HUMAN CAPITAL CAREER TRENDS MAGAZINE

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HUMAN CAPITAL Career Trends

IMMIGRATION PATHS Leonardo Freitas, CEO and Founder, and Elaine Wood, Chief Legal Officer, HAYMANWOODWARD: National Interest Waivers and U.S. Admissibility Trailblazing Solutions: How Tennessee is spearheading the response to the U.S. Physicians Shortage

Online ISSN 2771-9146 | Print ISSN 2771-9138

Foreign-Trained Dentists: U.S. Path STEM Professionals

PROMISSING CAREERS IN THE U.S. Learn about most in needed careers in the U.S. STEM International Students Strategic Biotech Leadership Amidst Aging Demographics.

NOVEMBER | DECEMBER 2023

SUSTAINABLE FUTURE Reinforcing Economic Growth Through U.S. Residential Construction. HVAC Industry and the Environment: Comfortable and Sustainable.

MISSION TO THE SUN Danilo Dias, Chief Revenue Officer, HAYMANWOODWARD: The U.S. aerospace industry's majestic ascent and Aero-Innovations -New Horizons for Professionals


The Bright Side We are leading the career path for a global mobile generation of high-skilled professionals, executives, and entrepreneurs, lighting the way for a more brilliant future for all. Human Capital Career Trends


HUMAN CAPITAL Career Trends EDITOR IN CHIEF Ana Paula Montanha CEO Leonardo Freitas CHIEF OPERATING OFFICER Danilo Dias MAGAZINE JOURNALIST & MARKETING DIRECTOR Elaine Dotto BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT DIRECTOR Luiz Franca

Human Capital Career Trends Magazine (Online ISSN 2771-9146 | Print ISSN 2771-9138) is an American national magazine focused on career trends, immigration, and society, published six times per year on a bimonthly basis, it is published by Hayman-Woodward Human Capital Services. Human Capital Magazine considers its sources reliable and verifies as much data as possible, although reporting incarnates can occur; consequently, readers using this information due so at their risk. Human Capital Magazine is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not rendering legal services or financial advice. The views expressed in the articles reflect the author's (s) opinions and do not necessarily are the views of the publisher and editor. The published material, adverts, editorials, and all other content is published in good faith. Human Capital Magazine cannot guarantee and accepts no liability for any loss or damage of any kind caused by this website and errors and for the accuracy of claims made by the advertisers. All rights reserved, and nothing can be partially or in whole reprinted or reproduced without written consent. All rights reserved. No part of any Human Capital Magazine published work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Human Capital Magazine reserves the right to change any information on these articles without notice. By reading this magazine, you agree to all terms and conditions listed above. If you have any questions about this policy, you may contact us.

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CONTENTS 6

Editor’s Note.

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Reinforcing Economic Growth Through U.S. Residential Construction.

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HVAC Industry and the Environment: Comfortable and Sustainable.

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Strategic Biotech Leadership Amidst Aging Demographics.

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An Alarming Worldwide Shortage of Physicians.

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Trailblazing Solutions: How Tennessee is spearheading the response to the U.S. Physicians Shortage.

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Assessing the U.S. Dentistry Labor Shortage.

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Foreign-Trained Dentists: U.S. Path.

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Customer Experience (CX): relevance in an ever connected world.

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Aero-Innovations: New Horizons for Professionals in U.S. Aerospace.

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Encouraging International STEM Students to Attend U.S. Universities.

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Immigration: National Interest Waivers and U.S. Admissibility.

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INDUSTRY EXPERTS LEADERSHIP THOUGHT Leonardo Freitas, CEO of HAYMAN-WOODWARD, and Business Immigration expert. Elaine Wood, Chief Legal Officer of HAYMAN-WOODWARD, and Immigration Law expert. Danilo Dias, Chief Revenue Officer and Board Adviser of HAYMAN-WOODWARD,, Infrastructure expert. Ana Paula Montanha, Managing Partner and CHRO of HAYMAN-WOODWARD HUMAN CAPITAL, and Editor-in-Chief, Human Capital expert. Luiz Franca, our Business Development Director of HAYMAN-WOODWARD,, and Sales expert. Abir Maryam, Legal Writer, Public Administration and University Program Management expert. Ricardo Cardoso Luiz, Entrepreneur and Founder of RBV Service Granite LLC, Residential Construction, Quartz and Granite expert. Jhonata Wolff, Entrepreneur and Founder of Wolff Enterprise Group, Construction Industry and HVAC expert. Guilherme Telles, CEO & Founder, American Dental Institute, Dental Industry expert. We're genuinely grateful for your support, and we know that your knowledge and experience will make a difference in the lives of our readers.

Human Capital Career Trends Magazine 500 Montgomery Street, suite 210, Alexandria, 22314, VA, US

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EDITOR'S NOTE Ana Paula Montanha, Managing Partner and CHRO, HAYMAN-WOODWARD, and Editor-in-Chief, Human Capital expert.

In the age of isolation, leaders faced unique challenges: creating a connection among team members who are sometimes physically separated. With hybrid work becoming the norm for organizations, it was crucial to build meaningful relationships and to foster a sense of community among their employees. But how did the most successful ones do it? We analyzed how great leaders used everything they had and more to build a connection. Great leaders understood earlier on that connection was essential for productivity, engagement, and employee well-being. They also recognized that a relationship doesn't happen accidentally; it requires deliberate effort and intentionality. This month we explore how great leaders created connections in the age of isolation. EMBRACED TECHNOLOGY One of the most significant advantages of the modern age is the abundance of technology that makes it easy to connect with people from anywhere in the world. Great leaders embraced technology to build virtual connections with their team members. They used video conferencing tools, messaging apps, and collaboration platforms to stay in touch and work together, no matter their location. PRIORITIZED COMMUNICATION Communication is the cornerstone of any successful relationship, especially in a remote work environment. Great leaders prioritized communication and created opportunities for team members to connect and share ideas. They encouraged open dialogue and active listening and provided frequent feedback to ensure everyone was on the same page.

FOSTERED A SENSE OF COMMUNITY. Creating a sense of community among team members is essential for building connections. Great leaders create virtual spaces where team members can interact and share their thoughts and experiences. This might include creating virtual water coolers and social channels or scheduling regular team-building activities that promote bonding and teamwork. LED WITH EMPATHY. Empathy is a crucial trait of great leaders, and it's even more critical in the age of isolation. Leaders who lead with empathy take the time to understand their team members' needs, concerns, and challenges. They create a safe space where team members can share their feelings and work together to find solutions for everyone. CELEBRATED SUCCESS, EVEN THE SMALL WINS. In a remote work environment, it can be easy to lose sight of the big picture and the progress that has been made. Great leaders celebrated successes and recognized the hard work that team members have put in. They acknowledged accomplishments, provided positive feedback, and created opportunities to celebrate together. The best leaders were the ones who embraced technology, prioritized communication, fostered a sense of community, led with empathy, and celebrated success to build meaningful relationships with their team members, no matter where they were. These strategies enabled leaders to create a connected and engaged team equipped to overcome any challenge. What kind of leader are you?

COMPASSIONATE AND MERITOCRATIC LEADERSHIP A essential human capital strategy for organizations to stay ahead of the competition. Compassionate and meritocratic leaders acknowledge and value all team members' strengths, regardless of their backgrounds or circumstances. They strive to create an environment where people feel safe and appreciated rather than intimidated or judged. They prioritize equal opportunities for everyone in the workplace, ensuring everyone is valued for their abilities and contributions. Compassionate and meritocratic leaders also recognize that each individual is unique and strive to empower their team members with the resources they need to perform at their best. They understand that everyone has different goals and needs, so they provide tailored support and guidance.

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In the current fast-paced business environment, achieving consistent results is a prerequisite for companies that aim to stay ahead of the competition.However, successful leadership entails much more than meeting deadlines and targets. The most effective leaders inspire and motivate their teams to perform at their best while showing compassion and empathy toward their employees. Having compassionate leaders at the top of an organization is particularly crucial in the US, where talent is scarce, and companies compete to attract and retain the best professionals; case in point, all professional services, technology, and energy industries, to name a few. Compassionate leaders can foster strong employee relationships, build a positive work environment that stimulates creativity and collaboration, and attract new top talent. Compassionate leaders recognize that their employees are not just machines but human beings with unique needs, aspirations, and challenges. They take the time to listen to their employees, understand their concerns, and provide guidance and support when necessary. They also understand the significance of work-life balance and encourage employees to take time off when required to recharge and rejuvenate. Moreover, compassionate leaders can establish a culture of trust and respect within their organizations. They lead by example, treating their employees with kindness, fairness, and dignity. They encourage open communication and collaboration, creating a safe space for employees to share their ideas and opinions without fearing judgment or retribution. BUILDING A POSITIVE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Research has revealed that compassionate leadership significantly impacts employee engagement, productivity, and overall job satisfaction. According to a study by the University of Michigan, my alma mater, leaders who showed empathy and compassion towards their employees had more engaged, productive, and loyal teams than those who did not. SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS WITH COOPERATION In the current fast-paced business environment, achieving consistent results is a prerequisite for companies that aim to stay ahead of the competition.

However, successful leadership entails much more than meeting deadlines and targets. The most effective leaders inspire and motivate their teams to perform at their best while showing compassion and empathy toward their employees. Having compassionate leaders at the top of an organization is particularly crucial in the US, where talent is scarce, and companies compete to attract and retain the best professionals; case in point, all professional services, technology, and energy industries, to name a few. Compassionate leaders can foster strong employee relationships, build a positive work environment that stimulates creativity and collaboration, and attract a new set of top talent. Compassionate leaders recognize that their employees are not just machines but human beings with unique needs, aspirations, and challenges. They take the time to listen to their employees, understand their concerns, and provide guidance and support when necessary. They also understand the significance of work-life balance and encourage employees to take time off when required to recharge and rejuvenate. Moreover, compassionate leaders can establish a culture of trust and respect within their organizations. They lead by example, treating their employees with kindness, fairness, and dignity. They encourage open communication and collaboration, creating a safe space for employees to share their ideas and opinions without fearing judgment or retribution. Compassionate leadership also positively affects the bottom line. A study by the Harvard Business Review found that companies with high levels of employee engagement were 22% more profitable than those with low levels of engagement. Engaged employees are more committed to their work, more likely to exceed expectations, and less likely to quit. Here are some tips on how to become a more compassionate leader: Listen actively: Leaders must take the time to listen to employees' concerns and ideas. Actively engage in conversations to show that the leader values their input. Lead by example: model the behavior the organization wants to see in employees. Treat them with kindness, fairness, and respect.

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Provide support and be there for employees when they need guidance or support. Offer resources such as counseling services or flexible work arrangements if necessary. Encourage work-life balance: recognize the importance of work-life balance and encourage employees to take time off when required to recharge and rejuvenate. Foster open communication: create a safe space for employees to share their ideas and opinions without fear of judgment or retribution. Encourage open communication and collaboration within the team. Recognize the hard work: Recognizing and rewarding employees who consistently demonstrate high-quality work and contribute to the organization's success is crucial. Every leader must uphold the importance of delivering consistent and measurable results. IMPLEMENTING COMPASSIONATE LEADERSHIP IN THE WORKPLACE

Lead by example: Leaders should model the behavior they want to see from their employees. Encourage leaders to treat their employees with kindness, fairness, and respect. Monitor progress: Regularly assess how well the leadership style is being implemented. Combining compassionate and meritocratic leadership creates a positive work environment where employees feel valued, supported, and recognized for their hard work based on objective criteria. This approach fosters trust, open communication, collaboration, fairness, and equality within the organization, leading to higher employee engagement, retention rates, and overall job satisfaction. It helps attract top talent, fosters creativity, innovation, and collaboration, and improves overall performance outcomes, ultimately leading to success in today's fast-paced business world. Happy Holidays !

Implementing compassionate leadership in the workplace can be a game-changer for an organization. It can help attract and retain top talent, increase employee engagement, and create a positive work environment. Here is a plan that outlines how to implement compassionate leadership in the workplace: Assess the current state of leadership: Before implementing any changes, it is essential to assess the organization's current state of leadership. Conduct surveys or focus groups to understand what employees think about their managers' leadership styles. Understand that promoting individuals solely based on their ability to praise and applaud others rather than their ability to deliver superior value, for example, has an enormous impact on morale. Train leaders on compassionate leadership: Once chiefs understand where the organization stands, provide training sessions for leaders on compassionate leadership. Help them understand the importance of empathy and how to show it to their employees. Provide support and be there for employees when they need guidance or support. Offer resources such as counseling services or flexible work arrangements if necessary. Encourage work-life balance: recognize the importance of work-life balance and encourage employees to take time off when required to recharge and rejuvenate. 8 | Human Capital Career Trends

Ana Paula Montanha is a seasoned executive and entrepreneur. She serves as Chief Human Resources Officer at HAYMANWOODWARD and Co-founder of HAYMAN-WOODWARD HUMAN CAPITAL SERVICES. She holds a master’s in business administration from Stephen M. Ross School of Business, the business school of the University of Michigan, a graduate degree in marketing, and a bachelor’s in economics.


REINFORCING ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH U.S. RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION


REINFORCING ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH U.S. RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION Expert Opinion: Entrepreneur and Founder of RBV Service Granite LLC.

Exploring the bedrock of economic prosperity with insights on home construction’s pivotal role – Unearth opportunities for growth and stability in the U.S. economy. The residential construction and remodeling industry in the United States is a foundational pillar of economic stability, intricately linked with national growth and employment trends. Its significance is amplified by incorporating high-demand materials like quartz and granite, which are central to this sector’s vibrancy. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quartz market alone is integral to civil construction, is set to expand from $2.235 billion in 2018 to a projected $3.606 billion by 2027. With U.S. quartz exports climbing to $8.23 million in May 2023, this represents a significant 48.9% year-over-year increase, underscoring the material’s escalating prominence in global trade. Furthermore, the National Association of Home Builders highlights the construction sector's contribution of 4.1% to the U.S. GDP in 2020, with residential construction at 3.3%, reinforcing the industry’s economic clout. Granite, synonymous with strength and durability, is equally central to the industry's dynamism, reflecting consumer preferences and broader economic indicators. The stone’s aesthetic and practical applications have spurred a robust market, with the U.S. residential remodeling market estimated at USD 512.01 billion in 2022 and projected to grow at a CAGR of 4.4% through 2030. This trajectory is shaped by rising disposable incomes and a shift towards more aesthetically appealing and durable housing elements, as reported by Grand View Research. The Harvard University Joint Center for Housing Studies fortifies this outlook, noting an increase of over 3% in home improvement and repair expenditures. Florida emerges as a noteworthy player in the granite market, with the Shimberg Center for Housing Studies at the University of Florida indicating a thriving housing market where granite is 10 | Human Capital Career Trends

increasingly favored in new constructions and renovations. The state’s strategic geographic positioning as a significant import hub for granite underscores its role in national and international trade, bolstering its economic fabric through job creation and investment. Texas, with its expansive housing market and significant urban development, is poised to mirror this growth, with materials like quartz and granite underpinning the Lone Star State's construction industry. The robust construction activities in these states are a microcosm of the U.S. economy's resilience and ingenuity, epitomizing the industry's potential for sustained growth and innovation. The U.S. home construction and remodeling sector, using materials like quartz and granite, reflects the nation’s economic vitality and contributes to it. Consumer preferences, technological advancements, and the strategic financial positioning of pivotal states like Florida and Texas propel this sector’s expansion. With the United States as a linchpin in the international market for these materials, the industry is well-positioned to maintain its role as a material of the future in construction and as an economic stabilizer. The most updated numbers for the U.S. home construction and remodeling industry, specifically focusing on the remodeling sector, provide a comprehensive view of its significant economic impact and growth trajectory. Market Size and Growth Rate: The U.S. residential remodeling market was estimated to be approximately USD 512.01 billion 2022. This market is projected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.4% from 2023 to 2030. Economic Indicators and Labor Trends: • The construction employment cost index has seen a 4.6% year-over-year increase as of 2022, with a slight gain of 0.4% compared to the previous quarter.


The construction industry labor force expanded by 4.3% over the last six months, while the construction unemployment rate remained very low at 3.8%. Skilled labor continues to be a significant challenge across all aspects of the industry, including shipping, trucking, manufacturing, and on-site construction. Material Costs and Availability: The freight cost index is down from the last quarter despite an increase in the cost of diesel fuel, which is a crucial component of the U.S. supply chain for shipping and freight distribution. There has been an improvement in the availability of many construction materials, although mechanical and electrical equipment maintains extended lead times. Commercial Construction and Contractor Confidence: The contractor backlog remains strong at over nine months nationally. Private retail construction volume increased 7.8% since the last quarter and 6.7% compared to the previous year. EXPERT OPINION Ricardo Cardoso Luiz, a renowned global entrepreneur and the visionary founder of RBV Service Granite LLC, shared his in-depth analysis and observations on the prevailing market dynamics and the substantial economic impact of the industry. Ricardo Cardoso Luiz is a highly qualified business administrator and a successful entrepreneur with over 14 years of experience in Brazil, and the U.S. RBV Service Granite LLC is a leading provider of high-quality marble and granite products that are recognized for their expert craftsmanship, innovative solutions, and commitment to enhancing the functionality and aesthetics of spaces.

Ricardo Cardoso Luiz, the founder of RBV Service Granite LLC

His expert opinions draw from a wealth of international experience and reflect a deep understanding of the sector's trajectory. Market Trends and Consumer Preferences How have market trends and consumer preferences evolved in the home construction and remodeling industry, Ricardo, especially regarding the use of granite, and how is your company adapting to these changes? We've observed a steady increase in demand for high-quality, durable materials, customization and sustainability, with Quarts and Granite being a top choice for countertops and flooring. Consumers are more knowledgeable and specific about their desires for unique designs and environmentally responsible materials. To adapt to these shifts, RBV Service Granite LLC we’ve expanding our portfolio to include a wider array of quartz and granite options, focusing on providing customizable options to meet diverse consumer tastes.

