine case study. Landscape and Urban Planning, 86 (2), 141-152.



Technology and innovation in adapting architectonic tradition aiming for a sustainable future in the middle east

Isra’a S.Fardous Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and Built Environment Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland i.s.a.k.fardous@rgu.ac.uk

Amar Bennadji Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and Built Environment Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland a.bennadji@rgu.ac.uk

impact on the society and the individual, attributing to their development form an essential relationship. Another trigger is how traditional features of buildings adapted to technology, can be described as better living standards in indoor environments. Aforementioned collaboration will require a consideration of functional parameters. The research will accumulate daylighting performance in relation to ATA through the level of comfort, privacy, and technology. Bennadji (2003), implies that the effect of the amount of daylight on sociocultural needs of the habitant is worth noting. This exploration will emphasis the consideration of occupants and their social needs, and human emotions; Alkahlidi (2012), states that traditional architecture in the Arab World represents a living witness for the perseverance of this architecture to the local environment.


With relation to the communities’ shift in the ME from being mainly concerned of adapting and maintaining quality of life correlated with ATA, towards global trends adaptation, the presence of ATA has been a significant feature in private and public buildings. This investigation will highlight the socio-psychological, physical and behavioral effects that have emerged as builders seek to better contemporary living standards. The indicated paradigm will impact the well-being of individuals, while they remain attached to their culture. In Dr. Gerda’s Thesis (2000), she stated that a place attachment is a valuable element that has an

1. Objectives The research is aimed to assess different buildings that either dealt or neglected traditional features and their adaptation to technology and innovation as well as its psychological response with emphasis on the environmental aspect. The second aim is to demonstrate the legitimate use of Arabic traditional architectonic features in the ME. Arabic is defined for its particular identification and geographical orientation of the study. The third aim is to measure environmental data related to daylighting performance, over daylight parameter in different building typologies. Taib and Rasdi (2012)



denoted out that using technology in buildings has to respect their relation to a particular context, together with attain what the occupants desire. This will establish the impact of the adoption of ATA adapted to modern technology.

2. Research Exploration This research attempts to contribute to the environmental design to improve human well-being. For that, it will investigate the extent to which ATA with modern adaptation causes an alteration for the purpose of well-being for present and future generations. This understanding will highlight the factors confining community acceptance, adoption and adaption to involving traditional features and technology, and how far will it influence their level of comfort. It also aims at defining an important design parameter relevant to the location of the study, which is daylight for visual impact. The idea is to measure how much does it have an influence on wellbeing? Also, what cultural influence can the technology bring to the community? METHOD

1. Research Method The paper is concerned with the study of Human-Environment interactions in relation to ATA, with an integration of cross-discipline methods. Moreover, this will address the frame-work of the research, with an explanation of the ATA as a primary factor, in facilitating better psychosocial and cultural influences. It also aims at identifying the capability of technological

Figure 2: ATA shifting Community.

Figure 1: Contemporary Musharrabia hall, By Author.

Figure 3: Three pillars toward human comfort.



adaptation. The chosen methodology is scientific, objective, and experimental. However, to employ a hybrid approach, data should bring the set of findings together for the complete research progress, Bryman, (2007).

2. Methodology Development Layer 1- First layer will form the structure and theory of the research. Layer 2- Second layer will implement a structured and semi structured questionnaire. For the present paper, we will only cover the pilot study, an observational arrangement with 35 students participating in a class assignment. This will build the main survey, considering the perspective of the experts in the design field and a selected sample from the general public was taken into account. This phase will verify the level of acceptance and realization of cultural adaptation with technology for well-been. Layer 3- the researcher will measure and monitor indoor environmental quality, through the building performance in particular “daylighting performance�, on the typology of three different spaces in term of the use of traditional features traditional, transitional, and modern building, through case-study analysis. This will be completed with particular attention to the sustainable hybrid communities. The layers of the project will be correlated in order to conduct a set of studies and experimental study using the space as a unit of analysis. This correlation will narrow down the intersected findings of the divergent themes into guidelines upon the traditional architectonic features for sustainable environment. The significant issue in the utilization of blended methods is that the results cannot be just regarded as purely quantitative and qualitative arrangements, and rather need extensive analysis, Bryman (2007).

Figure 4-a: traditional building.

Figure 4-b: modern building.


Figure 4-c: contemporary traditional building. IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015

The first step requires a pilot study to confirm the methodology process. The developed questionnaire form was distributed to students on a random


Figure 5: Data collection model.

Table 1-2. How to achieve traditional representation, with features.

sample in similar academic enrolment. Therefore, this will establish initial findings for more convincing results of the study. Level of knowledge on Arabic traditional features was tested extensively within the survey. As well, we asked about the barriers for traditional architecture to be accessible not only as an embellishment but as an integral part of the indoor envelope, with an impact on visual and tangible aspects towards occupant’s well-being. The language parameter was important in relation to cultural considerations, in addition to its importance in providing confidence while expressing ourselves.


The undertaken arrangement was collected from 140 participants. The indicated questionnaire had English and Arabic formats. The majority (over 40%) responded to the Arabic version. This is because it is considerably familiar and easier to understand as well as it is encouraging and in direct contact to their knowhow. Educational level among participants was significant as it impacts the use of traditional features in our built environment. When participants are asked about the representation of participants IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015

place of residence, they had to display visual illustration for clear answers. About half of the participants revealed that they have modern places, whilst a smaller group were keen to ensure that they follow modern trends with respect to the traditional impact that will induce emotional aspects. A smaller group forming only 13% still have ambitions to use pure traditional architecture. The greater change in building trend highlights striking data; traditional features are mostly not affordable, traditional artisans and crafts are either no longer available in an appropriate level, or was seen as an outdated trend.


Figure 6: Traditional extension.

People were asked to make decisions on questions directed to deal with their knowledge and their feelings. The intended approach is to examine people’s responses to traditional presence that can importantly contribute for a better quality of life. Through the study a strong devotion was towards the method of mixed trends which support the research objectives progress. The first chart for general public considered traditional features has to be separated from the rest of the house not as an integral part. The largest percentage is for those who had traditional extension to their houses as a symbolic “Masmak”.

The second table is based on personal overviews. It mentioned the use of large windows, and traditional courtyard, which addresses the importance and reliance on daylighting for health and emotional aspects. The strong impact was for the use of traditional features in a modern adaptation after explanation, eventually the majority of people (39%) needed to have the modern life style. A small group (5%) indicted the Musharrabia feature. Another set of questions was displayed using nonparametric statistics via Likert- type scale, to analize occupant’s opinions and attitude and to what extent they

Table 3. Stacked bar chart, Level of agreement on the level of awareness.


agree or disagree. Responses were related to the traditional settlement over modern technology. The criteria was more generalized for future research on selected controlled samples. The first category was in relation to the level of awareness, on ATA and its impact on both individual and public level. Almost half of the participants had neutral responses; some were not very clear with the topic or somewhat they had an idea, and nearly 40% agreed on having a clear understanding about traditional features and how it impacts the occupant’s well-being, whereas those who disagreed had the lowest percentage. Therefore, this highlights the need to increase the awareness of the population on ATA and its positive impact. The remaining bars in the chart above show that more than half of the survey members agreed on the importance of the presence of traditional trend in relation to city identity, as only 12% of respondents disagreed. In contrast, the largest number of participants had no opinion, and 15 % think that it should not be an obligation to adopt this trend for just knowing its benefit. The second category is for occupant’s point of view a


Major differences can be seen in respondent’s opinions; over 70% reaching up to 80% agreed on the suitability of traditional features for indoor spaces rather than a way to build in particular for the sake of privacy. It is clearly seen that traditional adaptation with modern technology is more accepted to alter with a higher percentage considering the presence of culture in a society reflecting the population own self-esteem. Overall data prove that people are keen to explore new lifestyle patterns. The initial results confirm the need of greater potential from experts to lead the society toward taking decisions for occupant’s comfort and wellbeing. In conclusion, this controlled randomized investigation will guide the researcher for further investigation. Most of the statements were agreed upon. As for the respondent’s age and gender, it has been found that older people realize the effect of hybrid societies on the environment and on the occupant well-being, whereas younger participants highlights on the importance of the increasing of global trend between adoption an adaption.


This study aimed at studying the traditional architecture in the ME and identified that it will continue to be an important vector for human wellbeing, a necessity to improve society, and a conductor to the indoor envelope experience. Therefore, this will highlight the current considerations resulting in an overwhelming modern status. Also, underlining on the lack of academic teaching concerning traditional adaption and adoption to reach proper indoor environmental conditions. This paper contributes to the subject-mater knowledge and increases the awareness of environmental and psychological factors in relation to cultural values. We focused on a daily parameter that cannot be induced by alternatives. The impact of the combination of architectonic features and modern technology related to daylighting performance to cause sense of pleasure will be subject for further investigation.


My sincere gratitude to my principle supervisor and supervisory team, my parents, my sisters and my husband, for their support.

References • Abdelsalam, T., & Rihan, G. M. (2013). The impact of sustainability trends on housing design identity of arab cities. HBRC Journal, 9(2), 159-172. • Ali, M. K. (1989). The use of Precedents in Contemporary Arab Architecture: Case Studies; Rasem Badran and Henning Larsen,

• Alkhalidi, A. (2013). Sustainable application of interior spaces in traditional houses of the united arab emirates. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 102, 288-299.

• Asfour, K., Herrle, P., & Schmitz, S. (2009). Identity in the arab region: Architects and projects from egypt, iraq, jordan, saudi arabia, kuwait and qatar. Constructing Identity in Contemporary Architecture: Case Studies from the South, 12, 151. • Belakehal, A., Aoul, K. T., & Bennadji, A. (2004). Sunlighting and daylighting strategies in the traditional urban spaces and buildings of the hot arid regions. Renewable Energy, 29(5), 687-702. • Belakehal, A., Tabet Aoul, K., & Bennadji, A. (2003). An evaluation method for daylighting quality in buildings under clear sunny skies. Third Conference of the EPUK (Environmental Psychology in the UK) Network, pp. 23-25.

