2013 Hong Kong Arts Festival - FestMag

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香港藝術節 Hong Kong Arts Festival

真正由觀衆與社會各界支持的國際藝壇盛事 An International Arts Festival Truly Supported by its Audiences and the Community 1973 年,首屆香港藝術節正式隆重揭幕,至今已成為地區 內舉足輕重的表演藝術節,以及亞洲區首屈一指的文化盛 事。香港藝術節每年邀請享譽國際的頂尖藝術家聚首一堂, 演出的節目色色俱備,既顧及古典傳統口味,亦兼具大膽 創新的表演形式。在 2013 年,藝術節邀請了來自世界各 地共 32 個海外及 17 個本地頂尖藝術家及團體參與,為觀 眾帶來 145 場精采演出,當中包括 13 場世界首演及 17 場 亞洲首演。 過去曾登上藝術節舞台的知名國際藝人及藝團包括塞西莉 亞.芭托莉、荷西.卡里拉斯、馬友友、占士.高威、菲 力普.格拉斯、譚盾、小澤征爾、庫特.馬素爾、列卡杜. 沙爾、柏德烈.杜邦、米高.巴里殊尼哥夫、蕭菲.紀蓮、 茱麗葉.庇洛仙、奇雲.史柏西、皇家阿姆斯特丹音樂廳 樂團、聖彼得堡馬林斯基劇院基洛夫樂團及合唱團、維也 納愛樂樂團、巴伐利亞國立歌劇院、格蘭特堡節日歌劇團、 聖多馬少年合唱團、紐約市芭蕾舞團、巴黎歌劇院芭蕾 舞團、漢堡芭蕾舞團、史圖加芭蕾舞團、翩娜.包殊烏珀 塔爾舞蹈劇場、雲門舞集、巴塔巴斯及星躍馬術奇藝坊、 Buena Vista Social Club、皇家莎士比亞劇團、莫斯科藝術 劇院及北京人民藝術劇院等。 除了多次與國際藝術團體攜手委約全新作品外,藝術節亦 積極委約本地藝術家創作戲劇、室內歌劇和當代舞蹈等新 作品。不少作品在藝術節首演成功後,已在本港及海外多 度重演。 藝術節銳意讓觀衆超越舞台界限,與藝術家近距離互動接 觸,每年策劃近百項加料節目。透過一系列的示範講座、 大師班、工作坊、座談會、後台參觀、展覽、藝人談、劇 本圍讀、導賞團及電影展映等活動,提高大眾對藝術的興 趣及認識。藝術節加料節目經常跳出表演場地的框框,深 入不同社區,於書店、公園、教堂、商場以至大街小巷裏 舉行,當中更包括不少免費節目。 香港藝術節也一直致力培養年輕一代對藝術的興趣,多年 來推行不同的外展教育計劃,務求讓青少年能夠接觸高質 素的表演藝術。當中青少年之友自 1992 年成立以來,曾 參與活動的學生人數累計近 650,000 人,青少年之友會員 累計約 120,000 人。青少年之友會員除了有機會欣賞藝術 節節目外,更可參加全年各式各樣的活動,提高其欣賞藝 術的能力。 香港藝術節是一所非牟利機構,年度預算中約三成經費來 自香港政府的撥款,約四成來自票房收入,而餘下的約三 成則有賴各大企業、熱心人士和慈善基金會的贊助和捐款。

Launched in 1973, the Hong Kong Arts Festival is a major annual festival in the region and one of Asia’s premier cultural events. Each year the Festival offers a broad spectrum of programmes, ranging from classical fare to cutting-edge productions. In 2013, the Festival will present 145 performances, including 13 world premieres and 17 Asian premieres, and featuring 32 ensembles or solo artists from overseas and 17 from Hong Kong. International artists and ensembles presented by the Festival in the past include Cecilia Bartoli, José Carreras, Yo-Yo Ma, James Galway, Philip Glass, Tan Dun, Seiji Ozawa, Kurt Masur, Riccardo Chailly, Patrick Dupond, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Sylvie Guillem, Juliette Binoche, Kevin Spacey, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, the Mariinsky Theatre and Valery Gergiev, the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Bavarian State Opera, Glyndebourne Festival Opera, Thomanerchor, New York City Ballet, Paris Opera Ballet, Hamburg Ballet, Stuttgart Ballet, Pina Bausch Tanztheater Wuppertal, Cloud Gate Dance Theatre, Bartabas and Zingaro, Buena Vista Social Club, Royal Shakespeare Company, Moscow Art Theatre, and the People's Art Theatre of Beijing, to name a few. In addition to an active programme of international cocommissions, the Festival also commissions and produces work in theatre, chamber opera and contemporary dance by Hong Kong’s own creative talent. These productions have had successful subsequent runs both in and outside Hong Kong after the premiere season in the Festival. Close to 100 Festival PLUS programmes are organised each year offering a diverse range of activities to enhance the engagement between ar tists and audiences: lecture demonstrations, masterclasses, workshops, symposia, backstage visits, exhibitions, meet-the-artist sessions, play-reading, guided tours, film screenings and other events. These Festival PLUS programmes take place in performance venues and in community locations such as bookstores, parks, churches, malls and even along the streets and alleys of Hong Kong. Many are offered completely free of charge. The Festival also puts considerable effor t and resources into promoting young people’s interest in the arts. Launched in 1992, its Young Friends (YFS) has in the past two decades reached out to nearly 650,000 students and about 120,000 Young Friends members. YFS members enjoy special access to Festival events and performances, together with year round activities. The Festival is a non-profit organization. About 30% of its annual income is covered by government funding, about 40% by box office revenue, and the remaining 30% comes from sponsorships and donations from corporations, individuals, and charitable foundations.

如欲贊助或捐助 2013 年香港藝術節,請與藝術節發展部聯絡。 For sponsorship opportunities and donation details of the 2013 Hong Kong Arts Festival, please contact the Development Department. 電郵 Email: dev@hkaf.org 直綫 Direct Lines: (852) 2828 4910/11/12 網頁 Website: www.hk.artsfestival.org

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目錄

contents

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前言 Foreword ....................................................................................................07

香港.製造 Made in Hong Kong 戲劇:獨立本地創作 Drama : Theatre and New Stage Series............................................................ 10

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舞蹈:本土及亞洲當代舞風貌 Dance : Regional Sparks, Local Manifestations ........................................ 11 音樂:無邊界創作平台 Music : Platform for Creation ................................................................................ 14 兩台女人戲 要你「好看」 Between Passion and Solitude ............................................................................ 15

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國家.藝術 Nations and Traditions 美國的國家芭蕾舞團 America's National Ballet........................................................................................ 24 愛爾蘭腹地再想像 ─ 優獸舞團的《足跡》 Heartlands Reimagined – Traditional Irish Music and Modern Dance in Rian .............................................................................................. 32 歌劇「皇宮」﹕拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院 The "Royal Palace" of Opera : Teatro di San Carlo, Napoli .................. 38 國粹添新裝 New Lights on National Treasure ........................................................................ 43 生產與破壞:《美國夢險號》的啟示 The Apocalypses of American Progress – Mission Drift ....................... 47

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54 影像.魔幻 Visual Conundrums 無言喜劇:《反斗先生》 Wordless Comedy in LEO ....................................................................................... 54 舞蹈愛幻象 MOMIX Dance as Optical Illusion ........................................................................................ 57 回到沙灘上 Back on the Beach ...................................................................................................... 60 藝術大融和 Art Fusion........................................................................................................................ 67

喜劇大爆破 Comedy Explosion 喜劇大爆破 Comedy Explosion ..................................................................................................... 73 點講中式英語 Speaking Chinglish .................................................................................................... 76

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黃詠詩:戲劇呈現的是「真」 Wong Wing-sze's Tragic Titter in Smear ........................................................... 80 《一僕二主》前世今生 The Comedic Pedigree of One Man Two Guvnors ...................................... 85

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目錄

contents

94 美妙音色 Glorious Voices 歌劇薪傳:威爾第與布列頓 The Operatic Legacy : Verdi and Britten.......................................................... 90 爵士創新人 ─ 艾斯佩蘭薩.斯伯丁 Esperanza Spalding : Jazzing Up the Radio ................................................. 94 終極古提琴 ─ 薩巴爾 Strings for Glory : Jordi Savall ............................................................................. 96 雅絲敏.利維:火熱傳奇 Yasmin Levy : Flamenco Fire, Ladino Legacy .............................................. 98

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粵歷油麻地 The Yau Ma Tei Project 粵劇與本土文化 Cantonese Opera : A Grassroots Culture.................................................... 101 三代同台做大戲 Three Generations on One Stage .................................................................... 102

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節目表 Programme Calendar.................................................................................... 108 藝術節加料節目一覽 Festival PLUS Programme .......................................................................... 111

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追踪香港藝術節 Follow the Hong Kong Arts Festival on

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前言

foreword

The stage offers reflections of ourselves that can delight or dismay. That is its power.

舞台可以讓人反省自我,令人或欣喜或沮喪。這是它的獨有 魔力。 第 41 屆香港藝術節聚焦這份舞台的懾人魅力,多角度反映 層出不窮的面向:內省外窺。由奇幻的視覺效果、根深蒂固 的偏見、語言迷宮、具爭議性的觀點,到自我反省、重新構 想經典作品,探索如何理解他人觀點之同時,也了解別人如 何觀察自己。 看畢節目後,我們或會對原有的觀點存疑,亦有可能從中獲 得啟迪。 每年《閱藝》為精選的藝術家及其作品進行深入透視,今 期以本地藝術家及其創作為始終又反映了節目策劃的一個 重點。香港藝術節自創辦以來一直致力推介本地藝術家, 2009 年起更為本地藝術家策劃系統性的節目製作、出版劇 本集並進行巡演。自 2009 年至今,一共有 144 場香港新作 在本地、中國及亞太地區上演。由 2011 年起,藝術節亦每 年委約及製作由本地藝術家創作的全新室內歌劇。

2013 年,藝術節將會上演兩部全新戲劇及一部室內歌劇, 分別是《屠龍記》、 《爆.蛹》及《蕭紅》,本刊內均有介紹。 此外,另一專題特寫「粵歷油麻地」系列,透過藝術家之訪 談和分享,頌揚香港粵劇在本土文化的位置,透視承傳的發 展。

The 41st Hong Kong Arts Festival focusses on this power, to present many reflections from a multiplicity of viewpoints: looking in, looking out, looking at how we see others and are seen by them in turn. From visual conundrums, through entrenched viewpoints, linguistic mazes and contested perspective, to self-reflection and reenvisioning of established cannon. Perhaps, our own points of view may fall open to question or come into clearer focus as a result of what we see and hear on stage.

FestMag provides an additional perspective on featured artists and works each year, and this issue begins and ends with local talent, local work. The HKAF has presented Hong Kong artists since its inception, and a systematic programme to produce, publish and tour new work has been in place since 2009. Since then, 144 performances of new work – all made in Hong Kong – have been presented locally, elsewhere in China and in the region. From 2011, the HKAF also commissioned and produced a new chamber opera each year, all work of local talent. Two new plays and a new chamber opera premier in 2013. You will find information about them: Smear , Blast and Heart of Coral , in the pages that follow. There is also a section on our Yau Ma Tei Project which honours the past and looks to the future of Cantonese Opera in Hong Kong.

除了本地藝壇外,頂尖的國際藝術家亦是藝術節不可或缺的 重要元素,今年藝術節包羅了來自歌劇、音樂、戲劇及舞 蹈界名家。在這群藝術家當中,有的將重點放於彰顯其獨特 的文化傳統及身份,有的將投進簇新的領域,探索未知的國 度。不論他們關注哪個角度,都值得我們追隨他們的方向, 透過欣賞其作品,不但豐富了我們的視野,更可在自我反省 的過程中,得到新的見解。

Great international talent is also an integral part of the HKAF and this year's programming is replete with visiting artists of iconic status in opera, in music, in theatre and in dance. Some focus on their own special heritage or identity, others explore engagement with the less familiar. Whichever way they direct the attention, it will be worth following their gaze because it will enrich our field of vision and ultimately bring us back to ourselves in reflections that may offer new insights.

希望你喜歡今期雜誌的文章!

Enjoy!

香港藝術節行政總監 何嘉坤

Tisa Ho Executive Director 7



香港.製造

Made in Hong Kong

香港藝術節自上世紀 90 年代中,即開始在推動本地藝術創作,與引介國際潮流中求取平衡,本地藝術亦傳統與當 代兼備,香港的粵劇一直佔有位置,而今年更推出「粵歷油麻地」演出及活動系列,當代藝術方面則大力支持本地、 或與內地以至亞太地區合作的全新製作,又推出系列節目以凝聚觀眾目光,支持本地或跨地域發展。舉辦多年的「埃 克森美孚新視野」外,過去幾年陸續推出的「亞太舞蹈平台」、「香港賽馬會當代舞蹈平台」、「新銳舞台」等系列, 在推動本地藝術發展上,香港藝術節步伐越見積極。 Working with Hong Kong’s own creative talent has been a long standing commitment for the Festival. In 2009 a systematic programme to produce, publish and tour new local works was established in a New Stage Series, resulting in close to 150 performances of new Hong Kong work in this city, in China and in the region since that year. From 2011, the Festival commissioned and produced a new chamber opera each year. Two new plays and a new chamber opera will premier in the 41st HKAF, which also features a special project on the roots and future growth of Cantonese opera in Hong Kong. The HKAF also embraces young local artists in music and dance in ExxonMobil Vision and the Hong Kong Jockey Club Contemporary Dance Series; while the Asia Pacific Dance Platform draws upon dance artists in the region.

文:朱琼愛 By Winnie Chau

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戲劇 Drama

獨立本地創作 Theatre and New Stage Series 香港藝術節一直有委約本地製作,但近年以獨立本地創 作為主,其中以劇本為多。這幾年又確立了「新銳舞台」 的名號,雖然過去幾年以戲劇為主,但其實不限於戲劇。 香港藝術節副節目總監蘇國雲表示,「新銳舞台」沒有 什麼類型限制,純粹看創作意念,但大抵可以歸納為新 劇本、跨界創作、不同元素融合等路線。他們也會對創 作人提出委約的要求,如今年「新銳舞台」演出室內歌 (另文見第 15 頁),原本編劇意珩想寫的是舞台 劇《蕭紅》 劇,蘇國雲建議她可以一試歌劇文本創作;意珩亦表示 這「對她自己,對這個題材提升了可能性」。 《蕭紅》並非意珩第一個香港藝術節委約的作品,之前 (另 有《矯情》;另一個今年備受注目的製作《屠龍記》 文見第 80 頁),也不是編劇黃詠詩首次參與藝術節,之前 是叫好叫座的《香港式離婚》,同樣由李鎮洲導演。蘇 國雲指出,創作人是需要磨劍,所以藝術節只是看作品, 有好的創作意念就可以再做,不囿於是否曾經委約過的 個別創作人,又或者是新鮮人。

In theatre, the 41st Hong Kong Arts Festival sees Wong Wing-sze’s return with Smear , a tragic comedy that parodises the value of art. Wang Haoran’s Blast , featured as part of the New Stage Series, casts an ironic look at life in an increasingly dehumanised world. Commissioned by the Hong Kong Arts Festival, the New Stage Series marks "an open platform for collaboration between emerging and established artists, who create bold, meaningful works of art," says So Kwok-wan, Associate Programme Director. "We embrace cross-genre works, as we present productions of high artistic standards." It explains Wang’s teaming up with experienced director and actors in Blast. In Heart of Coral , a chamber opera after the life of Xiao Hong, playwright Yan Yu collaborates with veteran composer Chan Hing-yan, and renowned choreographer Helen Lai as director. (see article on p15 )

《爆.蛹》Urban Trash – Wang Haoran's Blast 王昊然創作的劇本《爆.蛹》,成為了今屆藝術節「新銳舞台」節目之一。 這位香港演藝學院編劇系畢業生,編寫劇本時,特地在深圳的工廠內當工 人以便在現實生活中取材。 《爆.蛹》以荒誕手法寫被遺忘的社會邊緣人,三個沒出路的老、中、青 港男,同住於劏房內,友情慢慢建立時,卻爆出了精子合約糾紛,講錢失 感情,三個好朋友頓然反目。王昊然寫的,是在都市急速發展下,生活空 間愈來愈小,而擠迫的環境中,人的溝通也向後倒退。

Wang’s experience of sharing a 300-square-foot flat with seven workers informs the writing of Blast , a play about three men who are considered "rubbish in society", says the Hunan-born, Shenzhen-bred playwright. Set against a highly oppressive environment, Blast depicts the fallout of the three characters in all its comic absurdity. Rather than criticising any social issues in Blast , the 24-year-old Wang is preoccupied with alienation in the society. "Urbanisation speeds up as living space diminishes. Yet, there’s less interpersonal communication," says Wang. "The lack of privacy, coupled with the longing for affection, often ends up in conflict."

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© Kit Chan @ KC Creative

Blast is Wang’s labour of love. The playwright had a brief stint in an electronics factory in Shenzhen, where he chatted with fellow workers about ways to make a fortune or a plot to steal car wheels.


香港.製造

made in Hong Kong

舞蹈 Dance

本土及亞洲當代舞風貌 Regional Sparks Local Manifestations 去年剛舉辦的「香港賽馬會當代舞蹈平台」系列,今年再接再厲,連同舉辦了多年的「亞 太舞蹈平台」系列,兩個系列呈現了本土及亞太區當代舞壇的風貌。 香港藝術節節目經理葉健鈴表示,去年開始舉辦「香港賽馬會當代舞蹈平台」,成績不錯。 要推動編舞創作,不是一次的創作機會便可以達到,所以今年參與的編舞名單,有些去 年出現過的名字。系列方向是繼續撮合本地原創音樂與舞蹈。 至於「亞太舞蹈平台」系列,今年進入第五屆,再把範圍擴闊,演出名單包括了以色列 的編舞家。葉健鈴說藝術節希望可以將觀眾平常鮮有機會接觸到、看到的亞太區當代舞 蹈演出帶到香港。 Now in its second edition, the Contemporary Dance Series sponsored by Jockey Club presents six new works by 11 choreographers/dancers, some of whom were featured in previous Festivals. Linda Yip, Programme Manager, says "the Festival is happy to commission the same choreographers again if they have some great ideas to propose. We would like to provide continued support for these choreographers to advance in their art." Besides local dance artists, the Asia Pacific Dance Platform, now in its fifth year, introduces three works by choreographers from Israel, Taiwan and Mainland China.

All Hong Kong Contemporary Dance Series photos © Kiki Wong

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香港賽馬會當代舞蹈平台系列 今年「香港賽馬會當代舞蹈平台」系列共 11 位編舞, 其中五位是節目《Rush》的聯合編舞。胡頌威去年編的 《盡情遊戲》廣獲好評,今屆再次參加,更與其四位好 友:李珵、高比良洋、楊浩、袁勝倫聯合編舞。場景由 《盡情遊戲》的校園轉到時間便是一切的大都會裏;反 映了來自日本、中國多個不同城市的舞者對香港這個步 伐急速的城市的看法。 李健偉的《在那遙遠星球》叫人想起小王子,小王子的 故事當然可以由不同角度去詮釋,而《在那遙遠星球》 想講的是孤獨。去年的《無聲盒》展示了李健偉喜歡結

合舞蹈與戲劇元素的創作風格,今次也不例外,他的長 期拍檔邱頌偉負責戲劇指導工作,還有作曲家趙朗天糅 合多元文化色彩的音樂,以及舞者馬師雅一起打造這個 探究孤寂的作品。 去年各自各精采的王丹琦與方家諾,今年經藝術節撮 合,兩人合作《The Voice》,舞蹈則是 hip hop 跟踢躂 打孖上。方家諾是本地極受歡迎的流行音樂會的編舞及 舞蹈員,曾於 Justin Bieber 世界巡迴音樂會的香港站演 出。香港舞蹈年獎得主王丹琦則是踢躂舞加現代舞的能 手,兩種極度強調個性與節奏的舞蹈類型難得的碰撞。

The Hong Kong Jockey Club Contemporary Dance Series Featured in last year’s Festival, Ricky Hu teams up with his good friends, Li Cheng, Takahira Yo, Yang Hao and Yuan Sheng-lun in another stunning production this year. Rush examines our desire for control over time in Hong Kong, where time is constantly accelerating. Five dancers negotiate with the passage of time in repetition, continuity, pause and transience. Max Lee takes the audience into the world of autistic people, who see things from a different point of view. In Talk to Me , set in a faraway planet, Lee combines dance and theatre, working with actor Franky Yau Chung-wai as dramaturge and Alain Chiu as composer.

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In What’s the Matter? , Justyne Li strips choreography down to the physics of atoms (matters) and human cells, as she and her three dancers contemplate knowledge and subjectivity. A veteran ballet dancer, Li reflects on the lightness of being in contemporary dance. What happens when a hip hop dancer meets a tap dancer? Rock Fang and Wong Tan-ki make a sizzling duo in The Voice . The two dancers were featured in different performances in last year’s Series. With their unique sense of rhythm, the duo will break new boundaries in The Voice this year. Elaine Kwok loves to work with physical objects in her dance. In Melting Solitude II , she will dance with a giant ice


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made in Hong Kong

亞太舞蹈平台系列 另外三位編舞不約而同是女性。芭蕾舞訓練出身,近年 活躍現代舞界的李思颺,繼續探究純粹的身體動作, 《What's the Matter?》是她又一次將動作肌理問到底 的練習。郭曉靈的《閡目二》是她第三度與冰共舞,她 的創作喜歡由物件出發,探討物件在不同形態下與舞者 的關係。至於梁秀妍,她既是舞者,也是設計師,《re: rewind the reverse》中她結合舞蹈及錄像,在想像與真 實之間,以舞者的身體探討存在的迷思。

由「Dancing New Asia」延伸而成的「亞太舞蹈平台」,曾 經展示過多個不同地區或城市的編舞作品,中國、日本、韓 國、柬埔寨、馬來西亞、印尼、新加坡、澳洲、新西蘭、台 灣和香港等,今年則加入了以色列,聯同中國廣州及台灣, 三個獨舞又展現不同的編舞風格及他們關心的題材。 《與…他》是以色列得獎女編舞厄多斯的新作,由以色列著 名舞者泰德莫委約及演出。泰德莫曾是以色列巴舒化舞蹈團 的首席,今年已 48 歲,但仍然孜孜不倦地在舞台上演出,他 以身體有力地演繹一場關於孤獨、身體局限的舞蹈思考課, 現場大提琴演出將為演出增添氣氛。 以柏林為基地的台灣舞者孫尚綺,為香港觀眾呈獻的是備獲 好評的獨舞作品《穿越》。他以速度極快、動作準確及靈活稱 著,池田亮司的電子音樂為他提供了合適的氛圍。 廣州編舞二高(何其沃)喜歡跨界嘗試,合作的藝術家有舞 蹈家、從事環境藝術創作,這次香港藝術節委約的新作《製 作過程》,合作的是熟悉陶藝的音樂人朱芳琼,加上實驗民謠 音樂人梁奕源,把玩陶藝與身體的原始特質,也繼續尋探他 一直關心的課題:性別、身份及性的迷思。 與「香港賽馬會當代舞蹈平台」系列異曲同工,三位編舞都 以原創音樂發展舞作。

Asia Pacific Dance Platform Masculine and exquisite, the three male solos (one by a female choreographer) in this year’s Asia Pacific Dance Platform redefine space and solitude.

and Mr is conceived by Israeli choreographer Rachel Erdos, winner of the Aarhus International Choreography Competition 2008 (Denmark), and performed by Ido Tadmor, former lead dancer of Batsheva Dance Company (Israel) and Lar Lubovitch Dance Company (New York). Tadmo dances to live music played by a cellist in a dimly-lit room, in a confrontation with loneliness and the limits of the body. Traverse is a critically acclaimed solo by Taiwan-born, Berlin-based dance artist Sun Shang-chi, who is known for his exceptional speed, precision and fluidity. Traverse evokes the past and the future in the body. The work is set against a minimalist backdrop and haunting electronic music by renowned Japanese sound artist Ryoji Ikeda.

cube. Kwok is attracted to the physicality of objects as much as the connotations they carry. Ice is a metaphor of human relationship, which can be both alienating and intimate. To Kwok, the melting ice is both violent and poetic.

In his new solo work commissioned by the Hong Kong Arts Festival, Working Process , Hong Kong trained Guangzhou dancerchoreographer Er Gao makes pottery into musical instruments. Along with experimental folk-singer-songwriter Liang Yiyuan, Er interweaves the new and the traditional in Working Process , as he explores the inherent qualities and potential of the human body.

Jo Leung surprises with her imaginative duet with a TV set, re: rewind the reverse . The dancer, choreographer and graphic/ fashion/video designer experiments with the interaction between video installation and dance. Between absence and presence, the virtual and the real, Leung dances with herself in different time and space.

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音樂 Music

無邊界創作平台 Platform for Creation 正如文章開首提到,香港藝術節為本地藝術家提供創作 的機會,不限於新人,如音樂方面,蘇國雲提到成熟的 創作人也需要機會,這次室內歌劇《蕭紅》,便特意找 來作曲家陳慶恩操刀音樂,陳慶恩雖然創作不斷,但這 次還是他第一次創作歌劇。 成熟的作曲家有創作機會,年輕的演奏家也有曝光的可 能。多年來,埃克森美孚新視野為年輕音樂家提供不少 機會。葉健鈴表示,每年藝術節都會積極尋找可能性。 吳懷世便是今年的可能性之一。

ExxonMobil Vision is an established platform for adventurous and youthful local talent. Potential and passion are hallmarks of these artists. Flautist Wilson Ng’s talent was spotted when he played for Lyon Opera Ballet at the Festival last year. The Festival believed Ng deserves wider attention and invited him to perform in a concert with pianist KaJeng Wong, who is also Ng’s friend.

吳懷世與黃家正長笛鋼琴演奏會 An Accidental Flautist 因為電影《音樂人生》,許多人都知道黃家正的故事,但對吳懷世卻較 陌生。其實他的故事跟好友黃家正的有幾分相似:都是自學開始。由 於父親誤說 Kenny G 玩的是長笛,令少年的吳懷世誤打誤撞下開始學 習長笛。這位在著名的洛桑高等音樂學院進修的 2011 年瑞士弗里茨. 巴赫音樂大獎得主直言長笛是一件工具,讓他表達音樂的美。 Wilson Ng encountered the flute by mistake. When the then 12-year-old heard the theme song of Titanic , he asked his father to identify the musical instrument played by Kenny G. His father said it was the flute. "I must play the flute!" Ng exclaimed. The next day, his father bought him a flute that the family could barely afford. Ng learnt the 37 fingerings in one and a half hours. He stayed an autodidact for six months before studying with a teacher. Yet what enthralls the gifted flautist, who also plays the violin, the cello, the piano and the saxophone, is not the flute. Ng is now a 23-year-old MA student of Interpretation, Orchestration and Composition at the prestigious Haute Ecole de Musique de Lausanne. "For me, the flute is a tool to express myself and my affection for music," he says.

跨地域聯合製作

Cross-border Collaboration

支持本土製作之外,與國內合作新製作也是香港藝術節多年的策 劃取向。蘇國雲表示,在國際合作的層面上,較為著重與內地合 作,原因是基於香港的特殊位置,現代化與中、西互動,香港可 以扮演中國藝術與當代文化融合的試驗場:《下周村》、《水滸 108》、《金瓶梅》、《山海經傳》,以至今年中國國家話劇院製作, 由香港藝術節與上海藝術節聯合委約的《青蛇》。

Beyond its support for local productions, the Festival has commissioned an array of joint productions by Hong Kong artists and their international and regional counterparts. According to So Kwok-wan, the Festival promotes Mainland-Hong Kong productions, since Hong Kong is a place where traditional Chinese arts and contemporary arts converge.

《青蛇》導演田沁鑫覺得「這正是中國戲劇走向國際化的一個重 要途徑。門類豐富的國際藝術節給中國戲劇打開了一扇很重要的 門。」她希望通過這扇門讓國際戲劇界認識到中國當代戲劇藝術。 其實,《青蛇》創作及製作團隊中包含了蘇格蘭國家劇院藝術家及 德國舞美設計師,不正是踏出了第一步嗎?

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The 2013 Festival presents Green Snake , a daring rendition of the Chinese classic folk tale Legend of White Snake. Green Snake is an international collaboration between a diverse creative crew (writer Li Bihua, director Tian Qinxin and designers from National Theatre of Scotland) and a starry cast (Yuan Quan, Qin Hailu, Yu Shaoqun and Xin Baiqing). "The Arts Festival offers an important opening for Chinese theatre to reach the global audiences," says director Tian Qinxin.


香港.製造

made in Hong Kong

兩台女人戲 要你「好看」 文:草草

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張愛玲(左) 、蕭紅(中)、丁玲(右),三位文壇才女,各有不同命運

俗話說,三個女人一台戲。這次藝術節的原創節目中, 女導演、女編劇、女作家、女性角色,熱熱鬧鬧端出大 戲兩台。李碧華筆下的《青蛇》,在中國國家話劇院名 導田沁鑫的手中幻化為舞台上的三界輪迴,白蛇與青蛇 的經典形象重新叩問當代女性的主流價值。而年輕編劇 意珩,則把才女蕭紅的一生鋪陳於台上,成為新穎的歌 劇《蕭紅》。

一齣真正的「女人戲」 田沁鑫與《青蛇》這個故事頗有緣分,早在五年前,李 碧華就曾找她商談,希望把小說《青蛇》搬上舞台,當 時她的反應是:這太難演了!在她看來,舞台劇裏,女 性往往在愛情戲中都是配角,李碧華的《青蛇》卻迥然 不同,兩個女子個性鮮明,不僅是故事中,也是各自愛 情關係中的絕對主角。「那時我喜歡有『力量』的作品, 我的視角是『中性視角』」。 轉折發生在 2008 年,當時田沁鑫剛改編完張愛玲的《紅 玫瑰與白玫瑰》。作品大受歡迎,她卻覺得有些困惑, 「自己原以為這是一部女性視角的戲,卻最終又成了一 部男性視角的女人戲。」女性視角與女性作品的重要性, 突然佔據了她的腦海。

直面女性的情感與情慾 小說《青蛇》最為吸引人的,大概就是小青性感妖嬈又 愛恨分明的女性形象。五百年修行的她,情慾熾烈,卻

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在精神上有着對忠貞愛情飛蛾撲火般的執着。「小青更 像是絕大多數尋常女子的內心,長得不是特別漂亮,情 慾很旺盛,表面自卑,骨子裏卻很熱情,能過好日子, 很容易有男孩兒喜歡,但堅持自己喜歡的人,反叛表達 起來,也更純粹。」這樣的小青,雖然是「古人」,骨 子裏卻十分當代可親。 白蛇與青蛇的形象互為比照,有人戲稱,李碧華筆下的 青蛇與白蛇,就像是張愛玲筆下的紅玫瑰與白玫瑰。在 劇中,通過這兩個女性形象,田沁鑫的確要刻畫當代中 國女性的兩種極致狀態。「白蛇以相夫教子、以維護主 流社會加於她的道德為己任,最終這份崇高的堅持卻無 法打動世俗的許仙。小青不似白蛇美艷,不像白蛇那樣 惹人喜愛,但她卻盡情地釋放自己的情慾,也向男人們 提出疑問:『情慾強烈的女人,就不能擁有一生一世的 愛情嗎?』」 兩位古代美女登上現代舞台,帶來的卻是對傳統女性主 流價值觀的質問、挑戰與顛覆。然而導演要為觀眾呈現 的,不僅僅是愛情故事與情慾的剖白,而是昇華而出, 更具縱深感的妖、人、佛三界的慾念與追求。「劇中人 物各自向自己眼中更高的境界奔忙。他們的生活雖是盤 根錯節,但他們各自的理想卻是彼此獨立,他們彼此的 精神世界永無交集。」田沁鑫這樣說。

在香港「相遇」奇女子蕭紅 如果說小青是文學世界中虛構出來的烈性女子,蕭紅則


香港.製造

made in Hong Kong

是現實中真真切切的奇女子。她二十多歲因反對包辦婚 姻而逃離故鄉,之後十年中輾轉流離多個城市,31 歲在 香港去世。24 歲時,蕭紅就以《生死場》震驚文壇,被 魯迅稱為丁玲之後女作家中的佼佼者,生命中的最後一 年,她在香港完成了其最負盛名的回憶性長篇小說《呼 蘭河傳》。 意珩說,她與蕭紅有着一種天然的切近感。兩人都是黑 龍江人,都遠離故鄉來到香港。蕭紅在香港寫下對故鄉 土地的童年回憶,「這種情懷對我是直擊要害的,也是 我寫蕭紅最強大的理由。」

熾烈也是一種孤獨的極致 意珩覺得,蕭紅是非常典型的中國北方女子,與張愛玲 為代表的南方女性有着截然不同的生命氣質,她一生想 成就的仍舊是對愛情和家庭的眷戀和依賴。張愛玲眼中 的男女情感,是慾求攻防拉扯的心理角力,蕭紅的世界 卻完全不同。同樣是孤獨與寂寞的存在,張愛玲是冷調、 陰質的深藍色,蕭紅的孤寂卻是火紅色的,「我覺得熾 烈一樣是一種孤獨的極致。」 在意珩看來,蕭紅的一生都在追尋溫暖與愛,也正因為 她由衷地相信世上存在絕對與純粹的溫暖與愛,相信絕 對的相依與信任,在現實中才會不斷失望、節節潰敗。

陳慶恩與黎海寧看蕭紅 這次香港藝術節委約的室內歌劇《蕭紅》,意珩是後起之秀, 但音樂創作與舞台導演則為資深的創作人。 為《蕭紅》操刀音樂的陳慶恩博士,借着這次委約的機會再 去閱讀蕭紅的作品,「她的一生很傳奇,歌劇不是流水賬般說 她的一生,而是着重在她生命中的最後十年,以及幾個主要 人物對她的影響。」 這次是陳慶恩第一次創作歌劇,對他來說,如何用音樂去推 進劇情與表達人物情緒,實在是很考功夫。比如第二幕中蕭 紅與蕭軍和魯迅二人的幾段對話,情感就已經各不相同。他 也試圖用音樂表現不同的地域特點,比如用東北農村特色音 樂來表現蕭紅的老家,而在蕭紅與蕭軍的對話中,又用上了 俄羅斯風格的手風琴,表現出當時東北臨近俄羅斯的特點; 而當蕭紅在日本聽聞魯迅死訊時,則加入日本寺廟音樂,來 表現蕭索的靜謐感。歌劇的樂隊由 12 人組成編制,包括西洋 樂器中的木管、銅管樂器、弦樂及敲擊樂器,再加上笙、琵 琶和二胡三種中國樂器,除了幾位主角外,劇中還有六人合 唱團。 本地著名舞蹈家黎海寧,首次執導室內歌劇,就遇到了蕭紅。 小時候就看過蕭紅作品的她,覺得這個女作家雖然在生命中 不斷遭遇挫折,卻有種一往直前的勇氣。編劇意珩形容蕭紅 的生命有火紅的熾烈色彩,黎海寧十分同意。「要說蕭紅的 文字如何打動我,反而是意珩的劇本很讓我感動,」黎海寧 說,「劇本很有感覺。」在歌劇的舞台表達上,她希望呈現 簡約的風格 — 既然是室內歌劇,自然不會有富麗堂皇的宏 大感,再而希望避免太「實」的手法,從而令劇本中的詩意 自然流露。注重刻畫人物的內心多過表現人物的人生經歷, 大概就是歌劇《蕭紅》的創作方向。

Chan Hing-yan and Helen Lai on Xiao Hong Heart of Coral , a chamber opera commissioned by the Hong Kong Arts Festival, is penned by the up-and-coming playwright Yan Yu, while the opera’s score and stage direction are by veteran practitioners. Dr Chan Hing-yan is composer for the production, and the commission has been a perfect opportunity to revisit Xiao Hong’s work. "Her life is a legend. The chamber opera is not a chronological account of her whole life, but focuses on the last 10 years of her life and the key players in her life and their influence." 田沁鑫以青蛇、白蛇叩問當代女性主流價值。

她坎坷的感情經歷與人生歷程,都似乎體現出她對純粹 情感的追求,與伴隨這種純粹追求而來的現實悲劇。《蕭 紅》寫到最後,意珩希望能呈現蕭紅對自己生命的理解, 「這是她和她自己的一種關係,和別人無關。人走到最 後,所有的這些來來去去,都是為了最後的結局,而那 個結局就是你和自己的關係。像蕭紅,她一輩子去找溫 暖和愛,其實到最後會發現,都是自己對自己的理解。」 意珩說,女人一定有一種極致的品質在身上,才可取, 才好看。小青與蕭紅,正是這種有着極致品質的女人。 舞台上,或炙烈如火,或柔情似水,不同的生命情態不 斷流轉,繁花落盡時留在觀眾心裏的,可能都是一聲歎 息。

This is Chan’s first opera. For him, the biggest challenge is how to use music to propel the story's unfolding to express the characters’ feelings. He also uses music to create a sense of geography. For example, the home of Xiao Hong in northeastern China is invoked through elements of folk music from the area and its neighbouring Russia. Twelve musicians form the ensemble, playing Western instruments from the wood, brass, strings and percussions sections, plus Chinese sheng, pipa and erhu. There is also a group of six singers.

