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Florida’s first high school newspaper

Hillsborough High School • 5000 N. Central Ave. • Tampa, Fla. 33603 • Volume 112, No. 4 • February 2012

Math teacher named county’s top teacher - Yolanda Whitehead Driskell is Hillsborough County’s Teacher of the Year

Ronald McDonald surprises Yolanda Whitehead Driskell when she learned she was one of five finalists for Hillsborough County Teacher of the Year. Photo by Claire Kalhoefer

the standard

How curved were your exams? Find out how the district determines exam scales. -See pages 8-9



=B? A

February 2012

By Samantha Matras • Editor in Chief

For the 2010-11 school year, Hillsborough received an overall “B” for the school grade. Here’s how the grade was determined.




49 54 69


48 175 104

180 79


92 79



% at Level 3 or Higher in Reading

The FCAT math, reading and science are graded on a 1-5 scale. The school gains a point for each percenatage of students scoring at least a 3.

% at Level 3 or Higher in Math % Meeting the Writing Standard


The FCAT writing is graded on a 1-6 scale. The school earns a point for each percentage of students who score at least a 4 on the assessment.



% at Level 3 or Higher in Science

% Making Reading Gains % Making Math Gains


If a student improves his FCAT score from the previous year, that percentage of students help the school gain points. Students can either increase up a level or by a certain amount of points.



% of Lowest 25% Making Learning Gains in Reading % of Lowest 25% Making Learning Gains in Math * Acceleration Participation Acceleration Performance



This is based on the enrollment of accelerated courses, i.e. AP classes, IB classes and dual enrollment courses. This category is weighted 1.75 times more than the majority of categories. The actual number of accelerated partition points received for year 2011 was 100; 100 X 1.75 = 175.

This is determined by the measure of successful completions in accelerated courses divided by the count of participants, i.e. if a student takes AP US History and passes the class, that student successfully completed the class. This is weighted 1.25 times.

Graduation Rate Total Points


The percentage of students graduating with standard or special diploma within four years of initital enrollment in 9th grade. This category is double weighted.

At-Risk Graduation Rate Total Points Postsecondary Readiness Reading Postsecondary Readiness Math





At-risk students are those who scored at a Level 2 or below on the FCAT reading or math.


The count of graduates scoring “ready” on the ACT or SAT divided by the count of graduates scoring at a FCAT level of 3 or higher.The same applies for math readiness.

Despite the fact that a total of 1,160 points falls within the A range on the school grading scale, Hillsborough received a B due to a common deduction based on the percent of lowest 25 percent of the school population failing to make “adequate gains” on FCAT testing.



More than half of the lowest 25 percent would have to make gains to be considered “adequate gains.” Although the fairness of this rule is highly disputed amoung teachers, Principal William Orr said, “We should be accountable for all students; the bottom, middle and top.”


February 2012

Fiction novels are still on the left of the library, although there are shelves all around the room to showcase books as well as in front of the doors on display.


The center of the library is now home to the reference section and two computer labs. The computer labs are a big improvement. Now two full classes can be fit comfortably in the library for research. The reading areas have also increased in size and space.


Non-fiction books wrap around the entire back of the library, and continue on the right side of the library. Biographies are no longer their own section, they are in with the non-fiction, but are still labeled “B” for biography, so they are easy to find.

Photo by Amanda Glenz

Q&A New Media Specialist Barbara Magee is bringing change to the center she now leads along with assistant Susan Hunt. The changes are aimed at providing a better environment for students researching, working or reading. Many have noticed these changes, but few have really understood the methods behind the madness.

What is being changed? We had some books that are outdated and worn, especially our reference collection, so we are removing and moving a lot of books. However, a lot of the books are in the online

database and we were able to remove them and put the reference center in the middle of the library in order to make them more accessible. Eventually we are going to shift the fiction collection. It is more of reorganizing the structure of the library.

