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SERIES: MAKING SENSE OF INNOVATION

INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING DE-MYSTIFYING 80+ YEARS OF INNOVATION PROCESS DESIGN GK VanPatter Elizabeth Pastor


AUTHORS/EDITORS GK VanPatter and Elizabeth Pastor CoFounders, Humantific

RESEARCH ASSISTANT: Liv Marit Naess DESIGN: Humantific: Valentina Miosuro, Dalia AlbarrĂĄn Palma, Amanda Greenough, Nathalie Dekimpe COVER DESIGN: Alberto Herencia COPYEDITING: Cat McGuire, Sara Weinberger TYPEFACE: DIN PUBLISHED BY

Humantific Publishing First Edition: November 2016 Copyright Š 2016 Humantific Publishing, New York All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, scanning, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without the permission in writing from the publisher. All reasonable efforts have been made to credit the copyright holders of images in this book. If credits have been inadvertently ommitted, the publisher will endevour to incorporate amendments in future editions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and authors have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may or may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor the authors or any of their affiliates shall be liable for damages here from. For more information about Humantific Publishing visit www.humantific.com


SERIES: MAKING SENSE OF INNOVATION

INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING DE-MYSTIFYING 80+ YEARS OF INNOVATION PROCESS DESIGN GK VanPatter Elizabeth Pastor

Enjoy this preview. You can buy the book on amazon!


Innovation Methods Mapping was inspired by the creative and sharing spirit of original open innovation pioneers: Alex F. Osborn, L.H.D. Sidney J. Parnes, Ph.D. This book is dedicated to all those who strive to better understand the history of innovation methods construction, in order to more effectively create new tools that aid humans in tackling increasingly complex challenges and opportunities in our continuously changing world.

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CONTENTS 1. WHAT IS THIS BOOK ABOUT?..................................................................................... 1 ABOUT THIS BOOK.................................................................................................... 2 ADVANCE PRAISE...................................................................................................... 4 GLOSSARY OF TERMS............................................................................................... 6 2. WHAT PROCESS MODELS DID WE ANALYZE AND HOW?.......................................... 9 PROCESS MODELS ANALYZED {ORGANIZED BY NAME, DATE, GROUP, GROUP OVER TIME}. ...... 10 METHODS MAPPING FRAMEWORK.......................................................................... 24 3. WHAT DID WE FIND, OVERALL?................................................................................. 33 25 KEY FINDINGS...................................................................................................... 34 10 PROCESS DESIGN IMPLICATIONS....................................................................... 62 THINK BALANCE ANALYSIS FINDINGS.................................................................... 64 TERMINOLOGY ANALYSIS FINDINGS........................................................................ 68 4. WHAT DID WE FIND, BY INDIVIDUAL PROCESS MODEL? . ....................................... 75 ANALYSIS OF 63 PROCESS MODELS, ORGANIZED BY DATE

1920-1980.................................................................................................................. 76 1980-2000.................................................................................................................. 108 2000-2010.................................................................................................................. 130 2010-2016.................................................................................................................. 178 5. WHAT DOES YOUR PROCESS LOOK LIKE?................................................................. 203 MAP YOUR PROCESS: INSTRUCTIONS..................................................................... 204 MAP YOUR PROCESS: MAPPING FRAMEWORK TEMPLATE.................................... 206

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FORWARD Re-seeing things that we have all looked at a hundred times but without really understanding them is what this book is about. Garry and Elizabeth have for many years trusted in the power of understanding and in this book they bring that power to the difficult chaotic subject of innovation methods mapping. The power of making sense or as they say Sensemaking. The power of explaining. The power of truth. The power of the word quest as the dominant part of the word question. The power of all the above as it relates to design and the design of life. The quest seen here is the comparative examination and insightful explanation of often seen, obvious examples in plain sight, an unusual undertaking because this takes a mindset that many of us were trained not to have. I am intrigued and amused by this study. The word amused is not trivial. Amused being the result of true innovation as we smile at the opposite of expectation, which is in itself a radical alternative and innovation. Their analytical comments of the various maps of innovation that are presented in this study are worth a second read for the incisiveness. The analysis of the maps create patterns otherwise invisible. This is true and useful design research. For many of us our lives are built upon the interests that begin early. Those interests often stay with us for a lifetime. Knowing these two authors I understand this is a subject that they have had deep interest in for many years and wanted to sink their sensemaking teeth into. I know what that feels like. This book sews together many threads, answers many questions, and raises many others but perhaps most importantly it opens the door for more innovation around this tricky subject. In practical terms it is a subject that connects to how, and with what kind of shared language might we on planet earth develop to better work together going forward. Understanding often precedes action and this book makes a considerable contribution to former while opening up possibilities for the later. Congrats to this innovative pair of sensible individuals. Richard Saul Wurman Miami, FL. November 2016