Heart of Coral is dance artist Helen Lai’s debut as opera director. Lai feels that even though Xiao experienced many setbacks in life, her courage always drove her forward. She agrees with Yu that Xiao’s life is a fiery red, "Yan’s script really moved me. It captured the feeling." As for realising the story on stage, she is opting for minimalism – it will not be grand and opulent, and yet it is not going to be too "realist" either. With the poetry of the script flowing naturally, the key is to portray what is inside the protagonists’ minds rather than what happened to them in life.

草草,媒體人,文化版編輯

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Between Passion and Solitude Women in Green Snake andHeart of Coral By Cao Cao

There is a Chinese saying that when three women come together, it means drama. Among the original productions at this year’s Hong Kong Arts Festival, female directors, female writers and female protagonists join forces for two major productions. The National Theatre of China’s renowned stage director Tian Qinxin adapts Li Bihua’s rendition of Chinese legend Green Snake to question mainstream values of modern women. Young playwright Yan Yu recounts the life and love of female novelist Xiao Hong in chamber opera Heart of Coral in a production directed by Helen Lai.

Women's Drama Five years ago, Li approached Tian about adapting Green Snake for the stage. Tian’s immediate response was: "It’s too difficult!" In her mind, women were always in a supporting role in plays about love. Li’s story is different – the two female protagonists drive the story forward, as well as direct their romantic relationships. "At that time, I liked works with more "power" and my perspective was a "gender blind perspective"." The turning point came in 2008, after Tian adapted Eileen Chang's Red Rose, White Rose . The production was a smash hit but it left Tian feeling rather confused, "I thought it was a play from a woman's point of view, but it turned out to be another play about women from a man's point of view." The importance of creating works for women from a woman’s perspective seized her.

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Love and Lust One of the most seductive aspects of the novel Green Snake is the character of Green – sexy, alluring and ruled by emotional absolutism. A snake spirit who has honed her craft for 500 years, her desires are fierce but she insists on unfailing fidelity in love. "Green reveals how most women feel inside. She isn’t particularly beautiful, but she yearns for intimacy. She may seem self-depreciating, but passion roars in her bones. She can enjoy a happy life and is popular with men, but she insists on being with the one she likes, so the expression of her rebellion is more pure." Green may be a "historical figure", but she is also adorably contemporary. Li’s rendition of the two snake spirits, White and Green, has been compared to Chang’s Red Rose and White Rose. Tian intends to portray the two polarities of contemporary Chinese women through White and Green, "White lives for her husband and her child, and takes it upon herself to maintain the moral values imposed on her by mainstream society. However, this noble resolution fails to move the mortal Xu Xian. Green is not as beautiful as White, nor is she as popular, but she lets her desire run free as she questions men: "Can’t a woman with strong desires enjoy a love that lasts for a lifetime?"" When two ancient beauties appear on the modern stage, their presence questions, challenges and subverts traditional mainstream values of women. The director not only presents a love story and an examination of desire; she offers a reflection


香港.製造

made in Hong Kong

Book covers: Green Snake and The Field of Life and Death

on the lust and desire stemming from the realms of men, spirits and religion. "Each character in the play is striving to reach the summit of their ideals. Their lives are intertwined and inseparable, but their dreams are independent as their spiritual worlds never once overlap," describes Tian.

Xiao Hong in Hong Kong While Green is fictional, Xiao Hong is a real and exceptional woman from the literary world. Xiao ran away from home and her arranged marriage in her 20s. In the 10 years that followed, she lived in many different cities and finally died in Hong Kong at age 31. Her first novel The Field of Life and Death was published when she was 24; it was an instant hit and won the admiration of Lu Xun, literary doyen of the day. In the final year of her life, she completed her most renowned novel, the semi-autobiographical Tales of Hulan River . Playwright Yan Yu feels a natural affinity to Xiao Hong. They are both from Helongjiang Province, and they both left their native land and came to Hong Kong. Xiao wrote about her memories of the land of her childhood when she was in Hong Kong; "Her sentiment resonated with me deeply. It was the main reason why I needed to write about Xiao Hong." Yu thinks Xiao Hong was a very typical northern Chinese woman, and she was very different from the southern women represented by Eileen Chang. Xiao’s aspirations in life were love and family. Chang saw romantic relationship as psychological antagonism between desire and defense. Even

though solitude and loneliness exist in both writers’ world, Chang’s creative universe is a cold shade of navy whereas Xiao’s is a fiery red. "I feel being fiery is an expression of pure solitude." Yu believes that Xiao was searching for warmth and love all her life. And because Xiao wholeheartedly believed in its purity, as well as absolute interdependence and trust, she was constantly disappointed and defeated in real life. Her tumultuous relationships and life seemed to be an expression of her pursuit for untainted feelings, and with it, came the tragedy of reality. Yu hopes that Heart of Coral is an illumination of Xiao’s understanding of her own life. "This is a relationship she shared with her own being, and it has nothing to do with anybody else. When one reaches the end, all the comings and goings in life are simply a build-up for the finale. And that finale is the relationship between you and yourself. Xiao Hong spent her life looking for warmth and love, but in the end, she realised what she had been truly looking for was her understanding of herself." For Yu, women are only attractive and commendable if they inhabit distinctive flair. Green and Xiao Hong are good examples. On stage, they may be fiery or gentle. Their lives are fleeting stores before the audience, and what remains could well just be a sigh. Cao Cao is a writer and editor.

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國家.藝術

Nations and Traditions 傳統藝術蘊含一個國家、地域、民族的文化特質,多個國家級或 新穎劇團,以嶄新的製作辯證國家與文化的傳統與發展。 Traditional arts embody the culture of a nation, a region and its people. Watch the new facets of traditional arts presented by these legendary and innovative companies.

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美國的國家芭蕾舞團 文:羅佳娜 闊別香港 13 年的美國芭蕾舞劇院,將於 2013 年香港 藝術節載譽而歸。觀眾將可欣賞到舞團最具代表性的舞 碼,包括肯尼斯.麥克美倫的巨構《羅密歐與茱麗葉》。 美國芭蕾舞劇院的名字概括了舞團:由創團開始時,舞 團主要演出劇場形式的芭蕾舞,保留傳統足本經典芭 蕾,建立出色的敘事舞碼,許多尤其是關於美國主題。 美國芭蕾舞劇院首先是一個「流行」舞團,致力向各階 層觀眾推廣芭蕾舞(每年巡迴全美演出,且曾於全部 五十個州表演)。2006 年,美國國會指定美國芭蕾舞 劇院為「美國的國家芭蕾舞團」,舞團的地位得以確認。 像很多舞團一樣,美國芭蕾舞劇院的起源與革命後移民 離開俄羅斯的藝術家有關。原本是莫斯科大劇院芭蕾舞 團舞者的米凱.莫特肯移民美國,1937 年成立莫特肯 芭蕾舞團。1939 年,在莫特肯門下的芭蕾女伶露茜亞. 蔡斯帶領下,舞團重塑成為「芭蕾舞劇院」 (1957 年團 名再加入「美國」)。1945 至 1980 年,設計師奧利弗. 史密斯與蔡斯擔任聯合藝術總監,一起帶領舞團。 開始時,舞團的宗旨是演出「最出色的傳統芭蕾,最出 色的當代芭蕾,以及少不了的最出色的爭議作品」,對 於一個憑着少量資金從零開始的舞團,這大膽的宗旨令 人嘆服。舞團演出編舞名家如米凱.福金和安東.杜林 的古典作品,同時開始建立原創舞目。 美國芭蕾舞劇院早期合作緊密的編舞家,包括傑洛姆. 羅賓斯、安東尼.都鐸和安格尼斯.迪美爾。在眾多 為舞團創作的成功不朽作品之中,有 1944 年羅賓斯 首部芭蕾作品《縱情歡樂》(啟發經典電影《錦城春 色》),1948 年迪美爾根據眾所周知的莉斯.波登謀 殺案而編的《瀑布河城傳說》,以及 1942 年都鐸的《火 柱》。 另一位在舞團成功路上擔任重要角色的是羅拉.凱,她 演活了《火柱》裏飽受壓抑和折磨的女主角海格而一夜 成名。凱的父親曾演出史坦尼斯拉夫斯基的作品,凱也 把方法演技的現實主義帶到芭蕾舞台,從此改變了芭蕾 女伶的形象,並為日後的女舞蹈演員如瑪茜.海蒂和 琳.西摩鋪路。

雖然舞團與戲劇芭蕾關係尤為密切,不過也沒有忽略抽 象舞目,會演出巴蘭欽的作品(他於 1947 年為舞團創 作了《主題與變奏》),以及羅賓斯和崔拉.夏普等編 舞家的創作。 舞團 1970 年代的明星之一巴里殊尼哥夫,在 1980 年 接任藝術總監,改造及加強舞團的經典舞目,同時跟上 最前線當代作品的步伐,委約夏普和馬克.莫里斯等編 舞創作,後者的《給薛麗亞之歌》(1989) 將於香港上 演。可惜,儘管巴里殊尼哥夫努力提升舞團資歷及擴充 舞目,但日益嚴重的財政困難,加上在處理這些問題上 與舞團意見分歧,他最終於 1989 年離任。 就在奧利弗.史密斯聯同珍.赫爾曼重掌舞團不久, 前首席舞蹈員凱文.麥肯齊於 1992 年接任藝術總監至 今。2009 年,堪稱當今古典芭蕾偉大編舞家的阿雷西. 羅曼斯基出任舞團的駐團藝術家,是麥肯齊一大成功之 舉。 美國芭蕾舞劇院一直是芭蕾舞團之中的美高梅,自詡自 己的舞者「比天上明星還要多」。過去幾十年來,舞團 帶來眾多國際知名的芭蕾舞家,由來自前俄羅斯芭蕾舞 團的舞者如阿莉西亞.瑪科娃、安東.杜林和艾琳娜. 巴羅諾娃,以至露莎拉.海托爾、維奧萊特.維迪、阿 莉西亞.阿隆索和京.巴比雷等,再來是魯道夫.雷里 耶夫、費南杜.布鍾斯、娜塔利亞.瑪卡洛娃、妮娜. 安娜尼亞舒薇莉和阿歷山德拉.弗里,當然還有巴里殊 尼哥夫。隨團演出的美國舞蹈家也很多,除了凱,還有 瑪麗亞.托切夫、辛西婭.格里哥利、蓋爾西.克爾克 蘭及伊森.史泰爾菲。 除了舞團的首席舞蹈員,如阿根廷舞蹈家埃曼.科尼荷 和意大利萬人迷羅伯圖.波雷,目前的演出名冊上也有 多位著名客席舞蹈家,包括被認為技勝同儕的波琳娜. 塞米奧諾娃、耀目的古巴舞者西奧馬拉.雷耶斯,以及 超級巨星俄羅斯情侶娜塔利亞.奧斯波娃和埃文.維斯 利耶夫。 美國芭蕾舞劇院的舞目,比世界任何芭蕾舞團都要豐富 多樣,是次來港演出的三個節目,為喜歡舞蹈的觀眾帶 來一場盛宴。 羅佳娜為《南華早報》撰寫舞評,也是《舞蹈時代》的香港特約作者。

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Š Lois Greenfield


《羅密歐與茱麗葉》

ROMEO AND JULIET

普羅科菲耶夫寫於 1938 年的《羅密歐與茱麗葉》音樂,啟發了 世界頂級編舞的無數製作,他們計有利安列得.拉夫羅夫斯基、 約翰.格蘭高、費德瑞克.阿什頓和魯道夫.雷里耶夫等。在這 些製作當中,普遍被視為權威版本的是肯尼斯.麥克美倫為英國 皇家芭蕾舞團創作,自 1965 年面世以來一直是國際舞目的基石。

Sergei Prokofiev’s 1938 score for Romeo and Juliet has inspired numerous productions by the world’s leading choreographers – Leonid Lavrovsky, John Cranko, Frederick Ashton and Rudolf Nureyev, to name but a few. Of them all, the one most often regarded as definitive is Kenneth MacMillan’s version for Britain’s Royal Ballet, a cornerstone of the international repertoire since its creation in 1965.

麥克美倫的《羅密歐與茱麗葉》,今天依然如首演般新穎有活力, 在壯麗場面(街頭場景和舞會場景)和內心戲情節(情人相遇、 茱麗葉反抗自己家族)之間平衡得宜。麥克美倫成功利用不同的 編舞風格和主題,創造出一眾鮮明逼真的角色。這套芭蕾的核心 是茱麗葉 ─ 任性、固執又熱情,這是非常重要的芭蕾角色,也 是每個芭蕾女伶都渴望演出的角色。

MacMillan’s choreography is distinguished by its musicality and fluidity along with an ability to express character and tell a story realistically through pure dance. His narrative work is known for its exploration of the darker side of the human psyche and bold tackling of sexual themes. Above all, he is a master of the pas de deux and the duets for the lovers in Romeo and Juliet with their soaring, spectacular lifts are among his finest. From the first ecstasy of love in the balcony scene, through the passion and pain of parting in the bedroom scene, to the heartbreaking moment where Romeo dances with Juliet’s lifeless body in the tomb, no ballet has told a more powerful and moving love story. © John Grigiatis

麥克美倫的編舞與眾不同之處,在於音樂表現和流暢優美,足以 純粹通過舞蹈寫實地表達角色和講述故事。他的敘事作品以探討 人性心理陰暗面和大膽處理性題材而聞名。更重要的是,他是《羅 密歐與茱麗葉》的雙人舞和情侶共舞部份的編舞大師,當中的騰 飛和高舉舞伴的壯觀場面尤其出色。從首次互訴衷情的陽台場景, 到表現激情和分離之苦的睡房場景,以至當羅密歐在墓穴中抱着 沒有氣息的茱麗葉身軀跳舞時的悲痛時刻,訴說着的愛情故事, 比任何芭蕾舞都更具感染力、更動人。

As fresh and vital today as at its première, MacMillan’s Romeo and Juliet offers the ideal balance between grand spectacle (the street scenes and ballroom scene) and intimate psychological drama (the encounters between the lovers, Juliet’s confrontations with her family). MacMillan makes brilliant use of different choreographic styles and leit-motifs to create a cast of vividly drawn, believable characters. The heart of the ballet is Juliet – wilful, headstrong and passionate. This is one of ballet’s greatest roles and one every ballerina wants to dance.

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國家.藝術

© Gene Schiavone

nations and traditions

America's National Ballet By Natasha Rogai

The 2013 Hong Kong Arts Festival marks the welcome return of American Ballet Theatre (ABT) to Hong Kong after a 13year absence. Audiences will see some of the company’s most iconic ballets including Kenneth MacMillan’s magnificent Romeo and Juliet . ABT’s name sums the company up. From its inception it has focused primarily on ballet as theatre, preserving the heritage of full-length classical ballets and building an outstanding repertoire of narrative work with many ballets on specifically American themes. First and foremost a "popular" company, ABT is dedicated to bringing ballet to the widest audience (it tours all over the US every year and has performed in all 50 states). In 2006 ABT’s status was recognised when it was designated "America’s National Ballet Company" by an act of Congress. Like so many dance companies, ABT’s origins lie with the diaspora of artists who left Russia after the revolution. Mikhail Mordkin was a former Bolshoi Ballet dancer who settled in the US, eventually founding the Mordkin Ballet Company in 1937.In 1939 the company was reinvented as "Ballet Theatre" ("American" was added in 1957) under the leadership of Mordkin’s protegé ballerina Lucia Chase. In

1945 designer Oliver Smith became co-director with Chase and they ran the company together until 1980. From the outset ABT’s stated aim was to present "the best that is traditional, the best that is contemporary and, inevitably, the best that is controversial" – an admirably bold declaration from a small company starting from scratch with little funding. Such luminaries as Mikhail Fokine and Anton Dolin were brought in to stage the classics while at the same time the company began building a repertoire of original work. Choreographers closely associated with ABT’s beginnings include Jerome Robbins, Antony Tudor and Agnes de Mille. Among the most successful and enduring early works created for the company are Robbins’s first ballet Fancy Free (the inspiration for movie classic On the Town ) in 1944; De Mille’s Fall River Legend based on the notorious Lizzie Borden murder case in 1948 and Tudor’s Pillar of Fire in 1942. Another key player in the company’s success was Nora Kaye, who burst into stardom overnight when she created the role of the repressed, tormented Hagar in Pillar of Fire . Born in the US of Russian parents, Kaye won international acclaim as the finest dramatic dancer of her time. Bringing the realism of method acting (her father had been an actor with

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Stanislavsky) to the ballet stage, she changed forever the image of the ballerina and paved the way for later actressdancers like Marcia Haydée and Lynn Seymour. Despite its special affinity for dramatic ballets, ABT has not neglected the abstract repertoire and performs pieces by Balanchine (whose Theme and Variations was created for the company in 1947) Robbins, Twyla Tharp and many more. In 1980 Mikhail Baryshnikov, one of the company’s stars in the 1970s, took over as artistic director. Baryshnikov reshaped and strengthened the company’s classical heritage while keeping pace with cutting edge contemporary work commissioned from the likes of Tharp and Mark Morris, whose 1989 Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes will be performed in Hong Kong. Although Baryshnikov did much to raise the company’s profile and expand its repertoire, growing financial problems and disagreement on how to overcome them led to his resignation in 1989. After a shor t period when Oliver Smith resumed the directorship with Jane Hermann, in 1992 former principal dancer Kevin McKenzie became artistic director, a post he has held ever since. Perhaps McKenzie’s greatest achievement has been to reduce the company’s costs (it was deeply in debt when he took over) and to find the funding – the company relies heavily on private patronage – which has enabled ABT to continue to perform, tour and create new work. In 2009 McKenzie scored a major coup when Alexei Ratmansky,

arguably the greatest choreographer working in the classical medium today, joined ABT as artist-in-residence. ABT has been the MGM of ballet companies, boasting "more stars than there are in heaven" among its dancers. Over the decades it has presented many of ballet’s most illustrious international names, ranging from former Ballets Russes dancers like Alicia Markova, Anton Dolin and Irina Baronova through the likes of Rosella Hightower, Violette Verdy, Alicia Alonso and Jean Babilée to Rudolf Nureyev, Fernando Bujones, Natalia Makarova, Nina Ananiashvili and Alessandra Ferri, not to mention Baryshnikov. Numerous home grown stars have also danced with the company – in addition to Kaye these include Maria Tallchief, Cynthia Gregory, Gelsey Kirkland and Ethan Stiefel. As well as the company’s own principals such as Argentinean virtuoso Herman Cornejo and Italian heartthrob Roberto Bolle, famous names on ABT’s current roster of guest stars include Polina Semionova, considered one of the best ballerinas of her generation, dazzling Cuban Xiomara Reyes and superstar Russian couple Natalia Osipova and Ivan Vasiliev. ABT has one of the richest and most varied repertoires of any ballet company in the world and the three programmes it is presenting in Hong Kong offer a mouth-watering feast for anyone who enjoys dance. Natasha Rogai is the dance reviewer of the South China Morning Post and the Hong Kong correspondent of Dancing Times.

精選舞薈 精選舞薈節目一是開幕演出,由馬克.莫里斯清新輕快的《給薛麗亞之歌》和阿雷西.羅曼斯基新作《第九交響曲》為首尾。後者於 2012 年 10 月世界首演,四個月後即來港進行亞洲首演。這是難得的機會,讓香港觀眾可同時欣賞到莫里斯和羅曼斯基這兩位世界一流編舞家的 作品,而羅曼斯基的《協奏曲 DSCH》同樣選用蕭斯達高維契的音樂,是紐約市芭蕾舞團於 2011 年香港藝術節演出的重點作品。中間是 展現群星舞藝的雙人舞精選,肯定精采絕倫。 節目二的內容包括兩齣舞團保留的戲劇芭蕾傑作。生於英國的安東尼.都鐸在 1940 至 1950 年間是美國芭蕾舞劇院的駐團編舞,對舞團的 發展舉足輕重。他的《落葉之詩》哀怨纏綿,表現出其簡樸但具說服力的風格,以及對心理主題的巧妙探討。荷西.利蒙的《摩爾人的帕 凡舞》是莎劇《奧賽羅》的縮本加上精采想像,配以十七世紀作曲家浦塞爾的音樂,作品以濃厚的戲劇氛圍着稱,是世界各大小舞團也曾 演出的二十世紀經典作品。節目以巴蘭欽華麗的《C 大調交響曲》高調結束,作品是對佩蒂巴時代的崇高致敬,女獨舞員的演出配上比才 的音樂。

Dance Gala Programme 1 kicks off the season in sparkling style with Mark Morris’s delightfully playful Drink To Me Only With Thine Eyes and ends with a major new work from Alexei Ratmansky, Symphony No 9 . The latter had its world première in October 2012 and will have its Asian première in Hong Kong just four months later. This is an exceptional opportunity for audiences here to see work by two of the world’s top choreographers, Morris and Ratmansky, whose Concerto DSCH also set to Shostakovich was a highlight of NYCB’s appearance in the 2011 Arts Festival. Completing the bill is a selection of pas de deux to showcase the virtuosity of ABT’s stars – fireworks guaranteed. Programme 2 includes two masterpieces from the company’s heritage of dramatic ballets. British-born Antony Tudor was ABT’s resident choreographer from 1940 to 1950 and a key influence on the company’s development. Haunting and elegiac, The Leaves Are Fading embodies his austere yet eloquent style and subtle exploration of psychological themes. José Limón’s The Moor’s Pavane is a brilliantly imagined condensation of Shakespeare’s Othello set to music by 17th century composer Henry Purcell. Famed for its dramatic intensity this is a 20th century classic performed by companies worldwide. The programme ends on a high note with George Balanchine’s glittering Symphony in C , a supreme tribute to the age of Petipa and the art of the ballerina set to music by Georges Bizet.

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國家.藝術

nations and traditions

美國芭蕾舞劇院 American Ballet Theatre 主要演員表 Principal Cast 節目一 Programme 1

《給薛麗亞之歌》 Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes 21.2.2013 ( 四 Thu) 7:30 p.m.

〈黑天鵝〉雙人舞 Black Swan PdD 〈星條旗〉雙人舞 Stars & Stripes PdD 《第九交響曲》 Symphony No 9

Company Paloma Herrera, Cory Stearns Sarah Lane, Daniil Simkin Polina Semionova, Marcelo Gomes Herman Cornejo

節目二 Programme 2

22.2.2013 ( 五 Fri) 7:30 p.m. 23.2.2013 ( 六 Sat) 7:30 p.m. 22.2.2013 ( 五 Fri) 7:30 p.m. 23.2.2013 ( 六 Sat) 7:30 p.m. 22.2.2013 ( 五 Fri) 7:30 p.m. 23.2.2013 ( 六 Sat) 7:30 p.m.

《落葉之詩》 The Leaves Are Fading

《摩爾人的帕凡舞》 The Moor's Pavane

Julie Kent, Marcelo Gomes Hee Seo, Roberto Bolle Roman Zhurbin, Thomas Forster Simone Messmer, Xiomara Reyes Marcelo Gomes, Cory Stearns Veronika Part, Julie Kent

《C 大調交響曲》 Symphony in C

Julie Kent, Roberto Bolle

28.2.2013 ( 四 Thu) 7:30 p.m.

Polina Semionova, Marcelo Gomes

1.3.2013 ( 五 Fri) 7:30 p.m.

Paloma Herrera, Cory Stearns

2.3.2013 ( 六 Sat) 2:30 p.m.

Julie Kent, Roberto Bolle

2.3.2013 ( 六 Sat) 7:45 p.m.

Xiomara Reyes, Herman Cornejo

3.3.2013 ( 日 Sun) 2:30 p.m.

Hee Seo, Alexandre Hammoudi

3.3.2013 ( 日 Sun) 7:45 p.m.

Paloma Herrera, Cory Stearns

© Gene Schiavone

《羅密歐與茱麗葉》Romeo & Juliet

27.2.2013 ( 三 Wed) 7:30 p.m.

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愛爾蘭腹地再想像 優獸舞團的《足跡》 文:斯安納.麥.雷蒙

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© Ros Kavanagh

原始、富表現力及儀式般的音樂和舞蹈,往往是文化的 生命力。優獸舞團演出的《足跡》融合愛爾蘭文化特色, 以懾人魔力結合豐富多采的現代舞和傳統音樂,是近乎 靈性的表現。自 2011 年在都柏林戲劇節首演以來,《足 跡》演遍國外,由這個原始喜慶演出表達出來的人類精 神,深受國際觀眾喜愛。 演出糅合當代舞蹈和傳統民俗節奏,屬高風險嘗試,更 別說重新想像愛爾蘭傳統舞蹈概況。不過,舞團的藝術 總監兼編舞米高.基謹杜蘭一向敢於挑戰傳統觀念、推 翻神話。 《足跡》以含蓄的手法顛覆,但又保留原來的含意,而 基謹杜蘭依據的是古代音樂傳統。基謹杜蘭並非於愛爾 蘭語世界長大,亦不曾浸淫在愛爾蘭的語言和音樂中, 因此對他而言,這是一個陌生的國度。他在倫敦接受過 古典芭蕾訓練,後來成為一位劇場造詣高深的激進現代 舞製作人。目前,舞團以他家族位於愛爾蘭中部的祖屋 為基地。他的拍檔、《足跡》的音樂總監連恩.奧馬安 賴則來自古老的愛爾蘭文化。奧馬安賴在都柏林一個愛 爾蘭語家庭長大,是一位唱作歌手兼音樂家,自小隨父 親學習古老歌謠,後來他成為愛爾蘭搖滾樂隊「溫室之 花」的主音,繼而在世界音樂的領域遊歷,深入了解其 他國度和文化的敲擊節奏。 《足跡》是奧馬安賴於 2005 年出版的音樂及歌曲專輯 的名字,優獸舞團借用其名字及精髓,為舞團活力澎湃 的演出命名。這張專輯是奧馬安賴向已故愛爾蘭音樂大 師桑.奧.里亞達致敬之作,當中同時散發其他音樂元 素的光芒,包括非洲、澳洲原住民和阿拉伯音樂。奧. 里亞達是接受古典音樂訓練的音樂家和作曲家,1960 年代末,積極在國內外復興和重構愛爾蘭音樂,又為它 重新定位,推動愛爾蘭音樂文化。或許由於奧馬安賴重 新演繹的音樂忠於原著,吸引基謹杜蘭把愛爾蘭音樂視 為是次演出的素材。 基謹杜蘭把這個製作設想為編舞對音樂的回應,是一個 讓舞蹈「把節奏變成實體」的方法,伴隨而來是把各種 傳統交織一起的挑戰。綵排時,他創造了一種鼎效應、 「一個互相牽引的團體」和一個讓舞者與音樂家互相感 應的環境。奧馬安賴同樣喜歡基謹杜蘭的「投入準則」, 對「透過音樂讓舞者去感受文化和生活模式帶來的興 奮」。方法之一是使用命名儀式。所有愛爾蘭曲調都有 身份標籤,其出處不一或只是隨意命名,但那些名字或 能喚起空間感,或讓人想起一次集體慶典或內心的哀 悼。他們也可以利用音樂表揚一位贊助人或英雄人物, 例如《足跡》裏經常出現的旋律《利殊王進行曲》,就 曾與十六世紀愛爾蘭對抗英國殖民的英雄睿里.奧.莫 爾亞聯繫一起。 獲挑選為這個製作的樂手,都兼備技巧和開放態度,名 字唸出來好像一份愛爾蘭音樂家族骨幹成員名單:演奏 六角手風琴的康麥.奧.貝加里、演奏小提琴及主唱的

33


覺把真相改頭換面。音樂在演出者身上流動,使人想起 愛爾蘭詩人葉慈的詩句; 「噢隨音樂晃搖的身體,噢閃閃發亮的一瞥 我們如何從舞中辨出舞者?」 《在學童之間》 創作《足跡》中最後強而有力的部分,在於作品的表達 方式。基謹杜蘭希望在作品中創造一種植根空間 ─ 優 雅而低調,屬家庭和公民的。在蓋提劇院的開幕演出當 晚,他和奧馬安賴與我們部分觀眾同樣意識到,桑.奧. 里亞達四十多前,在同一間劇院與他的樂隊同樣演出過 一場創新的演唱會,讓火球滾遍愛爾蘭傳統音樂,激發 本地和移民酒吧及餐廳的樂手。那就好像到訪過高地一 趟,重拾愛爾蘭傳統音樂的精練和尊嚴。這是第二次機 會,就讓我們陶醉於充滿詩意魔法的樸實演出中,度過 興奮的晚上。 斯安納.麥.雷蒙為《愛爾蘭時報》和《愛爾蘭劇場雜誌》撰寫關於舞 蹈和劇場的文章。

© Elliott Franks

埃娜.尼.賀恩,以及演奏愛爾蘭風笛的馬秋.奧.克 沙達;另外,彼得.奧圖爾演奏布祖基琴,加上奧馬安 賴自己演奏古鍵琴、鋼琴、結他口哨和主唱,樂隊就完 整了。舞蹈員方面呢?基謹杜蘭的舞團雖然沒有愛爾蘭 踢踏舞高手,卻可演出你想像得到形形色色的作品。在 開創投身音樂的新法上,基謹杜蘭想撇開精準敲擊、大 河之舞及其支流的伴舞。他不想要先入之見,正如他幽 默地說:「沒有遺忘所學……我需要多艘空船,不要附 帶文化包袱。」八位舞者肯定做到這一點,他們來自西 非、印度喀拉拉邦、希臘和日本等富有特色的國度,帶 着獨有的文化「足跡」。他們都受過很高水平的訓練, 是技巧炫目的現代舞者。排練過程中,他們細心聆聽編 舞的悉心指導,很快就拿捏了基謹杜蘭重新設計的舊舞 蹈。基謹杜蘭希望舞者聆聽音樂中韻律複雜的結構和高 昂的舊式無伴奏獨唱,而他則嘗試讓舞蹈成為一種自然 反應,舞者渾身是勁。我們看到舞者不但利用雙腳拍打 節奏,他們的臀部、手臂、脖子、頭和手在搖擺、滑動、 蹦跳和旋轉。動作通常回應第二層的節奏,在這種不合 拍的片段中,基謹杜蘭似乎在音樂中發掘真相,並憑直

Heartlands Reimagined -

Traditional Irish Music and Modern Dance in Rian By Seona Mac Réamoinn

Elemental, expressive and ritualistic, music and dance are often the lifeforces of a culture. Rian , an interweaving of an Irish cultural idiom performed by Fabulous Beast Dance Theatre has its unique magic – an almost spiritual dimension that fuses this tapestry of modern dance with traditional music. Since its debut at Dublin Theatre Festival in 2011,

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the show has been performed extensively abroad, where international audiences have been embracing the human spirit of this primal and celebratory show. It is a risky endeavour to marry contemporary dance to traditional folk rhythm, leave alone re-imagining the landscape of Irish traditional dance. But then Michael Keegan-Dolan,


國家.藝術

nations and traditions

Artistic Director and choreographer of the company, is no stranger to challenging perceptions and subverting mythologies. In Rian , the subtle subversion retains its serious connotation, and Keegan-Dolan’s point of departure is an ancient musical tradition. It is unfamiliar territory for Keegan-Dolan for he was not a child of the Gaelic world, steeped in neither the Irish language nor the music. Trained in classical ballet in London, he later emerged as a radical, modern dance maker with a profound sense of theatre. Currently, his company is based in his family’s ancestral home in the Irish midlands. It is his collaborator, Liam Ó Maonlaí, musical director of Rian who came from that older culture. The singer, musician and songwriter grew up in an Irish speaking home in Dublin, won All-Ireland competitions for the playing of the traditional tin whistle and the bodhrán (the percussive hand held Irish circular drum) with a father who taught him the old songs. He then became the front man for the Irish rock band The Hothouse Flowers, before journeying into the realms of world music, picking up on the percussive rhythms of other lands and cultures.

Rian , Irish for trace or imprint, is the name of an album of Irish songs and music released in 2005 by Ó Maonlaí from which Fabulous Beast Theatre’s dynamic show borrows its name and its soul. The album shimmers with his other musical influences including African, Aboriginal and Arabic and was conceived as a personal tribute to a former master, Seán O Riada. A classically trained musician and composer, O Riada was one of the principal catalysts in the late 1960s for the renewal, reframing and repositioning of Irish music at home and abroad. It was perhaps Ó Maonlai’s own truthful reframing of traditional music which drew Keegan-Dolan to envision it as the source material for this show. Keegan-Dolan always imagined the produc tion as a choreographic response to the music, a way for the dance "to make the rhythm physically tangible" and with it came the challenge of weaving the various traditions together. In rehearsals he created "a cauldron effect", "a community of shared energy" and an environment where the dancers and musicians were sensitive to one another. Ó Maonlaí too was keen on Keegan-Dolan’s "rules of engagement", and he was "excited to be revealing the core of the culture and the lifestyle through the music to the dancers". One way was to use the ritual of naming. All Irish tunes and airs have identity tags; the provenance can be desultory and accidental, as the names evoke a sense of place or recall a communal celebration or private lamentation. They can also honour a patron or a heroic figure as in March of the King of Laois , a haunting melody featured in Rian , which has been associated with Ruairi O

Mordha, a 16th century hero of Irish resistance to English colonisation. The musicians for the production, chosen for their combination of skill and openness, reads like an ancestral roll call from the heartlands of Irish musical families: Cormac Ó Beaglaoich on concertina, Eithne Ni Chatháin on fiddle and voice, and Maitiu Ó Casaide on the uileann pipes. With Peter O’Toole on bouzouki, and Ó Maonlaí himself on harpsichord, piano, guitar whistle and voice the band is complete. And the dancers? Keegan Dolan’s ensemble of dancers is as diverse as could be imagined with not an Irish step dancing virtuoso in sight. In forging a new way into the music, Keegan-Dolan wanted to leave aside the percussive precision and chorus line céilí of Riverdance and its tributaries. He wanted no preconceptions or as he humorously remarks, "No unlearning… I needed empty vessels, with no cultural baggage." The eight dancers certainly do that, bringing their own cultural "rianta" or imprints, with origins in lands as distinctive as West Africa and Kerala, Greece and Japan. They are highly trained, technically dazzling modern dancers. Keegan-Dolan wanted them to hear the complex rhythmic structure of the music and the soaring sean-nós (old style) solo unaccompanied singing, as he sought to make the dance an organic response where the whole body becomes engaged. We see the dancers with not only their feet beating a rhythm but their hips and arms, necks, heads and hands swaying, slipping, jigging and reeling. The movement often responds to a second layer of rhythm, and in these off the beat sequences Keegan-Dolan seems to unearth the truth in the music and intuitively transform it. The music flows through the performers, bringing to mind the lines from Irish poet William Butler Yeats; "O body swaying to music, o brightening glance How can we know the dancer from the dance?" - Among School Children The final potent piece in the creation of Rian was in the framing of the production where Keegan-Dolan wanted to create a rooted space – elegant and understated, domestic and civic. He and Ó Maonlaí were conscious as were some of us in the audience on the opening night that at the The Gaiety Theatre, Seán O Riada had given a ground breaking concert with his band over forty years before. It had sent a fireball rolling though Irish traditional music, sparking off musicians in local and emigrant pubs and kitchens. It had been like a call to the high table, a reclaiming of the sophistication and dignity of Irish traditional music. This is a second chance. Be enchanted by a performance of earthiness shot through with poetic magic which will send you exhilarated into the night. Seona Mac Réamoinn writes about dance and theatre contributing regularly to The Irish Times and Irish Theatre Magazine

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The Leading Bank for Cross-Border Financial Services 跨境金融 首選銀行

ICBC (Asia) Proudly Sponsors 工銀亞洲贊助 The Finale of the 2013 Hong Kong Arts Festival

V I VA

ICBC (Asia) Celebrates the Legacy of Verdi in his Bicentenary Year ICBC (Asia) proudly sponsors Viva Verdi as this year’s Festival Finale, a fitting occasion to honour this giant of the world of opera. A true pioneer of his era, Verdi took the form of the classical opera to new heights of musical expression. As the overseas flagship of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the world’s largest bank by market capitalisation, ICBC (Asia) has consistently been driving development through innovation. It is on this cornerstone that we have created an admirable enterprise with a unique allure. While music continues to inspire people of all worlds, we will continuously explore new horizons with a vision of helping our clients to realise their infinite possibilities.

