Hofstra Horizons - Spring 2022

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president’s COLUMN

HOFSTRAhorizons Research and Scholarship at Hofstra University


am pleased to introduce the latest issue of Hofstra Horizons, which highlights faculty research at Hofstra University. As this academic year comes to a close, I want to thank our faculty for all they have done to navigate the effects of this pandemic on the Hofstra campus. Throughout this past year, the Hofstra faculty have demonstrated, time and time again, their dedication to teaching as well as their continued engagement in research. Every Hofstra Horizons issue is an opportunity to explore the research of our faculty and gain insight into new and innovative collaborations, discoveries, and research activities. I am proud that at Hofstra, all our students, from the first-semester freshman to the graduating senior, have an opportunity to interact with professors making a significant impact in their field. Sincerely,

Susan Poser, PhD President, Hofstra University

table of contents


Use of Behavioral Science and Community-Based Approaches to Design Nutritional Interventions for Different Communities


Natural Magic in the Coldest Place in Nassau County

Susan Poser, PhD President Poser Janet Lenaghan, DPS Interim Provost Sofia Kakoulidis, MBA Vice Provost for Research and Sponsored Programs Alice Diaz-Bonhomme, BA Assistant Provost for Research and Sponsored Programs


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provost’s COLUMN


t is my pleasure to introduce this issue of Hofstra Horizons. I always enjoy highlighting the good work of my faculty colleagues, especially in the area of research and scholarship. Each issue is an opportunity to highlight the vast representation of expertise and dedication evident among our teachers.


Can the European Union Live up to its Ideals and Stave the Spread of Antisemitism in Europe?


Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Past, Present, and Future

In this issue of Hofstra Horizons, you will find articles from four of Hofstra’s distinguished faculty. Dr. Trishnee Bhurosy’s research focuses on how to motivate individuals to improve their diets and how nutrition affects quality of life in underserved communities. Dr. Matthew Smylie details his on- and off-campus superconductivity experiments, which provide fascinating research opportunities and career training for many of his students. Dr. Carolyn Dudek, who was recently awarded a grant from the European Commission, examines the recent shift in EU policies to combat the rise in antisemitism. Finally, Dr. Julie Case discusses the numerous advances in the treatment of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), as well as her research on the effects of caregiver training on treatment outcomes in children with CAS. The four faculty highlighted in this issue demonstrate an impressive diversity of research at Hofstra, and I congratulate them on their outstanding work.

HOFSTRA HORIZONS is published annually by the Office for Research and Sponsored Programs, 144 Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549-1440. Each issue describes in lay language some of the many research and creative activities conducted at Hofstra. The conclusions and opinions expressed by the investigators and writers are their own and do not necessarily reflect University policy. ©2022 by Hofstra University in the United States. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the consent of Hofstra University. Inquiries and requests for permission to reprint material should be addressed to: Editor, Hofstra Horizons Office for Research and Sponsored Programs 144 Hofstra University Hempstead, NY 11549-1440 Telephone: 516-463-6810


Janet Lenaghan, DPS Interim Provost, Hofstra University

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Figure 1: Photo of Mauritius (Source: Adobe Stock)

Use of Behavioral Science and Community-Based Approaches to Design Nutritional Interventions for Different Communities Trishnee Bhurosy, MSc, PhD, CHES, Assistant Professor, Department of Population Health, Hofstra University I am a behavioral scientist with a research focus on nutrition. My program of research studies the effectiveness of strategies and tools that can be integrated in behavioral interventions to improve nutrition with the active involvement of community stakeholders. My

research focuses on building an understanding of how dietary behavior change occurs and how it can be improved among underserved communities at risk for obesity, cancer, and other chronic diseases. My interests in nutrition and behavioral science stem from


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working as a nutrition educator and community outreach worker in Mauritius — an island off the southeast coast of Madagascar — where I was born and raised. The island comprises individuals mostly from South Asian and African descent. Like in many developing countries, incidence of cancer and other chronic conditions is on the rise in Mauritius due to factors such as lifestyle habits, poor nutrition, and weight control. In addition, the island has one of the highest Type 2 diabetes rates in the world. After losing family members

to these diseases, I took an interest in nutrition, as I strongly believe that food is medicine. Most of my nutrition-related work in Mauritius focused on assessing dietary habits of women, examining obesity trends in developing countries, and pilot testing nutrition education programs for older adults. My work in Mauritius has been published in peer-reviewed journals such as the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. While working with these populations and researching what people can eat to improve their health, I quickly realized that it is just as important to research how to get


them to do it. This led me to apply for a doctoral program in health behavior at Indiana University (IU) School of Public Health-Bloomington, where I worked closely with one of the leading experts in the field, Dr. Susan Middlestadt. At IU, I further explored the factors that motivate individuals and communities to improve their diet. For example, I conducted a salient belief elicitation study among middle-aged women living in rural Indiana to identify their beliefs about eating at least two different colors of vegetables every day. Participants also had to keep track of everything they were eating for three nonconsecutive days during a given week. While interviewing participants and talking to them, I remember having an “aha moment” when several of them made meaningful small changes to their diet just because they were writing what they were eating. As a researcher, I found it very interesting because I had not given them any instructions to change their diet. This learning experience paved the way for my dissertation study, which was a randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of self-monitoring and goal setting on increasing the consumption of red and orange vegetables among undergraduate students. My dissertation study exemplifies my long-term research goals. As part of its formative research, the study included input from key stakeholders in the community (e.g., the campus dietitian and the dining services staff) to select a suitable behavior for undergraduate students to improve and to determine appropriate tools to help them increase their vegetable consumption. Using a pretest-posttest experimental design, the study examined the effectiveness of two principles of behavior change through a mobile experiment to

improve vegetable consumption among undergraduate students living in dorms (published in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior). Several important findings emerged from this study. On a general level, it provides further evidence that nutrition education programs that incorporate feasible self-monitoring techniques and specific dietary goals can be worthwhile for behavior change. More specifically, self-monitoring their vegetable intake via counting was demonstrated to be effective in helping college students increase their vegetable consumption. This is particularly important given the challenges students face as they develop the habits they will continue in later adulthood. Counting and setting specific goals may also be effective for other populations and for improving other dietary behaviors. This study yielded very rich raw data in terms of thousands of photos of meals uploaded by undergraduate students. Currently, my research assistant, Heena Suthar, and I are leading a study that examines the reliability of a frequency method using photos from smartphones to assess

While working with these populations and researching what people can eat to improve their health, I quickly realized that it is just as important to research how to get them to do it.

consumption of vegetables. Traditional dietary assessment tools can present several challenges, including participant and researcher burden, recall bias, cost, and time. A mobile phone-assisted method can be used in nutritional programs to improve data quality, reduce participant burden, and minimize the risk of other challenges. We have submitted an abstract to the upcoming Society of Nutrition

Figure 2: Dr. Bhurosy interviewing women in rural Indiana about their thoughts on eating at least two colors of vegetables daily

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Addressing food insecurity among college students will improve retention rates, academic performance, and mental and physical health outcomes, and it

administrative assistants in our departments, Diane McPartland and Irina Sepulveda. Dr. Kyriacou, along with Diane and Irina, spearheaded an initiative at the Hofstra Dome to provide healthy snacks free of charge to students. Students can grab a tangerine or a granola bar in between classes, and these items are available to them throughout the day.

