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2013 / 2014 Info

Root Vegetables Field and postharvest equipment and technology. Potato, onion, carrot, ail, turnip, beet, ...

Doctor Manuel Candela 26, 11ª • 46021 Valencia • España (Spain) Tel./Ph.: +34-649 485 677 • info@poscosecha.com • www.poscosecha.com • www.postharvest.biz


Patata, cebolla, ajo y zanahoria

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INDEX What cooks in the potato market?

The vision of Angus Armstrong , CEO of Greenvale AP 5 Varieties

Cora Seeds Delta Seed De Nijs Intersemillas KWS Sakata Vilmorin Takii

e1 (*) e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1

Planting, tillage, application of fertilizers and plant protection products

Agco Agrifac Baselier Bijlsma Hercules Christiaens A.S. Dewulf Erme Forigo Roteritalia Kali

e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1

Harvest

Asa-Lift e1 Argiles e1 Agrotop e1 AVR e1 Dewulf e1 Grimme e1 Lee Shuknecht & S. e1 Nicholson Machinery e1 Ploeger e1 Simon e1 Standen Pearson e1

Fertilizers and plant protection products

Agricoat Aragro Arvensis Atl谩ntica Agricola BASF CQ Mass贸 Decco Domca Dow Dupont Fomesa Fruitech Kali Kenogard Sapec Xeda

12, e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 41, e1 29, e1 e1 e1 36, e1 e1 e1 e1 e1

Storage and quality control

Agro Technologie Apollinaire Agratechniek Aqualife Fancom Ilerfred Munters Omnivent Tolsma Vostermans

42, e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1


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Receiving, unloading and grading

Agrical Agrimat Bijlsma Burg´s Christiaens A.S. Compac DT Dijkstra Fermaq Fomesa Maquinaria FruitTech Greefa Grimme Haines Equipment Herbert Ingemaq Ingeniería Prodol Jongejans Kerian Maf Roda Marcelissen Martin Maq Miedema Murre Techniek Nicholson Machinery Noble Oldenhuis&Prinsen Skals Tong Peal Visar Sorting Unitec Xeda Wevano

e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 20, e1 e1 e1 42, e1 21, e1 22, e1 e1 e1 e1 18, e1 38, e1 e1 e1 16, e1 e1 e1 e1 41, e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1

Wyma

43 e1

Minimally processed and processed products

Allround Veg Proc. Baltimore Innovation Best Sorting System Dofra Dornow De Bruyne Fam Ibérica Finis Ftnon Hepro HJM Marrodan Ilpra

e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 33, e1 e1 14, e1 e1 24, e1 e1

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Kiremko Luciano Aguilar Marcelissen Multiscan Murre Techniek Nilma Stumabo Tecnoceam Tomra Tummers Methodic Urschel Visar sorting Visys Wectorscan

e1 e1 e1 42, e1 37, e1 e1 52, e1 40, e1 39, e1 e1 24, e1 28, e1 e1 e1

Packaging, equipment

Abar Affeldt ARC Dieppe Baumeister Cyklop Gillenkirch Intermas Jassa Multivac ProPak Sorma ULMA Group Vigouroux

e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 32, e1 e1 43, e1 e1 e1 10, e1 e1

Packaging, materials

Corapack Dafelir EjidoCartón Giró Intermas Multivac Netpack NNZ Polifil Ambalaje Sacos Dúrcal Textil Villa de Pego

e1 e1 26, e1 40, e1 32, e1 46, e1 e1 e1 e1 e1 e1

(*)The e indicates the list of companies offering machinery or materials for growing and post-harvest for potato, onion, garlic, carrot and other root vegetables at the end of this document.

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45 News on www.postharvest.biz

Citric acid, effective to avoid browning in cut potatoes Key actions for the correct storage of potatoes

Washwater sampling from carrot operations showed it may be a good source of potassium, and under study the risk of transferring plant

Ethylene Exposure After Dormancy Break is as Effective in Controlling Sprout Growth as Continuous Ethylene for Some UK-Grown Potato Cultivars A Delay between Hot Water Treatment and Processing of Potato Tubers Reduces Browning Development on Fresh Cut Slices

61 Exhibitions, Congresses

62 Associations and growers

Rhizoctonia, a yield and quality problem for the potato industry

65 Press and other media

Keys for the best practices for handling and storage of seed potatoes Studies on plant hormones and the relation with onion and potato dormancy and sprout growth More black heart in potatoes held at low temperature and air storage Potato varieties and bruising susceptibility CA also improves the storage of onions and ails

E, e Companies offering machinery or materials for growing and post-harvest for potato, onion, garlic, carrot, and other root vegetables.

Management to improve the postharvest life of sweet onion Red onion dices retained better aromas and colour in sealed PLA containers The waste for the preparation of minimally processed products: an opportunity?

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Translation of this document by Dr Miguel Merino – Pacheco mittelmeer@gmail.com

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WHAT COOKS IN THE POTATO MARKET? The vision of Angus Armstrong, CEO of Greenvale AP Alicia Namesny info@poscosecha.com During the 8th World Potato Congress, WPC 2012, held in Edinburgh on May 2012, Angus Armstrong, CEO of Greenvale AP and specialist for the markets of fresh and processed potatoes in the UK., held a speech outlining his vision of those markets. A vision that applies also to other Western European markets. The fresh potato consumption in the United Kingdom has fallen some 10/15 % in the last ten years. From 110 kg/person/year then to presently 90 kg. Consumption of processed potatoes has not fallen at a similar rate, but those better figures do not prevent the downward slope of the curve showing total consumption (fig 1).

Which are the macro trends affecting the market? Potato consumption reflects with greater or lesser intensity trends affecting all markets. Consumers reach older ages, but, above all, they must work until older ages. This is the consequence of the crisis experienced since 2007/2008 by most European countries. This extends the demand for convenience products to older population brackets. The very crisis affecting the countries of Western Europe changes the shopping habits of its citizens. Climate has also an effect on the production and consumption habits. The speaker noted that when he was a child barbecues were non-existent, potato was not consumed in salads, mashed potatoes was homemade … Ethnic foods showed up during the last decades, encouraged by the rise of tourism and migration. Pizza, pasta, Chinese and Indian food have joined our diet - something that affects mostly younger people but from whose appeal and practicality almost nobody escapes… and they constitute an alternative to "traditional" food such as potatoes . If price promotions have always had their attractive, this magnetism has increased in the lee of the economic crisis. People look more than ever how they spend their money. Techniques to influence consumer's decision multiply. People are buying increasingly on-line, which makes necessary to wonder how the future consumers would look like. Tesco makes already 6% of its sales online. You can worry about this tendency, or take it as a window of opportunity. Internet offers, besides, the possibility to easily explain to consumers the virtues of the products. Figure nº 2 summarizes trends of the current consumer society.


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Innovation and added value Newest product types among potatoes are minimally processed – fresh chilled – and frozen produce, as shown in the fourth picture. Sales of both categories have grown by around 10 % in value, but the figures are very different regarding volumes. Fresh produce chilled (fresh chilled) grew by 9.8 % in value and 6.8 % by volume. The frozen potato market grew by 12.3 % in value but only 0.5 % in volume. According to the numbers, you'd think that the second - frozen –example is the superior one, when with the same volumes higher prices are obtained. But the point that the speaker underlines is that the market is not growing, although it is true that the consumer pays that added value. Regarding specific products, baby and mashed potatoes are interesting value added alternatives. In spite that they do not win the battle against alternative carbohydrates, they really do help on that front.

What about brands? In frozen products, brands are accepted. McCain is well known in the United Kingdom’s market. Regarding fresh potatoes, for many years Jersey Royal was the only one available. Some years ago, Albert Bartlett was successfully introduced to the market. Currently may be an opportunity for brands of fresh potatoes. It is a tool that has almost not been used and whose interest may be increasing as a way to ensure a "consistent taste experience ". And the other tools The potato industry must use every tool possible to attract more buyers (Figure 4) . One option are convenience products, like fresh baby potatoes. To take advantage of the nutritional benefits of potatoes is another possible way. They are rich in vitamin C and in folate and are also healthy for their contents of potassium and fiber. One of the options in which the potato industry of the United Kingdom is working is to include a sixth unit in the 5 a Day promotions. A daily potato should be also eaten. In short, there is much work to be done.

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New varieties Among the "tools" to increase consumption, new varieties deserve special attention. Armstrong refers to the varieties selected for its good taste and the gastronomic pleasure they provide, rather than their yields. If the consumer does not enjoy the product we supply him/her, the whole exercise does not make sense�. We have new varieties that taste really great." Food for a population that continues to grow In the next 30-40 years the population of the word may increase by 1000 million, and genetically modified varieties - which are far from being accepted , at least consciously , in many markets - , could provide a solution, supplying a higher nutritional value. Greenvale Greenvale is a leading supplier of fresh potatoes in the UK . The company has three stores and a processing plant, all strategically located in key tuber growing areas. Its customers are retailers, processors, catering business, all working within the fresh produce sector of the industry.

