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An Introduction to Off Road Driving

4x4BASICS


table of

C O N T E N TS

05 Torque and traction

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Driving with “mechanical sympathy� simply means treating your vehicle with loving kindness. You will find that you often...

10-11 sand, rocks, and water

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Loose, dry sand can be tricky. You will definitely need to air down your tires. You need as little as 8 to 12 lbs...

16-17 ANGles:

Because the front of the vehicle and the rear of the vehicle hang over the axles, they may drag on the ground.

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Off Road Driving

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y taking the time to understand how your vehicle works, you will be able to think your way through problems and negotiate terrain efficiently, rather than trying to force your way through and damaging your vehicle. Once you know the basics of your four wheel drive system and how to use it to drive off road you will be able to get where you need to go when performing your job duties, and when on your own or with your family you can adventure into beautiful and exciting places you never knew existed. The modern four-wheel drive is a very capable off road vehicle. You will be astonished at where you can take it. Unfortunately, manufacturers allow advertisers to show these vehicles driving in a manner that would make you cringe. Who would want to drive their expensive vehicle in this manner risking damage? With the right knowledge and attitude, you will drive in a manner that will not damage your vehicle, your nerves, or the environment. Driving with “mechanical sympathy� simply means treating your vehicle with loving kindness. You will find that you often run a greater risk of damaging your vehicle driving to the store than when driving off road.


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nderstanding the relationship between torque and traction is necessary to effectively drive in varying off-road conditions. Torque is the amount of force or power supplied to the wheels. Traction is the amount of friction between the tire and the road surface. If more torque is applied to a wheel than the amount of friction present between the tire and the road surface, the wheel will lose traction and spin. Spinning wheels have less traction than they would if they were not spinning. Do not spin wheels! The differential allows the wheels to turn at different speeds. This can be detrimental in off road situations where one wheel has traction and one wheel starts to slip. The differential splits torque equally to both wheels. When one wheel slips, less torque is delivered to the axle, so the gripping wheel will not receive enough torque to move the vehicle. Locking the differential allows for maximum torque to be supplied to the axle since the differential is no longer splitting it between the wheels. Differential locks come as a feature on some, but not all vehicles.

riving with “mechanical sympathy� simply means treating your vehicle with loving kindness. You will find that you often run a greater risk of damaging your vehicle driving to the store than when driving off road.

TORQUE and TRACTION

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Finesse

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hink finesse when driving off road. The best off road vehicle is an over-weight underpowered vehicle. You are limited by how much traction is available in relation to torque, not by horsepower. I negotiated the Rubicon Trail in a 1966 Toyota Land Cruiser with a straight six-cylinder engine with no shortage of power.


“DO NOT STEER STOPPED”ipsum dolor

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o not steer when you are not moving. Power steering is a wonderful invention, but it can also break things. You may not know your front wheels are pushing against something and unable to move. Steering while stopped, especially in rocks, can break parts because the power steering system gives you a mechanical advantage, which supplies a lot of force to the front wheels with little effort on your part.

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urmounting Obstacles

When you encounter a large rock or tree branch down in the trail that you must drive over, use your left foot on the brake and increase your RPMs. Use the brake to maintain a constant slow, creeping speed. This will keep you from hitting the obstacle too fast and from slamming the rocker panels when you come down the other side. If possible, take the obstacle one wheel at a time. Take it slow and use a spotter (spotting is discussed later) to ensure you have enough clearance. For a manual transmission, put it in 4WD, low range 1st gear. You will climb up, over, and down the other side at a constant speed. With a manual transmission, the vehicle will crawl over with little difficulty.

Front End Swing / Rear Wheel Cheat When backing up, turning the wheel will cause the front end to swing out to one side. If you were in a parking lot parked between two other vehicles, what would happen if you immediately turned the wheel when backing out? You would collide with the vehicle next to you. This is called “front end swing.” When driving forward, the rear wheels track inside the front wheels. Have you ever seen someone drive into their driveway where the front wheels go up the ramp, but the rear wheel drives over the curb? This is rear wheel cheat, also known as off-tracking. In off road situations, be careful not to steer around an obstacle with the front wheels only to scrape the rear sidewalls or quarter panel.