The reference section especially because it was outdated and some of the books had just gotten moldy and old. In the end, it will really help students come in and do research or homework.

I’ve gotten done more than I had expected to so far, but probably by the end of the year, maybe this semester.

collection, because we have so many online databases with all the same information

I’m new to this school and I’ve worked in several libraries and I find that when you renovate, it helps to make the library your own. Plus, the library needed some reorganizing.

we will continue purchasing fiction. Already this year I’ve purchased about 400 books, and Barbara Magee is overseeing a reorganization of the Media Center. Photo by Jimmy Herdwe have another order coming up.

About how many books have you When is this change-up going to gotten rid of? be finished? About one-third to half of our reference How many new books will you be Why did you decide to reorganize getting? the library? We will continue purchasing non-fiction and -Amanda Glenz Bond.



February 2012




Illustration by Zack Wright • Text compiled by Nick Bennett, Roksana Borzouei, Holly Schroeder and Kimberley Rampersad

This proposed legislation did not become law, as critics castigated the controversial bill as authorizing the President to enforce a full obstruction of cyberspace.

Attempted to regulate both indecency and obscenity in cyberspace. It was found unconstitutional in the 1997 Reno v. ACLU case because it placed an undue burden on protected speech.

OPA would have allowed the U.S. Department of Justice and copyright holders to seek court cases against domains facilitating material infringing on copyrights. The bill compelled Internet service providers to prevent access to those domains, interpreted by critics as censorship. This led to a massive internet backlash and the bill’s postponement. Below, some other bills:

This proposed bill aimed to restrict minors access to social networking websites in schools, libraries, and businesses. The legistlation was not enacted, as critics said it limited minors access to educational material falling under the category.

2010 - Protecting Cyberspace as a National Assest Act

2006 - Deleting Online Predators Act 1998 - Digital Milennium Copyright Act

1996 - Communications Decency Act

Criminalized the spreading of technology that could be used to evade copyright protections. It made it easier to act against copyright infringement mechanisms on the Internet.


February 2012

School lunches put to the

Big Daddy’s Pizza, found to be the most popular lunch item by our survey, has 20 grams of protein and 39 grams of carbs (Photo by Holly Schroeder).

test By Kellen Yent, Sports Editor

Here at HHS, or any other school that allows students to purchase lunch, most students would go along with the impending stereotypical mindset of thinking that the lunches served in the cafeteria are not nutritious or healthy. In most cases, however, they wouldn’t be correct. Schools go through a large process to ensure that student lunches are both healthy and nutritious. The HHS cafeteria follows the USDA-approved checklist in order to serve proper foods in the morning and afternoon for the students.

“Many of the foods we serve are whole grain, or will be whole grain soon,” said student nutrition manager Judy Harrison. In a survey of 10 random kids here at HHS, estimates on food calories were taken and were compared to the actual calories found in the five most popular items found in the school lunch. On average, the students that were surveyed overestimated the calories for each item. All of the foods listed adhere to the amount of calories that are recommended for lunch, based on USDA nutrition facts.


Students will learn general knowledge of basketball. The course is half a semester long and will show students developmental techniques for the game.



estimated calories: 625 actual calories: 350

2. 4.

Popcorn Chicken Bowl = Estimated calories: 360 Actual calories: 340 Buffalo Chicken Strips = Estimated calories: 360 Actual calories: 280

Fitness Issues for Adolescence

This class will educate students about fitness concepts, including health problems facing teens and how to keep themselves fit. It is a semester course.

Guitar 1-4 Students of all levels of guitar experience will learn or improve their skills with chords and tablatures in this year-long course, as well as learn how to read music.