(*) The pictures belon go the video of the conference by Mr. Armstrong, Greenvale, World Potato Congress 2012, WPC; the text was prepared by Alicia Namesny based on the mentioned conference.

Angus Armstrong

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Field and postharvest equipment and technology. Potato, onion, carrot, ail, turnip, beet, ...

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SPE路3 / ESPECIALISTAS EN SERVICIOS PROFESIONALES


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ULMA Packaging Barrio Garibai, 28, Apdo. Correos, 145, OĂąati, GuipĂşzcoa -Spain Tel.: + 34 /0) 9.43. 73.92.00; Fax: + 34 (0) 9.43 78.08.19

info@ulmapackaging.com, http://www.ulmapackaging.com

ULMA Packaging, S. Coop., Packaging solutions With more than 50 years of experience and a team of high qualified professionals, as well as the most advanced design and manufacturing technologies, ULMA offers extensive and innovative solutions in packaging equipment and systems with a main objective: providing additional value to its customers ULMA Packaging is currently focused on a wide variety of markets, including machinery, integral solutions and inputs; which it addresses through its eight product lines: Flow Pack, Thermoforming, Traysealing, Vertical, Dairypack, Shrink Wrap, Stretch Film and Sleeve Wrapping.

Packaging solutions include food and non-food packaging, medicines and perishables. Garlic heads packaged in flow pack wrapper

The packaging of garlic heads in flow pack wrapper from ULMA Packaging is a clean and economic solution, a substitute of traditional nets. The surface of the package allows for labeling on the upper and lower face, while displaying the produce inside. It is made with the FLORIDA Horizontal Flow Wrapper. FLORIDA is a medium-high performance level machine, a flow pack wrapper (HFFS) that makes a three sealing pillow pack.

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Packaging of potatoes, beets, corn and carrots, vacuum thermoforming, wrapped in flexible film and sterilized after sealing

Packaging with thermoforming in vacuum pack allows to increase the shelf life and cooking traits of the packaged product. Thermoforming in vacuum is used to wrap potatoes, beets, corn and carrots with flexible film, to be submitted lately to a sterilization process. The film is able to withstand the sterilization process to which the product is submitted after packaging and allows for a longer shelf life and cooking the product in the package. Among the advantages of this system are a larger productivity, better presentation of the product, lower package and packaging costs and high quality sealing. OPTIMA, de ULMA Packaging is the machine used to obtain this packages. It is a thermoforming machine for flexible or rigid film with modified atmosphere (MAP) and vacuum options. It is the thermoformer with the highest performance level. Further information under http://www.ulmapackaging.com/soluciones-de-envasado/

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AGRICOAT NATURESEAL LTD 7B Northfield Farm - Great Shefford; RG17 7BY Berkshire - Reino Unido Tel.: +44-(0)1488-648988; Fax: +44-(0)1488-648890

Simon.Matthews@natureseal.com; http://www.agricoat.co.uk

Agricoat Natureseal offers products to maintain quality in freshcut fruit and vegetables Natureseal dips are composed of food grade vitamin and minerals, developed and formulated specifically for various freshcut products. Natureseal PS10 has been used for some years by processors of a variety of vegetables, but specifically roots, including potato, parsip, celeriac, and sweet potato. The formulation has also been used successfully on some varieties of pepper, and cucurbits such as butternut squash. Although good technical results are seen, and customers do use the products on some of these vegetables, the relatively high cost has meant processors of lower value products, such as whole peeled, or quartered potato, have struggled to make the change from the industry standard for these products, sodium metabisulphite. Although sulphites are still widely used, there is a growing demand for sulphite free alternatives, and Agricoat Natureseal have been working hard to develop a solution that will give comparable results on potato at a lower cost than our PS10 solution. The company is now testing with industry partners new formulations that show promise, especially when used in combination with vacuum packaging or a microperforated MA film.

The use of Natureseal™ PS10 to extend the shelf life of fresh cut parsnip This trial was used to verify the effectiveness of Natureseal™ PS10 when used on parsnips. Different concentrations of PS10 were tested with prepared samples, and the samples evaluated over four days. The results suggest that treatment Natureseal™ PS10 solution at approximately 8 % w/w concentration is effective as way of extending the shelf life of peeled and cut parsnip pieces.

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Natureseal™ PS10 en nabos More information: http://www.postharvest.biz/en/company/agricoat-naturesealltd/_id:49906,seccion:news,noticia:77119/ SR1 as alternative to the sodium metabisulfite in ready to use potatoes The use of sodium metabisulfite to maintain the quality of peeled and fresh cut potatoes has the advantage of the economy but it use is increasingly questioned in certain markets. Current technology offers potential alternatives as are other types of preservatives and modified atmospheres. An essay evaluates Agricoat SR1 as dip solution, and Amcor plastic packaging with selective permeability. This study suggests that King Edward not only have a longer shelf life than Maris piper when untreated, but they also respond better to the treatments. The trial indicates that a shelf life of P+7 for King Edward, and P+4 for Maris Piper can be achieved when using SR1 at 2.5 % with Amcor microperforated film.

The picture belongs to the discolouration assessments in King Edward. More information: http://www.postharvest.biz/en/company/agricoat-natureseal-ltd/_id:49906,seccion:news,noticia:77118/

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FTNON – Food Technology Noord – Oost Nederland, B.V Bedrijvenpark Twente 20; 7602 KA Almelo - The Netherlands Tel.: +31-546-574 222; Fax: +31-546-574 875

info@ftnon.com; http://www.ftnon.com FTNON – Processing equipment for fresh salads, herbs, aromatics, fruits, vegetables, potatoes, mushrooms etc.: pre-process, slice, wash, dry, mix, blanch, cover, chill, decontaminate, clean, package.

Versatile solutions for potato based products FTNON has a deep knowledge and large experience, especially obtaining better quality and yields, low residues and cost efficiency in all steps of the processes.

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Energy efficient steaming, blanching and cooking Steam cookers, screw or tape conveying, using the Dynamic Cloud Control System (DCC System). Even quality and energy savings between 30 and 40 % are obtained.

Blanching systems with screw and belt conveyors Blanching with energy efficient systems and a constant product flow. Cooling systems with belt and screw conveyors for fried potatoes and other potato based products Efficient flow through the product, resulting in better heat removing and more efficient use of cold water.

Excellent de-stoning Obtaining a safer process and less weight in the subsequent production stages. For each kind of contamination, the best cleaning method available The FTNON drum cleaning systems clean all potatoes perfectly well.

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Roda IbĂŠrica Av. de la Llibertat, 53; Apdo. Correos, 49; 46600 Alzira, Valencia, Spain Tel.: +34-962 403 011; Fax: +34-962 403 450

rodasale@mafroda.es

The MAF RODA GROUP, a world leader, specializes in design and manufacturing of grading, palletizing, conditioning and handling equipment for fruit and vegetables. We offer our customers high quality equipment, investing 3 % of our yearly revenue in research and development, in order to be updated with the needs of our markets. Our success story started in 1905. Today, the MAF RODA Group has 18 subsidiaries and 45 agents in the world, a workforce with more than 900 persons and complete control of its installations.

Products: Weighing and prepackaging machinery and for displaying fruit and vegetables at the point of sale. Complete equipment for the handling of fruit and vegetables: depalletizers, dumpers, stackers of pallets and boxes, baling machines, screening and processing lines; colour, diameter, quality and/or weight electronic graders; weight packagers, palletizers, packing lines, strappers, fruit conveyors, batch managers. Trade mark: MAF Roda Agrobotic ÂŽ.

Oneway II - 114, for products between 40 y 120 mm in length

The grader Oneway II, of Maf Roda, is designed to grade fruits and vegetables with lengths between 40 y 120 mm, such as potatoes, apples, pears, tomatoes, kiwis, avocados, garlics, etc. It has the possibility of dumping the trays on both directions.

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Other characteristics of Oneway II include:  High speed: 600 trays/minute/working line  Simple and reliable mechanics  Easy maintenance  It can feed more tan one prepackaging machine, like net, punnet or bag fillers.  Also optical analysis. Colour, diameter and spectroscopic analysis in the near infrared range for sugars. (NIR). The range of Oneway graders includes equipment with different capabilities.

Pomone Universal

Pomone Universal optimizes the process results according to the grader´s outlets. It adapts to different selection criteria: colour, diameter, density, shape coefficient, quality, sugar contents index, consistency, labelling, traceability, yield of the packaging machines.

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INGEMAQ Ruta 60, Km. 22; Quillota, Chile Tel.: +56-33-314924

ingemaq@ingemaq.cl; http://www.ingemaq.cl

INGEMAQ-SAIMÂŽ, is an engineering company established in Quillota in 1995, dedicated to design, fabrication and sales of industrial and agroindustrial machinery. The implementation of complete lines for the selection, grading and conditioning of whole fresh products for the agroindustry and of machinery and equipment for the food industry guarantees quality, efficiency, dependability and sound technology of our products.