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echanical Sympathy

Mechanical Sympathy means you should treat your equipment with respect and it will serve you well. This also means you need to finesse your way over obstacles instead of trying to muscle your way through. If you are hung up on something, STOP. Get out and find out what is causing the problem. Continuing to try to power through the situation will only lead to breakage.

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he best way to finesse the throttle is to brace your foot against the hump to the right of the pedal and twist your foot onto the accelerator. This will give you fine control of your speed. Trying to control speed using the usual heel-on- the-floor method, often results in jerky forward progress and unnecessary vehicle bounce.

MUD

WASHBOARD

CLEARANCE

THROTTLE CONTROL


CLEARANCE Know how much clearance you have under your

vehicle. Usually your differentials are the lowest part. Know whether they are off to one side or in the middle of the axle. If you encounter a rock or other obstacle in the trail that is higher than your differentials, consider going around it, or drive over it by putting your wheels directly on the obstacle. Do not make the mistake of driving around every little rock you see on the trail. Use the increased clearance of your 4-wheel drive to your advantage. If it appears there is not enough clearance, consider moving some rocks or other material to build a ramp. The objective is to smoothly cross the obstacle without scraping.

WASHBOARD Roads with washboard can be brutal on your

nerves and your equipment. Driving at high speeds can be very dangerous. During a pursuit training exercise in Oklahoma, I found myself on a road with serious washboard. There was no area on the road free of it, and I was traveling 70 mph. It felt like I was driving a hovercraft! I had to carefully slow down to a speed where I had more control. I had great difficulty keeping the vehicle from oversteering (fishtailing) out of control (by the way, I was not in an SUV at the time). Once I got down to a manageable speed, so did my heart rate! You may find that a speed of around 50 mph will feel smoother, but driving like this for long periods or on a routine basis will eventually vibrate your vehicle to pieces. You also dramatically increase your chance of tire failure. 20-25 mph will help you maintain traction and will be a lot easier on your vehicle. Remember, mechanical sympathy!

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MUD Avoid deep mud when possible. Mud can be bad

news! If you must go through it, get out and check the depth and consistency. Thick, sticky mud can be the worst. I spent over an hour helping someone dig his Cherokee out of this type of mud. He had spun the wheels far enough in to create a suction effect. You can get yourself stuck in less than an inch of this kind of mud. Tire chains can be effective in mud if you must go through it. The clay type of mud found in our training area at Hollister Hills is not deep, but it is slick and dangerous. Everything slides in the direction gravity takes it, regardless of where the trail goes. This is why we cannot train when it rains even a little. Returning to the paved road after driving in mud, your vehicle may feel out of balance. It may have a pronounced wobble. This is caused by mud caked on the wheels. Mud on the tires can also reduce your traction like you were still driving in the mud. Do not drive too far before cleaning this mud out with a hose. The self-serve style car washes or a power washer are ideal for cleaning out the mud. A regular hose with a nozzle will also work.

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Loose, dry sand can be tricky. You will definitely need to air down your tires. You need as little as 8 to 12 lbs. This will give you a large enough footprint to “float” you across the sand. You need to keep your momentum going by supplying enough power to keep moving, but not so much that you start the wheels “chattering.” With some practice, you will find just the right amount of power. Sand will vary in how much traction you will get. Moist sand is easier to drive on than dry sand. In large dunes, the windward side of a dune is more packed than the leeward side, and you will usually find more traction near plants. The key is to search around for the best traction and generally do not spin the wheels. If the wheels spin and you are moving forward, keep going. But if your forward progress stops for even an instant, get off the gas. Driving in sand dunes can be very dangerous, and requires specialized instruction. You can get yourself in trouble very quickly if you don’t know how to read the terrain.