Big Daddy’s Pizza =

Track and Field This semester-long course is designed to teach students basic skills in track and field. It will also help students to stay in shape and prepare for the track season. (Photos by Kellen Yent and Hannah Gagne)


Sweet and Sour Chicken Rice Bowl = Estimated calories: 680 Actual calories: 505


Teriyaki Chicken Rice Bowl = Estimated calories: 475 Actual calories: 375

New electives, new opportunities

2012-13 year brings additonal courses to HHS By Nikki Ferrera Staff Writer

Students will have the opportunity to enroll in elective classes never before offered at HHS. These new classes, which will be offered for the 2012-13 school year, are from both the physical education and music departments, so

students looking to gain credits in either of these areas will now have a larger variety of options to fulfill their graduation requirements. So before you make your final course choices, here are four elective options that might not yet be on your radar.

6 Volume 112 No. 4 Editor in Chief Samantha Matras News Editors Jacob Gagne Chrissy Geshel Elizabeth Gwilt Life Editors Nick Bennett Roksana Borzouei Brittany Valencic Sports Editors Katie Lutton Luke Votzke Kellen Yent

Opinion Our View

February 2012

Proposed ban on junk food not healthy “Add to the list of items that may not be purchased with [food stamps] nonstaple, unhealthy foods. Such prohibited items include, but are not limited to...”

sweetened beverages soft drinks

Opinion Editor Nico Tavella

salty snack foods

Photo Editor Jimmy Herd-Bond

corn-based salty snacks, pretzels, party mix, popcorn and potato chips

Staff Writers Kristine Lee Fabio DeSousa Alex Rosendo Nadiya Fakhar Holly Schroeder Nikki Ferrera Jenn Travis Amanda Glenz Zachary Wright Adam Godbey Kimberly Rampersad


Adviser Joe Humphrey, MJE

jello, candy, ice cream, pudding, popsicles, muffins, sweet rolls, cakes, cupcakes, pies, cobblers, pastries, and doughnuts

Principal Dr. William T. Orr Jr. The Red & Black belongs to the Florida Scholastic (All-Florida, 2011) and the National Scholastic (All-American, 2011) press associations. The newspaper considers itself an open forum for student expression and decisions about content are made by student editors. However, the paper is subject to prior review by the school’s administrative staff. The staff editorial reflects the view of student editors and columns represent the viewpoints of their authors. The R&B welcomes letters from students, teachers and members of the Hillsborough community. Letters may be edited for brevity and clarity, and should be submitted to Room 506 or to The Red & Black, 5000 N. Central Ave., Tampa FL 33603. Advertising content is subject to approval of the editorial board. The Red & Black is printed in partnership with The Tampa Tribune. This newspaper includes content from the MCT Campus wire service. Phone: (813) 276-5620 • Fax: (813) 276-5629 e-mail: joseph.

The Florida Legislature recently proposed a ban on the purchase of unhealthy food by EBT/welfare checks.Though healthy, this ban would ultimately be counterproductive. The bright side of this decision is that taxpayers’ money will no longer be spent on things that are unhealthy or, as viewed by some, a waste of money in general. However, the Legislature controlling what

people can and cannot buy effectively dissolves the freedom and democracy that this nation was founded on to begin with. It’s clear the Legislature wanted to make an effective effort to improve the health of this nation’s population with this ban, which failed Monday evening, but this is no way to go about it. By banning certain items from being pur-

chased, the state would only disable those on welfare from ever being able to make healthy food choices in the future. Rather than restrict people, who are already restricted to food stamps/EBT, to buying only certain kinds of food, the government should create a program that encourages a healthier diet and perhaps hold informational sessions on the dangers of unhealthy foods

(Pictures by Nico Tavella, Graphic by Fabio DeSousa)

February 2012

Senior Notables

Category Most likely to be president

Most ironic

Opinion Adam Godbey Name: _______________


Mitt Romney Newt



Please briefly explain your nomination. Romney has consistently been at the top or near the top of every poll, and is considered as the favorite for the primary nomination. In the Florida primary, Romney won with 46.4% of the vote Gingrich has run an anti-establishment campaign, yet he is the epitome of “the establishment.” From ethics violations, to being forced out of his position as Speaker of the House by members of his own party, to allegedly lobbying in Washington after being Speaker, Gingrich is everything that he speaks out against.