I learned from Diane and Irina that many students who attend classes in the Hofstra Dome face hunger. Just mission as a caring grabbing a few tangerines and a granola bar can help them focus on classes and community of scholars. give them energy for a few hours. In addition to the conversations that I had with my colleagues, I noticed that students in my classes would often look tired and hungry. Many of them confided to me that the prices of meals offered on campus were either too expensive for them or they did not have the time or energy to go to the other side of campus to buy food in between their classes. It Figure 3: Dr. Bhurosy presenting her research was surprising to me that on improving college students’ diet through mobile interventions for the Society of less than half of my Nutrition Education and Behavior Club Webinar students were aware of the Series, Fall 2021 Journal existence of the Pride Pantry, an initiative led by Dr. Beth McGuire, senior Education and Behavior Annual assistant dean of students Meeting and are writing up a and director of residence life at Hofstra. manuscript related to this study. The Pride Pantry offers nonperishable food items to food-insecure staff, My work on improving the diet of faculty, and students at Hofstra, and college students continued when all identifying information is held in I started my tenure-track position at strict confidence. Hofstra. More specifically, I have been working on identifying strategies to During this past semester, I have been combat food insecurity on campus. It working with different stakeholders to started with conversations I had with the improve access to free snacks and food chair of the Department of Population items on campus. One simple strategy Health, Dr. Corinne Kyriacou, and the is to advertise the existence of the Pride

will advance Hofstra’s


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Pantry to students through multiple ways. During recent faculty meetings in my department, I suggested the idea of adding information regarding the Pride Pantry in course syllabi, which was met with enthusiasm. In addition, Dr. Ibraheem Karaye (assistant professor in the Department of Population Health) and I submitted a proposal to the Institute of Innovation and Entrepreneurship to develop a “Healthy Snacks on the Go” program, which will provide students with free healthy snacks that have a long shelf life. If implemented, this program will benefit students and Hofstra on multiple levels. Addressing food insecurity among college students will improve retention rates, academic performance, and mental and physical health outcomes, and it will advance Hofstra’s mission as a caring community of scholars. This research will also improve the reach of the Pride Pantry, since students will be able to grab snacks, anonymously, as they go in and out of buildings. In addition to the projects mentioned above, for the past two to three years, I have been applying my expertise in behavioral science and nutrition to cancer survivorship and control. I completed a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer survivorship and control at Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey. One of my most recent projects assessed the proportion of colorectal (CRC) patients who are tested for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and factors that predict a formal diagnosis of IDA and receiving iron therapy (study funded by the New Jersey Commission on Cancer Research). This particular study retrieved data from electronic medical records of 499 CRC patients. We found that oncology providers are not routinely assessing iron status among CRC patients, leaving many with undiagnosed IDA and thus at greater risk for poor quality of life. Future


research should explore how to improve assessment and diagnosis of IDA among CRC patients. Moreover, only about 19% of these patients received any nutritional advice. Given that nutritional status is an important prognostic factor for treatment response and overall quality of life in cancer patients, it is critical to identify ways to improve their diet and access to adequate medical nutrition therapy. As a next step to this study, I am working on a research proposal that addresses access to nutritional counseling/medical nutrition therapy and medically tailored meals to cancer patients who are food insecure, are racial or ethnic minorities, and are on Medicaid or do not have health insurance. I have established a partnership with the Metropolitan Area

Neighborhood Nutrition Alliance (MANNA) and will work closely with its director of research and evaluation to deliver medically tailored meals free of charge to patients. This project will enhance understanding of nutritional interventions that are tailored to cancer patients’ needs while reducing health disparities in the area of cancer survivorship. In addition to my ongoing work in the United States, I have continued working on research projects in Mauritius. For example, using geocoded databases of restaurants and primary school addresses, Dr. Karaye and I are working together to assess proximity of fast food restaurant clusters around primary schools in Mauritius. Given the high prevalence of overweight children and high rates of Type 2 diabetes in its adult

population, Mauritius banned the sale of soft drinks in primary and secondary schools since 2007. While the ban on the sale of soft drinks in schools may limit access to sugar-sweetened beverages, less is known about availability of these items outside the school environment. Findings of this project will inform the need to improve food environments for schoolchildren and create regulations that restrict access to unhealthy food items in the school neighborhoods. Eating healthy is a basic human need. My overall goal, through my research, is to improve our understanding of how behavior-change strategies and tools can be leveraged in behavioral interventions to help individuals improve their dietary behaviors through the active involvement of key stakeholders.

Trishnee Bhurosy is an assistant professor in the Department of Population Health at Hofstra University. Before coming to Hofstra, Dr. Bhurosy completed a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer prevention and control and worked as a Research Associate II from 2019 to 2021 at the Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey. Dr. Bhurosy earned master’s and bachelor’s degrees (with honors) in nutritional sciences from the University of Mauritius. After earning the master’s degree, she worked for a couple of years teaching at the University of Mauritius. She also taught food science and nutrition classes to high school students in Mauritius. In 2015, Dr. Bhurosy moved to the United States. In 2019, she earned a PhD in Health Behavior with a minor in nutritional epidemiology from Indiana University School of Public Health-Bloomington, with Dr. Susan E. Middlestadt as her mentor and advisor. Dr. Bhurosy is a behavioral scientist with a focus on nutrition. Much of her research focuses on the effectiveness of theory-based strategies that can be integrated into behavioral interventions to improve dietary behaviors of underserved individuals, with the active involvement of community stakeholders. As a principal investigator, Dr. Bhurosy has secured over $116,000 of intramural and extramural funding, including the New Jersey Commission on Cancer Research Postdoctoral Research Award and grant support from the Geographic Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP) at the National Cancer Institute. In her spare time, Dr. Bhurosy loves to hike with her husband, knit, cook Mauritian dishes, and watch horror movies. Above all, she loves to spend time with her cat, whom she adoringly refers to as The King of Tabbies, Dr. Doom, or Patoufie (a Mauritian made-up name for someone cute and chubby).

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Natural Magic in the Coldest Place in Nassau County Matthew Smylie, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hofstra University With the recent installation of a new cryostat capable of reaching -457 F (or 1.5 K) on campus in Berliner Hall, students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy have a unique opportunity to investigate one of nature’s most surprising magic tricks: the phenomenon known as superconductivity, wherein a material abruptly loses all electrical resistance below a certain critical temperature TC.

If you’ve ever had an MRI, you’ve climbed into a coil, or electromagnet, made of superconducting wire. The


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higher the MRI’s magnetic field, the higher the resolution of the image. This requires a lot of electric current flowing through the electromagnet, so much that if it instead were made from copper wire, it would melt itself! Because the superconducting wire has no electrical resistance, it does not heat up when current flows through it. Without superconductors, MRIs would not be practical. One of the reasons an MRI machine is so big is because in order to be superconducting, the wire must be cooled with liquid helium, the coldest liquid in the universe. This requires some complex engineering.

Superconductivity only happens at very low temperatures because it involves the coordinated, collective action of all of the electrons in the superconducting wire, a waltz with a trillion trillion sets of dance partners all performing in unison. Temperature is a measurement of random motion of atoms and electrons. Too much random motion, meaning, too high a temperature, and the intricate pattern is lost. In addition to mass and charge, electrons possess spin, a purely quantum mechanical property that acts like angular momentum but does


not come from any rotation. Electrons seem to be point-like: there is nothing to rotate! The spin of the electron is quantized; in normalized units, it is 1/2. Particles that have half-integer spin are known as fermions and obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which states that no two particles in the same system can be in the same quantum state. Particles that have integer spin, on the other hand, are bosons, and ignore the Pauli Exclusion Principle: they can all occupy the same quantum state. The photon, the quantum particle constituting light, is the most common example of a boson. In a solid, positively charged atom cores form a rigid lattice embedded in a cloud of electrons. The atoms are stuck in place but can wiggle around their equilibrium positions. The higher the temperature, the more they wiggle. Electrons zip around the entire solid; they all move in random directions with average speeds of over a million meters per second! Since they can’t leave the solid, they are colliding into the positive cores millions of billions of times per second. Connecting a battery to a metal makes these electrons move in a preferred direction but does nothing to stop these collisions. The collisions make the electrons’ net motion very slow, robbing them of much of the energy the battery provides — we call this effect electrical resistance. The collisions give this energy to the atomic cores, making them wiggle more, thereby increasing their temperature. This is how a toaster works: put a lot of electricity through wires, and they get hot. This is great if you are trying to toast bread, but lousy if you are building electromagnets made of a conventional metal like copper. The magnetic field generated by electrical current through a coil of wire increases linearly with current, but the heat generated in the wire is proportional to the current squared. Too much current and the

magnet melts itself! This puts a pretty low limit on the magnetic field that can be generated by a coil of copper wire. Fortunately, nature provided a very clever way around this. In 1911, H. Kamerlingh Onnes discovered [1] that the resistance of pure mercury goes abruptly to zero near 4.2 K (Fig. 1), or minus 452 F, naming the effect superconductivity.

Superconductivity only happens at very low temperatures because it involves the coordinated, collective action of all of the electrons in the

Over the years, a large number of superconducting materials have been discovered; however, essentially all of them have very low superconducting transition temperatures. In fact, the quest [2] for a material that superconducts at room temperature at ambient conditions is one of the holy grails of physics research. Currently, the most common superconductors

superconducting wire, a

used in wire applications are NbTi (Tc ~ 10 K) and Nb3Sn (Tc ~ 18 K). The technology of NbTi wires is very well developed, and wires are easy to handle, just like regular metals. MRI instruments made from NbTi wire can regularly generate constant magnetic fields of 3 Tesla (60,000x the Earth’s

magnetic field). In addition to having zero resistance, a superconductor has the unique property that it can expel external magnetic fields, allowing for diamagnetic levitation, useful for, among other things, levitating magnets and bullet trains, and frictionless bearings.

waltz with a trillion trillion sets of dance partners all performing in unison.