Grader for onions and other round products

The grader for onions and other fruits and vegetables is a machine designed according to each customer´s needs. Ingemaq designs and supplies equipment with production capacities between 1.500 and 20.000 kg/h. The type of grading net is chosen according to product and variety. They are made of galvanized steel, with clasps made of stainless steel.

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Root Vegetables Grader for carrots, lemons and potatoes

The Ingemaq graders used for carrots, lemons and potatoes are pieces of equipment designed and developed to classify round, semi-elongated or elongated products with irregular shapes according to their size. Sizes and grading outlets are chosen according to each client´s needs.

String crate dumpers

The string crates dumper of Inquemaq measures 1300 x 1300 x 3000; it is filled at floor level and unloads at 900 mm. The dumping system works with galvanized steel wires of Ø3/8”.

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COMPAC SORTING EQUIPMENT 11 Spring Street - P.O. Box 13516; Onehunga - Auckland – New Zealand Tel.: +64-9-634 0088; Fax: +64-9-634 4491

compac@compacsort.com; http://www.compacsort.com

Compac Sorting Equipment manufactures high speed, high precision sorting equipment for fruit and vegetables. Its permanent compromise with research and development, coupled with its desire to be your best international supplier of graders have turned Compac Sorting in the world leader of that industry. Compac graders are high quality systems, reliable and easy to maintain; and its programs and technologies are developed according to each client´s needs. In this way, the Compac systems reach the highest levels of efficiency and processing, obtaining the best possible result for each crop. Besides, Compac has a technical team and a network of agents all over the world. After sales support is considered of vital importance. Products: graders for fruits and vegetables, sizers and sorters after types; single, double and multiple line graders, electronic retrofitters, classification systems using color and spots, NIR (near infrared) technologies, taste technologies, packaging systems and different solutions for packaging plants.

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Selection and grading of white and pink washed potatoes

The efficiency of Compac solutions for washed potatoes is the reason of its success since 1997. Through the exact weighing systems of InVision 9000 of Compac, it is possible to classify the crop after external quality, shape, size, colour and individual weight before manual classification comes to play. Compac reachs a yield of 3.5 metric tons / hour (3.8 tons / hour in the USA).

Grading system for onions

Working along the whole process with Compac technology, the final processing stage results in bags with exact weights and uniform shapes, obtaining a final product with a unique quality, with onions showing an excellent external aspect.

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GREEFA Langstraat 12, 4196 JB Tricht, Holanda Tel. : +31-(0)345-57 81 00; Fax: +31-(0)345-57 82 00

info@greefa.nl; http://www.greefa.nl

Greefa has specialized in research and design of high-tech sorting equipment for fruit, vegetables and potatoes for over 60 years. The company is active through a worldwide dealer network in more than 40 countries, giving the highest priority to an efficient after sales service. We collaborate closely with our clients and constantly analyse the changing market needs. This enables our customers to supply the right quality of fruit in a homogenous presentation. The large number of patented machines has given GREEFA a prominent position in the market. Our unique modular system allows you to compose a sorting machine that is tailored to suit your actual needs. It also offers you the opportunity to extend your machine later on, by simply adding one or more sorting modules.

What is unique about Greefa: Flexible, tailor-made sorting solutions ensuring accurate results and high efficiency Gentle handling of your delicate fruits is our priority Robust and reliable machines which do not require much maintenance. After sales service support available through our worldwide dealer network Special software, Windows based, for user-friendly easy to handle operation Apart from intelligent chain roller sizers and cup sizers Greefa offers the high end GeoSort and SmartSort sizers with the unique Greefa patented transfer system

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Sorting modules available on Greefa machines:

-

Sorting by size (multiple measurement system with infra-red camera). Sorting by weight with 3-point weighing system. Colour sorting with CCD cameras and special software. External quality sorting iQS which takes up to 60 photos of each fruit. Non-destructive internal quality sorting iFA (internal flavour analyser). See our website for the other models of machines which Greefa offers.

Visit to web: www.greefa.nl o www.greefa.com

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MARRODAN S.A. Pol. Ind. Los Cabezos - Ctra. de Mendavia s/n; 31580 Lodosa, Navarra, Spain Telf.: +34-948 693 142; Fax: +34-948 693 532

marrodan@hjmmarrodan.com; http://www.hjmmarrodan.com MARRODAN has a long experience – more than 65 years – in the development of complete equipment lines and processes for the food industry. An specialist in vegetable and preserved fish processing; frozen, chilled and dehydrated food. Also a name in precooked dishes and sauces. Complete systems for the treatment of fruit and vegetables and for the canning industry: potatoes, mushrooms, precooked food and fresh salads. It includes lines for the preparation of refrigerated fresh products, of fresh cut vegetables, of canned products, glass, flexible packaging and others; lines for the processing of frozen products, for dehydrated vegetables and complete lines for the processing and manufacturing of compost to grow mushrooms. MARRODAN has a pilot plant to adjust different processes; "Take Away Philosophy".

The VECTOR range of retorts is a system designed for pressure sterilizing of preserved vegetables, fish and meats; children meals, ready cooked dishes, etc.

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POTATO LINE

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EJIDO CARTÓN Pol. Ind. La Redonda 95; 04710 El Ejido, Almería, Spain Tel.: +34-950 580 712; Fax: +34-950 580 669

comercial@ejidocarton.com ; http://www.ejidocarton.com The products of Ejido Cartón are specially designed for pre-packaging, made of microcorrugated board – the picture shows one of many possibilities – or of moulded cellulose. Punnets made of microcorrugated board are ecological vessesl 100 % recyclable, with large capacity, humidity resistant, versatile, that could be printed in high quality using a large range of colours that enables to convey messages to the consumer. It is also possible to use them in different forms of packaging. Heat sealed or horizontal flowpack, among those forms. Packaging of agricultural products is our main market, but we also deliver to the packaging industry. Packages with special shapes for any kind of fruit and vegetables are our main field of interest. We have more than 50 models, but we consider each client a special case, in order to provide a taylor made solution, if no one of our available options fit his/her their needs.

Onion punnet with a personality

Onions are a rather common vegetable. Growers make an important effort to supply new varieties according to the consumer´s needs: taste, season, color….in summary, product differentiation,

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Correct packaging goes together with all these efforts, adding value to the product. Cardboard trays made by Ejido Cartón – like the one shown below -, can be made more personal with all kinds of pictures or messages, printed in high quality colours. The trays are made with water resistant cardboard and environmentally friendly “Kraft” paper – whose raw material is obtained in sustainable woods, FSC and PEFC certified.

Vessels, trays and punnets….very useful and environmentally friendly, at the same time. http://www.poscosecha.com/es/empresas/ejido-cartonsl/_id:36627,seccion:catalogodeproductos,producto:9887/

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VISAR

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DOMCA, S.A Camino de Jayena, s/n; 18620 Alhendin, Granada Tel.: + 34 /0) 9.58. 57.64.86; Fax: + 34 (0) 9.58 57.63.89

informacion@domca.com; http://www.domca.com

Peeled potatoes processing plant DOMOX BASE DMC Product presentation (peeled potato, peacemeal, cutted or whole) is a relevant aspect that can improve consumption of such product.DOMOX BASE is an effective product against oxidation of peeled potatoes, extending noticeably the shelf life of the tubers. The present report is based in the present conditions of the industry and on potato production in the area, and also on the technological traits of the produce and on its demand, focusing on a high quality product to be adapted to that demand system and its requests.

Potato varieties to be chosen A determinant factor is the chosen potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L) to be used. A great number of potato varieties are available and their relevant traits are also very numerous. Color and texture of the skin, color of the flesh, number of eyes, shape of the tuber, cooking characteristics, type of sprouts, aerial stems, productivity, precocity in sprouting, tuber growth and cropping season, resistance to disease, etc. But the most commonly used agronomic trait in order to establish potato varieties is the duration of the cropping cycle: extra-early, early, average length and late varieties. As a rule, the variety Agria is a convenient one to be used, because is rather resitant to oxidation. More than other varieties, like Monalisa, for instance. Though Mona Lisa is easier to clean.