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Economic Impact Ricardo, can you elaborate on the economic impact of the granite industry on the U.S. economy, particularly in the context of job creation, local economies, and international trade? The granite industry significantly contributes to the U.S. economy, especially regarding job creation. From quarrying to fabrication and installation, each step generates employment opportunities. Additionally, we contribute to the local economies by sourcing domestically wherever possible. On the international front, we're part of a global supply chain that supports trade and brings diverse granite varieties to the U.S. market. Sustainability and Innovation Given the increasing focus on sustainability, how is your company addressing environmental concerns in the extraction and processing of Quartz and Granite? What innovative practices are you implementing to stay ahead in the industry? Sustainability is at the forefront of our operations. We're implementing environmentally friendly quarrying practices and recycling water in our processing plants. Innovation-wise, we're exploring advanced technologies to improve the efficiency of granite processing and reduce waste. We're also investing in R&D to develop new products and applications for Granite in modern construction. Challenges and Opportunities What are the biggest challenges currently facing the granite industry in the U.S., and conversely, what do you see as the most significant opportunities for growth and development in the near future, Ricado? One major challenge is balancing cost with sustainability, as environmentally friendly practices can be more expensive. However, this also presents an opportunity to innovate and find cost-effective solutions. Another opportunity lies in expanding into emerging markets, where there is growing interest in high-quality construction materials like quartz and granite. Regional Dynamics – The Florida Advantage Considering Florida's unique position in the granite market, Ricardo, how does your company leverage this advantage? And how does the state's economic climate and infrastructure support the industry?

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Florida's booming construction sector and status as a critical entry point for granite imports give us a strategic advantage. We leverage this by maintaining strong relationships with local contractors and developers. Florida's infrastructure and favorable business climate help us efficiently distribute our products, especially Quartz and Granite, throughout the U.S., making it a vital hub for our operations. Technology Integration in Construction How is technology reshaping the construction and remodeling industry, particularly in the integration of granite and quartz, and what technological advancements has RBV Service Granite LLC adopted? The integration of technology is revolutionizing the construction and remodeling industry by streamlining processes, enhancing precision, and offering greater customization. At RBV Service Granite LLC, we've adopted cutting-edge machinery for the cutting and shaping of granite and quartz, ensuring immaculate finishes. Digital templating tools have also been instrumental in achieving precise measurements, which is critical for custom projects. Furthermore, we utilize advanced inventory management systems to maintain the availability of a wide selection of materials, ready to meet immediate client needs. Strategic Market Expansion In what ways is RBV Service Granite LLC planning to expand its market presence, both domestically and internationally, and how do you foresee the demand for granite and quartz influencing this strategy? We‘re looking to expand our distribution network to increase our domestic presence. The consistent demand for granite and quartz, driven by their durability and aesthetic appeal, shapes our expansion strategy. We aim to establish a more robust presence in markets like Texas and Arizona where the appreciation for quality construction materials is on the rise. Referenced Sources: 1. National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). 2. Harvard University's Joint Center for Housing Studies. 3. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). 4. National Kitchen & Bath Association (NKBA) 5. University of Florida's Shimberg Center for Housing Studies.


HVAC INDUSTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT: COMFORTABLE AND SUSTAINABLE


HVAC INDUSTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT: COMFORTABLE AND SUSTAINABLE Expert Opinion: Jhonata Wolff, Entrepreneur and Founder of Wolff Enterprise Group.

As we contemplate the state of sustainability, the outlook might seem daunting. The United States' energy consumption in 2019 approached a peak not seen since records began in 1949, as per the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Ninety percent of the energy consumed is derived from nonrenewable sources, which significantly burdens CO2 emissions and energy production (EIA, 2020). This necessitates a concerted effort from policymakers to devise regulations and encourage industries to invest in new technologies for energy efficiency, particularly within heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the face of extreme weather patterns, HVAC systems play a crucial role in energy consumption across residential and commercial buildings. The International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that, with rising populations and incomes, the demand for refrigerated spaces will more than triple by 2050 (IEA, 2018). Such a surge underscores the need for efficiency-enhancing technologies in HVAC systems that can halve current energy demands. While clean energy sources and increased energy efficiency promise a substantial reduction in harmful emissions, ineffective measures could force a choice between environmental stewardship and economic progression. The COVID-19 pandemic has propelled a shift in work environments, with many professionals trading small office cubicles for larger home spaces often equipped with outdated HVAC systems. This shift, coupled with governmental financial incentives and the allure of remote work, has spurred a suburban migration, boosting the demand for new homes and, by extension, new HVAC units. Despite technological advancements, over half of the HVAC systems sold today are categorized as low efficiency, primarily due to the costs associated with more advanced, efficient equipment (AHRI, 2021). In the U.S., the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) measures the energy efficiency of HVAC systems, as defined by the Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI). SEER ratings range from 8 to 25, with higher numbers indicating greater efficiency. 14 | Human Capital Career Trends

As of January 1, 2023, HVAC systems with SEER ratings below 15 have been prohibited from sale, aligning with initiatives to phase out less efficient systems (Department of Energy, 2021). Additionally, from the same date, new HVAC systems were mandated to use the refrigerant R-454b, offering similar performance to its predecessors but with significantly lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) compared to R-410a and R-22 (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers [ASHRAE], 2019). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is at the forefront of developing and enforcing regulations to ensure compliance with the Clean Air Act, which aims to control air emissions from stationary and mobile sources. This is part of a broader effort to mitigate greenhouse gases and promote environmental health (EPA, 2020). Regular maintenance is essential to reduce energy consumption. According to the Department of Energy, replacing air filters can lower an air conditioner's energy consumption by 5% to 15%. Furthermore, programmable thermostats can save homeowners up to 10% a year on heating and cooling by adjusting the settings 7°-10°F for 8 hours a day from its standard setting (Department of Energy, 2018). Insulation also plays a critical role, with proper attic insulation alone capable of reducing heating and cooling costs by up to 20%, according to the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA, 2021). Ensuring air ducts are sealed and insulated can improve system efficiency by as much as 20%, as reported by ENERGY STAR. Leveraging technology, sound policy, and collective willpower, we are charting a course where environmental sustainability aligns with economic growth, forging a future where comfort does not come at the expense of our planet.


THE HVAC INDUSTRY AND ITS RELEVANCE TO NATIONAL ECONOMY The HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) industry plays a pivotal role in the national economy and is integral to the construction sector, energy sector, and overall consumer well-being. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the HVAC field is projected to grow 5% from 2020 to 2030, indicating its expanding influence on the job market and its contribution to economic stability. This sector supports many jobs and drives innovation in energy efficiency and building management systems. Moreover, the industry's contribution to the economy is not merely in terms of employment; it also encompasses the sales of equipment, which reached over $15 billion in the United States in 2019, as reported by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI). These figures highlight the industry's direct economic impact through sales revenue and its indirect influence through energy savings and improved productivity in commercial and residential settings. Beyond economic metrics, the HVAC industry is crucial for its energy implications, given that heating and cooling systems account for nearly half of the total energy consumption in the average American home, as per the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). The drive for more energyefficient and environmentally friendly HVAC systems responds to consumer demand and federal and state policies to reduce the carbon footprint. According to a report by Grand View Research, this push towards sustainability is expected to continue to grow, with the global HVAC systems market size expected to reach USD 202.14 billion by 2028. Investments in green technologies and sustainable practices within the HVAC industry support the national goal of reducing energy consumption and pave the way for the United States to lead in the global effort to combat climate change. Thus, the HVAC industry's role extends beyond economic contributions, positioning itself as a cornerstone of the national energy efficiency and environmental stewardship agenda.

Wolff's journey from an aspiring industrial mechanic to a certified EPA 608 HVAC Technician and later a successful Entrepreneur and Founder of Wolff Enterprise Group. His rich career tapestry, marked by varied roles and international experiences, showcases his technical prowess and flair for leadership and innovation. Fluent in multiple languages and well-versed in global industry trends, Jhonata stands out as a dynamic and insightful leader in the Air Conditioning Industry. His approach, blending technical know-how with a keen focus on quality and customer engagement, cements his status as an expert and visionary. Jhonata, as a seasoned HVAC expert, how do you foresee the integration of smart home technology impacting the HVAC industry's and sustainability? What innovative approaches can consumers anticipate ? Integrating smart home technology is a gamechanger for the HVAC industry's sustainability efforts. As we leverage IoT (Internet of Things), innovative HVAC systems, we optimize energy use and reduce waste, leading to a potential 20-30% decrease in a household's energy consumption, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. Consumers can look forward to advanced zoning capabilities, predictive maintenance using AI, and real-time energy consumption analytics. We're already seeing some of this with smart thermostats, which the EPA's ENERGY STAR program estimates could save consumers about $180 per year on energy bills, when used correctly. Our industry will continue to focus on personalization and efficiency as we move forward, with systems that can adapt to our habits and preferences while minimizing our carbon footprint.

EXPERT OPINION

Given your extensive experience in HVAC systems, Jhonata, could you shed light on the potential shifts in industry standards post-2023 and how they will affect manufacturers and consumers regarding efficiency, costs, and environmental impact?

Our expert to discuss this topic is an esteemed figure in the air conditioning industry, Jhonata Wolff, who has an impressive career spanning over 18 years.

Post-2023, we anticipate significant shifts in HVAC industry standards that emphasize higher efficiency and lower environmental impact.

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For instance, as the Department of Energy mandates, the new minimum SEER rating of 15 for air conditioning units will become a baseline. This is expected to improve efficiency by at least 7% compared to the previous 14 SEER standards. For manufacturers, this means redesigning products to meet these standards, which can initially increase production costs by approximately 1015%. For consumers, however, the long-term savings are substantial. As per the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, these high-efficiency systems can reduce energy bills by up to 40% over the system's lifetime. Additionally, the transition to low-GWP refrigerants like R-454b is projected to reduce the carbon footprint of new HVAC units by around 75% compared to R-410a, as supported by findings from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

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These changes are beneficial for the environment and cost-effective for the end-user in the long run.


STRATEGIC BIOTECH LEADERSHIP AMIDST AGING DEMOGRAPHICS


STRATEGIC BIOTECH LEADERSHIP AMIDST AGING DEMOGRAPHICS Ana Paula Montanha, Managing Partner and CHRO, HAYMAN-WOODWARD, and Editor-in-Chief, Human Capital expert.

ADDRESSING BIOMEDICAL IMPERATIVES: A STRATEGIC ROADMAP FOR LEADERSHIP AMIDST AGING DEMOGRAPHICS AND BIOTECH INNOVATIONS The United States, as a leader in biotechnological innovation, stands at the forefront of both significant opportunities and critical challenges. With an aging population and the rise in healthcare demands, it is imperative to adopt strategies that effectively address diseases like Alzheimer's and autoimmune disorders. This article outlines the advancements in these fields and emphasizes the need for visionary leadership in translating scientific innovations into transformative healthcare solutions. THE AGING OF AMERICA: A MEDICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC INTERSECTION Official U.S. Census Bureau projections indicate that seniors will outnumber children by 2035. Confirming projections, which means Americans aged 65 and older will surpass the population under 18. Alzheimer's emerges as a key medical and economic challenge in this demographic reality, necessitating immediate action and influencing healthcare, urban planning, and community services. Current statistics reveal that approximately 6.7 million Americans currently suffer from Alzheimer's, a figure expected to double, as projected to impact nearly 13 million Americans by 2050. Financially, Alzheimer's could cost the U.S. economy $345 billion by 2023 with economic costs potentially reaching $1 trillion by 2050. This demographic shift requires significant economic resources, and a comprehensive healthcare strategy, particularly focused on Alzheimer’s disease. Data from the U.S. Department of Labor suggests the U.S. will need an additional 1.2 million direct care professionals trained in dementia care within the next decade.

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Promising biotech methods targeting beta-amyloid plaques offer hope in mitigating neuronal damage. However, challenges remain, such as scaling the specialized caregiving sector and addressing the anticipated "dementia neurology deserts" in various states by 2025. Autoimmune Disorders: The Quiet Epidemic Additionally, approximately 24 million Americans suffer from autoimmune diseases, requiring therapies tailored to specific immune system components. From rheumatoid arthritis to lupus, these diseases manifest when the immune system turns against the body it's meant to protect in a tragic twist of biological fate. These autoimmune diseases also demand a high focus. Precision therapies promise targeted treatments for autoimmune disorders. These diseases require a high focus on developing treatments that modify specific immune responses. “The silver lining in this challenging scenario is the dynamism within the biotech industry. Aided by advanced research, the industry has seen a proliferation of targeted treatments. These precision therapies focus on modulating distinct components of the immune response, aiming to reduce the ferocity of the disease and impede its further progression.” Securing and retaining specialized talent and strategic partnerships with specialized recruitment firms like Hayman-Woodward Human Capital are crucial to addressing these skill gaps effectively. A Global Call to Action for international talent eager to contribute to this vibrant sector, the U.S. has unparalleled opportunities. Permanent Residency, a.k.a. green cards, mainly through EB1A, EB1C, and EB2-NIW pathways, offer career advancement and participation in groundbreaking scientific progress. These visas serve as strategic channels to attract global expertise, consolidating the U.S.'s leadership in biotechnology.


KEY PROFESSIONS IN NEED FOR FUTURE CHALLENGES

3. Healthcare Professionals

Critical positions will be instrumental in shaping this new frontier, substantiated by data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and median salary figures to provide a comprehensive view of the employment landscape.

According to the BLS, the employment of medical and health services managers is projected to skyrocket by 32% from 2019 to 2029. This impressive figure underscores the evolving complexity of healthcare delivery and the urgent need for specialized managerial roles.

1. Neurologists and Geriatric Specialists The BLS projects a 4% growth in employment for physicians and surgeons, a category encompassing neurologists and geriatric specialists, from 2019 to 2029. Although on par with the average for all occupations, this rate becomes significant when contextualized within an aging population. According to the Medscape Neurologist Compensation Report 2022, neurologists in the U.S. had a median annual salary of approximately $229,300. Given the anticipated demand, this figure can be higher for those specializing in geriatrics. The projected numeric change in employment from 2022 to 2032 is also very robust, with 24,600 new positions created. With Alzheimer's disease on the rise, the role of neurologists and senior specialists will be pivotal in diagnostic procedures, treatment planning, and ongoing patient management. Their expertise will be invaluable in navigating the complexities of neurodegenerative diseases. 2. Biotechnology Biologists

Researchers

&

Molecular

The employment of biological scientists, including molecular biologists and biotechnology researchers, is expected to grow by 5% from 2019 to 2029. This growth rate slightly outpaces the average across all professions.

Management

&

Regulatory

In 2022, the median annual wage for medical and health services managers was $ $104,830, per BLS data. This reflects the high level of responsibility and expertise required for this role. These professionals are critical in ensuring that innovations in Alzheimer's and autoimmune disorder treatments transition smoothly from research labs to patient care. Their mastery of regulatory compliance and strategic insight will be instrumental in the healthcare innovation roll-out. The time for action is now, industry, academia, and policy-making stakeholders must coalesce around this urgent agenda to ensure that America meets the forthcoming healthcare challenges and sets a global standard in biomedical innovation and patient care. Central to this mission is effective leadership, capable of marrying visionary science with human capital management. Organizations interested in the intersection of biotech breakthroughs and human capital challenges, seeking consultancy in recruitment, green card applications, and bespoke human resources solutions, are invited to connect with Ana Paula Montanha, Managing Partner and Chief Human Resources Officer at Hayman-Woodward Human Capital Services for collaborative endeavors.

According to BLS data, the median annual wage for biochemists and biophysicists, closely aligned with biotechnology researchers, was $$103,810 per year in 2022. Given these professionals' critical role in drug discovery and therapeutic innovation, higher compensations can be expected. These experts are the cornerstone of advancing targeted therapies for Alzheimer's and autoimmune disorders. Their research will lay the foundation for future treatments and potentially revolutionary cures. Human Capital Career Trends | 19


Leader in assisting clients to succeed: Executive Search | Recruitment Professional Staffing | Employer of Record HAYMAN-WOODWARD HUMAN CAPITAL SERVICES Office: +1 (202) 753-4133 | https://hwhuman.capital


AN ALARMING WORLDWIDE SHORTAGE OF PHYSICIANS


AN ALARMING WORLDWIDE SHORTAGE OF DOCTORS Ana Paula Montanha, Editor-in-Chief, and Journalist Elaine Dotto.

The World Medical Association (WMA) has highlighted a predicted global shortage of 18 million health professionals. As of 2023, there are 76 countries with less than one physician per thousand people, and three billion people lack access to a health professional. The WMA's concerns extend to the need for concrete plans and financial commitments from governments worldwide to address this shortage. This includes ensuring safe and dignified working environments for health staff, a critical aspect of addressing the workforce crisis​​. In the United States, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has reported a predicted shortage of between 37,800 and 124,000 physicians by 2034. This shortage is expected to affect both primary and specialty care areas. Key factors driving this shortage include demographic changes such as population growth, aging, and the

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impending retirement of a large portion of the current physician workforce. Additionally, disparities in health care access among marginalized populations, rural communities, and the uninsured further exacerbate the need for more physicians. If these populations had the same healthcare use patterns as those with fewer barriers to access, an additional 180,400 physicians would be required immediately​​. These findings from the WMA and AAMC confirm the presence of a significant global and national physician shortage, highlighting the need for immediate and sustained action to address this critical issue.


THE U.S. PHYSICIAN SHORTAGE

THE UNITED STATES IS FACING A SEVERE SHORTAGE OF PHYSICIANS. According to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), the United States is facing a severe shortage of physicians. THE AAMC PROJECTS THAT BY 2025, THERE WILL BE A SHORTAGE OF BETWEEN 61,700 AND 94,700 PHYSICIANS. The length of training and the cost are significant factors limiting the number of residency spots available. The AAMC is working to increase the number of residency spots by 3,000 per year, over the next five years. In addition, they are working to increase public and private funding for medical education. The US needs to train more physicians to meet the demand for healthcare services.