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PREFACE The idea for this book: Making sense of innovation process design, came from everyday Humantific practice. As sensemaking and changemaking practice leaders we are often asked by our clients to explain various innovation methods or techniques appearing in the global marketplace. In addition we are often hired to help create customized innovation approaches for clients perceiving unique needs. Operating for years in this context we could certainly see the need for a compendium resource focused on this subject. We guessed that others would also be interested in such a resource if it was relatively simple to use and applicable to all innovation methods not just design. For Humantific the roots of being oriented towards making sense of various subjects springs from our early work with Richard Saul Wurman, a pioneer in what he referred to as “the understanding business”. One of Wurman’s inspiring early works was his Urban Atlas project, circa 1966. Acknowledging that it was difficult to understand the size of major cities due to the fact that so many diverse depictions existed, Wurman’s Urban Atlas project set out to draw 20 large American metropolises at the same scale. Allowing for side-by-side comparison through the lens of scale matching was a simple mechanism that proved to be effective. We wondered if this kind of visual sensemaking unified viewing might be possible for the chaotic subject of innovation methods which spans several communities of practice and has thus far defied any kind of unified understanding. This book presents our methods related sensemaking experiment focused on the architecture of innovation process models. In order to generate the common views across all models, we needed, in addition to the research itself, a viewing lens that could be applied to all innovation methods regardless of which community of practice they originated in. With this objective in mind we created the Innovation Methods Mapping Framework that you see in this book. It’s aim is to help readers consistently look across 10 dimensions of consideration. Innovation Methods Mapping presents this new methods analysis framework applied to 60+ innovation process model examples spanning a period of 80+ years.

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“Obviously there is an urgency for developing in people the ability to live with constant change in a dynamic society.�

Sid Parnes PhD.

Creative Behavior Guidebook, 1967 Prescient Creative Intelligence pioneers Alex Osborn {1888-1966} and Sid Parnes {1922-2013} believed, as early as the 1950s, that externalized process mastery was key to humans realizing continuous change making, adaptability, agility, flexibility, fluency, fluxability, resilience, adaptive capacity. xii


INTRODUCTION The focus of this study is to better understand innovation methods across the timeline of history in terms of knowledge evolution, design, and architectural construction, versus judging the effectiveness of various methods. The global rise of interest in visualized, externalized process historically coincides with recognition of rising complexity of challenges and the need to adapt ourselves, our organizations and our institutions to constant change. As challenges scale in complexity multiple constituents from diverse backgrounds are called upon to interact. This creates a need for participants to clarify/orchestrate thinking and action. Externalized methods become the visual navigation and coordination tools for deliberate change-oriented action. With an avalanche of innovation methods now in circulation within the marketplace, sorting out and making sense of the mess can be a daunting task. Innovation Methods Mapping introduces a new kind of method analysis framework designed to enhance understanding of historical and current process models as well as inform future process design. The ultimate goal of this project is to help move the art, science and design of innovation process modeling forward into the 21st century. xiii


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Operating a busy innovation consultancy, while doing research and writing books is not a formula for speedy book making. We are delighted to have the first volume in this series completed. Thank you to all the process inventors, designers, developers who’s method models appear in this book. Thank you to the members of the Humantific team who contributed to this project during its multiple year development. Thank you to all those requesting copies. Thanks for patiently waiting.

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1

WHAT IS THIS BOOK ABOUT?


ABOUT THIS BOOK This book is designed to fill what Humantific perceives to be a void in the field of innovation process knowledge and literature. It has been created and is being shared for educational purposes. Its intention is to present a cross section of innovation process examples along with a new analysis framework that introduces new forms of consideration for more deeply understanding innovation process construction and its various implications. WHY THIS STUDY IS DIFFERENT • Spans an 80+ year period. • Intends to be inclusive. • Presents a view across multiple fields of knowledge. • Is focused on de-mystifying the innovation process landscape from an architectural construction perspective. • Presents 10 views that are key to moving beyond a superficial understanding of innovation process construction such as Think Balance, Method Mode, Starting Points, Values, and Behaviors, etc. • This 10-part analysis framework is based in real world practice experience, not academic theories, to help others look at process models in new ways. • Unpacks and defuzzes graphic depictions of innovation process. • Includes original process drawings rather than redrawn depictions. • Presents 25 Key Findings. • Includes summary of Design Implications. • Is part of an ongoing study of innovation methodology and its implications.