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Temperature and storage time for potatoes

Storage time (months)

Storage temperature (ºC)

2-6

8-10

6.5-8

6-10 Source: P. Rouselle, Y. Robert, J.C. Crosnier. 1999

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Description of peeled potato processing plant: Regrading process technology, following stages are to be considered: Supply and unloading of raw materials: It can be done in bulk or unloading using a hopper. It can also happen in crates, through special mechanisms designed for direct unloading. It is more convenient to unload directly at the processing plant, because it makes the storage procedure easier in case they are not sent directly to the processing lane. At the same time, the industrial facilities needed are more simple. Storage of the raw material: the potatoes are stored in the cold chamber loaded in the same crates in which they were taken to the facility. They can also be directly processed. Taking into account the behavior of the potatoes under storage and possible losses during that time, it is decided to keep them in crates during its storage period. Peeling: Potatoes can be peeled using different procedures. Most commonly used are procedures base on steaming, bleaching or abrasion. Abrasive peeling is done through contact of the tubers with rolls of silicon carbide, an abrasive material made of carbon and silicon. Advantages of these procedure is its low energy cost (it is made at room temperature), low investment required and good external appearance of the produce peeled in that way. The skin is gathered in two buckets and the water from the peeler is collected, filtered and 50 % of it recycled. In the next step, the peeled potatoes are inspected on a conveyor belt, where a worker can remove damaged tubers or tuber parts. Those damaged units, and also not processed ones, are sold to the food industry as raw materials for mashed potatoes, soups and other processed products. Resiudual water goes to the sewage system, after being freed from grease and mud.

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Root Vegetables Fresh cut. Wet or dry industrial procedures can be applied at this manufacturing stage, depending on the raw material to be used. A soft wash, through water immersion, takes place at the beginning of the process, in order to get rid of peel and starch reminders from the surface of the potato slices. These procedure does not damage the raw material and does not involve the use of chemicals.The peeled potatoes go to a hopper and from the hopper to a variable speed vertical conveyor, that takes the input to a cutting machine. The cutter has stainless steel rotating blades that cut to pieces the potatoes moving below them. The blades give a clean cut, giving the potato slices a thickness of about 1.2 and 3.5 mm. After cutting, starch still present in the potato slices must be removed. The slices are submerged in water again, a soft washing procedure. In order to recycle that water, it must be freed of starch. The water is gathered and filtered, and 50 % of it reused in the process. The starch is also collected. Drying: the potato slices are spread on a conveyor belt and the remaining water is taken away using a drying fan. Packaging: the finished product is packaged in flexible bags using a packaging weigher, either automatic or manual. Preferably under vacuum. Packaging material should be the right one for the product and also be accepted by the market. Storage and dispatch: For manufacturing and processing, an advanced technology should be used, in order to obtain a high quality product, competitive on both national and international markets. Application of DOMOX BASE DMC. Due to its contents on antioxidants and preservatives, and also to its antimicrobial properties, it is possible to lengthen the conservation time of peeled potatoes and other vegetables. Up to 30 days, depending on storage conditions.

(Use 1.3 kg DOMOX BASE DMC in 100 liters water) With one immersion it is possible to process five times its weight oh potatoes or other vegetables.

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Intermas Group

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FAM N.V. Neerveld 2, 2550 Kontich, Belgium Telf.: +32-(0)3-450 92 20; Fax: +32-(0)3-450 92 50 info@fam.be; http://www.fam.be FAM and Stumabo are specialized in precision cutting of food products. Both companies are integrated in the Hiffermann Group. FAM develops and manufactures precision cutters for the food industry. More tan 50 years of innovation and work in the industry speak for us. Presently we are leading the European market. We command an extended net of dealers and spare parts suppliers that allow us to support our customers all around the world. Stumabo leads in precision blades for industrial food processing machines. The company has more than 60 years of experience and sells each year more than 1.2 million blades for industrial cutters. Stumabo offers blades made of stainless steel for uses where hygiene and cut quality are of utmost importance. The company has dealers in France, Spain, United Kingdom and the United States. .

Stumabo, leading the market of precision blades

Stumabo offers longlasting blades, made of very special kinds of steel. Some special blades are used by manufacturers of potato peeling machines. Stumabo has also designed special blades for cutting and peeling of onions. All Stumabo blades are made of specially selected stainless steel.

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The FAM Dorphy, a small dicer with the capabilities of a heavy-duty cutter

The FAM Dorphy combines the cutting quality and the reliability of a heavy cutting machine with the flexibility and the mobility of a smaller machine. Food processors in need of flexibility will find Dorphy very useful. FAM Dorphy cuts all kinds of fruits and vegetables, including potatoes and other tubers and roots.

FAM ILC.2, a flexible, high capacity cutter for dices and other shapes

The FAM ILC.2 is a versatile and accurate high-capacity food dicing machine. It can easily be integrated into a production line because of its compact design. This heavyduty machine is available in different executions for e.g. French fries, tomatoes and curly kale. http://www.fam.be/en/mach/9 The applications of the of the FAM ILC.2 cutter cover slicing in dices, slices and strips, according to the different kinds of fruits to be processed: apricots, cherries, strawberries, pomegranates, green mangos, apples, different kinds of peaches, quince, oranges, papaya, pears, pineapples, watermelons, coconuts‌. http://www.fam.be/en/mach/9

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Among vegetables, the machine works with sweet potatoes, potatoes, celery, aubergine, courgette, pumpkins, onions, mushrooms, chicory, different kinds of cabbage, cauliflower, endives, green beans, turnip, cucumber, peppers, leek, radish, beets, tomatoes, carrots‌

The FAM Mantis.2, slice cross cutter, with V-belt, is designed for precise cutting of elongate and oblong products

The FAM Mantis.2 is a cross cutter with V- conveyor belts, highly flexible, hygienic, used to cut a wide range of vegetables and fruits. It cuts any product with a firm texture to 115 mm in diameter, and compressible leafy vegetables to 160 mm in diameter. It also specializes in cutting potatoes for spicy potatoes, potatoes in slices, and potatoes in halves. It also realizes straight or wavy cuts. http://www.fam.be/en/mach/274

The capacity of the FAM Mantis.2 varies between 500 and 6000 kg per hour depending on the product and form of feeding. The FAM Mantis.2 is the first cutter with touch screen and PLC, allowing easy storage and retrieval of production data and cutting programs The FAM Mantis.2 has a good reputation for its safe and accurate operation, even in harsh factory conditions, and the hygienic design makes it very suitable for various food sectors.

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FOMESA - FOOD MACHINERY ESPAÑOLA, S.A. Avda. Jesús Morante Borrás, 24; 46012 Valencia - Spain Tel.: +34-96 316 54 00

international@fomesa.net http://www.fomesa.net/Fruitech/DivisionQuimica_net.htm Solutions for potato storage

Garlic and other subterranean vegetables In Infopost* nº 72, Aurelio Ricart, from Fomesa Fruitech, makes a review of different aspects of potato conservation after it is cropped. What is understood under “quality”; which are the physiological stages in the conservation of this tuber (healing, cooling, latency and its final stage; and which are the optimal conditions for each one of these stages, according to the final use to be given to the produce. It also summarizes the most frequent alterations of the potatoes, both physiological or due to microorganisms; and also the means available to store potatoes correctly. In order to avoid sprouting it is possible to use low temperatures or anti-sprouting chemicals, like chlorpropham, marketed by Fomesa Fruitech under the commercial name FRUITFOG-CIPC.

A table at the end of the InfoPost 72 reviews the whole range of disinfectant treatments for potato warehouses offered by the company. Those are liquid disinfectants for surfaces and containers; smoke treatments for chambers, liquid for potato cleaners, containers and crates; and a smoke insecticide for empty buildings and warehouses, especially suitable against potato tuber moth. (*) Infopost is a newsletter published by Fomesa for its customers.

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Multivac

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INGENIERÍA PRODOL S.A. Ruta 25 a 1'6 km - Panamericana direction Matheu; B1625BZP Belén de Escobar, Bs. As. Argentina Tel.: +54-3488-420175; Fax: +54-3488-421288

prodol@prodol.com.ar; http://www.prodol.com.ar

Ingeniería Prodol develops packaging lines for fruit and vegetables. In 1988 it developed the first electronic size sorter by weight. Afterwards new improvements and installations were build in more than 135 countries: Australia, Spain, Portugal, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Panamá, Brazil and Chile. Including smart chain electronic sizers. In 1999, Ingeniería Prodol starts the marketing of the sorting system by weight and color, taking a step forward against competitors and obtaining a clear improvement in export conditions. Presently, the company also works in internal quality.

Processing lines for garlic and onions

Prodol´s garlic and onions processing lines have a Smart chain electronic sizer designed for those products. It is a high precision piece of equipment. The result is a line with a high production capacity and a very low operational cost. The classified product is packed automatically with crate or bag fillers. The lines are build in a modular way and can be adapted to different production capacities.

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Tomra

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GRUPO GIRÓ Jaume Ribó 35-37, 1ºB; 08911 Badalona, Barcelona, Spain Tel.: +34-933 841 011; Fax: +34-933 899 066

girogh@giro.es; http://www.giro.es Giró is a group of enterprises whose aim is to supply technology and advanced systems for the industry of packaging of fruits and vegetables, leading the development of modern distribution and creating value added along the supply chain. Today Giró is present in more tan 50 countries in the five continents and is the world leader in packaging of fruit and vegetables.