The shortage of physicians in the US is a result of several factors: LENGTH OF TRAINING AND COST OF MEDICAL SCHOOL The first is the length of training. It takes a minimum of four years to complete bachelor's degree in pre-medical school, then another four years to complete medical school and another three to seven years to complete a residency. The cost of medical school and living expenses during training can be significant. AVAILABLE POSITIONS FOR RESIDENCY The second factor is the number of residency spots available. There are only about 30,000 residency positions available each year, but there are more than 50,000 graduates from medical school each year.

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AGING SOCIETY

Physicians and Surgeons

Median annual wages in USD, May 2021

Cardiologists

$353,970

Anesthesiologists

$331,190

Emergency medicine physicians

$310,640

The fifth factor is the geographic distribution of physicians. There are areas of the country that have a shortage of physicians.

Orthopedic surgeons, except pediatric

$306,220

The shortage of physicians in the US is a serious problem that needs to be addressed.

Dermatologists

$302,740

Radiologists

$301,720

Surgeons, all other

$297,800

Obstetricians and gynecologists

$296,210

Pediatric surgeons

$290,310

Ophthalmologists, except pediatric

$270,090

Neurologists

$267,660

Physicians, pathologists

$267,180

Psychiatrists

$249,760

General internal medicine physicians

$242,190

Family medicine physicians

$235,930

Physicians, all other

$231,500

Pediatricians, general

$198,420

The third factor is the aging population. The baby boomers are reaching retirement age and will need more healthcare services. THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT (ACA) The fourth factor is the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA has increased the demand for healthcare services. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

The AAMC said in a statement that it is working to increase the number of residency spots by 3,000 per year over the next five years. In addition, they are working to increase public and private funding for medical education. The goal is to train more physicians so that the US can meet the demand for healthcare services. The U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS reports that the average salary for physicians and surgeons was $208,000 in May 2021.

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LENGTH OF TRAINING AND COST OF MEDICAL SCHOOL

STEP 3: APPLY TO MEDICAL SCHOOL

The first is the length of training. It takes a minimum of four years to complete bachelor's degree in pre-medical school, then another four years to complete medical school and another three to seven years to complete a residency. The cost of medical school and living expenses during training can be significant. Developing the skills and knowledge necessary to practice medicine requires a great deal of time and effort, so it is important to research the training process. Learn how physicians prepare for their careers in the US.

There is no required timeline for applying to medical school. Students generally begin the application process during the summer after their junior year in college, but some choose to take a year off after completing their undergraduate degrees before applying. Most medical schools in the US use the American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS), a centralized application processing service from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Students select their target medical schools and submit a single application to AMCAS, which distributes the application to each institution.

STEP 1: COMPLETE AN UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION

STEP 4: COMPLETE TRAINING AT MEDICAL SCHOOL

Medical school admissions boards require all applicants to earn a four-year bachelor's degrees from accredited colleges and universities. While there is no specific undergraduate degree recommended for all medical school hopefuls, The College Board lists pre-medicine, biology and exercise science among potential majors.

The path to becoming a physician begins in medical school, which generally requires four years of full-time study beyond one's undergraduate studies. Curriculum is divided between classroom-based instruction in the sciences and clinical rotations where students develop applied skills in various areas of medicine.

STEP 2: PASS THE MCAT EXAMINATION College juniors interested in a career as a doctor should register for and take the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). The MCAT is a standardized, multiple-choice examination used by medical school admission committees to assess a candidate's likelihood of succeeding in their program.

STEP 5: PASS PARTS I & II OF THE UNITED STATES MEDICAL LICENSING EXAMINATION (USMLE) In order to practice medicine legally in the US, students must take and receive a passing score on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), a three-part examination taken during and after medical school. Medical students must pass the first part of the examination (step 1), which covers basic medical principles, before entering their third year of studies. During their fourth year, students must pass the second part of the exam (step 2), which covers clinical diagnosis and disease development.

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STEP 6: MATCH WITH RESIDENCY

STEP 11: APPLY FOR JOBS AS A DOCTOR

During their final year of medical school, students start narrowing down their medical specialty options (e.g. pediatrics, anesthesiology). They submit an application for residency and are matched to open residency programs throughout the country.

The final step to become a doctor is securing a job. Many doctors begin their search during residency. It is common for residents to transition into full-time positions after their residencies end. However, some doctors choose to go on the open market and seek out career openings. Other physicians are contacted by recruiters to fill a position.

STEP 7: GRADUATE FROM MEDICAL SCHOOL & START RESIDENCY Newly-minted doctors transition from graduate school residency programs. These programs generally require at least three years to complete and provide in-depth training in students' chosen specialties. STEP 8: PASS PART III OF UNITED STATES MEDICAL LICENSING EXAMINATION (USMLE) AND FINISH RESIDENCY The final step of the residency process is to complete Part III of USMLE. This examination covers clinical management and assesses the doctor's ability to practice medicine safely and effectively. STEP 9: EARN BOARD CERTIFICATIONS Once their medical educations are complete, doctors may obtain certification in their chosen field. There are 24 specialty boards that certify physicians in hundreds of specialties and subspecialties. Board certifications require a written and, in some cases, an oral examination. STEP 10: GET A STATE LICENSE Medical licensure is governed at the state-level by state boards of medicine, and each sets its own licensing requirements and procedures. Trained and board-certified doctors must apply for state medical licenses before they enter the field.

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"AN AGING US POPULATION IS AT THE HEART OF THE PHYSICIAN SHORTAGE. THIS APPLIES TO PATIENTS AND DOCTORS THEMSELVES. MEDICINE IN THE UNITED STATES FACES A CRISIS: AS THE POPULATION AGES, DEMAND FOR DOCTORS IS OUTPACING THE SUPPLY." "RURAL AREAS OF THE US ARE THE MOST UNDERSERVED. THE GREATEST DEMAND FOR DOCTORS IS IN THE SOUTH, WHERE THE PHYSICIAN SHORTAGE STANDS AT ABOUT 31,000 DOCTORS. DOCTORS ARE NEXT MOST SCARCE IN THE MIDWEST, WHERE DEMAND OUTSTRIPS SUPPLY BY NEARLY 13,000 DOCTORS."


TRAILBLAZING SOLUTIONS: HOW TENNESSEE IS SPEARHEADING THE RESPONSE TO THE U.S. PHYSICIANS SHORTAGE Nestled in the heartland of America, Tennessee stands out as a vibrant hub of medical innovation, set against a backdrop of natural beauty and rich culture. Here, the worlds of advanced healthcare and down-to-earth community values blend seamlessly. From the serene Great Smoky Mountains to the lively streets of Nashville and Memphis, the state is a mosaic of cutting-edge medical facilities and top-tier research centers. It's a place where medical professionals don't just work; they thrive, enveloped in a culture that celebrates music, nature, and a strong sense of belonging. Tennessee is tackling the national physician shortage head-on, making it an attractive spot for doctors seeking a fulfilling career and a life well-lived. It's where professional excellence meets the warmth of a community, creating a unique, slightly less formal, and genuinely enriching experience for those in the medical field. MEET THE GOVERNOR OF TENNESSEE BILL LEE Bill Lee is a seventh-generation Tennessean and the 50th Governor of Tennessee. He was raised in Franklin, where he still resides today with his wife, Maria, on his family’s farm. Governor Lee attended Auburn University, where he studied Mechanical Engineering. After graduation, he returned home to Franklin to join the family business his grandfather started in 1944, a comprehensive mechanical construction service company. He became president of Lee Company in 1992. Since becoming Governor in 2019, Governor Lee has focused on several priorities including a strong workforce, quality education, economic development, public safety, and supporting families, all with a particular focus on the accelerated transformation of rural Tennessee. Tennessee now has the fastest-growing economy of all 50 states, with the lowest tax burden in the nation, top business climate and a strong workforce strategy that have created more than

170,000 jobs for Tennesseans and generated $32 billion in capital investment since 2019. Tennessee’s unmatched business climate and skilled workforce continue to attract record investment from companies such as Ford Motor Company and SK On, In-N-Out, LG Chem, Oracle, General Motors and more. Additionally, under Governor Lee’s leadership, Tennessee passed the largest tax cut in state history, strengthened career and technical training, expanded school choice, heavily invested in public education, passed the most pro-life legislation in the nation and sharpened the effectiveness of government. TENNESSEE'S PHYSICIAN SHORTAGE AND THE NEED FOR ACTION With most experts predicting a shortage of 5,989 physicians in Tennessee by 2030, including 1,107 primary care doctors, the state faces significant challenges in meeting the healthcare demands of its residents.

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BILLS HB 1312 AND SB 1451 BY STATE REP. SABI KUMAR AND STATE SEN. KERRY ROBERTS Recognizing the urgency of the situation, the state took a proactive step in addressing its healthcare workforce needs. Introduced as HB 1312 and SB 1451 by state Rep. Sabi Kumar and state Sen. Kerry Roberts, aims to address Tennessee's growing physician shortage by opening new pathways for doctors trained outside the United States. Applicability For the purpose of promulgating rules, this bill takes effect upon becoming a law, and for all other purposes, this bill takes effect July 1, 2024. “The new law serves as a vital strategy to ensure that Tennessee has a sufficient number of physicians to cater to its growing population. The new law seeks to disrupt these concerning trends by attracting talented physicians from around the world.” Gov. Bill Lee DETAILS This bill adds that, if an applicant is a licensed physician outside the United States or Canada who has completed a residency program or otherwise practiced as a medical professional performing the duties of a physician for at least three of the last five years outside of the United States, then the application must include the following: (1) A certificate from a medical school whose curriculum is judged to be acceptable by the board; (2) A nonrefundable application fee as set by the board and by an examination fee; (3) Sufficient evidence of good standing with the medical licensing or regulatory institution of the applicant’s licensing country; (4) Sufficient evidence of either the completion of a residency or substantially similar postgraduate medical training or practice as a medical professional performing the duties of a physician for at least five years;

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(5) Sufficient evidence of good moral character; (6) Evidence of being a citizen of the United States or Canada, or legally entitled to live or work in the United States; (7) Evidence of basic fluency in the English language; and (8) Sufficient evidence that the applicant is an international medical graduate and has an offer for employment as a physician at a healthcare provider that operates in Tennessee and has a residency program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in place. PROVISIONAL LICENSURE FOR FIRST TWO YEARS IN TENNESSEE This bill provides that the board is required to grant a provisional license to practice medicine in Tennessee to an international medical graduate who qualifies pursuant to the aforementioned provisions. An international medical graduate who is granted such a provisional license must only provide medical services at a healthcare provider that has a residency program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in place.


FULL LICENSURE AFTER THAT The board must also grant a full and unrestricted license to practice medicine to a provisional licensee who is in good standing two years after the date of initial licensure. A provisional licensee who obtains a full and unrestricted license is not subject to the limitation of practicing at a healthcare facility with a residency program. BENEFITS TO EXPERIENCED IMGS The new law offers an opportunity for experienced IMGs to bypass U.S. residency training. To be eligible, IMGs must have completed a three-year postgraduate training program in another country and/or have been licensed and practicing as a physician for at least three of the past five years. This provision benefits seasoned physicians who often face challenges in securing U.S. residency positions due to graduation-year filters commonly used by residency program directors. Allowing them to circumvent American residency programs, Tennessee's law opens doors for these experienced physicians.

Once an international medical school graduate is granted a temporary license under (2) or (3) above, the temporary licensee must only provide medical services at a healthcare provider that has in place a post-graduate training program accredited by the accreditation council for graduate medical education. This bill authorizes the board to revoke such a provisional license based upon a finding that clear and convincing evidence exists that medical services provided by the licensee has violated medical safety, competency, or conduct standards established by the board. A licensee may appeal the revocation within 120 days of the date of the revocation by delivering a written request to the board for a contested case hearing. The board must convene the contested case hearing within 30 days of receipt of the request.

The board must find sufficient evidence that the international medical school graduate has met the following criteria: (1) Demonstrated competency as determined by the board; (2) Completed a three-year post-graduate training program in the graduate’s licensing country; or (3) Has otherwise practiced as a medical professional performing the duties of a physician for at least three of the last five years outside the United States. In addition, an applicant under (2) or (3) above must submit sufficient evidence to demonstrate that the applicant is an international medical school graduate and has an offer for employment as a physician at a healthcare provider that operates in this state and has a post-graduate training program accredited by the accreditation council for graduate medical education in place.

Tennessee is the first state in the nation to open a new pathway for doctors trained outside the United States. Eliminating unnecessary barriers, the state aims to address its growing physician shortage and ensure an adequate healthcare workforce to meet the needs of its rapidly expanding population.

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Tennessee's new law allowing certain IMGs a pathway to medical licensure without U.S. residency training has significant implications for various stakeholders. Experienced IMGs stand to benefit from expanded opportunities, while hospital HR departments may face challenges in managing the influx of qualified applicants. The impact on underserved patients remains uncertain, and administrative barriers need to be addressed.

MORE TO SE ON TENNESSEE'S INNOVATION SANDBOX

Academic medical centers may seize the opportunity to hire experienced physicians, while the future adoption of similar policies by other states remains uncertain. As Tennessee takes the lead in implementing this law, the outcomes and consequences will shape the future of medical training and practice for IMGs across the country.

CHALLENGING THE STATUS QUO

Academic Medical Centers

While the new law brings forth numerous benefits, it is crucial to examine the potential challenges and identify those who may face setbacks.

The law stipulates that IMGs who have completed residency and obtained licensure overseas must work for two years at medical centers with accredited residency training programs before receiving an unrestricted license.

One group that may experience a shift in dynamics are the American IMGs (International Medical Graduates). As the focus shifts towards attracting international doctors, American IMGs may face increased competition for residency positions. However, it is worth noting that Tennessee has implemented a separate law allowing unmatched U.S. citizens or legal resident alien doctors to work as "graduate physicians" under supervision, providing an alternative avenue for this group. THE IMPACT OF TENNESSEE'S NEW MEDICAL LICENSURE LAW ON IMGS, HOSPITALS, PATIENTS, AND MEDICAL TRAINING. Recent developments in Tennessee have brought attention to a new law that allows certain International Medical Graduates (IMGs) a pathway to medical licensure without completing U.S. residency training. Residencies can last from three to seven years, with surgical residencies lasting a minimum of five years. This groundbreaking legislation has sparked discussions about its implications for IMGs, the hospitals that employ them, the patients they serve, and the broader landscape of medical training. As we delve into the implications of this law, we will explore the winners and losers resulting from this transformative change in medical licensure.

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Considering that only a limited number of hospitals in Tennessee have accredited residency programs, this provision offers academic medical centers a significant advantage. Hiring experienced physicians for two-year program these hospitals can benefit from their expertise, providing an innovative solution to the staffing needs imposed by residency training reforms. Hospital HR Departments in Tennessee Another group that may face challenges are the hospital HR departments in Tennessee. With the implementation of Tennessee's law, HR departments in Tennessee hospitals seeking experienced IMGs will face a new challenge. They will need to navigate an extensive pool of qualified applicants without the aid of the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) filters. This increase in applications, without an efficient screening process, will likely create administrative burdens for hospital HR departments, which may require them to adapt their processes to ensure efficient and fair evaluation of candidates. Residency programs typically receive an overwhelming number of applications for limited positions, necessitating the use of automated filters.


Underserved Patients One of the goals of the new law is to improve physician access for medically underserved patients. However, it remains uncertain whether this goal will be achieved. The projected physician shortage in the United States, estimated to reach 38,000-124,000 physicians by 2034, highlights the need for innovative solutions. While licensing more physicians may seem like a viable approach, addressing the underlying incentives and disparities that contribute to geographic and population-based physician shortages is also relevant. Additional policies such as improving Medicaid reimbursement, expanding sponsorship programs, and strengthening specialty outreach/tele-health may also be beneficial. The Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG). Medical schools outside the United States and Canada vary in their educational standards and curricula. The purpose of ECFMG Certification is to assess whether graduates of these schools are ready to enter U.S. residency and fellowship programs that are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). IMGs seeking provisional licensure in Tennessee must still meet stringent requirements, including passing the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE – Step 1 and Step 2), verifying educational credentials, and obtaining certification from the ECFMG Inthealth. Consequently, the ECFMG's role in verifying IMGs' credentials and certification will continue to be essential and may even expand in light of this new law. While licensing more physicians may seem like a viable approach, addressing the underlying incentives and disparities that contribute to geographic and population-based physician shortages is also relevant. Additional policies such as improving Medicaid reimbursement, expanding sponsorship programs, and strengthening specialty outreach/tele-health may also be beneficial.

The Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG). Medical schools outside the United States and Canada vary in their educational standards and curricula. The purpose of ECFMG Certification is to assess whether graduates of these schools are ready to enter U.S. residency and fellowship programs that are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). IMGs seeking provisional licensure in Tennessee must still meet stringent requirements, including passing the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE – Step 1 and Step 2), verifying educational credentials, and obtaining certification from the ECFMG Inthealth. Consequently, the ECFMG's role in verifying IMGs' credentials and certification will continue to be essential and may even expand in light of this new law. Other States The success and implications of Tennessee's new law will likely attract attention from other states. Consequently, in the coming years, all eyes will be on Tennessee as the tradeoffs and outcomes associated with this law unfold. Benefits of the New Law The removal of redundant medical-residency requirements paves the way for international doctors who have undergone rigorous medical training outside the United States to contribute their expertise directly in Tennessee. This bold approach not only addresses the immediate physician shortage but also positions Tennessee as an attractive destination for global medical talent, fostering diversity and innovation within the state's healthcare system.

INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL GRADUATES

WELCOME TO TENNESSEE JULY 1ST 2024

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Administrative Barriers While Tennessee's law allows licensure, it does not automatically eliminate administrative barriers to physician practice and reimbursement. Questions arise regarding board certification organizations allowing IMGs who bypass residency to sit for their examinations. Additionally, insurers may need to decide whether to credential and allow billing from non-board eligible physicians. Furthermore, non-citizen IMGs may face challenges in securing work visas, and malpractice carriers may need to underwrite policies for physicians who have not completed U.S. residency training. The resolution of these potential issues remains uncertain, but given the broad support for the new law, Tennessee's government may exert its influence to ensure the intended practice opportunities for licensed doctors.