2

INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


INTENDED AUDIENCES This book is intended for advanced readers on the subject of innovation related process knowledge. As a foundation for understanding, we assume readers already have a high level of knowledge, so this book is not going to be suitable for everyone. Our intended audiences include: Advanced practitioner leaders Advanced organizational leaders Advanced social change leaders Advanced graduate and post-graduate education leaders and students Adventuresome innovation process designers WHY THIS STUDY IS IMPERFECT • This collection of innovation process models represents a small sample and is not meant to be exhaustive. Many more innovation process models exist in the world and this research is ongoing. Book 2 is already underway. • For some models, there exists extensive material in the public realm in addition to the model itself. In other cases, little beyond the model itself was found. • The analysis team has the deepest knowledge of design thinking and applied creativity thinking also known as CPS {Creative Problem Solving}. • Gaining deep understanding of activities within each process is difficult for anyone to do by analyzing graphic depictions of models and related literature. • Considerable tacit knowledge exists around many process models that is difficult to capture and appreciate by looking at explicit materials. JARGON WATCH The analysis seen in this book contains several considerations not seen before in any literature. In some cases new terms have been created to introduce the considerations for the first time. An example would be Method Mode. No such consideration has been set in place previously, and thus no such term has ever existed before. The goal of the framework is not to create new jargon for the sake of jargon-making, but rather to give-voice to important considerations not previously in the mix. We are certainly aware of jargon watch. 1. ABOUT THIS BOOK

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ADVANCE PRAISE “ A masterful piece of work.” DR. SID PARNES & BEA PARNES Applied Creativity Pioneers “ Innovation Methods Mapping is a valuable companion for the creative, design or process expert as well as the prospective client or stakeholder community for innovation methods. This beautifully-designed, easy-to-read book demonstrates both the common core of activities that are essential to any innovation or design process, as well as the great diversity of methods available to practitioners. Most importantly, the authors recognize that there is simply no “one size fits all” silver bullet, enabling the reader to consider which methods are most appropriate for their specific needs and context. A welcome addition to the innovator’s bookshelf, and also an important first step in rethinking design and innovation for our hyper-complex, 21st century global challenges.” DR. ROBIN WOOD, President, The Renaissance2 Foundation “ This well documented and insightful collection of innovation processes fills a gap in the body of knowledge around the innovation discipline. It is a homage to all those involved in having shaped this practice, but also a tool to enlighten many future practitioners. Knowing where we come from allows us to understand where we should be heading towards.” LUIS ARNAL, Managing Partner, Insitum “ Innovation Methods Mapping provides a longoverdue guide to the diversity of methods and methodologies developed spanning more than 80 years in the related but often disjointed fields of creative problem solving and design.” ALEX J. RYAN, Ph.D., Associate, Booz Allen Hamilton, Center For The Application Of Design 4

“This book provides a travel guide for touring the wide and so far mostly uncharted area of design and innovation methods. The work reveals the great variety and - at the same time - the striking commonalities of the process models. An invaluable resource for learning and research in design.” DR. WOLFGANG JONAS, Professor of Research in Design, Braunschweig University of Art “This is an essential visual companion for people who are working in the constantly changing innovation landscape. It maps out the territory in a clear, concise, and simple manner. Anyone looking for different processes to challenge organisational structures and cultures—be they a beginner or professional—will not be disappointed. “ DR. EMMA JEFFERIES, Sr. Digital User Researcher, HMRC Digital Delivery Centre, Co-Author of Design Transitions “A rich and accessible tome of innovation resources. Its key contribution is in how we can further understand the history and foundations, the current thinking and the future framing of where innovation can and will shape our world and our reality.” KATHRYN BEST, Author, Design Management: Managing Design Strategy, Process and Implementation “ This book is an impressive, relevant and necessary overview of innovative methods. . . This exploration situates the past and present, while providing a potential landscape for exploring possibilities. An exciting resource for practitioners, professors and students alike.” DR. TIIU POLDMA, Vice Dean, Graduate Studies Faculty of Environmental Design, University Of Montreal INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


“ This book opens up an incredibly clear and useful framework for exploring a fascinating world systematically. It helps you make sense of a rich treasure of creative work. Methods Mapping revealed for us new patterns that helped us connect our ways of working with similar methods and inspired us to venture in creating new ones. More than mapping, it is also a recombining machine for one’s own creativity processes.” RAMON SANGÜESA, Ph.D., Partner, Cocreating Cultures “In History of the Inductive Sciences {1837}, William Whewell wrote: “To the formation of science, two things are requisite: Facts and Ideas; observation of Things without, and an inward effort of Thought; or, in other words, Sense and Reason.” This work brings together both through evidence and modeling in pursuit of a scientific approach to innovation.” KEVIN DYE, Principal Consultant, Dialogic Design International “ It seems every new decade sweeps in a new wave of design methods, the latest wave bringing design frameworks of scale and social complexity. The Innovation Methods Mapping is perhaps the first organized effort to demonstrate the relationships and patterns over the historical timeline. The work reveals the underlying inspirations connecting early creative processes to systems thinking to service and organizational design. The Mapping glues these together with a consistent design language that expresses the fundamental patterns in elegant simplicity. This design language enables the reader to select the right methods for complex situations or to develop consistent applications across methods. Few other resources – if any – give designers such an expressive capacity and understanding across methods.” PETER JONES, Ph.D., Founder, Redesign 1. ABOUT THIS BOOK