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In a crystal, the magnitude of the positive charge density is slightly energy gap is different for higher. As a result, this second electron electrons moving in different is pulled toward the location of the first. directions because the relative The lattice relaxation time is far slower positions of the atoms are than the average speed of electrons. By different along different the time the second electron reaches the directions; a cubic crystal, for center of distortion, the first is long example, is only unchanged by gone, allowing them to avoid each other 90° rotations. We describe this in and thus never electrostatically repel terms of the momentum k of an each other. This effect competes with electron, writing the energy gap temperature. As the temperature of the as Δ(k). Like most things in lattice goes up, the thermally induced quantum mechanics, the energy wiggling of the atoms themselves gap is mathematically increases. At some temperature, this represented by a complex random wiggling of atoms completely function with real and imaginary masks the electron-induced increase in components (where imaginary the local positive charge density, and refers to √(-1). The relative the superconducting state is lost. The contributions of the real and exact temperature at which this occurs Figure 1: Onnes’ original data showing imaginary components are depends on materials properties such the discovery of superconductivity in Hg. represented by a phase, θ. In as atomic weight, stiffness of the conventional BCS theory, both crystal lattice, and the density of the magnitude and the phase of electrons. For decades, it was believed In 1957, John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, the superconducting energy gap that superconductivity was not possible and Bob Schrieffer proposed [3] the will have the same rotational symmetry above extremely low temperatures. “BCS” theory, which successfully as the crystal lattice. In 1987, J. Bednorz and K. Müller won predicted and explained many key In BCS theory, it is the lattice of the Nobel Prize for their discovery the physical properties of superconductors positive atomic cores that is responsible previous year [4] of superconductivity at the microscopic quantum level. In for the pairing of electrons and thus the in a metal oxide compound at 35 K, f BCS theory, two electrons in a superconductivity. While the atoms ar exceeding the values seen in the superconductor that have opposite cannot leave their lattice positions, they “conventional” superconductors momentum and opposite spin can distort away from their equilibrium such as the Nb alloys. Months later, collectively act like a new particle (a positions. This allows for a “quasiparticle”) with zero net time-delayed attractive momentum and, importantly, zero net interaction between two spin. Zero is an integer, so these electrons that would quasiparticles, known as Cooper pairs, otherwise repel each other. act like bosons. All of the Cooper pairs When one electron passes can then enter the same energy state. It through the lattice (Fig. 2), costs an amount of energy to separate the positive charges near it any electron from its partner and take distort slightly toward it, them both out of this special state; we locally increasing the call this energy the energy gap Δ. This positive charge density. An energy gap is the microscopic quantum electron coming from the mechanical reason for the electrical opposite direction then sees resistance to disappear! Collisions with a uniform distribution of atoms still happen but will no longer Figure 2: The BCS pairing interaction. An charge in all directions absorb energy, as they are not energetic electron feels the charge distortion caused by except in the direction of enough to break Cooper pairs. Thus, another electron. the first electron, where the resistance simply doesn’t happen.


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superconductivity in a derivative compound, YBa2Cu3O7-d (the black brick in the banner image) was found [5] at 93 K, above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K, or -321 F). The mechanism of superconductivity in this class of “high-temperature” superconductors (HTS) based on copper oxide is still not yet established. It appears, though, that Cooper pairing due to lattice vibrations as envisioned in conventional BCS theory is not dominant, and the superconducting gap does not have the full symmetry of the underlying crystal lattice. Broken symmetries always indicate new physics! We call these materials unconventional superconductors. Currently, the record Tc of a copper oxide-based superconductor is 133 K at ambient pressure. Chemical engineering advances in handling these ceramic materials have only recently allowed for practical wire lengths to be made. The world’s strongest all-superconducting magnet [6], partially made of HTS wire, came online in 2017, with a field of 32 Tesla. The copper oxides aren’t the only game in town anymore. In 2008, iron-based superconductors, containing chemical layers of iron arsenide, were discovered [7], with Tc values up to 50 K. These materials hold tremendous industrial potential, as they can remain superconducting in extraordinarily high magnetic fields. A particular member of the iron-based superconductors, RbEuFe4As4 is simultaneously superconducting and magnetically ordered [8]; superconductivity appears around 37 K and magnetic order sets in below 15 K. This is extremely atypical, as magnetic order and superconductivity are generally mutually antagonistic: Superconductivity relies on partnering electrons with opposite spin, but a magnetic field due to ordered magnetic

moments flips spins, thereby breaking the superconducting pairs of electrons. In 2019, I brought a Hofstra physics major to Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to use the largest nondestructive magnet in the United States to examine this unique combination of phenomena. There, we used the 65 Tesla pulsed field to help establish [9] that separate electron orbitals on iron atoms mediate the superconductivity and magnetism, finding possible evidence for exotic superconducting states at high fields. In 2021, we (remotely) performed measurements at 86 Tesla at the European Magnetic Field Laboratory in Toulouse, France, to explore these high field effects (Fig. 3), a project that is currently ongoing. The last decade has seen revolutionary reexaminations of materials science in terms of topological properties of energy states of electrons in certain solids. Unique interactions involving electron spin generate complex surface states with very different properties than found in the bulk of the material. A topological insulator [10] conducts electricity only at its surface, with the direction of the electrons’ spins tied to their direction of motion, resulting in spin-polarized current flow. The surface states of a topological superconductor [11] are also very special. Excitations of these surface states can be used to make a quantum computer [12], and major firms, labs, and universities are competing in a global race to identify true topological superconductors. The first bulk topological insulators, Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, were identified in 2009 [10]. As a postdoctoral researcher in the 2010s at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), I had a front-row seat to trying to make topological superconductors out of these and related materials by chemical doping to

In 2019, I brought a Hofstra physics major to Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to use the largest nondestructive magnet in the United States to examine this unique combination of phenomena.

add more electrons. CuxBi2Se3, NbxBi2Se3, and SrxBi2Se3 are all superconducting [13] at or below 3.5 K. This is a quite low temperature, but competing quantum computing schemes typically operate at 0.02 K, 175 times colder! The topological nature of the superconducting state in these materials is still under debate. In 2016, it was observed that another symmetry is broken in the superconducting state in these compounds. Not only does the gap phase break the crystallographic symmetry, but the gap amplitude does as well, marking these as a fundamentally new type of superconductor, which has been named nematic [13]. The electron pairs in these compounds are a rare example of parallel spin pairing. The new broken symmetry is easily observable in angular-dependent electrical resistance measurements performed by a Hofstra student (remotely) at ANL (Fig. 4) last year. Sweeping a 1 Tesla

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Figure 3: Tc vs field for RbEuFe4As4 measured at two international facilities. The pronounced curvature and model-exceeding behavior at low temperature in both field orientations suggests exotic superconductivity at high fields.

magnetic field in the ab plane of the crystal at 2 K in the superconducting state (red) and in the normal state (blue) shows two-fold symmetry, despite the crystal being three-fold rotationally symmetric in-plane (like a triangle). With the field applied along one axis, it can maintain zero-resistance; rotate the field 90°, and it cannot. This choice of axis of two-fold asymmetry is always the same, even though there are three equal crystal directions for the nematic axis to lie on. In 2019, my collaborators and I developed the world’s first technique to successfully perform single-crystal x-ray diffraction below 1 K at the Advanced Photon Source at ANL, the brightest x-ray synchrotron in the Western Hemisphere. We used this technique to look for crystallographic symmetry breaking that would explain the choice of nematic axis, finding none. The origin of this rotational symmetry breaking is still under debate, and I look forward to performing similar measurements under artificially induced crystallographic strain to try to 12

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Figure 4: Normalized resistance as a function of magnetic field angle in-plane in SrxBi2Se3 above Tc (blue) and below Tc (red). The two-fold symmetry despite the three-fold crystal structure (superimposed) is clear.