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2013 香港藝術節閉幕演出

VERDI 威 爾 第

工銀亞洲慶賀威爾第誕辰二百周年 工銀亞洲榮幸成為本屆藝術節閉幕演出《非凡威爾第》贊助商,際此 盛會向偉大歌劇作曲家致敬。作為劃時代的先驅,威爾第將古典歌 劇推向了一個新的歷史高峰。作為全球市值最大銀行中國工商銀行 的海外旗艦,工銀亞洲長期以來以創新驅動發展,建立了備受尊重、 獨具魅力的銀行企業文化。正如音樂能夠跨越世代疆域的界限, 啟 迪人心,工銀亞洲亦將秉持企業理念,不斷開拓跨越,成就客戶 的無限可能。

AFT-0211/1212/113

非 凡


歌劇「皇宮」 拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院 文﹕白諾信

1737 年落成的拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院的歷史令人讚歎,它 為意大利半島現存最古老的歌劇院,而當中的靈魂人物 為波旁.卡洛三世,劇院亦因他而命名。聖卡洛歌劇院 於 12 月 5 日推出的新劇季揭幕演出,正好是差不多 275 年前首演的威爾第《茶花女》的全新製作,更是歌劇院 首度亮相香港藝術節。除《茶花女》外,還會帶來占瑪 勞莎的《呷醋丈夫》 (1785 年為聖卡洛歌劇院而寫)。

歌劇院輝煌歷史 拿波里王國成立短短三年後,聖卡洛歌劇院便正式開 幕,而兩者時間上的吻合絕非偶然。十八、十九世紀期 間,歌劇院不只是受歡迎的聚腳點,更是權力象徵:以 「歌劇式皇室議院」展示君王偉大和傑出的統治能力。

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卡洛三世對歌劇院的贊助和支持,在歌劇院的美學和建 築上可見一斑。歌劇院座落於拿波里中心,矗立於氣勢 磅礡的皇宮之旁。院內豐富而華麗的細緻裝飾,盡得遊 客歡心,並吸引其目光。無論是抬頭仰望天花的油畫, 還是細心欣賞精緻懾人的皇室徽章,遊客均意識到歌劇 院由最初構想,便注定為城巿及四周帶來深遠影響。 歌劇院的創立為拿波里的建設及文化景觀帶來衝擊,成 就了這位年輕君王的抱負。事實上,卡洛三世於統治期 間所施行的文化建設亦令人欽佩:例如修復卡波迪蒙特 皇宮,宮內的博物館珍藏了歐洲主要的藝術品;於郊區 興建宏偉瑰麗的卡塞爾達皇宮;修葺洲內一所非常古舊 的大學;以及開發羅馬城巿龐貝城和埃爾科拉羅的窑址。


歌劇首都拿波里

《茶花女》的電影風味

聖卡洛歌劇院的重要性,除了皇帝的支持,還可透過多 年來不斷的高質素歌劇創作展現出來,其合作過的作曲 家數之不盡:李奧、哈塞、波爾波拉、達芬奇、特拉埃塔、 皮慶尼、約梅里、威爾第,格魯克、莫扎特、占瑪勞莎 及帕伊謝洛。多位著名歌唱亦曾於歌劇院演出,當中包 括閹人歌星瑪佑拉諾、古治魯及梵魯杜。

拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院早已與電影界結下不解之緣,因此 他們這次重新演繹威爾第的《茶花女》 ,由土耳其裔意 大利籍的科桑.奧士柏德執導,完全符合傳統。對電影 導演而言,《茶花女》既是挑戰,也是機會,因為《茶 花女》中透過角色私人生活與公眾生活的對比,帶出個 人幸福與社會規範之間的矛盾與張力,一般劇目難得一 見。

歌劇院孕育了這群出色的作曲家及歌星,讓拿波里成為 十八世紀的音樂劇中心。它改變歌劇歷史,振興喜歌劇, 為音樂文化貢獻良多,而拿波里歌劇的首席地位亦因此 而鞏固。

1799 年的法國大革命及 1805 年的暴力鎮壓遏止不了歌 劇院的演出,但 1816 年歌劇院罕有地停演數月,原因 是遇上大火。當時君主迅速下令修葺歌劇院,成為了這 座拿波里地標的今日面貌。成立 80 年,歌劇院依然是 君主制度的重要部分。 當時的音樂總監為羅西尼,女高音為世界最優秀的巨星 伊莎貝拉.柯布蘭,即使在羅西尼離任後,歌劇院的吸 引力依然有增無減。唐尼采第曾與聖卡洛歌劇院合作過 18 部歌劇,而貝里尼、梅卡但特及威爾第等作曲家,亦 於聖卡洛歌劇院首演他們的巨構。 十九世紀後期,歌劇院的委約新作漸少,反映了歌劇界 也面臨衰落的局面。即便如此,聖卡洛歌劇院時至今日 依然是表演者、指揮家及導演爭相亮相的舞台。

歐體資助重建項目 歌劇能以表演藝術屹立至今,全憑它以現場演出為媒 介,而藝術家亦只專注如何從既定作品中創立全新的演 繹手法。經歷兩年全面修葺後,聖卡洛歌劇院於 2010 年以全新姿態致力重拾領導地位。 歐洲共同體大力資助歌劇院,令製作及演出全面獲得調 整,遂令聖卡洛歌劇院成為全意大利,甚至全球數一數 二最新及最多元化的劇場:它內置排練場地、道具及服 裝工作室,還有擴建後的芭蕾舞學院、構想及經營手法 新穎的博物館,並擁有最前衛和頂尖技術的舞台效果裝 置,是一幢令人煥然一新的「舞台大樓」。 歌劇院自 1980 年代起便以創新為目標,合作導演包括 羅伯特.威爾遜及魯易齊.隆科尼,藝術家包括羅伯特. 羅森伯格及威廉.肯特里奇等。對歌劇而言,演員和管 弦樂團可謂整個演出的靈魂。聖卡洛歌劇院從未因此而 令觀眾失望,音樂造詣更經常處於高水平。種種原因, 致令聖卡洛歌劇院與米蘭史卡拉歌劇院齊名,成為歌劇 界的表表者。

這種張力激發起一些優秀的舞台演出:例如史卡拉歌劇 院 1955 年的製作,現今被視為經典,當時由瑪利亞. 卡拉絲主演、電影及舞台兩棲導演維斯康提執導。威爾 第原把故事背景設定為 1850 年代的巴黎,但維斯康提 卻把它推遲至 40 多年後,《茶花女》於是就在二十世紀 初的「美好年代」中熾熱發亮、轉瞬即逝,令人聯想起 印象畫派及自然主義戲劇,而電影色彩則略為欠奉,當 中惟一的「電影風味」是維斯康提巧妙地把一首首樂曲 環環緊扣,予人一種場景連貫的印象。 另一齣代表性的演出來自 1985 年的紐約大都會歌劇院, 由維斯康提前助手法蘭高.齊費里尼執導。他以燈光效 果突出阿菲度多與薇奧列達親密的私人時光,例如二人 在泛藍柔光下對唱,這與第一幕的公眾場面(沐浴於紅 光中)截然不同。然而,這種色彩對比的運用,例如藍 跟紅、土黃跟鮮黃,早在齊費里尼 1983 年的電影版本 中出現過,這種非凡的視覺效果現在更被帶往舞台。

1990 年史卡拉歌劇院的《茶花女》,由另一位著名導 演 — 莉莉安娜.卡瓦妮執導。第一幕派對場景的佈景 設計大型奢華,圍滿了興高采烈的人群。薇奧列達公寓 內的吵鬧聲,與第二幕鄉郊別墅的寂靜,對比強烈。卡 瓦妮以出色的手法,在薇奧列達巴黎的客廳與鄉郊別墅 內,放置三扇一式一樣的窗戶,宏偉懾人,藉以強調兩 者不同之處。這種視覺上的重複讓人在不知不覺間,如 夢幻般置身於第二幕的場景中。 而這座別墅猶如內心投 射,是捉摸不到的,象徵夢寐以求之事。 相反,在 1994 年由李察.艾爾執導的倫敦高文花園演 出中,薇奧列達的圓形客廳由劇初已是質樸無華。比起 狂歡派對的場景,感覺更像古雅宮廷前冷冰冰的接待 廳。這種視覺效果強烈,為空間帶來抽象、近乎超現實 的感覺,大概揭示正在享受派對的薇奧列達,其實身處 另一空間。 繼意大利首演後,拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院將於香港藝術節 為《茶花女》展開新一頁。屆時歌劇團將因應表演場地 需要,以及從首演中觀眾反應獲取的靈感,為香港觀眾 帶來耳目一新的演出。拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院帶同《茶花 女》,由家鄉邁向國際舞台,矚目耀人,萬眾期待。 白諾信於香港大學任教音樂與電影學。 中譯:伍穎姸

39


The "Royal Palace" of Opera Teatro di San Carlo, Napoli The Teatro di San Carlo, Napoli, has an enviable record. Founded in 1737, it is the oldest surviving opera house in the Italian peninsula. Its prime actor was Carlo III of Borbone, after whom the theatre was named. That is almost exactly 275 years before the new production of Verdi's La Traviata that, on December 5, opened the current opera season, and which the Hong Kong Arts Festival is bringing to mark its first collaboration with the theatre (along with Cimarosa's Il Marito Disperato [The Desperate Husband ], written for the San Carlo in 1785).

Auspicious Beginnings A mere three years intervened between the establishment in 1734 of the Kingdom of Naples and the opening of the Teatro di San Carlo in 1737. The proximity of the two dates is no coincidence. Throughout the 18th and 19th century, opera houses were not only sizzling centres of social life, but also a symbolic display of power: an "acoustical chamber" of sorts, amplifying the reach and splendor of the monarch's stewardship. Carlo III's patronage and championing of opera was to be conveyed visually and architecturally. The theatre stands in the heart of Naples; it rises next, and is linked to, the seemingly all-encompassing Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace). The rich, ornate interiors still strike the visitor today for their ambition and maniacal attention to detail. Whether twisting one's neck upward to admire Cammarano's canvas on the ceiling, or fixing attention on the intricately compelling royal coat of arms, one has the impression of a project conceived from the start to leave an indelible mark on the city and its environs. The building of the theatre was of a piece with a major overhaul of the city's infrastructure and cultural landscape on the part of the ambitious, young monarch. The list of initiatives jump started during Carlo III's reign is indeed impressive: the restoration of the Capodimonte Palace, whose museum houses one of Europe's major art collections; building of the immense Palace of Caserta, in the suburbs; revitalisation of the University, one of the continent's oldest; and the opening of the excavation sites of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Ercolano.

Naples, Capital of Opera The seriousness of purpose behind the creation of the

40

By Giorgio Biancorosso

theatre, above and beyond the sponsorship of power, is best demonstrated by the quality of the creative work it supported for many years on end. The list of composers whose output was linked to the Teatro di San Carlo is long and varied: Leo, Hasse, Porpora, Vinci, Traetta, Piccinni, Jommelli and Verdi, not discounting stops by Gluck and Mozart, Cimarosa and Paisiello. Many singers walked the stage of the San Carlo but none perhaps with more success than the star castratos Majorano, Gizziello, and Velluto. When looking at the "stable" of composers and stage artists the theatre had at its disposal, one is left to wonder whether Naples's role as the centre of musical theatre in 18th century Europe should not be acknowledged once and for all. Naples's primacy was simultaneously being consolidated by what was happening outside the walls of the San Carlo proper but came to eventually alter the history of opera and, with it, the San Carlo itself: the development of comic opera, arguably the city's greatest gift to musical culture. Hardly suffering a halt during the popular revolution of 1799, and its violent suppression in 1805, the theatre fell uncharacteristically silent for a few months in 1816, following a devastating fire. The promptly ordered major restoration project gave the landmark the look it retains today. Eighty years into its history, the theatre still played a key role in sponsoring the monarchy. It was during this time that Rossini was musical director, and soprano Isabella Colbran the brightest star in a firmament of stars. Remarkably, the pull of the theatre remained strong after Rossini's departure as well. Donizetti's association with the San Carlo yielded as many as eighteen operas, and the likes of Bellini, Mercadante, and Verdi saw the premieres of major works take place in and for the San Carlo. The decline of the role of the theatre as a patron of new compositions in the second half of the 19th century reflected the decline of the genre as a whole. But the house has remained till the present day a sought-after stage for performers, conductors, and directors alike.

The EC-funded Restoration Opera remains alive as a performing art both in the sense that its vehicle is live performance and that the sole focus of the artists is the creation of new manners of presentation of more-or-less fixed works. Following a thorough restoration


國家.藝術

nations and traditions

from 2008 to 2010, the Teatro di San Carlo is again aiming at a position of leadership in this newly reconfigured scene. Funded by a substantial grant from the European Community, the renovations touched on all aspects of production and presentation. As a result, the Teatro di San Carlo is one of Italy's – and the world's – most up-to-date and versatile theatres: a formidable machine of the imagination, complete with in-house rehearsal spaces, workshops for the execution of props and costumes, new spaces for the ballet school, an innovatively conceived and run museum, and a wholly revamped "stage tower" equipped with all manner of state-ofthe art machinery. The vocation for the new that marks recent opera productions dates back to the 1980s at leas t, w hen the theatre management began to engage innovative directors and artists (directors Robert Wilson and Luca Ronconi, and artists Robert Rauschenberg and William Kentridge, to name a few). Underpinning opera as a spectacle, however, is the cast and the orchestra. These have rarely failed the audience. Standards of musicianship have been consistently high, and that is quite simply why, along with Milan's La Scala, the Teatro di San Carlo is an obligatory term of reference for opera performance.

Cinematic Touches in La Traviata The Teatro di San Carlo has long cultivated a special relationship with filmmakers. Their engagement of Turkish-Italian director, Ferzan Özpetek, for a new production of Verdi’s La Traviata is therefore in line with a well established tradition. To a filmmaker, La Traviata presents challenges as well as opportunities. Only rarely is the tension between individual happiness and social norms conveyed through such remarkable play of contrasts between the public and the private sphere as it is in La Traviata. This has inspired some fine staging work. In his now legendary 1955 La Scala production, starring Maria Callas, filmmaker and stage director Luchino Visconti post-dated the action by some forty years from the time Verdi intended it; that is, the Paris of the 1850s. The result was a La Traviata in the glowing but ephemeral world of the Belle Époque of turn-ofthe-century Paris, redolent of references to Impressionistic painting and naturalistic theatre, but just this side of the world of film. The only "cinematic" aspect of that production was the impression of continuity across different scenes, which Visconti achieved by seamlessly linking musical numbers in any number of ingenious ways.

In another seminal production, directed for the Metropolitan Opera in 1985, Franco Zeffirelli – a former assistant of Visconti’s, and a filmmaker in his own right – used lighting to underline the intimacy of the private moments between Alfredo and Violetta. Their duets are thus literally cast in a light – blue – different from the public moments of the first act (bathed in red). Significantly, the contrast between blue or bluish tonalities and reds, as well as ochres and yellows, is anticipated in his 1983 film version. The extraordinary level of visual detail achieved in the film is, too, carried over into the stage production. In a 1990 production at Milan’s La Scala directed by another established filmmaker, Liliana Cavani, the sets for the Act I party scene were so monumental and lavishly decorated, the crowd so large and animated, that the contrast between the buzz of Violetta’s apartment in Act I and the stillness of the country house in Act II was overwhelming. Cavani brilliantly accentuated the contrast by having the same three large, imposing windows dominate the look of both Violetta’s living room in Paris and the interior of the country house. The visual repetition gave a dreamy quality to the uncovering of the new set in the second act. As a result, the country house took on a psychological quality of its own, as if it were a projection of the mind, the symbol of a dimension as coveted as it was unattainable. In Richard Eyre’s 1994 production at Covent Garden, Violetta’s living room is, by contrast, round and starkly naked from the start, looking more like the cold antechamber of a classical palace than the setting of a debaucherous party. This striking visualization gives the space an abstract, almost surreal quality, hinting perhaps that despite the partying Violetta inhabits a different space to begin with. Following its Italian premiere, the staging of La Traviata in the Hong Kong Arts Festival will open a new chapter in this production by Teatro di San Carlo. Not only changes will be made to accommodate a new venue, but also new ideas may be tested in response to how the production is received in Naples. It will be nothing short of exciting for the Hong Kong audience to witness how the new production, having just seen the light of dawn at home, journeys into the international scene. Giorgio Biancorosso teaches Music and Film Studies at The University of Hong Kong.

41



《慈禧與德齡》

國粹添新裝 第 41 屆香港藝術節將有中國國家京劇院帶來的兩套以 老旦為主角的戲碼,一個是「老旦名劇選演」,精選多 齣老旦行當的名劇,有全套也有選段:最古老的《望 兒樓》,全本《金龜記》,喜劇《對花槍》,樣板戲經 典《紅燈記》;另一個是全新製作,改編自何冀平著名 舞台劇《德齡與慈禧》的新編京劇《慈禧與德齡》,並 由原創導演毛俊輝執導,也是毛俊輝首次導演中國國家 京劇院的作品。 以老旦為系列焦點,將京劇不同行當帶到鎂光燈前,又 為國粹藝術增添新的劇目,是保存發展傳統藝術的最佳 實踐。 中國國家京劇院是國家級的藝團,1955 年成立時,由 京劇大師梅蘭芳出任院長。梅先生藝術生涯是在繼承 傳統的基礎上創新的大師,亦以此為京劇院宗旨。過去 五十多年,京劇院已有多番新嘗試,這次便以一齣當代 話劇經典,改編為京劇戲碼,投注現代舞台技術及視野。 香 港 觀 眾 對《 德 齡 與 慈 禧 》 應 該 不 會 陌 生, 這 齣 於 1998 年由香港話劇團首演,其後亦多番重演,甚至改 編成粵劇的原創戲劇,甚受歡迎。導演毛俊輝曾形容劇 本的獨特性為「把國事寫成家事」,原著何冀平由人性 角度去寫這位晚清的獨裁者,透過慈禧與海外歸來的德 齡公主兩個應是南轅北轍的人物之間的交流、碰撞,甚

文:駱雅 至辯論,以及她們與周遭一眾人物如光緒、榮祿、李蓮 英等的關係與感情糾結,去呈現晚清宮廷的變幻,所有 人物均有血有肉,真實而不純粹是歷史書上看到的人物 名字。 這樣的一個紥實劇本,絕對是改編的上佳材料。2009 年初國家京劇院開始與何冀平接觸,初步定下改編的基 礎。親自改編劇本的何冀平曾於訪問中提過改編並不容 易,其一是因為要留時間給唱的部分,所以要刪掉許多 場戲,其二自然是把唱詞寫好。國家京劇院院長宋官林 指出,在開始創作時就一直思考和尋求如何在新的文本 和人物身上, 發掘和煥發以往京劇缺少的文化韻味與人 生況味,又以京劇藝術的表現方法和藝術手段去賦予故 事、人物一種京戲的魅力。 另外,邀請舞台經驗極之豐富,又對京戲有相當認識的 導演毛俊輝執導,亦可見對推動新作的決心。宋官林認 為毛俊輝將這段故事「用京劇的形式,但又不全是京劇 的手段,充滿新意地呈現於舞台」。 誠如宋官林在首演特刊中所言,國家京劇院,甚至京劇 界經典甚多,但面對今日社會對京劇的重視與期待,創 作人或策劃人當要在傳統經典以外,繼續推進京劇藝術 的發展。 駱雅,自由撰稿人。

43


中國國家京劇院 老旦名劇選演 3 月 7 日(四) 《刺巴杰》

演員:劉 佳 飾 胡 里 白瑋琛 飾 馬金錠

《望兒樓》

演員:張

蘭 飾 竇太真

《紅燈記 — 痛說革命家史》 演員:李文林 飾 李玉和 譚曉令 飾 李奶奶 徐 暢 飾 李鐵梅 《對花槍》

演員:袁慧琴 飾 姜桂芝 張小清 飾 羅 藝

3 月 8 日(五) 《殺四門》

演員:王

璐 飾 秦懷玉

《金龜記》

演員:張 蘭 飾 康 康 靜飾康 呂昆山 飾 張

氏 氏 義

《慈禧與德齡》 3 月 9- 10 日(六至日) 編劇:何冀平 導演:毛俊輝 演員:袁慧琴 飾 慈 禧 宋小川 飾 光 緒 周 婧飾德 齡 魏積軍 飾 榮 祿 王潤菁 飾 隆 裕 呂昆山 飾 李蓮英 徐 暢 飾 裕夫人 老旦.慈禧.袁慧琴 這次擔演慈禧的是當今著名老旦、國家一級演員袁慧琴,師從 李金泉,曾先後獲梅花獎等多個戲曲大獎,2008 年成為首位 在國家大劇院開個人演唱會的京劇演員,常演劇目包括《李逵 探母》、《對花槍》、《楊門女將》,她唱腔吐字清楚有力,被譽 為有穿雲貫石的力度和氣勢。

Lao Dan - Empress Dowager Cixi - Yuan Huiqin Empress Dowager Cixi is played by the renowned lao dan, national "First Rank" performer Yuan Huiqin. She was trained under Li Jinquan and has received many major Chinese opera awards including the Chinese Theatre Plum Blossom Award. In 2008, she became the first Beijing opera performer to perform a solo concert at the National Centre for the Performing Arts in Beijing. Her regular repertoire includes Li Kui Visiting His Mother , Duel with Spears and Female Generals of the Yang Family , she is famed for her immaculate diction and powerful delivery. The change of title from DeLing and Empress Dowager Cixi to Empress Dowager Cixi and Princess Deling signifies the story’s transformation through another art form; it also highlights the importance of Empress Dowager Cixi, and the lead role of lao dan in the opera.

New Lights on National Treasure By Lok Ya (Daisy)

The 41st Hong Kong Arts Festival brings two programmes from the China National Peking Opera Company that put the lao dan (mature female) role into the spotlight. The first is The Artistry of Lao Dan – Excerpts which features some of the most famous characters for this role, including the historical excerpt Mother Longing for Her Missing Son , the complete Story of a Golden Turtle , comedy Duel with Spears and the classic revolutionary opera The Red Lantern . The second programme is a brand new opera Empress Dowager Cixi and Princess Deling , adapted from the play DeLing and Empress Dowager Cixi by Hong Kong-based playwright He Jiping and directed by Hong Kong stage director Fredric Mao. Putting the role of lao dan in focus, this series introduces new writing to the Beijing opera repertory and highlights the development and renewal of this traditional art form. China National Peking Opera Company is a premier performing arts company from China. It was founded in 1955 with Beijing opera legend Mei Lanfang as its inaugural director; Mei was renowned for his ability to adhere to traditions while encouraging innovation. This became a founding principle of the China National Peking Opera Company. In the past 50 years, the Company has explored many new avenues. Their latest offering draws from a popular contemporary play to enrich the Beijing opera repertory, and inject modern stage technology and vision into the art form. Hong Kong audiences are no stranger to the play DeLing and Empress Dowager Cixi . It was first produced by the Hong Kong Repertory Theatre in 1998 and has been revived numerous times since. For Mao, the text is unique in its portrayal of "national events as family issues". Ho has chosen to write about the human side of the late Qing dynasty autocrat. Through Empress Dowager Cixi’s interaction with Princess Deling who recently returned from abroad, their opposing personalities, worldviews and life experience, and their relationships with the inner court. The opera traces the changes of the imperial court as these historical figures come alive on stage. The Company and He Jiping first discussed plans to adapt her play into a Beijing opera in 2009, with He penning the opera version herself. She has mentioned in interviews that the adaptation was full of challenges: she had to cut a number of scenes to make time for singing, and writing good lyrics for

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國家.藝術

nations and traditions

the parts was no easy task. The Director of China National Peking Opera Company, Song Guanlin, noted that throughout the project they explored new ways to develop and infuse a specific cultural flavour into the production, while preserving the charm of Beijing opera through traditional performance techniques and aesthetics.

In the production’s original programme, Song explains that there is an extensive repertory in Beijing opera. However, in order to live up to the expectations and importance the society has placed on the art form, it is vital to push Beijing opera forward by performing the classics as well as creating new classics for today’s audiences.

In addition, they invited Fredric Mao, a veteran stage director and affciando of Beijing opera, to direct the production. Song describes Mao’s treatment of the story as follows: "Using the form of Beijing opera, but with methods from outside the realm of Beijing opera, the story is innovatively realised on stage."

Lok Ya is a freelance writer.

耄鳳聲洪響九霄 - 老旦行當的藝術 老旦 — 京劇舞台上一個重要行當,專門扮演中年及老年婦 女。老旦的戲路極廣,由宮廷嬪眷、賢妻良母,以至元戎統帥、 老媼丐婦,一律應工。老旦屬旦行,以唱功戲為主,用大嗓演 唱,比較接近老生的唱腔,沉鬱蒼勁,但又吸收了青衣唱腔的 流暢婉順。演悲劇人物,悲涼委婉,一唱三歎,催人淚下;演 女中豪傑,則聲震山嶽,激昂慷慨,振奮人心。 以前有說演員因條件所限,唱不成老生,才會改行唱老旦。在 過去,老旦擔綱的大戲的確不多,通常只演單齣,作為開場或 墊戲之用。及至上世紀初,李多奎(1898-1974)崛起,採前 輩各家所長,結合自己蒼勁宏亮、鏗鏘有力的嗓音,發展為李 派老旦新唱腔,注重氣息運用,講究音色變化,追求人物感情, 在帶陽剛的大嗓中加上所謂「雌聲」的沙澀之音,把中老年婦 女形象描繪得栩栩如生,成為老旦唱腔的典範,顯着提高了老 旦的藝術地位。 新中國成立後,按部就班地培養新一代京劇演員,一批年輕老 旦女演員相繼湧現。同時,多部為老旦編排的新劇目出現,令 老旦行當有所發揮,在傳統表演形式上開拓新的藝術領域。

Old Ladies in Beijing Opera – Lao Dan

China National Peking Opera Company The Artistry of Lao Dan Mar 7 (thu)

Stabbing Bajie Mother Longing for Her Missing Son Recounting the Revolutionary Past, from The Red Lantern Duel with Spears Mar 8 (fri)

Fighting at the Four Guard Gates Story of a Golden Turtle Empress Dowager Cixi and Princess Deling Mar 9 – 10 Written by He Jiping Directed by Fredric Mao With Chinese surtitles and English scene synopses

True to its title, lao dan specialises in portraying mature women on stage. In keeping with the age and physical characteristics of the characters, lao dans sing in full voice similar to that of lao sheng (老生 ), the mature man role-type. The femininity of the character is shown in the florid singing, with elaborate embellishments used in dan’s singing. It is an amalgamation of two different styles of singing into a unique style which is highly expressive, and able to embody the intense emotions of the tragic characters often played by lao dan. The artistry of lao dan lies mainly in the powerful singing and subtle acting. For a long time in the past, it was grossly and unfairly neglected by the general audience. Notwithstanding a few popular short pieces featuring lao dan as the main character, lao dans usually played only supporting roles in the mainstream repertory works. It was not until the emergence of a great lao dan actor, Li Duokui ( 李 多 奎 , 1898-1974) whose outstanding singing and acting began to draw attention from the audience, that lao dan finally secured its foothold as an important roletype on the Beijing Opera stage. He developed and refined the heritage from his forerunning lao dans , while borrowing the singing and acting skills from other role-types. He created the "Li School" of lao dan singing which later became the prototype for lao dans . Following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, comprehensive training programmes for Beijing Opera singers were introduced in the country. A group of young female lao dans began to appear while new works were introduced into the repertoire featuring lao dan in more prominent roles.

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《美國夢險號》的啟示

生產與破壞

文:丹尼爾.薩克

「北美之所以擁有優越地位,全因為那片資源豐富、中等面積的陸地給開發後,得到讓世 界各地為之艷羡的資本基礎。在某種意義來說,過度開發邊境等同名揚天下。」 — 添.富蘭納里《永恆邊境》:北美及其民眾的生態史 一對年輕愛侶睜大眼睛盯着面前廣闊無垠的新世界。他 們是這國家的首批移民,跋涉長途,丟下熟悉的一切來 到這目的地。女孩嚇壞了,噁心得令她弓着身子。在激 昂的音樂和弦下,同伴大聲對她說: 祖里斯

:卡特琳娜,看着我,看着我。 終於到了。

卡特琳娜 :是的。 祖里斯

:你在這裏。

卡特琳娜 :我在這裏。(望着)很漂亮。 祖里斯

:難以置信,卡特琳娜,這簡直難以置信。

紐約布魯克林劇團 TEAM 創作的《美國夢險號》裏,再 三出現如下的一幕 ─ 演員呆立不動,反覆望向觀眾的 遠方,他們被當下的雄偉所震懾,顯得難以置信。第一 場和往後所有場景,都充斥着企業家的承諾和如臨大規 模破壞而生的敬畏:供砍伐的原始森林、任由開採毫無 障礙的高山礦藏、原子彈測試帶來的漫天輻射塵。這正 如添.富蘭納里所言,《美國夢險號》是美國「名揚天下」 的演出。

橫跨四百年歷史的音樂劇場景是當代拉斯維加斯,描述 美國本着不斷開發另一邊境的承諾,而注定沉迷於與資 本自由密不可分的自由觀。在拉斯維加斯,時間和空間 於黑洞般的室內瓦解;艾菲爾鐵塔在古羅馬庭園升起之 際,吃角子老虎機卻於靜止了的黃昏發出閃爍光芒。同 樣地,《美國夢險號》把美國歷史和整個大陸壓縮成一 晚的史詩式演出,是一篇最終止於死胡同的史詩。 故事圍繞一對長生不老,永遠 14 歲的荷蘭男女卡特琳 娜和祖里斯,他們穿越美國歷史,卻一直停留在青春期。 1624 年,他們從新阿姆斯特丹殖民地(紐約)西行至 後現代的發源地拉斯維加斯,在那裏希冀再次中大獎的 美國夢似乎難以實現。與此同時,身處當代拉斯維加斯 的祖安剛丟了侍應的工作,她一直冷眼旁觀,對於應否 去愛或毀滅這個她稱之為家的城市(和國家),嘗試作 一抉擇。她的內心矛盾呼應了在這金融危機的荒漠內, 無數苦苦掙扎的美國人。 貫穿整個作品的,是唱作歌手希芙.克里斯蒂安那激動 人心的搖滾歌曲和令人心酸的敘事曲,把我們誘進那種 對無止境發展的浪漫憧憬和集體迷思的根源。克里斯蒂 安與樂隊在台上演出,詮釋拉斯維加斯的精神:原子小 姐競選 ─ 1950 年代為慶祝在市郊成功進行原子彈測試 47


而舉行的選美比賽。她時而原始、時而怪異的獨特聲線 猶如警報,有軟弱無力的撫摸、有像孩童興奮的尖叫, 全憑這位主唱者以狂野激昂的唱功演繹得淋漓盡致。 TEAM 的首部音樂劇也是極盡人性化的劇場,例如劇團 成員以皮禮士利形象出現,或者以混亂一片的舞蹈馬拉 松來代表拓荒者的西方之行。TEAM 通過最初和最終的 媒介 ─ 身體和聲線來傳遞網絡文化。 《美國夢險號》花了近三年時間的工作坊進行資料搜 集,其中劇團在拉斯維加斯留駐了一整個月。踏入千禧 年之時,拉斯維加斯正正是發展得最迅速的美國城市, 也是受樓市崩潰和衰退打擊得最嚴重的城市之一。劇團 以內華達大學和城中的銀主盤之一作為運作基地,進行 訪問和參觀原子彈測試博物館、霓虹博物館(儲存舊霓 虹燈牌的倉庫)、拉斯維加斯南區分時發展失敗計劃、

大峽谷,還探索終日燈光通明、奇景和災難皆永無休止 的賭場文化。在這個沙漠城市,劇團尋覓到象徵其演出 的關鍵要點 ─ 以獨有的美式生產及破壞手法為中心思 想,界定了邊境神話。 在《美國夢險號》裏,TEAM 提醒我們,美國是一處如 卡特琳娜所說:「感覺那裏凡事皆有可能」之土壤。當 演出結束時,她最後一次凝望觀眾,神情驚詫,哀悼之 前所發生的一切:偉大的世界給永遠摧毀,偉大的新世 界已展開。她所指的亦包括劇場,讓我們瞥見最後也是 惟一的邊境:那個恆久湧現的時刻 ─「當下」。 丹尼爾.薩克是麻省大學和安默斯特學院表演研究之五學院聯盟美倫 博士後研究員。 原文轉載於《美國戲劇》2012 年 1 月期刊,蒙紐約市劇院傳播集團允 許轉載。

The Apocalypses of American Progress Mission Drift by Daniel Sack

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nations and traditions

"North America's pre-eminence has come about because the resources of a rich yet middle-sized continent have been mined to provide a capital base that is the envy of the rest of the world. In a sense, the overexploitation of the frontier was akin to going out in a blaze of glory." — Tim Flannery, The Eternal Frontier: An Ecological History of North America and Its Peoples The two young lovers stare out wide-eyed before the endless expanse of the New World. Among this nation’s first settlers, they have traveled long and far, leaving everything familiar behind to reach this destination. Terrified, the girl doubles over with nausea. Her partner calls out to her over the music’s soaring chords: Joris : Catalina. Look at me. LOOK AT ME. This is happening. Catalina : It is. Joris : You are here. Catalina : I'm here. (Looking) It's beautiful. Joris : It's unbelievable. Catalina this is unbelievable. It is a gesture that recurs again and again in Mission Drift , the contemporary musical by the Brooklyn-based company the TEAM (Theatre of the Emerging American Moment). Transfixed by the here and now, the actors repeatedly look out over the audience, dumbfounded by a sublimity that dwarfs them. This first scene and all that follows are charged both with entrepreneurial promise and a concomitant awe of the massive destruction possible: virgin forests primed for clearcutting, untrammeled mountains ripe for strip-mining, the glorious fallout from an atomic bomb test. As Tim Flannery would have it, Mission Drift is the performance of America "going out in a blaze of glory". Set in contemporary Las Vegas against the expansive backdrop of 400 years of history, the musical tells the story of the US’s doomed love affair with an idea of freedom inextricably linked to the freedom of capital — an affair sustained by the repeated promise of another frontier. In Vegas, time and place collapse within cavernous interiors; the Eiffel Tower rises above the courtyards of Ancient Rome while slot machines twinkle in the arrested dusk. So, too, Mission Drift compresses American history and the scale of a continent into a single night’s epic performance. It is an epic that has finally reached its dead end. The play follows an immortal Dutch couple, Catalina and Joris, perpetually aged 14 and suspended on the cusp of adolescence, as they traverse American history. They move westward from the New Amsterdam colony in 1624 (New York) to that birthplace of the postmodern, Las Vegas, where the American dream of another jackpot has run dry. At the same time, Joan, a present-day Las Vegas waitress recently unemployed, looks on, trying to decide whether to love or destroy the city (and nation) she calls home. Her ambivalence

speaks to that of countless Americans currently struggling in the wasteland of this financial crisis. Throughout the piece, the rousing rock anthems and aching ballads of singer songwriter Heather Christian (the force behind downtown New York band Heather Christian and the Arbornauts) seductively draw us into the naïve romantic thrill and longing at the root of our collective myth of unimpeded progress. Performing with an onstage band, Christian plays the animus of Vegas: Miss Atomic, a throwback to 1950s beauty pageants that celebrated the bomb tests on the city’s outskirts. Her inimitable voice is a siren call by turns primal and alien: part languid caress, part shriek of childlike glee, all backed by the ferocity of a diva. The TEAM’s first musical is also an intensely human theatre, with the company gyrating out Elvis impersonations or representing the pioneers’ westward travel as a chaotic dance-a-thon. The TEAM funnels internet culture through the first and last mediator: the body and voice.