Leonardo Freitas, CEO and Ana Paula Montanha, Managing Partner, HAYMAN-WOODWARD HUMAN CAPITAL.

SECURING WORK VISAS: INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL GRADUATES (IMG) NONIMMIGRANT VISAS AND IMMIGRANT VISAS NONIMMIGRANT VISAS Physicians can work in the U.S. on four major types of nonimmigrant visas: H-1B, J-1, O-1, and TN. These visas need to be renewed for the duration of residency and fellowship training, and each visa type has a different renewal schedule. IMMIGRANT VISAS According to our Immigration specialist, Leonardo Freitas, most IMG physicians qualify for immigrant visas (green card application), and they include: EB1, and EB2-NIW, along with several family-based visas.

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For over 27 years, the organization has been instrumental in supporting IMGs in obtaining their Permanent Residency, with over 51,000 green cards approved, making it a leading entity in this domain. According to Freitas, the company's success lies in its ability to provide individualized support to each IMG, guiding them through the complex process of obtaining permanent residency. “As the U.S. continues to face a shortage of healthcare professionals, the role of IMGs becomes increasingly important. We recognize the vital contribution that these individuals make to the healthcare industry and remain committed to supporting them every step of the way”. Leonardo Freitas.


RECENT NUMBERS ARE ENCOURAGING A total of 8,388 IMGs obtained first-year residency positions in accredited U.S. GME programs in the 2023 Match, an increase of 718 (9.4%) from last year. Of the IMGs matched, 3,356 are U.S. citizens, up 257 compared to last year. The number of positions obtained by non-U.S. citizen IMGs is 5,032, up 461 compared to last year. The match rates for U.S. citizen and non-U.S. citizen IMGs are 67.6% and 59.4%, respectively, both increasing compared to last year. Leonardo Freitas commented that 2023 results: The increase in the number of IMGs obtaining firstyear residency positions in accredited U.S. GME programs in the 2023 Match is a positive sign for the medical industry. This upward trend in the match rates for both U.S. citizen and non-U.S. citizen IMGs indicates that these individuals are becoming more competitive in the job market, and that the U.S. is recognizing their talent and skills. START EARLY THE VISA REQUEST AND BE PREPARED As advised by Leonardo Freitas, it is important for IMGs to plan ahead and start the process of obtaining the necessary visa requirements early on. UNDERSTANDING USMLE - UNITED STATES MEDICAL LICENSING EXAMINATION The Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) Certification assesses whether these graduates are ready to enter U.S. residency programs. Medical schools outside the United States and Canada vary in their educational standards and curricula. The purpose of ECFMG Certification is to assess whether graduates of these schools are ready to enter U.S. residency and fellowship programs that are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To be ECFMG certified, IMGs must pass several examinations, including components of the USMLE, satisfy the examination requirements, and fulfill ECFMG's medical education credential requirements, which include providing ECFMG with copies of your medical education credentials, which ECFMG will verify directly with your medical school.

The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is a three-step examination for medical licensure in the United States, which Tennesse reduced to two-step. It assesses a physician's ability to apply knowledge, concepts, and principles, and to demonstrate fundamental patient-centered skills. Both IMGs (through ECFMG) and U.S. medical graduates must pass the USMLE to practice medicine in the U.S. State medical boards use USMLE outcomes to inform licensure decisions and to help achieve their mission of public protection. USMLE STEP 1 AND STEP 2 CK To be eligible, you must be in one of the following categories at the time you apply AND on the day of your examination: a medical student officially enrolled in, or a graduate of, a US or Canadian medical school program leading to the MD degree that is accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), OR a medical student officially enrolled in, or a graduate of, a US medical school leading to the DO degree that is accredited by the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA), OR a medical student officially enrolled in, or a graduate of, a medical school that is outside the US and Canada, listed in the World Directory of Medical Schools as meeting ECFMG eligibility requirements, and that meets other eligibility criteria of the ECFMG. USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK Step 1 is a one-day examination. It is divided into seven 60-minute blocks and administered in one 8hour testing session. The number of questions per block on a given examination form may vary, but will not exceed 40. The total number of items on the overall examination form will not exceed 280. The examination also includes a minimum allotment of 45 minutes of break time and a 15-minute optional tutorial. The amount of time available for breaks may be increased by finishing a block of test items or the optional tutorial before the allotted time expires. Step 2 CK is also a one-day examination. It is divided into eight 60-minute blocks and administered in one 9-hour testing session. The number of questions per block on a given examination will vary but will not exceed 40. The total number of items on the overall examination will not exceed 318. Human Capital Career Trends | 33


MOVING FORWARD, FOR ALL OF US. At HAYMAN-WOODWARD HUMAN CAPITAL we focus on the future of recruiting, and what it means for our teams, our clients, and our communities. We invite you to take part in our progress. Our purpose is to assist every organization and talent to achieve their full potential. Immigration Paralegals Case Specialists Executive Search Partners Senior Business Developer Executives Business Developer Directors

Our Locations: All positions are U.S.-based positions; work authorization is required. Hybrid: Washington, D.C.; Alexandria, Virginia; Orlando, Florida; Salt Lake City, Utah. Remote: Phoenix, Arizona; Houston, Texas. To apply for our open positions, please send: your Cover Letter and Resume in pdf format to career@hw.im, specify the position you're applying to on the subject, and send attention to Ana Paula Montanha, Managing Partner, HAYMAN-WOODWARD HUMAN CAPITAL SERVICES.


ASSESSING THE U.S. DENTISTRY LABOR SHORTAGE


THE U.S. DENTISTRY LABOR SHORTAGE Ana Paula Montanha, Editor-in-Chief and Guilherme Telles, CEO & Founder, American Dental Institute.

Career perspectives in dentistry in the United States Dentistry is a field of healthcare that focuses on diagnosing, preventing, and treating conditions affecting the teeth, gums, and mouth. It is an essential part of overall healthcare, and dentists play a critical role in promoting oral health and preventing dental diseases. Dentistry has undergone significant growth and development in the United States over the years, with exciting career perspectives for dental professionals. Dentistry is an enriching and growing field in the United States, offering various career perspectives and opportunities. Here are some of the most popular career paths for dental professionals: General Dentist: General dentists are responsible for diagnosing and treating common dental problems, such as cavities, gum disease, and tooth decay. They also perform routine check-ups, cleanings, and other preventive care services. Dental Specialist: Dental specialists are dentists who have completed additional training and education in a specific area of dentistry, such as orthodontics, periodontics, endodontics, or oral surgery. Dental Hygienist: Dental hygienists work with dentists to provide preventive care services, such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and oral health education. Dental Assistant: Dental assistants provide chairside assistance to dentists during procedures and administrative support in dental offices. Dental Educator: Dental educators teach and train aspiring dental professionals at colleges, universities, and dental schools.

Increasing demand for cosmetic dentistry: The demand for cosmetic dentistry procedures, such as teeth whitening, veneers, and orthodontic treatment, has grown significantly in recent years, driving the growth of the dental industry. Aging population: As the population ages, there is an increasing demand for dental services to address age-related dental problems, such as tooth loss, gum disease, and oral cancer. Rising healthcare costs: Many patients seek more affordable dental care, leading to the growth of dental practices offering competitive pricing and payment plans. With the growing demand for dental services and technological advancements in the field, the future of dentistry looks bright, and the opportunities for dental professionals will continue to expand. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment of dentists is projected to grow by 3 percent from 2020 to 2030, about as fast as the average for all occupations. The demand for dental services will increase as the population ages and research continues to link oral health with overall health. The BLS also reports that there were approximately 155,000 dentists employed in the United States in 2020. Most dentists work either in private practice or in the offices of other health practitioners, such as physicians. In addition, the BLS notes that job prospects for dentists are expected to be good due to both demand for dental services and a relatively low number of new graduates from dental school each year. Job prospects are expected to remain favorable due to the strong demand for dental services and limited competition from new graduates.

Growth of dentistry in the United States The field of dentistry has grown significantly in the United States over the years, driven by several factors, including: Technological advancements: Advances in dental technology have led to the development of more efficient and effective treatments, such as digital radiography, CAD/CAM dentistry, and laser dentistry. 36 | Human Capital Career Trends

THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION (ADA) ALSO ESTIMATES THAT THE U.S. WILL NEED AN ADDITIONAL 10,000 TO 12,000 DENTISTS BY 2030 TO MEET THE GROWING DEMAND.


The dental market in the United States The dental market in the United States has been steadily growing over the past few years, with a CAGR of 1.0% to $171.7 billion in revenue over the past five years (2018-2023), according to IBISWorld. The U.S. dental services market was valued at US$ 109.28 billion in 2020 and is projected to be worth around US$ 196.18 billion by 2027, as reported by Globe Newswire. According to Grand View Research, the increasing government funding for dental programs is likely to contribute to industry growth, with federal funding for Medicare & Medicaid expected to further boost growth.

The dentistry labor shortage This article examines the factors that have contributed to the labor shortages in several countries as the U.S., Canada, the U.K and Ireland.

Canada: experience shortage of dentists, and the situation is aggravated in rural and remote areas Although Canada currently experiences a shortage of dentists, the situation is aggravated in rural and remote areas. According to the Canadian Dental Association, the ratio of dentists to population is 1:1,680, which is lower than the recommended ratio of 1:1,500. There are several reasons for this shortage. One is that the demand for dental services is increasing due to an aging population and increased awareness of the importance of oral health. Another reason is that many dentists are nearing retirement age, and there need to be more new dentists entering the workforce to replace them. Additionally, the cost of dental education in Canada is high, which can deter some students from pursuing dentistry as a career. Finally, the location of dental schools in urban areas may also contribute to the shortage in rural and remote areas, as graduates may prefer to practice in urban centers with a larger population and more resources.

Some provinces have implemented programs encouraging dentists to practice in underserved areas to address the shortage, such as offering loan forgiveness or other incentives. Here are a few examples: 1. British Columbia: The British Columbia Ministry of Health offers the Rural Incentive Program, which provides financial incentives to physicians, nurse practitioners, and dentists in eligible rural communities. 2. Saskatchewan: The Saskatchewan Dental Association offers the Student Debt Reduction Program, which provides up to $30,000 in loan forgiveness to dentists who practice in designated underserved areas for a minimum of three years. 3. Manitoba: The Manitoba government offers the Tuition Fee Income Tax Rebate for Medical and Dental Graduates program, which provides a rebate of up to $20,000 per year for up to five years to graduates who practice in underserved areas. 4. Ontario: The Northern Health Travel Grant funds dentists who travel to provide services in remote and underserved communities in Northern Ontario. These are just a few examples of the programs available to address the shortage of dentists in underserved areas in Canada. Other provinces may also have similar programs or incentives available. Additionally, some dental schools have increased their focus on rural and remote dentistry and are providing more training opportunities. The cost of dental education in Canada varies depending on the university and program. On average, tuition and fees for a four-year dental program in Canada can range from $100,000 to $250,000. However, this cost does not include additional expenses such as textbooks, equipment, and living expenses. It is worth noting that dental education in Canada is among the most expensive in the world. The high cost of education can be a barrier for some students, particularly those from lower-income families, in pursuing dentistry as a career. To help offset the cost of education, many students take out loans or seek financial assistance through scholarships, bursaries, or grants. Some provinces also offer loan forgiveness or other incentives for graduates who practice in underserved areas, which can help to alleviate the burden of student debt. Human Capital Career Trends | 37


The dentistry labor shortage in Europe There are also shortages of dentists in some European countries, particularly in rural and remote areas. The reasons for the need vary, but they often include factors such as an aging population, a lack of dental schools or training programs, and economic factors such as low reimbursement rates for dental services. According to a report by the European Commission, there are significant variations in the number of dentists across the European Union (EU). there is a surplus of dentists, while in others, such as Bulgaria and Romania, there are significant shortages. According to this report, some European countries have a surplus of dentists. The countries with the highest ratios of dentists to population in the European Union (EU) include: 1. Greece 2. Spain 3. Italy 4. Portugal 5. Malta 6. Cyprus 7. Belgium In these countries, there may be more dentists than the population requires or can sustain. However, it's worth noting that even in countries with a surplus of dentists, there may still be shortages in certain areas or among certain populations, such as in rural or remote areas or among low-income groups who may not be able to afford dental care. It's also worth noting that the distribution of dentists across the EU can vary widely, with significant shortages in some countries and regions, such as Bulgaria and Romania. Despite the surplus of dentists in some countries, there are still shortages of dentists in other areas of Europe, particularly in Eastern Europe. The report also notes that the distribution of dentists across the EU is often uneven, with shortages in rural and remote areas. Some European countries have implemented programs encouraging dentists to practice in underserved areas to address the shortage. For example, in Sweden, the government offers financial incentives to dentists who work in rural areas, and in France, dental students can receive financial assistance if they commit to practicing in underserved areas after graduation. 38 | Human Capital Career Trends

However, these programs vary in scope and effectiveness, and shortages of dentists still need to be addressed in some parts of Europe. Shortage of dentists in Ireland The staffing and resourcing crisis in the dental sector is the biggest issue facing dentists in Ireland and, unless addressed, will mean that access to vital dental care — particularly for those most vulnerable in our society — will become more and more challenging.

The lack of pediatric dentists in the U.K. A shortage of pediatric dentists has been discussed numerous times in U.K. dentistry over the past few years, resulting in practices specifically targeting child patients becoming even rarer. This shortage has led to increased operating costs for dental practices, as they have to compete with one another to attract and retain skilled dental professionals. The high demand for workers in rural, coastal or deprived areas, often called "dentistry deserts," has resulted in dental practices offering higher salaries, benefits and other incentives to attract and retain workers. In these areas, where access to dental care is already limited, the shortage of dental professionals has resulted in longer wait times for appointments, reduced services and ultimately, decreased access to quality dental care for those in need. Moreover, the increased operating costs associated with the workforce shortage are being passed on to patients through higher fees for services, making dental care even less accessible for many people, particularly those in low-income or marginalized communities. Similar to other countries, the dental workforce shortage in the U.K. is having a profound impact on the industry, leading to increased operating costs, reduced access to care and ultimately, higher prices for patients. This is a pressing issue that requires immediate attention from the government, educational institutions, and the dental industry to find long-term solutions to address this critical shortage.


The dental sector in the United States is currently grappling with a severe shortage of skilled professionals, which include dentists, dental assistants, and dental hygienists. The COVID-19 Pandemic has thrown an already existing problem into crisis mode. With rising tuition costs and more lucrative options for college students, fewer people are entering dental programs than ever – contributing to a severe lack of available practitioners nationwide. The shortage of dentists, dental assistants, and dental hygienists makes it increasingly difficult for parts of the population to access essential dental care when needed. We need more dentists and assistants to help combat this issue. It’s time to make a change that can give people access to affordable, quality healthcare and put them on track towards long-term oral health benefits like better overall health outcomes and improved self-confidence in their smiles.

mental health, burnout, and retirement Burnout is another factor contributing to the labor shortages in dentistry. A survey conducted by the ADA in 2021 found that 73% of dental professionals reported feeling overworked and overwhelmed, with many experiencing inadequate pay, undesirable workplace cultures, and a lack of growth and career development opportunities. Some dental professionals have faced pushback against vaccination mandates, leading to further staffing shortages. During the pandemic, many older dentists moved up their retirement plans. This has been part of a general wave of retirements in all industries (termed “The Great Retirement”) as many Baby Boomers across the board accelerated their retirement plans due to COVID-19. At the same time, approximately one-third of the dental assistant (33.7%) and dental hygienist (31.4%) workforce indicate they expect to retire in five years or less.

Understanding the crisis The dental industry in the United States has faced a significant shortage of dentists and assistants for the past decade. The labor shortages in dentistry have been a longstanding issue in the U.S. that the COVID-19 Pandemic has only compounded. A complex reality worsened by the Pandemic The dental sector is subject to the same labor market forces faced in other healthcare sectors and industries, such as The Great Resignation and The Great Retirement. The arrival of the COVID-19 Pandemic has further exacerbated this issue because it posed unique challenges to dental providers, resulting in a public health crisis in some states where dental offices cannot meet patient demand. The disruptions and pressures caused by the Pandemic have also taken their toll on workers’ mental health. In late 2020, more than one-quarter (28%) of dental hygienists experienced anxiety symptoms, and 17% reported symptoms of depression.

Human Capital Career Trends | 39


Industry consolidation Meanwhile, the dental sector is experiencing a phase of accelerated practice consolidation and shifts in practice patterns, dentist demographics, and workplace culture. The ADA Health Policy Institute (HPI) engaged with multiple partners to better understand dental assistant and dental hygienist employment patterns and identify factors associated with the attrition and retention of dental team members.

Since 2015, there has been a downward trend in enrollments, and they aren’t expected to rebound anytime soon. According to data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), enrollment in dental hygienist programs has decreased by 25% from 2010 to 2018.

Partners included: the American Dental Assistants Association (ADAA), American Dental Hygienists’ Association (ADHA), Dental Assisting National Board (DANB), and IgniteDA. Using data collected from thousands of dental assistants, dental hygienists, and dentists in 2022, this report offers a comprehensive outlook on the levers available to sustain and improve workplace satisfaction among dental practice personnel. These levers can enhance the recruitment and development of a high-quality workforce within the dental sector. Approximately one-third of the dental assistant (33.7%) and dental hygienist (31.4%) workforce indicate they expect to retire in five years or less. Most dental assistants and dental hygienists are satisfied with their current job. Roughly half of the dental assistants and hygienists indicate they have received a raise within the past year. The majority of wage increases are in the 1%-3% range. Most dental assistants and dental hygienists also indicated receiving dental benefits, paid holidays, paid vacation, and retirement savings from their employers. Health insurance, spent sick time, paid leave, and continuing education or professional development funds are rare overall. These benefits matter for recruitment and retention.