SAND, ROCKS & WATER

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ocks

When traveling though a very rocky trail, use 1st gear low range to better control your speed. Pick a line that will keep your axles flexing as little as possible. When driving anywhere off-road, do as little steering as possible. When you steer, you start the differential working which then may supply more torque to one of the wheels due to wheel slip. Your goal is to try and keep equal power to all the wheels as much as possible.

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ATER

We have all seen the motorist who ventures into the water accumulated under an overpass after a storm only to find it is roof high. When you encounter water, get out and check how deep it is before venturing across. The deeper it gets, the less traction you get because the tires and vehicle body provide some floatation since they are filled with air. You may need to put the waders on and walk out there to see if there are any deep holes or big rocks that could damage your vehicle.

If the water has a swift current be especially careful. It is easier than you think to get swept downstream. When in doubt, find another way to cross, or don’t cross it at all. Know where your vehicle is vulnerable to drawing in water. Your differentials have vents, your engine has an air intake, and your transmission and transfer case have vents. Some people advocate getting up enough speed to develop a bow wave in front of the vehicle in order to help keep water out of the engine compartment. This is a myth. Slow is the way to go! I know some club off roaders will argue about the bow wave concept. I challenge you to ride through deep water in the front of a vehicle with the hood up and watch the action of the water. You will see what I saw! Hot vehicle parts like front wheel bearings placed in cool water will create a vacuum caused by the change in temperature. This will cause perfectly good seals to suck in water. The lesson is slow going through all water - even puddles! You can ride the brakes a little with your left foot as you exit the water to expedite the drying process. Your brakes may not work properly until they are dry.

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SNOW

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hear people brag that they do not need chains because they have a 4WD. This may get you past the checkpoint for chains, but you should consider putting them on anyway. You have 4-Wheel Drive, but like every other vehicle, you have 4-Wheel Brakes. Your 4WD will help you go, but it will not help you stop faster than any other vehicle. At 20 mph it takes you 17 feet to stop on dry pavement. Your stopping distance on ice increases dramatically. At 20 mph it takes you 150 feet to stop! That’s almost 9 times the stopping distance from dry pavement. Even with chains on it will take you 75 feet to stop. I have heard people debate whether to put chains on the front wheel or rear wheels of their 4WD. You have a 4-Wheel Drive! Put chains on all 4 wheels! If you put them on only 2 wheels, you turn your 4WD into a 2WD. If you only have one set, put them on the front so you can steer. If you are parking in snowy conditions, plan ahead. Do not park where you will have to drive up a steep grade if you can avoid it. If your vehicle is fussy about shifting into 4WD, get it into 4WD before you park. This way, you will be ready to go if conditions change after you park. You may also consider putting your chains on if heavy snow is expected before you move again.


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HILLS

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efore climbing a steep hill, you should know what is on the other side. As you crest the hill, visibility will be limited. Discovering there is a cliff on the other side as you crest the hill is not the time to find out. Yes, you may have to get out of your vehicle and walk to the top to see what is there. Remember, spinning wheels have less traction, so easy does it on the accelerator. You should be in low range, 3rd gear. If your wheels slip, the transmission will shift providing less torque. Set your RPMs at a constant rate of 1500-1700 and let the vehicle slowly climb the hill. Many think that you should be in low range 1st gear, but this gives you so much torque and the throttle is so touchy that you will probably get wheel spin, which you are trying to avoid.