Mission Drift was informed by nearly three years of workshops, including a month-long residency in Las Vegas. The fastest-growing city in America at the turn of the millennium, Vegas is also one of those hardest hit by the collapse of the housing market and recession. The company based its operations at the University of Nevada and in one of the city’s many foreclosed houses, conducting interviews and attending tours at the Atomic Testing Museum, the Neon Boneyard (a repository for the Strip’s old neon signs), a failing timeshare development in South Vegas, the Grand Canyon and around the endless lights, spectacle and disaster of casino culture. In this desert city, the company found its show’s symbolic heart — an epicenter of that distinctly American marriage of production and destruction that defines the frontier myth. In Mission Drift , the TEAM reminds us that America is a place where, in the words of Catalina, "It sort of feels — like there’s every possibility..." It is the end of the play and she is staring into the audience one final time, looking out in wonder and mourning over all that has come before: great worlds destroyed forever and great new worlds begun. She is speaking of the theatre, too, and offering us a glimpse at the last and only frontier: that forever emerging moment called "now." Daniel Sack is a Five College Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow in Performance Studies at the University of Massachusetts and Amherst College.

Reprinted with permission from the January 2012 issue of American Theatre, published by Theatre Communications Group, New York City.

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© Andy Phillipson

影像.魔

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無言喜劇: 《反斗先生》 文:約瑟.施力 陷阱、戲法和改頭換面都是一些引人入勝的劇場伎倆。 我們都愛舞台上的神秘和魔術。戲院的出現是一個奇 蹟,由最早期卓別靈、基頓和《奇事動警伯》的默片時 代起,滿載着全新的把戲和令人驚訝的特殊效果。這 樣看來,精采生動的《反斗先生》回顧未來,或正如 有首歌的歌詞:「復舊如新」。 托比亞斯.華格納的《反斗先生》,是連續兩屆愛丁堡 藝術節的大熱節目,現正國際巡演。七十多年前的弗 雷德 ∙ 阿斯泰爾在天花板跳舞的一幕,令電影觀眾看得 出了神,反斗先生李奧以同樣的戲法令觀眾着迷歎服。 這魔術仍然奏效。 《反斗先生》的有趣視覺效果,技術要求其實也很簡 單,只要你夠聰明想出所以然來,這裏就不透露太多 秘密了。雖說簡單,但也挺複雜的。整個演出都圍繞 着視角、把影片和實際演出並置的把戲。 我們看到舞台的一半有表演者真人演出,另一半則播 放現場演出的錄像投射,不過順時針轉了九十度,所 以當李奧躺在地上的時候,另一個他就倚在牆上,反 之亦然。這邊廂看來正常的動作,另一邊廂同時看到 的錄像,就好像違反地心吸力。 正當大家快習以為常的時候,李奧又把焦點放在另一 層次。他似乎懸浮半空,搖擺不定,在空中浮動滑行。 現場沒有煙霧或鏡子,觀眾一目了然。你看到什麼就 是什麼,令假象更顯奇突。 整個客廳都用粉筆畫出來,還有傢具、金魚、碗、貓 和籠裏的寵物鳥。利用巧妙的燈光和動畫,為所有物 件賦予生命。你很好奇這是怎樣做到的。當然,這演 出還有更精采的環節,不只是技術把戲。演出有人物 和個性,托比亞斯.華格納是優秀演員,體力、扮小丑、 繪畫,以至雜技和音樂技巧都操控自如,務求表現出 他想表達的氣氛和構思,並不是純粹炫耀精湛的肌肉 運用。 類似的技巧也曾被其他當代劇場製作人用來闡釋特定 內容,最明顯的例子可能是法國導演奧雷里恩 ∙ 博里 (2012 年香港藝術節中亮相)的《B 計劃》和加拿大 羅伯特 ∙ 利柏殊的《捕月》 (2003 年香港藝術節節目)。 不過,《反斗先生》由受過馬戲訓練的華格納經多年 構思和醞釀,再由導演丹尼爾 ∙ 布里埃、負責錄像的 海克.赫伯特和編舞艾斯拿加以完善,一連串的技術 魔法貫穿和推動整個表演。 54

視覺劇場有多種形式,當中最簡單、流暢、經典的幻 象風格演出,以曾於香港藝術節演出的、偉大的馬塞 ∙ 馬素的演出尤為著名。有人被困在想像中的玻璃盒這 種默劇演出已成俗套(儘管展現相當的技巧且難以抗 拒),從多方面看,李奧只是那個被困的人。我們看到 他在一個密閉空間,與自己創作的物件和寵物為伴, 嘗試讓你認識他那個改變了重力的世界。就好像貝克 特一些無言短劇裏的角色,李奧有自己一套做法,自 娛和消遣方法。但與所有貝克特式角色或那個困在玻 璃盒的人不同,李奧有出路。做法很聰明,但再多講 就要洩密了。 娛樂性豐富,引人入勝,講求技術的《反斗先生》,結 合藝術、現代科技和工藝。你定會看得目定口呆,會心 一笑。 文化節目監製約瑟.施力曾任香港藝術節國際節目總監,現居倫敦。


影像.魔幻

visual conundrums

On one half of the stage we see the performer in the flesh, on the other we see a live video-feed projection of the action, rotated clockwise through 90 degrees so that LEO lying on the floor becomes his doppelganger leaning against a wall, and vice versa. But what appears a normal action on one side of the stage seems to defy the laws of gravity when we see it at the same moment on film.

© Andy Phillipson

Just as familiarity might start to set in, LEO zooms to another level. He seems to levitate, to flip, float and glide in space. There’s no smoke or mirrors, nothing is hidden from the spectator’s gaze. What you see is what you get – which makes the illusion all the more remarkable.

Wordless Comedy: Illusion in LEO By Joseph Seelig

Traps, tricks and transformations have always held a fascination for theatre audiences. We love stage mystery and magic. The advent of cinema was a miracle which gave rise to a whole new box of tricks and mind boggling special effects, from the earliest silent movie days of Chaplin, Keaton and the Keystone Cops. In that sense the brilliant LEO looks back to the future, or, as the song says, "Everything Old Is New Again". A runaway hit at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival two years in a row and now set to be a worldwide success, Tobias Wegner’s LEO intrigues and dazzles audiences with the same visual legerdemain that held movie goers spellbound when Fred Astaire appeared to be dancing on the ceiling some seventy years ago. And the magic still works. Without giving away too many secrets, the technical marvel that makes LEO such a visual delight is actually very simple. You just have to be clever to think it up. Simple and yet sophisticated, the whole show is built around a trick of perspective, juxtaposing film and actual performance.

An entire living room is drawn in chalk, complete with furniture, goldfish, bowl, cat and caged pet bird. Cleverly lit and animated, everything takes on a life of its own. You wonder how on earth it’s done! But of course there’s more to this gem of a show than technical sleight of hand. There’s character and personality – Tobias Wegner is a fine actor whose physical strength, clowning, drawing, acrobatic and musical skills are there to serve the moods and ideas he wants to convey rather than showing off sheer muscular virtuosity. Similar techniques have been employed by other contemporary theatre makers to illustrate a particular point, perhaps most notably by the French director Aurélien Bory (featured in the 2012 Hong Kong Arts Festival) in Plan B and Canada’s Robert Lepage in Far Side of the Moon (featured in the 2003 Festival). In LEO , however, conceived and developed over several years by circus trained Wegner and perfected with director, Daniel Briere, video artist Heiko Kalmbach and choreographer Juan Kruz Diaz de Geraio Esnaola, the technical wizardry informs and drives the entire performance. Visual theatre comes in many forms, perhaps most simply, eloquently and classically in the illusionary style of performance made famous by the great Marcel Marceau, who was featured in the Hong Kong Arts Festival in the past. The man trapped in the imaginary glass box is now a mime cliché (albeit a skilful and almost irresistible spectacle) and in many senses the eponymous hero of LEO is just such a man. We see him in a confined space together with his self-created possessions and pets, trying to make sense of his world of altered gravity. Like characters in some of Samuel Beckett’s wordless, short dramas, he has his routines, his ways of amusing himself and passing time. But unlike any Beckettian figure, or that man in the glass box, LEO has a way out. It’s brilliant, but saying any more really would be revealing one secret too many! Entertaining, intriguing and hugely skillful, LEO marries art, technology and craft for modern times. You’ll be left wide-eyed with wonder, and smiling. Joseph Seelig is a London-based cultural producer. He was formerly International Programme Director of the Hong Kong Arts Festival.

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舞蹈愛幻象 MOMIX 文:露西亞.莫羅

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All photos © Max Pucciariello


1981 年,皮洛伯洛斯舞蹈團聯合創辦人摩斯.潘德頓 創立了一隊先鋒派主義舞蹈團 — 莫米克斯,在《四季 狂想曲》的表演當中,舞蹈員將肢體和軀幹靈活扭動, 拼湊成一個繁花盛放的美麗花園。 《四季狂想曲》喚起了視覺效果豐富的四季,透過鳥兒 歌聲及韋華第的音樂,《四季狂想曲》與熱心園丁、攝 影師暨編舞家潘德頓緊密聯繫起來。舞蹈員透過固定在 腳架的照相機,將向日葵和蘭花盛放的生動影像全程捕 捉。以大自然作主題的莫米克斯,基地正好設於華盛頓 的近郊地區康乃克州,在那兒我們趕及與熱力奔放的潘 德頓會面;當時他的辦公室剛剛被暴風雨突襲,導致嚴 重水浸,眼見他要不斷往外舀水也在所不辭,可見他確 實酷愛大自然的狂野本色。 「這是我的生命之源。」他語帶輕佻地回應。「我只是 順流而行。」 其後他的思維開始游離於連串藝術與大自然,甚至跟科 學融和一體的意象。當我們對談時,潘德頓正在檢視自 己的花園,太陽剛好冒出來了。他表示:「我特別喜愛 形狀,我喜歡郊外的輕柔線條,花朵更蘊含很多意思。 我經常在花園流連忘返,感覺猶如積遜.波洛克在流彈 之中畫畫。」 這位熱愛沉思的藝術家喜愛躲進這個被他稱為梭羅的世 界,他在那兒可種植幾千朵金盞花,並將之融入於《四 季狂想曲》內。他與舞團成員及工作人員輪流拔除雜草, 還弄髒了雙手。那些看似破壞花朵美態的雜草,潘德頓 也納入為創作元素:「雜草也有自己的位置,我要將它 們一一美化。當你仔細留意大自然,你會發現它會教曉 你怎樣放下,而不是控制。當你真正傾聽大自然的聲音 時,連知更鳥和畫眉鳥也可以分辨出來。」

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他將這些原理帶到舞台上。舞蹈員,或正確點說,他們 的軀體代表着不同部分,包括燈光、布料、道具、玩偶 及投影,在舞台上拼湊成一大塊砌圖。他以一個簇新及 極具創意的手法表達,重整大自然的形狀,以及它的周 期和圖案,令奇幻世界得以支配崇高的大自然。表演期 間潘德頓還特意製造一些有趣場面,例如,劇場佈景內 有一些從五金店買來的塑膠起皺污水管,竟可演變成一 條條黑夜出沒的大蚯蚓。這些特別佈景都屬於最精心設 計的低技術製作,感覺仿如源自他早前創辦的皮洛伯洛 斯舞團,將高超藝術與雜耍演員的靈巧戲法融會一體, 糅合成煉金混合精髓。 「我們以低成本構思層出不窮的創作意念。」潘德頓補 充:「我是佛蒙特州的農場男孩,我喜歡對未知的事物 尋根究底,但同時我亦非常實際。」 《四季狂想曲》將舞蹈和表演藝術結合為一,並滲入滑 稽嘲諷的娛樂元素。金盞花的圖案與女性的百褶裙互相 映襯,使人聯想起肯肯舞的舞衣。其中一個表演環節以 巴斯比伯克利幾何為基礎的扇子舞,波浪形絲綢與電影 照明凸顯了蝴蝶翼及海葵的形狀。另一個超現實的環節 展現了一位女子騎着一副恐龍骨骼,其後卻逐漸被吞噬 於巨形的胸腔之內。潘德頓早前構思的演出以美國西南 部的沙漠、海洋及遙遠的外太空為背景,其創作意念均 與大自然有着密不可分的關係。 摘錄自《拉維尼亞》雜誌,2011 年 8 月 23 日至 9 月 11 日 露西亞.莫羅是藝術評論員及寫作人,她的作品見於芝加哥論壇報及 芝加哥雜誌。她亦曾為芝加哥公共電台的《8.48》節目擔任舞蹈評 論員及芝加哥洛約拉大學擔任舞蹈歷史的副教授。 中譯:鄺潔冰


影像.魔幻

visual conundrums

Dance as Optical Illusion MOMIX, an avant-garde movement-based troupe created by Pilobolus co-founder Moses Pendleton in 1981, turns limbs and torsos into magnificently blooming gardens when it performs Bothanica . A visual evocation of the four seasons, via bird-song and Vivaldi, Bothanica is particularly relevant to avid gardenerphotographer-choreographer Pendleton. The dancers recall vibrant images of sunflowers and orchids opening their petals as they are snapped over time by a camera on a tripod. How apropos that MOMIX is based in rural Washington, Connecticut, where we caught up with the effusive Pendleton shortly after a storm had flooded his office. Despite having just bailed out bucketfuls of water, he remained a diehard lover of nature’s capriciousness. "This is the essence of my being," he said almost giddily. "I go with the flow." Then his mind took flight in a free-associative mélange of imagery that blurred the line between nature, art…even science. Over the course of our conversation, the sun came out while Pendleton surveyed his real garden: "I have a general interest in forms. I like the soft curves in a pastoral environment, and I spend an inordinate amount of time in the garden. It’s like a Jackson Pollock painting in random shot. The flowers have so much to tell us." The deep-thinking artist likes to escape to what he calls his Thoreau-like world, where he grew thousands of marigolds that were later incorporated into Bothanica . He and MOMIX ensemble and staff take turns getting their hands dirty and pulling weeds. Of course Pendleton managed to ponder those annoying bothanical invaders, too: "I’ve aestheticised the weed. They have their proper place. When you pay attention to nature, you discover that it teaches you

By Lucia Mauro

to loosen rather than control. And if you really listen, you can tell the difference between a robin and a wood thrush." He has essentially transferred these principles onto the stage. The dancers, or more accurately their bodies, become part of a larger puzzle that includes lighting, fabric, props, puppetry and projection. He reshapes nature, together with its cycles and patterns, in a fresh and inventive way so that fantasy reigns supreme. Part of the fun is figuring out, for instance, how in a theatrical setting plastic corrugated sewer pipes from a hardware store can become night crawlers. For Pendleton, "the technology is used as a tool to pass information." Like his still-active predecessor, Pilobolus, these are some of the most elaborate low-tech productions on the market – an alchemical mixture of high art and vaudevillian sleight of hand. "We’re resourceful on a low budget," added Pendleton. "I’m a Vermont farm boy. I like to mine the unknown but be practical at the same time."

Bothanica melds dance and performance art with a bit of burlesque. The marigold pattern is echoed in women’s ruffled skirts that suggest can-can attire. One segment joins fan dancing with Busby Berkeley geometrics. Undulating silks and cinematic lighting accentuate butterfly wings and sea anemones. One surreal section features a woman riding a dinosaur skeleton before disappearing inside its massive chest cavity. No stranger to natural landscapes, Pendleton has crafted prior shows around the deserts of the American Southwest, oceans and the farther reaches of outer space. Extracted from Ravinia Magazine , August 23 – September 11, 2011 Lucia Mauro is an arts critic and writer whose work appears in the Chicago Tribune and Chicago magazine. She is the dance critic for Chicago Public Radio’s Eight Forty-Eight programme and an adjunct professor of dance history at Loyola University Chicago.

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回到沙灘上

文:司馬勤

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© Lesley Leslie-Spinks 2012


雖然羅伯特.威爾遜比自己的時代走前 40 年,大家卻 不覺得他陌生。很少藝術家如此有機地發展,秉持一貫 視野,就連失敗之作也異於其他導演,而昔日與觀眾少 有交流的作品,今天也親切多了。 或有人會(半開玩笑)說世界趕了上來,只因為他的作 品太慢了。說實在,威爾遜的舞台節奏也真的可以極慢, 速度就像加入歌舞伎獨有風格的能劇。他那些具繪畫風 格的佈景,不注重線性敘述以至所有文本的作風,卻表 達出原始戶外演出的本質,帶有如儀式中的情感抑制。 在西方劇場,這些陳年特徵一般都貶為注腳,但在亞洲, 人們對威爾遜另眼相看。這位導演的視野為他贏得好名 聲,不論微型作品如 2009 年台灣京劇演員魏海敏演出 女獨腳版本的維吉尼亞.伍爾芙《奧蘭朵》,又或史詩 巨構如 2004 年為新加坡濱海藝術中心劇院製作的《加 利哥的故事》,作品細緻描述印尼創世紀神話,不太像 威爾遜風格的概念,倒是傳統文化的延伸。 「很久以前人們說我受亞洲影響」,威爾遜綵排《加利 哥的故事》時在濱海藝術中心劇院的後台告訴我說:「事 實是,我從未踏足亞洲,在我有一定聲望之前,甚至從 未認真看過亞洲藝術形式的演出。首次亞洲之旅讓我了 解更多,我找到從一開始我的作品所提倡的藝術價值。」

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威爾遜的「開始」實質上就是《沙灘上的愛恩斯坦》, 這是他 1976 年夥拍菲力普.格拉斯和編舞露仙達.查 爾特斯的劃時代作品,現正復排並會在長達一年的世界 巡演途中在香港藝術節上演。《沙灘上的愛恩斯坦》讓 創作者一舉成名,把格拉斯從一位簡約主義者變為極繁 主義者(起碼在節目長度而言,本節目長約 4 小時 30 分鐘,不設中場休息),確立威爾遜在二十世紀末優秀 前衛導演的地位。美國歌劇從此由一個滿載已故歐洲人 的倉庫,變為當下美國人的遊樂場。時至今日,《沙灘 上的愛恩斯坦》仍然是非簡單筆墨可形容。 威爾遜和格拉斯當初受阿維儂藝術節委約創作一套大型 舞台作品,這兩位當時在曼克頓下城區初出道的藝術家 開始尋找重要的歷史人物作為主題。威爾遜找到生於德 國的理論物理學家,不像是流行文化標記的愛恩斯坦, 和 1950 年代末的末日小說及電影《在沙灘上》,這部 作品描述據稱代表愛恩斯坦理論最終結果的原子塵。他 把兩者結合,製作成一系列場景設計和視覺主題:愛恩 斯坦對火車的迷戀、他穿吊帶的習慣、業餘小提琴手的 名聲。接近演出尾聲,有關原爆和氫氣爆炸的略記投射 在舞台上,讓很多人相信這是創作者偉大的反核宣言。 不過站遠點看,很難確切地說《沙》是否言之有「物」, 嚴格來說《沙》也不算是「歌劇」。雖然格拉斯從此成 為自普契尼以來最多產的歌劇作曲家,《沙》完全不像 傳統歌劇院的作品。樂譜並非為樂團而寫,而是為菲力 普.格拉斯樂隊而寫。這混合樂隊成員有兩位鍵琴手、 三位管樂手和一位演唱無文本歌曲的女高音,以合唱為

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主,但獨唱家沒有受過美聲訓練。樂隊大部分時間都唱 數字和唱名。 演出很大部分都夾雜既為人熟悉,又令人吃驚的內容, 試圖拆解我們對說書的基本觀念,迷惑觀眾的眼睛和耳 朵。對白,雖然不是很多 ─ 全套「歌劇劇本」連封面 共八頁 ─ 仍是小玩意,文本憑空而生又無甚意義。一 如格拉斯為了得到千變萬化的音樂模式而捨棄傳統音樂 發展,威爾遜也展露充滿真實但零碎場景的壯觀景致, 讓觀眾把各點連起來。

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《在沙灘上的愛恩斯坦》基本上是前衛藝術的胡士托。 正如有數百萬人聲稱曾參與在雅士格的農場集會(確實 人數約為五十萬),那些聲稱曾出席《沙》首演的劇迷, 只有小部分確實進入了劇場。 這節目後來成為了傳奇,部分原因是重演只比哈雷彗星 的出現稍密(《沙》上次到外演出是 1992 年,由普林 斯頓大學發起,遠赴東京作亞洲首演)。不過更像傳奇 的是這個演出的傳統。威爾遜和格拉斯並非沒有先例 ─ 維吉爾.湯姆森和格特魯德.斯坦恩的《三幕劇中 的四聖人》是半世紀前的非敘事歌劇,這些作品的成功 有助標示美國歌劇的路向。沒有《沙》,也就沒有《尼 克遜在中國》或《原子博士》(這例子夠貼切,因同是 關於物理學家的歌劇)。 不過每次《沙》要上演,問題仍是:演出還叫人讚賞嗎? 仍然感覺新鮮,還是充滿七十年代的懷舊色彩?如果是 陳年之作,會像高級葡萄酒還是牛奶呢?去年九月在布 魯克林音樂學院欣賞這製作,有點特別意義,因為學院 自 1980 年代起一直是格拉斯的藝術基地。整個活動或 比創作者預料的更像一項儀式。 個別評論員能比較復排與原作,已退休的《紐約時報》 的約翰.洛克威爾是其一,他在首演時支持作品,這次 特別復出為復排撰文:有幾場戲給簡化,刪去無關的元 素,焦點放在重要細節上。燈光和投射都變得更清新明 亮,可見科技進步。很多影像也經特別調整,以配合節 目的新演出者。 看罷演出,我明白到最後一點很重要,它令演出當初能 成功,而今天仍然滿有生命力。總而言之,原作今觀者 充滿發現新事物帶來的驚喜,令創作者一鳴驚人,在這 次之前他們的名聲不出曼克頓第 14 街。 今天,人們來看《沙》是因為威爾遜和格拉斯的知名度。 演出新鮮如昔,是因為台上的演出者都不是新鮮人。無 論你望向那裏,也會找到有看頭的物和人。 司馬勤為倫敦《金融時報》撰寫關於亞洲表演藝術的評論文章,也是 中國《歌劇》雜誌的專欄作家。


© Lucie Jansch 2012

Back on the Beach By Ken Smith

For someone who’s been ahead of his time for four decades, Robert Wilson looks awfully familiar. Few artists have developed so organically, their vision remaining so consistent — even his flops resemble no other director — that the same things that once kept audiences at a distance now seem relatively inviting. One could say (only half in jest) that the world has caught up simply because his works are so slow. Indeed, Wilson’s stage tempo can be positively glacial, the pace of Noh seasoned with the stylised artifice of kabuki. His painterly settings, lacking attention to linear narrative — or even to the literal printed page in general — convey the essence of primitive pageants with the emotional restraint of ritual. In Western theatre, these age-old traits are usually relegated to the footnotes, but in Asia, one looks at Wilson with a different eye. The director’s vision has served him well both in miniature — his one-woman version of Virginia Woolf’s Orlando with Peking opera performer Wei Hai-

ming in 2009, for example — and grand epics such as I La Galigo , his elaborate 2004 retelling of an Indonesian creation myth for Singapore’s Esplanade Theatre that seemed less a Wilsoneque conception than an extension of traditional culture. "People had said for a long time that I’ve been influence by Asia," Wilson told me backstage at the Esplanade during rehearsals for I La Galigo . "The truth is, I’d never traveled to Asia, and had never even seen much in the way of Asian art forms until I was relatively well established in my career. Coming here the first time was greatly illuminating. I found all the artistic values I’d espoused in my work from the beginning."

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Wilson’s "beginning", for all intents and purposes, was Einstein on the Beach , his landmark 1976 collaboration with composer Philip Glass and choreographer Lucinda Childs, currently in revival and coming to the Hong Kong 63


Arts Festival in the midst of a year-long international tour. Einstein put its creators on the map, turning Glass from a minimalist to a maximalist (at least in duration, the piece lasting nearly four and a half hours without intermission) and establishing Wilson as the preeminent avant-garde director of the late 20th century. It changed American opera from a repository of dead Europeans to a playground for living Americans. Yet even today, Einstein defies simple description. Initially commissioned to write a grand stage piece for the Avignon Festival, Wilson and Glass — both fledgling artists in Lower Manhattan — started looking for a pivotal historic figure as a subject. By combining Albert Einstein, the German-born theoretical physicist and unlikely popculture icon, with On the Beach , a post-apocalyptic novel and film from the late 1950s (an account of nuclear fallout arguably representing the end result of Einstein’s theories), Wilson fashioned a series of set pieces and visual motifs: Einstein’s fascination with trains, his habit of wearing suspenders, his renown as an amateur violinist. Near the end of the show, jottings referencing atomic and hydrogen explosions are projected onstage, leading many to believe that the creators were making a grand anti-nuclear statement. From a distance, though, it’s hard to say with any certainty that Einstein is about anything . Nor is it, strictly speaking, an "opera". Although Glass went on to become the most prolific opera composer since Puccini, Einstein resembles nothing in a conventional opera house. It is scored not for orchestra but for the Philip Glass Ensemble, a hybrid group of two keyboards, three wind players and a textless soprano singer. It features a chorus but no bel canto -trained soloists. Much of the time, they sing numbers and solfège syllables.

For most of the show, the eyes and ears are mesmerised by a mix of the familiar and the startling that undermines our basic ideas of storytelling. Spoken language, such as it is — the full "libretto" runs eight pages, including the title page — remains a plaything for the moment, with text emerging from nothing and leading nowhere. Just as Glass forsakes traditional musical development in favour of a kaleidoscope of ever-shifting musical modules, Wilson unfolds a grand tapestry of vivid yet disconnected scenes and lets the audience connect the dots.

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Einstein on the Beach is essentially the Woodstock of the avant-garde. Just as millions of people claimed to have experienced that gathering on Yasgur’s dairy farm — the actual count was about 500,000 — only a fraction of the devotees who claim to have been at Einstein’s initial performances would have actually fit in the theatres. The show has become something of a legend, partly because revivals are only slightly more frequent than Halley’s Comet (Einstein ’s previous outing in 1992, initiated by Princeton University, traveled to Tokyo for the show’s Asian premiere). More relevant than the legend, though, is the show’s tradition. Wilson and Glass were not without precedent — Virgil Thomson and Gertrude Stein’s Four Saints in Three Acts played with non-narrative opera a half-century earlier — and their success helped to chart a course for American opera. Without Einstein , there would be no Nixon in China or Doctor Atomic (appropriately enough, another opera about a physicist). Each time Einstein comes around, though, the question remains: How does the show hold up? Is it fresh, or a nostalgic slice of the 1970s? And if it has aged, is it like a fine wine or a glass of milk? Seeing this production last September at the Brooklyn Academy of Music (BAM)

格拉斯在大都會博物館 事有湊巧,《沙灘上的愛恩斯坦》去年九月在布魯克林音樂學院上演時,為安迪.沃荷和他的追隨者 舉辦的展覽剛好在大都會藝術博物館開幕。來到最後一部份展品時,碰巧發現查克.克洛斯的畫像 《菲》畫的竟然就是菲力普.格拉斯。 受沃荷的人像藝術哲學啟發,克洛斯的照片寫實繪畫始自 1969 年,是《沙》面世前差不多八年,當 時格拉斯還不算是個作曲家,只是擁有茱莉亞音樂學院學位的紐約的士司機。作品用上的不是沃荷會 用的技術,克洛斯沒有利用噴槍使主體更完美,他放大格拉斯的所有瑕疵,但與沃荷一樣有處理人像 的用意。 沃荷除了對名人很着迷,也擁護普通人;像瑪麗蓮.夢露或積奇.甘迺迪這些名人以外,你會在沃荷 的作品發現某個引人注目的人物,他或她能成名只因為與沃荷有關連。他那句:「未來,每人都會舉 世聞名 15 分鐘。」成為名句,絕非偶然。 《沙》展示出威爾遜和格拉斯如何堅守這項核心原則。在幾十個演出者當中,沒有一個會在威爾遜視 線之外。就像看沃荷的奇人一樣,你幾乎不可能移開目光。 正如《沙》現在的復排,「菲」也因為主題有名,現展於大都會藝術博物館。但無人能單憑這畫作知道 或預計格拉斯的成功,而克洛斯坦承他意不在此。相反,作品主題的內在感染力引起了藝術家以至我們的注意力。 像威爾遜的意象一樣,格拉斯為《沙》寫的樂譜充滿活力但大致上不離原位。樂曲展開,清除我們對時間的所有意識,重新校準得恰到好處。 按照沃荷的說法,《沙》的 15 分鐘非比尋常。

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影像.魔幻

© Lucie Jansch 2012

visual conundrums

may have been a special case, since BAM has been Glass’s artistic base since the 1980s. The event conveyed a bit more ritual than the creators probably intended. A few observers — New York Times critic John Rockwell for one, who championed the piece at its premiere and came out of retirement to write about the revival — can authoritatively compare this Einstein with the original. Several scenes have been pared down, with extraneous elements eliminated to focus on the crucial details. Lighting and projections are both crisper and brighter, reflecting advances in technology. And many images were tweaked specifically to fit the new performers in the show.

in keeping it alive today. By all accounts, the original production pulsed with the thrill of discovery, making stars of creators, who were essentially unknown above 14th Street in Manhattan. Today, people come to see Einstein because Wilson and Glass are famous. The show continues to be fresh, however, because the performers on stage are not. But everywhere you look you’ll find something and someone interesting to look at. Ken Smith is the Asian performing arts critic for the Financial Times of London and a regular columnist for China’s Opera magazine.

Coming out of the performance, I realised that last point was crucial, both in the show’s initial success, and Philip Glass in MMoA By sheer coincidence, Einstein on the Beach opened at the Brooklyn Academy of Music last September just as an exhibition devoted to Andy Warhol and his followers opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Toward the end of the exhibit I stumbled upon Chuck Close’s portrait Phil — picturing, of all people, Philip Glass. Inspired by Warhol’s philosophy of portraiture, Close’s photo-realist painting dates from 1969 — nearly eight years before Einstein — when Glass was not so much of a composer as a New York taxi driver with a Juilliard degree. It was hardly the technique Warhol would’ve used — instead of airbrushing his subject to perfection, Close magnifies Glass warts and all — but the same intent was in place. Warhol, for all his obsession with fame, was also a champion of the ordinary, and for every Marilyn Monroe or Jackie Kennedy in his work you’ll find a striking figure who became known only because of his or her association with Warhol. It was no accident that the artist’s most famous utterance was, "In the future, everyone will be world-famous for 15 minutes."

Einstein reveals how strongly Wilson and Glass held to that core principle. None of the Einstein performers — and there are dozens — detracts from Wilson’s personal vision, but much like Warhol’s eccentrics you can barely take your eyes off them. As with the current revival of Einstein , Phil now hangs at the Met because its subject is famous. But no one could see or predict Glass’s success on the basis of this painting alone, and Close freely admits that wasn’t his point. Rather, the subject had an inherent intensity that captured the artist’s attention, and by extension, our own. Like Wilson’s imagery, Glass’s score to Einstein bubbles with energy yet remains more or less in one place. As it unfolds, the piece — rather appropriately — clears and recalibrates our entire sense of time. By Warhol’s reckoning, Einstein has had a rather exceptional 15 minutes.

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© Paul Henderson Kelly

藝術大融和 Art Fusion

文:胡銘堯

路迪《圖畫展覽會》

By Mikel Echevarria

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今年香港藝術節有兩齣音樂家別出心裁的構思 ─ 影像 配音樂 ─ 的節目。第一個是俄羅斯音樂家路迪重構抽 象畫派始祖康丁斯基 (Wassily Kandinsky) 1928 年的舞 台製作《圖畫展覽會》。另一齣影像配音樂的製作,澳 洲室樂團的《珊瑚礁》則朝另一個向度進行。

路迪的圖畫展覽會 俄羅斯畫家康丁斯基 1866 年生於莫斯科,被譽為抽象 畫派的始作者。他早年已經認定音樂獨有牽動情緒的能 力,說音樂是他「終極的老師」。他提出畫的基本元素 點 (point) 與綫 (line),在「自主」的面 (plane) 上運行 並組織起來。他提出顏色的理論,每種顏色是有着什麼 意義。他明確地表示「我不是要繪畫音樂」,但他的理 論卻充分反映了音樂的影響。 他的理論,就像音樂理論中協和與不協和音程的平衡和 進程、和弦的特質以及和弦間的關係、音樂主題的論述 和發展等。如果這些抽象的理論在作曲家手下能進化成 偉大的交響曲,那麼畫中的點、綫、顏色,也能組合出 偉大的畫作。交響曲與畫作,未必需要呈現一個故事、 一首詩或是一幅現實景象;一幅作品,就是這些基本元 素的完美整合。 68

雖然音樂的自主性 (autonomy),啟發了康丁斯基奠下抽 象畫風的理論基礎,但他崇尚着華格納的總體藝術,畫 上的點、綫與顏色,協和和不協和音的衝突,影畫的動 作等同時出現,才是藝術作品的高峰。康丁斯基創作了 好一些結合舞台、視覺藝術、詩歌和音樂的作品,《黃 色聲音》(The Yellow Sound) 是其一,但第一次世界大 戰後,他無法看到這作品完整的呈現。在 1928 年,他 為穆索斯基 (Modest Mussorgsky) 著名的鋼琴曲《圖畫 展覽會》製作一個舞台作品,是他唯一一次用現成音樂 的作品。 《 圖 畫 展 覽 會 》 將 英 年 早 逝 的 小 畫 家 赫 德 曼 (Viktor Hartmann) 的畫作化成音符,是十九世紀末的鋼琴巨 著。《展覽會》把小畫家十幅圖畫以音樂呈現,貫穿着 代表第一身漫步的主旋律。康丁斯基則把這些聲音,重 新演繹為眼前的點、綫、面,突出這些「畫作的發展, 即是跟隨着音樂、建構和解構畫上的彩色形狀。」這不 單是極現代的想法,呈現的手法也超越時代。他幻想着 舞台由「無盡的黑色慢慢變為紫色」,這效果在 1928 年 還未發明變阻器和調光器的年代,實在只有在腦袋中存 在。


影像.魔幻

© Ed Sloane.jpg

visual conundrums

大半個世紀後的今日,越洋通話不再是匪夷所思,傳送 來自火星的石頭影像,也只是彈指間的事,我們或許不 再留意,在不足一世紀前的日子,這些都是需要費勁地 想像的事。康丁斯基沒有留下《圖畫展覽會》的任何影 片,但他留下了畫作,並仔細地描述如何把畫作中的點、 綫、顏色動起來,也為音樂上加上註解,註明圖像與音 樂如何互動。俄羅斯鋼琴家路迪 (Mikhail Rudy) 力主重 構康丁斯基的《圖畫展覽會》,嘗試把康丁斯基遺留下 來的指示,逐寸地在劇場和銀幕上執行,除再一次考驗 總體藝術間理論與實踐,他更會為動畫現場演奏這鋼琴 巨著。

澳洲室樂團衝浪而來 澳洲室樂團的《珊瑚礁》,並不是《藍地球》一類配以宏 偉管弦樂的地球生態紀錄片,也不是《幻想曲》般恐龍 暴走在《春之祭》的節奏上,把史達拉汶斯基氣煞,而 是以音樂伴隨着衝浪者在鏡頭前的英姿,以一個衝浪者 的視角,記載他如何乘着或頑抗海浪和大自然的視野。

巨浪,在水壁間滑翔;是衝浪者與海浪搏鬥的同時,與 鯊魚同處一海面的驚慄;也拍了記載了衝浪者拚命地找 尋最佳巨浪的場景。這些都是衝浪者 Derek Hynd 的故 事,也是面對着大自然的不同心情。 而 為 這 些 場 景 選 取 音 樂 的, 就 是 音 樂 總 監 托 尼 提 (Richard Tognetti)。托尼提本身是小提琴家,他帶領的 澳洲室樂團,是一支生氣勃勃的隊伍。他們以互動性極 強的演奏,表達室樂的精髓,力求捕捉每個值得細味的 音樂細節。而《珊瑚礁》的音樂,由澳洲地道的土著音 樂,到美國當代大師克林姆 (George Crumb) 聲音詭異、 以越戰為背景的《黑天使》,到貝多芬寫得濺淚在手稿 上的作品 130 弦樂四重奏,風格廣泛之餘,亦突顯了音 樂描繪的人性和面對大自然的龐大的對比。 人在大自然下顯得渺少,翱翔於無邊無際的想像力時, 卻可讓人衝破障礙。恰巧,這兩部影像配以音樂的作品, 都帶着這意思,值得玩味。 胡銘堯活躍於香港的古典音樂樂評人,文章見於各大報章及雜誌。

呈現這種張力的藝術,音樂絕對是最耍家的。畫面記載 的,是衝浪者站在小小的浪板上,面對着比好幾米高的

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The fusion of visual arts and music thrives in many forms, as technology allows for a coming together for creativity in unimaginable ways. The 2013 Arts Festival presents an eclectic showcase of video-meets-music moments in Mikhail Rudy’s Pictures at an Exhibition , and the Australian Chamber Orchestra’s concert in accompaniment to the surf film The Reef .