“ This book serves one important purpose: it provides documented evidence that design thinking and innovation process can be framed and facilitated in multiple ways. At the same time, the book is structured to help readers consider a great variety of frameworks through a template for comparison. The book will serve as an important reference resource for those involved in educating clients of design and innovation at the fuzzy front-end.” UDAY DANDAVATE, Co-founder & CEO, Sonicrim “ For innovation professionals, this is a useful collection of design innovation and creativity processes. They are graphically well-described and with excellent commentary. I recommend this book to designers and design students in any discipline.” DR. TERRENCE LOVE, Director, Love Services PTY LTD “ What a fantastic and successful effort in bringing together the multifold strands that form our understanding of innovation today. . . . A musthave for anyone who wants to make sense of the dispersed, disparate and ever-growing landscape of innovation.” DR. BETTINA VON STAMM, Director & Catalyst, Innovation Leadership Forum

ENJOY THIS BOOK? Feel Free to send us your quote to be included in our website or future books in this series. Email: methodsmapping@humantific.com 5


2

WHAT PROCESS MODELS DID WE ANALYZE AND HOW?


VIEW INTO ANALYSIS Existing process models appear in many shapes and sizes

8


VIEW INTO ANALYSIS Each process was unpacked and mapped

9


VIEW INTO ANALYSIS Models were grouped, organized and researched

10


VIEW INTO ANALYSIS Many iterations were made

11


PROCESS MODELS BY DATE { YEAR PUBLISHED } A detailed list of all processes in this book organized in order by date. PROCESS # {IN THIS BOOK}

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

YEAR

PAGE

Wallas Creativity Process...................................................................................................... 1926.................. 76 The Deming Cycle................................................................................................................. 1950.................. 78 Osborn Creative Problem Solving Process {Version 1.0}..................................................... 1953.................. 80 Altshuller Triz Process.................................................................................................Circa 1956.................. 82 Mesavoric Design Process Model......................................................................................... 1964.................. 84 Archer Design Process......................................................................................................... 1964.................. 86

7. Parnes CPS Spiral Model {Version 2.1}................................................................................ 1967.................. 88 8. Fuller Design Science Planning Process.............................................................................. 1967.................. 90 9. Jones Design Process........................................................................................................... 1970.................. 92 10. Gordon Synectics Model...............................................................................................Circa 1971.................. 94 11. Koberg & Bagnall Seven-Step Innovation Process.............................................................. 1972.................. 96 12. Rittel First Generation Model............................................................................................... 1972.................. 98 13. Leavitt Tripartite CPS Model {Version 1}.............................................................................. 1974................ 100 14. Osborn-Parnes CPS Process Model {Version 2.2} A............................................................ 1976................ 102 15. Osborn-Parnes CPS Process Model {Version 2.2} B............................................................ 1976................ 104 16. MG Taylor Process................................................................................................................. 1979................ 106 17. Checkland: Soft Systems Methodology................................................................................ 1981................ 108 18. Basadur Simplex CPS Process............................................................................................. 1983................ 110 19. Isaksen Treffinger CPS Process {Version 3.0}...................................................................... 1985................ 112 20. Cooper Stage-Gate Model..................................................................................................... 1986................ 114 21. Lean Six Sigma Process........................................................................................................ 1986................ 116 22. Appreciative Inquiry Process................................................................................................ 1987................ 118 23. Scheuing & Johnson Service Design Process...................................................................... 1989................ 120 24. Isaksen Treffinger CPS Process {Version 4.0}...................................................................... 1992................ 122 25. Isaksen Dorval CPS Process {Version 5.0}........................................................................... 1992................ 124 26. Morrison Creative Problem Solving Model........................................................................... 1992................ 126 27. Plsek Creative Thinking Cycle.............................................................................................. 1996................ 128 28. Creative Education Foundation CPS Process..............................................................Circa 2000................ 130 29. United Technologies Innovation Process.............................................................................. 2000................ 132 30. New Service Development Cycle.......................................................................................... 2000................ 134 31. Mindlab Co-Creation Process............................................................................................... 2002................ 136 32. IIT Innovation Planning Process........................................................................................... 2003................ 138

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INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