• Benkari, N. (2013). The “Sustainability” paradigm in architectural education in UAE. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 102, 601-610. • Bryman, A. (2007). Barriers to integrating quantitative and qualitative research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 8-22.

• Chen, C. (2011). Quantitative methodology: Appropriate use in research for blind baseball ergonomics and safety design. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 9(4), 6.

• Davies, A., & Laing, R. (2003). Images and stated preference: Do people need to be told what the attributes are or do they notice them anyway? Proceedings of the 3rd Environmental Psychology in the UK Conference, June, the Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen,

• Heiberger, R. M., & Robbins, N. B. (2014). Design of diverging stacked bar charts for likert scales and other applications. J.Stat.Softw., 57, 1-32. • Horayangkura, V. (2012). Incorporating environment-behavior knowledge into the design process: An elusive challenge for architects in the 21st century. ProcediaSocial and Behavioral Sciences, 50, 30-41. • Jean M. Converse, & Stanley Presser. (1986). Survey questions: Handcrafting the standardized questionnaire Sage.

• Mahmud, S. A., Ahmad, A. S., & Abdullah, A. M. (2012). Lifestyle orientation and the residential environment: An exploratory review. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 49, 304-309.

• Massam, B. H. (2002). Quality of life: Public planning and private living. Progress in Planning, 58(3), 141-227.

• Novakova, M., & Foltinova, E. (2014). The Ordinary–Everyday–Commonplace as a reference of cultural identity. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 122, 114-118. • Ruggiero, F., Florensa, R. S., & Dimundo, A. (2009). Re-interpretation of traditional architecture for visual comfort. Building and Environment, 44(9), 1886-1891.

• Taib, M. Z. M., & Rasdi, M. T. (2012). Islamic architecture evolution: Perception and behaviour. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 49, 293-303.

• TANG ART DESIGN & INFORMATION GROUP LIMITED. 2012. The Rise of Innovative Architecture---Leading in Future through Bionics, Green Concept, High Technology and Originality. China: Hunan Fine Arts Publishing House.

• Trafimow, D. (2004). Attitude measurement. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied psychology (pp. 233-243). New York: Elsevier.





Christiane Paulus Federal Ministry for the Environment, Bonn, Germany Christiane.Paulus@bmub.bund.de Lenelis Kruse University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Lenelis.Kruse@psychologie.uni-heidelberg.de Ute Stoltenberg Leuphana University, Lüneburg, Germany Ute.Stoltenberg@uni-leuphana.de


The idea of sustainable development was formulated in light of problems arising from global change affecting people the world over. These include poverty and unequal life chances due to hunger, lack of education or a lack of respect for certain social groups, unadapted lifestyles and undemocratic concentrations of power, man-made loss of biodiversity, climate change and its impacts, overexploitation of soils and the seas, impairment of ecosystem regeneration due to excessive use and pollution from emissions, depletion of natural resources, production and processing of foodstuffs without considering the impacts on human health, improper farming of animals and monocultures, loss of cultural diversity. Sustainable development will only be possible if we first explore the intricate connections between these problems. This can best be understood at regional level: Environmental problems are both a cause and an effect of social problems. Economic activity can have positive or negative social,

ecological and cultural impacts. Cultural traditions and guiding principles can support or impede sustainability. Moreover, power and interests, social structures and policies can be counterproductive to sustainable development. Solutions for sustainable development must take these complex connections into account. All these problems stem from the unsustainable interaction of human beings with their natural and material environment and with other people. This is ultimately reflected in people’s actions or, more generally, in their lifestyles. Sustainable development means transforming a non-sustainable society into a more sustainable one. It involves a process of exploring, learning and creating that must be implemented at many levels (globally, regionally, locally, and of course individually too). A variety of technical, economic and legal strategies and instruments are used in the process. A necessary prerequisite for embarking on the path towards sustainable development is a fundamental mental change of values, attitudes, abilities and capacities, which will ultimately be manifested in changed actions and lifestyles. This must be facilitated and supported through education and learning. Biosphere reserves are model regions for sustainable development. Should we consider sustainable development to be an individual and social process of exploring, learning and creating, education must be an indispensable, integral part of it. Education is thus an important element for achieving a biosphere reserve’s sustainability targets. Education for sustainable development (ESD) is a concept that raises critical awareness of unsustainable developments and promotes empathy, perceptiveness, knowledge and capacities that encourage and enable people to contribute to shaping a responsible future. This concept involves the examination of key issues of sustainable development based on the values of sustainable



development. The specific processes and methodologies of this approach allow leaners to understand the complex tasks of sustainable development and find new solutions, at local and regional level, for the relationship between man and the environment and for our co-existence in one world whilst also taking the global connections and impacts into account. Everyone living or working in a biosphere reserve should therefore have the opportunity to contribute towards shaping the model region through education for sustainable development. The biosphere reserve thus facilitates and supports education and learning for sustainable development for all social groups and all ages - by means of special educational programmes and the integration of education and learning opportunities into various activities and learning sites. At the same time, biosphere reserves are called upon, as model regions, to share their experience and knowledge on sustainable development and are encouraged to develop ESD projects for visitors and the interested public from other regions. EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IS A NEW CONCEPT, NOT AN EXTENSION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Education for sustainable development is not an updated or amended form of environmental education, forest education or global learning. It provides a new orientation for developmental and learning processes. Important sources of inspiration and motivation for active commitment to sustainable development include experiencing nature, understanding the importance of biological diversity and specific habitats in the biosphere reserve, being aware of the sensitivity of ecosystems and simply enjoying nature. For educational processes to enable people to build up a responsible relationship with nature and among each other, an integrative approach is required. ESD establishes connections between nature and environmental problems and our everyday thoughts and activities, our economic practices, social issues and cultural ideas and can thus help us in identifying new, innovative

strategies for the long-term preservation of the natural foundations and quality of life. Sustainable development requires a fundamental shift in our thinking, new approaches to specific questions and tasks, a critical attitude towards existing knowledge, and new insights. People must learn how to think and act in accordance with the principle of sustainable development. This is why the idea of education for sustainable development was conceived at the UN Conference for Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and has since been developed worldwide and through international exchange. It includes the following, interrelated tasks and goals that serve as orientation for the planning and implementation of education projects. Particular consideration is given to the special characteristics and potential of biosphere reserves as model regions for sustainable development: The goal of education for sustainable development is to − address key questions of sustainable development based on the specific characteristics of the individual biosphere reserves, enable people to understand the complexity of these questions and form an opinion on them through access to knowledge and experience, − raise and promote awareness of and sensitivity to the living beings involved (including human beings) and their needs, − open up experiences of nature and spirituality, − allow people to experience solidarity in joint work for sustainable development (for example through encounters of different generations and cultures; international cooperation), − highlight the importance of nature for human life and contribute to nature being valued, for example through nature experiences, − help people discover and critically review their potential for living with nature (through knowledge, behaviour, technologies), − make people understand that the protection and use of nature in a biosphere reserve are a joint task, − raise awareness of the values of sustainable development and apply these to tasks and problems in the individual region,



− − −

promote skills that allow individuals and social groups to act together for the benefit of sustainable development, foster strategic, anticipatory, alternative thinking that allows people to accept an open future, encourage people and give them the opportunity to become involved in shaping their region (and thus their own living conditions), tackle specific development projects in the biosphere reserve and learn together from them.


Biosphere reserves are learning sites which offer formal education programmes. However at the same time these should be designed to facilitate everyday, informal learning about sustainable lifestyles and economic practices. Examples include food tastings in public institutions or during events, preferably with regional products from ecologically and socially responsible production and fair trade; integration of all age groups in regional planning processes; showcasing biodiversity in meadows and private gardens; preservation and use of traditional animal breeds. Non-formal education programmes (such as exhibitions, theatre, art) are particularly suited to creating educational and learning opportunities in connection with leisure activities. EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BIOSPHERE RESERVES FACILITATES LEARNING BASED ON SPECIFIC TASKS AND QUESTIONS

Education programmes in biosphere reserves should provide access to knowledge and options for action with regard to shaping sustainable development in people’s own region. However, to bring about a shift in thinking, behaviour and decision-making principles, people need to be able to evaluate this knowledge. The best way to achieve this is to use specific tasks and questions (potentially) arising in the biosphere reserve to demonstrate why this knowledge is useful and what impacts it can have.


Specific regional features (geomorphological structure, cultural landscape, flora and fauna, cultural artefacts from the past, current cultural practices) in a biosphere reserve harbour potential for educational activities. For example, historic studies of the cultural landscape can reveal changes in biodiversity caused by human management practices; natural resources and cultural diversity in the region can be used as a basis for future scenarios, what-if-stories and visions for sustainable regional development. Education projects can be geared towards enabling inhabitants to find new solutions for the ecological, economic, social and cultural development of the biosphere reserve in areas such as renewable raw materials, bioenergy, local energy supply, demographic development in connection with sustainable building, development of regional value chains. REGIONAL AND GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITY CAN BE ACKNOWLEDGED AND PRACTICED IN BIOSPHERE RESERVES THROUGH EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sustainable development cannot be achieved at local or regional level alone. Local and regional action is increasingly becoming part of global interdependencies. Responsible regional action should always be responsible at a global level as well. Education for sustainable development in biosphere reserves can make an excellent contribution to this, as biosphere reserves are part of a global network. They show that sustainable development is a global challenge people in all regions of our planet are facing in different ways. Learning about the specific natural and cultural characteristics in other biosphere reserves worldwide and cooperating directly with these allows people to appreciate the value of cultural and biological diversity and take a fresh look at their own region. Examples from other biosphere reserves and direct cooperation should become components of biosphere reserves’ own education programmes.