The decline in enrollment programs Dentists are also struggling to hire assistants, an issue that has arisen in part because, over the years, fewer people have enrolled in dental hygienist programs. 40 | Human Capital Career Trends

"THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION ALSO ESTIMATES THAT THE U.S. WILL NEED AN ADDITIONAL 10,000 TO 12,000 DENTISTS BY 2030 TO MEET THE GROWING DEMAND." Staffing issues were cited as the most significant concern among dentists in 2022. This is consistent with other industries predominantly structured as small businesses, where – despite recent record-breaking inflation – workforce shortages remain the most significant problem. The shortages have caused an estimated 11% reduction in dental practice capacity.


In July 2022, 4 in 10 dental practices indicated they were recruiting or had recently recruited dental assistants (DA), and nearly the same share indicated they were recruiting dental hygienists (DH). Among dentists recruiting for these positions, the vast majority – 9 in 10 – indicated it was “extremely” or “very” challenging. Additionally, in July 2022, about 1 in 3 dentists who did not have full schedules said that vacant staff positions were at least part of the problem. Over half of the dental assistant and dental hygienist workforce has been or was in the field for at least 11 years. Most currently employed dental assistants and dental hygienists indicate they have been in their current position for five years or less. Approximately one-third of the dental assistant and dental hygienist workforce expect to retire in 5 years or less. The labour shortage in the U.S. dentistry field has become a significant challenge, with some states experiencing a severe lack of dental practitioners, making it challenging for dental offices to meet patient demand. The shortage has also led to longer wait times for patients seeking dental care, and in some cases, it has resulted in patients delaying or forgoing necessary dental treatments.

WHEN DENTISTS CLOSE THEIR DOORS Many dental practices have closed their doors or reduced their hours of operation in the wake of the pandemic. This has left many people without dental care, frequently leading to oral health problems like tooth decay and gum disease. It can also lead to other serious health problems like heart disease and stroke. When patients must drive further to visit the dentist, they are more apt to skip routine care like preventative exams and cleanings. They might also put off going to the dentist when a problem first appears because they don’t want to take the extra time off work or take their child out of school for a half day. When people forgo early interventions, they can have more significant health problems that might land them in the emergency room. This can drive up healthcare costs for patients and the entire health system. Even worse, hospitals aren’t equipped to deal with dental issues and generally can only provide antibiotics and other painkillers, which can lead to an increase in antibiotic resistance and opioid addiction while the underlying dental problem goes unaddressed. The dentistry labour shortage is a severe problem that needs to be addressed.

Human Capital Career Trends | 41


How much it cost to become a licensed dentist in the United States? Becoming a dentist in the U.S. can be a costly endeavor, with the average cost of a four-year dental school education exceeding $250,000 according to the American Dental Education Association (ADEA). This figure includes tuition, fees, and living expenses. Here are some examples of the cost of attending some of the best dental schools in the U.S.: Harvard University School of Dental Medicine: Medicine: The estimated cost of attendance for the 20212022 academic year is $108,896, including tuition, fees, and living expenses. University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine: Medicine: The estimated cost of attendance for the 2021-2022 academic year is $117,524, including tuition, fees, and living expenses. University of California, Los Angeles School of Dentistry: Dentistry: The estimated cost of attendance for the 2021-2022 academic year is $100,107 for California residents and $126,921 for nonresidents, including tuition, fees, and living expenses. New York University College of Dentistry: Dentistry: The estimated cost of attendance for the 2021-2022 academic year is $125,230, including tuition, fees, and living expenses. It is worth noting that there are options for financing dental school education, such as scholarships, grants, and loans. Additionally, some dental schools offer financial aid programs to help students manage the cost of attendance.

Dentistry graduates follow two primary career paths in the U.S. The most common path is to graduate and work as a general dentist. Whether you want to work for a large corporate dental chain or open your private practice, your diploma must come from a CODAaccredited dental school. The Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) is the national programmatic accrediting agency for dental and dental-related education programs at the post-secondary level. These programs include predoctoral (DDS/DMD) dental education programs, advanced dental education programs and allied dental education programs. Some students are interested in attending a dental residency program following graduation. Dental residency programs exist for those interested in specializing (e.g., orthodontics, oral surgery, endodontics, pediatrics, etc.) and for students seeking additional training before entering practice as a general dentist (AEGD or GPR). 42 | Human Capital Career Trends


FOREIGN-TRAINED DENTISTS: U.S. PATH The good news is that the shortage of dental workers has created opportunities for new and foreign dentists. Dental practices are profitable, and banks are typically open to providing loans to dentists who want to own their practice, even if they have student loans. Moreover, small practices in underserved markets are frequently very lucrative, and some state programs offer loan forgiveness in exchange for a commitment to serve patients in these areas. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were over 750,000 dental jobs in 2018. Dental hygienists earned a median annual wage of $74,820 that year, while general dentists pulled in $151,850 and orthodontists over $208,000. Many retiring dentists are willing to sell their practices at a lower price to someone they believe will take good care of their former patients. This can benefit incoming dentists, giving them more funds to upgrade and improve the practice.

THE GOOD NEWS: MORE OPPORTUNITIES FOR NEW AND FOREIGN DENTISTS If there’s a silver lining to all this, younger and international dentists can now fill the hole left by those leaving the profession. The time is right for ambitious dentists who want to own their practice. Banks are typically open to providing loans in these instances – even when the dentist has student loans – because dental procedures tend to be profitable. Plus, the bank has even more incentive to lend if the community lacks a dentist. Underserved markets are ideal for many new and international dentists because some state programs will forgive debt in exchange for a commitment to serve patients in these areas. Small practices in underserved markets are frequently very lucrative, and because they are usually located outside but near cities, dentists can generally enjoy a lower cost of living while still having access to urban amenities.

Although the labor shortages in the U.S. dentistry field have created many challenges for dentists and patients alike, it's the perfect time for new and foreign dentists to fill this essential need and enjoy this profession's many benefits.

EXPECTED NUMBER OF POSITIONS UNTIL 2030 According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment of dentists is projected to grow 3 percent from 2020 to 2030, about as fast as the average for all occupations. The BLS also projects that there will be about 8,300 new jobs for dentists during this period. The demand for dental services is expected to increase due to population growth, aging baby boomers, and the growing awareness of the importance of oral health. However, job growth may be tempered by the high cost of dental care and the increasing popularity of group practices that can employ dentists more efficiently.

SALARY EXPECTATIONS According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), as of May 2020, the median annual wage for dentists in the U.S. was $158,940. The lowest 10 percent of dentists earned less than $72,840, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $208,000 annually. Dentists' salaries can vary by state due to factors such as the cost of living, the demand for dental services, and state regulations. For instance, in California, dentists earned a median annual wage of $153,000 as of May 2020. In New York, the median yearly salary for dentists was $183,200, while in Texas, dentists earned a median annual wage of $145,330.

Finally, many retiring dentists are willing to sell their practices at a lower price if they find a buyer they believe will take good care of their former patients. This can be helpful to the incoming dentist, leaving them with more funds to upgrade and improve the practice. Human Capital Career Trends | 43


Moreover, dentists who run their practices can earn more than those who work as employees in dental offices or clinics. We listed ten highest-paying states for dentists in the U.S. based on the most recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), along with their median annual wage. It is important to note that the median annual wage for dentists can vary depending on the area of specialization, experience, and whether the dentist owns their practice or is an employee. Nevertheless, these figures illustrate the wide range of salaries dentists can earn across different states in the U.S.

The ten highestpaying states for dentists in the U.S.

Median annual wage in USD

Delaware

$264,440

Alaska

$259,350

Rhode Island

$254,290

Minnesota

$227,280

New Hampshire

$226,300

Massachuttes

$226,100

North Dakota

$225,760

Virginia

$223,980

Maryland

$222,900

California

$212,830

HOW TO BECOME LICENSED IN THE U.S. "Since I recognize that graduates of foreign dental schools, U.S. citizens or not, might make a worthwhile contribution to dentistry in this country … Still, we must be careful to uphold standards of U.S. Dentistry—the best in the world—and, therefore, should take a good look at foreign-trained dentists to be sure they measure up our standards before granting them licensure." Butts H.C. Foreign-trained practitioners should meet our standards to be licensed [editorial] J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 1977;94:417. In 1977, the Journal of the American Dental Association published an editorial highlighting the need to address concerns surrounding the professional role of foreign-trained dentists in the U.S. dental/oral healthcare industry. This editorial marked the first time indexed literature had acknowledged the issue. It also emphasizes the superiority of the current U.S.-based dental education system over those of many other countries.

Over the next pages we investigate and explore different career opportunities, and educational pathways foreigntrained dentists are choosing to get licensed in the U.S. 44 | Human Capital Career Trends


FOREIGN-TRAINED DENTISTS

Advanced Standing Program

Specialty-Training Programs

Advanced Post-graduate Programs

Foreign-trained dentists are allowed to gain acceptance in the second or third year of dental school and acquire a degree in dentistry in the U.S. (Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medicine in Dentistry (DMD)) after completing 2 or 3 years of undergraduate study.

These allow U.S.-trained and foreign-trained dentists to combine residency postdoctoral training with research training in specific specialties of dentistry. Depending on the program, these specialty training programs may vary from 2 to 6 years.

These include 1-year or 2-year residencies: General Practice Residency (GPR) and Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD).

DDS or DMD Degree

Certificate*

Certificate*

Regional Dental Examination

DENTAL LICENSE

To this date, foreign-trained dentists must complete additional training in a CODA-accredited program offered by a U.S. dental school to be eligible for licensing. Traditionally, there are three different educational pathways to licensing: Advanced Standing Programs Specialty Training Programs Advanced Post-Graduate Education Programs Advanced Standing Programs Foreign-trained dentists are allowed to gain acceptance in the second or third year of dental school and acquire a degree in dentistry in the U.S.

(Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medicine in Dentistry (DMD)) after completing 2 or 3 years of undergraduate study. Application requirements include: Passing scores of Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Passing scores of National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part I, Passing scores of National Board Dental Examination (NBDE)Part II, and Transcripts from dental school evaluated by independent educational credentialing institutions. Additional requirements include psychomotor bench tests, case presentations, and personal interviews.

Human Capital Career Trends | 45


SPECIALTY TRAINING PROGRAMS These allow U.S.-trained and foreign-trained dentists to combine residency post-doctoral training with research training in specific specialties of dentistry.

To this date, dental schools still need to accept foreign-trained dentists into their programs due to state policies, and only applicants graduating from a U.S.-based dental school are eligible for application.

The ADA recognizes nine dental specialties:

Application requirements include:

Dental Public Health, Endodontics, Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS), Orthodontics, Pediatric Dentistry, Periodontology, and Prosthodontics. Depending on the program, these specialty training programs may vary from 2 to 6 years. For example, OMFS programs are a minimum of 4 years; however, six years of OMFS programs are completed together with a Doctor of Medicine Program. For licensing of foreign-trained dentists, only a limited number of states (such as Texas and Virginia) accept successful completion of a clinical specialty program instead of a U.S. dental degree.

Advanced Post-Graduate Education Programs These include 1-year or 2-year residencies: General Practice Residency (GPR) and Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD). There are also advanced programs in non-ADArecognized specialties, such as: Dental Anesthesiology, Cosmetic Dentistry, Orofacial Pain, Oral Medicine, Operative Dentistry, Gerodontology, and Special Needs Dentistry Though these programs are ADA credited, they remain unendorsed for specialization. These programs usually grant a certificate of completion (not a DDS or DMD degree), which may satisfy only licensure eligibility requirements in the state where the program is located or be recognized only by a limited number of states. 46 | Human Capital Career Trends

Passing TOEFL, NBDE Part I and Part II scores, Transcripts from dental school (evaluated by independent educational credentialing institutions), grade point average, class ranking, and Letters of recommendation. After completing the aforementioned educational requirements, foreign-trained dentists must meet the regional dental examination required by the State. There are five regional testing agencies in the U.S.: The Western Regional Examining Board (WREB), Central Regional Dental Testing Service (CRDTS), Commission of Dental Competency Assessment (CDCA) (formerly known as North East Regional Board (NERB) of Dental Examiners), Southern Regional Testing Agency (SRTA), and Council of Interstate Testing Agencies (CITA). Depending upon the state-defined regulations, additional requirements may be warranted, which include (a) a jurisprudence exam, (b) a laws and ethics exam, and (c) a background check.


CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE (CX): RELEVANCE IN AN EVER CONNECTED WORLD


THE IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE FOR BUSINESSES Expert Opinion: Interviewer Luiz Franca Filho, Entrepreneur and expert in the hospitality, food and services industry.

Five ways to improve Customer Experience in the Hospitality Industry Customer experience is crucial if you want your business to enjoy rapid growth. It is particularly vital for tourism and hospitality since a great customer experience would allow customers to come back for your services. Most hotels and businesses in hospitality are incorporating new technologies to improve the customer experience. However, that isn’t the only thing you need to ensure customers have a good time at your hotel. There are other factors that you need to consider as well. So, how can your business improve customer experience to stand out in the hyper-competitive hospitality industry? We’ll tell you a few ways to help you out with it. But before that, let us understand why it is vital for the hospitality industry. The Importance of Customer Experience for Businesses in the Hospitality Industry Customer experience entails the quality of the services that the customers get when availing of your services. "For businesses in the service-based industry like hospitality, the customer experience is the most important thing." Whether you run restaurants, hotels, casinos, amusement parks, cruises, entertainment, or other tourism-related services, you must focus on the customer experience. The main idea is to ensure that customers return to you because of he treatment and services they get., this is the so called customer experience. Doing so will increase the return on investment to acquire a customer and enhance brand loyalty. Most importantly, it can offer opportunities to businesses in the hospitality industry to cross-sell and increase their overall revenue. And this is something that is not only limited to the hospitality industry but 48 | Human Capital Career Trends

applies to all businesses in the different sectors. FIVE WAYS TO IMPROVE CUSTOMER SERVICE IN THE HOSPITALITY Now that you have a clear idea of how important the customer experience is for your business, you might wonder how you can enhance it. Let’s go over the ways in more detail to give you a better idea about them. 1. Use Omnichannel Communication Communication is the one thing that is vital if you want to deliver good quality services to your customers. Therefore, the ideal approach is to go with Omnichannel communication. Omnichannel is a combination of digital and conventional methods for communication. Customers can contact your business through social media channels, chats, conventional call centers, and emails. The main goal is to respond to the customer’s queries so that they would consider coming back for your services. 2. Personalized Marketing When it comes to improving the customer experience, offering them a personalized marketing campaign is vital. It helps ensure that the customers are fully aware of what you are offering and how your services can fulfill their requirements. You would have to leverage data collection and digital automation to achieve this goal. You can learn more about your target audience’s preferred types of content and what would elicit positive reactions from them. You would have to leverage data collection and digital automation to achieve this goal. You can learn more about your target audience’s preferred types of content and what would elicit positive reactions from them. The hospitality sector can take advantage of personalized marketing through various ways to improve the customer experience. For instance, you can send marketing emails to potential customers who are more likely to respond to them.


Another example can be retargeting adverts for someone who visited your website or saw an add online for your casino. You can target them with intelligent and relevant recommendations to entice them to visit your casino. 3. Take Advantage of the VR Technology Another way businesses in the hospitality industry can improve the customer experience is by leveraging VR technology. Businesses in the retail sector are already investing in this technology to give customers a clear idea of what they are getting. As a result, it decreases the chances of customer dissatisfaction since they will have a clear idea of what products and services they are getting. It can be the same for the hospitality industry to set clear customer expectations. For instance, a hotel can provide their customers with a virtual reality experience so they can know about the view of the room or the holiday destination. Or, an amusement park can offer a VR experience so the visitors can know about the potential rides and other things they can enjoy. 4. Train Your Staff Customers will have a direct interaction with your staff. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the hospitality industry is one of the major sectors that employ millions of people throughout the US. Therefore, they play a significant role in shaping customers’ experience and image of a particular hotel or brand. Whether you have a casino, hotel, restaurant, or any other business in the hospitality sector, training your staff is vital. You need to give them proper training so they can resolve customers’ issues and answer their queries. Also, it will help them to know how to greet and interact with customers. It is also essential to give adequate training to your staff regarding their demeanor and behavior with the guests. Remember, your staff is the face of the brand for your customers, so you need to ensure that they have the skills to handle them properly. 5. Contactless Payment Last but not least, the covid-19 pandemic has led to a boom in the usage of contactless payment options. Customers today prefer using services from brands that offer them a wide range of payment options. This way, they can ensure they can keep themselves safe while paying for the services.

So, if your businesses in the hospitality industry only accept payments through traditional methods, such as cash or debit/credit card, then it is time to change your approach. More and more hotels, bars, restaurants, and other businesses in the hospitality industry are now offering their customers to pay through different wireless options. Some of the standard payment options include: • Venmo • Samsung Pay • QR codes • Paypal • Google Pay • Crypto wallets • Contactless-enabled bank cards • Apple Pay The Bottom Line Customer experience is the most important thing for any business to sustain and grow, regardless of the industry. It is significant for service-based industries such as hospitality to focus on improving the customers’ experience. Since the hospitality industry is one of the most impacted industries due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is more than essential for businesses to focus on enhancing the experience. Today's marketplace is hyper-competitive and congested, making it more critical than ever for brands to focus on customer experience rather than customer service. By delivering consistently excellent customer experiences across channels and touchpoints, companies will capture the hearts, minds, and wallet shares of consumers. As discussed, there are several ways to ensure that your company delivers excellent customer experiences. But where to start if you want to implement a successful customer experience? If your organization is new to the customer experience, the best place to start, the executive said, is within your company on the front lines. You'll need to map you current situation to have a clear "As Is" so to be able to develop your "To Be". First and foremost, talk with your customer-facing department leaders (sales, client support, operations, ombudsman, marketing, product development, etc.). Gather insights on how customers experience your company. Human Capital Career Trends | 49


Then as you plan your future scenario, focus on creating a seamless omnichannel experience for your customers. "Consistency is key, he reinforced. Consistency is everything in customer experience."

customer engagement. Keep data secure, maintain communication with customers, analyze feedback regularly, and always strive to exceed their expectations. With focus on providing a great customer experience each time customers interact with your company.