PROCESS # {IN THIS BOOK}

YEAR

PAGE

33. Frog Service Design Process.......................................................................................Circa 2004................ 140 34. IDEO Design Thinking Process............................................................................................. 2004................ 142 35. Evenson & Dubberly Service Design Process....................................................................... 2005................ 144 36. UK Design Council Design Process Model........................................................................... 2005................ 146 37. World CafĂŠ Process Model.................................................................................................... 2005................ 148 38. Puccio Murdock Mance CPS Process Model........................................................................ 2006................ 150 39. Structured Dialogic Design................................................................................................... 2006................ 152 40. D.School Design Thinking Process 2007.............................................................................. 2007................ 154 41. Fraley CPS Design Thinking Process.................................................................................... 2007................ 156 42. Hurson Productive Thinking Model...................................................................................... 2007................ 158 43. Engine Service Design Process...................................................................................Circa 2008................ 160 44. Nowhere Group Innovation Process..................................................................................... 2008................ 162 45. Stanford & Berkeley Design Thinking Cycle......................................................................... 2008................ 164 46. The Squiggle Of Design......................................................................................................... 2008................ 166 47. Beaumont Iterative Design Process..................................................................................... 2009................ 168 48. Institute For The Future Process.......................................................................................... 2009................ 170 49. D.School Design Thinking Process 2009.....................................................................Circa 2009................ 172 50. Nesta Innovation Process..................................................................................................... 2009................ 174 51. Pemandu: Big Fast Results.................................................................................................. 2009................ 176 52. Connect Consortium Innovation Process....................................................................Circa 2010................ 178 53. Copenhagen Living Lab Innovation Process................................................................Circa 2010................ 180 54. Luma Institute: Human-Centered Design Methods............................................................. 2010................ 182 55. North Karelian University Innovation Process............................................................Circa 2010................ 184 56. Stickdorn Service Design Process........................................................................................ 2010................ 186 57. Australian Centre Social Innovation Process....................................................................... 2011................ 188 58. Bloomberg Philanthropies Innovation Process.................................................................... 2011................ 190 59. Creative Education CPS Process.......................................................................................... 2011................ 192 60. Design Against Crime Innovation Process..................................................................Circa 2011................ 194 61. Frog Collective Action Process............................................................................................. 2012................ 196 62. Google Ventures Product Design Process...................................................................Circa 2013................ 198 63. Humantific Strategic Cocreation Process............................................................................ 2014................ 200

2. PROCESS MODELS AND FRAMEWORK

13


PROCESS MODELS BY GROUP, OVER TIME A visual timeline of process creation by group, to help put things in context of innovation methods eras. A few key processes are labeled for reference. ERA 1 1920s

GROUP 1: CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING {CPS} PROCESS MODELS

ERA 2 1930s

1926 Wallas Creativity Process

GROUP 2: DESIGN PROCESS MODELS

GROUP 3: PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS MODELS

GROUP 4: SERVICE DESIGN PROCESS MODELS

GROUP 5: ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION PROCESS MODELS

GROUP 6: SOCIETAL INNOVATION PROCESS MODELS

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INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


INNOVATION METHODS ERAS { Adapted from Dr. Sid Parnes CPS Eras }

ERA 3 1940s

ERA 4 1950s

1953 Osborne CPS Process

ERA 5 1960s

ERA 6 1970s

1967 1971 1974 Parnes Gordon Leavitt CPS Spiral Synectics Tripartite Process Process CPS Model

1964 Archer Design Process

ERA 7 1980s

ERA 8 1990s

1983

ERA 9 2000s

1992

Basadur Simplex CPS Process

2011

Isaken Dorval CPS Process

1972

Creative Education Foundation CPS Process

2004

Rittel First Generation Model

ERA10 2010s

IDEO Design Thinking Process

2010 LUMA Institute: Human-Centered Design Methods

1950

1986

2013

The Deming Cycle

Cooper Stage-Gate Model

Google Ventures Product Design Process

1989

2010

Scheuing & Johnson Service Design Process

Connect Consortium Innovation Process

1979 1981

1987

2014 Humantific Strategic Cocreation Process

MG Taylor Checkland Appreciative Process Soft Systems Inquiry Methodology Process

2. PROCESS MODELS AND FRAMEWORK

2002

2012

Mindlab Co-Creation Process

Frog Collective Action Process

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3

WHAT DID WE FIND OVERALL?


25 KEY FINDINGS

18

INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


KEY FINDINGS 1. DIVERSE PERSPECTIVES.................................................................................................. 36 2. COMMUNITY STREAMS..................................................................................................... 37 3. KNOWLEDGE ARENAS...................................................................................................... 38 4. GRAPHIC DEPICTIONS...................................................................................................... 39 5. HISTORICAL TENDENCIES................................................................................................ 40 6. STABLE STEPS.................................................................................................................. 41 7. MODEL TYPES.................................................................................................................... 42 8. GAINING ACCEPTANCE..................................................................................................... 43 9. EMBEDDED ASSUMPTIONS.............................................................................................. 44 10. BEHAVIORS IDENTIFIED................................................................................................... 45 11. BEHAVIOR ORIENTATION.................................................................................................. 46 12. METHOD MODE.................................................................................................................. 47 13. STARTING POINTS............................................................................................................. 48 14. TIME DEPICTION................................................................................................................ 49 15. ROLES DEFINED................................................................................................................ 50 16. SKILLS PROGRESSION...................................................................................................... 51 17. MASTERY WITHIN............................................................................................................. 52 18. GRAPHIC OMISSION.......................................................................................................... 53 19. DEPICTING VALUES........................................................................................................... 54 20. MEASUREMENT INTEGRATION........................................................................................ 55 21. COGNITIVE MEMORY......................................................................................................... 56 22. THINKING PREFERENCES................................................................................................ 57 23. OPEN INNOVATION............................................................................................................ 58 24. PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE........................................................................................................ 59 25. ENABLING OTHERS........................................................................................................... 60 3. OVERALL FINDINGS