TECNOCEAM S.R.L. Via Provinciale 28; 43038 Sala Baganza (PR) - Italia Tel.: +39-0521-833738; Fax: +39-0521-834087

info@tecnoceam.com; http://www.tecnoceam.com

For over 25 years, TECNOCEAM has been Designing and Manufacturing machines and plants for the food industry. Lines that are always at the cutting edge for the material’s quality and technical solution for processing and preserving fresh vegetables, for grilled vegetables, for the pickles in oil or in vinegar, and sauces Tecnoceam supplies complete, tailor made, installations. Starting from design and with client satisfaction as the supreme aim of the whole process.

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Naturcover; Decco, DeccoNatur

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FOMESA - FOOD MACHINERY ESPAÑOLA, S.A. Avda. Jesús Morante Borrás, 24; 46012 Valencia - España Tel.: +34-96 316 54 00; international@fomesa.net; http://www.fomesa.com FOMESA - Food Machinery Española, S.A., is a Spanish company specialized in design and manufacturing of the machinery and chemical products needed to achive optimal comercial presentation of all kinds of fruits and vegetables in the main consumption centers of the world. FOMESA also designs and builds all types of machines for classifying after quality, for sorting after color and size and, finally, packaging fruit and horticultural products within a continuous and efficient process. Products: machinery for the classification and packaging of fruit and vegetables Brush washers for fruit, front loading and rod selection tables, wax appliers, vertical and rod drying tunnels, packing tables

AGRO TECHNOLOGIE Zone Industriell; 76440 Forges les Eaux, Francia contact@agro-technologie.com; http://www.agro-technologie.com

AGRO TECHNOLOGIE offers quality control devices for agriculture, the food and vegetable industry, and the food-processing industry, for growers, packers and labs. Manufacturer of measuring devices since 1989. AGROSTA® 14Touchscreen, digital penetrometer to measure the firmness of crisp products Firmness loss by dehydration is a major cause of poor quality in minimally processed products such as potato cubes, carrot dishes or sticks, etc. AGROSTA® 14Touchscreen, by Agro Technologie, is connected to a tactile console with 32GB memory, and measures the firmness of crisp fruits. It stores and analyses a huge amount of data. It is the most technologically advanced instrument on the market to measure the hardness of apples, pears, peach, apricots, citrus fruits, mango, papaya, avocado, potatoes, carrots, turrnip, etc.

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News in the portal www.postharvest.biz

Citric acid, effective to avoid browning in cut potatoes Fresh-cut potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a product widely consumed, but the susceptibility of this tuber to browning is a drawback and limiting factor for its shelf life. This study aimed to evaluate the predisposition of different potato cultivars for being minimally processed, the effect of citric acid in inhibiting browning and the quality of the fried potato during the product shelf-life.

For this purpose, potatoes of cultivars Agata, Agria and Caesar were acquired from a local producer, selected, washed in tap water, manually peeled, cut into strips and immersed in citric acid (3%) for 5 minutes. Strips were centrifuged and vacuum packed in polyethylene bags and stored at 3Âą1ËšC for 17 days. The use of citric acid decreased the pH of all samples and kept this trend during the entire period of storage. Fresh cut and fried samples of Agata had lower values of dry matter content. The other cultivars showed slight variations, increasing the values of these attributes. The color, pH, dry matter content and texture allowed discrimination between Agata and the other cultivars. The picture is from oriolserra.blogspot.com

http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/citric-acid-effective-to-avoid-browning-in-cut-potatoes/_id:79132/

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Key actions for the correct storage of potatoes The Potato Council team at Sutton Bridge Crop Storage Research, UK, suggests some key actions to deal with the challenges facing potato growers this autumn through the September 2012 Storage Bulletin. Main advises are following, summarized, and the information with more detail is in the link to the bulletin in Potato Council website and in the pdf with the same information (both, below): Make a plan…to matching stores to similar varieties and crops, ensure the stores have been serviced before use to reduce the risk of a costly failure during the season… Ensure skins are set, ie the crop is suitable for storage before loading. The skin is key to maintaining the potato’s integrity in storage. Load quickly … Try to match the crop temperature to the ambient condition to minimize the risk of condensation. Ventilate! It is essential to manage the store to keep the crop dry. These airways (and, in bulk stores, the laterals) need to be kept clear. Keep temperatures even because an uniform temperature minimizes the risk of condensation and offers the best chance of keeping the crop at its best for market. Be timely with sprout suppression: the Potato Council counts on rich information about how to use CIPC; not mentioned by this source, but it also are available natural products to avoid sprouting. Don’t forget fresh air… potatoes are living and breathing so they need oxygen. Inspect frequently; if a crop has signs of rot in it, its condition could change very fast so it is essential to inspect the store frequently (daily at first) and be ready to act. Storage should always be undertaken with a specific market in mind; make sure the crop is continuing to meet the market specification. Storage costs can exceed the likely return. Source of the picture: Potato Council.http://www.poscosecha.com/es/noticias/79287/_id:79287/ The video explains research activities concerning potato storage. 45

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Ethylene Exposure After Dormancy Break is as Effective in Controlling Sprout Growth as Continuous Ethylene for Some UKGrown Potato Cultivars Ethylene application can effectively extend potato storage life by suppressing sprouting incidence. An ethylene concentration of 50 μL×L-1 (57.5 mg×m-3) has been approved by the Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD) in the UK for use in potato storage, but a continuous treatment of 10 μL×L-1 is more commonly used by industry. Although ethylene can extend storage life, it has previously been shown to negatively affect the textural and taste characteristics of some potato cultivars. On the other hand, sprout growth also reduces the marketability of potatoes. In this study, the effect of ethylene on biochemical composition, texture and sprouting in two UK-grown potato cultivars viz. Marfona and Sylvana was investigated. Potato tubers were harvested and then slowly cooled from 15ºC to 6ºC over a two week period. Tubers were then placed in trays and stored in the presence or absence of continuous ethylene (10 μL×L-1) at 6ºC at Sutton Bridge Experimental Unit (Lincs., UK). At dormancy break (10% eye movement of tubers assessed in air at 6ºC) a sub-sample from each treatment was transferred to either ethylene or no ethylene, resulting in four treatments: continuous ethylene, continuous air, transfer from ethylene to air and vice versa. All tubers were stored for six months. Ethylene-treated tubers contained higher sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations than untreated ones. Firmness decreased with time with all treatments in tubers cv. Marfona, but not cv. Sylvana. Sprouting incidence was affected by treatment in tubers cv. Sylvana, but not in cv. tubers Marfona. Moreover, ethylene application after dormancy break was as effective as continuous ethylene treatment for cv. Sylvana tubers only. The results suggest that ethylene applied after dormancy break can prolong storage for some UKgrown varieties. The picture is by enciclopedia.us.es http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/ethylene-exposure-after-dormancy-break-is-as-effective-in-controllingsprout-growth-as-continuous-ethylene-for-some-uk-grown-potato-cultivars/_id:79156/

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A Delay between Hot Water Treatment and Processing of Potato Tubers Reduces Browning Development on Fresh Cut Slices Oxidative browning is a serious quality limitation for fresh-cut potato (Solanum tuberosum) that has been successfully controlled by heat treatment in other commodities. The use of brief heat stress treatments using 55ºC water (HW) applied to ‘Russet Burbank’ tubers for 10, 20, 30 or 40 min prior to cutting was evaluated for potential to control tissue browning Following heat treatment, tubers were cooled in 8ºC water for 10 min, drained, then held at 20ºC for 0 or 1 day before peeling and slicing. Control tubers were not previously immersed in hot water (N-HW). Sliced, rinsed, and blotted slices were placed in perforated plastic bags and stored at 5ºC for 6 days. Exposure to HW for 30 or 40 min caused severe heat injury. Browning developed in all treatments as indicated by color measurements and discoloration score (index of extent of discolored area on the slice surface) after storage. Hot water treatment for 10 min best reduced browning, but only when treated tubers were left intact for 1 day at 20 ºC before cutting, as indicated by discoloration scores and changes in lightness, a*, and hue angle values, which were significantly different than either the control or the other HW treatments. Generally, the severe browning that developed in control slices (N-HW) was associated with significantly higher phenolic content after storage compared with day 0 (1.58 versus 1.27 mg×g-1 f.w.), as well as post-storage polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity (10.47 Units/g f.w.) that was similar to initial activity (12.36 Units/g f.w.). On the other hand, HW treatment prevented phenolic synthesis during storage, resulting in significantly lower content (1.371.43 mg×g-1 f.w.) after storage compared with the N-HW slices (1.58 mg×g-1 f.w.) and reduced PPO activity (8.51-9.42 Units/g f.w.) compared with the initial activity before storage (12.36 Units/g f.w.). The source of the picture is xn--frutaslogroo-khb.com http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/a-delay-between-hot-water-treatment-andprocessing-of-potato-tubers-reduces-browning-development-on-fresh-cutslices/_id:79157/

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Rhizoctonia, a yield and quality problem for the potato industry Rhizoctonia is a fungus with two main effects on potatoes; from fungal hyphae positioned mainly around the sprouting parts of the potato, what are known as the eyes, it attacks the fresh sprouts directly, inhibiting their growth. And Rhizoctonia also strikes for a second time during the potato season. The hyphae remain on the surface of the newly grown tubers and cover them with black crusts. This is not only a cosmetic problem, but also harbor the risk of transmitting the disease to the next potato generation and to other fields. In summary, Rhizoctonia infestation means a reduced yield and also fewer tubers which meet the requirements of the food industry in terms of size and skin quality. Harvest early, store in a cool place Eric Anderson is a Senior Agronomist at Scottish Agronomy, an agricultural cooperative. He has first-hand experience of the everyday challenges facing potato growers; he answers to the following questions. Why does a fungus like Rhizoctonia pose such a threat to potato growers? Rhizoctonia solani is seed- and soil-borne. It is commonly found to persist in many soils – although inoculums is usually higher in lighter textured soils and where potatoes are grown in short rotation. It causes a range of symptoms on the potato plant including delayed emergence, reduced yields due to rot and quality losses when the black scurf develops on tubers. What other diseases can affect potato harvests in storage?