control this nematicity. The topological states in and fundamental physics of these materials are fascinating, and the possibility of switchable topological superconducting states may enable new ways of making superconducting circuitry in the future. We have an exciting slate of experiments to run both on-campus and off in the coming year. My cryostat (Fig. 5) arrived in 2019. I purchased a helium reliquefier, which collects all escaping helium gas, compressing and recondensing it into a liquid. This is like catching all of the steam coming out of a teakettle and turning it back into water. Without this device, the cryostat would need $2,500 of liquid helium per week to operate. The liquefier arrived in June 2020 but was not installed until summer 2021 due to the pandemic. My students and I spent fall 2021 shaking down the instrument. The sample chamber now reaches 1.5 K, colder than outer space, and certainly the coldest place in Nassau County. The cryostat contains a

Figure 5: The cryostat, helium reliquefier, and measurement electronics now located in Room 205 Berliner Hall, on the campus of Hofstra University. The sample chamber at the bottom of the tank reaches temperatures colder than outer space. Students did much of the design, machining, wiring, and coding of the sample probe and of data readout and diagnostics.


superconducting magnet capable of 9 Tesla; we use temperature and applied magnetic field as knobs to turn to probe the superconducting state in materials. Students designed, machined, and wired the 6-foot sample probe that fits in the central chamber of the cryostat, and wrote the computer code that performs the electrical resistance measurements. This spring, we will assemble a probe that allows samples to be rotated in place at low temperature to perform our own angular dependent measurements. Such equipment and measurement techniques are generally not found at institutions that do not offer graduate degrees in physics, and the hands-on work in my lab will offer great career training to students. The off-campus research continues as well. As pandemic-related travel constraints are retired, I will again be able to take students to major national and international research facilities for weeklong experiments or summerlong visits. After nearly two years of virtual conferences, remote projects, and canceled research trips and summer programs, I cannot wait. A year and a half into my time at Hofstra, the pandemic started, making a mess of my plans for my lab in

Berliner Hall. Nevertheless, Hofstra physics majors have been intimately involved in assembling a professional low-temperature lab, have performed experiments at national facilities, and are co-authors on scientific publications, with a number of cool projects in the future looking at materials that may one day change the world.

Endnotes: [1] The discovery of superconductivity. D. van Delft and P. Kes, Physics Today 63, 9, 38 (2010). [2] How close are we to the Holy Grail of Room-Temperature Superconductors? E. Siegel, Forbes magazine (online), 7 July 2021 https://www.forbes.com/sites/ startswithabang [3] Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity. J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, Physical Review 106, 162 (1957). [4] Possible high TC superconductivity in the Ba-La-Cu-O system. J. G. Bednorz and K. A. Müller, Zeitschrift für Physik B Condensed Matter 64, 189 (1986). [5] Superconductivity at 93 K in a new mixed-phase Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure. M. K. Wu et al., Physical Review Letters 58 908 (1987).

[6] Progress in the Development and Construction of a 32-T Superconducting Magnet. H.W. Weijers et al., IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 26 4 (2016). [7] Iron Pnictides and chalcogenides: a new paradigm for superconductivity. R. M. Fernandes et al., Nature 601, 35 (2022). [8] Superconductivity and ferromagnetism in hole-doped RbEuFe4As4, Y. Liu et al., Physical Review B 93, 214503 (2016). [9] Anisotropic upper critical field of pristine and proton-irradiated single crystals of the magnetically ordered superconductor RbEuFe4As4, M. P. Smylie et al., Physical Review B 100, 054507 (2019). [10] Colloquium: Topological insulators. M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Reviews of Modern Physics 82, 3045 (2010). [11] Topological superconductors: a review. M. Sato and Y. Ando, Reports on Progress in Physics 80, 076501 (2017). [12] Topological Quantum Computing. A. Li, Medium.com, 16 May 2019 https://medium.com/swlh/ topological-quantum-computing5b7bdc93d93f [13] Nematic Superconductivity in Doped Bi2Se3 Topological Superconductors. S. Yonezawa, Condensed Matter 4, 2 (2019).

Matt Smylie is an assistant professor in the Physics and Astronomy Department at Hofstra University. His expertise is in low-temperature experimental physics, specifically focusing on the physics of novel superconductors. He earned a BS in Physics and German from Fairfield University and then served as a Fulbright Scholar at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany. Dr. Smylie holds an MS and PhD in Physics from the University of Notre Dame. Prior to joining the Hofstra faculty in fall 2018, he was a postdoctoral researcher in the Superconductivity and Magnetism group at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago for several years. Dr. Smylie has repeatedly been awarded instrument time at major international facilities, and he has spoken at several national and international professional conferences. He has written or co-written many scientific articles published in journals such as Physical Review B, Physical Review Letters, Scientific Reports, and Physica C. Knowing firsthand the value of undergraduate research experience, Dr. Smylie is deeply invested in involving students in hands-on work both inside and outside the classroom.

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Can the European Union Live up to its Ideals and Stave the Spread of Antisemitism in Europe? Carolyn M. Dudek, PhD, Professor and Chair, Department of Political Science, Hofstra University EU Commission President Ursula von der Leyen in a speech to the American Jewish Committee Global Forum in June 2021 stated, “Our fight against antisemitism is more urgent than ever, antisemitism is on the rise across Europe ... Antisemitism is a poison for our democratic values and an attack on our way of life.” (von der Leyen, 2021a). In a later speech von der Leyen stated, “Antisemitism is a threat to Jewish people ... We have to fight it offline and online” (von der Leyen, 2021b). These speeches were made to address the troubling rise of antisemitism,


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and to lay out the first European Union (EU) comprehensive strategy to combat antisemitism and to foster Jewish life in Europe for the 1.5 million Jews living in Europe today (European Commission, 2021). The new comprehensive strategy, which was unveiled on October 5, 2021, represents a major shift in EU policy, since prior to 2015 the EU ignored the increase of antisemitism in Europe (Elman, 2015). My ongoing research examines how this new strategy came to be and the tools the EU is engaging to address antisemitism. In particular, I am

interested in the abilities and limits the EU has to address antisemitism and shape national policies and online practices related to combating antisemitism. Although the EU is often viewed as merely a form of economic integration, over time, it has become an important form of political integration and thus, more engaged with social policies such as anti-discrimination in the fields of gender, race, religion, and LGBTQ+ rights. This research project came about during pandemic lockdown in March 2020, when I had the opportunity to


attend some online events related to the EU and the rise of antisemitism in Europe. Back then, antisemitic tropes surrounding the pandemic were just beginning to emerge, but this trend would only escalate as the pandemic deepened. Although antisemitism has been on the rise in Europe over the past 20 years, we have witnessed an exponential increase due to the pandemic, the escalation of violence in Gaza in spring 2021, and a decline in knowledge about the Holocaust. Fighting antisemitism is at the heart of preserving European democratic values. The EU, which is premised upon democracy, has found itself in a battle against the illiberal, radical right and radical leftist populist forces growing in Europe that weaponize antisemitism to achieve political ends. Antisemitism is both a symptom and a tool of anti-democratic forces that put contemporary Europe’s democracies in peril. European Jews, one of the continent’s oldest minorities, are threatened, yet several member states have been incapable or unwilling to address the rise of antisemitism. In addition, the rise of Muslim extremism in Europe also threatens the Jewish community. The politicization and violent manifestations of antisemitism violate the EU’s ideals of non-discrimination and religious freedom, enshrined in its Charter of Fundamental Rights and subsequent legislation, and create a security risk for European citizens. The core of the EU’s mission is to promote democratic values, a key source of soft power, or the idea of having your values accepted elsewhere. How the EU addresses antisemitism is fundamental for the organization. If the

EU cannot defend itself as a club of democracies — against nationalists, nativists, neo-Nazis, Muslim extremists, as well as illiberal governments — then what does it stand for? This is especially true regarding the need for the EU to address antisemitism, given Europe’s history. A significant step for the EU to address antisemitism was the use and application of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) definition to inform policy starting in 2017 by the Commission. Identifying antisemitism has allowed the EU to measure and better understand antisemitism in its different forms in order to shape its own policy as well as provide policy guidance to member states. Antisemitism today looks different from the first half of the

20th century. The perpetrators are not the state, but rather political actors on the extreme political right and left, as well as radical Muslims, who often are recent immigrants or second or third generation Europeans.

Although antisemitism has been on the rise in Europe over the past 20 years, we have witnessed an exponential increase due to the pandemic, the escalation of violence in Gaza in spring 2021, and a decline in knowledge about the Holocaust.