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FINDING 1

DIVERSE PERSPECTIVES Looking across 80+ years of methods externalization history, it is evident that a wide variety of innovation process models have been created since the 1920s by individuals, organizations, experts and non-experts. In that diverse mix, it is not difficult to find many commonalities and many differences. While the analysis in this study reveals patterns across many models, no one unified theory of innovation process exists. Many diverse perspectives remain in the mix today.

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INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


FINDING 2

COMMUNITY STREAMS In this study we noted numerous community of practice streams. Each community has its own history, pioneers, protocols, heroes, politics, values, thought leaders, strengths and weaknesses. Some communities of practice are huge, while others remain relatively small. Some have several different names, making the picture confusing. Some are more well-known publicly than others. In this study, we found that prior to the network era, the practice communities tended to be inwardly focused and their methodology outputs often did not reflect already existing knowledge in other communities. This inwardly focused verticality remains a challenge in many communities of practice even today. We are optimistic that this book might contribute to raising cross-community knowledge awareness.

3. OVERALL FINDINGS

21


FINDING 9

EMBEDDED ASSUMPTIONS Most product and service design process models seen in this study have embedded assumptions that the challenges being faced are product or service related, and that solution outcomes will be products or services. These built-in situational assumptions place product and service process models downstream from the more upstream-oriented CPS models. Presuming up-front what the challenge and solution paths are is not a good fit with highly complex, fuzzy situations at the scale of organizations and societies.

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INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


FINDING 10

BEHAVIORS IDENTIFIED The basic/root cross-disciplinary behavior skills within applied creativity {CPS} process models {diverge, converge, deferral of judgment} have not significantly changed since they were first formally identified in the 1950s by Dr. J.P. Guilford, Dr. Sidney Parnes and other applied creativity pioneers. The identification and integration of those root behaviors into process has been part of the public domain for decades. Today, those behaviors appear and are taught as integral parts of numerous thinking systems. What is common across many, not all, process configurations are those underlying root behaviors.

3. OVERALL FINDINGS

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4 WHAT DID WE FIND BY INDIVIDUAL PROCESS MODEL?


PROCESS 3

OSBORN CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS Developed by Alex F. Osborn ORIGINAL PROCESS VIEW

DESCRIPTION

OVERVIEW ANALYSIS

• This seven step process is among the most “A comprehensive seven-stage CPS process. widely known and most influential early This process was based on Osborn’s work in the Creative Problem Solving {“CPS”} methods. advertising field, dealing with the natural tension between people on the more creative side {e.g. graphic • Like other early models, it was first described in artists, copywriters} and those on the business side list form and later appeared as a visual box model. {e.g. client/business managers} to develop successful • Note the appearance of Hypothesis as Step 4. campaigns and meet customers’ needs.” By 1967, several steps including this one had SOURCE been redesigned and renamed as the emerging Osborn, Alex. Applied Imagination. New York: CPS procedural language became more clear, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1953. thanks to Osborn, Parnes and their associates. Isaksen, S., and D. Treffinger. Celebrating 50 Years • Note the appearance of synthesis in this 1953 of Reflective Practice: Versions of Creative Problem CPS model. Synthesis is not exclusive to design. Solving.The Creative Problem Solving Group, 2008. • Note that the term “Brainstorming” does Copyrights of all process models remain with copyright holders. not appear in this model, although it appears in Osborn’s 1953 Applied Imagination book.

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INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


PROCESS 3

1953

ANALYSIS GROUP: CPS | DESIGN | PRODUCT DESIGN | SERVICE DESIGN | ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION | SOCIETAL INNOVATION

STEP-BY-STEP VIEW

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Orientation

Preparation

Analysis

Hypothesis

Incubation

Synthesis

Verification

HEMISPHERE VIEW

QUADRANT VIEW

PATTERN OPTIMIZATION

PATTERN CREATION

1

2

3

5

6

7

EXECUTE & MEASURE

DISCOVER & ORIENT

4

1

OPTIMIZE & PLAN

METHOD TYPE

METHOD MODE C

UPSTREAM

DOWNSTREAM

ROLES: YES

ZONE

STEP

P

MIXED

BEHAVIORS: NO

5

6

7

METHOD USE P SPLIT

INDIVIDUAL

GROUP

VALUES: NO DIVERGE CONVERGE DEFER JUDGMENT

4. INDIVIDUAL FINDINGS

C

3

DEFINE & CONCEPTUALIZE

4

STARTING POINT

2

EARTH COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

27


PROCESS 17

CHECKLAND: SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY Developed by Peter Checkland ORIGINAL PROCESS VIEW