Most likely to use Reagan 3 times in a sentence

Newt Gingrich

Gingrich is eager to boast of his affiliation with the darling of the Republican Party: former President Ronald Reagan. Gingrich repeatedly talks of his contributions during the Reagan administration, yet in reality was one of many voices in the Republican Party at the time.

Most likely to use Obama 3 times in a sentence

Mitt Romney

Romney’s focus on President Obama and the general election shows that he believes his nomination is ultimately inevitable.

Most likely to use liberty 3 times in a sentence

Ron Paul

Ron Paul only speaks of liberty: liberty in social issues, liberty with businesses, and liberty in foreign affairs. Paul is a libertarian (those who believe in extremely limited government and almost no taxes), and continually brings every argument back to his favorite word.

Most likely to use family 3 times in a sentence

Rick Santorum

Rick Santorum, a devout Catholic, has run a very socially-conservative campaign that has a focus on “restoring the American family.”

Most likely to succeed

Mitt Romney

Romney has been a successful entrepreneur, governor, and head of the Olympic games. Romney has a record of success, which makes him a viable candidate against President Obama.

Most popular

Ron Paul

Paul’s libertarian base is the most passionate and enthused among all Republicans.

Most unpopular

Ron Paul

Democrats fear his radical views on domestic policy (he believes government should provide no assistance to anyone or regulate anything), and mainstream Republicans fear his radical views on foreign policy (he believes that the military should be heavily cut and we should not get involved in any nation). Graphic by Zack Wright


Special Report Grading Scales by Class


the standard

“The curve is not encouraging students to do their best, it’s allowing them to do their worst.” -Marian Manganello, math teacher “There is a need for a curve to make the exams fair, but this is too extreme.” -Samantha Caldwell, AP Language teacher A closer look at one scale

The district scales are created to mimic student performance in the class. For example, in Algebra II Honors, 28 percent of students earned an A for the first quarter. That information is considered along with historic performance in the class to help determine a curve. Nearly 4,700 students in the district took Algebra II Honors last fall. The curve ensures about that many students receive an A on the exam. In this case, students scoring 78 percent or above received an A. Students scoring 60 percent or above received a B. F students rec This keeps the exam totals roughly in line with performance in the class. Scaling is done “so that prepared students can get the scores they deserve and earn,” said district spokesman Stephen Hegarty. District Chief Information and Technology Officer David Steele notes one class – Physics Honors – in which only one student earned a 90 percent on the exam. A scale on that course ensured more than one student received an A grade.


How is it possible to earn a 48.5 percent and still get an A? With the county’s exam curves, some AP Biology students made this score a reality. In order to understand how the scales are determined, The Red & Black compiled and analyzed some of the of the over 700 exams offered in Hillsborough County. “In some cases students who are A-caliber students do not get A’s or even B’s on many tests. Are the students suddenly not good at algebra? Or is the test just not an accurate measure? We say the latter,” district spokesman Stephen Hegarty wrote in an email. Curves are determined by looking at data from past years and the first nine weeks. Teacher input is also taken into account. Coordinator of Assessment Laura Brown said that exams are in the process of being rewritten to make a more standard test, but the effects won’t be seen for a few more years. Students had varying opinions on the scales. Senior Jasmine Hills doesn’t agree with the curves. “I think it’s unfair to the students who actually study and don’t need them,” Hills said. “This system is setting up kids for failure, since they won’t know how to prepare in a real world setting,” she added. But others welcome the extra boost come exam day. “I would fail without the curves,” said junior Jakisse Fipps. “I’m a good student, but not a good test taker.”


About this graphic

“We want a fair exam grade, not a fixed one.”