The idea of sustainable development as an individual and social process of exploring, learning and creating is also reflected in the way ESD is approached. Participation is a vital principle of this approach. It values people’s different perspectives, ideas and levels of knowledge and takes account of the need to make decisions for sustainable development transparent and sound. It is a way of generating new knowledge and new options for action and motivating all those involved to make use of these. This applies to all ages and all social groups. Everyone can participate; education for sustainable development supports people in developing the necessary skills to do just that. Experience with negotiating and decisionmaking processes is essential. Education for sustainable development is therefore characterised by • a variety of information and communication opportunities • participatory learning and • a new culture of participation and cooperation for those involved in education processes.

Openness for new perspectives, a willingness to rethink and reflect on one’s own lifestyle and new approaches to interpersonal relationships as well as relationships between human beings and nature/the environment cannot be generated through intellectual challenges alone. Sensory and aesthetic perceptions and creative, artistic, exploratory activities help us question existing patterns of thinking and acting and inspire new ideas. This is particularly effective if a person has the opportunity to address a question in both a cognitive and an emotional, sensual way. The overall approach must therefore include both, also through cooperation with artists and cultural institutions. COOPERATION AND NETWORKING ARE KEY ELEMENTS OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Biosphere reserves can implement ESD through cooperation of the biosphere reserve administration with kindergartens, schools, universities, adult education facilities and other educational and cultural institutions as well as associations and companies. Networking can help to − develop, evaluate and regularly update a programme for the biosphere reserve that can be jointly communicated, − jointly organise and implement the qualification of people and institutions for education for sustainable development, − explore opportunities for cooperation of kindergartens, schools, universities and adult education facilities with players from the region that allow for learning based on real, regional tasks, − give the regional educational offering a sustainable development profile. The important role of the biosphere reserve partners in education processes can be visualised by establishing “theme-based educational environments”. These show, for

example, who is involved in manufacturing sustainable products in the region or establishing sustainable value chains (such as “milk” or “fisheries”) or who takes part in complex joint tasks, e.g. regarding the results chain of land uses. Documenting which parties are involved can aid in regional development and serve to find cooperation partners for education projects with practical relevance. DRAFTING, EVALUATING AND CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPING A PROGRAMME FOR EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATING THIS ARE TASKS OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE ADMINISTRATION.

The biosphere reserve administration has the task of drafting an ESD programme for the biosphere reserve, evaluating it and developing it further, with support from external experts if needed. The administration organises events (in particular for multipliers) and helps establish a wide range of ESD courses through cooperation with others. It uses the work carried out in model projects for ESD to establish a base in the region in the long term. The administration shapes and leaves its own mark on the further development of the education programme by means of an exchange between biosphere reserves, including internationally, and cooperation with external partners from the scientific community. Wherever possible, it includes projects for all social and age groups in its programme (also by working with external



partners) - for example on the transformation of the energy system, new forms of building and housing, biodiversity strategies or sustainable management of agricultural land. Education for sustainable development should be mentioned as a task of biosphere reserves and illustrated with concrete examples from the region in publications developed for information and communication activities. IN SUMMARY, PROGRAMMES OFFERED IN THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ARE CHARACTERISED BY THE FOLLOWING ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS:

1. Educational activities should be designed in such a way as to contribute to − a responsible relationship between humans and nature and more global and intergenerational justice − preserving the natural foundations of life − maintaining, cultivating and sustainably developing cultural landscapes. 2. They address key issues of sustainable development using local and regional examples. 3. They reflect specific tasks, problems and questions arising in the biosphere reserve, attempt to understand and assess them in cooperation with relevant partners and thus integrate ways of experiencing and shaping sustainable development in the biosphere reserve in the educational activity. 4. Drawing on specific examples from the region, they raise awareness of the fundamental values of sustainable development (human dignity, preservation of the natural foundations of life, equal opportunities of all people on the planet and future generations for leading a good life),

demonstrate how a common understanding can be reached on these values, for example by making reference to the Earth Charter (www.earthcharterinaction.org), and how we can live together in harmony with other living beings. 5. They link experiences of nature, spiritual experiences and aesthetic approaches to the relationship between humans and nature with opportunities to reflect on and understand relationships between humans and nature/ the environment. 6. They allow for systemic thinking, precautionary thinking, thinking about alternatives and strategic thinking for sustainable development by creating space in educational activities for wishes and visions for the future. 7. They draw attention to alternatives, conflicts, dilemmas and controversies, open or hidden, that exist in the region. 8. They allow for active participation, e.g. the integration of experiential knowledge, creative ideas and individual responsibility in a common negotiation and creation process. 9. They use different media (films, exhibitions, campaign days, guided tours, mobile information stands, Internet) and technologies to analyse, document and communicate the topics. 10. They are geared towards different target groups, including small children and child care centre staff; children, adolescents, teachers and other school staff; women; farmers; municipal administration, politicians, multipliers from institutions and companies; elderly people; people working in the tourism sector and guests and tourists visiting a biosphere reserve.




Ricardo GarcĂ­a Mira University of A CoruĂąa, Spain ricardo.garcia.mira@udc.es

Scientists from 11 European universities have been debating last May 2015 on models of change in European lifestyles in the Norwegian city of Trondheim. We tray to design the equation which better accounts for the evolution of the European society towards alternative and more sustainable lifestyles. How to activate a social response towards lifestyle change and how to change behaviours associated to consumption, mobility, nutrition, or household functioning,

are part of the discussions. The way in which cities must give a response to the challenge of sustainability for allowing that these changes become a structural part of community life, integrating sustainable initiatives in fields as consumption, mobility of use of energy, or how to evaluate the capacity of a society for making a choice of lifestyle have been part of the analysis. All these aspects have centered the discussions along the four days of the meeting held in Trondheim from May 4th to May 7th this year. THE GLAMURS CONSORTIUM

The research Consortium, which has the name of the project, GLAMURS (Green Lifestyles, Alternative Models and Upscaling Regional Sustainability), is formed by a group of 35 high level researchers, integrated in 11 research consolidated groups



The GLAMURS consortium.

from the universities: University of A Coruna (consortium coordinator); University of Bath (UK); James Hutton Institute (UK); University of Magdeburg (Germany); Helmholtz Centre for Sustainability (Germany); Universitatea de Vest din Timisoara (Romania); Sustainability Research Institute (Austria); Universitá di Roma Tre (Italy); Technological University of Delft (The Netherlands); Tilburg University (The Netherlands); and Technological University of Science and Technology (Norway). The Project is funded by the prestigious 7th Framework Programme of the European Union, during the period 2014-2016, with a budget of more than 6M Euros. It is

coordinated from the University of A Coruna, Spain, from the beginning of last year. Together with the EU-INNOVATE consortium, led by the University of Munich, Germany, they form the bid of the European Commission, through DG Research and Innovation, to promote innovative change strategies towards sustainable lifestyles and a green economy in Europe. The scientific approach addresses a trans-disciplinary perspective, where the work of leading scientits in the field of sustainability from social psychology, micro-economy, macro-economy, industrial ecology, political science, and agent based modeling, is integrated.

From left to right: Paul Stern, Ricardo García-Mira, Christian Klöckner, and Philip Vergraght.




Some well known scientists have been invited to this debate, in their function of advisers and members of the Advisory Board of GLAMURS: Dr. Paul Stern, who is the Director of the National Research Council and of the Academy of Sciences and its Permanent Committee of Human Dimensions of Global Change,in the US; Dr. Philip Vergragt, Emeritus Professor of Research and Evaluation of Technology at Clark University in Masachussets, and senior researcher of Tellus Institute in Boston. Finally, Christian Klöckner, professor of social psychology and quantitative methods at the Institute of Psychology of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim. THE KEYS OF A LIFESTYLE

The debate in GLAMURS for Professor Ricardo García Mira (project coordinator), from the University of A Coruña, Spain, unpacks the discussion about the main aspects that account for what a lifestyle is and what its social, economic, cultural and psychological determinants are. What do explain the wish to change our lifestyle, how to module the social patterns that characterize how people make use of time in their daily life, how to model social change strategies towards a more sustainable Europe with a less dependence of carbon. Values that promote change, importance of time, impact of consumption, identities around change, parameters that can help in the definition of what a green economy is, .. all these are aspects that have sounded these days on the spaces of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, which held last May this scientific meeting.

The macro-economic approach, represented in the project by Prof. Sjak Smulders, from University of Tilburg (The Netherlands), try to give a response to how all those lifestyle initiatives flourishing at small scale at the local level, can they really be up-scaled to a larger, national or even global level. To mention one example, if currently mainly unemployed people volunteer to provide the hours in new green activities, expanding volunteering and community activities requires to also get involved those working in formal jobs. Are people willing to give up (part of) their job or switch job, will their wages afford this? In other words, it depends on the macroeconomic conditions who and how much people will be willing to participate in the sustainable lifestyle initiatives. In the project, Professor Smulders explores how these macroeconomic conditions can affect the success rate of lifestyle initiatives. But also the other way around, he look at how lifestyle initiative might change the economy as a whole, how it affects growth and employment shifts. HOW TO FIND OUT WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW TO LIVE MORE SUSTAINABLY

Researchers in GLAMURS are addressing the question of what we need to know for living sustainably. For Dr. Gary Polhill, from the James Hutton Research Institute of Aberdeen, in Scotland, UK, who is the responsible of modeling change towards alternative lifestyles by means of the use of methods of artificial intelligence, sustainability is a very complicated issue: If we all live like medieval monks in unheated cells and grow our own vegetables, that may be very good for the environment, and excellent for social equality, but not everyone will find their lives enjoyable or rewarding, and

A plenary session of the GLAMURS consortium. IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015


Members of consortium in one of the work sessions.