From the early 20th century, antisemitism was associated mostly with the far political right, characterizing the Jew as an outsider and as an insidious group controlling government or the economy. Today,

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antisemitism also comes from the far political left, which denies the right for the existence of the State of Israel, the right of self-determination by the Jewish people or holding Israel to different standards than other democracies. Most troubling is that the political left holds European Jewish citizens responsible for actions taken by the Israeli government. As a result, the radical political left perceives threats against Jews in Europe as warranted as a response to the disapproval for actions of the Israeli government, particularly with regard to the treatment of Palestinians. The Palestinian conflict becomes oversimplified between “good” and “evil,” and European Jews are equated with the State of Israel – a false equivalency (Bilefsky, 2021). Blaming European Jews for the actions of a foreign government is nonsensical and separates European Jews as if they are not European citizens. Moreover, the political left tends to be more critical of elite power, money, and capital, which easily slides into attacks on Jews and perceived Jewish influence, following old stereotypes.

The rise of antisemitism on both the extreme right and left in Europe is especially troubling, as it is linked to the rise of populism. Populism, as defined by Cas Mudde (2018), is a “thin-centered ideology” that is divided between the “pure people” and the “corrupt elite.” In populist rhetoric, the Jew is the “corrupt elite” and is often used as a scapegoat for the ills of society, the eternal “other.” In fact, as the Anti-Defamation League report explains, antisemitism becomes a political tool to promote populism and the acceptance of illiberal practices in the name of the “good people” (AntiDefamation League, 2021). Extremist Muslims have adopted both the far right’s definition of the Jew as the corrupt outsider and the far left’s anti-Zionism stance, denying the right of the State of Israel to exist and blaming European Jews for the actions of the State of Israel. The expression of antisemitism across the political spectrum and among Europe’s newest inhabitants is very troubling for Europe’s Jewish community. In light of

the increase of antisemitism in Europe and the United States, Jewish nongovernmental organizations have raised awareness about the issue and some political leaders have taken heed to define and address antisemitism. Thirty-five countries, including the United States and the EU, have adopted the IHRA definition of antisemitism (IHRA, 2020). The IHRA definition is not without controversy; however, the EU has adopted it (Gould, 2020). The initial definition emerged from the definition the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (an EU agency) posted on its website in 2005 (Elman, 2015; Gould, 2020). The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, created in 1998 and initiated by former Swedish Prime Minister Göran Persson, is currently composed of 35 countries, most of which are European. In 2016, the current IHRA definition was adopted, which is as follows: Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or nonJewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities (International Holocaust Rememberance Alliance, 2016). Although the IHRA definition is not legally binding, EU institutions and member states have utilized the definition. In 2017, the Commission and European Parliament began to utilize the IHRA definition in its policy design and legislative work. The Council of the EU, as part of its declaration to


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fight antisemitism, called on member states to adopt the IHRA definition as “ a useful guidance tool in education and training, including for law enforcement authorities in their efforts to identify and investigate antisemitic attacks” (Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers (European Commission), International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance et al. 2021: 6). Several, but not all EU members have adopted the IHRA definition. Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden have all adopted the IHRA definition.1 In 2021, the EU Commission, under the German rotating EU presidency, published the EU Handbook for the practical use of the IHRA working definition of antisemitism. The EU, and in particular the European Commission, has used the IHRA definition as a basis to study antisemitism, and these studies have informed recent EU initiatives to address antisemitism, within the EU’s broader goal of addressing democratic backsliding within the EU and antidiscrimination. The new comprehensive strategy to combat antisemitism suggests that the EU is making a concerted effort to create mechanisms and financially back policies to address antisemitism. As with other policies, the EU creates laws or goals that need to be met, and member states often ignore or skirt them, creating what is termed an implementation gap. There is a lack of transposing EU law, and a constant tension remains between the sovereign

rights of member states and the limits of the EU’s reach. The comprehensive strategy provides some mechanisms to address the implementation gap, but it is unclear to what extent member states will continue on their current path. Nonetheless, the steps the EU has taken demonstrate a more concerted effort on the part of the EU to seriously address antisemitism. The creation of the comprehensive strategy is a culmination of several events. The increase of highly public and violent antisemitic acts in Europe brought greater attention for the EU to address antisemitism. In particular, the violent and deadly attacks at the Ozar Hatorah school in Toulouse in 2012 (three children and a rabbi were killed), the Jewish Museum in Brussels in 2014 (four killed), the Hypercacher in Paris in 2015 (four killed), and the Synagogue in Halle in 2019 (two killed) brought to the fore the necessity for a European response. In December 2015, the EU appointed Katharina von Schnurbein as the first European Commission coordinator on combating antisemitism.2 The creation of this office was also followed by the European Parliament adopting a resolution on combating antisemitism in 2017, and in 2018, the Council of the EU published a “declaration on the fight against antisemitism and the development of a common security approach to better protect Jewish communities and institutions in Europe” (Council of the European Union, 2018). To support this declaration, the Commission set up an ad-hoc Working Group on combating antisemitism, bringing together member states and Jewish communities. In December 2019, the

In light of the increase of antisemitism in Europe and the United States, Jewish non-governmental organizations have raised awareness about the issue and some political leaders have taken heed to define and address antisemitism.

fight against antisemitism became part of larger policy goals and was put under the Commission vice-president for promoting our European way of life, Margaritis Schinas. In December 2020, the Council adopted a further declaration focused on mainstreaming the fight against antisemitism across policy areas. The result of this policy focus, thinking about antisemitism in a larger context across policy areas, along with a series of meetings with the Working Group, is the framework within which the comprehensive strategy was crafted. There are three main pillars to the comprehensive strategy to combat antisemitism: (1) Preventing and combating all forms of antisemitism; (2) Protecting and fostering Jewish life in the EU; and (3) Education, research and Holocaust remembrance (European Commission, 2021). All three pillars

1 Poland has not adopted the definition and, although Hungary has adopted the definition, its prime minister, Viktor Orban, has publicly

made antisemitic comments as a political tool. 2 Simultaneously, the EU also appointed a European Commission coordinator on combating anti-Muslim hatred.

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have several components, but here are some of the main aspects of the policy. For the first pillar, the Commission has made the Working Group on combating antisemitism a permanent structure, bringing together member states, Jewish communities’ representatives, and other stakeholders. Although the Council had voted unanimously for member states to adopt national strategies to address antisemitism in 2019, only seven member states have created a stand-alone policy and only seven more members out of the 27 have created general policies to address racism, xenophobia, and discrimination. Thus, the new strategy has made the need for national strategy creation a high priority, and made the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) a resource to provide assistance and expertise to member states, as well as provide oversight following strategy implementation. Another important component is to enhance training on understanding antisemitism for justice and law enforcement professionals, including through the European Judicial Training Network (EJTN) and the EU Agency for Law Enforcement Training (CEPOL). To address online hate speech and spreading of misinformation, the EU will expand, strengthen, and further fund its “code of conduct on countering illegal hate speech online.” The way the “code of conduct” works is that nongovernmental organizations that track antisemitism online will receive resources from the EU to monitor hate speech. The EU has an agreement with social media platforms such as Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter, YouTube, and others that when NGOs flag hate speech content, the companies will be monitored to determine how long it takes for illegal content to be removed. Companies are to review these requests within 24 hours and to remove the 18