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Root Vegetables Amongst others, silver scurf and black dot (*). Both fungi cause lesions that look very similar, especially in the early stages of disease development: gray to silvery blotches and dark brown-gray blemishes on the tuber surface. The challenge is that symptom expression usually lags several weeks behind infection. As the infection progresses, the lesions usually become more prominent. Black dot has become a major problem in pre-pack potatoes – they look unappealing to consumers. An early harvest will minimize tuber infection. Holding tubers in cold storage delays symptom expression as well. What factors does a farmer have to bear in mind when he decides to grow potatoes? A continued challenge for potato growers is the supply of contracted potatoes to packers and processors at prices and production costs that provide reasonable profits. To minimize risk you should really clearly define what kind of potatoes you want to grow –table, processing or seed potatoes. To get a better understanding of your potato-growing costs, you should consider changing your growing systems and take customer expectations into account. Penflufen, a new active ingredient The source of the information is an article published by the Bayer magazine Research, with information based mainly on Anne Suty-Heinze, a crop protection researcher in the company, working with potatoes and the new active substance penflufen, which started to be studied by Japan research colleagues. The article includes the above interview to Eric Anderson. Seed potatoes treated with penflufen, in a process known in technical terms as seed dressing, get the newly developed active substance evenly distributed all over the tubers, providing optimum protection for the young sprouts. Penflufen is distributed locally beneath the ground in the tuber and on the sprouts. This is different to other active substances which are quickly distributed systematically via the xylem, and therefore also reach the parts above the ground. As a result, only very tiny amount of active substance are needed, as they remain precisely where they are needed. The new fungicide also has additional effects; it also is useful against silver scurf, caused by Helminthosporium solani. Another noted effect is that plants treated with it grow more quickly and also have larger, stronger sprouts. (*) Black dot, Colletotrichum coccodes; Cornell University indicates that it is generally considered to be a weak root pathogen of potato. Studies in New York and elsewhere have revealed, however, that this disease must be considered as part of the total disease complex affecting potato

Original article or the pdf below The picture indicates that after harvest time, only a few potatoes are sold straight away. Most of them are first stored for several months. During this time, they may become infected by fungi. http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/rhizoctonia-a-yield-and-quality-problem-for-the-potatondustry/_id:79206/

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Keys for the best practices for handling and storage of seed potatoes Control during delivering of the seed potatoes to the grower and handling of this "seed" are keys to the success of the plantation. Claire Hodge and Adrian Cunnington, Sutton Bridge Crop Storage Research, are the authors of the white paper published by the Potato Council, "Best practice for seed handling and storage". During delivering, all seeds should be examined to ensure that it matches the order documents and is of the quality expected. It is vital that seed is handled and stored appropriately after delivery and before planting to retain maximum vigor and to ensure the best possible crop. Ventilation for humidity control is the main concern, as well as clean boxes and equipments , that have not been previously in contact with the against sprouting product CIPC. The first step is to determine the period between delivery and planting. Seed should not be left in jumbo bags for extended periods of time! For immediate use (within a few days) – leaving the seed in bags is acceptable, but the bags must not be stacked close together. A 15 – 30cm gap should be left around each bag for air circulation. Short term storage (1-2 weeks) – ideally decant seed from bags to boxes, but leaving the seed in bags is acceptable if being well-managed, with due care and attention to the ventilation. Stand bags on pallets to aid circulation. Long term storage (2+ weeks) – bags should be decanted into boxes. Once decanted, the seed should be cured and ideally placed in a seed store and cooled down to approximately 3ºC. Where a seed store is not available, in order to minimize the risk of condensation and sprouting, the use of temporary ventilation will be necessary. The authors suggest a temporary solution (see the picture). The original document is available in the link and as pdf. http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/keys-for-the-best-practices-for-handling-and-storage-of-seedpotatoes/_id:79216/

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Studies on plant hormones and the relation with onion and potato dormancy and sprout growth Ethylene is known to have profound effects on the postharvest quality of climacteric fresh produce. Understandably, far less emphasis has been given to understanding the role that ethylene might have in the regulation of dormancy or senescence in non - climacteric systems. It is now well established that continuous ethylene supplementation can extend the storage life of onions and potatoes even though these organs are low ethylene producers. In potato ethylene triggers dormancy break, but also inhibits sprout growth. In onion, both ethylene and the ethylene antagonist 1 - methylcyclopropene (MCP) inhibit sprouting, suggesting a surprisingly similar pattern of control. Indeed, 1MCP may act synergistically when combined ethylene. Given this apparent dichotomy, the underlying mechanisms of several hormones in regulating entry into dormancy, dormancy release and rate of post – dormant sprout growth will be discussed since new evidence suggests that abscisic acid has a role in establishing dormancy; that cytokinins are required for endo - dormancy break, and that gibberellins and ethylene have opposing roles in sprout extension. The picture is by, Onions and Potatoes, a web site specialized in both products. http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/studies-on-plant-hormones-and-the-relation-with-onion-and-potatodormancy-and-sprout-growth/_id:79284/

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More black heart in potatoes held at low temperature and air storage

Blackheart (BH) is a physiological disorder of potato tubers that is usually associated with oxygen depletion and/or carbon dioxide accumulation. This study investigated changes in respiration rate of potato tubers during storage and the possible link with incidence of blackheart. Three consignments of Maris Piper potato tubers, which had different susceptibility to blackheart disorder, were initially stored in air at 1.5°C or 3°C for 6 months. At regular sampling points tuber sub - samples were transferred to 15°C in air (O2=21%) or controlled atmosphere (CA) (O2=18 -19%, CO2=10%). Assessments were made after 0, 3 and 7 days. The respiration rate differed between those tubers that were either susceptible or not susceptible to BH. The highest respiration rates were recorded for tubers that were initially stored at the lowest temperature (1.5°C). Tubers that had been held under CA conditions produced greater amounts of CO2 than those stored in air only. The incidence of BH was greater for those tubers that had been stored in air compared to those held under CA and was also higher for tubers that were initially stored at 1.5°C compared to those at 3°C. Although the findings are in accordance with the assumption that respiration rate of stored potato tubers is associated with incidence and severity of physiological disorder, research is ongoing to identify and establish pre – symptomatic biochemical biomarkers to better understand the underlying mechanisms associated with blackheart disorder.

The picture is by potato.org.uk http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/more-black-heart-in-potatoes-held-at-low-temperature-and-airstorage/_id:79303/

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Potato varieties and bruising susceptibility Bruising is a significant factor of quality deterioration in potatoes. The Potato Council, Great Britain, indicates that the National Bruising Survey in January 2004 estimated that bruising is costing them £200/ha, aprox. 230 € / ha, that is £26 million to growers alone each year. ThePotato Council led a cross industry campaign to help minimise bruising and cut losses to the industry by helping everyone involved in the production and handling of potatoes increase their awareness and understanding of bruising and how by team effort they can help reduce this costly problem. Factors involved in bruising include Variety, Site selection, Soil type, Field layout, Soil preparation, Planting, Crop nutrition, Irrigation, Crop maturity and dry matter, Haulm destruction, Soil moisture at burnoff, Soil moisture at harvest, Temperature, and Grading. The Potato Council web site includes an advice sheet (see link below) for those bruise factors. Varieties differ in their susceptibility to bruising. BPC Independent Variety Trials score varieties for their susceptibility to bruising on a 1 to 9 scale (1 = susceptible, 9 = resistant). The Bruising risk assessment advice sheet includes information about Cara, Charlote, Desiree, Estima, Fianna, Hermes, King Edward, Lady Rosetta, Marfona, Maris Peer, Maris Piper, Nadine, Nicola, Pentland Dell, sset Burbank, Sante, Saxon, Shepody. Source of the information and the picture: Potato Council http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/potato-varieties-and-bruising-susceptibility/_id:79305/