there would be little or no economic activity. At the same time, the current situation is not particularly sustainable either. Although the economy is slowly recovering, and some people are very happy with their lives, the gap between rich and poor is widening, and our collective impact on the environment is getting worse, not better, despite many efforts to counter this trend. It is this complex concatenation of conditions that makes it essential to get researchers with diverse expertise focusing on this question. To make a proposed solution work, we need to know that it can provide a fulfilling life to citizens with a wide range of personality types and interests without levels of inequality that lead to discontent, we need to be able to assess its impact on the environment, and we need to know that it is economically viable. CHANGE INITIATED FROM MINORITY GROUPS

Professor Giuseppe Carrus, from the University of Roma Tre (Italy), states that to promote green lifestyle in a large sector of people, the public institutions need to actively involve the citizens in the territory and in the community. Relevant change can be initiated by small groups, and even few individual that share an enthusiasm and a motivation can concretely show to their relatives, friends, colleagues or neighbors that to eat, move, consume and live in a more sustainable way is not only possibile but also beneficial for ourselves, for the environment, and for the economy. THE WORK IN GLAMURS WITH SUSTAINABLE INITIATIVES

According to Professor Felix Rauschmayer, from the Helmholtz Centre for Research on Sustainability, in Leipzig (Germany), citizens are engaged in various initiatives to make lifestyles more sustainable. In Austria, for example, a whole region is organising itself differently: more than 25% of farmers produce organic food much of which is sold locally and, aiming at 100% energy sufficiency, the

region’s dependency on fossil fuel could already be reduced substantially. But the project also cooperates with energy cooperatives in the Netherlands, transition town initiatives in Germany, ecovillages in Romania, or food and consumption cooperatives in Italy and Spain, just to mention a few. Better understanding motives, concerns, and hopes of those engaged citizens will help us to advise policy makers for promoting such bottom-up changes towards a better future. MITIGATTING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

For Professor Paul Stern, from the Advisory Group, the GLAMURS project is seeking to gain insights from local and regional initiatives around Europe into ways to achieve national and international goals for limiting global environmental change. It is doing this by assessing the effects of local and regional programs intended to change the human actions that increase climate change and by looking for lessons from these experiences that can be applied in different settings. It is also working to bring together researchers and practitioners, and researchers from diverse disciplines to solve practical problems that need many disciplines’ insights, as well as insights from practical experience. A CHANGE TOWARDS A MORE STABLE GROWTH MODEL

GLAMURS uses interdisciplinary scientific research to understand how citizens of Europe could change towards more sustainable lifestyles; which includes a better balance between work and leisure. From the point of view of Professor Philip Vergraght, the interest here are the visions of sustainable lifestyles; and the case studies studying citizens’ initiatives for change towards sustainability, for instance sustainable food, housing, and transportation in various European regions. However, in my view the main conclusion I draw from all the scientific research so far is that in addition to citizens initiatives, strong government policies



The Steering Committee of GLAMURS.

are necessary; not only to support and facilitate citizens initiatives for alternative lifestyles and practices; but also to change the economic growth model towards a sustainable steady state or Degrowth paradigm, which should include support for low incomes as well as income redistribution, to reduce discretionary spending on unsustainable consumer goods; and to increase immaterial wellbeing for the majority of citizens. THE ADDED VALUE OF GLAMURS: ITS COMPREHENSIVE AND INTEGRATIVE APPROACH

For Professor Christian Klöckner, from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, the more relevant added value of GLAMURS is the use of knowledge from many different disciplines, utilizing a large toolbox of different methods, and not the least by including ecological pioneer initiatives and stakeholders it aims to find out how

lifestyles can be related to environmental impacts and how lifestyle changes will reduce the environmental impact of European societies. Now halfway through the project the contours of this endeavor are clear and – even if there is a lot of work that needs to be done – I am excited to see the final results in one and a half year’s time. The project will give us answers how what we learn from local environmental initiatives can transferred to other regions all over Europe, calculate how much CO2 this would save us, give advice how policy needs to be designed to make such initiatives foster and take up momentum, and simulate what would happen to economic and social systems if that happened. This is an exciting prospect, Professor Klöckner says. For further information, please contact: Ricardo García Mira ricardo.garcia.mira@udc.es




Robert W. Marans University of Michigan marans@umich.edu John Callewaert University of Michigan jcallew@umich.edu


There is an increasing awareness that societal changes are necessary as issues of climate change and environmental degradation become more pressing. While the technological know-how is available to reduce CO2 emissions and conserve and maintain our natural resources, the political and societal commitment to deal with these issues is lacking. That is, it is imperative that we make greater efforts to shift from a “culture of consumerism” toward a “culture of sustainability”. A culture of sustainability requires individuals, households, organizations, and cities 1) to understand the short term and long term consequences of climate change on humans and ecosystems, 2) to understand the means of addressing these challenges, 3) to commit to more sustainable lifestyles, and 4) to adjust behaviors so as to effectively deal with the challenges. THE PROGRAM

Like many other universities and corporations, the University of Michigan (U-M) is working to bring about this change. But unlike other universities, U-M is unique in its efforts to measure and monitor progress in moving toward a culture of sustainability. The measuring and monitoring program

is referred to as SCIP--the Sustainability Cultural Indicators Program. SCIP refers to a broad set of indicators that are being tracked annually. The indicators are derived from annual surveys of its students, faculty, and staff in order to tap their thoughts, understanding, degree of commitment, and behaviors with respect to energy reduction, waste prevention, environmental protection, and consuming healthy foods. These topics stem from the University’s broader sustainability goals dealing with climate action, waste prevention, healthy environments, and community awareness. Furthermore, the program is examining the degree to which the built environment and sustainability outreach programs influence what people say and do. CURRENT STATUS

The University of Michigan is entering the fourth year of a long term-program aimed at changing the “culture of sustainability” among our students, faculty and staff and measuring and monitoring that change. At the beginning of each school year (starting in 2012), two webbased surveys have been administered---one to a large sample of students and a similar questionnaire targeting representative samples of the University’s faculty and staff. In addition to these regular cross-sectional surveys, a panel of undergraduate students has been surveyed each year with the idea of following individuals and tracking their change over time as well as the changes in each cohort of undergraduate students, graduate students, and the faculty and staff. A unique aspect of the work is linking the survey data with existing “hard data” for over 450 university buildings spread throughout more than 1,200 hectares. The hard data collected annually include building energy use (BTU) per square feet, metric tons of CO2 emissions, tonnage of recycled material, and waste tonnage sent to disposal



facilities. For example, these data are available for 2012, 2013, and 2014 for 10 large student residence halls and a large university apartment complex for married students. At the same time, the survey data include measures of conservation behavior and waste prevention behavior of the students living in the different residence halls and the apartment complex. Preliminary findings show no association between changes in energy use and CO2 emissions on the one hand and the behaviors of students with respect to conservation on the other. In contrast, positive changes in waste prevention among students over the 3-year period is related to an increases in the amount of recycling at the housing sites and a corresponding decrease in trash sent to disposal facilities. These findings will be tested as additional measures are obtained in over the next few years. At the same time, the specific initiatives designed to change culture in housing will be examined in places where behavioral change has occurred and in places where there has been no behavioral change. THE FUTURE

Besides the continuing collection of data designed to measure sustainability culture annually, the SCIP team will be engaged in a number of activities. First, there is the on-going analysis of the annually collected survey data, the change data from the cross-sectional samples and the student panel, and the hard data-survey data links. Much of this analysis will be done by graduate students and faculty interested in a particular aspect of sustainability. Second, outreach activities within the University will continue

with university officials and operational personnel. These outreach activities are intended to inform key administrators and departments of progress in moving toward a culture of sustainability on campus and point out where on campus, their policies and initiatives are successful or not successful. Finally, information dissemination outside the University of Michigan will continue through conference presentations, social media, and individual meetings. We strongly believe efforts similar to U-M’s program aimed at bringing about cultural change and measuring and monitoring it should be replicated in other settings if the broader goal of societal change is to be accomplished. To date, there are other universities that are interesting is possibly replicating components of U-M’s cultural change initiatives as well as SCIP. There include the University of Sao Paulo, New York University and Rutgers university in the U.S., the University of Worchester in the UK, and Sichuan University in China. Not only would such efforts be beneficial to each university as it strives to become more sustainable, reduce it operating costs, and greenhouse gas emissions, but it could create wonderful opportunities for local teaching and cross-cultural collaborative research. Specifically, we dream of a large scale comparative environment-behavior research program dealing with sustainability culture across the globe. If anyone is interested in sharing this dream, check out the University of Michigan website at: http://graham.umich.edu/leadership/scip or contact Robert W. Marans, marans@umich.edu or John Callewaert, jcallew@umich.edu





The IAPS POLICY ON SUPPORTING THE PARTICIPATION OF EARLY CAREER RESEARCHERS IN RESEARCH MEETINGS applies to any summer course, specific seminar or workshop that has been designed to provide training to students. Priority will be given to providing financial support to early career researchers attending activities that are promoted or organized by IAPS. An early career researcher is someone currently studying for a Masters or PhD qualification, or someone who has graduated with such a qualification within the last 2 years. The IAPS treasurer will assign a budget at the beginning of the period that the policy applies. The budget is set aside to provide financial support to cover the registration fees or other travel or accommodation expenses of the specific scientific activity. This budget should contain a clause suggesting a maximum for any individual payment. No monies will be spent any given year without the IAPS board having first agreed this budget.

The procedure for awarding financial support to early career researchers as part of the IAPS POLICY ON SUPPORTING THE PARTICIPATION OF EARLY CAREER RESEARCHERS IN RESEARCH MEETINGS is as follows: 1. Candidates must be members of IAPS and have their fees paid for the period in which financial assistance is being sought. 2. Applications for financial support shall be submitted to IAPS three months before the activity, and will be accompanied by two letters of recommendation from two senior professors/ researchers of IAPS. 3. The selection of beneficiaries will be conducted by an independent panel of three senior members of IAPS, whose composition will be gender-inclusive, and which will be chaired by the president of the Board of IAPS or by the member of the board designated by the president according to the thematic of the research activity. The IAPS board will designate the other two members among senior specialists within IAPS. All decisions made by this panel will respect the budget. 4. The panel shall select the candidates on the following criteria: the CV of the candidate; the relevance of the activity; and the fit with the doctoral stage and plans of the candidate. 5. Expenses will be paid when the invoice is submitted by the candidate, showing that the payment has been made to the organization of the scientific activity. The candidate will also have to present the certificate of attendance of the activity. No payment will be made without accompanying receipts.