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content immediately if necessary (Directorate General for Justice and Consumers, 2016; European Commission, 2020). Every few months, reports are made public, revealing how various companies are abiding by their promise to remove dangerous content. There is also the goal of making hate speech and hate crimes Eurocrimes — giving the EU jurisdiction to facilitate prosecution — and there is a push to get member states to transpose EU anti-discrimination laws related to antisemitism into national law. These legal goals may be more challenging to achieve, but at least the strategy recognizes past failures and attempts to address them. The second pillar will provide funds to protect public spaces and places of worship, research radicalization trends and ways to respond, and support member states and Jewish communities by providing training on security measures. In addition, member states will cooperate with Europol to address incitement online of antisemitic terrorism and violent extremism. Moreover, this pillar will include an awareness-raising campaign in close cooperation with Jewish communities, utilizing intercultural and interreligious dialogue and activities. The third pillar provides funds to create a “European research hub on contemporary antisemitism and Jewish life and culture” (European Commission, 2021). Education programs to teach about Jewish life and traditions as well as the tragedy of the Holocaust are central to this pillar. As the EU embarks on this new policy initiative, my research will examine policy creation and implementation. I am also excited that Hofstra faculty will simultaneously be infusing their classes with an examination of

the EU’s role in areas related to anti-discrimination as it relates to several communities, including women, Jews, Muslims, Roma, recent EU immigrants, LGBTQ+ communities, and communities of color. I applied for a grant for Hofstra University to create an opportunity for our curriculum to be infused with more EU content. Hofstra has been awarded a 30,000€ ERASMUS + Jean Monnet Module grant from the EU to be spent over three years. Professors Sally Charnow (History), Paul Fritz (Political Science), Santiago Slabodsky (Religion and Jewish Studies), and I will be including EU content related to anti-discrimination and hate crimes in our courses and will be working together to bring speakers and experiential learning opportunities to Hofstra students to learn more about the EU and its activities related to antidiscrimination. References Anti-Defamation League. (2021). Choosing antisemitism: Instrumentalization and tolerance of antisemitism in contemporary European politics. https://www.adl.org/ antisemitism-in-contemporaryeuropean-politics (March 30, 2021). AP. (2021). Report: Pandemic amped up anti-semitism, forced it online. AP NEWS. https://apnews.com/article/ race-and-ethnicity-conspiracy-theoriesisrael-coronavirus-pandemic-financialmarkets-32bc8c63d8759ded9c1f2cb8ca7 301e0 (September 12, 2021). Bilefsky, Dan. (2021). Israeli-Palestinian strife feeds a spate of anti-semitic acts in Europe. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/19/ world/middleeast/israel-palestiniansanti-semitism-europe.html (September 19, 2021). Claims Conference. (2020a). New survey by the Claims Conference finds critical gaps in Holocaust knowledge in Austria. http://www.claimscon.org/ austria-study/ (April 5, 2021).


— (2020b). Stunning survey of French adults reveals critical gaps in Holocaust knowledge. http://www.claimscon.org/ france-study/ (April 5, 2021). Council of the European Union. (2018). Council declaration on the fight against antisemitism and the development of a common security approach to better protect Jewish communities and institutions in Europe. https://www. consilium.europa.eu/en/press/pressreleases/2018/12/06/fight-againstantisemitism-council-declaration/. Directorate General for Justice and Consumers. (2016). Code of conduct on countering illegal hate speech online: First results on implementation. https:// ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-andfundamental-rights/combattingdiscrimination/racism-and-xenophobia/ eu-code-conduct-countering-illegalhate-speech-online_en. Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers, (European Commission), International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance et al. (2021). Handbook for the practical use of the IHRA working definition of antisemitism. LU: Publications Office of the European Union. https://data.europa.eu/ doi/10.2838/72276 (September 17, 2021). Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers. Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Milo Comerford and Lea

Gerster. (2021). The rise of antisemitism online during the pandemic: A study of French and German content. LU: Publications Office of the European Union. https://data.europa.eu/ doi/10.2838/671381 (September 17, 2021). Elman, R. Amy. (2015). The European Union, antisemitism, and the politics of denial. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. European Commission. (2020). The code of conduct on countering illegal hate speech online. — (2021). EU strategy on combating antisemitism and fostering Jewish life (2021-2030). https://ec.europa.eu/info/ files/eu-strategy-combatingantisemitism-and-fostering-jewishlife-2021-2030_en (January 10, 2022). France 24. (2021). Another weekend of protests against France’s “health pass” restrictions. https://www.france24.com/ en/france/20210821-another-weekendof-protests-against-france-s-health-passrestrictions (September 17, 2021). Gould, Rebecca Ruth. (2020). The IHRA definition of antisemitism: Defining antisemitism by erasing Palestinians. The Political Quarterly, 91(4): 825-31. IHRA. (2020). Information on adoption and endorsement of the working definition of antisemitism. https://www.

holocaustremembrance.com/resources/ working-definitions-charters/workingdefinition-antisemitism/adoptionendorsement (September 21, 2021). International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance. (2016). Working definition of antisemitism. https://www. holocaustremembrance.com/resources/ working-definitions-charters/workingdefinition-antisemitism (March 30, 2021). Mudde, Cas. (2018). Populism in the twenty-first century: An illiberal democratic response to undemocratic liberalism. The Andrea Mitchell Center for the Study of Democracy. https://amc. sas.upenn.edu/cas-mudde-populismtwenty-first-century (April 3, 2021). von der Leyen, Ursula. (2021a). European Commission President von der Leyen vows to eradicate antisemitism in address to AJC Virtual Global Forum | AJC. https://www.ajc. org/news/european-commissionpresident-von-der-leyen-vows-toeradicate-antisemitism-in-address-to-ajc (September 11, 2021). — (2021b). Von der Leyen on the fight against anti-semitism. European Commission - European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/ presscorner/detail/en/AC_21_5313 (January 10, 2022).

Carolyn M. Dudek is professor and chair of the Department of Political Science and director of the European Studies program at Hofstra University. She specializes in comparative politics with regional focuses in Europe and Latin America. She is the author of EU Accession and Spanish Regional Development: Winners and Losers. In addition, she has published several articles and book chapters on trans-Atlantic agricultural trade and regulatory disparities, Spanish politics, regional nationalism in Europe, European Union regional development policy, EU-Latin American relations, the immigration crisis in Europe, and the rise of the far right. She is also a regular editorial contributor to La Razón, a national newspaper in Spain. Dr. Dudek holds a PhD from the University of Pittsburgh. She was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to Spain and Argentina and was a Jean Monnet Fellow at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy. In spring 2021, she was named Mentor of the Year at Hofstra University.

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Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Past, Present, and Future Julie Case, PhD, CCC-SLP, Assistant Professor, Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, Hofstra University About Childhood Apraxia of Speech Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurological motor speech disorder that often results in severely impaired speech intelligibility and has historically been resistant to traditional intervention approaches (ASHA, 2007). It is a rare speech sound disorder that occurs in approximately 1 to 2 children per every 1,000 children (Shriberg, Aram, & Kwiatkowski, 1997). In the past, there has been controversy regarding CAS as a separate diagnostic category, and 20

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it was once described as a “label in search of a population” (Guyette & Diedrich, 1981, p. 39). There was a lack of consensus on diagnostic features of CAS (Davis, Jakielski, & Marquardt, 1998; Forrest, 2003), and clinicians did not have the necessary tools to identify, evaluate, and/or treat this disorder in children. In 2007, the American SpeechLanguage-Hearing Association (ASHA) released a Position Statement that recognized CAS as a distinct speech sound disorder (ASHA, 2007) and provided a comprehensive review of the

existing research literature to arrive at a definition of CAS, in addition to consensus features of this disorder. This report defined CAS as a neurological speech sound disorder in children that impacts the precision, accuracy, and consistency of speech movements (ASHA, 2007). Three consensus features of CAS were identified: (1) impaired ability to transition speech movements between sounds and syllables (e.g., difficulty sequencing movements of lips/tongue/jaw across sounds and syllables of spoken words); (2) inconsistent errors on repeated productions of sounds, syllables,


and words (e.g., producing puppy as “bubby,” “uppy,” “pu-ee”); and (3) impaired prosody, specifically using inappropriate stress patterns and intonation when speaking (e.g., equal stress, which makes speech sound robotic, or segmented words, which make speech sound choppy) (ASHA, 2007). This report also acknowledged that there was a dire need to establish evidence-based approaches for the assessment and treatment of CAS, given the potential impact this disorder has on a child’s ability to communicate and participate in their surrounding environments.