-Sam Whitten, Office of Assessment and Accountability




Int Sc





En En En En Alg Ch Ho AP gli gli gli gli em no eb B ati i s s s s r o ra ist sE ve h1 h1 h4 h4 log Dra r 2H Wr co y1 y R H R H e e o o no ma itin on g g n n H mi ors on g1 cs


Compiled by Elizabeth Gwilt and Brittany Valencic Graphic by Fabio DeSousa

• • • •

The “standard scale” on the far left represents the district’s standard letter-grading system. The subsequent graphs represents exam curves placed on select exams, as provided by the Hillsborough County School District. Some exams include other components that may affect the actual letter grade. The scale represents only the countywide portion. The district’s assessment office notes scales for some AP courses are not applied consistently throughout the district. Exams also have a “below required minimum” score. They are grouped in with the F on this graphic.



Top 5 of 2012

February 2012

By Roksana Borzouei Life Editor


Tyler, the Creator Wolf

Fans should expect a totally different Tyler than the one on Goblin. In an article in Spin Magazine, Tyler said, “With Wolf, I’ll brag a little more, talk about money and buying [expletive], but not like any other rapper, I’ll be a smart-[expletive] about it.” The album will be more focused on beats than rap.

Top 3 unanticipated albums of 2012


Nicki Minaj Pink Friday: Roman Reloaded

Set to release on Valentine’s Day, Pink Friday: Roman sees the return of Minaj’s alter ego, Roman Zolanski. Two tracks,“Stupid [expletive]” and “Roman in Moscow,” have been released. The former with a music video. Billboard’s Rising Star of 2011 is coming off of a “super” year and has been hyping up her new album. Tweet from Jan. 7, “Looking @ the Stupid [expletive] 1st edit....omfg. Ur gna spazzzz,” makes us all hope we like the album as much as she does. Don’t expect Billboard’s most charted female rapper to be a one hit wonder.


The Strokes TBA

Indie rock superstars have been hinting at a fifth studio album since the release of Angles, but no material has yet to be released. Fans don’t have to fret about another 5 year hiatus, but the release date is TBA.

3 Taylor Swift TBA

The album name and release date have yet to be announced, but twenty five songs have been written so far, reports. Swift, Billboard’s Woman of the Year 2011, hasn’t had a breakup recently to write about, but her lyrics appeal universally to gutted teenagers.

5 Mumford & Sons TBA

“It’s doom folk, kind of like Black Sabbath meets Nick Drake,” bassisst Ted Dwane told Rolling Stone says of his bands second studio album. No longer newcomers and riding on the wave of the success of Sigh No More (2009), M&F test their commercial viability.

Photos courtesy of,,,,,

Unless you’re a 12-year-old girl, Paris Hilton or without the ability to hear you will not enjoy the next three albums. Tween and middle aged widow heart-throb JBeebs, is releasing a new album, Believe, later this year. The album shares a name with his charity, which softens the blow of another Bieber album. Watch out: Hilton is releasing a new album, or so she said February of last year. The delay was met with outstanding reviews. Rumors are that it will be released sometime this year. The Veronicas are set to release their third studio album, Awakening, later this year. Let’s hope this one stays “untouched.”

This is a year for the oldies [and hipsters.]

Baby boomer favorites and some bands that are just old enough to call old to a sixteen-year-old are set to issue albums faster than Nicki Minaj can spin lyrics. Or even faster. Busta Rhymes is releasing “E.L.E. (Extinction Level Event) 2: End of the World” later this year. So is Dr. Dre with “Detox.” But maybe your parents aren’t into rap and hip-hop. Maybe your dad had a mop top and your mom was one of the hundreds of girls who swooned at the sight of Paul McCartney’s baby face. Ringo Starr’s sixteenth studio solo album, Ringo 2012, is set to release Jan. 30, just a week before the release of Paul McCartney’s fifteenth studio solo album, Kisses on the Bottom. Other notable oldies releases include albums from ZZ Top,Van Halen, Black Sabbath, Queen and Leonard Cohen. A posthumous collaboration album of Freddie Mercury and Michael Jackson is also rumored to release.