Painting the Musical Palettes

Step in Mikhail Rudy, Russian pianist extraordinaire. Rudy had played Pictures since his youth and Kandinsky is among his favourite artists. A trip to the Centre Pompidou to see the original watercolours sealed his intent to recreate Pictures for a modern audience with watercolours that come alive and move to the music.

© Ed Sloane.jpg

When we think of Gesamtkunstwerk, it is Wagner who comes to mind. He sought a total work of art — a synthesis of the arts to form a complete whole. But neither the idea nor the word was his. Another German, the philosopher K F E Trahndorff, is credited with first

lines and geometric shapes to serve as transitions between the paintings. Images of these still exist and are now kept at the Centre Pompidou, among other sources. There is also a detailed typescript by Kandinsky and an amazingly detailed piano score annotated by Felix Klee, the son of Paul Klee. The latter document describes in great detail what is supposed taking place on stage, bar by bar. What luck!

using the word and the idea of fusing the arts is older than theatre itself. Around 1928 Wassily Kandinsky, then a long-time teacher at the Bauhaus, was commissioned by Georg Hartmann, director of the Frierich-Theatre in Dessau, to stage Modest Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition . It was the only time he agreed to work to an existing score. The early performances were triumphant, combining glorious live music, a continually moving set of brilliant artistic creations and complicated lighting that was way ahead of its time. Mussorgsky’s music was inspired by the watercolour works of Viktor Hartmannand. Then Kandinsky produced 10 watercolours for the show, eight of which illustrate the music created for the earlier paintings. Alongside these paintings which explore costumes and figurines, Kandinsky produced six promenades: abstract drawings comprised of 70

The instructions left for the 10 watercolours and six promenades differ greatly in detail. For example, details regarding the pictures Gnomus and The Old Castle are complete; they are created in the show alongside the music until complete replicas are displayed exactly at the point where Kandinsky intended. Other images may not be true to the artist’s original intent due to the lack of information. For instance, for Tuileries , all Rudy has to go on was the following: "A white screen is placed on stage onto which a kaleidoscope is projected. This must use strong colours, but in a cheerful manner [becoming] darker and slower [or] lighter and faster". Freedom to interpret is a necessity in this instance. Similarly, for the Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks , only a small drawing exists of three wavy lines. This represents slits in a backdrop behind which dancers move while holding flashing yellow lights. No other instructions exist.


影像.魔幻

visual conundrums

Some of the pictures are more abstract than others. Catacombs is fully abstract and for Bydlo several circles and squares are required to "dance" along the stage, each at different speeds, with different characters. Actual dancers are needed in The Market Place at Limoges , where they appear from a map dressed in French national colours.

legendary folk singer Pete Seeger, a politically charged lament about the decline of nature in modern times; and György Ligeti’s Ramifications , which was featured in, and immediately brings to mind, the sci-fi classic 2001 : A Space Odyssey , a stark warning about the impact of our actions on the future.

It is thought that one of the reasons Kandinsky agreed to the commission was to explore his beloved homeland. This is no clearer than in The Great Gate of Kiev which includes images of the towers of the Kremlin and the gate of Kiev.

The theme of man’s inhumanity to man resounds in other moments of the score: George Crumb’s Black Angels — Thirteen Images from the Dark Land, Threnody I: Night of the Electric Insects and God-Music originally written for an amplified electric chamber orchestra in response to the war in Vietnam; and Dmitri Shostakovich’s Chamber Symphony, Op 110a II Allegro molto (arranged by Rudolf Barshai) which he composed "to the memory of the victims of fascism and war". Both serve as grim reminders of our capacity for darkness.

As for the Russian pianist, Rudy has a history of exploring various art forms. He explored classical jazz fusion while dueting with Misha Alperin; his show Le Pianist was inspired by the Wladyslaw Szpilman’s book, this played at the Hong Kong Arts Festival; and he has written a book, Le Roman d’un pianiste: l’impatience de vivre. With Pictures at an Exhibition he has created a unique musical and visual experience accessible to a wide audience who may otherwise not have pursued an interest in the scenography of Kandinsky or Mussorgsky’s beautiful score.

The Musical Surfs Founded in 1975, the Australian Chamber Orchestra (ACO) is an ensemble known for its vibrant and energetic performances, and its versatility under the stewardship of Richard Tongetti, ACO’s Artistic Director and Lead Violin since 1989. With its dedication to both masterworks of the classical repertoire and innovative cross-platform projects, ACO will be performing from the classical repertoire – except that all players, apart from those on cello, will be standing up – and in accompaniment to a surf film: The Reef.

Other musical choices take the audience deeper into an inner journey. There is the pure beauty we are capable of in J S Bach’s Fugue from Sonata No 1 in G minor, BWV1001 (arranged by Richard Tognetti); the depths of emotion we all experience in the sadness of Beethoven’s String Quartet in B flat major, Op 130 IV Cavatina: Adagio molto espressivo; and the despair in Alice in Chains’ Angry Chair and Them Bones (from 1992 album Dirt ) (arranged by Richard Tognetti). The artists’ exploration of humanity and the world shimmers in such art fusion. The visual arts and sound don’t just go side by side. They make a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. A paint brush can add colour to the orchestra, and music can add waves of emotion to an adventure through nature. Mikel Echevarria is a writer, musician and surfer.

The Reef is most certainly cross-platform not only in the marriage of video and music, but also in its content. The joy of surfing is illuminated in the many genres of music represented in The Reef , which range from classical and folk to grunge rock. The unfolding begins with the stillness of sitting on a surfboard, waiting behind the waves, to the moment when the perfect wave looms in the horizon, and the surfer paddles with fury to catch and become one with the wave. Finally the thunder erupts, with a violent crash as a wall of unrelenting water lifts up and collapses, and the surfer hurtles down and away. All the while, we follow the musical odyssey of surfer and wanderer Derek Hynd in the film. Hynd travels across Australia from East to West to look for the perfect waves. When surfers go looking for waves they call it the search. Musicians go on a similar search in the music they seek. Beyond the tranquility and crescendos of surfing, the music chosen as the backdrop to The Reef is an exploration of humankind. There are themes on humanity’s actions on nature including: Richard Tognetti and Iain Grandage’s arrangement of Where have all the Flowers Gone , by Mikhail Rudy's Pictures at an Exhibition

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© Johan PerssonJohan Persson

喜劇大爆破

Comedy Explosion 好笑、可悲,笑中有淚,從 《中式英語》到《一僕二主》, 戲劇反映了我們生命中少不了的 喜劇、鬧劇。 Embrace laughter and grief in the essential comedy 文:約瑟.施力 By Joseph Seelig

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黃哲倫風靡百老匯的《中式英語》,內容圍繞着因一宗 交易而起的誤會,以機智幽默手法,探討中國與美國由 語言到愛情等各方面的文化差異;香港本土的黃詠詩也 有新作《屠龍記》,前作《破地獄與白菊花》的靈感來 自其家族殯儀生意,盡顯她的黑色幽默作風;拿波里聖 卡洛歌劇院的《呷醋丈夫》是典型虛浮的拿波里學派喜 歌劇;英國國家劇團令人捧腹的鬧劇《一僕二主》,改 編自果多理享負盛名的聞名即興喜劇作品《一僕二主》。 既然快將欣賞到這麼多喜劇作品,看來也是時候細想一 下喜劇的意義和目的。喜劇真的超越文化界限嗎?當中 有沒有忌諱的題材呢?

幽默有助我們處理嚴肅議題,不只是面對日常生活的壓 力,更幫助我們思考,甚至了解。喜劇不純粹是娛樂, 同時也有目的。 有沒有題材不含喜劇元素,不可以通過大笑而領會更 多?或者殘疾或大屠殺?著名英國喜劇演員瑞奇.傑維 斯(以大熱電視劇《辦公室瘋雲》中極其令人尷尬的角 色而知名)相信所有事情從幽默角度去看,都會變得更 易理解。他說:「你一提出禁忌話題,人們就納悶是否 可以大笑。」我們都很怕說錯話,可是有人被冒犯並不 表示他們是對的;有些人是基於平等和異族通婚而被冒 犯。根本沒可能永遠不開罪別人。」 嘿,輕鬆點吧,畢竟我們說的是喜劇呢! 2013 年香港 藝術節正好上演多套來自不同時期和文化的喜劇。最新

就這個嚴肅的題目,成文的多不勝數,圖書館的相關書 籍也汗牛充棟,嘗試解釋各種幽默形式的差異,怎樣才 算是出色的笑話,以及逗笑藝術的內容。 讓我們集中看其中兩種形式:喜劇和諷刺作品,兩者各 有特色且互有差別。 喜劇是說有趣好笑的事(扮小丑是 做一些好笑的行為),態度樂觀,主題是一般普遍永恆 的人性惡習,例如貪心、做作、虛偽、肉慾等。誰也不 會寄望經過喜劇演員或作家的努力,可以帶來什麼行為 上的重大改變,但有時也會讓人對鏡自照時有所啟發。 有一點也令人欣慰的是,有些事不只是我們自己的困 擾,原來也是傳統喜劇的主要題材,包括性、成功、岳 母 / 婆婆,以及外國人或所有異於「我們」的人。 正因為內容是關於共同特性,喜劇比諷刺作品流傳更 遠,後者以特定情況為主題,涉及當地題材。 諷刺作品一般較有攻擊性,內容涉及負面的時事專題, 注重此時此地,希望改變現狀,主要以挖苦和譏嘲去羞 辱個別人士和整個社會。諷刺作品以機智為武器,本意 是富建設性的社會評論,旨在帶來改變。通過令觀眾嘲 笑當權派,最起碼讓市民較易忍受困境。

© Francesco Squeglia

© Johan Persson

© courtesy of kevinberne.com

差不多每個早期社會都有其特許的滑稽人物,即使拿部 族領袖、國王和皇帝無度及愚蠢的行為來開玩笑戲耍一 番,也可以免受處罰。他們通常都有特別的裝束,以凸 顯其有別於普通人的地位,例如宮廷弄臣的緊身帽子和 搖鈴,又或是北美土著祖尼族小丑的滿身泥濘。這些官 方認可的小丑有一項重要的社會功能。

喜劇通常都較為人受落,諷刺作品卻不然,被攻擊的對 象擔心作品會損害他們的權力和地位。其實笑聲是有效 排放緊張的活門,獨裁政府應該加以鼓勵,而非禁止諷 刺作品!

作品有黃詠詩的《屠龍記》,劇中人物代表着野心、驕 傲、自我放縱和自欺等人類的老毛病,添上地道色彩, 你會立刻看得出香港色彩,非常有趣。與莫扎特和海頓 同時代的占瑪勞莎,其作品《呷醋丈夫》嘲諷妒忌,引 發出一場舊時代固有風俗習慣常見的兩性之間的密謀較 量,氣氛喧鬧輕鬆。《一僕二主》曾轟動倫敦西區和百 老匯,在澳洲 / 新西蘭大型巡演之旅途中,來香港呈獻 亞洲獨家演出。緊湊的劇情和一眾難以抗拒的人物,展 示最好看的人類缺點和弱點,把經典喜劇元素發揮得淋 漓盡致。 最後介紹藝術節的喜劇過山車。黃哲倫的《中式英語》 是關於兩種文化的故事,以及這兩種文化相遇時可能引 起的嚴重誤解。黃哲倫生於洛杉磯,在完全接觸不到中 文的環境成長,他認為這演出已促進中國人和美國人互 相了解。他說:「像這樣的戲劇,只要能使我們談起當 中的某些誤解,一起大笑,就可望領我們向正確方向踏 前一步。」 喜劇不僅僅是一齣像《奇事動警伯》的惹笑片,低估喜 劇的力量只會惹人發笑。 作者介紹見第 52 頁

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喜劇大爆發

comedy explosion

Centred on misunderstandings over a business deal, David Henry Hwang’s Broadway hit, Chinglish , wittily explores cultural differences between China and America in everything from language to love; there's a new play from Hongkong's own Wong Wing-sze, well known for her dark humour which she admits owes much to a family background in the funeral business; San Carlo Theatre’s Il Marito Disperato [The Desperate Husband] is a typically frothy Neapolitan comic opera; while the National Theatre’s uproarious farce One Man, Two Guvnors is a brilliant updating of the most celebrated play in the commedia dell’arte repertoire, Carlo Goldoni’s The Servant of Two Masters. With such a wealth of comic enjoyment in prospect, it seems like a good moment to reflect on the purpose of comedy. Does it indeed transcend cultural boundaries? Are there any taboo subjects? Just about every earlier society had its licensed funny men, free from threat of prosecution to playfully challenge tribal leaders, kings and emperors by making fun of their excesses and follies. They were always specially costumed to stress their status as different from the rank and file – think of the court jester with cap and bells, or the mud-smeared Zuni clowns in native North A m eri c a n s o ci e t y. Thes e officially sanctioned clowns had an important social function. As befits such a serious subject, vast amounts have been written and academic libraries bulge with tomes which try to explain the difference between various forms of humour, what makes the perfect joke, and what constitutes the art of laughter. Let’s focus on just two forms of humour, namely comedy and satire. They are distinctive and different. Comedy is about saying funny things (clowning is about doing funny things); it is optimistic and focuses on generally universal and eternal human vices such as greed, pretension, hypocrisy and lust. No one expects any great behavioural change as a result of comedians' or comedy writers' efforts, but it’s instructive to see oneself in the mirror sometimes. It’s also reassuring to know that we are not alone in our worries about (for example) those staples of the traditional comedian’s repertoire: sex, success, the motherin-law, and foreigners – anyone not quite like "us". Because it deals with universal traits, comedy travels far more easily than satire, which focuses on specific situations and touches on local knowledge. Satire is usually aggressive, dealing with exclusively negative and current issues, the here and now. It seeks to change the status quo and uses mainly irony and ridicule. It shames individuals and society itself. Using wit as a weapon its purpose is constructive social criticism. It aims to bring about change. At the very least, by making people laugh

at the ruling establishment it makes the citizens' problems easier to bear. Comedy is generally received in a friendly spirit. Satire is not. Its victims fear it as a threat to their power and position. But in that sense laughter is a useful safety valve for the release of tension. Dictatorships should actually encourage, not prohibit satire! Humour can help us deal with serious issues — more than just coping with the stress of everyday life, humour helps us think and, hopefully, understand. More than merely being entertainment, comedy serves a purpose. Are there any subjects which have no comedic possibilities, where greater understanding cannot be gained through laughter? Perhaps disability, or the Holocaust? The well known British comedian Ricky Gervais (famous for his excruciatingly embarrassing character in the hit TV sitcom The Office ) believes there is nothing that cannot be better understood through humour. In his own words, "as soon as you bring up a taboo subject people wonder if it’s ok to laugh. We are all terrified of saying the wrong thing. But just because someone is offended doesn’t mean they are right. Some people are offended by equality and mixed marriages. It’s impossible never to offend people." But hey, let’s lighten up here – we’re talking comedy after all! The 2013 Festival shows examples from right across the comic spectrum and from different periods and cultures. Bang up to date, Wong Wing-sze’s Smear features characters representing ambition, pride, self-indulgence and self-delusion among other familiar human foibles, with an instantly recognisable and delicious Hongkong twist. Il Marito Disperato by Mozart and Haydn contemporary, Domenico Cimarosa, holds jealousy up to ridicule in a rollicking, light-hearted, battle of the sexes tale of domestic intrigue, rooted in the mores and manners of its bygone age. One Man, Two Guvnors has been a sensation both in the West End and on Broadway, and gives exclusive Asian performances Hong Kong en route to an extensive Australia/ New Zealand tour. Its breathless plot and gallery of irresistible characters show off human vice and weakness at their most appealing, with some of the funniest physical comedy routines you will ever see. Last up on the Festival’s comedy roller-coaster, David Henry Hwang’s Chinglish is a story of two cultures, and the potentially serious confusions that can arise when those two cultures meet. Born in Los Angeles and raised without any Chinese language background, Hwang believes his play has been a positive influence on mutual understanding between Chinese and Americans. In his words, "a play like this, just as long as it can get us talking about some of these misunderstandings and laughing together, is hopefully a step in the right direction." There’s a lot more to comedy than the Keystone Cops and to underestimate its power is simply laughable. Writer’s profile see p53

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All photo © courtesy of kevinberne.com

點講中式英語 Speaking Chinglish 文:黃進之 By Nicolette Wong

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黃哲倫把中美關係和雙方的誤解編成新作《中式英語》, 以喜劇手法批判兩地文化和那些尚未掌握新世界秩序的 人。黃哲倫過去的作品包括《蝴蝶君》(1988)、《金童》 (1996) 和《黃面孔》(2007),又曾與迪士尼、菲力普. 格拉斯和其他流行藝術家合作,中國和美籍華裔身份的 主題在他的創作事業中經歷了明顯轉變。「如果觀眾認 為這些都是異國主題,」黃哲倫在電話裏對我說,「《中 式英語》是反異國情調的戲劇,它要說的是透明度。」

這樣揭示秘密是黃哲倫很重要的藝術選擇。「《中式英 語》與其他作品如《蝴蝶君》的處理手法不同,後者隱 瞞一切,完場前觀眾一直被蒙在鼓裏,」他表示:「欣 賞《中式英語》的觀眾很清楚劇情發展,明白角色所說 的話,也知道投射在舞台上的字幕錯譯。觀眾由始至終 都知道角色所不知道的事。異國情調講求凡事皆神秘, 而《中式英語》說的是透明開放,表達手法對我而言是 反異國情調的。」

《中式英語》是關於語言和文化錯譯的故事,作品的創 作動力源自劇作家的個人經歷。2005 年,中國對百老 匯音樂劇漸感興趣,黃哲倫這位自稱「百老匯劇作家中 惟一,至少在名義上,的中國人」,開始定期到訪中國, 獲邀出席會議。他以有限的普通話水平和翻譯員的幫 助,努力摸索錯綜複雜的社會和商業世界。他參觀過上 海新開幕的藝術中心,那裏除了錯譯的告示牌,其他都 很好,於是語言成為他演繹今天中國的起點。

常見誤解

「身為中國移民父母的孩子,每次我來到中國,靠直覺 也會理解很多文化。」他補充說:「不過還有很多其他 事情我是一竅不通的,我想以這個矛盾組合創作一個演 出。」

謎團揭開 《中式英語》充滿令人捧腹的中英錯譯,劇作家以至我 們當中許多曾到過中國的人都為之竊笑,例如「小型家 族企業」在一條「小村」裏變成「微不足道的公司」, 又例如「我無能為力」給翻譯為「他受奴役」。觀眾會 看到丹尼爾.卡凡諾鬧出的笑話,這個失勢的安然主管 好不容易得到中國貴陽官員的大生意,希望藉着振興家 族的告示牌生產業務東山再起。正當交易似乎要告吹之 際,丹尼爾與文化部副部長席言有染,後者答應為這位 外國人扭轉局面。 不過,隨着劇情發展,一切都不如所見。每個主要角色 都有所隱瞞 ─ 曾從事的工作、走後門的交易,或僅是 對改變的抗拒 ─ 他們的秘密往往在自我剖白中揭露。 丹尼爾被揭發曾涉及安隆醜聞的情節,黃哲倫視之為塑 造《中式英語》裏中美關係「很有用的選擇」。 「在目前美國的經濟狀況和中美關係之下,說一個美國 藉的主人公在經濟上獨善其身,又或寫一套美國人很無 知而中國人凡事秘而不宣的戲劇,會教人難以置信。」 他進一步解釋:「當我決定丹尼爾的秘密該是大家知道 的真實醜聞時,我選了安然。」 既然如此,觀眾應該不會對《中式英語》裏不斷改變的 世界秩序感到詫異 ─ 丹尼爾對於席言拒絕承認自己 國家的威名而感到失望,卻高呼「中國 ─ 強大!美 國 ─ 虛弱!」不過,劇中揭露的真相絕不會一面倒。 主要的中國人角色,例如席言和她的上司蔡部長,嘗試 隱瞞在不恰當的時候洩露了的資料,把自己置於危險境 地。

因為劇中人物抱着一廂情願的想法去認識對方,未能真 正互相了解,《中式英語》的故事情節也就離不開關係。 對黃哲倫而言,《中式英語》主要探究人類關係固有的 誤解。除了語言障礙和文化差異的因素,人與人之間嘗 試連繫和溝通的時候,還存有不同層面的誤會。 「我們都不會說完美無瑕的語言,即使是兩個說英語的 人談論愛,互相誤會的情況不一而足。」黃哲倫說:「在 丹尼爾和席言之間,他們通過斷續的對話對彼此有點了 解,可是真正重要的是他們不了解的東西。他們利用自 己投射在對方的幻想就足以發展美好的浪漫故事。」 如果這種偏執的誤解令人際關係更形疏離,對於無視現 實,且忽略自己與世界的關係已然改變的人,這種誤解 可摧毀他們的人生。至於其他角色,如丹尼爾在中國的 業務顧問彼得和代表了上一代中國文化的蔡部長,他們 無力跟隨改變中的經濟狀況,以致危機降臨。另外,劇 作家表達了他對資本主義的擁護,他相信資本主義把大 眾變為消費者之餘同時也成為營銷者。 「大家都要成為出色的營銷者 ─ 這是接管世界的價值 觀。在創作《中式英語》的過程中,我希望創造像丹尼 爾、席言和她丈夫的角色,他們向前邁進,取得成功。 而持有其他價值觀的彼得和蔡部長則落後於人。一如蔡 部長那篇關於長城的演說 ─ 很多人為建築長城而犧牲 性命,葬身長城。今天,在美國或中國或其他地方,有 人幫助國家進步卻沒有從中受惠。」黃哲倫強調。 《中式英語》於 2011 年 6 月在芝加哥古曼劇院首演, 繼而於 2011 年 10 月至 2012 年 1 月在百老匯上演三個 月,得到觀眾和評論讚賞,獲《時代雜誌》選為 2011 年度最佳美國戲劇,現正進行美國巡迴演出和籌備電影 製作。《中式英語》於 2013 年香港藝術節上演,黃哲 倫表示很想知道香港觀眾對這演出的反應。 「到目前為止,喜歡《中式英語》的觀眾都是對劇中處 境有所認識的人。尤其是那些曾在中國生活或從商的 人。」黃哲倫特別提到,「香港是東西交匯的發源地, 我相信香港觀眾能夠真正領會本劇。」 黃進之為本刊英文編輯

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Weaving the changing Chinese-American relations and miscommunications into his latest play, David Henry Hwang presents in Chinglish a comedic critique of both cultures and those who have yet to grasp the new world order. For the playwright of M. Butterfly (1988), Golden Child (1996) and Yellow Face (2007), and frequent collaborator with partners ranging from Disney to Phillip Glass, the subjects of China and Chinese-American identity have gone through marked shifts throughout his career. "If the audiences have thought of these subjects as exotic," Hwang says to me on the phone, "Chinglish is a play of anti-exoticism. It’s about transparency." The impetus for writing Chinglish , a story of linguistic and cultural mistranslations, stemmed from the playwright’s personal experience. He began travelling to China regularly in 2005 when the country became interested in Broadway-style musicals and Hwang, who calls himself "the only nominally Chinese person who has written a Broadway show", would get invited to meetings. With his very limited proficiency in Mandarin, Hwang had to scrabble through social and business intricacies with the help of a translator. Language became the starting point for his rendering of China today, when he visited the newly opened Shanghai Oriental Art Center — where he found everything beautiful save for the mistranslated signs. "Whenever I’m in China, there’re lots things about the culture that I understand intuitively by being the child of Chinese immigrant parents," he says. "Then there’re many other things I’m completely ignorant about. I wanted to create a play out of this combination of contradictions."

Secrets Revealed Chinglish bustles with the kind of hilarious mistranslations between Chinese and English that the playwright and others have chuckled at, like "a small, family-run firm" becoming a "tiny, insignificant company from a small village", or "my hands are tied" being translated as "he’s into bondage". The audience follows the blundering of Daniel Cavanaugh, disgraced Enron executive seeking redemption by reviving his family’s sign manufacturing business. He puts his hopes on nailing a big contract with the authorities in Guiyang, China, and just when it looks as if the deal is lost, he falls into an affair with Xi Yan, the vice minister of culture, who promises to turn the table for the foreigner. All is not what it seems, however, as the drama unfolds. Each of the main characters has something to hide — their career histories, a backdoor business deal, or simply their resistance to change — and then are unmasked one by one. Where Daniel’s past involvement in the Enron scandal is exposed, Hwang calls that "a very useful choice" in shaping the ChineseAmerican relations in Chinglish .

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"Given the economic conditions in the US and the relationships between the US and China right now, it’d be no longer credible to have an American protagonist who’s squeaky clean economically, or to write a play where the American characters were innocent and the Chinese characters had all the secrets," he elaborates. "I chose Enron when I decided Daniel’s secret should be a real scandal that everybody knows about." In this light, the shifting world order in Chinglish should be no surprise to the audience — when Daniel, frustrated at Xi’s refusal to see her country’s prominence, proclaims, "China — strong! America — weak!" But the revelation in the play is never one-sided. The main Chinese characters, such as Xi Yan and her senior, Minister Cai, also try to withhold information that gets divulged at inopportune moments and puts them in precarious positions.


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the miscommunications that are inherent in all human relationships. Beyond the language barrier and cultural differences that can come into play, there are different layers of misunderstanding between people when they try to communicate. "None of us speaks a language perfectly. Even when two English speakers talk about love, there’re any number of ways they can misunderstand each other," Hwang says. "Daniel and Xi reach a certain understanding through their broken conversations. But what they don’t understand about each other is just as important. They’re able to have a wonderful romance by projecting their fantasy onto each other." If such self-deception romanticises personal relationships, it can wreck the lives of those who stay blind to practical realities. For characters like Peter Timms, Daniel’s business consultant in China, and Minister Cai, who reminisces about earlier eras of Chinese culture, their inability to follow the changing economic landscape underlies their crises. The embrace of capitalism is another concern of the playwright, who believes it has turned the masses into marketers as much as consumers. "Everyone has to be a good marketer — that’s the value that’s taking over the world. In writing Chinglish , I wanted to create characters like Daniel, Xi and her husband, who move forward and succeed. Then there’re Peter and Minister Cai, who hold onto other values and get left behind. It’s like Minister Cai’s speech about the Great Wall — many sacrificed their lives building the Great Wall where they were buried. Today, in the US or China or elsewhere, there’re people who help their countries move forward and they don’t benefit from it," Hwang contends. These revelations are an important artistic choice for Hwang. "Chinglish uses a different method than, say, M. Butterfly , where everything is concealed to fool the audience until the end," the playwright reflects. "An audience watching Chinglish knows exactly what’s going on in the story, what the characters are saying, and the mistranslations from the surtitles that are projected on stage. All the way through the audience knows what the characters don’t know. Exoticism demands that everything is mysterious, and Chinglish is about being transparent and open in ways that are anti-exotic to me," he says with reference to the American audience.

Wilful Misconceptions The intrigue invariably lies in the guanxi (relationships) in Chinglish , as the characters fail to see one another beyond their own fantasies. In Chinglish , Hwang explores

After the play had its premiere at the Goodman Theater in June 2011, Chinglish had a three-month Broadway run from October 2011 to January 2012. The production received positive response from the audiences and critics, with the TIME Magazine calling it the Best American Play of The Year in 2011. Future US tours and a film production are in the works. Hwang says he is eager to see how the Hong Kong audience will respond to the play. "So far, many of the audiences who have loved Chinglish are those who have some knowledge with the situations you see in the play, especially people who have lived or done business in China," Hwang notes. "Hong Kong is the original place where East meets West, and I believed the Hong Kong audience will really be able to appreciate the play." Nicolette Wong is the English Editor of FestMag .

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All photo © Kit Chan @ KC Creative

黃詠詩: 戲劇呈現的是「真」 文:周潁榆

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一小時的訪問裏,黃詠詩竟然沒有一刻瘋狂的笑 ─ 也 許我們沒有談及甚麼太過悲傷的事情。「我的性格有一 個特質,就是當我遇到一些很悲哀,或者很嚴肅的事情, 我會像『跳掣』(短路)那樣笑起來。」黃詠詩形容這 特質為「社交和公關上的悲劇」,卻讓它變成自己的寫 作風格。

用荒誕表現沉重 「當你很嚴肅和我分享一些事情的時候,我會覺得很肉 麻。如果我和你一起去 share,我會突然有窒息的感覺, 好想笑出來 ─ 這 [ 給我 ] 一種抽離的感覺。而我覺得, 我的作品也是描述一些很沉重的東西:死亡、存在。但 是我會用我這性格特質,將它的另一面表達出來,即是 那種荒誕性:這麼樣的一件事也可以發生。因為那種荒 誕是來自極度的悲哀,所以很多時候,你一邊笑着,你 的眼淚已經湧出來了。可是你還是要笑,好像排毒那樣。 對啊,『排毒劇』!」 這次再度與香港藝術節合作的《屠龍記》,她選擇這四 位演員(鄧偉傑、邵美君、白只和陳康)的其中一個 原因,也是因為他們「笑的時候像在哭;哭的時候像在 笑」,亦正亦邪。 黃詠詩認為戲劇呈現的是「真」,而她實踐的方法就是 「用最『古惑』的手段去說最純潔的東西」。法律的白 紙黑字,大概是感情世界裏最不理智的處事方式,過程 結果同樣荒謬。無論哪一方在法庭上獲得勝利,感情上, 最終亦是兩敗俱傷。有了法理的固執,黃詠詩便可以放 肆地坦露情感的弱點和價值觀的漏洞。 兩度於香港藝術節公演的《香港式離婚》容許她「寫的 時候很任性,因為對這種離婚的痛,實在太有信心了」。 這作品對黃詠詩來說是既貼身(她自小父母離異),又 抽離(第一次寫中年男女和律師)。她的「任性」亦讓 她奪得香港舞台劇獎四個獎項(包括最佳編劇)。相比 《香港式離婚》,《屠龍記》對她來說可能更「到肉」: 一場嘩眾取寵的棟篤笑表演和一篇苛刻的劇評,演變成 一場誹謗官司。一個獨力維護藝術價值的劇評人(Mia) 被有大財團支持的劇壇巨人(Harold)指控她毀壞他的 聲譽,二人曾是小劇場的伙伴,今天他們卻要在法庭上 爭辯甚麼是藝術。

劇評引發《屠龍記》 「《屠龍記》 說的是什麼?其實是說:什麼是美?」。 而最初引發她創作《屠龍記》的也是一篇劇評 ─ 她 獲邀執筆評論別人的作品。她最終沒有把那篇劇評寫出 來。「世界上有很多東西,其實是說不通 ─ 不是有 一個道理可以說得通。有很多美感的東西,美麗的東 西……為什麼你覺得這東西美,而我覺得不美呢?我們 受過什麼教育?我們生命經歷過什麼?我們見過這些東 西沒有?」她實在無法寫一篇「對」的劇評。

《屠龍記》卻不是一場美學的討論。它探討的反而是, 那些堅持自己的美學的人與那些為了名利完全放棄信念 的人。在現實世界裏,黃詠詩置身兩者之間。那些只顧 市場、背棄理想的劇場工作者,是說不過去。可是,劇 評人再熱愛劇場,也不曾要像黃詠詩那樣,身兼編劇和 演員的同時,背負百多萬的製作費。當天在香港演藝學 院修讀戲劇藝術碩士時,導師對她那個忠告:「最緊要 寫衷心的」,現在似乎變成了一句諷刺的說話。在香港, 一個演出,除了藝術,還有票房。 「我覺得 artists 都在努力建立劇場的美,各自各吸引着 自己的觀眾,但是在這個城市裏,除了自己的堅持,其 實是沒有人眷顧你的。」黃詠詩平和地說。假如這是《屠 龍記》的一句台詞,角色應該會在說完這一句話之後放 聲大笑。 周潁榆,自由身撰稿及劇評人

李鎮洲

導演(沒有說)的話

每當李鎮洲在台上開口說話,你總會定神聆聽;但假若他坐在 你面前,你最好讓他沉默。即使在別人忙亂的時候,他總是保 持着那種自在的靜默。「其實我不太會說話」─ 這是李鎮洲 在訪問錄音最後的一句說話。「不會說話」不是代表他沒有意 見,更不是因為口齒不伶,只是較喜歡讓其他人發聲,尤其是 當他執導的時候。 與他在香港藝術節合作多次的莊梅岩曾經對這位導演說:「你 好像沒有什麼章法」。「是啊,我沒什麼章法。我這些都是盲 拳。」李鎮洲自嘲。他所謂的「盲拳」其實是直覺,而且通常 都很準確(連他自己也不得不承認)。 儘管在文學理論角度上,「作者已死」,每次執導,李鎮洲亦堅 持以編劇和文本為本。如果編劇在生,他會不時向他們發問, 包括一些連作者自己也沒有想過會被問的問題,甚至邀請他們 看排練。即使作者死了,他會請教對那位編劇有深入認識的學 者。 「他在文本研究這方面,比我更執着。」黃詠詩說道。「我說 不出為何會寫了某些東西,他卻會像算命那樣 [ 推敲 ]。有時 候我覺得他比我更了解我自己。」黃詠詩的第一個劇本也是由 李鎮洲執導,他倆合作多年,更在今年重演的《香港式離婚》 聯合執導和演出。 然而,《屠龍記》給李鎮洲的第一個印象卻是:「很難搞」。「因 為要爭論什麼是藝術,甚麼不是…… 但是和她談起來,才發覺 原來不是這樣,她其實不是想談這些,她想談的反而是一種逝 去了的價值。」 作為資深劇場工作者,李鎮洲不會對藝術沒有看法,但作為導 演,他總是把自己變得無聲無形。難道他沒有導演的 vision(視 野)麼?「我沒什麼所謂,無 vision 就無 vision 吧。」他輕描 淡寫着。「因為的確很大程度上,我做的是一個 service。我沒 『我要這樣呀!』」 (話畢笑起來) , 「特別是 [ 當 有那樣的 ego 去: 遇到 ] 很好的劇本。 」

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Wong Wing-sze's Tragic Titter In Smear I have always found Wong Wing-sze witty, loquacious, catloving and ghost-friendly, on stage and in writing. In person she is disarmingly straightforward. She tells me she wrote her first play solely for money, at the outset of her bumpy acting career 11 years ago. Wong’s career has come a long way since. In her latest work, Smear , commissioned by the Festival, the playwright takes a step too close to the goings-on in the local performing arts scene. Wong has the heart and courage to ask such questions as: What is the value of art? What price do artists have to pay for their art?

Her Pen and His Sword Smear (its Chinese title translated as "Slaying the Dragon") centres on a libel lawsuit filed after critic Mia has written a damning review on theatre populist Harold’s crowd-pleasing stand-up comedy, which is the only work representing Hong Kong at the opening of the city’s cultural district. Little do the two estranged collaborators know that the court case is going to cost them more than just money and their reputation. Wong likes to explore human drama in a legal setting since it brings out the "pathetic" aspects of the subject. She looks at love (divorce) in her last play The Truth about Lying (2010), her debut collaboration with the Festival, which was re-staged in 2012. She turns to aesthetics in Smear , where two pragmatic lawyers, in order to defend Mia, have a hard time rummaging through the history of drama in the hope of finding the definition of art. "Smear asks "What is beauty?"," Wong elaborates. "Why do you consider something beautiful? Why do I think otherwise? What kind of education did we receive? What have we experienced in life? Have we seen such things before?"