The picture here is of a vehicle that attempted to climb a 40 degree incline. When he could not make it, the driver did not keep the front wheels rolling as he backed down. Notice the tracks of the rear wheels – they were rolling. The front wheels were skidding, so he could not steer. As a result, the vehicle slid sideways

If you encounter a problem on the way up, and the vehicle simply won’t make it because the wheels start to spin, stop! Do not continue to spin the wheels. The vehicle could pitch sideways and roll over. Put the shifter in reverse and slowly back down. Turn around and look over your shoulder at where you are going and use a spotter if necessary. Avoid Rollovers When Aborting A Hill Climb: Make sure you maintain rolling friction when backing down a hill, which means you must keep the front wheels rolling! If the front wheels are skidding and not rolling across the ground, you will not be able to steer. Since most of the weight and braking power in your vehicle is up front, it will start to slide sideways on the hill if the front wheels are locked up. Once

sideways, it can roll over. To give yourself a little more braking to the rear wheels as you back down, set the parking brake about half the way on – not full to cause the wheel to lock. Even if you are backing up faster than you want, keep the front wheels rolling so you can steer your way out of trouble. This is the most frequent cause of rollover accidents. Practice backing down a hill before you actually need to do it. Find an easy hill and practice. As you get better, find a steeper hill to practice on. Soon you will be proficient and it will be no problem when you actually need to use the technique. If the engine stalls while climbing a hill, restart the en-

gine while holding the vehicle with the main brake and the parking brake. Then get it back into gear. Do not coast down the hill in neutral. If you have a manual transmission, just restart the engine with it in gear. In 4WD low range, 1st gear, your starter will do the job with no problem. Climb and descend hills at a 90 degree angle. Getting sideways on a steep hill can lead to a rollover. Never attempt to turn around on a hill. If you encounter another vehicle on a hill, the vehicle traveling uphill has the right-of-way. Do not be afraid to admit defeat. Do not repeat what you just did if it didn’t work the first time. Do not have your ego invested in that particular hill. If you can’t make it, choose another route.

“Practice backing down a hill before you actually need to do it. Find an easy hill and practice. As you get better, find a steeper hill to practice on.” 2013

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pproach Angle: Because the front of the vehicle and the rear of the vehicle hang over the axles, they may drag on the ground. If you approach a steep hill the front bumper may contact the ground before the wheels can start climbing. The amount of overhang and vehicle clearance determines your approach angle.

eparture Angle: When on a steep hill, your rear wheels will start traveling on level ground or going up hill before the rear bumper has cleared and it will drag on the ground. This is also a function of the amount of overhang and clearance. This is known as your departure angle. The more vehicle you have extending past the rear axle, the more of a problem you will have with departure angle.


ANGLES: APPROACH, DEPARTURE, and RAMP

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amp Angle

When traveling over a large mound or when cresting a steep hill with a relatively flat summit, the center part of your vehicle may contact the ground. If the front wheels have cleared the mound and the rear wheels have not yet started climbing, or the top of a hill flattens abruptly, you risk becoming “high centered.” This is known as ramp angle or break-over angle. It is a function of ground clearance and the length of the wheelbase.

Parking

Putting your transmission in “Park” when parking on a hill can get you stuck. The weight of your vehicle resting on the transmission can get it stuck in “Park.”

Procedure: • • • • • •

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Turn the wheels uphill as you roll to a stop Set the parking brake Put the transmission in “Neutral” Slowly release the main brake until all the weight of the vehicle is resting on the parking brake. Put the vehicle in park Chock the wheels to prevent the vehicle from rolling. TheDrivingComapny.com


CROSS AXLE

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ross axle situations occur when you have weight off one wheel and weight off the opposite corner wheel. The springs on the opposing wheels are compressed. This leads to a condition where (with open differentials) the wheels that are high will lose traction and spin. The differential will go into action and provide less torque to the wheels with traction, and you are stuck. Think of the drive train as being lazy; it will only give you enough torque to turn the wheels with little traction. Applying left foot braking while on the throttle can fool the drive train into giving you more torque to the wheels with traction, and you will move.


SIDE TILT

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ost of us have a built in alarm that tells us when the vehicle is tilting too far to the side. If it feels like it is getting too far over on the tilt, it is. Change your angle by taking another track or backing off. If the vehicle starts to roll, quickly turn downhill and quickly press the accelerator to transfer weight back to the rear end. You may end up stuck, but at least the wheels will be on the ground. Before attempting a side tilt, check out what is downhill. If it is a cliff, find another route. If there is evidence other vehicles have rolled here, find another route. If you can find a route that makes driving a side tilt unnecessary, take that route. Listen to your internal alarm - it will keep you out of trouble. There is one scenario where you can easily roll over while side tilting. If you are going downhill and turning in the direction of the tilt, it can roll over before your alarm goes off. Exercise extreme caution on turning downhill side tilts!