You'll also need to ensure that your employees are adequately trained in customer service and have the tools they need to deliver an excellent experience. Finally, use data and analytics to monitor and improve the customer experience you're constantly delivering. Define your KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and measure them, constantly, to improve your approach. If you're new to the game, following these tips, you'll ensure that your company is positioned for success in today's competitive marketplace. Map out the systems, data flows, and processes that need to be in place for customers to have this experience. Ensure customer information is collected and stored securely and regularly updated. Define policies that enable quick resolution of customer issues. Establish a system to track customer complaints, feedback, requests, and preferences across all channels. Create clear guidelines on how customer inquiries or concerns should be handled at each touchpoint. Lastly, measure customer satisfaction by gathering feedback from customers on multiple occasions over the course of their journey with your company; use insights from those surveys to inform future improvements in the omnichannel experience you offer them. Doing so will help ensure an improved customer experience now and in the future. Developing and maintaining a customer-first environment requires commitment from all levels of the organization, so engage as many stakeholders in the process as possible. Together with your team, create an actionable plan that outlines expectations for all department leaders and employees. Start small and build up to larger goals while ensuring you are tracking leaders and employees. Start small and build up to larger goals while ensuring you are tracking progress progress along the way. Your customers will appreciate it! Above all, remember that customer experience is an ongoing process of improvement and adaptation one should never stop looking for ways to improve

50 | Human Capital Career Trends

Luiz Franca Filho, Director of Business Development , at HAYMAN-WOODWARD’s Dubai branch, in the UAE. Luiz Franca Filho's career trajectory exemplifies the art of embracing change and diversity. Originating from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a foundation in Gastronomy, his journey from esteemed hotels like Copacabana Palace to a strategic role in Nestlé Brazil marks his versatility. Fluent in Portuguese and English, Luiz's story is an inspiring testament to the transformative power of resilience and skill diversity in the dynamic services industry.


AERO-INNOVATIONS: NEW HORIZONS FOR PROFESSIONALS IN U.S. AEROSPACE


AERO-INNOVATIONS: NEW HORIZONS FOR PROFESSIONALS IN U.S. AEROSPACE Danilo Dias, Chief Revenue Officer and Board Adviser of HAYMAN-WOODWARD,, Infrastructure expert.

THE HISTORICAL PILLAR: THE AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA)

FEDERAL

Established in 1958, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) came into being against the backdrop of a series of mid-air collisions when air travel was gaining momentum. With safety as its foremost concern, the FAA was entrusted with regulating civil air traffic and establishing safety protocols. Over the decades, the FAA has metamorphosed into an organization that governs and propels the advancement of the U.S. aerospace sector. Historically, the FAA has been at the nexus of significant milestones in American aviation. From the rollout of the Advanced Automation System in the 1980s to foster more efficient air traffic control to its response to the challenges after the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the FAA's footprint can be discerned at every crucial juncture. Moreover, with its mandates and operations evolving, the FAA has facilitated the integration of commercial space flight into the National Airspace System (NAS), marking a testament to its adaptability and foresight. THE ERA OF AERO-INNOVATIONS AND THE GLOBAL EXECUTIVE'S STAKE The U.S. aerospace sector, a historical pioneer in aviation, has expanded into a diverse field where commercial jets, drones, and specialized flights such as air ambulances and firefighting operations, weave a dynamic tapestry of American transportation and innovation. Drones, in particular, have redefined what we expect from the skies, taking on roles from photography to emergency aid, all under the careful integration efforts to ensure they fit seamlessly and safely into the National Airspace System (NAS). THIS INDUSTRY IS NOT JUST ABOUT AWEINSPIRING TECH; IT'S A SIGNIFICANT ECONOMIC FORCE, SUPPORTING MILLIONS OF JOBS AND CONTRIBUTING TO THE U.S.'S ROLE AS A TECHNOLOGICAL LEADER AND A KEY PLAYER IN GLOBAL AEROSPACE MARKETS. 52 | Human Capital Career Trends

It's also a pillar of national security, extending its reach into military operations and the expanding realm of space operations. On the innovation front, the green propulsion movement is shifting gears toward sustainable aviation, with electric and hybrid-electric aircraft leading the charge towards a greener, quieter future. Meanwhile, air traffic control is getting a high-tech makeover with NextGen technologies and AI, aiming to make the crowded skies safer and more efficient. The FAA continues to play a crucial dual role in this evolving sector: the guardian of safety, carefully curating regulations that match the pace of innovation, and the administrator, a partner to the industry, working hand-in-hand with pioneers to ensure growth and safety go together. Its certification processes are the gold standard, assuring that new technologies are not only advanced but also safe. This synergy of regulation, collaboration, and innovation underscores the FAA's pivotal role in an industry where safety is just as important as the next big breakthrough. It's a delicate dance of progress and prudence, one that continues to propel the aerospace world to new heights. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR GLOBAL EXECUTIVES For global executives, the U.S. aerospace landscape presents a multifaceted challenge wrapped in opportunity. Mastery of the regulatory terrain is crucial, where understanding and abiding by the rules is as important as grasping their underlying intent. The regulations, though rigorous, aim to cultivate a safe and superior operational environment. Technological innovation is the wind beneath the aerospace sector's wings, offering executives the chance to soar above competitors. Investment in state-of-the-art systems, electric propulsion, and drone technologies can yield significant efficiencies, cost savings, and a unique market stance.


Collaboration resonates as the melody of progress in this sector. By aligning with regulatory bodies like the FAA and engaging in dialogue and consultative assemblies, executives can secure not just compliance but also potential regulatory flexibility, crucial for swift and agile business maneuvers. BEYOND THE FRONTIER

ATMOSPHERE

THE

FINAL

The final frontier is no longer the exclusive playground of government agencies; it has become the next commercial venture. The cosmos is opening up, with private companies launching into orbital enterprises, from satellite arrays to lunar ventures and even the dreams of space tourism. This new retail space era requires a cohesive blend of aerospace and space travel regulations and operations. The FAA, traditionally concerned with terrestrial flight, now finds its purview stretching into space. Its role has broadened to include the oversight of commercial space launches. It ensures the safety of all missions and manages the complex dance of airspace during launches and returns to Earth. For the forward-looking executive with eyes on the stars, strategic thinking is paramount. Navigating the intricate regulatory web, evaluating the burgeoning market's potential, and understanding the associated risks requires a visionary mindset. Collaboration is key, offering shared technological know-how, regulatory understanding, and risk distribution—essential for pioneering the business of space. The U.S. aerospace industry is calling for leaders who can navigate both the skies and the stars. It's a realm where compliance, innovation, and collaboration are not just buzzwords but prerequisites for success. Global executives who can manage these challenges and seize the opportunities will not only propel their businesses forward but also contribute to the trailblazing legacy of this ever-expanding sector. THE GLOBAL INTERNATIONAL AEROSPACE

PERSPECTIVE: EXECUTIVES

VALUING IN U.S.

Positions mostly needed according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) include:

The U.S. aerospace industry has evolved with innovation, safety, and excellence as constants. The FAA has played a key role in regulating and collaborating with the industry to ensure a safe and efficient aerospace environment. The sector offers opportunities for global executives with technological advancements and market opportunities. Success in this dynamic environment requires proactive engagement, innovation, and collaboration.

Aerospace Engineers: The BLS had projected a 3% growth for aerospace engineering jobs from 2019 to 2029, about as fast as the average for all occupations. As air travel continues to increase, the demand for newer and more fuel-efficient aircraft also rises. Aircraft and Avionics Equipment Mechanics and Technicians: The BLS projected a 5% growth from 2019 to 2029. With the growing fleet of aircraft, routine maintenance and checks have become crucial, leading to an increased demand for technicians. Logisticians and Supply Chain Managers: While not specific to aerospace, the BLS projected a 4% growth in logistician jobs from 2019 to 2029. With its intricate global supply chains, the aerospace industry will likely mirror this demand, especially as it recovers from disruptions caused the pandemic. Sales Managers and Business Development Managers (International Focus): Given the global nature of the aerospace industry, there's always a demand for professionals who can navigate international markets, though specific growth percentages for this niche might need to be delineated in broader BLS categories. Human Capital Career Trends | 53


MISSION TO SUN: BIG DATA, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, AND BUSINESS ANALYTICS Data is essential to modern life, and having the right database management system cannot be overstated. In the U.S., various official data sources provide valuable insights into different aspects of life, from demographic and economic data to health and environmental data. Examples of essential data sources include U.S. Census Bureau and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The U.S. Census Bureau collects and provides demographic and economic data at different levels, including national, state, and local levels. Businesses, governments, and researchers use the Bureau's data to make informed decisions, plan and implement programs, and conduct research. Another critical data source in the U.S. is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which collects and provides data on health and diseases. The CDC's data monitors disease outbreaks, identifies risk factors, and plans interventions to prevent and control infections. Numerous database management systems in the market cater to different needs and requirements. In recent years, there has been a surge in the number of database management systems that use artificial intelligence (A.I.) and machine learning (ML) technologies to improve data management and analysis. "Data is king" is another way of saying information is equivalent to gold in some cases. Advancements and ways to make data more accessible at a larger scale, is where databases come in. Having the right database management system is critical to managing and analyzing data effectively. Additionally, numerous database management systems in the market cater to different needs and requirements, from traditional systems to those that use A.I. and ML technologies. Ultimately, the choice of the database management system will depend on the specific needs and requirements of each organization or individual. The idea was first introduced in 1960 when Charles W. Bachman designed the first-ever database management system, DBMS. Since then, many database management systems have come out, mainly used by industries with an extensive inventory of products. The primary function of a database management system is that they are used to store, retrieve and run different queries on data. Since then, many database management systems have 54 | Human Capital Career Trends

come out, mainly used by industries with an extensive inventory of products. The primary function of a database management system is that they are used to store, retrieve and run different queries on data. Oracle Launched around 1979, the oracle database management system is quite famous in modern times, and there are many reasons why that is so. One fundamental reason why the oracle database is considered such a powerful platform is that it gives the user performance and scalability. Many features are integrated within the management system, such as the clustering feature and the portability it offers, making it a very scalable database. In addition to that, there is the added benefit of high availability as well. Largescale companies need greater data availability on the database system as well. The oracle database system excels when it comes to performance and in regards to data availability as well. MySQL There are many reasons why many successful organizations tend to opt for MySQL as their premier option for a database management system. One of these is that this DBMS, in particular, offers excellent data security. MySQL is globally known as the most secure and reliable database management platform and is used to handle data for many famous companies, such as WordPress and Facebook, to name a few. In addition, MySQL has set up the necessary measures to ensure a 24-hour uptime so that users do not face difficulties such as server downtime at unexpected hours. It also provides comprehensive data analysis tools, making it an excellent choice for businesses and organizations that need to manage and analyze large amounts of data. AWS Amazon Web Services (AWS) database management system, which uses AI and ML technologies to improve performance, security, and scalability. AWS offers various database management systems, including Amazon Aurora, Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon RDS, and Amazon Redshift, among others. Interested in pursuing a career in database management? Here are several steps you can take to get started: Gain a solid understanding of databases: Start by learning the basics, including how they work, different types of databases, and common terminology. Online courses and tutorials can be an excellent way to get started.


Choose a database management system to specialize in: many systems have unique features and advantages. Consider which are most popular in your desired industry or field and focus on gaining expertise. Develop your technical skills: Database management requires a robust specialized skill set, including knowledge of programming languages, SQL, data analysis tools, and server management. Consider taking courses or earning certifications to improve your technical abilities. Gain practical experience: Look for opportunities to gain hands-on experience working with databases. Internships, freelance work, or personal projects can all be great ways to build your skills and gain experience. Consider advanced education: A degree or certification in database management, computer science, or a related field can be an excellent way to demonstrate your expertise to potential employers and open up additional career opportunities. Pursuing a career in database management can be a rewarding and challenging path. A successful approach must include technical skills, gaining practical experience, and focusing on a specific database management system. Big data, database management, and business analytics are all closely related, and each plays a critical role in managing, analyzing, and utilizing data effectively. At its core, big data refers to the massive and complex datasets generated through various sources, including social media, mobile devices, and the internet of things (IoT). To manage and analyze this data effectively, companies use database management systems specifically designed to store, retrieve, and run queries on data. Once data is stored in a database management system, businesses can use business analytics tools and techniques to analyze the data and extract valuable insights. This includes using statistical models, machine learning algorithms, and data visualization tools to identify patterns and trends in the data that can be used to make informed decisions and improve operations. Big data provides the raw material for business analytics, while database management systems provide the infrastructure for storing and accessing that data. Together, these components enable businesses to extract insights from large and complex datasets, enabling them to make better decisions and gain a competitive advantage.

Big data, database management, and business analytics are all integral components of a modern data-driven business strategy. With them, businesses significantly improve decisional making process towards more success. Business analytics is invaluable for any organization looking to stay ahead of the competition. In today's data-driven world, businesses can no longer rely on intuition and guesswork alone to make decisions. Business analytics help businesses identify patterns, trends, and opportunities that might have gone unnoticed. By leveraging these insights, companies can optimize operations, reduce costs, and improve customer satisfaction. With the exponential growth of data, it is becoming increasingly necessary for businesses to leverage analytics to manage and make sense of this data effectively. Analytics provides a way to extract value from the vast amounts of data businesses generate, enabling them to gain a competitive edge. MISSION TO SUN Big data can also tell us a lot about the Sun, including its behavior, structure, and dynamics. In fact, NASA scientists have been collecting data about the Sun for decades, using a variety of instruments and techniques, including satellites, telescopes, and ground-based observatories. One of the primary ways that big data is used to study the Sun is through solar modeling. This involves using complex computer models to simulate the Sun's behavior, based on data collected from observations. Comparing the models to actual observations, scientists can gain insights into the Sun's internal structure, magnetic fields, and other properties. Big data is also being currently used to study solar storms and other solar events that can impact Earth's atmosphere and technology. Satellites and groundbased observatories collect massive amounts of data on solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other phenomena that can cause disruptions to radio communications, power grids, and other systems. By analyzing this data, scientists can improve their understanding of these events and develop better methods for predicting and mitigating their effects. Another way that big data is used to study the Sun is through helioseismology, which involves studying the oscillations and vibrations of the Sun's surface. Analyzing these oscillations, scientists can gain insights into the Sun's interior structure and dynamics. Human Capital Career Trends | 55


Data Analysis: Once the data is collected and stored, NASA scientists use big data analytics tools and techniques to analyze the data and extract valuable insights. This includes using machine learning algorithms to identify patterns and trends in the data and developing complex computer models to simulate the behavior of the Sun's corona and other phenomena. Data Sharing: NASA also makes the data collectedby the Parker Solar Probe available to the public through its Planetary Data System (PDS) archive. This archive contains data from various NASA missions, including the Parker Solar Probe, and allows scientists and researchers worldwide to access and analyze the data. Here are some concrete examples of how big data is used to study the Sun:

NASA's Parker Solar Probe NASA's Parker Solar Probe is a spacecraft launched in August 2018 to study the Sun's corona, solar wind, and other phenomena up close. Big data plays a critical role in the mission by enabling scientists to collect, store, and analyze vast amounts of data from the spacecraft's instruments, aspects include: Data Collection: The Parker Solar Probe is equipped with instruments that collect data on the Sun's corona, solar wind, and other phenomena. These instruments include the FIELDS instrument, which measures the electric and magnetic fields in the Sun's atmosphere, and the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) instrument suite, which measures the properties of the solar wind. The data collected by these instruments are transmitted to Earth and stored in the spacecraft's memory for later analysis. Big Data Storage: To store the massive amounts of data collected by the Parker Solar Probe, NASA uses a distributed file system called the HighPerformance Storage System (HPSS). This system allows the data to be distributed across multiple servers, enabling faster access and analysis. 56 | Human Capital Career Trends

Solar Modeling: One example of solar modeling is the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission launched by NASA in 2010. The SDO collects vast amounts of data on the Sun's magnetic fields, plasma flows, and other properties using a suite of instruments, including the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). Scientists use this data to create computer models that simulate the Sun's behavior and gain insights into its internal structure and dynamics. Space Weather Prediction: Big data is also used to predict space weather, which can impact Earth's technology and infrastructure. One example is the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft launched by NASA in 1997, which collects data on the solar wind and other solar phenomena. This data is used by space weather forecasters to predict and mitigate the effects of solar storms and other events that can cause disruptions to Earth's technology. Helioseismology: Another example of how big data is used to study the Sun is through helioseismology. Helioseismology involves studying the oscillations and vibrations of the Sun's surface to gain insights into its internal structure and dynamics. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is an international network of observatories that collects data on these oscillations, using techniques such as Fourier analysis to extract valuable insights.


IN THIS MISSION, BIG DATA IS USED TO PREDICT SPACE WEATHER, WHICH CAN IMPACT EARTH'S TECHNOLOGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE.

Big Data Engineers: Big data engineers are often included in the category of 'Computer Network Architects'. The median annual salary for computer network architects is approximately $116,780. Regarding careers specifically related to space missions: Aerospace Engineers: The median annual wage for aerospace engineers, as per the latest BLS data, is around $118,610. Astrophysicists: Astrophysicists are generally included in the broader category of 'Physicists'. The median annual wage for physicists is about $129,850. Software Developers for Space Applications: Again, falling under 'Software Developers, Quality Assurance Analysts, and Testers', the median annual wage is approximately $110,140.

These are just a few examples of how big data is used to study the Sun. Collecting and analyzing vast amounts of data, scientists can gain insights into the Sun's behavior, structure, and dynamics, ultimately leading to a better understanding of our nearest star and its impact on Earth. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provides median salaries for various occupations in the United States. Based on the latest data from the BLS, here are the median annual salaries for careers in big data and those related to space missions like the mission to the Sun: Data Scientists: The BLS categorizes data scientists under 'Computer and Information Research Scientists'. As of the latest BLS data, the median annual wage for computer and information research scientists is approximately $126,830. Data Analysts: Data analysts often fall under the broader category of 'Statisticians and Mathematicians'. The median annual wage in this field is around $93,290.