Bands that were not anticipated enough, [but are just important enough to mention]: 50 Cent, Franz Ferdinand, John Mayer, Kreayshawn, Lady Gaga, Linkin Park, Lupe Fiasco, Mumford & Sons, Outkast, Paramore, Phoenix, Smith Westerns, The Offspring, Tim McGraw,Wu tang clan.


February 2012


Human communication changes much since 1900 By Kristine Lee & Nico Tavella Staff Writer & Opinion Editor

1900 Written word is dominant form

1960s Cordless telephone invented

1980s Cell phones invented

2004 Facebook is created

2008 First iPhone is released Photo credits:,

Disney World brings new realm of magic By Jennifer Travis Staff Writer

Big changes are coming in the next few years at Walt Disney World. New Fantasyland expansions will hopefully entice more guests to the Magic Kingdom and gain revenue.

It’s not all about Cinderella anymore! In the new Beauty and the Beast land, Belle gets her own castle including a 550 seat restaurant in 2013.

Little Mermaid ride, which is estimated to be over $100 million budget, will take you under the sea in a musical adventure in 2012.

A brand new Storybook Circus attraction with an improved Dumbo carousel ride and Goofy the Great Goofini roller coaster.

The Seven Dwarves musical mining train ride coming out in 2013.

Photo credit:



Furry Hats

February 2012

String Hats Junior Imraan Farooq has an interesting array of anime hats that he wears throughout the winter season. Here Farooq fashions the popular cartoon icons, Domo and Pikachu. Senior Krizia Hernandez wears a koala string hat.


Junior Corin Hasegawa’s array of fuzzy hats personify the characters of Disney classics. Junior Chrissy Geshel doesn’t need to hibernate in the winter to keep warm, thanks to her furry bear cap.

r W e t e in By Nadiya Fakhar Staff Writer

Throwback Hats Junior Elijah Kallett wears his Russian style Ushanka during the chilly season. Junior Nadiya Fakhar poses as a 1940’s ‘Extra Newsboy’ in the newsboy cap. Senior Zack Wright throws back to the 19th century in a coon skin cap.


From plastic bags to vintage caps, the selections of winter hats are endless. Students have been showing their style through cool winter hats that they have personal connections through TV shows, background or different eras. The four most prominent hat styles were furry hats, string hats, throwback hats, and casual hats. Students can notice all these categories throughout school and their distinct and ecclectic style they bear into the chilly season.

Casual Hats Senior Zack Wright protects his face from the cold with a casual plastic bag; you can do the same by visiting your local grocery store. Junior Steven Garzolas wears the common snapback to show his style and basketball enthusiasm. Junior Jimmy Herd-Bond insulates his face with an authentic EZLN Balaclava from Zapatistas in Mexico.


February 2012


That’s what’s up [February + March] Monday




Florida State Fair @ Florida State Fair Grounds

Wednesday Thursday 23

Kelly Clarkson @ Ruth Eckerd Hall

Tommy Emmanuel

@ Ferguson Hall

Friday 24

Cody Simpson@ The Ritz Ybor


Jackie Mason @ Ruth Eckerd Hall


Radiohead @ Tampa Bay Times Forum



@ The Ritz Ybor

Trey Songz @ Straz Center

The Band Perry @ Florida Strawberry Festival



Dropkick Murphies


Franki Valli @ Ruth Eckerd Hall


We Came As Romans @ The Ritz Ybor

Boeing Boeing @ Straz Center

Photo courtesy of:,,,,,


Demi Lovato @ Florida Strawberry Festival

Saturday 25

The Ride Back Bike Fest @ Florida State Fairgrounds

Sunday 26

Doobie Brothers @ Ruth Eckerd Hall


Gasparilla Festival of Arts @Curtis Hixon Park


Wild Splash @ Coachman Park


Bill O’ Reilly @ Straz Center

17 Young The Giants @ The Ritz Ybor

Created by Alex Rosendo, Staff Writer



February 2012

Athletes shake it up By Katie Lutton Sports Editor

They motivate. They energize. They excite. They show support and solidarity. They promote the bonds of teammatehood. No matter the sport, secret handshakes can be an important factor in the performance of athletic teams. Being secret is not actually a requirement for these salutatory or congratualtory exchanges, nor does the word “handshake” accurately