\ DESCRIPTION “Soft systems methodology {SSM} is an approach to organizational process modeling {business process modeling} and it can be used both for general problem solving and in the management of change. It was developed in England by academics at the University of Lancaster Systems Department through a ten year action research program... The methodology was developed from earlier systems engineering approaches, primarily by Peter Checkland and colleagues such as Brian Wilson. The primary use of SSM is in the analysis of complex situations where there are divergent views about the definition of the problem.” SOURCE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_systems_ methodology

OVERVIEW ANALYSIS • This is a seven-step process described as a “soft systems methodology“. • It begins with an unstructured situation and ends with action to improve situation. • Graphically depicted in engineering style, much of this process maps to CPS. • Numerous depictions of this process exist. • Process is weighted/tilted to Pattern Creation. • Positioned as being focused on analysis. • Soft Systems literature seems to have no awareness of parallel design community or CPS community methodology knowledge. • No behaviors or values are graphically indicated.

Copyrights of all process models remain with copyright holders. 28

INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


PROCESS 17

1981

ANALYSIS GROUP: CPS | DESIGN | PRODUCT DESIGN | SERVICE DESIGN | ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION | SOCIETAL INNOVATION

STEP-BY-STEP VIEW

1

2

3

4

Problem Situation

Problem Expressed

Define Activity Systems

Conceptualize Model Models Comparison

HEMISPHERE VIEW

6

7

Design Changes

Action to Improve

QUADRANT VIEW

PATTERN OPTIMIZATION

7

5

PATTERN CREATION

1

2

5

6

3

EXECUTE & MEASURE

DISCOVER & ORIENT

7

1

OPTIMIZE & PLAN

DEFINE & CONCEPTUALIZE

4

2

3

4

5

6

STARTING POINT

METHOD TYPE

METHOD MODE C

UPSTREAM

DOWNSTREAM

ROLES: NO

ZONE

STEP

P

MIXED

BEHAVIORS: NO

P SPLIT

INDIVIDUAL

GROUP

VALUES: NO DIVERGE CONVERGE DEFER JUDGMENT

4. INDIVIDUAL FINDINGS

C

METHOD USE

EARTH COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

29


PROCESS 28

CREATIVE EDUCATION FOUNDATION CPS PROCESS Developed by the Creative Education Foundation ORIGINAL PROCESS VIEW

DESCRIPTION “Influenced by Osborn and Parnes’ research on the steps that are involved when people solve problems.” {CEF, 2011} SOURCE Creative Education Foundation. Creative Education Foundation, Inc, 2011. www.creativeeducationfoundation.org/our-process/ what-is-cps Copyrights of all process models remain with copyright holders.

OVERVIEW ANALYSIS

• This process builds on and continues the

Osborn-Parnes historical logic. This model reflects the Linear Break Movement that began in the CPS community in the 1980s.

• The waterfall depiction logic has been broken

and the process is now shown as interconnected zones with steps within.

• Behaviors of divergence and convergence remain in each step.

• As per the very early CPS models, this process ends in Acceptance Finding {AF}.

• Assumes non-linear, overlapping and iterative procedure.

• As in numerous earlier CPS models, this process is weighted towards Pattern Creation.

30

INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


PROCESS 28

2000

ANALYSIS GROUP: CPS | DESIGN | PRODUCT DESIGN | SERVICE DESIGN | ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION | SOCIETAL INNOVATION

STEP-BY-STEP VIEW

Generate Ideas

Explore the Challenge

1

2

3

4

5

6

Objective Finding

Fact Finding

Problem Finding

Idea Finding

Solution Finding

Acceptance Finding

HEMISPHERE VIEW

QUADRANT VIEW

PATTERN OPTIMIZATION

6

Prepare for Action

PATTERN CREATION

1

2

3

EXECUTE & MEASURE

DISCOVER & ORIENT

4

1

2

5

OPTIMIZE & PLAN

DEFINE & CONCEPTUALIZE

6

STARTING POINT

METHOD TYPE

METHOD MODE C

UPSTREAM

DOWNSTREAM

ROLES: YES

ZONE

STEP

P

MIXED

BEHAVIORS: YES DIVERGE CONVERGE DEFER JUDGMENT

4. INDIVIDUAL FINDINGS

3

C

4

5

METHOD USE P SPLIT

INDIVIDUAL

GROUP

VALUES: NO EARTH COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

31


PROCESS 62

GOOGLE VENTURES PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS Developed by Google Ventures ORIGINAL PROCESS VIEW

DESCRIPTION “4 Steps for Combining the Hacker Way with Design Thinking... for use across many internal “portfolio” businesses.” SOURCE Fast Company, 6/25/2013. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=qvdO0G4uQgc#at=184 Copyrights of all process models remain with copyright holders.