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TIRES & SPOTTING Gravida ac malesuada et, tincidunt sit amet tortor, curabitur facilisis pulvinar ligula ac gravida. In accumsan faucibus tortor non elementum


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ires

Lower tire pressure off road than on road is very beneficial. When you lower the tire pressure, you increase the contact patch, or that portion of the tire in contact with the ground. The exact tire pressure depends upon the type of surface on which you are driving. 30-35 lbs of pressure works well for most applications. This will allow you to travel at average speeds onroad and transition to off-road with little difficulty.

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afety is the most important consideration in any risky endeavor. Driving is a risky endeavor. Contrary to what many lawyers and civil juries think, it is not possible to eliminate all risk from our lives. Operating any type of vehicle is a dangerous activity. Your job is to minimize and manage the risk by learning as much as possible about the operation of your vehicle and taking reasonable precautions. The only way to eliminate risk is to simply not drive. Since this is not an option, let’s continue.

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Low tire pressure on-road will result in higher friction, which results in higher tire temperature. Tire failure is more likely when the tires are running hot. Do not try to performance drive any SUV. These vehicles are not designed for high-speed performance driving. If you attempt to performance drive a vehicle on-road with improperly inflated tires, serious injury to you and your vehicle can result. Before returning to the paved road, re-inflate your tires to the recommended pressure. Also, be aware that tires with lower pressure will hydroplane easier on paved surfaces. Check your owner’s manual for recommended on-road tire pressure.

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OTTING

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afety Note:

Keep in mind that lowering tire pressure also lowers the clearance of the vehicle over the ground. Lower pressure spreads the weight of your vehicle over a larger patch of tire that is in contact with the ground. Since the tire spreads, your sidewalls will be more susceptible to damage.

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RECOVERIES

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ecoveries

Sooner or later you will get stuck, or you will need to help someone who has become stuck. Sometimes the solution can be as simple as discovering the stuck vehicle is not in 4WD. Other times, you will need to break out the winch. The trick is to find the most efficient means to free the stuck vehicle. Make sure the vehicle is in the proper gear. It may be in high range instead of low range. In modern push-button 4WD vehicles you may only need to reset the computer. Put the vehicle into 2WD and then switch it back into 4WD. This will reset the computer. If you are really stuck, you may need to get out the shovel and dig it out. You need to eliminate the small hills in front of or behind the wheels that are making it difficult to move. You may need to change the tire pressure. The main thing is to change whatever is causing the problem. When in a rocky environment, move rocks around to create ramps that the vehicle can travel on easier. You may need to jack the vehicle up and rebuild the road underneath the wheels. Using another vehicle to free a stuck vehicle can be very dangerous. If you use a chain, tow strap, steel cable, or other means to hook one vehicle to another there is the potential for serious injury or damage. If the cable breaks, the loose ends can be lethal. It can fly with enough force to sever limbs, so you need to take precautions.

SAFETY NOTE:

If you are going to manually push a vehicle to try and get it going there are things you need to consider. How many people do you have to push? Make sure everyone is wearing gloves. Make sure everyone knows what they are supposed to do and where they are supposed to grab the vehicle. Make sure there is a driver behind the wheel. Make sure everyone knows where the vehicle is supposed to go when it comes out. Be aware that debris may fly out from spinning wheels. Objects placed under the wheels can shoot out with amazing force. The best strap to use is 20 to 30 feet in length and has a 20,000 to 30,000 pound rating. It must be made of nylon since this material stretches. The ends should have loops on them, not hooks. If the hooks come loose, they can be extremely dangerous. When connecting to the vehicles, connect to the frame and only the frame. Anything that attaches to the frame, such as bumpers, may be pulled right off or bent beyond repair. Some recovery hooks on modern SUVs are not made for serious recovery efforts. Make sure you know what the hooks are made of and how they are attached to the frame before you use them. Keep everyone clear of the tow strap or cable. Place a tarp over the cable so if it breaks, the tarp will slow it down. Never step over a cable or towline during towing preparation, even if it is not under tension. Winching: Winches require a considerable monetary investment. Instructors for The Driving Company are equipped with winches simply because they are working with students who can sometimes get themselves stuck to the point of needing this type of equipment. Winching requires a course of instruction all by itself, so it will not be covered here. This topic is covered in many of our courses.


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Defensive Driving

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efensive Driving Your Sport Utility Vehicle is not a car. It does not perform like a car, it has different handling characteristics than a car, it has a higher center of gravity than a car, and it is heavier than a car. Don’t try and drive it like a car!

Your stopping distance in an SUV is generally greater than that of a car, so give yourself more room for braking. Your following distance from the car in front of you should be three seconds. If you are inside the three-second margin you should be paying VERY close attention to what is in front of you. That means no talking on your cell phone, no eating lunch, no reading maps. If you are inside the three-second margin you’d better have a plan other than just slamming on the brakes. If you are inside 1.5 seconds, I hope you are heavily insured because only luck will save you from getting into an accident. Drive the speed limit. Speed limits are put in place for a reason. Your focal point, i.e. where you are looking, is in great part what determines where your vehicle is going to go. It will go where you look whether you want it to or not. If you look at a hazard you will probably hit it. If a hazard presents itself, look to an escape route and drive there. This is called driving to the solution. Driving within the law and your talent level, coupled with the knowledge of stopping distances and how focal point works will keep you out of many bad road situations. You cannot control the actions of other drivers, but if you are paying attention you can recognize the mistakes they are making and stay clear of them.


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eight Transfer

Side-to-side, or lateral weight transfer is responsible for many of the SUV rollover accidents we hear about in the news. If you need to make a quick turning movement to avoid an accident, most people put in too much steering and then try to correct by turning too much back in the other direction. This starts an oscillation that can lead to a rollover after just two-and-onehalf turns. The more steering you put in, the more weight transfer you will have and the more steering you will eventually have to take out. To correct lateral weight transfer problems, allow the vehicle to center itself by releasing your grip on the steering wheel and allowing the vehicle to center itself. Do not take your hands away from the wheel: ease your grip allowing the wheel to center on its own. The front wheels are casters and they want to go straight if you only let them. Remember to look where you want to go and then let the vehicle correct itself by allowing the steering wheel to center itself. You can use the same concept to correct for oversteer. Most of us were taught to turn in the direction of the skid during an oversteer (where the rear end slides or fishtails to the outside of a turn). Instead, look where you want to go and open your hands releasing your grip on the wheel. The caster effect will take over and the steering wheel will turn itself in the direction of the skid. It will turn exactly how much it needs to turn and as fast as it needs to turn. If you do not try and help it, it will come back to center and you will have little or no secondary skid. Longitudinal weight transfer (front to back) occurs during braking and acceleration. Big longitudinal and big lateral weight transfer occurring at the same time can cause you to lose control of the vehicle. For example, if you brake hard and steer hard at the same time, the vehicle will most likely slide out of control.

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quipment The most important piece of equipment you have is your brain. Check your ego and don’t be afraid to admit defeat and try a different route. Having the right attitude behind the wheel of any vehicle will keep you out of trouble. A little humility is a good thing.