The Underlying Deficit in CAS Since the release of the ASHA Position Statement, there have been numerous advances in research on both theoretical (e.g., Grigos, Moss, & Lu, 2015; Shriberg, Lohmeier, Strand, & Jakielski, 2012; Terband, Maassen, & Maas, 2019) and clinical levels (e.g., McCabe, Thomas, & Murray, 2020; Strand, 2020). There is agreement that the primary underlying deficit in CAS is related to the planning and programming of speech movements. What this means is that children with CAS will conceptually know what they are attempting to say, yet have a breakdown in the ability to identify and sequence the speech movements to verbally express their message. The deficit lies within the ability to send a precise and efficient neurological signal to move the right speech articulators (e.g., muscles of the lips, jaw, tongue) to the right place, at the right time, and with the right amount of force (Strand, 2020). Due to this impaired ability to plan and program movements, speech output is highly unintelligible (i.e., listeners do not understand what the child is attempting to say) with errors that are often inconsistent and reflective of challenges in the timing and

sequencing of movements for speech production. Multidimensional methodologies have greatly contributed to gains in understanding the underlying motor deficit in CAS, including how speech performance in this population may differ from other speech sound disorders (e.g., single sound articulation disorder, phonological disorder). Methodological approaches have included analyses of perceived accuracy of spoken output, analyses of the acoustic signal, and kinematic measures of facial movements during speech production (for a review, see Case & Grigos, 2020b; Terband, Namasivayam, et al., 2019). Investigations of speech motor control have revealed that speech movements in children with CAS are longer in duration (Case & Grigos, 2016; Grigos et al., 2015; Iuzzini-Seigel, Hogan, Guarino, & Green, 2015) and highly variable (Case & Grigos, 2020a, 2021; Grigos et al., 2015; Moss & Grigos, 2012; Nijland et al., 2002; Terband, Namasivayam, et al., 2019) as compared to typically developing peers and children with other speech sound disorders. Interestingly, these findings

... children with CAS will conceptually know what they are attempting to say, yet have a breakdown in the ability to identify and sequence the speech movements to verbally express their message.

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Figure 1. Kinematic trajectories for jaw STI for one child with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), other speech sound disorder (SSD), and typical development (TD) in repeated productions of the nonsense word “babeebay.”

movement variability in children with CAS reflects poor precision and efficiency in motor planning and programming skills. As a result, children are using different movement patterns across repeated productions of the same word. Patterns of movement variability are illustrated in Figure 1, where trajectories of jaw movement are displayed across repeated productions of the same Figure 2. Twelve reflective markers placed word produced by a child on the forehead (left, mid, right), nasion, with CAS, speech sound nose, lips (upper, lower, left, right), and jaw disorder, and typical speech(left, mid, right) to track facial movement language development. As within speech production. part of a research study on speech motor control in children with CAS (Case & are observed within perceptually Grigos, 2020a, 2021), these data were accurate speech and are not attributed collected using a facial motion capture to erred speech production. There system (ViconMotionSystems, 2001). are a couple of explanations for these Participants wore reflective markers findings. For one, the observation on their faces (see Figure 2), and of longer duration in children with three infrared cameras tracked facial CAS is believed to reflect a trademovements on a three-dimensional off where longer duration allows plane. The amplitude, duration, and speakers additional time to achieve overall variability of speech movements production targets and facilitate the were then measured using information perceived accuracy of speech output gathered from tracking of the lip (Case & Grigos, 2020b). Second, high 22

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and jaw movement within speech production. Movement variability was measured using the spatiotemporal variability index (STI; Smith, Johnson, McGillem, & Goffman, 2000). In Figure 1, individual lines reflect the pattern of jaw movement within separate productions of a target word for each child. If the movement patterns are consistent, the lines converge upon a similar trajectory and yield a smaller STI value, as seen in the children with a speech sound disorder and typical development. In the child with CAS, however, jaw movement is highly variable and the lines do not converge onto a consistent pattern. The STI values are highest in the child with CAS, further reflecting the variability of movement patterning within this child and also characteristic of the underlying motor deficit in CAS. Due to these unique speech production deficits, the clinical management of CAS requires a specialized approach that takes into consideration the underlying motor speech deficits when designing assessment tools (Strand, McCauley, Weigand, Stoeckel, & Baas, 2013) and treatment approach (Maas, Gildersleeve-Neumann, Jakielski, & Stoeckel, 2014). In fact, one could argue that poor understanding of the motor-


based etiology of CAS might explain why intervention techniques were less effective in this population and children with CAS were historically reported to display a slow, resistant response to intervention (ASHA, 2007).

Advances in Clinical Management Progress has been made in the identification of approaches for differential diagnosis of CAS (Allison, Cordella, Iuzzini-Seigel, & Green, 2020; Benway & Preston, 2020; Iuzzini-Seigel & Murray, 2017; Murray, McCabe, Heard, & Ballard, 2015; Shriberg et al., 2017; Strand et al., 2013; Terband, Namasivayam, et al., 2019) and motor-based intervention techniques (Grigos, Case, & Lu, in preparation; Maas et al., 2019; Maas et al., 2014; Morgan, Murray, & Liégeois, 2018; Murray, McCabe, & Ballard, 2015; Preston, Leece, & Maas, 2016; Strand, 2020). A number of diagnostic tools have emerged to identify key features of CAS and effective diagnostic procedures from toddlers through adolescence (Benway & Preston, 2020; Iuzzini-Seigel & Murray, 2017; Murray, McCabe, Heard, et al., 2015; Overby, Caspari, & Schreiber, 2019; Strand & McCauley, 2018). It has been well established across the research literature that intervention for CAS must include motor-based treatment techniques (Maas et al., 2014), which incorporate principles of motor learning in the design of treatment schedules and practice structure (Maas et al., 2008). In addition, evidence-based treatment techniques that target the underlying motor planning deficits and aim to improve functional communication are emerging and continuously in development (Grigos et al., in preparation; Maas et al., 2019; McCabe et al., 2020; Strand, 2020). Despite these gains, additional work is needed to demonstrate treatment

efficacy in larger groups of children, to understand factors that make intervention more/less effective for children with CAS, and to improve overall access to treatment. A recent grant was awarded to Dr. Julie Case (Hofstra University) and Dr. Maria Grigos (New York University) by the Once Upon a Time Foundation to test the effect of caregiver training on treatment outcomes in children with CAS. Many children may not be able to receive intensive therapy, which is recommended to treat CAS, due to a number of factors, such as time, cost, and availability of clinicians with appropriate training. We are therefore developing and testing a caregiver training program for families of children with CAS to evaluate the degree to which home practice can support and potentially optimize gains made within the therapeutic setting. Our hope is that we may discover an additional source of support for both children and their families as they work to become functional communicators.

Complexities of CAS CAS is a complex disorder, which often occurs in combination with other neurodevelopmental disorders, such as developmental language disorder (Iuzzini-Seigel, 2019; Iuzzini-Seigel, Hogan, & Green, 2017; Lewis, Freebairn, Hansen, Iyengar, & Taylor, 2004; Murray, Thomas, & McKechnie, 2019; Zuk, Iuzzini-Seigel, Cabbage, Green, & Hogan, 2018), literacy disorders (Miller et al., 2019), and gross and fine motor impairment (Iuzzini-Seigel, 2019; Peter, Button, Stoel-Gammon, Chapman, & Raskind, 2013; Teverovsky, Bickel, & Feldman, 2009). The research literature has often focused on idiopathic CAS, and additional research is greatly needed to identify how to best assess and treat CAS within the complex of cooccurring developmental deficits.

Our hope is that we may discover an additional source of support for both children and their families as they work to become functional communicators.

Language deficits have been indicated in approximately 50% of children with CAS (Iuzzini-Seigel, 2019, 2021; Lewis et al., 2004; Murray et al., 2019). Given this high prevalence of co-morbid CAS and language disorder, we need more information about the intersect between speech (e.g., production of individual sounds and sound sequences) and language skills (e.g., grammar, sentence formulation, vocabulary) in these children. Longitudinal work has demonstrated cascading effects of CAS in that younger children do not initially meet criteria for the diagnosis of language disorder, yet display persisting language and literacy deficits through adolescence (Lewis et al., 2015; Lewis et al., 2004; Miller et al., 2019). These works, however, have documented the co-occurrence of CAS with language disorder using standardized language tests. It is possible that early language weaknesses were present but not captured by the administered assessments and therefore unknown whether language deficits might have been observed at an earlier age if other measures, such as language sample analysis, were performed (Miller, Andriacchi, & Nockerts, 2011).

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For the most part, the existence of CAS is no longer questioned as a separate diagnostic category, and strides have been made in understanding this disorder.

To explore the relationship between speech and language abilities, Dr. Case, in collaboration with Dr. Anna Eva Hallin (Karolinska Institutet) and Ms. Kelly Sullivan (Hofstra University) have conducted detailed language sample analyses using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller et al., 2011) on narratives produced by 5- to 6-year-old children with CAS, in addition to those with other speech sound disorders and typical speech-language development. The relationship between speech accuracy (i.e., correct production of consonants and vowels) and language skills (i.e., grammar, sentence structure, accurate use of vocabulary terms) was explored within narratives where children retold a story that was previously read to them (Case, Hallin, & Sullivan, 2021). It must be highlighted that none of these children had a co-existing diagnosis of developmental language disorder and all scored within normal limits on standardized language assessment. Analyses indicated that


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across all groups of children, speech production accuracy did not predict the length or complexity of narratives. However, poorer speech accuracy significantly increased the likelihood of linguistic errors occurring within story retells. In other words, children with more severe speech impairment (both CAS and other speech sound disorders) were more likely to exhibit errors in the use of vocabulary terms, sentence structure, and grammatical markings, despite performing within normal limits on language testing. Thus, children in this group may be demonstrating early indicators of language disorder not identified within standardized assessment. Use of language sample analysis may therefore serve a valuable role in the early identification of language disorder in children with speech impairment (Case et al., 2021).