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By Winnie Chau

Between the Giant and the Dwarf That is why when the playwright was asked to review a production by another theatre company, she declined. When taste and perception vary between different viewers, there is no definite answer to the question: What makes a successful theatre production? Regarding the state of theatre in Hong Kong, Wong calls it "miserable" and says the audience number, rather than the artistic merit of a production, defines success. "Artists are working hard to create beauty in the theatre and attract their target audiences. Yet no one cares about what you’re doing in this city – your determination is all that there is," says Wong. While some of Wong’s counterparts live faithfully by their artistic beliefs, others have given up their principles and now spend their energy pleasing the audience. Since founding her own theatre company Princess Blackbox in 2005, Wong has been a keen witness to the struggle between the artistically resolute and the decidedly commercial in local theatre. Wong sees herself in between these two camps. It is this in-between-ness that informs the writing of Smear , which echoes her artistic life and those of her counterparts in Hong Kong. "I’m not trying to accuse anyone [through the play]," Wong clarifies, "I’m accusing both sides." The crowdpleasers are condemnable for abandoning their principles. The critics, for all their passion, have never wrestled with the reality of theatre. They have never shouldered a potential production debt of over a million dollars, while simultaneously taking up the roles of playwright and actress as Wong did with Our Best of Youth in Cambrian (2011).

All's Well That Ends Well? "The most important thing is to write straight from the heart,"


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Wong recalls the words of her former mentor from when she was a MFA Playwriting student at the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts. Having had a taste of the ruthless reality, Wong has grown cynical about her former mentor’s statement. That said, the playwright-actress is still following her heart to a large extent – the goal of her playwriting is to "adopt the most cunning approach to convey the purest messages". Her dark sense of humour remains intact and her plays are black comedy by default. Despite her obsession with miserable existences and the wistfully dead, Wong says she cannot stand tragedy. "There’s a special characteristic of mine: Whenever I come across something very sad or serious, I laugh," explains Wong. "When you share something with me in a solemn manner, I get goose bumps. If I talk to you in that manner, I feel suffocated and I can’t help but laugh out loud." This laughter distances the playwright from the sorrow in her work, where anything that is sad is instinctually absurd. "The absurdity comes from extreme sorrow. Very often, you’re laughing when tears are oozing from your eyes. Still, you need to laugh. It’s like detoxification," Wong muses. There is not a moment during the interview that Wong tries to crack a joke, or looks like she is about to burst into laughter. She looks almost vulnerable when talking in earnest. But she is more optimistic than her works suggest, if only by her quick response to the question: Is every comedy a tragedy?

Lee Chun-chow's Vision and Invisibility To say nothing of his onstage eloquence, Lee Chun-chow is a man of few words. With nearly 30 years of directing experience, Lee is known as a perceptive director while still being recognised as an actor. His director’s voice is barely audible, for he disregards the literary death of the author and tries to re-live the text as the writer intends. If the playwrights are accessible (i.e. alive), he bombards them with questions about the plays that even the playwrights themselves would never have imagined being asked. Given such loyalty to the writer, is there still a director’s vision? "It’s fine for me to go without a director’s vision," he says. "I’m very much doing a service to the work. I’m not so egoistic to say, "I want it this way!" about any play I direct." Despite his finger-on-the-pulse understanding, Lee thought Smear would be "difficult to handle" when he first read the script since the debate on art could be tricky. "After talking to Wong Wing-sze about the play, I realised that’s not what she really had in mind. Instead, she’d like to talk about some forgotten values," says Lee. As a freelance theatre practitioner, Lee has relatively few commercial considerations. His artistic compromise usually has to do with audience reaction. "[It is the choice between] entertaining the audience and preserving the ambiguity of the work," says Lee, invariably opting for the latter, which means giving greater space for audience reflection, rather than adopting some easy approaches to convey the messages superficially. Smear , however tricky it turns out to be after revisions, is in good hands.

"Absolutely – it’s just a matter of time. When you’re living in the moment of a tragedy, it’s definitely tragic. But then after a period of time, when you look back on the past and think: Wow, I was able to go through that! Something [that tragic] could happen!" says Wong. "That’s something hilarious." Winnie Chau is a freelance writer and theatre critic.

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All photos © Johan Persson

《一僕二主》 前世今生

文:約瑟.施力

《一僕二主》是李察.賓恩改編自意大利卡洛.果多理 同名經典喜劇的得獎作品。在倫敦,本劇成為英國國家 劇團近年大受歡迎的作品之一,移師倫敦西區和美國百 老匯同樣好評如潮。 卡洛.果多理 (1707 –1793) 生於威尼斯,著作等身, 在劇場方面獨具匠心。那個時代的意大利喜劇以十六世 紀即興喜劇為基礎,有大量即興內容和眾多一眼就可 認出的平面定型角色,而這些角色往往包括愚笨的老學 究、狡猾的僕人、守財奴商人、自命不凡的傻瓜,還有 誇誇其談虛張聲勢的軍官。 果多理為即興喜劇的傳統風格注入了現實主義、機智、 坦率,立體角色和精密編排。他的戲劇真實反映社會, 展現時人各種形象,而且通常以戲劇手法表現新興中產 階層的生活、價值觀和衝突。 顯然果多理熱愛人性,對一般人與他人、自己的城市和 家園之間建立的關係好生着迷。他懂得怎樣開玩笑而非 嘲弄;他的角色可信,不像意大利舞台上慣常擠滿的純 粹誇張諷刺的角色。 果多理的名作《一僕二主》是一個關於性、食物、張冠 李戴和金錢的故事。主角是狡猾的僕人楚法迪諾,靠一 己的機智為生,常常飢腸轆轆、不安又缺錢。命運使然, 他捉緊機會一舉解決所有難題。他同時打兩份互不相容 的工,兩個主子的生活和生意緊密相連,卻一點也不知 道自己的僕人同時侍奉對方。本劇將絕妙時間表、鬧劇 和混亂狀態共冶一爐! 來到幾百年後英國南岸的布萊頓,那是一個生氣盎然、 中產階級的海邊小鎮,現在風光不再,與倫敦相隔不遠, 成了好些首都內名聲不好的黑社會角色最喜歡去的地 方。多姿多彩、風格獨特的布萊頓在活力時尚的六十年 代初 ─ 在這個富創造力的背景,可找到現代版果多理 故事中各式各樣的人物。 好了,先深呼吸一下。根據英國國家劇團的節目介紹, 《一僕二主》是關於法蘭西斯.亨歇爾(現代版的楚法 迪諾)的故事。他最近遭所屬的流行樂隊解僱,轉做無 足輕重的東區黑幫成員羅斯科.克雷布的保鏢,後者來 到了布萊頓向未婚妻的父親要六千鎊。不過(也忠於果 多理原著),羅斯科其實是法蘭西斯的妹妹蕾切爾假扮 的,而羅斯科已被蕾切爾的男朋友史丹利.史特伯斯所

殺。與此同時,長期飢餓的法蘭西斯躲在板球員酒店, 又多找到一個謀生的機會,就是替一個叫史丹利.史特 伯斯的人打工,他要避開警察,等着與蕾切爾重聚。為 了不暴露身份,同時為兩位僱主保守秘密,法蘭西斯必 須把兩位主子分開。 跟得上嗎?其實非常簡單,法蘭西斯想要食物,也想要 個姑娘! 李察.賓恩的才華見於他選擇了十八世紀的故事情節, 而且令大西洋兩岸的現代觀眾看得投入,香港觀眾當然 也會很投入。妙語連珠的文本充滿妙趣橫生的對白、上 氣不接下氣的旁白,以及與觀眾的互動,演出非常新穎 專業,你可以想像到得每晚的節目都是即興演出。令人 難忘的角色包括:夢想成為演員又滑稽造作的人、頭腦 簡單的金髮美女、堅強好拚的女權主義者、喋喋不休的 律師、奸商、上流社會的傻瓜等。這一連串角色與經典 即興喜劇裏面的角色同樣浮誇又容易辨認。 然後是鬧劇演出!每套即興喜劇的基本元素是具有喜劇 效果的插科打諢,就是多數與演出情節無關的片段,可 以是特意設計的表情手勢、熟練的雜技、 接物件,甚至 摔跤,穿插在演出中以表現藝術家的特別技巧。 果多理的《一僕二主》有一段堪稱最著名的插科打諢, 在現代版《一僕二主》中改頭換面,非常精采。在這個 演出中,僕人須同時為兩位主人籌劃晚餐,又不可讓任 何一位知道對方的存在,侍應又是一位植入了心臟起搏 器的八十多歲的人,還是第一天上班呢! 當代英國劇場的喜劇融合了多種不同影響及傳統,由音 樂廳和綜合節目,以至布萊恩.瑞克斯演出的名劇《白 廳鬧劇》、電台喜劇《呆子節目》和無數《繼續》系列 的電影。想想差利卓別靈、戇豆先生、約翰.克里斯的 《非常大酒店》和《踎低噴飯》。故事仍然以階級為基礎, 牢牢扎根於兩性之戰,充滿機智的文字遊戲、 荒誕的情 節和場景、有猥褻含意的雙關語和打鬧式形體喜劇。由 前棟篤笑演員李察.賓恩負責劇本,形體喜劇大師卡爾. 麥克里斯托編排舞步,加上全劇由英國國家劇團藝術總 監尼古拉斯.海特納爵士導演,《一僕二主》一應俱全。 作者介紹見第 52 頁

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The Comedic Pedigree of One Man Two Guvnors One Man Two Guvnors is Richard Bean’s award winning version of Carlo Goldoni’s classic Italian comedy, The Servant of Two Masters . In London it has been one of the National Theatre’s biggest hits for years, with hugely successful transfers to both the West End and Broadway. The prolific, Venetian-born Carlo Goldoni (1707 –1793) was one of theatre’s great innovators. Italian comedy of his time was based on the 16th century Commedia dell’Arte, largely improvised and with an instantly recognisable gallery of onedimensional, stock characters. These invariably included foolish old pedants, devious servants, miserly merchants, pompous asses, and military officers full of bombast and false bravado. To the Commedia conventions Goldoni added realism, wit, candour, rounded characters and sophistication. His plays held up a mirror to society, offering his contemporaries images of themselves and often dramatising the lives, values, and conflicts of the emerging middle classes. It’s clear that he adored humanity and was obsessed with the relationships that ordinary people establish with one another, with their cities and homes. He knew how to poke fun, as opposed to ridicule. His characters were credible, not merely caricatures like those that customarily filled Italian stages. His masterpiece, The Servant of Two Masters is a tale of sex,

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By Joseph Seelig

food, mistaken identity and money. Its leading character, the wily servant Truffaldino, lives off his wits, is always hungry, insecure, and short of money. When fate beckons one day, he seizes on the chance to solve all his problems in one go. He takes two, mutually exclusive jobs, working for two masters whose lives and business are very much interrelated, each having no idea that their servant is also working for the other. Cue some nifty timetable juggling, farce and chaos! Move forward a couple of centuries to Brighton on the south coast of England, a racy, middle-class, seaside town now running to seed, just close enough to London to be a favourite haunt of some of the capital’s shadier, criminal underworld characters. Colourful, characterful Brighton at the start of the swinging 60s – an inspired setting in which to locate the motley crew of this modern adaptation of Goldoni’s story. Now, take a deep breath. According to the National Theatre’s programme notes, One Man Two Guvnors tells the story of Francis Henshall (our modern Truffaldino), recently fired from his pop group who becomes minder to small time East End gangster, Roscoe Crabbe, who in turn is in Brighton to collect £6000 from his fiancé’s dad. However (and faithful to the plot of Goldoni’s original story), "Roscoe" is really Rachael posing as her own dead brother, who’s been killed by her boyfriend, Stanley Stubbers. Meanwhile, holed up at The Cricketer’s


喜劇大爆發

comedy explosion

Arms, the permanently hungry Francis spots the chance of an extra meal ticket by taking a second job with a certain Stanley Stubbers, who is hiding from the police and waiting to be reunited with Rachael. To prevent his own exposure, and for his employers’ secrets to remain concealed, Francis must keep his two guvnors apart. Are you keeping up? Really, it’s very simple. Francis wants food and he wants a girl! Richard Bean’s genius has been to take an 18th century storyline and make it work for modern audiences – on both sides of the Atlantic and farther afield. His sparkling text is packed with witty lines, breathless asides and interaction with the audience, so fresh and expertly delivered you could imagine it was improvised each night. In its line-up of memorable creations – hilariously pretentious wannabe actor, dumb blonde, feisty feminist, loquacious lawyer, dodgy businessmen, upper class twit and many others, the parade of characters is as flamboyant recognisable as in any classic Commedia. And then there’s the knockabout! An essential element of every Commedia dell’Arte play was the comic business known as lazzi, an intervention which often had little to do with the action of the play itself. It might be pantomime, virtuoso acrobatics, juggling or even wrestling, in routines designed to show off the artists’ special skills.

The Servant of Two Masters contains one of the most famous lazzi of all, brilliantly reinvented in One Man Two Guvnors . In this routine, the servant of the title has to mastermind the serving of dinner to his two different masters at the same time without either knowing of the presence of the other. And the waiter is an octogenarian with a pacemaker, on his first day in the job! Contemporary British theatre comedy is a mix of many different influences and traditions, from Music Hall and Variety through Brian Rix’s celebrated Whitehall Farces, the Goon Show and the countless Carry On films. Think Charlie Chaplin, Mr Bean, John Cleese’s Fawlty Towers and Monty Python. Still class-based and firmly rooted in the battle of the sexes, it embraces witty word play, farcical plots and situations, double entendre and slapstick physical comedy. With a script by former stand-up comedian, Richard Bean, physical comedy routines choreographed by a master of the genre, Cal McCrystal, and the whole enterprise directed by National Theatre chief, Sir Nicholas Hytner, One Man Two Guvnors has it all. Writer’s profile see p53

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Giuseppe Verdi

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Jordi Savall

Benjamen Britten


美妙音色

Glorious Voices Yasmin Levy

Esperanza Spalding

人聲、樂聲,天籟之聲?威爾 第、布列頓、斯伯丁、雅絲 敏.利維與薩巴爾,多位作者 為我們介紹他們美妙的音樂與 背後的藝術精神。 Rhythms, melodies and resonance – A musical joyride through the works of Verdi, Benjamin Britten, Esperanza Spalding and Jordi Savall.

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歌劇薪傳 – 威爾第與布列頓 2013 年適逢布列頓 (1913-1976) 百歲和威爾第 (18131901) 二百歲誕辰紀念。在同一篇文章中談論這兩位重 要但完全不同的作曲家,乍看起來有點風馬牛不相及; 不過,要是這兩位作曲家有機會坐下來把酒閒談,他們 肯定會在談話中找到意氣相投之處。

留下豐富音樂遺產 威爾第 1813 年在意大利帕爾馬附近出生,那裏不但是 歌劇發祥地,更孕育了西方古典音樂歷史。在那段悠長 的音樂史中,在這豐富的歌劇傳統中,威爾第有自己的 篇章,並成為歌劇傳統的一部分。 與之相反,布列頓生於音樂氛圍淡薄的英國洛斯托夫 特。當年是 1913 年,對一位日後成為熱心的和平主義 者來說,生於第一次世界大戰將要爆發之時,不是個好 開始。十七世紀初結束的英國音樂黃金時代,拜德、塔 利斯和吉本斯等作曲家留下的豐富作品,對布列頓而 言,一定像他小時候的住所眺望荒涼北海地平線一樣遙 不可及。 然而,兩人都為歌劇院留下了寶貴的遺產,雖然心裏的 目標觀眾不同。布列頓陰鬱心理歌劇《碧盧冤孽》在 2010 年香港藝術節上演;2013 年則有威爾第打動人心 的浪漫作品《茶花女》,由拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院製作。 劇院於 1737 年由拿波里及西西里國王卡洛主持開幕典 禮,其音樂廳在歷史上和建築上也有聞名的輝煌成就, 後來在 1816 年遇襲遭燒毀。鑑於劇院意義重大,修復 工作一年內完成,而威爾第接着為劇院寫了兩齣歌劇: 《阿爾齊拉》(1845) 和《露意莎.米勒》(1849)。 那邊廂,由布列頓構思、簡約得多的斯內普麥芽發酵廠

文:森姆.奧路弗

音樂廳也遭遇相似的命運。音樂廳上演過很多布列頓的 作品,包括他最後一齣歌劇《魂斷威尼斯》1973 年的 首演,作品似乎預示了作曲家於短短三年後便離世。音 樂廳利用英格蘭東岸的廢置工業大廈改建而成,由女皇 伊莉莎伯二世於 1967 年揭幕,在 1969 年一場火災中 受破壞,但迅速修復。翌年女皇重臨為音樂廳再度揭幕。

表演場地見對比 威爾第主要通過他的舞台作品接觸意大利音樂界的心 靈,再加上大量生動有趣的故事和風靡一時的旋律;布 列頓則以細水長流的方式,在不起眼的小區逐漸滲透進 入英國的音樂脈搏,同時仍然保持他獨有的剛強音樂風 格。從藝術節為兩位作曲家主辦音樂會而挑選的演出曲 目及場地,已可見當中的對比。 威爾第的《茶花女》和另一場音樂會將於香港文化中心 舉行,而布列頓的音樂會在香港不同地區的場地舉行, 包括灣仔、鑽石山和元朗。2 月 26 日在鑽石山南蓮園 池舉行音樂會,那裏偏遠閒靜的環境,是歌詞融入歌曲 和合唱作品的寫照,這也是布列頓畢生擅長的技巧,他 知道了大概會興奮不已。和威爾第一樣,為人聲創作的 音樂是他的標誌。 節目挑選了幾首於 45 年間完成的樂曲:《神聖與凡俗》 寫於作曲家死前一年,是他最後一首為專業歌唱家而寫 的作品,配以中世紀英語文本,由無伴奏五聲部演唱。 節目以無伴奏雙合唱團演唱的《聖母的讚美詩》開始, 作品是布列頓的作曲事業其中一塊基石,他當時 16 歲, 於寄宿學校臥病在牀時創作的。《花之歌五首》是無伴 奏演唱作品,而《中國的歌曲》是他惟一為男高音和結 他而寫的作品,巧妙地結合中國古典園林景致。 三場音樂會由 Die Konzertisten 擔綱合唱部分,米高. 賴恩指揮,於 3 月 16 日的最後一場演出,香港兒童合 唱團男童聲小組也會加入演出。特意為少年而寫或包括 少年歌手的樂曲,是布列頓作品的特色,從這晚節目的 其中兩首歌曲《今日的聲音》和《兒童十字軍》已清楚 可見。

共通形容詞:十字軍 要形容兩位作曲家生活的社會及政治背景,十字軍無疑 是其中一詞。面對希特拉在二次世界大戰期間的侵佔, 抱持和平主義的布列頓於 1939 年移居美國,1942 年 返回英國並獲免除兵役;在公眾眼中是給了他好處。這 段時期的愁雲黯慘,可從他《為男高音、圓號和弦樂而 作的小夜曲》(1943) 感受得到。香港藝術節三場布列頓 音樂會中,2 月 23 日的首場將演出此作,由香港城市 《非凡威爾第》指揮米歇爾.馬里奧蒂 (Michele Mariotti)

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© Roland Haupt

美妙音色

glorious voices

半真半假的說法,指威爾第某些歌劇合唱作品很有威 力,使他的音樂在不知不覺間廣為流傳。 藝術節於 3 月 22 日的閉幕音樂會《非凡威爾第》,呈 獻多首他的歌劇作品,其中兩首選自《拿布果》。該作 為威爾第奠定歌劇作曲家的聲譽,於 1842 年首演,描 述公元前六世紀猶太人被巴比倫君王拿布果迫害和逐出 家園的困境。這段改編自聖經的故事呼應意大利當時經 歷的激情,早已融入國內的革命熱情。合唱歌《去吧, 思想乘着金色的翅膀》常因可喚起意大利人愛國情懷而 被引用,觀眾屆時可親身感受作品如何激動人心。另外, 幾首選自威爾第其他歌劇作品的序曲,加上《謝恩讚美 頌》和《聖母悼歌》令整場音樂會圓滿。

《非凡威爾第》歌劇作品盛宴

室樂團伴奏,還有圓號演奏家裘德禮和男高音獨唱家納 森.華里。布列頓的聖樂作品數量相對較少,音樂會選 來《謝恩讚美頌》和《歡欣讚美》。 十九世紀時,威爾第的音樂發展較順利,當時意大利努 力統一國家,取回由其他歐洲國家控制已久的城邦。這 次革命行動被稱為「復興運動」,那時候有各種傳言和

革命來來去去,但愛是恆久的,而威爾第的《茶花女》 既為世上最受歡迎的歌劇之一,當中描述的愛就更不用 說了。《茶花女》講述一個女人在愛情、工作和隱伏體 內且最終奪去她性命的肺結核之間的掙扎。拿波里聖卡 洛歌劇院《茶花女》於 3 月 19、21 和 23 日演出,卡門. 吉安納塔西奧和朱塞佩.吉帕里擔演主角薇奧列達和阿 菲度。當薇奧列達在終幕死於肺癆時,加小許想像力, 轉到布列頓《魂斷威尼斯》的最後時刻,主角古斯塔夫. 馮.奧森巴赫有相似情形,死於霍亂和單戀。儘管時地 不同,兩位作曲家在這些時刻仍互生共鳴。 森姆.奧路弗是自由身音樂教師及作家,現居香港。

拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院樂團及合唱團

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2013 marks respectively the centenary and bicentenary of the births of Benjamin Britten and Giuseppe Verdi. Talking about these two significant but disparate composers in the same article might at first seem like an attempt to blend chalk with cheese, but if the two musicians had ever been able to sit down together and chat over a glass of chianti, they would surely have found common strands to service their conversation. Born near Parma, Italy in 1813, Verdi's country of birth was not only the cradle of opera, but also a nursery of the history of Western classical music; for his personal chapter within that saga, Verdi simply sat on a raft of operatic traditions and was carried along by it. In contrast, Britten was greeted by a less accommodating musical landscape in Lowestoft, England. The year was 1913 and, for someone who was to become an ardent pacifist, being born on the cusp of the First World War was not the most auspicious first entrance. The rich heritage of the Golden Age of English Music, which ended in the early 17th century with swan songs from the likes of Byrd, Tallis and Gibbons, must have seemed as remote to Britten as the horizon on the bleak North Sea that his childhood home overlooked. Both men, however, left significant legacies for the opera house, albeit with different target audiences in mind. Britten's darkly psychological The Turn of the Screw featured in the 2010 Hong Kong Arts Festival; in 2013, it's the turn of Verdi's heart-wrenching romance, La Traviata , in a production from the San Carlo Theatre in Naples. Inaugurated by King Charles of Naples and Sicily in 1737, the theatre's auditorium was renowned for its historic and architectural splendour until tragedy struck in 1816, when the building was burned down. It was restored within a year in deference to its significance and Verdi subsequently wrote two operas for the venue: Alzira (1845) and Luisa Miller (1849). A similar fate befell Britten's more austere brainchild of a building, the Snape Maltings Concert Hall. It hosted performances of many of his works, including the 1973 premiere of his last opera, Death in Venice , somewhat prophetically just three years before his own death. Created out of disused industrial buildings near the east coast of England and opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1967, the hall was destroyed by a blaze in 1969 but quickly restored. The queen returned the following year to open it for a second time. While Verdi reached out to the soul of Italian musical society largely through his stage works, feeding it large helpings of colourful stories and blockbuster melodies, Britten regularly touched Britain's musical pulse through the capillaries, at a humbler parish level, yet still with his unique and uncompromising musical style. The contrast in

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repertoire and venues for the festival's concerts of music by the two composers reflects this. While performances of La Traviata and an evening of choruses and overtures from Verdi's other operas will fill the expanses of the Cultural Centre, Britten gets three spotlights in more grass-roots locations around Hong Kong – in Wanchai, Diamond Hill and Yuen Long. It's likely that Britten would have been especially taken by the setting of Diamond Hill's Nan Lian Garden for the concert on February 26, in which the secluded nature of the venue reflects the intimacy of the word-setting in his songs and choral works, a skill he excelled in throughout his life. As with Verdi, music for voices was his hallmark. The programme puts together pieces written over a period of 45 years: Sacred and Profane , composed the year before he died, was Britten's last work for professional singers and sets mediaeval English texts for unaccompanied voices in five parts. Opening the programme, A Hymn to the Virgin for unaccompanied double choir was one of the foundation stones of his composing career, written when he was confined to bed in the sick bay of his boarding school, aged just 16. Five Flower Songs for unaccompanied voices and Songs from the Chinese , the only work he wrote for tenor and guitar, aptly blend with the Chinese classical garden setting. Die Konzertisten will provide the backbone chamber choir for each of the three concerts that are conducted


美妙音色

glorious voices

number of sacred works will be represented by his Te Deum and Jubilate Deo. In the 19th century, Verdi's music fared better amid his homeland's struggles to unify Italy as a single nation, dissolving the patchwork of city-states that had long been controlled by other European countries. "Il Risorgimento" was the name given to this revolutionary movement into which Verdi's music became unwittingly absorbed through myths and half-truths concerning the power of some of his opera choruses.

by Michael Ryan, and they will be joined in their final appearance on March 16 by The Hong Kong Children Choir's Chamber Boys. Writing specifically for, or including, young voices is a feature of Britten's catalogue, as demonstrated by the two works for that medium on this programme – Voices for Today and Children's Crusade . Crusade would certainly be among the words used to describe the social and political backgrounds to the lives of both composers. Britten's pacifist stance in the f a c e o f H i t l er ' s encroaches during the Second World Wa r p r o m p t e d him to emigrate to America in 1939, returning to enjoy full conscientious objector status in 1942; this did him few favours in the eyes of public opinion. The dark spirit of the time can be sensed in his Serenade for Tenor, Horn and Strings (1943), which features in the first of the festival's trilogy of concerts on February 23. The City Chamber Orchestra of Hong Kong will accompany Joe Kirtley on horn and tenor soloist Nathan Vale. Britten's relatively small

Viva Verdi , the festival's closing concert on March 22, presents a number of these set pieces, including two from Nabucco , the work that helped establish Verdi's reputation as an opera composer. First performed in 1842, it relates the plight of the Jewish people who were persecuted and routed from their homeland by King Nabucco of Babylon in the 6th century BC. The biblical parallel with the foment that Italy was experiencing at the time was readily assimilated by the country's revolutionary fervour. The chorus Va, pensiero is often cited as having stirred Italian patriotic souls; festival goers will be able to experience for themselves its emotional impact. A selection of overtures from Verdi's other operas, plus the Te Deum and Stabat Mater , paralleling Britten's small repertoire of sacred music, complete the programme. Revolutions come and go, but love endures, no more so than in one of the most-performed operas worldwide – Verdi's La Traviata , the story of a woman torn between love, duty and the insidious tuberculosis that finally brings her down. Carmen Giannattasio and Giuseppe Gipali play the leading roles of Violetta and Rudolfo in the San Carlo Theatre's performances on March 19, 21 and 23. When Violetta succumbs to consumption in the closing scene, it takes little imagination to pan to the final moments of Britten's Death in Venice , where the central character of Gustav von Aschenbach similarly expires from a double dose of cholera and unrequited love. Poles apart in time and space, maybe, but at such moments the two composers resonate well. Sam Olluver is a freelance music teacher and writer resident in Hong Kong.

Die Konzertisten and Conductor Michael Ryan

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在爵士界,女低音提琴手艾斯佩蘭薩.斯伯丁有「音樂 神童」之稱,她四歲起學習小提琴,兼習雙簧管、豎笛 及結他,矢志向古典音樂殿堂進發。但她 14 歲那年發 現了低音提琴之後就完全改變了她的一生:她開始探索 「當代爵士樂」之旅,16 歲入讀音樂人的「木人巷」伯 克利音樂學院(Berklee College of Music),19 歲以高 材生資格完成課程,並旋於翌年受聘於該校任教爵士低 音提琴,成該校歷來最年輕的「女爵士低音提琴教授」。 「我不認為我是什麼音樂神童,其實我周遭一直都有很 多音樂天才,分別只是他們的年紀可能稍長,且女性亦 比較少;尤其演奏爵士低音提琴的。放眼伯克利音樂學 院,天才多的是!」斯伯丁如是說。 她的才華很快傳遍爵士樂圈,不少元老級爵士樂手如 薩克斯管手 Joe Lovano、騷靈女歌手 Patti Austin、低 音 提 琴 大 師 Charlie Haden、 結 他 高 手 Pat Metheny、 World Fusion 界的電顫琴高人 Dave Samuels 等都找她 合作,在同台演出,又或合寫歌 / 樂曲。當時伯克利音 樂學院高層,亦是電顫琴 Fusion 大師的 Gary Burton, 就對她有幾句相當中肯的評語:「她的低音提琴予人一 種很奇偉的感覺,演繹一些很複雜的組句展現出相當具 膽色及創造性,揮灑俐落,信心滿滿,而且炮製出來的 意境充滿樂觀主義的氛圍,他日必成大器。」 能夠在一位頂級爵士大師口中獲得如此崇高的讚譽,斯 伯丁豈會是池中物! 2006 年她推出處女作《Junjo》, 充分展現她在爵士樂的多方面才華:低音結他彈奏集 Afro-Cuban Jazz、Latin Jazz、World Fusion 等多向性 風格,作曲手法自由流放。 兩 年 後 的 同 名 大 碟《 艾 斯 佩 蘭 薩. 斯 伯 丁 》 更 進 一 步 聽 到 她 在 彈 奏 風 格 上 表 現 更 為 完 整, 將 PostBop、Latin、Soul、World Fusion 融 合 至 一 個 高 闊 的 Contemporary Jazz 境界。翌年更被美國總統奧巴馬邀 請成為該年「諾貝爾和平獎頒獎典禮」的表演藝人之一, 除了因為她的音樂才華及年輕之外,最重要是她的音樂 有很強的包容性及融合性,不拘泥任何的音樂元素,彈 奏大膽而具創造力,完全與美國精神吻合。

2010 的 作 品《Chamber Music Society》 更 意 外 地 在格林美音樂頒獎禮上擊敗當時紅透半邊天的 Justin Bieber,奪下「最佳新人獎」,成為格林美有史以來首 位獲「最佳新人獎」的爵士樂新秀。而此碟亦是一張比 《艾斯佩蘭薩.斯伯丁》更臻完美的高階 Contemporary Jazz 唱片。 去 年 初(2012), 斯 伯 丁 推 出 她 的 第 四 張 個 人 作 品 《Radio Music Society》, 碟 名 與 上 一 張《Chamber Music Society》只一字之差,風格明顯轉變,有較多 Jazz-Pop 甚至 Neo-Soul 的元素介入,歌曲聽來更年輕 化,且傾向 Adult Contemporary R&B 方向,她甚至翻 唱 Michael Jackson 唱過的《I Can't Help It 》,而另一 曲《Crowned & Kissed》更是一首帶 Funk、Neo-Soul、 94

Hip-Hop 氛圍的 Jazz-Pop 歌曲!整張唱片瀰漫着較輕 快、樂天的 R&B 及 Soul 節奏的感覺,在她的爵士樂範 疇內匯入更見活力和都市化的視野。 雖 然 如 此, 但 綜 觀 全 碟 仍 算 是 一 張 充 滿 都 會 情 節 的 Contemporary Jazz 唱片,參與的一眾樂手都展現出氣 派不凡的高層次技術爵士演繹技巧,大大增強了音樂背 景的感染力。然而,今次的轉變乃是一個很大膽的嘗試, 因為斯伯丁就像是從快攀至顛峰的 Contemporary Jazz 山峰,毅然跑下山再闖另一音樂山脈,未必人人可以成 功,但打從她這張《Radio Music Society》去看,她還 是信心滿滿的做出了「見得人」的成績,甫出碟未久就 打上 Billboard 爵士榜的冠軍位置。從中我清晰的窺見 一位肯嘗試轉變的新晉爵士藝人的勇氣、一個自小已是 音樂天才 ( 神童? ) 的巨大身影,預料他日爵士樂史必 留下她的芳名。 今次她來港為香港藝術節 2013 演出,我很有興趣她會 如何在台上演繹她塑造的新舊兩個音樂模式。期待。 馬其發,資深樂評人,從事樂評工作逾廿年,文章散見於各報章及雜 誌,現每期《明報周刊》及《HiFi 音響》撰寫樂評。


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her sweet and light vocals provide a charming scat over the enthusiastic bass.