Danilo Dias is the Chief Revenue Officer and Board Adviser at HAYMAN-WOODWARD. He has extensive experience in sales, marketing, and management across various industries, including airports, transportation, security, telecommunications, and oil & gas. Danilo is a Sloan Fellow from MIT, holds an Electrical Engineering degree, and has pursued postgraduate studies in finance, marketing, administration, and IT from esteemed institutions. He is also a Board Member of the Brazil National Infrastructure and Logistic Efficiency Coalition.

Machine Learning Engineers: These professionals are typically categorized under 'Software Developers, Quality Assurance Analysts, and Testers'. The median annual wage for this category is about $110,140. Human Capital Career Trends | 57


ENCOURAGING INTERNATIONAL STEM STUDENTS TO ATTEND U.S. UNIVERSITIES


ENCOURAGING INTERNATIONAL STEM STUDENTS TO ATTEND U.S. UNIVERSITIES Expert Opinion: Abir Maryam, Legal Writer, Public Administration and University Program Management expert.

EMBRACING GLOBAL TALENT: THE CASE FOR INCREASING INTERNATIONAL STEM STUDENTS IN U.S. UNIVERSITIES In the rapidly evolving landscape of higher education, U.S. universities stand at a pivotal juncture to enhance their global standing and academic excellence by welcoming more international students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. This article explores the multifaceted benefits of this approach, backed by compelling evidence and data, underscoring why U.S. institutions should actively pursue and support this trend. The global flow of students, especially in STEM disciplines, is a critical aspect of contemporary education. U.S. universities are uniquely positioned to benefit from this movement, drawing from a pool of global talent that can significantly enhance their academic and research capabilities. BENEFITS OF INCREASING THE NUMBER OF STEM INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS Attracting more international STEM students to the U.S. offers a multitude of benefits, as evidenced by various studies and data. The presence of these students significantly enhances academic diversity and cultural exchange, enriching the learning environment for all students. According to the Institute of International Education (IIE), international students bring unique perspectives to classrooms and labs, fostering global awareness and collaboration. For instance, during the 2019-2020 academic year, over 1 million international students were enrolled in U.S. institutions, with a substantial proportion in STEM fields. Economically, international students are a boon. NAFSA: Association of International Educators reported that in the 2018-2019 academic year, international students contributed $41 billion to the U.S. economy and supported 458,290 jobs. This contribution is not just financial; these students also bring a diversity of skills and knowledge that benefit U.S. industries.

In terms of innovation and research, a study by the National Science Foundation (NSF) highlights that international students contribute disproportionately to scientific research, particularly in graduate programs where they often constitute more than 50% of the student body in key STEM fields. This high representation is crucial in areas experiencing domestic talent shortages. Moreover, their participation in the workforce, particularly through Optional Practical Training (OPT) programs, addresses skill shortages in critical areas and drives technological advancement. For example, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security reported that 223,000 international students were authorized to work under the OPT program in 2019, with a majority in STEM fields. Their presence also fosters global networking, with alumni often becoming key connectors between the U.S. and their home countries, facilitating international collaborations and business opportunities. This network effect extends the reach and impact of U.S. education and research globally. These benefits underscore the importance of creating supportive policies and environments to attract and retain international STEM talent in the U.S., ensuring the country maintains its competitive edge in the global science and technology sectors. In conclusion, the continued attraction of international STEM students is vital not only for the enrichment of the U.S. educational ecosystem but also as a key driver of economic growth, innovation, and global networking. Therefore, it is imperative that educational institutions, along with government entities, continue to develop and implement strategies that make the U.S. an attractive and welcoming destination for international STEM talent. STEM INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS GAP IN THE U.S. UNIVERSITIES The STEM international student gap in U.S. universities is a complex issue marked by fluctuating enrollment patterns and varying participation across different STEM fields. Human Capital Career Trends | 59


Data from the Institute of International Education (IIE) reveals that while the overall number of international students in the U.S. has been rising, there have been periods of decline, particularly in certain STEM fields.

Visa restrictions and uncertainties also contribute to stress and anxiety; for instance, changes in policies regarding Optional Practical Training (OPT) and H-1B visas directly affect their career prospects in the U.S.

For instance, in the 2019-2020 academic year, the U.S. saw a slight decrease in new international student enrollment, partly attributed to stringent visa policies and growing global competition for international students. Despite this, STEM fields remain popular among international students, with the National Science Foundation (NSF) reporting that they account for a significant proportion of all international graduate students in the U.S., particularly in engineering and computer science.

Furthermore, the National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP) reports that restrictive immigration policies can deter international students, impacting their decision to study in the U.S.

However, there's a noticeable gap in participation among different countries, with students from China and India dominating these enrollments, while other regions are underrepresented. This disparity highlights the need for U.S. universities to diversify their international student body and address the challenges that deter students from other regions.

These challenges necessitate comprehensive support systems within U.S. universities and policy adaptations to ensure that international STEM students can fully realize their potential and contribute to the academic and scientific community

Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these gaps, with travel restrictions and health concerns leading to a further decline in international student mobility. Addressing these gaps is crucial for maintaining the diversity and vibrancy of STEM programs in U.S. universities, ensuring they continue to benefit from the rich perspectives and talents of a global student body. CHALLENGES THAT FACE STEM INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN THE U.S. UNIVERSITIES International STEM students in the U.S. face several challenges that can impact their academic journey and overall experience. Language barriers often pose the first obstacle, as many students must adapt to English proficiency not only in everyday communication but also in complex academic contexts. This can affect their classroom participation, understanding of course material, and completion of assignments. Additionally, cultural differences can lead to social isolation and difficulties in adapting to new social norms and educational systems. Financial strain is another significant challenge. According to the Institute of International Education (IIE), many international students rely on personal and family funds, and the high cost of education in the U.S. can be a substantial burden. 60 | Human Capital Career Trends

Lastly, finding employment post-graduation is a considerable challenge due to competitive job markets and work visa limitations, affecting their long-term career goals and opportunities for practical experience in their fields of study.

SOLUTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES International students in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields at U.S. universities face a unique set of challenges, but there are various solutions and opportunities to address these issues. One major challenge is the language barrier, which can be mitigated through university-offered language support programs and peer tutoring. Cultural differences can be another hurdle; creating international student organizations and cultural exchange programs can promote better integration and understanding. Financial challenges can be significant, and universities could offer more scholarships and part-time employment opportunities for international students. Academic difficulties, especially in adapting to different educational styles, can be managed through mentorship programs and academic workshops. Networking opportunities, such as career fairs and alumni interactions, are crucial for career development and can be facilitated by the universities. Additionally, mental health support tailored to the specific needs of international students can help them cope with the stress and isolation they might experience. Addressing these challenges with targeted solutions, universities can create a more inclusive and supportive environment for STEM international students.


The integration of international STEM students into U.S. universities is not just a matter of enhancing academic diversity and cultural richness; it's a strategic imperative for maintaining the United States' leadership in the global science and technology sectors. The economic, innovative, and networking contributions of these students are undeniable. However, to fully harness these benefits, U.S. institutions must actively work to overcome the challenges these students face, including addressing enrollment gaps, providing comprehensive support systems, and advocating for favorable policy changes. By doing so, they will not only aid in the personal and professional development of these students but also ensure that the U.S. continues to be a leading destination for global STEM talent. This approach will fortify the country's position at the forefront of scientific research and technological innovation, crucial for its continued growth and global influence in the 21st century. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS In the 2022-2023 academic year, international students contributed over $40 billion to the U.S. economy, a substantial increase from the $33.8 billion in the 2021-2022 academic year. This figure was nearly $38 billion in 2022 alone, according to the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Based on the most recent data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual wages for the specified STEM positions in 2022 are as follows: Software Developers and Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers: The median annual wage for these professionals was $119,630​​. Computer and Information Research Scientists: The median annual wage for computer and information research scientists was $136,620​​. Biomedical Engineers: The median annual wage for bioengineers and biomedical engineers was $99,550.​ Data Scientists: The median annual wage for data scientists was reported to be $103,500​​. These figures reflect the high demand and value of specialized skills in the STEM fields, contributing significantly to the U.S. economy through innovation, technological advancements, and filling critical skill gaps. The substantial salaries in these roles also indicate the importance of attracting and retaining talent in these areas, including through international STEM students studying at U.S. universities.

These contributions have supported a significant number of jobs across various sectors beyond higher education, including dining, retail, and transportation. STEM OCCUPATION SALARIES According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual wage for STEM occupations in 2022 was $97,980, which indicates the high value of STEM skills in the U.S. job market. There is a well-documented skill shortage in various STEM fields within the U.S. workforce. International students can fill these gaps. For instance, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that employment in computer and information technology occupations will grow 11% from 2019 to 2029, much faster than the average for all occupations. International STEM graduates can be a key resource in meeting this demand.

Abir Maryam, with a Master of Public Administration is an expert in University program management, focused on enhancing community-oriented initiatives. On top of her proven experience in managing programs, community outreach, and event coordination, she is celebrated for her fundraising and resource mobilization skills.

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NATIONAL INTEREST WAIVERS AND U.S. ADMISSIBILITY


NATIONAL INTEREST WAIVERS AND U.S. ADMISSIBILITY Expert Opinion: Elaine Wood, Chief Legal Officer and Leonardo Freitas, Chief Executive Officer, HAYMAN-WOODWARD.

Despite significant economic contributions that immigrants offer to the United States (US), US employment-based (EB) immigration policy remains difficult to navigate and implicitly unwelcoming with systemic barriers to entry related to admissibility. Technicalities, such as overstaying a temporary nonimmigrant visa, such as a tourist or student visa, can result in otherwise eligible individuals being found inadmissible for permanent residency in the US. This barrier for otherwise admissible foreign nationals is particularly problematic for highly skilled immigrants who are deemed eligible for the National Interest Waiver (NIW). Foreign nationals who apply for adjustment of status are already present in the US and benefiting its economy. Once the US grants an EB petitioner a NIW and determines visa eligibility, the petitioner’s admissibility to the US should follow as a default course in instances of infructuous overstay infractions, rather than function as an additional systemic barrier for those in the US already contributing to its economy. Accordingly, this article investigates how and why US immigration policy should extend the NIW eligibility determination to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrations in the US regardless of visa overstay on account of the economic impact of foreign nationals already in the US. “America today has forty-five million foreign-born residents—the most of any country, and as many as the next four combined.”(1) “Appreciation,” in economic parlance, refers to the value of an asset increasing. Moreover, the word “appreciation,” according to affect theorists who study responses to real- world occurrences, reflects a collective understanding of gratitude. (2) Foreign nationals aiming to contribute to the labor market and economic benefit of the United States (US) through lawful immigration channels are woefully underappreciated by the very nation interested to benefit by their contributions, at best, and marginalized to the criminal periphery, at worst.

It is important to examine the data and trends related to US immigration and the economy when assessing the value of immigrant contributions to the national economy. According to a report by the National Foundation for American Policy, immigrants have founded more than half of the US startups valued at $1 billion or more, and these companies have created an average of approximately 760 jobs each. Additionally, immigrants are more likely than native-born Americans to hold advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. The question becomes, how might foreign nationals, as an undervalued asset in the US, be better recognized for their contributions to the US economy? The answer lies in the extension of the National Interest Waiver to include the admissibility of highly skilled immigrants in the US regardless of visa overstay. Despite significant economic contributions that immigrants offer to the US, US employmentbased (EB) immigration policy remains difficult to navigate and implicitly unwelcoming with systemic barriers to entry related to admissibility. Technicalities, such as overstaying a temporary nonimmigrant visa, such as a tourist or student visa, can result in otherwise eligible individuals being found inadmissible for permanent residency in the US. This barrier for otherwise admissible foreign nationals is particularly problematic for highly skilled immigrants who are deemed eligible for the National Interest Waiver (NIW). Foreign nationals who apply for adjustment of status are already present in the US and benefiting its economy. Once the US grants an EB petitioner a NIW and determines visa eligibility, the petitioner’s admissibility to the US should follow as a default course in instances of infructuous overstay infractions, rather than function as an additional systemic barrier for those in the US already amplifying its economy. Accordingly, this article investigates how and why US immigration policy should extend the NIW eligibility determination to

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include admissibility for highly skilled immigrations in the US regardless of visa overstay on account of the economic impact of foreign nationals already in the US. Despite the significant contributions that immigrants offer to the US economy, the US immigration system remains difficult to navigate. Technicalities, such as overstaying a visa, can result in otherwise eligible individuals being found inadmissible. This barrier to entry for otherwise admissible foreign nationals is particularly problematic for highly skilled immigrants who are eligible for the NIW. Sometimes, foreign nationals seeking admissibility to the US are barred from adjusting their status due to their overstayed visa. Arguably, the NIW should be extended to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants in the US regardless of visa overstay. This policy acknowledges the positive economic impact that foreign nationals granted eligibility for NIW already contribute to the US, and to deny their admissibility is to diminish the national interest in continuing to benefit by their business contributions. The concept of a “National Interest Waiver” is primarily associated with the US and its immigration policies. It refers to a provision within the employment-based immigrant visa system, specifically the EB-2 category, where individuals can request a waiver of the labor certification requirement by demonstrating that their employment in the US would be in the national interest. (3 )The NIW is an important provision under US immigration law that allows the US to attract and retain highly skilled individuals who can contribute to the country's economic, technological, and scientific superiority. The NIW is based on the premise that the individual's work is in the national interest, and that by granting a waiver of the job offer and labor certification requirements, the US will benefit from the person's talents and expertise. By extending the NIW to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed their visa, the US would protect its national interests, maintain its economic and technological advantages, and benefit from the contributions of these individuals over the long term. This approach is consistent with US immigration policy, the principles of fairness and due process, and the need to compete for talent and expertise in an increasingly globalized economy. The concept of granting immigration benefits based on national interest is not unique to the US. Other countries have similar provisions or exemptions within their immigration systems, but they may not be referred to as “National Interest Waivers.” 64 | Human Capital Career Trends

Each country has its own immigration policies and criteria for granting visas and work permits, and these may include provisions for exceptional cases or individuals with skills or expertise that are in the national interest. The specific criteria, processes, and terminology may vary among countries. Countries with similar provisions to the US’s NIW allow for granting visas or residency permits based on national interest or exceptional circumstances. The provisions are designed to attract individuals with specialized skills, talents, and contributions that are deemed to be in the national interest of the country. Examples include Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and Germany. While the specific names and requirements may differ, similar provisions to the US’s NIW exist in Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and Germany. Canada has a program called the Global Talent Stream, which is part of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program. It allows Canadian employers to hire highly skilled foreign workers for positions that are in high demand and of significant economic benefit to Canada. This program expedites the work permit process for eligible individuals. Australia offers a visa category known as the Global Talent Visa, which is designed to attract highly skilled individuals in targeted sectors such as technology, science, engineering, and research. The visa is granted based on demonstrated exceptional talent or outstanding achievements in their field, with the aim of benefiting Australia's economy and innovation. The United Kingdom has a visa category called the Global Talent Visa (formerly known as the Tier 1 Exceptional Talent Visa), which allows highly skilled individuals in the fields of science, humanities, engineering, medicine, digital technology, arts, and culture to work, live, and contribute to the UK's economy and society. Applicants need to be endorsed by a recognized endorsing body in their field. Germany has an initiative called the Blue Card, which allows highly qualified non-EU nationals to live and work in Germany. The Blue Card is granted based on criteria such as having a recognized university degree, a binding job offer with a specific minimum salary threshold and meeting specific occupational requirements in high-demand fields. The NIW remains a crucial provision under US immigration law that grants an eligible foreign national a job offer and waives labor certification requirements to obtain permanent residence in the US.


The NIW is aimed at attracting highly skilled individuals who can contribute to the US economy and society and is based on the premise that the individual's work is in the national interest. Consequently, the NIW should be extended to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed their visa but are otherwise eligible for the NIW. The failure to do so would cause extreme hardship to US national interests and derail its competitive advantage in the global economy. However, despite the significant contributions that immigrants have made to the US economy, the US immigration system can be difficult to navigate, and technicalities such as overstaying a visa can result in otherwise eligible individuals being found inadmissible. This is particularly problematic for highly skilled immigrants who are eligible for the NIW, but who are barred from adjusting their status due to their overstayed visa. US immigration law recognizes the importance of family unity and the hardship that can result from the separation of family members. In certain situations, such as when a US citizen has a close family member who is inadmissible to the US, a waiver of inadmissibility may be granted if the separation would result in extreme hardship to the US citizen. This principle should also be applied to highly skilled non-citizens who are eligible for the NIW and who are found to be inadmissible due to overstaying their non-immigrant visa. In fact, the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA), the highest administrative body for interpreting and applying immigration laws, emphasized the importance of considering the totality of the circumstances when evaluating an NIW application, including factors such as the beneficiary's education, skills, and past record of success. (4) As a result, it is critical that the NIW be extended to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed their visa but are otherwise eligible for the NIW. This would protect US national interests, maintain the country's economic and technological advantages, and benefit from the contributions of these individuals over the long term. This extension could be easily implemented by policy memorandum at the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) without the need for new legislation. By expanding the wording of section 245(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to include NIWs, USCIS could make a significant change to the immigration system that would benefit the US economy and society. Qualified foreign nationals may bypass the requirement of a job offer and labor certification as

part of the employment-based permanent residency process. Instead, under the NIW, applicants can self- petition for a green card if they can demonstrate that their admission to the US would be in the national interest. The economic value of the NIW can be understood from multiple perspectives, including retention of talent, economic contribution, research and development, economic multiplier effect, innovation and entrepreneurship, and global competitiveness. As regards retention of talent, the NIW helps the US attract and retain highly skilled foreign professionals, especially in fields where there is a shortage of qualified American workers. These individuals often possess advanced degrees, exceptional abilities, or unique expertise, which can contribute to the innovation and economic growth of the country. As regards economic contribution, foreign nationals who qualify for the NIW and obtain permanent residency can actively contribute to the US economy. They can start businesses, create jobs, and stimulate economic activity. Many successful entrepreneurs and innovators have emerged through the NIW route, establishing companies that generate employment opportunities and contribute to technological advancements. As regards research and development, the NIW is commonly utilized by researchers, scientists, and academics who demonstrate that their work is of national importance. These individuals often engage in cutting-edge research, contribute to scientific breakthroughs, and collaborate with US institutions and companies. Their presence enhances the competitiveness of American industries, attracts investment, and fosters technological advancements. Moreover, as regards economic multiplier effect, the presence of highly skilled immigrants can have a positive multiplier effect on the economy. These foreign nationals often spend their income on housing, transportation, education, healthcare, and other goods and services, thereby stimulating various sectors of the economy and creating additional jobs for American workers. As regards innovation and entrepreneurship, many individuals who qualify for the NIW possess exceptional abilities, unique skills, and entrepreneurial drive. They contribute to innovation, technological advancement, and the development of new products and services. Immigrant entrepreneurs have founded numerous successful companies in the US, driving economic growth, generating revenue, and creating employment opportunities. As regards global competitiveness, in today’s globalized economy, attracting and retaining global talent is crucial for maintaining the competitiveness of the US. Human Capital Career Trends | 65


The NIW allows the country to tap into a diverse pool of skilled professionals and leverage their expertise, knowledge, and international networks. This enhances the nation’s ability to compete in various sectors, including technology, science, healthcare, and engineering.

their visa is a smart and necessary concession for the US to maintain its economic and technological advantages. Significantly, the extension of the NIW can be accomplished through a simple policy memorandum by USCIS without the need for new legislation.