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CA also improves the storage of onions and ails The garlic ‘Ziemiai’, pungent onions ‘Hercules’ (yellow) and ‘Hyred’ (red), and salad onion ‘Exhibition’ were tested during two experimental periods. The experiment in regular atmosphere (RA) was carried out in a refrigerated storage room held at 2±1°C, with a RH ranging from 58 to 75%. In controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, the temperature was set to 2±1°C and the RH in onion storage chambers ranged from 52 to 87%. The CA storage regime for all cultivars was 1% O2 and 5% CO2. The storage loss was monitored monthly starting from January and the experiment was ended when storage loss had reached 30%. In the first year, ‘Hercules’ had satisfactory quality in RA for 7 months and in CA for 8 months with storage losses of 32.6 and 28.2%, respectively. ‘Hyred’ was stored in RA for 6 months (storage loss 28.5%) and in CA for 7 months (26.4%). ‘Exhibition’ was stored in RA for 5 months (storage loss 27.3%) and in CA for 6 months (31.2%). Garlic ‘Ziemiai’ maintained good quality in CA store for up to 6 months. In the second year, storage loss of ‘Hercules’ in RA and CA was 13.4 and 10.1%, and of ‘Hyred’ 7.6 and 6.0%, respectively. Spoilage of ‘Exhibition’ in RA was 25.1% by January (4 months) and 55.6% by March (6 months), whereas in CA it was only 16.9% by March. Although the breeding company has advised that this cultivar should only be stored for up to 2 months, the current experiment proved that, in a CA regime, it can be successfully stored for 6 months. Storage loss of garlic ‘Ziemiai’ was significantly greater in RA than in the CA (41 and 13%, respectively). For all cultivars, bulb dry matter and soluble solids content was higher in controlled atmosphere conditions compared to regular atmosphere storage. The source of the picture is natureduca.com

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Management to improve the postharvest life of sweet onion Three intermediate day-length cultivars of sweet onions were lifted by hand when 70% of the necks of each cultivar had collapsed in 2009 and either: (1) field cured on the ground for two weeks and thereafter dried in a ventilated and heated store at 25째C for two weeks or (2) defoliated 8 cm above the bulb and dried at 25째C for four weeks. Subsequently the onions were transferred to a cold store and kept at a temperature of 1째C and approximately 70% RH. In addition, one field-cured cultivar was stored at various storage-atmosphere conditions: (a) ambient atmosphere (20.9% O2 and 0.04% CO2), (b) ambient atmosphere enriched with 0.8 ppm ozone, (c) ambient atmosphere enriched with volatile mustard essential oil liberated from a 1% allyl isothiocyanate solution, or (d) controlled atmosphere (3% O2 and 5% CO2). The onions were evaluated three times with a three-week interval. The first evaluation took place 6-9 weeks after lifting. Compared to field curing, defoliation did not improve the storability of sweet onions. Defoliation increased the development of rotting. At the end of storage, 12-15 weeks after lifting, the proportion of onions discarded due to rotting increased to 29% in defoliated onions, but 17% in field-cured onions. In comparing various storage conditions, controlled atmosphere reduced the development of rotting resulting in 75% marketable onions measured 12 weeks after lifting compared to 56% marketable onions stored at ambient atmosphere. Sweet onions are softer and less pungent compared to long-day onions, and therefore, more susceptible to mechanical impact and fungal diseases, and this makes sweet onions only suited for short-term storage. The image is by PROCECAM, onion grower association of Castilla La Mancha, Spain http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/management-to-improve-the-postharvest-life-of-sweetonion/_id:79221/

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Red onion dices retained better aromas and colour in sealed PLA containers The loss of desirable aroma and flavor of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables can limit their market life and consumer acceptance. Packaging can impact product flavor by affecting respiratory gas concentrations in the package as well as having direct interactions with the aroma volatiles released from the product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two packaging materials on the volatile composition and quality retention of diced red onions. Whole red onions were peeled, sanitized, and diced in a commercial processing facility. Diced onions (200 g) were placed into ridged polylactic acid (PLA) containers or Golden Eagle VH-62 polyethylene (PE) bags. The PLA containers were sealed with intact or vented (single pin hole) PLA lids and PE bags were sealed with a heat sealer. Onion packages were stored at 4.5ยบC and assessed after 7, 12, 14, 18, and 21 days for volatile content. In addition, package atmosphere composition, respiration rate, electrolyte leakage, pH, microbial quality, and sensory quality were assessed. After 7 days, the total headspace volatile content of onions stored in sealed PLA containers decreased by only 15% compared to 98% and 85% in the vented PLA containers and the sealed PE bags, respectively. The retention of volatiles was associated with a fresh onion odour. However, after prolonged storage off odours developed in association with anaerobic atmospheres and/or microbial growth. During the 21 days of storage, onion respiration rates increased 5- to 6-fold, electrolyte leakage doubled, and aerobic and anaerobic plate counts became unacceptable, exceeding 106 cfu/g after 12 days. However, these parameters were not significantly affected by packaging treatments. The white onion dices are by the Flexifam cutter, by FAM http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/red-onion-dices-retained-better-aromas-and-colour-in-sealed-placontainers/_id:79260/

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The waste for the preparation of minimally processed products: an opportunity? Over the years, fresh-cuts have become a mainstream commodity and have been the fastest growing segment of the produce sector in many countries around the world, with a value approaching 15.5 million $ in 2007. The advantage for the consumer to use ready prepared fruits and vegetables are numerous, the most important being the time saved in the preparation of the product before consumption and the absence of wastes. Actually, in the case of fresh-cuts, the burden of waste disposal is transferred from the consumer to the companies preparing the produce. As a matter of fact, one of the main challenges of the industry has been to safely and ecologically discard wastes at a low cost. The amount of waste for the preparation of fresh-cuts can indeed be massive; for instance, up to 30 % of melons, 20 % of carrots and 33 % of lettuce are wasted in the fresh-cut preparation process. Strategies have been implemented to mitigate the impact and the costs of the disposal of these residues to landfill. Companies are composting, generating electricity through methanization, and making animal feeds to get rid of the wastes. Another strategy, which is getting more and more credence, is to give added value to the residues by extracting valuable bioactive molecules aimed to the nutraceuticals and cosmetics industry. The present talk will review the molecules that can be extracted from fresh-cuts and sold to the ingredient market. An integrated model for extracting bioactive molecules from fresh-cuts wastes will be presented and discussed. The picture belongs to ocioreal.com http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/the-waste-for-the-preparation-of-minimally-processed-products-anopportunity/_id:79138/

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Washwater sampling from carrot operations showed it may be a good source of potassium, and under study the risk of transferring plant Ontario vegetable growers with post-harvest washwaters are looking for answers to water quality needed before discharging, and what will it all cost? Water authorities may not provide adequate advice for solutions for washwater discharge compliance from Ontario root crop producers. If settling ponds are suggested, many of the current carrot facilities are constrained for space to build them. That’s why Deanna Nemeth, OMAF and MRA’s nutrient management lead for horticulture, is evaluating how land application of washwaters could be an alternative option. Nemeth released results of studies from three carrot operations in the Holland Marsh at the 62nd Muck Vegetable Growers’ Conference in Bradford, Ontario. The toplines offer some insight. During harvest 2012, OMAF and MRA completed a wastewater characterization study. For each of the carrot operations, washwater was sampled twice during harvest season and standard washwater characteristics were analyzed for water quality (total suspended solids, biological oxygen demand), pathogens (E. coli, coliform, salmonella), nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium), and heavy metals. “This is high-volume, low-nutrient water,” says Nemeth, but it’s not irrigation water per se.” Results from the washwater sampling from carrot operations showed the washwater may be a good source of potassium with levels ranging from 1.4 lbs K2O per 1000 imperial gallons in carrot root washing water, to levels of potassium at 9.5 lbs K2O per 1000 imperial gallons washwater from carrot processing operations.

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A second washwater study is in progress in the Holland Marsh conducted by the Univeristy of Guelph Muck Crops Research Station. Due to the physical characteristics of carrots, washwater has high soil sediments. This project is to determine if land application of wash water and washed off soil poses a risk of transferring plant diseases: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotinia cepivorum and pathogenic fusarium. They are testing survival of sclerotia in the ponds over time. The environmental issue becomes what are the best management practices for disposing of the water. Measurements are now being taken to see if discharging that washwater may impact the water quality of the receiving river or stream. In the future, it may need to be treated before release, or land applied to other crops as a nutrient source. Several observations are clouding the issue. Production and therefore washwater quality is not consistent. For example, a limited amount of soil is on cauliflower and broccoli whereas root pieces readily come off root vegetables such as carrots and parsnips. That means washwater quality can change dramatically depending on the crop. Also, the volume of water can change depending on the crop being washed. “The challenge for growers is to know what washwater treatment or land application options fit their operations best,” says Nemeth. The best option is to reduce the amount of soil on the carrots when they come out of the field by dry brushing or mud removal before the carrots are washed. After the carrots are washed, washwater treatment options to separate solids from the washwater are settling basins, aerobic ponds, or mechanical screens to separate sediment from the water. Land application options are spreading or irrigating onto crops, keeping in mind food safety and water quality requirements if overhead irrigating onto fresh market horticulture crops (examples such as lettuce, spinach, celery or herbs). Nemeth said more work is required to understand operational characteristics. She emphasized that solutions need to have minimal operator input. “Water treatment is not your main business,” she said, “Solutions need to be as simple as possible.” Photo by Glenn Lowson http://www.postharvest.biz/en/news/washwater-sampling-from-carrot-operations-showed-it-may-be-agood-source-of-potassium-and-under-study-the-risk-of-transferring-plant-diseases/_id:79255/

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Trade fairs and other meetings Potato Europe http://www.potatoeurope.com

Potato Europe 2013 will teke plece between Septemebr 3rd and 4th 2014 in Emmeloord, The Netherlands.