Conclusion Fifteen years have passed since the release of the ASHA Position Statement. For the most part, the existence of CAS is no longer questioned as a separate diagnostic category, and strides have been made in understanding this disorder. The emergence of diagnostic tools and intervention techniques has greatly supported both research and clinical practice. Despite these gains, there is much work to be done. A key focus of future work must be placed on addressing the needs of the whole child, including speech production deficits, co-occurring impairments across language and motor skills, and supporting the child’s day-to-day ability to successfully communicate and participate in social and academic environments. It is exciting and energizing to think what more could be discovered in the next 15 years and crucial to continue this work in support of helping children find their voice.

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Taylor, H. G. (2015). Adolescent outcomes of children with early speech sound disorders with and without language impairment. American Journal of SpeechLanguage Pathology, 24(2), 150-163.

Morgan, A. T., Murray, E., & Liégeois, F. J. (2018). Interventions for childhood apraxia of speech. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 5(5): CD006278. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006278.pub3.

Lewis, B. A., Freebairn, L. A., Hansen, A. J., Iyengar, S. K., & Taylor, H. G. (2004). School-age follow-up of children with childhood apraxia of speech. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 35(2), 122-40.

Moss, A., & Grigos, M. I. (2012). Interarticulatory coordination of the lips and jaw in childhood apraxia of speech. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 20(4), 127-132.

Maas, E., Gildersleeve-Neumann, C., Jakielski, K., Kovacs, N., Stoeckel, R., Vradelis, H., & Welsh, M. (2019). Bang for your buck: a single-case experimental design study of practice amount and distribution in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 62(9), 3160-3182. Maas, E., Gildersleeve-Neumann, C., Jakielski, K., & Stoeckel, R. (2014). Motor-based intervention protocols in treatment of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 1(3), 197-206. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4192721/pdf/ nihms586892.pdf Maas, E., Robin, D. A., Hula, S. N. A., Freedman, S. E., Wulf, G., Ballard, K. J., & Schmidt, R. A. (2008). Principles of motor learning in treatment of motor speech disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17(3), 277-298. McCabe, P., Thomas, D. C., & Murray, E. (2020). Tutorial: Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment (ReST) - A treatment for childhood apraxia of speech and other pediatric motor speech disorders. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups. Miller, G. J., Lewis, B., Benchek, P., Freebairn, L., Tag, J., Budge, K., ... Stein, C. (2019). Reading outcomes for individuals with histories of suspected childhood apraxia of speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 28(4), 1432-1447. Miller, J. F., Andriacchi, K., & Nockerts, A. (2011). Assessing language production using SALT software: A clinician’s guide to language sample analysis. Middleton, WI: SALT Software, LLC.

Murray, E., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K. J. (2015). A randomized controlled trial for children with childhood apraxia of speech comparing rapid syllable transition treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(3), 669-686. Murray, E., McCabe, P., Heard, R., & Ballard, K. J. (2015). Differential diagnosis of children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech. ournal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(1), 43-60. Retrieved from http://jslhr.pubs.asha.org/data/Journals/ JSLHR/933014/JSLHR_58_1_43.pdf Murray, E., Thomas, D., & McKechnie, J. (2019). Comorbid morphological disorder apparent in some children aged 4-5 years with childhood apraxia of speech: Findings from standardised testing. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 33(1-2), 42-59. Nijland, L., Maassen, B., Meulen, S. V. D., Gabreëls, F., Kraaimaat, F. W., & Schreuder, R. (2002). Coarticulation patterns in children with developmental apraxia of speech. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 16(6), 461-483. Overby, M. S., Caspari, S. S., & Schreiber, J. (2019). Volubility, consonant emergence, and syllabic structure in infants and toddlers later diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech, speech sound disorder, and typical development: A retrospective video analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 62(6), 1657-1675. Peter, B., Button, L., Stoel-Gammon, C., Chapman, K., & Raskind, W. H. (2013). Deficits in sequential processing manifest in motor and linguistic tasks in a multigenerational family with childhood apraxia of speech. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 27(3), 163-191.

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Preston, J. L., Leece, M. C., & Maas, E. (2016). Intensive treatment with ultrasound visual feedback for speech sound errors in childhood apraxia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 440. Shriberg, L. D., Aram, D. M., & Kwiatkowski, J. (1997). Developmental apraxia of speech: I. Descriptive and theoretical perspectives. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40(2), 273-285. Retrieved from http://jslhr.pubs.asha.org/data/Journals/ JSLHR/929278/jslhr_40_2_273.pdf Shriberg, L. D., Lohmeier, H. L., Strand, E. A., & Jakielski, K. J. (2012). Encoding, memory, and transcoding deficits in childhood apraxia of speech. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 26(5), 445-482. Shriberg, L. D., Strand, E. A., Fourakis, M., Jakielski, K. J., Hall, S. D., Karlsson, H. B., ... Wilson, D. L. (2017). A diagnostic marker to discriminate childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay: I. Development and description

of the pause marker. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60(4), S1096-S1117. Smith, A., Johnson, M., McGillem, C., & Goffman, L. (2000). On the assessment of stability and patterning of speech movements. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43(1), 277-286. Strand, E. A. (2020). Dynamic temporal and tactile cueing (DTTC): A treatment strategy for childhood apraxia of speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 29(1), 30-48. Strand, E. A., & McCauley, R. (2018). Dynamic evaluation of motor speech skill manual. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company. Strand, E. A., McCauley, R. J., Weigand, S. D., Stoeckel, R. E., & Baas, B. S. (2013). A motor speech assessment for children with severe speech disorders: Reliability and validity evidence. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56(2), 505-520.

Terband, H., Maassen, B., & Maas, E. (2019). A psycholinguistic framework for diagnosis and treatment planning of developmental speech disorders. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 1-12. Terband, H., Namasivayam, A., Maas, E., van Brenk, F., Mailend, M.-L., Diepeveen, S., ... Maassen, B. (2019). Assessment of childhood apraxia of speech: A review/tutorial of objective measurement techniques. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 62(8S), 2999-3032. Teverovsky, E. G., Bickel, J. O., & Feldman, H. M. (2009). Functional characteristics of children diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech. Disability and Rehabilitation, 31(2), 94-102. ViconMotionSystems. (2001). Vicon 460 [computer software]. Los Angeles, CA. Zuk, J., Iuzzini-Seigel, J., Cabbage, K., Green, J. R., & Hogan, T. P. (2018). Poor speech perception is not a core deficit of childhood apraxia of speech: Preliminary findings. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61(3), 583-592.

Julie Case is an assistant professor in the Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences Department at Hofstra University. Dr. Case holds a PhD in Communicative Sciences and Disorders from New York University and an MA in Speech-Language Pathology from New York University. She also has an MA in Spanish Language and Hispanic Literature and Cultures from Central Connecticut State University and a BA in Spanish with a concentration in elementary education from Villanova University. Dr. Case is an ASHA-certified bilingual speech-language pathologist with specialization in speech sound disorders and expertise in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Dr. Case has also been in clinical practice throughout the New York metropolitan area since 2007 and has worked in a variety of clinical settings with children from birth through adolescence. Dr. Case is the director of the Case Speech Production Laboratory. In her research program, Dr. Case studies speech motor development in children with CAS and other speech sound disorders. Her work has incorporated transcription, acoustic, and kinematic analyses to examine changes in speech performance with intensive practice and the impact of stimulus complexity on speech production in children with typical and impaired speech development. Dr. Case also studies treatment efficacy for motor-based intervention in young children with CAS, in addition to systematically investigating language skills in children with CAS and other speech sound disorders. She has presented at numerous international conferences on several clinical and academic topics. Her work has been published in a number of peer-reviewed journals, and she has held various editorial positions across academic journals in the field of communicative sciences and disorders.


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Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Past, Present, and Future See page 20.


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