As part of the IAPS general operating budget, a sum of 3000 € is set aside with the specific purpose of applying the IAPS POLICY ON SUPPORTING THE PARTICIPATION OF EARLY CAREER RESEARCHERS IN RESEARCH MEETINGS. The maximum individual payment will be fixed at 500 €. Therefore a minimum of 6 early career researchers should be supported in the 2016 period.


As part of the IAPS POLICY ON SUPPORTING THE PARTICIPATION OF EARLY CAREER RESEARCHERS IN RESEARCH MEETINGS, we are very pleased to announce a programme of financial support for IAPS early career researchers who are currently undertaking their Masters or PhD dissertation. The IAPS board has set aside a budget for the year 2016 to provide financial support for a limited number of early career researchers to cover part of the expenses associated with participating in events such as workshops, seminars or summer courses which are relevant for their training in the field of peopleenvironment studies and related to the themes of the IAPS research networks. If you wish to apply for financial support for attending an event related to IAPS, then email the President of IAPS, Ricardo García Mira: ricardo.garcia.mira@udc.es, attaching a copy of your CV, as well as a brief report (1 page) of your Masters or PhD dissertation, signed by your superviser or by the director of the programme. According to the point 2 of the General Policy, applications will be also accompanied by two letters of recommendation from two senior professors/researchers of IAPS.





Brussels, 26 May 2015 – European Commission Directorate General for Research and Innovation Ricardo García Mira University of A Coruna, Spain The workshop aimed to build on foresight research projects in order to develop a set of important drivers of future change that may have substantial impact on the agenda of the 3rd Strategic Programme of Horizon 2020, especially as regards its Industrial Leadership and Societal Challenge pillars. The workshop was the first of three workshops which will together allow the Commission to brief and consult with stakeholders on strategic directions for the 3rd Strategic Programme of H2020, taking into account the coverage of the first 2 Strategic Programmes in the context of the H2020 Specific Programme. The purpose of the meeting was to start to answer the questions which lie at the core of the overall project namely: a) what drivers of change should be part of the framing of the 3rd Strategic Programme of Horizon 2020? ; b) what would be their effects? ; c) what are the implications for Horizon 2020?.

The workshop started with a discussion of the World Economic Forum Global Strategic Foresight Community Report (2015) which identifies 28 key Global Shifts. It was divided into four groups to consider the implications (threats and opportunities) of those “shifts” and any other drivers that the participants judged as pertinent for the future, under four different overlapping perspectives: • • • •

societal change, challenges and opportunities sustainability innovation, competitiveness and industrial leadership radically new opportunity spaces.

The workshop identified a number of key drivers for the Horizon 2020 3rd Strategic Programme that will be brought into the next workshop for analysis and further discussion. For more information, please email Ricardo Garcia Mira at: ricardo.garcia.mira@udc.es




Brussels, 29th September 2015 - European Parliament Sigrun Kabisch Helmoltz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany The Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) Urban Europe launched its Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) in the European Parliament in Brussels. This SRIA is titled “Transition towards sustainable and liveable urban futures”. This high level event was dedicated to present and discuss this SRIA and its research and innovation approach. Mayors from several cities across Europe and representatives from European institutions such as Jan Olbrycht, MET, president of the URBAN intergroup at the European Parliament, and Kurt Vandenberghe, director of the European Commission, DG Research and Innovation, shared experiences and challenges of transitioning cities.

The SRIA encompasses five major research themes: i) Vibrant urban economies: growth and decline of European cities, ii) Welfare & finance, iii) Urban environmental sustainability & resilience, iv) Accessibility and connectivity, v) Urban governance & participation. These themes are in the focus of joint calls for European research projects such as ERA-NET calls. The next ERA-Net call “Smart Urban Futures” will be published at the end of this year. As part of the Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) of the JPI Urban Europe I was member of the writing team of the SRIA. I’m convinced that a number of research priorities in this SRIA of the JPI Urban Europe are of high importance for IAPS, its research strategy, communication and networking. Further information including the SRIA: http://jpi-urbaneurope.eu/

Please, contact Sigrun Kabisch for additional information: sigrun.kabisch@ufz.de

A work session of the Exploratory Workshop of Horizon 2020.





Welcome!! We cordially invite you to the 24th IAPS conference on “The human being at home, work and leisure. Sustainable use and development of indoor and outdoor spaces in late modern everyday life”, which will be held in Lund and Alnarp (Sweden) from June 26th to July 1st, 2016. The conference is hosted by the Environmental Psychology Research Groups at Lund University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in southern Sweden, in collaboration with the Swedish Area Group in Environmental Psychology. In accordance with the IAPS mission (www.iapsassociation.org), the conference will address the study of the interrelations between the social, the built and the natural environment, and the impacts on them. The conference theme turns the spotlight on to what is at the core of the bigger issues related to global sustainability – the actions and everyday lives of humans. It is what we do, feel and think every day, that shapes our individual and collective future. The event will take place at the Faculty of Engineering, LTH, in Lund, 27 June to 1 July 2016,(www.lth.se). The associated Young Researcher Workshop, 26-27 June, will be held nearby, at the Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Horticulture and Crop Production Science, at SLU in Alnarp (www.slu.se). We look forward to seeing you in Lund/Alnarp 2016! The Organising Committee Further information Maria Johansson maria.johansson@arkitektur.lth.se Caroline Hägerhäll caroline.hagerhall@slu.se



The human being at home, work and leisure. Sustainable use and development of indoor and outdoor spaces in late modern everyday life. Everyday life has changed dramatically in the past 100 years, and continues to do so in an increasingly digital and globalised world. It has become more difficult to define the boundaries between different spheres of life, between private and public places, and between different parts of the world. These societal trends put increasing demands on the individual, who must evaluate and act in relation to complex and sometimes rapidly changing information. All over the world people experience the fragile relations with nature, and are faced with similar environmental issues, but people also share the responsibilities for sustainable development globally. We therefore need a thorough understanding of how people as individuals and as groups reason and act at home, work and leisure. With globalisation follows the 24-7 society, profoundly changing the places where people of all age groups live, work and spend their leisure time. In turn, this development has consequences for energy use and CO2 emissions, locally and globally. In the connected world, expert perspectives and policy are complemented and challenged by the ability of people to instantly and widely share with others what they feel and think. This challenges our understanding of humanenvironment transactions, and also poses questions relating to the implications for vulnerable groups in society, as well as possibilities for achieving goals relating to equity between genders and with regard to ethnicity. We invite contributions that define and discuss the implications of current local and global social trends for ecosystems and built structures, and the associations with human behaviour, quality of life, well-being and health, as well as social relationships between people. To meet the challenges of today and tomorrow, peopleenvironment studies need to develop: • Knowledge about how the key environmental elements and social factors interact and how they contribute to people’s quality of life, well-being and health, at home, at work and in their leisure time. • New multidisciplinary theoretical perspectives that can enrich people-environment studies, innovative research methods and tools that can be used to address complex environmental issues, and successful examples of integration and implementation in practice. The conference aims to continue its tradition as an open forum for exchanging ideas, experiences and good practices regarding environmental issues in our society, and the challenge of building a sustainable future. All subjects of debate will continue the IAPS Conference tradition of bringing together research, policy and practice, and promoting multidisciplinary approaches and critical thinking. Contributions should actively seek to consider one or several aspects identified below in relation to people’s sustainable use and development of indoor and outdoor spaces at home, work and leisure.

1) Environmental planning and spatial cognition 2) Environmental design and the meaning of built environments 3) Social use of space: crowding, privacy, territoriality, personal space 4) Human environmental perception 5) Nature, animals and urban greenery 6) The interplay between urban and rural areas 7) Connections between the local and the global community 8) The role of mobility 9) Ecological aspects of human actions in places 10) Goal frames, values, attitudes and norms 11) Theories of place, place attachment, and place identity 12) Environmental crises, risks and hazards perception and management 13) Experts’ and lay-people’s perspectives, social representation, and trust 14) Participation, governance, social cohesion and democracy

The Scientific Committee invites submission of abstracts as contributions to one of the following: • Individual Oral Presentations • Symposium • Poster Session • Young Researchers Workshop Presentations. IMPORTANT DATES Date


25/09 2015

Call for abstracts open

15/12 2015 15/12 2015 25/01 2016

25/02 2016 25/02 2016

Deadline for abstract submission

Deadline for abstract submission to Young Researchers Workshop Deadline for applying for young researchers grant for attending Young Researchers Workshop Notification of acceptance

Notification of acceptance for Young Researchers Workshop

31/03 2016

Deadline for submission of full paper for Young Researchers Workshop

21/05 2016

Deadline for contributions to Photographic Exhibition

22/04 2016

26/06 - 1/07 2016

End of Early bird payment for conference fees

IAPS Conference, Lund/Alnarp, Sweden

More information: www.iaps24.se


E-mail: info@iaps24.se


IAPS YRW will be held prior to the 24th IAPS conference in Lund and Alnarp, Sweden. The YRW will be held at the campus of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) in Alnarp from lunch the 26th of June to the afternoon the 27th of June 2016. IAPS YRW invites PhD students of all IAPS-relevant disciplines and provides an opportunity to discuss research proposals and ongoing work with leading academics, while building networks with other PhD students in the field of people-environment studies.