爵士創新人 – 艾斯佩蘭薩.斯伯丁 Esperanza Spalding: Jazzing Up the Radio 文:馬其發 By Mikel Echevarria

Jazz is rarely played at prime time on popular radio stations. Is this because it is too complex, too dissonant or because it is perceived as old fashioned? Who knows? What is clear is that to break the trend of musical exclusivity takes a special type of musician. One who understands different styles and who are themselves unique. At 28 Esperanza Spalding is a Grammy award winning, multi-instrumentalist, multi-lingual composer producer and vocalist. She sings and plays bass in her band which is a 12-piece ensemble of world-class musicians. Raised in Portland Oregon, she was inspired to pursue music after seeing the cellist Yo-Yo Ma on television when she was four. She decided to learn the violin and though self-taught had joined The Chamber Music Society of Oregon within a year. Over the next 10 years she learnt several other instruments, including the bass, and became the orchestra’s concertmaster. At 16 she joined Portland State University and played bass in classical orchestras. Then she moved to Berklee College of Music where she earned a Bachelor’s before becoming an instructor at 20, making her the youngest faculty member in the college’s history. It was here she began playing with world class musicians, such as guitarist Pat Methany and saxophonist Joe Levano. Her first release as an artist was the album Junjo . Though released as a solo work she considered it a collaborative effort of the three-piece she was performing with – she was accompanied by pianist Aruan Ortiz and drummer Francisco Mela. A contemporary jazz album, it has moments of swing, swathes of free sections throughout and

Her next release Esperanza saw her team up with the pianist Leo Genovese, drummer Otis Brown and percussionist Jamey Haddad. Spalding’s sunny and playful vocals are delivered in Spanish, Portuguese and English, bouncing between scat and classic jazz, and for one song, Fall In , a delicate and beautiful ballad. The piano work and percussion perfectly complement each other, sitting below the vocals and above the drums and intelligent groovy bass lines. Esperanza spent an astounding 70 weeks on the Billboard contemporary jazz chart. Her classical background can be heard in her next offering, Chamber Music Society , with the addition of three string players, but there is also some R&B, tango and folk in the mix. The album was co-produced by Spalding and Gil Goldstein, and they both provide string arrangements. The standout moments in this work are the memorable vocal duets on the tracks Apple Blossom and Inutil Paisagem . Her humour and diversity are even more apparent in this release, like a breath of fresh air, but the harmonic complexity and melodic inventiveness don’t go unnoticed. She is touring with her most recent release, Radio Music Society , at the moment. Her 11 band mates are second to none and include: Argentinian avant-garde keyboard player Leo Genovese; the musician’s musician Jef Lee Johnston on guitar; groove maestro Lyndon Rochelle on drums; the three saxophonists Tia Fuller, Daniel Blake and Aaron Burnett; two trombonists Jeff Galindo and Corey King; and two trumpeters Igmar Thomas and Leala Cyr. Spalding seems to have decided to produce a more accessible album and listeners will be rewarded whether they are jazz fans or not. It is an album made for the radio. Ambitious in scope with a "big band" format, it certainly has an ensemble of world-class musicians who can pull it off. The neo-soul groove of the album has an R&B flavour which is captivating while the musicianship is astute and cool. The highlight may be her cover of Stevie Wonder’s I Can’t Help It , which brilliantly harks back to the 1970s, and is perfectly suited to her super funky bass and sultry airy vocals. Spalding has been awarded numerous accolades including the prestigious Boston Jazz Society scholarship for outstanding musicianship and the 2011 Grammy Award for Best New Artist. To top it all off, President Obama is a huge fan; she has played the White House twice and was his choice of musician when he won the Nobel Prize. Writer's profile see p69

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終極古提琴 ─ 薩巴爾 Jordi Savall: Strings for Glory © David Ignaszewski

文:劉志剛 By Ken Smith

九十年代初,一齣 Alain Corneau 執導的劇情片《日出 時讓悲傷終結》(Tous les matins du monde)教多少人 魂牽夢縈。影片裏,隱居山林的維奥拉達甘巴琴大師, 每早以悲慟的音樂「喚醒」早逝的愛妻。那份深情,電 影的幽怨氛圍,叫人難忘。 電影原聲配樂,出自薩巴爾(Jordi Savall)之手。除了 使用兩位法國作曲聖哥倫布和馬雷的作品,也有薩巴爾 的原創音樂。影片中叫聽者肝腸寸斷的維奥拉達甘巴琴 演奏,亦是由薩巴爾幕後演出。配樂也包含他的愛妻、 女高音蒙特塞拉特菲格拉斯神秘又高貴的歌咏。

1942 年生於西班牙的薩巴爾除了是古提琴大師,也是 一個作曲和指揮家。他的演奏曲目範疇從中世紀、文藝 復興到巴羅克音樂,偶爾也涉足古典及浪漫時期作品。 薩巴爾早年學習大提琴 (violoncello),今天名滿樂壇, 主要成就在於使古提琴 (viol 維奥爾,其意大利語名字 viola da gamba 音譯作「維奥拉達甘巴」) 回到當今的 舞台上。2012 年,薩巴爾被授予丹麥「桑尼音樂獎」 (Sonning Award);紐約早期音樂節又授予他「終身成就 獎」,表揚他在古提琴界中的崇高地位。 薩巴爾的音樂訓練始於家鄉,在巴塞隆拿音樂學院完成 學業後,他專注研究西方早期音樂,先後在巴塞隆拿和 瑞士巴塞爾的專門學府深造。1974 年,他成立埃斯珀 里安古樂團。十分講究「歷史準確性」的樂團以充滿活 力的演繹風格,迅速闖出名堂。

1987 年, 薩 巴 爾 回 到 巴 塞 隆 拿, 創 立 加 泰 羅 尼 亞 皇 家 合 唱 團, 致 力 於 演 出 十 八 世 紀 以 前 的 聲 樂 音 樂。 1989 年 又 成 立 國 際 音 樂 會 古 樂 團(Les Concerts des Nations),主力演奏編制較大的巴羅克時期音樂,但有 時也會演出古典及浪漫時期之曲目。 96

專攻早期音樂的藝團今日已有不少;爐火純青的古提琴 獨奏家薩巴爾卻不會再有第二個。彷彿是直接從聖哥倫 布和馬雷的時代闖進廿一世紀的奇人。 自二十世紀七十年代以來,薩巴爾一直是早期音樂領域 的重要人物,灌錄的唱片超過 170 款,得過 MIDEM 古 典大獎、德國唱片大獎等等;連「保護主義」色彩濃的 格林美,2011 年亦頒獎給薩巴爾。 去年,他的愛妻、我們這時代最傑出的早期音樂女歌者 蒙特塞拉.特菲格拉斯(Montserrat Figueras),因病去 世了。鶼鰈情深。不知道是有心的安排,還是許久前已 訂好曲目的巧合,薩巴爾在接着一整年,都演出獨腳戲 《人的聲音》;在「桑尼音樂獎」頒獎禮音樂會,他明言 要獻給過世不久的太太。樂評:「演完了,觀眾良久不 鼓掌;每個人內心皆感受到極大的震撼。無聲勝有聲。 薩巴爾緩緩站起來,臉上飽含哀傷。」 這是活生生的《日出時讓悲傷終結》。 香港觀眾很快有機會親聆這套包含英、法、德等地早期 音樂的節目。我只有一個願望:屆時倘若我忍不住掉眼 淚,不要讓人看見。 劉志剛,Hi Fi Review 音樂版主編

古提琴≠中提琴 古提琴是一種弓弦樂器。從意大利文裏有「腿的維奥爾」和 「胳膊的維奥爾」之區分,可知有不同尺碼。「腿的」古提琴 像拉奏大提琴那樣,把樂器擱在兩腿之間拉奏。雖然古提琴看 起來有點像大提琴,二者各自一個系統,幾乎是同時出現 ( 十五 世紀中後期開始使用 )。古提琴是最流行的文藝復興和巴羅克 時期的樂器之一。幾乎所有的樂器製作者都努力模仿人類的聲 音,而古提琴能優雅婉轉地咏唱旋律,早被公認「酷似人聲」; 這是它珍貴和受歡迎的原因。法王路易十四是古提琴的狂熱愛 好者,尚 · 盧梭對古提琴非常讚賞,拉封丹(La Fontaine)更 一針見血:「優雅勝過美麗。」 後來,由於演出場地愈來愈大,讓聲音個性纖巧細膩的古提琴 倍感「吃力」;此時,聲音穿透力強、音量較大的提琴家族(今 人熟悉的大、中、小提琴)乘勢而起,越來越流行;古提琴則 慢慢式微、湮沒……直到上世紀二戰之後,古樂復興運動日見 昌盛,古提琴才重返樂壇。


美妙音色

glorious voices

It is, on the face of it, a strange title to give any non-vocal recital, much less for an antique solo instrument generally considered a museum piece, but Les Voix Humaines ("Human Voices") is by any other measure the ideal description of Jordi Savall. Scholarly he may be, but the Catalan performer, conductor, teacher, record producer and general impresario is hardly content to keep his musical art under glass. Some instruments burst onto the concert stage with a distinct personality attached. Try to imagine the cello before Pablo Casals, or the guitar before Andrés Segovia. Much the same is true of Savall and the viola da gamba , and just as the gamba preserves elements of both the cello and guitar, its principal living proponent shares an affinity with fellow Spaniards Segovia and Casals. Certainly in terms of Savall’s career, the title Les Voix Humaines marks that defining moment. The name is taken from a work by Marin Marais (1656-1728) on Savall’s Hong Kong programme on March 2 — a piece that harks back to Alain Corneau’s 1991 film Tout les matins du monde , which not only rescued Marais from the footnotes of history but also introduced wider audiences to Savall (whose soundtrack performances matched the on-screen portrayal of Marais, at various ages, by father-andson actors Gerard and Guillaume Depardieu). The film’s award winning soundtrack sold more than a million copies worldwide. But "Human Voices", on a far more remedial level, also describes Savall’s lifelong philosophy of music. Born in 1942 an hour outside Barcelona, the young Savall began his training in a boy’s choir at age six. During a performance of Mozart’s Requiem , he fell in love with the sound of the cello. "The vibration of a gut string is the same level, and in the same range, as the human voice," he once told the US-based Strings magazine. "It’s like hearing our parents speak before we understand words, when we comprehend language through its rhythms, melodies and inflections." The attraction was less of a fling than a first marriage, with Savall turning to the cello after his voice broke and later studying the instrument formally at the Barcelona Conservatory. Only after graduation, in 1964, did he begin his alliance with the gamba. Already an active surveyor of different repertories, Savall had discovered several unrecorded works by, of all people, Marin Marais; from there, he began embracing the challenges and possibilities of performing music that few living audiences had ever heard.

Bach’s cello suites for 10 years before performing them in public, Savall spent a decade with his material — as well as in private studies with prominent gamba specialists — before presenting it to audiences. Savall began recording the works with his ensemble Hespèrion XX in 1974, and right from the beginning audiences responded to a characteristic performance style that, though rooted carefully in history, was focused vigilantly on the present. More than one critic has noted that Savall’s performances respect no preconceptions. "One musical border after another melt[s] away — borders between past and present, composition and improvisation, "popular" and "classical", East and West," praised New Yorker critic Alex Ross. "Centuries-old songs and dances glow with sadness and jump for joy." Since his breakthrough with Tous les matins du monde in 1991, at age 50, Savall has become less a touring virtuoso than a musical cottage industry, racking up awards and honorary degrees that celebrate far more than mere technical proficiency. His recent recordings — now released on his own label, Alia Vox — have spanned much musical geography, from The Celtic Viol to the award winning Jerusalem , a double CD and book-length companion text that brings together many Christian Jewish and Muslim sources. Little wonder then that Savall and his late wife, the soprano Montserrat Figueras (who died in 2011), were named UNESCO Artists for Peace. Even Savall’s programme for Hong Kong, though limited to Europe, covers much musical ground, spanning both Marais and his teacher Monsieur de Sainte-Columbe (16401700) from France, Karl Friedrich Abel (1723-1787) and J.S. Bach (1685-1750) from Germany, and Tobias Hume (1569-1645) and Henry Playford (1675-1707) from the British Isles. Using music to promote greater understanding has been the core of Savall’s work for more than two decades. "As musicians, we have the capacity to understand people from different cultures," he says. "Every time you play music from other cultures, it means you have a certain sympathy [and respect]. This is essential for any kind of dialogue, and in our projects, we involve music from different cultures because we have so much to learn from them. With music, we can help people understand our history." Writer's profile see p63

Before long, Savall was spending almost as much time in the library as the practice room, searching for original manuscripts in the British Museum and numerous collections on the continent. But like Casals, who studied

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雅絲敏.利維: 火熱傳奇

文:伊麗莎伯.金德

以色列歌手雅絲敏.利維是不折不扣實實在在 的歌唱天后:這位技藝精湛的表演者,以熱情 與哀怨的聲線演唱的拉迪諾樂曲細緻優美。拉 迪諾文化是 1492 年被逐出西班牙的塞法迪猶 太人的遺產,這種結合西班牙和希伯來文化的 語言和傳統正瀕臨絕跡。利維把音樂重新演繹, 為這文化注入生命。 利維 1975 年生於耶路撒冷,母親是拉迪諾歌 手,在土耳其出生的父親身兼音樂家、合唱指 揮家和拉迪諾歌曲收藏家,也是以色列的國家 電台拉迪諾部門的主管,他決心不讓塞法迪歌 曲失傳,遂為後世灌錄多首歌曲。雖然他在利 維才一歲時已離世,卻因此舉得以讓她在 2009 年利用父親一個《女牧羊人》錄音,與他「合 唱」。歌曲收錄在由格林美獎得主哈維耶.里 蒙監製的專輯《感覺》。 利維六歲開始學習鋼琴,之後 12 年從不間斷。 雖然利維有這樣的音樂背景和才華,但直到她 在 2002 年世界音樂博覽會演出過後,才認真投入歌唱 事業,當時她還未滿 27 歲。 兩年後推出的首張專輯《浪漫與雅絲敏》,收錄了她步 父親後塵孜孜不倦地收集的拉迪諾歌曲。為忠於傳統, 利維以古典拉迪諾風格的「頭音」演唱。唱片推出之後, 利維選擇了一條探索她那些非以色列根源的音樂路線, 希望藉音樂超越文化界限,鼓勵人們和平共處。 她的第二張專輯可見她更深入鑽研自己的多元文化傳 統,將拉迪諾融入佛蘭明高,以聲音由胸口而出的佛蘭 明高風格演唱。歌曲比從前更嘹亮有力、感情強烈,利 維運用這兩種風格輕鬆自如。 利維在西班牙學習佛蘭明高的時候,發現這種形式是穆 斯林、猶太和吉卜賽音樂的混合體。知道穆斯林和猶太 文化在音樂上和平共存,發揮創意,利維深受感動,珍 愛中東地區的歌曲,包括阿拉伯傳統音樂,並尋求與當 地音樂家合作。 在 2007 年推出的下一張專輯《溫柔的手》,利維與阿 拉伯歌手娜塔莎.艾特勒斯合唱,成績驕人。獲獎監製 露絲.杜蘭建議她與不同的音樂家合作,例如希臘的旁 狄琴大師馬迪奧斯.查奧瑞迪斯和巴拉圭豎琴手基卡. 彼得森。伊朗歌手兼長笛演奏家阿密爾.沙撒早已加入 她的樂隊。是杜蘭鼓勵利維發展個人風格的,不是單純 的拉迪諾或佛蘭明高,而是兼具兩者元素的結合。

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最新專輯《自由》(2012) 得到樂器多面手的著名音樂家 本.曼德爾遜監製。他選擇以前錄製唱片的傳統做法去 灌錄歌曲,就是歌手與樂隊在錄音室一起綵排,再收錄 隨後的演出錄音。 利維的樂隊成員是低音大提琴、原聲古典結他和敲擊樂 的高手,也有嘉賓樂手,包括音色美妙豐富的土耳其弦 樂部,以呼應父親的土耳其傳統。這張專輯主要以西班 牙語演唱,雖然收錄了一些舊歌和經典宗教文本,卻是 利維成熟之作,她在自己創作的樂曲中,體現更深入的 尋根成果,並為拉迪諾音樂注入自己多元的音樂養份, 不管那是佛蘭明高或來自更廣闊的中東,利維為加入的 現代氣息,使這種遠古的音樂形式跟上時代。 利維曾兩度獲提名英國廣播公司電台第三台之世界音樂 大獎,分別在最佳新人組及跨文化組角逐,她也獲提 名與格林美齊名的荷蘭愛迪生獎之最佳世界音樂專輯。 2006 年,致力推廣跨文化對話的利維榮獲安娜.林德 大獎,而自 2008 起,利維是和平之童的親善大使,和 平之童是以英國為基地的慈善機構,目的是幫助捲入中 東危機的兒童。 利維曾於世界各地舉行演唱會,為悉尼皇家歌劇院和美 國卡奈基音樂廳等地生色不少。 伊麗莎伯.金德居於倫敦,是《fRoots 雜誌》的主筆;曾為英國全國 性報章撰文,又為英國廣播公司電台第四台製作一系列介紹世界音樂 的節目。


美妙音色

glorious voices

Yasmin Levy: Flamenco Fire, Ladino Legacy Yasmin Levy, the Israeli singer, is a diva in the proper and old-fashioned sense of the word: a virtuoso performer whose voice is redolent with the passion and the anguish from which the Ladino songs she sings are wrought. The legacy of the Sephardic Jews who were expelled from Spain in 1492, Ladino – a mixture of Spanish and Hebrew – is a language and tradition in danger of extinction. With her modern take on the music, Levy gives it the kiss of life. Levy was born in Jerusalem in 1975. Her mother is a Ladino singer, and her Turkish-born father was a musician, cantor, collector of Ladino songs and head of the Ladino department at Israel’s national radio station. Determined to stop the Sephardi songs from disappearing, he recorded many for posterity. This allowed his daughter to duet with him in 2009, although he died when Levy was just one year old. Levy uses a recording of her father’s so that it sounds as if they were singing together on the track Una Pastora , from the album Sentir, produced by Grammy award winner, Javier Limon. Levy began piano lessons at age six, continuing until the age of 18. Despite her musical background and talent, it was not until after a performance at Womex (the world music trade fair) in 2002, a couple of months shy of her 27th birthday, that Levy seriously embraced singing as a career. Her first album Romance & Yasmin followed two years later, featuring Ladino songs which, following in her father’s footsteps, she assiduously researched. Faithful to the tradition, she sings them using "a head voice" in the classic Ladino style. Subsequent to its release Levy chose to take a musical path that explores her non-Israeli roots, driven by her hope that music could transcend cultural boundaries and encourage people to live peacefully together. Her second album sees her delve more deeply into her own multi-cultural heritage and mix Ladino with Flamenco, embracing the Flamenco singing style where the voice comes from the chest. Its deeper resonance, force and passion suited Levy who effortlessly draws on the two styles. While studying Flamenco in Spain, Levy discovered that the form was a mixture of Muslim, Jewish and Romany music. Moved by the idea that Muslims and Jews were creatively, peacefully co-existing in music, she embraced songs from across the Middle East including those from Arabic traditions, and sought out collaborations with musicians from across the region.

By Elizabeth Kinder

Levy’s duet with Arabic singer Natacha Atlas on her next album, 2007’s Mano Suave, stands out. Award winning producer Lucy Duran suggested she work with musicians as diverse as Greek Pontic lyra maestro Matthaios Tsahourides and Paraguyan harpist Kike Pedersen. The Iranian singer and flautist Amir Shahsar was already in her band. It was Duran who encouraged Levy to develop her personal style, neither straight Ladino nor Flamenco but a combination featuring elements of both. For her latest release, Libertad (2012), celebrated multiinstrumentalist Ben Mandelson stepped in as producer. Mandelson set out to make the album in the way that records used to be made – a classic style where singer and band rehearse together in the studio and the subsequent performance – "a take" – is recorded. Levy’s band is made up of virtuoso musicians on double bass, acoustic classical guitar and percussion. Special guests also feature, including a rich sounding Turkish string section, referencing her father’s Turkish heritage. The record is a coming of age for Levy, who here mines her roots for a more intimate realisation of them in her own compositions, sung mainly in Spanish, though old songs and classic, devotional text, also appear. By infusing Ladino with her wealth of musical influences, whether Flamenco or from the wider Middle East, she gives the music a modern twist, bringing the ancient form bang up to date. Levy has been nominated twice for the BBC Radio 3 Awards For World Music, in the Best Newcomer and Crossing Cultures categories, and for Holland’s equivalent of the Grammys, the Edison Award for Best World Music Album. In 2006 Levy received the Anna Lindh Award for promoting cross-cultural dialogue and since 2008 she has been a Goodwill Ambassador for Children of Peace, a UK-based charity set up to help children caught up in the Middle East crisis. Levy’s performance has graced concert halls across the globe, from the Royal Opera House in Sydney to America’s Carnegie Hall. Based in London, Elizabeth Kinder is a chief feature writer for fRoots Magazine . She has written for the UK national press and made a series of programmes featuring world music for Channel 4 Radio.

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scales or traditional clothing. What happens if you mix Cantonese opera and Yau Ma Tei in one programme? The 41st Hong Kong Arts Festival series programme: In Yau Ma Tei –

A Legacy of Cantonese Opera. 100

粵歷油麻地

incense, chopping board, weights and

The Yau Ma Tei Project

Café, old-fashioned shops that sell

粵劇,是貨真價實的本土藝術;油麻地,是草根 文化的象徵 ─ 果欄、廟街、榕樹頭、美都餐廳、 賣香燭砧板秤砣裙褂的傳統店鋪 那麼當粵劇 和油麻地結合成為一個節目,會產生什麼效果?

Temple Street, Yung Shue Tau, Mido

第四十一屆香港藝術節的系列節目﹁粵歷油麻 ─

grassroots culture – the Fruit Market,

三代同台做大戲﹂。 ─

art form. Yau Ma Tei is a symbol of

Cantonese opera is a truly local


粵劇與本土文化 「粵歷」,可直接理解為「粵劇加親歷加油麻地」的意 思吧。今年,藝術節直闖草根文化蓬勃的油麻地,整個 計劃既包括經典粵劇戲寶演出,又有講座、導賞團和工 作坊,絕非「做台戲」般簡單。 一向以來,藝術節的形象都以引入外國藝團為主打,但 翻看過去的節目名單,他們對粵劇一直關注有加。近年 最為人津津樂道的,是 2010 年的開幕節目「百年回顧 八和鳴」,四齣幾乎失傳的例戲,包括《玉皇登殿》、《六 國大封相》復現舞台,成為粵劇界一時佳話。「有些我 們以前開創的劇目,更在澳門、新加坡等地有重演,甚 至成為核心劇目。」但論策劃的野心與視野,今年最為 明顯,因為以前以演戲為主,但「粵歷油麻地」的目標, 則以更高層次的展現「粵劇文化」為目標。 自從 2009 年粵劇被列入聯合國教科文組織《人類非物 質文化遺產代表作名錄》,粵劇的藝術性早已備受肯定。 梁掌瑋認為,編排任何藝術節目,最講究配合時機,而 今年的時機,可謂恰到好處。「粵劇在過去幾年都搞得 有聲有色,油麻地戲院去年又剛好重開,變身為訓練新 晋粵劇演員的場地,時機配合下,便想做一個突出『粵 劇文化』的計劃。」 縱觀全世界,香港是最能完整保存粵劇文化的城市,不 單仍保留戲棚神功戲傳統,近年如雨後春筍的小型粵 劇團,也有一定捧場客;然而像所有傳統藝術一樣,粵 劇仍面對着嚴峻的傳承問題。「今次其中一個新意念, 就是由三代香港粵劇人同台。我們希望帶出承傳的重要 性。」梁掌瑋如是說。 所謂「三代」,既指年代分層,也指真正有血緣關係的 父母與子女。「戲行裏有不少子女繼承上代衣砵的例子, 除了為人熟悉的阮兆輝阮德鏘之外,還有李奇峰李沛妍 父女 [ 專訪見第 102 頁 ] 、梁漢威(已離世)梁煒康父子, 以及負責鑼鼓(音樂)的高潤權高永熙父子等。新一代 對粵劇很有熱誠,好像李沛妍便是在美國唸完大學才入 行,她有時還會為演出做字幕翻譯。」這些「名家之後」 都會參與這系列的演出。此外他們也會在「薪火代代傳」 講座裏談談親身感受,「我們特別邀得很少發言的擊樂 領導高潤權和他兒子高永熙,談粵劇音樂方面的傳承。」 負責是次項目的節目經理葉健鈴並透露,幾個演出劇目 是悉心安排的組合,「它們是粵劇著名老倌的代表作, 包括何非凡吳君麗戲寶《雙仙拜月亭》、任白戲寶《再

世紅梅記》(唐滌生遺作)、羅家寶戲寶《夢斷香銷四十 年》。」 除了演員和劇目,「粵歷油麻地」最吸引觀眾眼球的當 然是選址 ─ 油麻地戲院。除了五齣粵劇,另一來自瑞 士的藝術節節目《戲偶人生》也會在同一地點上演。梁 掌瑋說:「或會有人認為,油麻地戲院以前播色情片, 不夠『文化』,而且那個區很雜,在那兒搞節目很奇怪, 但其實不然。油麻地本身和粵劇關係深厚,譬如以前有 普慶戲院做粵劇,而佐敦道碼頭旁的英皇佐治五世公園 和梁顯利中心現址,以前都會搭戲棚演神功戲。廟街和 榕樹頭常有人賣唱(包括粵曲),又有很多歌廳。可見 油麻地的草根音樂文化,和粵劇甚有關連。」 黑犬白水,自由文字工作者、書籍及雜誌編輯。

油麻地戲院與紅磚屋 「粵歷油麻地」演出與部份工作坊與講座舉行的地點,是剛於 今年重建完成,七月正式開幕的油麻地戲院及紅磚屋。 油麻地戲院是現存市區內唯一的戰前戲院建築,與毗鄰的紅磚 屋,座落在充滿草根氣息的油麻地區,別有一番景致。油麻地 戲院在 1998 年結束營業前,一度以播放色情片維持,而红磚屋 的用途則多變,既曾是工程師的辦公室,又試過用作小販管理 處及露宿者之家。如今被評定為一級(红磚屋)及二級(油麻地 戲院)歷史建築,重開後的三年將被用作推廣粵劇文化之用。

Yau Ma Tei Theatre and Red Brick Building In Yau Ma Tei performances and events are held in the Yau Ma Tei Theatre and Red Brick Building, which were renovated and reopened in July 2012. Yau Ma Tei Theatre is the only remaining pre-World War II cinema in the urban area of Hong Kong. Before its closing in 1998, the cinema’s operation was sustained by screening of adult films. The Red Brick Building has been repurposed a number of times. It has been an engineer’s office, Hawker Control Team office and a shelter for the homeless. The historic buildings are listed as Grade I (Red Brick Building) and Grade II (Yau Ma Tei Theatre), and are being used for the promotion of Cantonese opera for three years.

© Leisure and Cultural Services Department

翻開今年藝術節冊子,會發現這樣一個標題:「粵歷油 麻地」。過往藝術節的戲曲節目總是一本正經,這次竟 玩了「字 gag」,到底內藏什麼玄機?「這次節目和以往 很不同,並非純粹的劇目演出,而是以系列形式,推出 一整套粵劇與本土文化欣賞的計劃!」藝術節節目總監 梁掌瑋說。

文:黑犬白水

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三代同台做大戲 香港藝術節節目總監梁掌瑋說今次由名伶龍貫天、阮兆 輝、新劍郎及李奇峰出任藝術總監的「粵歷油麻地」, 其中一個想法,就是由三代粵劇人同台,帶出承傳的重 要。承傳既可以是父傳子女,子女再傳子女,也可以是 前輩對後輩的口耳相傳。

「我好刻意教她唱,而且一定要找 最高手的師傅。每星期我會請樂師 為她開『唱局』,由我和媽媽陪唱。 第二天,我會跟她一起聽回錄音, 然後逐句糾正她的吐納。」

李奇峰、李沛妍父女薪傳

經 過 五 年 苦 練,2007 年 機 會 來 了。當時中文大學為紀念唐滌生逝 世五十周年,要演出年青版《帝女 花》,並向公眾招募演員;沛妍回 港參與面試,結果成功入選。自此 陸續演出了《紫釵記》、《德齡與慈 禧》、《再世紅梅記》等,皆受好評。

這次參與藝術節「粵歷油麻地」.演《再世紅梅記》李 慧娘 / 盧昭容的李沛妍,也有一位來自戲行的爸爸 ─ 李奇峰。不過,沛妍並非如一般人想像那樣,自少得到 「真傳」,順理成章入行,相反,她在二十多歲時,以 行動展示破釜沉舟的決心,才能說服家人讓她學戲。 李奇峰本身也是生於粵劇世家,父親李鑑潮是白玉堂興 中華劇團編劇,李奇峰孩提時代隨家人逃難到越南,八 歲首踏台板,發覺做戲可以養活家人,就此入了行;其 後來港,加入「大龍鳳劇團」。六七暴動後,他因偶然 機會到美國演出一年,之後決定和太太余蕙芬(當年是 花旦)移居美國,搖身一變成涉足餐飲、酒店業務的成 功商家。 身份雖變了「商人」,但李奇峰一直心繫粵劇,希望退 休後回港再搞,卻從來沒想過要帶女兒入行。「做粵劇 的,都不太希望兒女入行,因為戲行太辛苦了,付出和 收入不成比例。」 沒想到,在美國出生、初中後一直在美國受教育的李沛 妍,2002 年時竟向父母透露唱戲的決心。畢業於衛斯 理大學中文系,說話夾點英文,外表看來嬌柔卻有着堅 定眼神的沛妍娓娓道出當年情景:「小時候,我跟爸爸 說過喜歡粵劇,不過他沒當一回事。大學畢業在美國工 作兩年後,我終於下定決心要學戲。打聽之下,申請了 香港演藝學院粵劇系和廣東粵劇學校,最後兩間都給我 offer。」沛妍於是「先斬後奏」,辭去求職網站的穩定 工作,然後向家裏宣稱:我要學戲去也! 父親得知女兒志向後,簡直嚇壞了,「我真是成個彈上 ceiling!」風趣的李奇峰如此形容當日反應。不過經過 三天冷靜期並和妻子商量後,他覺得,既然女兒已「讀 飽書」,又真的喜歡做戲,自己亦有能力幫她的話,何 不試試看? 但他直言除非不學,要學便要認真。「我告訴女兒,做 戲要有使命感,不能玩玩下。」坐言起行,李奇峰開始 為女兒「度身訂造」密集的學習課程。日程表是這樣的: 每天早上,練兩三小時基本功,下午主要學唱科,也會 請京劇和上海越劇老師教身段和水袖等。不過最令沛妍 突飛猛進的,相信是由父親安排的每周一次「唱局」。

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文:黑犬白水、朱琼愛

李奇峰不僅是女兒的「課程總監」, 現時也是油麻地戲院和八和合辦的 「粵劇新秀系列」五位藝術總監之 一,教過不少新人,但對現今年輕 人的學習情況頗有微言。「現時的 年輕人材不多。我在油麻地戲院教『八和訓練班』的年 輕人做戲,但他們都很忙,外面有劇班便要做,不能常 來。」 近年在粵劇發展基金和藝發局等資助下,本地粵劇演出 甚多,不過觀眾仍然以中年和長者居多。自己也是年輕 人的沛妍卻認為這很正常:「最初入行時,會諗為何不 可有更多年輕人看粵劇?但後來發現,真的要到某個年 紀,才有足夠深度欣賞這種藝術。」她有信心,「新」 的長者會不斷加入粵劇觀眾行列,但她仍希望可以像外 國推廣歌劇般,搞些 young club,培養年輕人對粵劇的 興趣。 李奇峰和李沛妍父女兩輩,經歷了粵劇由盛而衰、再由 衰而復興的幾十年變化,二人在粵劇推廣這齣「戲」裏 的角色很不同,但對於粵劇的未來,卻異口同聲地有一 致看法:「現在人們選擇多了。你可以不喜歡粵劇,但 請不要貶低它的價值,覺得它老土。It's not fair。最緊 要不要歧視它!」

新劍郎:粵劇生涯由油麻地開始 如果有時間,我想今次「粵歷油麻地」節目四位粵劇前 輩之一,名伶新劍郎可以給我上一課生動活潑的油麻地 歷史課。而這些故事,都與他的粵劇生涯息息相關。 新劍郎雖然不是在油麻地居住,但他自小學五六年級開 始,便在油麻地學戲,因此對油麻地甚為熟悉,也很有 感情。為甚麼會想到學戲,他笑說自己喜歡之餘,還因 為老媽是戲迷,「是她叫我以學戲做課餘活動」,15、


三代演員同台演出:(左起)李沛妍、衛駿輝、陳咏儀、梁煒康、龍貫天及新劍郎

16 歲首次憑踏台板賺錢,演個小皇帝,十元一晚,賺了 幾十元,當時相當不錯;中學畢業後要找工作,新劍郎 說順理成章地便入了行。 新劍郎指出油麻地跟粵劇頗有關連,現在逸東酒店所在 的位置,前身是普慶戲院,上演過不少「大戲」。印度 會則是新劍郎年少時練功的地方,還有美都餐室的焗豬 扒飯,油麻地的神功戲,廟街南北本來直通的,……說 起油麻地掌故,新劍郎不禁興奮起來,大概油麻地那種 草根氣息,與來自民間的大戲相配合;現在已漸漸變成 遊客勝地的廟街,當年暱稱為平民夜總會,粵曲演唱的 攤檔數量雖不及往年,但仍然存在,老街坊依然會來聽 上一曲。 因此,他覺得這次「粵歷油麻地」計劃是很有意思的, 除了演出之外,還安排了文化遊,讓觀眾認識油麻地的 歷史,感受一下那種草根地道的文化氛圍,又有公開工 作坊,以及學校工作坊。新劍郎一向重視推廣的工作, 九十年代開始已積極到學校去介紹粵劇藝術,他覺得讓 大眾認識這種傳統藝術,重要性不下於培養新人,有求 自然會有供。 說到培育新人,這次節目演出的部份便以舊人帶新人, 新劍郎說四個演出都是一代名伶的代表作,他揀選了羅 家寶經典,以著名宋朝詞人陸游夫婦故事為內容的《夢 斷香銷四十年》,夥拍的是新一代的花旦陳咏儀,他喜 歡這個戲的感覺,對唱功又有一定要求,他自己也會親 自上陣。 新劍郎坦言自己近年演出少了,更多精神放在培育新人

及推廣粵劇藝術上,他也是油麻地戲院和八和合辦的 「粵劇新秀系列」五位藝術總監之一,他覺得能夠有油 麻地戲院作為新人訓練及演出的地方,對推動粵劇文化 有一定的作用。 與李氏父女一樣,新劍郎不擔心觀眾傾向以中年及年長 人士居多,覺得最重要的是讓年輕的認識這項傳統藝 術,洗刷他們覺得粵劇「老土」的印象。 朱琼愛,本刊編輯。

《粵歷油麻地 — 三代同台做大戲》 《隋宮十載菱花夢》 日期:3 月 7 日 晚上 7:30 主演:龍貫天、南鳳、陳鴻進、譚穎倫、王潔清、宋洪波

《雙仙拜月亭》 日期:3 月 8 日 晚上 7:30 主演:阮兆輝、鄭雅琪、阮德鏘、苗丹青、梁心怡、陳澤蕾

《趙氏孤兒》 日期:3 月 9 日及 3 月 10 日 下午 2:15 主演:苗丹青、鄭雅琪、梁煒康、黎耀威、王潔清、關凱珊、 盧麗斯

《夢斷香銷四十年》 日期:3 月 9 日 晚上 7:30 主演:新劍郎、陳咏儀、廖國森、梁煒康、謝曉瑩、藍天佑

《再世紅梅記》 日期:3 月 10 日 晚上 7:30 主演:衛駿輝、李沛妍、梁煒康、廖國森、黃葆輝、黎耀威

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Cantonese Opera: A Grassroots Culture By Anita Yeung

全方位探索粵劇文化 「我們與『文化葫蘆』合作,策劃「藝遊油麻地」導賞路線。 參加者將可藉着遊歷油麻地的特色建築、老店與市集,感受香 港的傳統與草根文化的歷史演變。」梁掌瑋介紹。導賞團分為 日團和夜團,兩者重點各有不同,夜團將由文化葫蘆創辦人吳 文正扮演說書人,提着火水燈,帶領參加者遊走充滿熱鬧氣氛 的夜間油麻地,更會安排團員體驗廟街露天賣唱檔的草根風 味! 除了公眾導賞團和邀請學校參與的粵劇導賞活動外,「粵歷油 麻地」另一附加節目,是「頭飾工作坊」。據葉健鈴說,她們 經過多番探尋才終於找到一位戲行裏做演員 / 頭飾、服裝的師 傅願意開班。「做珠釵是快將失傳的技藝。工作坊裏,老師將 講解男女頭飾的分類,並教大家做旦角頭飾或珠釵。」工作坊 會在油麻地戲院旁的紅磚屋進行。

Cantonese Opera Panorama "We are collaborating with Hulu Culture which is an active force in promoting traditions found in older districts, and we have planned a number of guided walks. The tour takes in unique buildings of Yau Ma Tei, traditional shops and markets, so participants can experience the changes in Hong Kong’s traditional and grassroots culture," Yip says. There are a day tour and a night tour. The night walk sounds particularly fun with Hulu Culture’s founder Simon Go taking on the role of a traditional storyteller, leading the way with a kerosene lamp through the bustling night life of Yau Ma Tei, including an encounter with a traditional busker on Temple Street! Apart from guided walks and school events, another special Festival PLUS programme is the hairpin making workshop. According to Yip, it took a long time before they found a wardrobe master who would be willing to lead the workshop. "The making of jewelled hairpins is a fast disappearing craft. At the workshop, the teacher explains the categories of male and female headdress and guides everyone through the process of making a hairpin for the dan (female) role." The workshop is held in the Yau Ma Tei Red Brick Building.

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If you look through this year’s Hong Kong Arts Festival booking brochure, you will find the surprising In Yau Ma Tei – A Legacy of Cantonese Opera . "This programme is very different from the previous years. It is more than simply presenting individual operas. It is a series of events – an initiative that combines Cantonese opera with local culture appreciation," explains Grace Lang, Programme Director of the Hong Kong Arts Festival. The Arts Festival unearths the grassroots culture of Yau Ma Tei this year, and the programme includes performances of canonical operas, as well as talks, guided walks and workshops. There is much more going on than just "a night out at the theatre". Cantonese opera has always occupied a prime place in the Arts Festival. The programmes have been particularly exciting in recent years. For example, the 2010 festival opening performance Cantonese Opera Treasures revived four "set pieces" (operas with a ritual element that precedes the main performance) that were commonly believed lost, including The Imperial Emperor of Heaven Holding Court and Prime Minister of Six States. It created much excitement among the Cantonese opera community. "Some of the operas we produced have received re-runs in Macau and Singapore. Some have entered the repertory," says Lang. This year’s programme moves on from the old model of straight-up presentation of works to a greater illumination of the culture of Cantonese opera. In 2009, UNESCO listed Cantonese opera as an "Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity". The artistic value of the art form is internationally recognised. Lang believes that right timing is the key to producing any art event. "Cantonese opera has received a revival in the past few years. Last year, Yau Ma Tei Theatre reopened as a venue for training young opera performers. In this context, we want to create an initiative that focuses on Cantonese opera culture." Nowhere else in the world has Cantonese opera culture been as fully preserved as in Hong Kong. Beyond the tradition of performing ritual operas in temporary bamboo theatres, there has been a proliferation of smaller opera companies with devoted followings in recent years. But like all traditional art


粵歷油麻地

the Yau Ma Tei project

forms, it faces the difficult question of sustainability and new talent. "One of the new concepts of this programme is to invite three generations of Hong Kong Cantonese opera performers to share the stage. We hope to stress the importance of passing on the art form," says Lang.

– we have Praying to the Moon which is a classic created by Ho Fei-fan and Ng Kwan-lai; the posthumous work of Tong Tik-sang, The Reincarnation of Lady Plum Blossom, which was famously realised by Yam Kim-fai and Pak Suet-sin; and The Long-Cherished Love which Law Kar-bo made his own."