Congress ALAP / EMB http://www.papaslatinas.org/

Colombia

India PotatoExpo http://www.indiapotatoexpo.com/

February 20th to 22nd, 2014, Parade Ground, Chandigarh, India

Interpom Primeurs www.interpom.be/

November 23rd to 25th 2014, Kortrijk Xpo, Bélgica

Potato Expo www.potato-expo.com

January 8th to 10th 2014, Henry B. González, Convention Center, San Antonio; Texas

Europatat Congress http://www.europatatcongress.eu/php/home.php

May 22nd and 23rd, 2014, Carlsbad, Czech Republic.

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Associations and growers

Abrunhoeste in the main fuit growing area in Portugal http://www.abrunhoeste.pt/en/galeria

Abrunhoeste S.A. is a production and trading company, located in the Central West area of Portugal. An excellent place for fruit cultivation. It offers Rocha pears, Royal Gala apples, plums, nectarines, oranges. And also cabbage and onions.

AgrĂ­cola Pampa Baja http://www.pampabaja.com/

Peruvian company working on export agriculture. It has an area of 1300 ha of fruit groves and vegetable plots (citrus, table grapes, avocados; peppers, onions, cherry tomatoes, artichokes, etc).

Agristo, potatoes with different presentations http://www.agristo.be/producten.asp?l=fr&group=producten

Agristo is a Belgian company offering all kinds of presentations for potatoes. Ready made for the kitchen or packed in different sizes for the final consumption.

Garlic with only one clove and other seldom products http://www.greenwayfoodstuffs.com/garlic3.htm

Greenway Foodstuffs is a Chinese company offering many different kinds of vegetables. Some very common ones, other not much so. Like very trendy Chinese condiments or very curious garlic with only one clove.

Bolthouse Farms, carrots and more http://bolthouse.com/

Bolthouse Farms manufactures beverages and sauces based on different fruits and vegetabes. Carrots and carrot products are an important part of their production program.

CĂŞlaVita http://www.celavitafoodservice.nl

Specialist in ready to cook potatoes, both for home consumption and the restoration industry. Different presentations for different uses.

Daukus, more than carrots http://en.daukus.pl

Daukus is a vegetable growing company, located in Ko?aczkowo (between Warsaw and the Baltic Sea). It was started in 2010 by five vegetable growers. Today is one of the largest producers in the region, working on more tan 200 ha. Main products are carrots, brocculi, onions, table beets. And also parsley, leek, and Chinese cabbage. In their web page information about grown varieties can be found.

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Dutch Carrot Group, carrot growers and traders http://www.topcarrots.com

Dutch group specialized in carrot growing, storing and processing. In the web are posted carrot prices in two vegetable auctions.

Sweet potato specialist http://www.scottfarms.com

Specialized sweet potato growers. They supply also the breeding materials for this plant.

Yellow ginger as a very special product http://www.naturalgreen.pe/

Naturalgreen is a Peruvian company with a very special export product: yellow ginger. Both ecologically and conventionally grown. Sizes range between 150 and 250 g and are exported in cardboard boxes 13.6 kg (30 pounds) in weight. In their web page you can find very interesting pictures showing the post harvest and packaging procedures for this product. The company also sells turmeric, bananas and other exotic fruits.

Potatoes and onions for hotels and restaurants http://www.zeleninarska.sk/index.php/restaurants-and-hotels

The section supplying restaurants and hotels of Zeleninarska, a potato and onion specialist shows many different product presentations, based on the supply of Slovak growers.

The Irish Potato Federation supports potato growers and consumers http://www.potato.ie

The web site of the Irish Potato Federation is strongly focused on the consumer. It has nutritional information, recipes and good ideas for special seasons – like Christmas. But not only that. It also publishes very interesting information for traders, like statitical analysis, lists of exporting members, etc.

Products from the sun or „Les produits du soleil“ http://www.produitsdusoleil.com/

Specialized in garlic, onions, shallots…and lately also in secondary and complementary products. The page and company are a real inspiration source due to their “savoir faire” in product presentation, packaging, promotion at the point of sale…

Lloret Potatoes and Onions http://patataslloret.com

Patatas Lloret sells potatoes and other vegetables.

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Lucas Lemaire, international potato trade http://www.lucaslemaire.com/

Lucas Lemaire SAS is an independent, family company specialized in the potato production and trade. Its products include French fried potatoes, potatoes to be mashed, soft and hard skinned potatoes and also varieties for industrial processing. Season potatoes are produced in France, and early production is harvested in Spain, Morocco, Israel, Zyprus and Italy.

Negonor, potatoes with personality http://www.negonor.com

Negonor and its brand Vitalis has all the French “know-how” regarding product presentation. You can learn a lot from their web page.

To enjoy sweet potatoes http://www.lovesweetpotatoes.com/recipes.asp

In Love Sweet Potatoes, una página web y un enlace a Scott Farms International, www.scottfarmsinternational.com, also in the sweet potato business, you can find information on nutritional traits of this root and a gret number of recipes to enjoy ists cooking.

Schaap Holland http://www.schaapholland.nl

This company trades with potatoes, both as seed and for final consumption. In their web you find information for the professional and for the consumer. Its products sell under the brand Poldergoud, in sizes ready to be sold to the consumer.

Scottish research services http://www.mrsltd.com/

MRS, Mylnefield Research Services, form Scottland, is associated to the James Hutton Institute. They work with vegetables, potatoes, berries and barley.

Shuman Produce Perú, exportation of sweet onions and other vegetables http://www.shumanperu.com

Exports fresh vegetables like onions, watermelons, avocados.

All you can do with onions http://www.smitsuien.nl/

Smit´s Uien is a Dutch company that works with onions of all kinds and shapes. All typoes that a cook can need. Without having to cry to peel them…

Verduyn, specialist in baby carrots and more… http://www.verduyn.es

The company specializes in babay carrots, but offers also a large array of other vegetables. Fresh, processed and ready for catering.

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Media Onions and potatoes Web page that explains how to add value in each step of the value chain, from harvest up to the product on the consumer´s table. The process is based in the use production and postharvest Dutch technologies for potatoes and onions. The page has interesting information for each step: harvest, transportation, storage, handing, processing, packaging. The page exists in Spanish, http://www.cebollas-papas.com, and English, http://www.onionspotatoes.com. Its motto is “Mechanization fights inflation”.

Potato Pro PotatoPro: English web site for the fresh and processed potato industry http://www.potatopro.com

A web site with news, products and services related to the fesh and processed potato business. It includes directories with suppliers and manufacturers. And also information on equipment manufacturers, a yearly guide of suppliers and manufacturers of starch and potatoes processed to different final products or inputs (chips, dehydrated, etc).

Redepapa, electronic potato net http://redepapa.org/

La electronic potato net, REDEPAPA, was started in 1989 as a joint effort of several institutions with ties to the potato, mostly in the Andean region. It has a newsletter and it adds steadiliy new documents containing relevant information. Its goal is to offer to the participants of the potato value chain in Iberoamerica a site where switch experiences and information, where to share relevant news and start joint projects.

ALAP Magazine The Latin American Potato Association, with headquarters in the research institution INTA in Balcarce, Argentina, prints the Latin American Potato Review since 1988, th containing scientific and technical articles.In 2013 the magazine has its 25 birthday, having published 15 issues and with plans to increase its frequency. All issues are avaiable under the Association´s web page: www.papaslatinas.org/revista.html

British magazine Farmers Weekly http://academy.fwi.co.uk

British publication for extensive crops, including information about potato production and large machinery. In the academic section you find texts on potato diseases, among other subjects.

Spudman http://spudman.com/

Spudman, web site of the magazine of the same name, writes esclusively about the potato industry and mostly in the USA. Published monthly, the web page has videos, activities schedule and a buyer´s guide with information about input suppliers for the potato industry. Bill Schaefer, Spudman´s editor, analizes in a post from July 2012, the evolution of potato storage and how important is to have a good isolation during that storage.

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INFO Root Vegetables 2014  

Potato, onion, ail, carrot, turnip, beet. Field and postharvest equipment and technology, ...

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