Abstract and paper submission Young researchers are invited to submit an abstract of their current or planned research work. Please note that the submission to the YRW does not exclude you from also submitting a different paper for the main conference. Each student whose abstract (500 words) has been accepted will thereafter have to submit a full paper of 2 000 words.

The workshop procedure Students will be divided into thematic groups, according to their research topics, and have senior researchers as mentors. It is also recommended that students in the same thematic group read each other’s submissions before the workshop. All students will have the chance to present their work and discuss it in detail with their peers and mentors. The workshop language is English. Young Researchers Award The winners of the best full paper presented at the IAPS YRW receive a 2-year IAPS membership; their paper will be published in the IAPS Bulletin, and in the post-conference book as a short communication.

Conference book After the conference, YRs are also invited to submit a paper to the conference book. Key dates • Deadline for abstract submission: 15 December 2015 • Deadline for YRW Grant application: 25 January 2016 • Notification of acceptance: 25 February 2016 • Deadline for submission of full papers by participants: 31 March 2016

Further information If you have further questions about the Young Researchers’ Workshop, please contact us via yrw@iaps24.se We look forward to seeing you in Lund/Alnarp 2016! The Organising Committee




Climate change has significant impact on society and biodiversity in Europe. Urban inhabitants are most likely to experience climate change effects directly because currently 73 per cent of Europeans live in urban areas. Here, management of urban ecosystems offer sustainable and cost-effective solutions to climate change mitigation and adaptation while contributing to human well-being. This European conference will bring together experts from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of nature-based solutions to climate change in urban areas and their rural surroundings. Emphasize is given to the potential of nature-based approaches to create multiple-benefits.

Further information Nadja Kabisch nadja.kabisch@ufz.de



The conference is divided into three main areas (day 1: science, day 2: practice and implementation, day 3: policy and business), each of which will be opened by keynote speakers including: − Hans Bruyninckx (Executive Director European Environmental Agency, EEA). − Wilhelm Krull (Chair of the H2020 expert group on nature-based solutions and re-naturing cities, Secretary General Volkswagen Foundation). − Georgina Mace (University College London – UCL, Director of Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research). − Christine Wamsler (Lund University, Centre for Sustainability Studies). − Nataša Jazbinšek (Head of Department for Environmental Protection City of Ljubljana and Head of working group for European Green Capital programme 2016). − Wolfgang Teubner (ICLEI Regional Director for Europe). − Kurt Vandenberghe (Director for Climate action and resource efficiency at the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation). − Chantal van Ham (IUCN – EU Programme Manager Nature Based Solutions). − Dirk Sijmons (Delft University of Technology).

policy processes, scientific programmes and practical implementation of climate change and nature conservation measures in European urban areas. With best wishes Horst Korn, Jutta Stadler, Aletta Bonn, Nadja Kabisch and Nicholas Macgregor.

Conference organising team of the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN), the Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ / German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), and the European Network of Heads of Nature Conservation Agencies (ENCA).

Keynote speeches are complemented by plenary presentations given by leading experts in the fields of urban biodiversity, climate change, and socio-economic effects of nature-based solutions, interactive sessions and a poster exhibition. Interactive sessions will take place on day 2 of the conference and address eight specific themes ranging from “The role of biodiversity conservation for nature-based solutions for climate change”, to “Integrating grey, blue and green solutions” and “Rural-urban linkages” as well as “The role of social cohesion”, “Nature-based solutions from a transitions’ perspective” and “Economic aspects”. In addition, “Urban gardening and urban agriculture” will be addressed. A special session is dedicated to “Municipalities adapt to climate change”, where emphasis is given to good practice examples and the sharing of experience among community level actors. Results of conference discussions are supposed to feed recommendations for creating synergies between ongoing




We are pleased to announce that the Biennial Conference on Environmental Psychology is expanding. In 2017, the conference will be organized with the support of the International Association of Applied Psychology, Division 4 (http://www.iaapsy.org/divisions/division4), and renamed the International Conference on Environmental Psychology. As has been the case in previous years, the conference will be conducted in English, and we encourage representation from around the world. We are especially interested in attendance and presentations by doctoral students, and we’ll be offering a reduced registration rate for students. Mark your calendars for the July 2017 conference, to be held in A Coruna Spain, chaired by the People-environment Research Group (www.people-environment-udc.org) and Professor Ricardo Garcia Mira (People-Environment Research Group Coordinator)”. We look forward to seeing you in Spain.

For further information, please contact: Wesley Schultz (Division 4 President) wschultz@csusm.edu Ricardo García Mira ricardo.garcia.mira@udc.es





Hans Slierendregt info@repaircafedelft.nl

A toaster that does not toast anymore, a vacuum cleaner that broke down, what do we do with it? Fifty years ago it was quite normal to return items to the store for repair. There was scarcity. Wealth and abundance were not obvious. In case your bike had a flat tire, you would fix it yourself. This is how you treated your precious belongings. Times have changed. Prosperity has increased, consumer goods have become less expensive, and not everyone knows how to fix a flat tire. It has become acceptable to just dump any broken item, because it is often cheaper buying a new one than to try to have it repaired. Repair is manual labour and therefore “expensive”. Manufacturers have gladly adjusted to this situation. When sales go up, so do profits. But this new style consumerism is not without consequences. Waste is growing, and the supply of basic materials is not infinite. Once they’re gone, they will be gone forever. But since 2009 we offer an alternative: the Repair Café. Most of the time, expert volunteers from your own city or neighbourhood, can easily repair your broken items. The Repair Café Foundation is responsible for distributing the concept “Repair Café” with the help of a starter package, available in different languages that can be ordered online (www.repaircafe.org). In the Netherlands there are presently 260 of these cafés, like in Delft and Schiedam. They participated in the Glamurs meeting in Timisoara. The trend to refurbish consumer goods worldwide is fanning out:

with the help of this Repair Café Foundation starter package, 750 refurbishment places in 18 different countries are now active (see picture 1/2). Doing repairs teaches us how things are made, and how to take care of them. It is also a creative challenge, and just fun to do. But we cannot do this alone. We need more, like the support of manufacturers in creating more sustainable products. This should also save raw materials. Support from governments, like lowering tax on repairs, should stimulate consumers to use the services of a professional repairperson. Making it more attractive to be a professional repairperson can also create jobs. The new plan of the Dutch government to raise VAT taxes for shoe and bicycle repairs is therefore counterproductive. In fact a higher tax should be levied on raw materials. Of the € 4.5 trillion, annually paid in taxes by all Europeans collectively, not even 0.3% of all taxes relate to commodities, while more than half of this amount comes from taxes on labour. (European Commission; www.ex-tax.com). Repair Café also fulfils a social task. People get together because of a common goal. At the Repair Café, they can meet and chat. This can be significant for people who are lonely, or live in homes for the elderly. It can restore their sense of community. In addition, a repair specialist will regain his or her sense of professional pride, fixing something with your own hands, resulting in prolonging the life of a precious object. Source Martine Postma - Discard? No way / Publisher Genoeg, Oss, 2015 Interesting and well-written book about the development and success of the Repair Café.



Picture 1. Repair Café is active in 18 countries.

Picture 2: TOP 10 grootste Repair Café-landen ter wereld (jan 2015). IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015



year (31 of december of every year). These modifications to the constitution were approved one day later in the AGM, held in the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Granada, Spain.

Ricardo Garcia Mira IAPS President


The first meeting of the IAPS board, after the last elections, was held in the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Granada, Spain. We selected this University because it was holding the conference of Environmental Psychology in its Faculty of Psychology. The AGM was held also in Granada.

The meeting was a chance for interacting around the very important responsibilities we have as members of the board. We missed Seungkwang Shon, Ian Simkins and Kevin Thwaites, who couldn’t attend, although they sent their reports as well as all the necessary information for discussions. A number of relevant issues were discussed and some decisions were made in some pending management and policy issues. These were the more important: THE NEW CONSTITUTION OF IAPS IN SPAIN

The board approved some formal rules required by the Spanish laws to proceed with the registration process. These formal rules have affected the specification of the international character of IAPS, the conformity of the University of A Coruna for holding the administrative headquarters of IAPS, the minimum (8) and maximum number (12) of board members, the percentage of members to ask for an AGM (25%), the number of members to include a point on the AGM agenda (5), the rights and obligations of the IAPS members, and the date for closing the economic

The board also approved the proposal made by the organising committee of the 24th IAPS Conference (represented by Caroline Hägerhäll) on a number of aspects related to the organization of the conference (www.iaps24.se). IAPS-EDRA ACTIVITTIES IN IAPS CONFERENCE

The promotion of a slot during the 24th IAPS conference for a plenary session for promoting the connection between IAPS and our sister organization EDRA, was discussed and approved to make the necessary contacts for being designed and submitted to the organizing committee. Some contacts have been made by the IAPS presidency with members of the board of EDRA. IAPS WEBSITE

The Board gave support to the proposal for a new website, as it was presented by Tony Craig. The construcction of the site is progressing towards a more visual, informative and interactive web, which will connect IAPS better to the membership and will better promote the networks and other activities carried out in IAPS. MEMBERSHIP FILES

The Board approved to give the necessary support to Petra for finalising the work with the IAPS membership files, and also to provide the financial support if necessary to get the files of IAPS well updated. Coordination with Tony should be maintained.