Notably, the economic value of the NIW is not solely limited to immediate economic gains. It also encompasses the long-term benefits of a dynamic and diverse workforce, increased innovation and competitiveness, and the overall growth and development of the US economy. The NIW has been shown to be an essential tool for US economic growth and competitiveness, particularly in the hightech industry. A study by the National Foundation for American Policy found that immigrants with NIWs were responsible for founding more than 25% of US billion-dollar startups, which represented a significant portion of the high-tech industry in the US. These startups have created jobs, stimulated economic growth, and contributed to the overall technological and economic superiority of the US.

The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) is the primary federal law governing immigration in the US, containing various sections and provisions that outline different aspects of immigration law. INA 245(a) pertains to the general eligibility requirements for adjustment of status to lawful permanent resident (by obtaining a green card) while in the US. INA 245(a) outlines the basic qualifications that an individual must meet to be eligible to apply for adjustment of status.

Denying highly skilled non-citizens the opportunity to contribute to the US economy in the long term due to a moderately infractious technicality, such as overstaying a tourist visa, remains against the national interests of the US. Many individuals who have overstayed their visas have done so due to unforeseen circumstances, such as family emergencies or medical issues, and should not be punished for circumstances beyond their control. By granting admissibility to highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed their visas but are otherwise eligible for the NIW, the US would be protecting its national interests, maintaining its economic and technological advantages, and benefiting from the contributions of these individuals over the long term. Of course, it is important to note that the US has a long history of attracting and retaining highly skilled individuals from around the world. This has been a vital component of the country's economic growth and competitiveness, and the NIW has played an important role in this process. By extending the NIW to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed their visa, the US would be continuing this tradition and reinforcing its commitment to maintaining its economic and technological superiority in an increasingly globalized economy. Considering the available data and the need to compete for talent and expertise in a globalized economy, extending the NIW to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed 66 | Human Capital Career Trends

Under INA 245(a), the general requirements for adjustment of status include: Inspection and Admission or Parole: The individual must have been inspected and admitted or paroled into the US. This means they entered the country legally with the authorization of an immigration officer, such as through a valid visa or with proper documentation at a port of entry. Eligibility to Receive an Immigrant Visa: The individual must be eligible to receive an immigrant visa at the time of filing the adjustment of status application and at the time of the final decision on the application. This requirement typically involves having an approved immigrant visa petition or being in a qualifying immigrant visa category. Admissibility: The individual must be admissible to the US. This means they cannot have certain grounds of admissibility, such as criminal convictions, immigration violations, or fraud. Visa Number Availability: An immigrant visa number must be immediately available at the time the adjustment of status application is filed. This requirement is linked to the preference categories and numerical limits set by the US government for granting immigrant visas each year. (5) Admissibility refers to the eligibility of an individual to enter or remain in the US. When an individual applies for adjustment of status or any other immigration benefit, they must demonstrate that they meet the criteria of admissibility. Failure to meet these criteria can result in a finding of inadmissibility, which may prevent the individual from being granted the immigration benefit they are


seeking. Various grounds of inadmissibility are outlined in the INA, and they are intended to protect national security, public safety, and public health, as well as maintain the integrity of the US immigration system. Some of the common grounds of inadmissibility are protective; however, overstaying a visa as a reason for inadmissibility is counterproductive and excessively punitive. Overstaying a tourist visa should not amount to the same level bar as terrorism concerns. We agree that criminal convictions, involving crimes of moral turpitude, felony drug offenses, or offenses related to espionage, terrorism, or human trafficking should constitute bars to admissibility. Individuals who have engaged in fraud or willful misrepresentation in connection with their immigration applications should continue to be barred on account of providing false documents or lying about their qualifications. Individuals with certain communicable diseases or health conditions that pose a threat to public health should continue to be deemed inadmissible. Individuals who engaged in activities that are deemed a threat to US national security, including engaging in terrorist activities or supporting terrorist organizations, may and should be found inadmissible. Visa overstay refers to individuals who remain in the US beyond the authorized period specified by their visa. Overstaying can occur for various reasons, such as failure to depart before the expiration of the visa or continuing to stay in the US after a temporary visa status, such as a student or tourist visa, has expired. Barring individuals from admissibility based on visa overstay when the government already deemed the person worthy of a NIW is contradictory and detrimental to the US economy. There is no specific waiver available for individuals who have simply overstayed their visas. However, there are certain waivers and processes that may be applicable to individuals who have committed visa overstays and are seeking to overcome the associated immigration consequences. Eligibility for adjustment of status, however, remains subject to various requirements such as not overstaying a visa. Arguably, overstaying a visa should not affect one’s ability to pursue permanent residency status. Section 245(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) is a provision that allows certain eligible individuals to apply for adjustment of status to lawful permanent resident (obtain a green card) while remaining in the US, even if they entered or worked in the country without authorization or violated their

status. The provision is particularly significant because it provides an opportunity for individuals who would otherwise be ineligible for adjustment of status to obtain lawful permanent residency. Applying for adjustment through INA Section 245(i) prevents immigrants from having to leave the country to benefit by a green card. Section 245(i) of the INA, as amended by the Legal Immigration Family Equity (LIFE) and Act and LIFE Act Amendments of 2000, enables certain individuals who are present in the United States who would not normally qualify to apply for adjustment of status in the United States to obtain lawful permanent residence (get a Green Card) regardless of: The manner they entered the United States; Working in the United States without authorization; or, Failing to continuously maintain lawful status since entry. To qualify for this provision, you must be the beneficiary of a labor certification application (Form ETA 750) or immigrant visa petition (Forms I-130, Petition for Alien Relative, or I- 140, Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker) filed on or before April 30, 2001. You must complete Supplement A to Form I485, Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status, to apply under Section 245(i) provisions to submit it with your Form I- 485. (6) By expanding the wording of Section 245(i) of the INA to include NIWs, USCIS could enable NIW beneficiaries to adjust their status while in the US, even if they had previously overstayed their visa. This approach would provide a fair and efficient solution that aligns with US immigration policy and the principles of fairness and due process. It would allow the US to compete for talent and expertise in an increasingly globalized economy and enhance the country's economic, technological, and scientific advantages. Ultimately, the NIW should be extended to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed their visa but are otherwise eligible for the NIW. Such an extension would protect US national interests, maintain the country's economic and technological advantages, and benefit from the contributions of these individuals over the long term. Further, this extension can be easily implemented by USCIS through a policy memorandum that expands the wording of Section 245(i) of the INA. Human Capital Career Trends | 67


The US has a long-standing history of attracting and retaining highly skilled individuals from around the world, and it is essential that this continues. The NIW remains a crucial provision under US immigration law that has helped the country to compete in an increasingly globalized economy. By extending the NIW to include admissibility, the US would be able to maintain its position as a global leader and attract the best and brightest from around the world, thus securing a brighter future for the country and its citizens. In addition to economic benefits, the national interests of the US also encompass defense, technology, scientific, and welfare interests. Many highly skilled non-citizens who are eligible for the NIW possess skills that are critical to these areas of national interest. For instance, individuals with expertise in cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, and biotechnology are in high demand, particularly in the defense industry. Denying individuals an opportunity to contribute to the US due to the technicality of overstaying a non-immigrant visa would have serious consequences for the US national interests. The scientific and technological superiority of the US is heavily reliant on the contributions of highly skilled non-citizens. These individuals bring a diversity of ideas, perspectives, and experiences that enhance the country's research and development efforts. According to a report by the National Science Foundation, foreign-born individuals represent a significant portion of the US scientific and engineering workforce, particularly in fields such as computer science, physics, and mathematics. Moreover, many highly skilled non-citizens who are eligible for the NIW have expertise in areas that are critical to US welfare interests, such as healthcare and education. These individuals can contribute to the development of innovative solutions that address the unique challenges faced by the US in these areas. Considering the critical skills and knowledge that highly skilled non-citizens can bring to the US in the areas of defense, technology, scientific, and welfare interests, denying them the opportunity to contribute due to this technicality is against the national interests of the US. Therefore, extending the NIW to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed their visa but are otherwise eligible for the NIW is not only in line with US immigration policy but is essential for protecting the US national interests, maintaining the country's economic and technological advantages, and benefiting from the contributions of these individuals over the long term.

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The Matter of Dhanasar is a landmark decision by the BIA that has significant implications for NIW adjudications. This decision was a departure from the previous framework for NIW adjudications and established a new three-prong test that clarified the requirements for NIW eligibility. The first prong requires the beneficiary to show that their proposed endeavor has both substantial merit and national importance. The proposed endeavor can be in a wide range of fields such as business, education, science, or technology, if it can be shown to have a significant impact on the national interests of the United States. The second prong requires the beneficiary to demonstrate that they are well-positioned to advance the proposed endeavor. This can be established by evidence of the beneficiary's education, skills, or other relevant experience. The third prong requires the beneficiary to show that on balance, it would be beneficial to the US to waive the job offer and labor certification requirements. This requires showing that the national interest would be adversely affected if a labor certification were required. The Dhanasar decision also emphasized the importance of considering the totality of the circumstances when evaluating an NIW application. This includes factors such as the beneficiary's education, skills, and past record of success, as well as any other relevant factors that support the beneficiary's ability to advance their proposed endeavor. Overall, the Dhanasar decision provides clear guidance for NIW adjudications and emphasizes the importance of considering the national interests of the US when evaluating NIW applications. It also underscores the importance of highly skilled non- citizens in contributing to the US economy, technology, and scientific superiority, and highlights the need to attract and retain such individuals to maintain the US's position as a global leader. The idea of expanding Section 245(i) of the INA to include NIWs has been proposed in the past and has precedent. Section 245(i) of the INA was created in 2000 to allow individuals who were previously out of status to apply for permanent residency if they had a qualifying family or employment-based petition filed on their behalf. In 2008, USCIS expanded the reach of Section 245(i) by creating Section 245(k), which allows individuals who have violated the terms of their admission to adjust their status if they have a qualifying family or employment-based petition filed on their behalf.


This recognizes that technical violations of immigration law should not preclude individuals from obtaining legal status in the US. Expanding Section 245(i) to include NIWs would be consistent with USCIS's previous efforts to create flexible immigration policies. This would enable highly skilled non-citizens who have overstayed their visa to adjust their status if they have a qualifying NIW filed on their behalf. This would extend the benefits of the NIW to individuals who are currently excluded due to a technicality such as overstaying a tourist visa. USCIS has the authority to issue policy memoranda that provide guidance on existing laws and regulations. Expanding Section 245(i) to include NIWs through a policy memorandum would align with US immigration policy and principles of fairness and due process. This would allow the US to attract and retain talent and expertise in an increasingly globalized economy and enhance the country's economic, technological, and scientific advantages. Further, USCIS has already expanded the benefits of Section 245(i) with a policy memorandum in 2008 that created Section 245(k) and allowed certain individuals to adjust their status regardless of the amount of time spent in the US out of status. Expanding this policy memorandum to include NIW petitions without a specific time frame beyond the 180 days could further increase the benefits of the NIW and enable highly skilled non-citizens who have overstayed their visas to remain in the US and contribute to the US economy and society. This would align with the purpose and intent of the provision and the BIA's decision in Matter of Dhanasar, which emphasizes considering the totality of the circumstances in evaluating an NIW application. Indeed, expanding the policy memorandum to include NIW petitions without a specific time frame beyond the 180 days would be a beneficial step for USCIS. This would enable highly skilled non-citizens who are eligible for the NIW to adjust their status and contribute to the US economy and society, while also aligning with US immigration policy and principles of fairness and due process. As the current Administration continues to “lift restrictions,” expand “legal immigration in a variety of ways,” and promote immigration appreciation generally, the NIW should be extended to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed their visa but are otherwise eligible for the NIW. (7) The NIW is designed to attract highly skilled individuals who can contribute to the US economy and society and extending it to admissibility would be consistent with US immigration policy.

By allowing these individuals to adjust their status and remain in the US, the country would continue to benefit from their contributions, maintain its technological and economic superiority, and protect its national interests. This approach is consistent with US immigration policy, which seeks to attract and retain highly skilled individuals who can contribute to the US economy and society. Highly skilled non- citizens are essential to the US competitive edge and a flourishing economy. This approach is also consistent with the principles of fairness and due process. It recognizes that individuals who have made a mistake in overstaying their visa should not be permanently barred from contributing to the US society and economy. It also recognizes that the benefits of allowing these individuals to adjust their status far outweigh any potential negative consequences. Finally, it is worth noting that the US is facing increasing competition from other countries to attract highly skilled immigrants. Ultimately, by extending the NIW to include admissibility for highly skilled immigrants who have overstayed their visa, the US would be sending a message that it values talent and expertise, regardless of a person's past minor administrative transgressions, such as an overstay.

Leonardo Freitas, CEO, HAYMAN-WOODWARD, is an entrepreneur with over twenty-five years of experience in government relations, international trade, and business development in the United States, as well as emerging markets, with a focus on Latin America and Asia.He served as a senior business development executive for distinguished companies such as Philips Electronics, Tandberg, AT&T, and Cisco Systems, with a remarkable track record in government and private sector sales achievements. Leonardo Freitas’ natural ability to assess deceptive behavior led him to become a certified trainer in the Facial Action Coding System Human Capital Career Trends | 69


(FACS), a technique developed at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), by renowned psychiatrist and behavioral scientist Dr. Paul Ekman. He furthered his studies in Behavioral Sciences at the University of Melbourne. Mr. Freitas is renowned for his ability to identify and interpret body language, facial micro-expressions, and deceptive behavior. His skills have been used to assist Latin American organizations and companies in the increasingly important area of manpower profiling, and at several local and federal law enforcement agencies as well. In 1996 he founded TradeSmart, which was the genesis of the idea to eventually help found HAYMAN-WOODWARD IMMIGRATION LAW FIRM LLP. An accomplished musician, Mr. Freitas attended the prestigious Berklee College of Music (Boston – USA), majoring in Music Production and Sound Engineering, and completed an internship at Polygram Records (now Universal Music) as a post-production studio manager.

Elaine Wood, Esq., Chief Legal Officer, HAYMAN-WOODWARD

Attorney Elaine Wood, a distinguished figure in the realms of human rights and international law, is renowned for her comprehensive expertise and innovative approach. Her academic journey, marked by achievements at prestigious institutions such as UCLA Law, UMiami Law, UIllinois, Bucknell, and Susquehanna, has shaped her into a legal luminary. As Chief Legal Officer of HAYMAN-WOODWARD, with its global presence, she champions excellence in employment-based immigration. Her insights extend across various platforms, including policy journals and the AILA Law Journal. Collaborating with CEO Leonardo Freitas, she focuses on international business and cross-border transactions, further enhancing global immigration opportunities. Additionally, her legal acumen is complemented by a creative flair in poetry, contributing to literary spheres. Authorized to practice immigration and naturalization law across the US, Elaine Wood epitomizes legal excellence and compassionate advocacy, ensuring global immigration serves as a gateway to diverse opportunities.

Sources: (1) Idrees Kahloon, The New Yorker, “Economists Love Immigration. Why Do So Many Americans Hate It?”, 12 June 2023, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2023/06/12/immigration-economy-book-reviews. (2) The Economist, ‘The A to Z of economics,” economist.com/economics-a-to-z, 13 June 2023. N.S. Fagley, “Appreciation (Including Gratitude) and Affective Well-Being: Appreciation Predicts Positive and Negative Affect Above the Big Five Personality Factors and Demographics,” SAGE Open, (8)(4), 2018. (3) U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), “Employment-Based Immigration: Second Preference EB-2,” last updated 20 April 2022, https://www.uscis.gov/working-in-the-united-states/permanent-workers/employment- basedimmigration-second-preference-eb-2. (4) U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), “Board of Immigration Appeals,” last updated 14 September, 2021, https://www.justice.gov/eoir/board-of-immigration-appeals. (5) U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), “Part B – 245(a) Adjustment,” Policy Manual, current as of 14 June 2023, https://www.uscis.gov/policy-manual/volume-7-part-b. (6) U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), “Green Card through INA 245(i) Adjustment,” Green Card, last updated 29 November 2021, https://www.uscis.gov/green-card/green-card-eligibility/green-card-through-ina- 245iadjustment#:~:text=In%201994%2C%20Congress%20enacted%20section,without%20leaving%20the%20United% 20States. (7) J.M. Krogstad and A. Gonzalez-Barrera, Pew Research Center, “Key Facts About U.S. Immigration Policies and Biden’s Proposed Changes,” 11 January 2022: https://www.pewresearch.org/short-reads/2022/01/11/key-facts-about-u-simmigration-policies-and-bidens-proposed-changes/. 70 | Human Capital Career Trends


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