You should make sure you have all the necessary equipment with you in working order. You do not want to be stuck in the back country only to find that you are lacking the proper equipment, or that the equipment you do have is not working. Inspect your vehicle before every trip. Make sure everything is in working order. Another good practice, which most people neglect, is the post trip inspection. After leaving an off-road environment, inspect the vehicle for any broken or loose items. Also make sure you air your tires up to road pressure if you aired them down. The most important safety equipment you have is your seatbelt. Seatbelts are the single most effective occupant safety devices in any vehicle. Airbags are designed to work in conjunction with seatbelts; airbags do not replace seatbelts. Make sure all your equipment is secured in the vehicle. Murphy’s law of driving says that any loose objects will end up under the brake pedal! Also, in a worst-case scenario, loose objects become missiles inside the passenger area.


THE DRIVING COMPANY.COM Checklist:         

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quipment Checklist No matter what equipment you bring, you should use the buddy system: take two vehicles on off road trips. It is more fun when you go with friends anyway! This list looks quite large, but it actually fits into the 35 gallon Rubbermaid Action Packer box (except for the tire chains, and shovel). This is not an exhaustive list. As you gain experience, you will find different things that you can’t do without to add to your list.

                              

Rubbermaid Action Packer Box Duct Tape Hacksaw and extra Blades Auto Fire Extinguisher Shovel & Folding Shovel Six-foot, 3/8-inch link galvanized chain with Clevis Slip and grab hook D- Shackles (4) Tree Strap 2 Tow / Recovery Straps (35,000 lbs & 20,000 lbs) Tubeless Tire Valves Various Diameter Hose Couplings Hose Clamps Tool Box Tin Snips Rubber Mallet 132 Piece Tool Set Retractable Knife Flashlights Batteries Radiator Stop-leak Bottle Jack 4-ton Siphon Pump Jumper Cables Hidden Key Holder Fuse Kit Terminal Brush First Aid Kit Emergency Blankets x4 Trauma Kit Whistle Biodegradable Toilet Paper Valve Wrench Tire Repair Kit Gas Tank Repair Kit Tie Wraps Wire 6 lb Magnetic Pickup Telescoping Mirror GPS Maps

Personal Equipment:

* Water: Bring enough to last for more than the length of your trip. In the event of an emergency, you will need this more than food. * Food * Rain Gear * Rubber Boots * Sunglasses * Biodegradable Toilet Paper * Biodegradable Soap

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The Environment

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t is important that you observe environmentally friendly driving habits. You can set an example that others will follow. The following are some tips for environmentally friendly driving. For more information on environmentally friendly off road driving, visit Tread Lightly! 1. Cross streams only at established fording points. Small creatures live in the stream and can be run over if you cross at other than established spots. 2. Driving up and down stream can also disturb fish and other wildlife: don’t do it! 3. Avoid unnecessary wheel-spin, which can damage the terrain. 4. Do not stray from the established trail or road. Blazing your own trail is unnecessary and damages vegetation and habitat. 5. Use existing campsites. Camp at least 200 feet from water to avoid contaminating lakes and streams. 6. If you encounter travelers on horseback, turn off your vehicle and wait for them to pass. 7. Be considerate of others who are enjoying the backcountry. Not everyone travels by vehicle. Respect the camping areas of others. If leaving or arriving at odd hours, show some manners and keep the noise down! 8. Take only pictures and leave only (minimal) tire tracks. 9. If you pack it in, pack it out. Do not litter! When practical, pick up trash left by others as an example to all. 10. Wash your vehicle after each trip off road. This prevents transporting seeds from non-native plants and weeds from one area to another.


“ Avoid unnecessary wheel-spin, which can damage the terrain.“

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he Driving Company provides driver training to public safety agencies, private corporations and companies, as well as individual drivers. They have certified and highly experienced instructors who have trained thousands of students. They work to reduce injuries, liability, and costs resulting from traffic accidents. They accomplish this through training individual drivers, and they assist risk managers in writing policies and procedures to help reduce traffic accidents. Dave Storton

Founder

E-mail: dave5150@aol.com

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www.TheDrivingCompany.com | Email : dave5150@aol.com | Contact : 408-370-9321

The Driving Company  

Professional driver Dave Storton takes you through the basics of off road driving. Off road EVOC, off road evoc, off road training, 4 wheel...