The Board approved more support to the Young Researchers Workshop, as one of the relevant activities within IAPS conferences. Clare Twigger will continue supporting this program as an adviser, and Karina Landeros will support the ongoing work of Petra Schweizer-Ries and Claudia Andrade. A decision of renewing the same amount of financial support approved for the 2014 workshop was made in this meeting. IAPS FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS

The IAPS Board approved the accounts presented by Clare Twigger-Ross, who informed about the new bank account in Spain, that she can now manage properly from its on-line platform. IAPS POLICY ON SUPPORTING EARLY CAREER RESEARCHERS

The board approved a second Call for Proposals (within 2015) for the IAPS Policy on Supporting the Participation of Early Career Researchers in Research Meetings (Amount: 2,000.00 Euros). A new Call for Proposals for 2016 was also approved (3.000 Euros). PUBLICATIONS POLICY

The promotion of the publications policy, with three important aspects was also approved: a) the IAPS support to the Advances in People-Environment Studies series, for the production of the post-conference book; b) our decision of requiring urgent information and give the necessary support to Corina Ilin about the progress of the post-conference book of the 23rd conference held in Timisoara last year; c) the discussion of the drafts of the IAPS Bulletin and IAPS Newsletter before its final publication, in order to involve the board in the discussion of the contents and facilitate the

inclusion of relevant information on any of the responsibilities in the board (Financial information, Membership issues, YRW, Conferences, general policies, etc. to be included in each issue). IAPS BOARD ELECTIONS

The IAPS Board approved the committee for managing the elections to be done next March 2016. Members of this committee: Giuseppe Carrus (representing the IAPS Board), Ombretta Romice, and Edward Edgerton. NETWORKS

The Board also approved the designation of Dr. Sarah Payne, from Heriot Watt University, together with Kevin Twaithes, as a convenor of the “Sensory Environments” network. IAPS SYMPOSIUM IN 2017 IN TANZANIA

The IAPS board gave the scientific support to the organization of an IAPS-symposium in 2017 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania at the Ardhi University. The proposal was made by Sigrun Kabisch, and came from Nathaly Jean-Baptiste, coordinator of the “Housing” network. An invitation is made to the “Sustainability” and “Culture and Space” networks to collaborate with this symposium. IAPS HALL OF FAME

The unanimous approval of the board members was given to the designation of Roderick Lawrence as a member of the IAPS Hall of Fame, in an act which will be held in Lund/Alnarp next year. Looking forward to see you in Lund / Alnarp!! Best regards

Ricardo García-Mira, Petra Schweizer-Ries, Caroline Häerhäll, Clare Twigger-Ross, Tony Craig, Karina Landeros, Sigrun Kabisch, Giuseppe Carrus, and Claudia Andrade





July 8th, 2015 Moderator: Ricado García Mira Participants: Raffaella Cagliano, Federico Caniato, Marino Bonaiuto, Linda Steg, and Wesley Schultz.


July 10th, 2015 Convener: Ricado García Mira Participants: Ellen Matthies, Giuseppe Carrus, Adina Dumitru, Tony Craig, Marino bonaiuto and Irina Macsinga.

Milan 2015. Thanks to the scientific committee for inviting us to organise this symposium. Thanks also to Ellen Matthies (Univ. Magdeburgo), Giuseppe Carrus (Univ. di Roma Tre), Adina Dumitru (Univ. of A Coruna), Tony Craig (James Hutton Institute), Marino Bonaiuto (Univ. Sapienza di Roma) and Irina Macsinga (Univ. de Vest din Timisoara), for their participation and for the active role they are carrying out in the within the field of sustainability transitions. The symposium explored the multiple research dimensions and determinants of sustainability transitions, as well as the main obstacles to achieving considerable greenhouse gas emissions reductions in areas such as energy consumption, waste generation and management or mobility. It explored the psychological and social factors influencing (un)sustainable behaviors, and the utility of different tools for the definition and testing of pathways for the transformation of workplaces and communities, such as participatory scenario development tools, modeling and simulations. Within a multi-disciplinary framework, the symposium showed how social science theory, modeling tools and multi-method empirical research can describe the conditions under which sustainable lifestyles can become the norm, rather than the exception.

Last July 9th, during the European Congress of Psychology and the Universal Exhibition of Milan, a session on “Sustainable Innovation of Food Supply Chain” was held at the Universitá Libera di Lingua e comunicazzione (Milan, Italy). Raffaella Cagliano and Federico Caniato (Politecnic of Milano), Marino Bonaiuto (Universitá Sapienza di Roma), Linda Steg (University of Groningen), and Wesley Schultz (California State University, San Marcos), moderated by Ricardo García Mira, were part of the table of discussion. One of the conclusions: Innovation in sustainability cannot emerge from the isolated analysis of environmental, social, economic, tecnological, political and cultural factors, because all these factors are in interaction and they need a trans-disciplinary approach which would generate new knowledge.



Ricardo García-Mira, Ellen Matthies, Giuseppe Carrus, Adina Dumitru, Tony Craig, Marino Bonaiuto, and Irina Macsinga.

Ricardo García-Mira, Raffaella Cagliano, Federico Caniato, Marino Bonaiuto, Linda Steg, and Wesley Schultz.

Wesley Schultz, Linda Steg, Ricardo García-Mira, Raffaella Cagliano, Marino Bonaiuto and Federico Caniato. IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015



Researchers from 9 EU Projects, together with Domenico Rossetti from the European Research Area of the EC, participated in the discussions.

An international workshop on “Theories of change in sustainability transitions”, was held at the Department of Psychology of the University of A Coruña last September 10th-11th, organized by the People-Environment Research Group. 35 leading researchers integrated within 9 European consortia, attended this meeting, which under the name of “pressure-cooker” was the center of a stimulating debate on priority themes in the research and innovation policy of the European Commission in the field of change and social innovation. A representative from the European Research Area of the EC attended the meeting, Dr. Domenico Rossetti, as well as other invited researchers from United States (Richard Stedman) and Brazil (Zulmira Bomfim).

The group discussions tried to understand the role of individual and collective agents and the mechanisms underlying their successes and failures in bringing societal transformation. The workshop is the second of a series of meetings whose aim is to create sinergies among European consortiums working on research projects with complementary objectives around sustainability and social innovation. The first presssure-cooker was held in Rotterdam in November of 2014. Discussions available from: www.udctv.es

Ricardo García Mira, Ana Iglesias, and Domenico Rossetti in the opening session of the Workshop.





Adina Dumitru adina.dumitru@udc.es Supervisers: Prof. Dr. David Uzzell & Ricardo García Mira

Organizations and their employees are among the largest users of the world´s energy resources (Kempton, Darley, & Stern, 1992; Oskamp, 2000; Stern, 2000). Recently, there has been a growing recognition of the role of universities in the transition towards a more sustainable society in recent years (Ki-Hoon et al., 2013; Lans et al., 2014; Sedlacek, 2013). The present research investigates the barriers to and drivers of pro-environmental behavior in a public higher education organization, in three categories of practices: consumption of materials and energy, waste generation and management, and work-related mobility. After performing an exploration of workers´ perceptions, it investigates the role of structural, organizational and individual factors in the adoption of proenvironmental behaviour in organizations and in the creation of contexts that support innovation leading to sustainable organizational change. The studies reported were carried out taking a public university in Galicia (Spain) as a case study, and used a multi-method approach that included focus groups, indepth interviews, a questionnaire and a back-casting scenario development methodology. Results give support to predictive models of pro-environmental behaviour that postulate a normative route to behaviour for both workers and students, and point to the potential for organizations to become autonomy-promoting contexts that encourage the pro-active engagement of workers in formulating and implementing creative sustainability sollutions. Keywords: pro-environmental behaviour at work, autonomypromoting contexts, organizational culture, social norms.




Martijn Keizer m.keizer@rug.nl Supervisers: Professor Dr. Linda Steg & Dr. Martijn van Zomeren, from the University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

Dr. Martijn Keizer has successfully defended his thesis entitled “Do norms matter? The role of normative considerations as predictors of pro-environmental behaviour” under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Linda Steg and Dr. Martijn van Zomeren the University of Groningen in the Netherlands.

Most individuals care about the environment and feel that they ought to contribute to enhancing environmental quality. Yet, few individuals seem to consistently engage in pro-environmental action. Does this mean that peoples’ normative considerations with regard to the environment are unimportant? The research results of Martijn Keizer suggest that norms do matter, but only under particular circumstances. Specifically, when the behavioural costs associated with pro-environmental action are perceived to be rather low, individuals are likely to act upon their normative considerations. However, when perceived costs are higher, individuals are less likely to act in line with these considerations. Furthermore, Keizer shows that situational changes which focus individuals’ attention on norms and normative behaviour increase the likelihood that individuals who care about the environment will act pro-environmentally. From these results, he concludes that the fact that most individuals care about the environment matters, because it means that when external factors are managed well, these individuals may not only say they care, but act on it too.




Danny Taufik d.taufik@rug.nl Supervisers: Prof. Dr. Linda Steg & Dr. Jan Willem Bolderdijk

Danny Taufik is a PhD student supervised by Prof. Dr. Linda Steg and Dr. Jan Willem Bolderdijk the University of Groningen in the Netherlands.

Recycling used paper, taking shorter showers and cycling to work instead of going by car are just a few examples of human behaviors that can be deemed as proenvironmental actions. But why do people decide to act in environmentally-friendly ways, even when such behaviors are costly to people in terms of for example effort and/or do not deliver benefits that are in people’s self-interest? The research findings described in Taufik’s dissertation suggest that feelings can play an important role in people’s environmental decision-making, because environmental actions have implications for people’s self-concept. People are more likely to act environmentally-friendly when they believe this will make them feel good. Furthermore, the research findings show that the strength of experienced feelings as a result of environmental actions depend on the extent to which environmental actions affect people’s self-concept. Acting in an environmentally-friendly manner does not only elicit a so-called warm-glow in people in the sense that they feel good about themselves. Such actions can even manifest themselves in a more literal warm-glow in the form of perceiving higher temperatures, thus giving people a warm feeling when they act environmentally-friendly.