"Three generations" refers to different age groups as well as blood relations. "In opera, there are often examples of children following the footsteps of their parents. Yuen Siu-fai and his son Johnson Yuen are probably the best known example. There are also Li Ki-fung and his daughter Li Pui-yan (interview see p. 106) , the late Leung Hon-wai and his son Leung Wai-hong, and percussion leader Ko Yun-kuen and his son Ko Wing-hei. The younger generations are very passionate about Cantonese opera, like Li Pui-yan, who only started performing professionally after finishing university in the US. She also translates subtitles for performances." The children of great artists will be performing in this programme. They will also participate in the Festival PLUS talks to share their experience. "We especially asked percussion leader Ko Yunkuen, who is rarely in the public eye, and his son Ko Wing-hei to talk about passing the legacy of Cantonese opera music," says Linda Yip, the Programme Manager responsible for organising In Yau Ma Tei . She also explains the reasoning behind the selection of the operas, "They represent the most famous works of different Cantonese opera master performers

Another fascinating aspect of In Yau Ma Tei is its choice of performance space – Yau Ma Tei Theatre. The venue will also host another Festival performance, Hand Stories from Switzerland. Lang says, "Some may think Yau Ma Tei Theatre used to be an adult cinema; it is not at all "cultural". Plus the area is still quite rough, and it is bizarre to host a programme there. But, it actually makes perfect sense. Yau Ma Tei as an area has deep ties with Cantonese opera. It is where the Astor Theatre was; they used to stage Cantonese opera performances there. And next to Jordan Road Ferry Pier are the King George V Memorial Park and Henry G. Leong Yaumatei Community Centre; temporary bamboo theatres were built on these sites in the past for devotional purposes where ritual operas would be performed. In Temple Street and Yung Shue Tau, to this date, you will still find traditional buskers (some of whom perform Cantonese opera songs), and the area was once full of music halls. It is obvious that Yau Ma Tei’s grassroots music culture is closely related to Cantonese opera." Anita Yeung is a freelance writer and editor of books and magazines.

Buskers and Cantonese opera performers still grace Yung Shue Tau in Yau Ma Tei

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Three Generations on stage together: (left) Lai Yiu-wai, Johnson Yuen, Wong Kit-ching, Cheng Nga-ki and Yuen Siu-fai

Three Generations on One Stage By Anita Yeung and Daisy Chu

The Hong Kong Arts Festival Programme Director Grace Lang said that one of key ideas of In Yau Ma Tei is to highlight the importance of passing the legacy by inviting three generations of Cantonese opera performers to share the same stage. Four renowned performers, Lung Koon-tin, Yuen Siufai, Sun Kim-long and Li Ki-fung are artistic directors of the series.

Li Ki-fung and Daughter Li Pui-yan Li Pui-yan, who will appear in The Long-Cherished Love , was born into a family of Cantonese opera performers. However, she only started her formal training in her 20s. Her father Li Ki-fung is a renowned Cantonese opera performer whose stage career began when he was eight. Her grandfather was a librettist. In the late 1960s, Li performed in the US and soon after emigrated with his wife, becoming a successful businessman there. Li had always intended to return to Cantonese opera in Hong Kong when he retired, however, he had never thought of introducing his daughter to the field. "It is a tough trade, what one gives is not at all proportional to what one receives."

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He never thought his US born and educated daughter Li Pui-yan would decide to become a Cantonese opera performer in 2002. Pui-yan, who graduated from the Chinese Department of the Wesleyan College, recounts the scene, "When I was young, I told my father that I liked Cantonese opera, and he never paid much attention. After college, I worked for two years and then decided I wanted to learn Cantonese opera. I asked around and applied to both the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts and the Guangdong Cantonese Opera School. I received offers from both schools in 2002." Her announcement was a shock to her father, who recalls, "I literally hit the ceiling!" After three days of reflection and discussion with his wife, Li came around: "I told her, performance is a calling, not just for fun." He created an intense curriculum for Pui-yan: she started with two to three hours of physical training every morning; the afternoon was devoted to vocal training. He also found Beijing opera and Shanghai Yue opera teachers to instruct her in posture and water sleeves technique. "I put a lot of effort into training her voice, and we sought help from the best teachers available. Every week, we invited musicians over, and my wife and


I would sing with her. The next day, we would listen to our recordings and I would comment on her diction and projection line by line." After five years of hard work, her break came in 2007. She was cast in Princess Changping in a Chinese University of Hong Kong produc tion in memor y of the 50th anniversary of Tong Tik-sang’s death. Li Ki-fung is not only his daughter’s "programme director", he is also one of the artistic directors of the Yau Ma Tei Theatre and Chinese Artists Association of Hong Kong’s training programme for young Cantonese opera performers. "There are not so many young talents these days. Many who take part in the course have other performance engagements and are often too busy to turn up regularly." With increased public funding, there are more Cantonese opera performances in Hong Kong; however, the audience is still mostly middle aged or older. Pui-yan thinks this is normal, "When I first started, of course I wished there were more young people into Cantonese opera. But then I realised, it takes a certain age to have the depth to appreciate the art fully." Li Ki-fung and his daughter have witnessed decades of Cantonese opera history – from its peak to its decline and eventual revival. Looking to the fu ture, they share the same f e e li n g s , " Th e r e are way more things to do today. Yo u d o n ’ t h a v e to like Cantonese opera, bu t please don’t look down on it, or think it is old fashioned. That is not fair. The most important thing is not to discriminate."

Sun Kim-long: My Opera Life Began in Yau Ma Tei Sun Kim-long, one of the four veteran performers of In Yau Ma Tei , is one of the best persons to ask for a history lesson on Yau Ma Tei and its relationship with his Cantonese opera career. Sun knows Yau Ma Tei well as it is where he began his training when he was in primary school. He had always liked Cantonese opera and his mother was a big fan, "It was she who told me to learn opera as an after school activity." He earned his first wage on stage when he was around 15, playing a young emperor. He was paid 10 dollars a night, which was a sizeable amount in those days. When he graduated from secondary school and needed to look for a job, he looked to Cantonese opera. Yau Ma Tei’s connection with Cantonese opera started with the site of the current Eaton Hotel, where the Astor Theatre once stood. The theatre presented many Cantonese operas. The India Club was where Sun did his physical training. The baked pork chop rice of Mido Café, the ritual operas in Yau Ma Tei, how Temple Street used to be a north-south thoroughfare… Sun becomes animated when he talks about Yau Ma Tei, probably because that sense of grassroots culture is compatible to the vernacular Cantonese opera. Now a tourist attraction, Temple Street was once called the people’s nightclub, and one can still find Cantonese opera being sung from one of the stalls. Sun places great emphasis on the promotion of Cantonese opera. Since the 1990s, he has regularly visited schools to introduce the art form. He believes new performers will emerge with a growing audience base. This year, the veteran performer returns to the stage in The Long-Cherished Love , partnering the young dan Chan Wing-yi as a way to nurture new generations. Sun concentrates on training young performers and promoting Cantonese opera these days; he is also one of the five artistic directors of the Yau Ma Tei Theatre and Chinese Artists Association of Hong Kong’s Cantonese opera training programme. He believes that with the Yau Ma Tei Theatre as a training and performance space for younger performers, it will help the promotion of the art form. Like Li Ki-fung and his daughter, Sun is not concerned that the Cantonese opera audience is predominately middle aged or older. For him, the most important thing to give young people an opportunity to get to know the art form, and to counter the impression of it being "old fashioned". Daisy Chu is the Editor of FestMag

Father and daughter: Li Ki-fung and Li Pui-yan

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艾斯佩蘭薩.斯伯丁 Esperanza Spalding Radio Music Society

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11圈《反斗先生》

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荷迪.薩巴爾《人的聲音》 Jordi Savall - Les Voix Humaines

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《沙灘上的愛恩斯坦》 Einstein on the Beach

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中國國家京劇院 — 老旦名劇選演 China National Peking Opera Company The Artistry of Lao Dan

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新銳舞台系列《爆.蛹》

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拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院《非凡威爾第》 San Carlo Theatre, Naples - Viva Verdi 戈蘭.布列葛維奇與婚喪喜慶樂隊 《吉卜賽香檳派對》 Goran Bregovic Wedding and Funeral Orchestra - Champagne for Gypsies 歌劇 / 戲曲 Opera

古典音樂 Classical Music

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莫米克斯舞蹈奇藝坊 《四季狂想曲》 MOMIX - Bothanica

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香港中樂團「樂旅中國 VII」 HK Chinese Orchestra Music About China VII

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P90 8:00

8:15

7:30

17

21

2:00

P94 7:30

一 mon

16

P98 6:30

二 tue

13

雅絲敏.利維 Yasmin Levy

三 wed

12

8:30

四 thu

11

布列頓百歲誕辰紀念音樂會 Die Konzertisten The Britten 100 Project

● 8:15

美國芭蕾舞劇院 《羅密歐與茱麗葉》 American Ballet Theatre Romeo and Juliet

6:30

五 fri

10

7:30

P24

布列頓百歲誕辰紀念音樂會 Die Konzertisten The Britten 100 Project

7:30

六 sat

9

◎ 8:15

四 thu

6 8

羅浮宮音樂家古樂團 Les Musiciens du Louvre Grenoble

2:30 7:45

5 7

8:00

2:30 7:45

三 wed

4

7:30

五 fri

三 1 月 MAR 2

7:30

六 sat

28

節目Programme 2

P24

※ 7:30

日 sun

27

節目Programme 2

美國芭蕾舞劇院 精選舞薈 American Ballet Theatre Dance Gala

一 mon

26

節目Programme 1

二 tue

24

日 sun

7:30

一 mon

23

四 thu

22

7:30

五 fri

20 21

慕迪與芝加哥交響樂團 Riccardo Muti and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra

六 sat

19

三 wed

18

香港大會堂音樂廳 CONCERT HALL, HK CITY HALL

五 fri

二 15 月 16

8:00

● 香港文化中心劇場 STUDIO THEATRE, HK CULTURAL CENTRE ◎ 香港演藝學院音樂廳 CONCERT HALL, HKAPA ※ 南蓮園池香海軒 XIANG HAI XUAN MULTI-PURPOSE HALL, NAN LIAN GARDEN ☆ 元朗劇院演藝廳 AUDITORIUM, YUEN LONG THEATRE

六 sat

JAN

8:00

香港文化中心大劇院 GRAND THEATRE, HK CULTURAL CENTRE

日 sun

一 28 月 29

一 mon 一 mon

香港文化中心音樂廳 CONCERT HALL, HK CULTURAL CENTRE

P38 拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院《茶花女》 San Carlo Theatre, Naples - La Traviata

7:30

拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院《茶花女》 San Carlo Theatre, Naples - La Traviata

P90

爵士樂 / 世界音樂 Jazz / World Music

8:15

☆ 7:30

7:30

7:30

8:15

拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院《茶花女》 San Carlo Theatre, Naples - La Traviata

● 8:15

布列頓百歲誕辰紀念音樂會 Die Konzertisten The Britten 100 Project

節目Programme 1

● 8:15

節目Programme 2

● 3:00

節目Programme 2

8:15

● 3:00

節目Programme 1 節目Programme 1

8:15 節目Programme 2

戲劇 Theatre

舞蹈 Dance

P90 4:30 8:15 8:00

P11

香港賽馬會 當代舞蹈平台系列 The Hong Kong Jockey Club Contemporary Dance Series

澳洲室樂團 Australian Chamber Orchestra 澳洲室樂團《珊瑚礁》 Australian Chamber Orchestra - The Reef 香港小交響樂團.笙弦 Hong Kong Sinfonietta

P67


香港演藝學院歌劇院 LYRIC THEATRE, HKAPA

7:30 2:30 7:30 2:30 7:30

n 香港演藝學院香港賽馬會演藝劇院 THE HONG KONG JOCKEY CLUB AMPHITHEATRE, HKAPA ▲ 沙田大會堂演奏廳 AUDITORIUM, SHA TIN TOWN HALL 葵青劇院黑盒劇場 BLACK BOX THEATRE, KWAI TSING THEATRE

◆ 香港演藝學院戲劇院 DRAMA THEATRE, HKAPA ○ 葵青劇院演藝廳 AUDITORIUM, KWAI TSING THEATRE ▼ 油麻地戲院 YAU MA TEI THEATRE ☆ 北區大會堂演藝廳 AUDITORIUM, NORTH DISTRICT TOWN HALL

n 8:15

◆ 8:00

programme calendar

香港大會堂劇院 THEATRE, HK CITY HALL

P85

英國國家劇團《一僕二主》 National Theatre of Great Britain One Man, Two Guvnors

7:30 7:30 8:15 8:15 3:00 8:15

7:30

1927 劇團 《怪誕城的動物與孩子》 1927 - The Animals and Children Took to the Streets

7:30

英國國家劇團《一僕二主》 National Theatre of Great Britain One Man, Two Guvnors

n 4:00

2:30 7:30

幻想古提琴室樂團 Phantasm

神氣舞團 《信靠》 ◆ 2:00 Compagnie La Baraka - NYA 8:00

3:00 8:15

8:15 8:15 8:15

P15 8:00

新銳舞台系列:《蕭紅》 New Stage Series: Heart of Coral

P76 n 8:15

3:00 8:00

n

3:00 8:00

n

8:00

8:15

《中式英語》 Chinglish

5:00

n

8:15

艾班另一面 The Other Ebène 艾班四重奏 Quatuor Ebène 拉爾夫.拉特鋼琴獨奏會 Ralph van Raat Piano Recital 馬田.霍羅斯特單簧管獨奏會 Martin Fröst Clarinet Recital

○ 8:00

P32

○ 8:00 優獸舞團 《足跡》

Fabulous Beast - Rian ○ 3:00

8:00 8:00

P47 8:00

n

8:15

8:00 8:00

n

8:15

《美國夢險號》 The Team - Mission Drift 7:30

3:00 8:00

7:30

中國國家京劇院《慈禧與德齡》 China National Peking Opera Empress Dowager Cixi and Princess Deling

P43 ▲ 8:00

朴星吉鋼琴獨奏會 Piao Xingji Piano Rexital 吳懷世與黃家正長笛鋼琴音樂會 Wilson Ng and KaJeng Wong Flute and Piano Recital 米凱.路迪《圖畫展覽會》 Mikhail Rudy - Pictures at an Exhibition

P14 ▼7:30

▼7:30 P67 ▼2:15 7:30

P100

《粵歷油麻地 — 三代同台做大戲》 In Yau Ma Tei - A Legacy of Cantonese Opera

▼2:15 7:30

▼8:00 ▼8:00

《戲偶人生》

8:00 8:00 3:00 8:00

▼8:00 Hand Stories

P80

《屠龍記》 Smear

7:30 7:30

拿波里聖卡洛歌劇院《呷醋丈夫》 San Carlo Theatre, Naples Il Marito Disperato

P11 ▼8:00

8:00 8:00

亞太舞蹈平台 V Asia Pacific Dance Platform V

8:00 8:00

8:00 8:00

☆ 8:00

8:00

8:00

8:00

8:00

3:00 8:00

3:00 8:00

8:00

3:00 8:00

◤ ◤ ◤ ◤

香港賽馬會藝粹系列 The Hong Kong Jockey Club Series 信和集團藝萃系列 Sino Group Arts Celebration Series 埃克森美孚新視野 ExxonMobil Vision 瑞信新晉藝術家系列 Credit Suisse Emerging Artists Series

P15 n 8:15

中國國家話劇院《青蛇》 National Theatre of China Green Snake

魯杜斯華夫斯基四重奏 Lutoslawski Quartet

《我的第一個四季》 My First Four Seasons


藝術節加料節目一覽

詳情及網上報名 For details and online registration

Festival PLUS Programme 日期 Date

時間 Time

10/2012-3/2013

不適用 NA

舞入校園 Dance into Schools

學校伙伴計劃 School-based project

駐節藝術家計劃 The Artists-in-Residence Project

不適用 NA

12/2012-3/2013

不適用 NA

粵劇教育計劃 Cantonese Opera Education Project

學校伙伴計劃 School-based project

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

不適用 NA

1-3/2013

不適用 NA

威爾第示範講座及工作坊 Verdi's Introductory Talk & Workshop

學校伙伴計劃 School-based project

威爾第歌劇全方位 All About Verdi's Operas

不適用 NA

The Grand 九龍柯士甸道 1 號圓方 2 樓 2/F, Elements, 1 Austin Road West, Kowloon

1700

《阿依達》 Aida

電影 Film

完全威爾第歌劇電影系列 Tutto Verdi Film Series

The Grand 九龍柯士甸道 1 號圓方 2 樓 2/F, Elements, 1 Austin Road West, Kowloon

1930

藝術節節目精選 Festival Programme Highlights

電視節目 電視特備節目 TV Programme Festival on TV

無綫電視翡翠台 TVB Jade

《一日國王》 Un giorno di regno

電影 Film

完全威爾第歌劇電影系列 Tutto Verdi Film Series

The Grand 九龍柯士甸道 1 號圓方 2 樓 2/F, Elements, 1 Austin Road West, Kowloon

《遊吟詩人》 Il trovatore

電影 Film

完全威爾第歌劇電影系列 Tutto Verdi Film Series

The Grand 九龍柯士甸道 1 號圓方 2 樓 2/F, Elements, 1 Austin Road West, Kowloon

1930

藝術節節目精選 Festival Programme Highlights

電視節目 電視特備節目 TV Programme Festival on TV

無綫電視翡翠台 TVB Jade

《弄臣》 Rigoletto

電影 Film

完全威爾第歌劇電影系列 Tutto Verdi Film Series

The Grand 九龍柯士甸道 1 號圓方 2 樓 2/F, Elements, 1 Austin Road West, Kowloon

《倫巴第人在第一次十字軍中》 I lombardi alla prima crociata

電影 Film

完全威爾第歌劇電影系列 Tutto Verdi Film Series

The Grand 九龍柯士甸道 1 號圓方 2 樓 2/F, Elements, 1 Austin Road West, Kowloon

1930

藝術節節目精選 Festival Programme Highlights

電視節目 電視特備節目 TV Programme Festival on TV

無綫電視翡翠台 TVB Jade

大師班 Masterclass

聖文德書院 慈雲山雙鳳街 47 號 St Bonaventure College 47 Sheung Fung Street, Tsz Wan Shan

26

六Sat

1700

1700

27

日Sun

六Sat

完全威爾第歌劇電影系列 Tutto Verdi Film Series

20

1700

一Mon

藝術節節目精選 Festival Programme Highlights

1200- 領導者的影響力 1400 Leadership and Leverage

The Grand 九龍柯士甸道 1 號圓方 2 樓 2/F, Elements, 1 Austin Road West, Kowloon

1930

藝術節節目精選 Festival Programme Highlights

電視節目 電視特備節目 TV Programme Festival on TV

無綫電視翡翠台 TVB Jade

藝術節節目精選 Festival Programme Highlights

電視節目 電視特備節目 TV Programme Festival on TV

無綫電視明珠台 TVB Pearl

藝術節節目精選 Festival Programme Highlights

電視節目 電視特備節目 TV Programme Festival on TV

無綫電視翡翠台 TVB Jade

藝人談 世界劇場面面觀 Meet-the-Artist Global Theatre

香港演藝學院歌劇院 Lyric Theatre, HKAPA

大師班 Masterclass

大師的藝術 Maestro's Art

香港文化中心大劇院 Grand Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

大師班 Masterclass

音樂-其他 Music – Others

香港演藝學院香港賽馬會演藝劇院 The Hong Kong Jockey Club Amphitheatre, HKAPA

藝人談 世界劇場面面觀 Meet-the-Artist Global Theatre

香港大會堂劇院 Theatre, HK City Hall

2150- 與凱文.麥肯齊對談 2220 Meet Kevin McKenzie

藝人談 舞蹈點滴 Meet-the-Artist About Dance

香港文化中心大劇院 Grand Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

1100- 美國芭蕾舞劇院大師班(一) 1230 ABT Masterclass I

大師班 Masterclass

舞蹈點滴 About Dance

香港文化中心大劇院後台 GR3 室 GR3, Backstage of the Grand Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

1230- 《一僕二主》後台解碼 1300 Behind the Scenes of a Smash Hit Comedy

後台參觀 Backstage Tour

世界劇場面面觀 Global Theatre

香港演藝學院歌劇院後台 Backstage, Lyric Theatre, HKAPA

現代舞 x Hip Hop 示範講座 1230Contemporary Dance x Hip Hop 1330 Lecture Demo

示範講座 Lecture Demo

駐節藝術家計劃 The Artists-in-Residence Project

香港演藝學院一樓藝聚廊 Atrium Lounge, 1/F, HKAPA

1930- 蕭紅:她的人生與作品 2100 Xiao Hong: Her Life and Her Work

講座 Talk

歌劇 / 戲曲-其他 Opera – Others

誠品 9F Forum 銅鑼灣軒尼詩道 500 號希慎廣場 9 樓 eslite 9/F Hysan Place, 500 Hennessy Road, Causeway Bay

1100- 美國芭蕾舞劇院大師班(二) 1230 ABT Masterclass II

大師班 Masterclass

舞蹈點滴 About Dance

香港文化中心大劇院後台 GR3 室 GR3, Backstage of the Grand Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

1630- 後台參觀怪誕城 1715 The Animals and Children Backstage

後台參觀 Backstage Tour

世界劇場面面觀 Global Theatre

香港大會堂劇院後台 Backstage, Theatre, HK City Hall

電影 Film

解構愛恩斯坦 Decoding Einstein

香港藝術中心 agnès b. 電影院 灣仔港灣道 2 號 agnès b. CINEMA HK Arts Centre, 2 Harbour Road, Wanchai

1900- 芭蕾舞指揮之道 2230 Conducting for Dance

21

幻想古提琴室樂團 1800古提琴大師班 1930 Viol Masterclass with Phantasm 2130- 與 1927 劇團演後對談 2200 Post-performance Dialogue with 1927

日Sun 四Thu

28

六Sat

一Mon

完全威爾第歌劇電影系列 Tutto Verdi Film Series

日Sun

電影 Film

日Sun

《法斯塔夫》 Falstaff

三Wed

1700

四Thu

The Grand 九龍柯士甸道 1 號圓方 2 樓 2/F, Elements, 1 Austin Road West, Kowloon

五Fri

完全威爾第歌劇電影系列 Tutto Verdi Film Series

20

24

「與頂尖文化領袖對談」 香檳午餐會 沁園 灣仔港灣道 1 號香港君悅酒店 11 樓 Champagne Luncheons with The Poolhouse Grand Hyatt Hong Kong, 1 Harbour Road, Wanchai Leading International Arts CEOs

電影 Film

1730- 《一僕二主》演後談 1800 Two Guvnors First Hand

23

特別節目 Special

《假面舞會》 Un ballo in maschera

1930

22

無綫電視明珠台 TVB Pearl

1700

2355

17

電視節目 電視特備節目 TV Programme Festival on TV

六Sat

二 2 月 3

2355

音樂-其他 Music – Others

日Sun

29

Feb

28

二Tue

1930- 銅管樂大師班 2130 Mastering Brass

2000

《菲力普.格拉斯 — 鏡中遊》 Philip Glass: Looking Glass

場地 Venue

場地 Venue

電影 Film

1700

10

系列 Series

《奧貝爾托》 Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio

19

4

活動類型 Activity Type

系列 Series

六Sat

節目 Programme

活動類型 Activity Type

1700

日Sun

Jan

一 12 月 13

時間 Time

節目 Programme

日Sun

日期 Date

110

www.hk.artsfestivalplus.org


五Fri 六Sat  日Sun

藝人談 舞蹈點滴 Meet-the-Artist About Dance

香港文化中心大劇院 Grand Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

1000- 艾班四重奏弦樂大師班 1200 Quatuor Ebène Masterclass for Strings

大師班 Masterclass

音樂-其他 Music – Others

東華三院羅裕積小學 油麻地碧街 51 號 TWGHS Lo Yu Chik Primary School 51 Pitt Street, Yau Ma Tei

1230- 《羅密歐與茱麗葉》後台之旅 1300 Behind the Scenes at Romeo & Juliet

後台參觀 Backstage Tour

About Dance 舞蹈點滴

香港文化中心大劇院後台 Backstage, Grand Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

2130- 《蕭紅》創作分享 2200 Heart of the Matter

藝人談 歌劇 / 戲曲-其他 Meet-the-Artist Opera – Others

香港大會堂劇院 Theatre, HK City Hall

1430- 「薪火代代傳」講座 I 1630 Passing the Torch - Talk I

講座 Talk

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋活動室 ( 二 ) Function Room 2, Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

1730- 中式英語交流會 1900 Exchanging the Chinglish

講座 Talk

世界劇場面面觀 Global Theatre

香港演藝學院實驗劇場 Studio Theatre, HKAPA

大師班 Masterclass

音樂-其他 Music – Others

東華三院黃笏南中學 九龍塘牛津道 1C TWGHS Wong Fut Nam College 1C Oxford Road, Kowloon Tong

二Tue

2230- 與凱文.麥肯齊對談 2300 Meet Kevin McKenzie

1000- 拉爾夫.拉特鋼琴大師班 1200 Piano Masterclass by Ralph van Raat

三Wed

香港文化中心劇場 Studio Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

2000

《絕對威爾遜》 Absolute Wilson

電影 Film

解構愛恩斯坦 Decoding Einstein

香港藝術中心 agnès b. 電影院 灣仔港灣道 2 號 agnès b. CINEMA HK Arts Centre, 2 Harbour Road, Wanchai

四Thu

藝人談 世界劇場面面觀 Meet-the-Artist Global Theatre

2000

《被遺忘的天籟》 Ladino - 500 Years Young

電影 Film

音樂-其他 Music – Others

香港藝術中心 agnès b. 電影院 灣仔港灣道 2 號 agnès b. CINEMA HK Arts Centre, 2 Harbour Road, Wanchai

2200- 《美國夢險號》演後談 2230 Staging the American Dream

藝人談 世界劇場面面觀 Meet-the-Artist Global Theatre

香港大會堂劇院 Theatre, HK City Hall

導賞團 Tour

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

集合地點 : 油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋 Meeting point: Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

講座 Talk

解構愛恩斯坦 Decoding Einstein

香港藝術中心 agnès b. 電影院 灣仔港灣道 2 號 agnès b. CINEMA HK Arts Centre, 2 Harbour Road, Wanchai

1130- 「藝遊油麻地」導賞團 1300 Yau Ma Tei Cultural Walk

導賞團 Tour

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

集合地點 : 油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋 Meeting point: Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

1430- 「薪火代代傳」講座 II 1600 Passing the Torch - Talk II

講座 Talk

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋活動室 ( 二 ) Function Room 2, Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

2000- 「藝遊油麻地」導賞團 2130 Yau Ma Tei Cultural Walk

導賞團 Tour

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

集合地點 : 油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋 Meeting point: Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

1130- 「藝遊油麻地」導賞團 1300 Yau Ma Tei Cultural Walk

導賞團 Tour

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

集合地點 : 油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋 Meeting point: Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

1300- 「薪火代代傳」講座 III 1400 Passing the Torch - Talk III

講座 Talk

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋活動室 ( 二 ) Function Room 2, Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

1430- 粵劇髮飾工作坊 1730 Accessorising Cantonese Opera

工作坊 Workshop

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋活動室 ( 二 ) Function Room 2, Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

1600- 京劇演前講座 1700 Beijing Opera: a Pre-performance Talk

講座 Talk

歌劇 / 戲曲-其他 Opera – Others

香港藝術中心麥高利小劇場 灣仔港灣道 2 號 McAulay Studio, HK Arts Centre 2 Harbour Road, Wanchai

1700- 《爆.蛹》演後談 1730 Behind the Blast

藝人談 世界劇場面面觀 Meet-the-Artist Global Theatre

1730- 京劇製作後台之旅 1800 Backstage of a Beijing Opera

後台參觀 Backstage Tour

歌劇 / 戲曲-其他 Opera – Others

香港演藝學院歌劇院後台 Backstage, Lyric Theatre, The HKAPA

1100- Rousset 的巴羅克風格 1300 Interpretation of Baroque

大師班 Masterclass

大師的藝術 Maestro's Art

香港浸會大學大學會堂 九龍塘窩打老道 224 號 Academic Community Hall, HK Baptist University 224 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong

1400- 托尼提小提琴大師班 1600 Violin Masterclass by Richard Tognetti

大師班 Masterclass

大師的藝術 Maestro's Art

香港演藝學院音樂廳 Concert Hall, The HKAPA

1930- 石倚潔美聲大師班 2130 Bel Canto with Yijie Shi

大師班 Masterclass

威爾第歌劇全方位 All About Verdi's Operas

聖公會聖馬利亞堂 銅鑼灣大坑道 2A St Mary's Church Tai Hang Road 2A, Causeway Bay

2000- 「藝遊油麻地」導賞團 2130 Yau Ma Tei Cultural Walk

導賞團 Tour

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

集合地點 : 油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋 Meeting point: Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

1130- 「藝遊油麻地」導賞團 1300 Yau Ma Tei Cultural Walk

導賞團 Tour

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

集合地點 : 油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋 Meeting point: Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

1230- 舞蹈奇藝後台之旅 1300 MOMIX Revealed

後台參觀 Backstage Tour

舞蹈點滴 About Dance

香港文化中心大劇院後台 Backstage, Grand Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

1700- 《屠龍記》演後談 1730 The Might of the Pen

藝人談 世界劇場面面觀 Meet-the-Artist Global Theatre

香港大會堂劇院 Theatre, HK City Hall

2000- 「藝遊油麻地」導賞團 2130 Yau Ma Tei Cultural Walk

導賞團 Tour

集合地點 : 油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋 Meeting point: Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

亞太舞蹈平台演後藝人談 2130Meet the Artists of the Asia Pacific 2200 Dance Platform

藝人談 舞蹈點滴 Meet-the-Artist About Dance

葵青劇院黑盒劇場 Black Box, Kwai Tsing Theatre

1130- 「藝遊油麻地」導賞團 1300 Yau Ma Tei Cultural Walk

導賞團 Tour

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

集合地點 : 油麻地窩打老道 8 號紅磚屋 Meeting point: Red Brick Building, 8 Waterloo Road, Yau Ma Tei

1500- 「舞動的表象與空間」工作坊 工作坊 1700 Surface and Space of Movements Workshop Workshop

舞蹈點滴 About Dance

SDM 總校九龍塘教育大樓 九龍塘劍橋道六號 SDM Star Academie 6 Cambridge Road, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon

1200- 傳統與革新 1400 Tradition and Transformation

特別節目 Special

「與頂尖文化領袖對談」 香檳午餐會 沁園 灣仔港灣道 1 號香港君悅酒店 11 樓 Champagne Luncheons with The Poolhouse Grand Hyatt Hong Kong, 1 Harbour Road, Wanchai Leading International Arts CEOs

與本地當代舞蹈家對談 ( 節目二 ) 1630- The Hong Kong Jockey Club 1700 Contemporary Dance Series Postperformance Dialogue (Programme 2)

藝人談 舞蹈點滴 Meet-the-Artist About Dance

香港文化中心劇場 Studio Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

與本地當代舞蹈家對談 ( 節目一 ) 1630- The Hong Kong Jockey Club 1700 Contemporary Dance Series Postperformance Dialogue (Programme 1)

藝人談 舞蹈點滴 Meet-the-Artist About Dance

香港文化中心劇場 Studio Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

2000- 「藝遊油麻地」導賞團 2130 Yau Ma Tei Cultural Walk

9

「藝術與技術的完美結合」講座 1100Restaging Einstein on the Beach: Artistic 1300 and Technical Theatre in Collaboration

15 16

17

20 23 24

三Wed 日Sun

13

三Wed

10

日Sun

8

五Fri

7

2130- 《反斗先生》幻像的藝術 2200 The Art of Illusion

六Sat

6

場地 Venue

五Fri

5

系列 Series

六Sat

3

活動類型 Activity Type

六Sat

2

節目 Programme

日Sun

Mar

三 1 月

時間 Time

粵歷油麻地 Opera Treasures of Yau Ma Tei

Festival PLUS Programme 藝術節加料節目一覽

日期 Date

香港文化中心劇場 Studio Theatre, HK Cultural Centre

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香港藝術節協會 Hong Kong Arts Festival Society 贊助人 PATRON

永遠名譽會長 HONORARY LIFE PRESIDENT

主席 Chairman

梁振英先生 The Hon C Y Leung, GBM GBS JP

邵逸夫爵士 Sir Run Run Shaw, CBE

夏佳理先生 The Hon Ronald Arculli, GBM CVO GBS OBE JP

職員 Staff

節目 Programme

市場推廣 Marketing

發展 Development

行政總監 Executive Director 何嘉坤 Tisa Ho

節目總監 Programme Director 梁掌瑋 Grace Lang

市場總監 Marketing Director 鄭尚榮 Katy Cheng

發展總監 Development Director 余潔儀 Flora Yu

副節目總監 Associate Programme Director 蘇國雲 So Kwok-wan

市場經理 Marketing Managers 周 怡 Alexia Chow 鍾穎茵 Wendy Chung 葉愛莉 Elly Yip

發展經理 Development Managers 嚴翠芳 Josephine Yim 蘇啟泰 Alex So*

節目經理 Programme Managers 葉健鈴 Linda Yip 梁頌怡 Kitty Leung* 助理節目經理 Assistant Programme Managers 黎栩昕 Sunnie Lai* 邱慧芝 Janel Yau* 節目主任 Programme Officer 李家穎 Becky Lee 物流及接待經理 Logistics Manager 金學忠 Elvis King* 製作經理 Production Manager 廖卓良 Liu Cheuk-leung* 助理製作經理 Assistant Production Manager 蘇雪凌 Shirley So 外展經理 Outreach Manager 梁偉然 Ian Leung 外展統籌 Outreach Coordinator 陳韻婷 Alyson Chan*

助理市場經理(票務) Assistant Marketing Manager (Ticketing) 梁彩雲 Eppie Leung 助理市場經理 Assistant Marketing Manager 梁愷樺 Anthea Leung* 市場主任 Marketing Officer 張凱旋 Carla Cheung* 票務主任 Ticketing Officer 葉晉菁 Jan Ip* 票務助理 Ticketing Assistant 關愷霖 Kwan Hoi-lam* 市客戶服務主任 Customer Services Officers 陳潞怡 Christina Chan* 馮敏怡 Merrie Fung* 楊妙思 Iris Yeung* 容巧欣 Rachel Yung*

外展助理 Outreach Assistants 陳慧晶 Ainslee Chan* 陳瑞堃 Chan Sui-kwan*

助理發展經理 Assistant Development Manager 陳艷馨 Eunice Chan 發展助理 Development Assistant 黃苡姍 Iris Wong*

會計 Accounts 會計經理 Accounting Manager 陳綺敏 Katharine Chan 助理會計經理 Assistant Accounting Manager 鄒智峯 Andy Chau 會計文員 Accounts Clerk 黃國愛 Bonia Wong

行政 Administration 行政秘書 Executive Secretary 陳詠詩 Heidi Chan 接待員 / 初級秘書 Receptionist / Junior Secretary 李美娟 Virginia Li

出版 Publication

辦公室助理 Office Assistant 陳家寶 Chan Ka-po*

編輯 Editor 鄺潔冰 Cabbie Kwong* 英文編輯 English Editor 黃進之 Nicolette Wong* 助理編輯 Assistant Editor 曾逸林 Zeng Yilin* 編輯助理 Editorial Assistant 伍穎姸 Winnie Ng*

* 合約職員 * Contract Staff

〈閱藝〉編輯小組 FestMag Editorial Team 何嘉坤 Tisa Ho

蘇國雲 So Kwok-wan

朱琼愛 Daisy Chu

黃進之 Nicolette Wong

翻譯 Translators 戴佩珊 Juliet Tai ( 中文 Chinese) 張 菁 Gigi Chang ( 英文 English)

地址Address: 香港灣仔港灣道2號12樓1205室 Room 1205, 12th Floor, 2 Harbour Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong 電話Telephone: (852)2824 3555 . 傳真Fax: (852)2824 3798, 2824 3722 . 網站Website: http://www.hk.artsfestival.org . 電子郵箱Email: afgen@hkaf.org 香港藝術節由香港藝術節協會有限公司主辦。藝術節協會根據香港公司法例註冊為公共慈善團體。本刊特稿中觀點及見解乃作者個人意見,並不代表香港藝術節協會立場。 The Festival is presented by the Hong Kong Arts Festival Society Limited incorporated as a charitable institution of a public character under the Companies Ordinance of Hong Kong. The views and opinions expressed or implied in the feature articles in this magazine are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Hong Kong Arts Festival Society. 本刊內容,未經許可,不得轉載。Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is strictly prohibited. 出版 Published by 香港藝術節協會有限公司 Hong Kong Arts Festival Society Limited 承印 Printed by 天虹印刷有限公司 Rainbow Printing Co., Ltd. 設計 Designed by Cheer Shine Enterprise Co., Ltd. 封面圖片 Cover photo Hand Stories © Mario Del Curto/STRATES 封面設計 Cover design by Ren Publishing (HK) Ltd

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