OVERVIEW ANALYSIS • Not sure where the “Hacker Way” is here as this is a straightforward five step model with only one cycle of divergence and convergence. Converge depicted as “Decide.” • Historically speaking, the steps are renamed, but not really reconfigured. Reflects no awareness of CPS historical or contemporary knowledge. • The process appears to be geared towards features and functionalities creation. Diverge and Decide {Converge} are described as specific steps rather than behaviors. Visualization plays a significant role in this process. • Method Mode is not graphically indicated. • Measure is not graphically indicated. • Typical of many post-2010 design process models, it is being depicted as “design thinking.”

32

INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


PROCESS 62

2013

ANALYSIS GROUP: CPS | DESIGN | PRODUCT DESIGN | SERVICE DESIGN | ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION | SOCIETAL INNOVATION

STEP-BY-STEP VIEW

1

2

3

4

5

Understand

Diverge

Decide

Prototype

Validate

HEMISPHERE VIEW

QUADRANT VIEW

PATTERN OPTIMIZATION

4

5

PATTERN CREATION

1

2

EXECUTE & MEASURE

DISCOVER & ORIENT

5

1

OPTIMIZE & PLAN

DEFINE & CONCEPTUALIZE

3

4

STARTING POINT

METHOD TYPE

METHOD MODE C

UPSTREAM

DOWNSTREAM

ROLES: NO

ZONE

STEP

P

MIXED

BEHAVIORS: YES DIVERGE CONVERGE DEFER JUDGMENT

4. INDIVIDUAL FINDINGS

2

C

3

METHOD USE P SPLIT

INDIVIDUAL

GROUP

VALUES: NO EARTH COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION

33


ABOUT

HUMANTIFIC

Headquartered in New York, Humantific is a leading sensemaking-based changemaking consultancy. We work with organizational leaders to make sense of complexity, tackle complicated fuzzy challenges involving multiple constituents, and build inclusive innovation cultures that maximize collective brainpower. Our focus is operationalizing crossdisciplinary innovation, making it understandable, teachable and real. Our hybrid approach integrates the best of humancentered design, strategic problem solving and information visualization. In our work with organizations, we review hundreds of innovation initiatives, strategies, models, and tools every year. Involved in many types of practice-based research and real world applications our ultimate goal is to contribute to making the world more humancentered, life-centered. That journey continues with the publication of this book. 34

INNOVATION METHODS MAPPING


HUMANTIFIC FOUNDERS

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

GK VanPatter is an internationally recognized innovation architect, methodologist and capacity building advisor. His passion is building inclusive cross-disciplinary innovation cultures. His long-standing work includes the integration of visual sensemaking into complex problem finding/solving contexts. Prior to forming Humantific, he was Innovation VP at Scient, a Scient Fellow and CoFounder of Scient’s Innovation Acceleration Labs. Former editor of NextD Journal, GK writes frequently on the subjects of strategic design thinking, and inclusive innovation. He was an early advocate of rethinking design thinking beyond product, service and experience creation. He holds a Master’s degree in design from Pratt Institute in New York and is working on his PhD at Swinburne University. He speaks frequently at conferences on subjects related to innovation enabling in organizations and the future of design that is already here! He lives in New York City.

Elizabeth Pastor is an internationally recognized innovation leader, designer, facilitator, and educator with a unique expertise in Visual SenseMaking and Strategic Co-Creation. Her passion is helping people learn, understand and make sense of complex situations in new and inclusive ways. She works with a range of clients, from small/medium size organizations to global Fortune 100 companies as well as numerous non-profits. In collaboration with GK VanPatter she cofounded the Innovation Acceleration Labs at Scient and codesigned Humantific’s Complexity Navigation Program. Elizabeth teaches in the Executive MBA program at Spain’s ICADE Graduate Business School and she created BRAINBOOM!, a graduate orientation program at the European Institute of Design in Madrid. She holds a Master’s degree from Art Center College of Design in California and is working on her PhD at Swinburne University. She speaks at conferences around the world. A native of Madrid, she now lives in New York City. 5. MAP YOUR PROCESS

35


“A masterful piece of work” DR. SID PARNES & BEA PARNES

“Fantastic” DR. BETTINA VON STAMM

“Excellent commentary” DR. TERRENCE LOVE

“Clear, consise and simple. An essential visual companion” DR. EMMA JEFFERIES

“A welcome addition to the innovator’s bookshelf” DR. ROBIN WOOD

“An invaluable resource for learning and research in design”

“Elegant simplicity” PETER JONES, Ph.D.

“An important reference” UDAY DANDAVANTE

“Impressive, relevant, necessary ” DR. TIIU POLDMA

“Well documented” LUIS ARNAL

“Incredibly clear and useful” RAMON SANGÜESA, Ph.D.

“A rich and accessible tome of innovation resources” KATHRYN BEST

DR. WOLFGANG JONAS

www.humantific.com 36

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