URBS 5(1)

http://www2.ual.es/urbs/index.php/urbs URBS. Revista de Estudios Urbanos y Ciencias Sociales [Journal of Urban Studies and Social Science] is an online open-access journal edited by a group of scholars and professionals in different disciplines. The journal occupies an academic, professional and artistic intellectual production niche at the margins of the mainstream of our disciplines and of general science. It favors publication by authors committed to a wide range of critical postmodern theoretical and ideological perspectives. The journal accepts texts in English and in any of the Romance languages, with no preference for narrative genres (empirical research, theoretical reflection, essay, artistic production, etc.). The journal is indexed in some wellknown databases, but rejects impact factor policy on principle, because it understands that such policies are

directed at academic production and the conception of sciences in directions that impede free thought in matters of the subject of research and paradigmatic and methodological preferences. Implicit purpose of the URBS is precisely to favor the publication of those authors who are excluded by impact factor policy. URBS takes an active part in RPA_Red de Revistas AcadĂŠmicas Abiertas [OpenAccess Journal Network] http://www2. ual.es/urbs/index.php/urbs/pages/ view/RPA_red URBS 5(1) contains a total of thirteen texts in different sections, with subjects devoted to street art intervention, the derive as an environmental research method, the singular public transportation system in the city of Guadalajara (Mexico), a community program for revitalizing a socially excluded neighborhood in AlmerĂ­a (Spain), citizen experience after large-scale urban transformation in the cities of Valencia and Zaragoza


(Spain), as well as a description of urban transformations in the city of Genoa in recent decades. In this issue, an interesting original talk by Hans Scharoun, one of the great European architects of the century, on his proposal for integral rebuilding of Berlin after the War, has been saved. Finally, it is published a sample of poetic photography of funereal sculptures, and critical reviews of two books on postmodern architecture and psychogeography. As you can see, it is a selection of diversified materials showing the thematic wealth of contemporary urban studies. URBS has already begun to prepare its next issue, scheduled for the month of November 2015, which will be entirely devoted to reflections on Thematic Cities, including the various ramifications of this reurbanization strategy in continuous expansion in all the great cities in the world.



The Journal of Integrated Design Research (JIDR) is the official journal of the Design Institute of Inje University and replaced its predecessor, the Journal of Digital Interaction Design (did; ISSN: 1598-4605) which was launched in January 2002. The journal has been included in the list accredited by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea since 2010. The title of ‘did’ includes the terms of ‘digital’ and ‘interaction’ with its goal of pursuing human-centered design based on human-computer interactions within a newly emerging paradigm of information technologies. However, the terms already have become everyday concepts in our daily life. Therefore, expanding the scope and reflecting the need of today’s design environment accordingly, the title of was changed in 2014. The institute has pursued human-centered and userfriendly ‘Good Design’ on the basis of scientific evidences. In 2002, the institute was selected for the first time in Korea as the only Center for Research Excellence under the category

of Art & Sports, which had been financially supported by the NRF of Korea. This achievement made the journal to publish a wide range of interdisciplinary and collaborative research with other disciplines. The journal aims to promote the fundamental understanding of interdisciplinary design research. It covers peer-reviewed original research articles, reviews, case reports, and rapid communications in design and relevant disciplines such as philosophy, humanity, psychology, medicine, healthcare, public health, health informatics, medical engineering, business administration, statistics, and architecture. It also includes policy, education, managerial and behavioral aspects of design. To vitalize interdisciplinary research in design, the institute is committed to the development of JIDR as an authoritative scholarly journal in academia. This journal publishes quarterly (March, June, September, and December) in English as well as Korean in order to expand its readership globally. We therefore look forward to your consistent interest and forthcoming contribution to this journal. Contact for Inquiry The Editorial Office JIDR, Journal of Integrated Design Research

Seoul Office: 12th Fl, Seoul Paik Hospital, Mareunnaero 9, Junggu, Seoul, Korea (100-032) Tel: +82-2-2270-0997, 0998 Fax: +82-2-2270-0517

Gimhae Office: 197, Injero, Gimhaesi, Gyeongsamgnamdo, Korea (621-749) Tel: +82-55-320-3829, 3490 Fax: +82-55-328-3491 Email: idesign@inje.ac.kr Homepage: http://did.inje.ac.kr/eng/inje/sub4/1_1.php




AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Expanding the Role for Psychology in Addressing Environmental Challenges Susan Clayton. The College of Wooster Patrick Devine-Wright. University of Exeter Janet Swim. The Pennsylvania State University Mirilia Bonnes. Sapienza University of Rome Linda Steg. University of Groningen Lorraine Whitmarsh. Cardiff University Amanda Carrico. University of Colorado

Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research eeds to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or “place-based� approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human wellbeing, and relevance to other disciplines and to society. E-mail: sclayton@wooster.edu

Online First Publication, July 6, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039482



Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. Here, we argue that psychological research should inform efforts to address climate change, to avoid misunderstandings about human behaviour and motivations that can lead to ineffective or misguided policies. We review three key research areas: describing human perceptions of climate change; understanding and changing individual and household behaviour that drives climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate change and adaptation responses. Although much has been learned in these areas, we suggest important directions for further research. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Psychological research and global climate change

E-mail: sclayton@wooster.edu

Susan Clayton. The College of Wooster Patrick Devine-Wright. University of Exeter Paul C. Stern. National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences Lorraine Whitmarsh. Cardiff University Amanda Carrico. University of Colorado Linda Steg. University of Groningen Janet Swim. Pennsylvania State University Mirilia Bonnes. Sapienza University of Rome Published On-line, Jun 24, 2015. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2622




FOSTERING REASONABLENESS Supportive Environments for Bringing Out Our Best Edited by Rachel Kaplan and Avik Basu Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan, 2015.

We humans are difficult animals. We are the source of environmental degradation, the culprits of resource decline. We are reluctant to trust and easily angered. However, we are also the source of inspiration, compassion, and creative solutions. What brings out the reasonable side of our capacity? The Reasonable Person Model (RPM) offers a simple framework for considering essential ingredients in how people, at their best, deal with one another and the resources on which we all rely. RPM is a hopeful and engaging framework that helps us understand and address a wide diversity of issues.

The 20 chapters of Fostering Reasonableness provide the conceptual foundations of the framework and applications examining contexts as diverse as a region, organization, the IAPS - BULLETIN 43 | AUTUMN 2015

classroom, finding common ground in resource planning, education in the prison environment, greening in the inner city. Our collective hope in putting the book together is to encourage a way of seeing, a way of understanding and examining circumstances that might lead to more wholesome, adaptive, and effective means of addressing the big and little issues that depend on humanity’s reasonableness.



Introduction to the special issue on Positive and Environmental Psychology. Víctor Corral-Verdugo

Socio-physical environmental factors and sustainable behaviour asindicators of family positivity. Víctor Corral-Verdugo , Fernanda Durón, Martha Frías , César O. Tapia, Blanca Fraijo, José Gaxiola.

Frugality and psychological wellbeing. The role of voluntary restriction and the resourceful use of resources. Gabriel Muiños, Ernesto Suárez, Stephany Hess, Bernardo Hernández.

Contact with nature in educational settings might help cognitive functioning and promote positive social behaviour. Giuseppe Carrus, Ylenia Passiatore, Sabine Pirchio, Massimiliano Scopelliti.

Preference for trees, optimism and physical, psychological and social wellbeing among high school students. Cirilo H. García, Victor Corral-Verdugo, Griselda Benavides.

In search of a positive framework for communications about Global Climate Change. Positive communication about Global Climate Change. José Q. Pinheiro, Alexandra C. Farias.

Positive environment in the workplace: the case of the mediating role of work engagement between restorativeness and job satisfaction. Diego Bellini, Ferdinando Fornara, Marino Bonaiuto.


R. Walden (Ed.)

Schools for the Future Design Proposals from Architectural Psychology

▶ Psychological study

2015, XIII, 297 p. 155 illus., 46 illus. in color.

Printed book Softcover ▶ 46,72 € | £42.99 | $69.99 ▶ *49,99 € (D) | 51,39 € (A) | CHF 53.00

eBook Available from your library or ▶ springer.com/shop

MyCopy Printed eBook for just ▶ € | $ 24.99 ▶ springer.com/mycopy

Drawing on the perspectives of architectural psychology, set against the historical development of school building in the United States, Japan, and Germany, the authors’ vision is to create places where we would want to relive our own school days. The book takes the position that user design, control of stress factors and control of communication (privacy, retreats) should be allowed to modify the original architectural design to flexibly accommodate future changing requirements. The development and application of criteria for assessing functional, aesthetic, social-physical, ecological, organizational and economical aspects to various parts of the school complex call for a common language for the design process. The appendix presents 24 innovative schools from countries in five continents. Contents • The Historical Development of School Buildings in the USA, Japan and Germany • Conditions and Processes – Contributions of Architectural Psychology • Schools Designed with User Participation • What makes a school a “School of the Future”? Target Groups • Lecturers and Students of Sociology, Environmental & Architectural Psychology, Architecture, City Planning • Educators, Architects, and Policy makers involved in Planning and Running Schools Editor Rotraut Walden’s (PD. Dr. phil.) major fields of research are architectural psychology and work and organizational psychology. She holds a tenure position at the Institute for Psychology of the University in Koblenz, Germany, and has been a member of the Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA) since 1989.

Order online at springer.com ▶ or for the Americas call (toll free) 1-800-SPRINGER ▶ or email us at: customerservice@springer.com. ▶ For outside the Americas call +49 (0) 6221-345-4301 ▶ or email us at: customerservice@springer.com. The first € price and the £ and $ price are net prices, subject to local VAT. Prices indicated with * include VAT for books; the €(D) includes 7% for Germany, the €(A) includes 10% for Austria. Prices indicated with ** include VAT for electronic products; 19% for Germany, 20% for Austria. All prices exclusive of carriage charges. Prices and other details are subject to change without notice. All errors and omissions excepted.

Editor Ricardo Garcia Mira

University of A Coruna Department of Psychology People-Environment Research Group Campus de Elvi単a, s/n 15071 - A Coru単a (Spain) Phone: +34 881011792 Fax: +34 981167153 E-mail: ricardo.garcia.mira@udc.es URL: www.people-environment-udc.org

International Association for People-Environment Studies aims to improve the physical environment and human well-being.

Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.