Can you do better?

describe the wide range of physical interactions used by athletes. The Red & Black took a look at the high fives, handshakes, handshake-hugs, knuckle touches and other interactive greetings between Hillsborough athletes and unscientifically ranked them, both by duration in time and by complexity. Here are the results, charted on a Cartesian plane (and you thought that was only in math class!)

Do you and your bestie have a secret handshake or high five that is longer, more complicated or just plain cooler than the handshakes featured here? Make a video and post it to our Facebook wall, www. The best submission will be featured in an online story.

Complicated Baseball


Senior captains John Safe and Smit Rodriguez perform the “salute” at the end of their extensive and impressively elaborate handshake. Go to to watch a video of the complete high five.

The “leg-shake” is just the finale of this creative greeting. Freshmen Marilyn Hawkins and Artecia Brown came up with the shake at a basketball practice.


Short Wrestling and Football Wrestling captain Demetrius Hill, junior, and sophomore Darius Wilson perform their basic greeting, left. Football seniors Anthony Brown and Earl Moore, above, show their similar shake. Both greetings feature the classic “bro” clasp.


Softball Sophomores Ashley Socca and Marissa Hernandez, a captain, show off a greeting that involves slapping, finger interlacing and the traditional handshake clasp. Many players on the team have different secret handshakes with different teammates.

Football and wrestling photos by Nadiya Fakhar. All other photos by Jimmy Herd-Bond.


February 2012


Physics Breakdown: The Pitch 4

The contraction of the abdominal muscles maximizes the amount of kinetic energy transferred from the hips to the shoulders, which whip around through the elbow, wrist and eventually the fingers, where the momentum generated in the legs is released through the ball.

Softball also follows the the priciple of Sequential Summation of Movement, but the pitch also depends on the strength of the pitcher’s arm in order to generate acceleration.The back toe is pointed so as to create friction on the step back. This will allow for


3 Because the shoulders are still facing first base and the hips are facing home, more acceleration will be generated when the shoulders whip around, and thus more force on the arm.

The higher the knee is raised, the more kinetic energy is generated because gravitational potential energy increases (which equals the absolute value of the change in kinetic energy). The harder the foot pushes off the rubber, the faster the body accelerates towards the plate.

Stride towards plate maximizes the amount of angular momentum that can be generated, which is r X p, where r=position and p=linear momentum (p=mv).


2 Height generates more kinetic energy because gravitational potential energy increases (which equals the change in the absolute value of kinetic energy).

Ball is whipped around at an acceleration that is proportional to the pitcher’s raw arm strength. The higher the acceleration of the ball, the higher the velocity will be.



Stride towards plate maximizes the amount of angular momentum that can be generated, which is r X p, where r=position and p=linear momentum (p=mv).

Back foot slides forward to add to the angular momentum created by the body.

Velocity of a ball is determined by a principle called The Sequential Summation of Movement, whereby kinetic energy generated in the legs is transferred into the ball by moving sequentially smaller body parts.


Momentum generated by body and arm is released through the ball.

Above Baseball Pitcher: John Safe Left Softball Pitcher: Rachel Street Photos by Jake Gagne



February 2012

Signing Day 2012 Excitement hangs in the air, waiting to be freed by ink as it touches paper, artfully creating the loops and lines that form a high school athlete’s signature. It may just be an abstract representation of their name, but in truth

University of Miami Jackson Murphy

Earl Moore

Tenn nis

Footb ball

it is more. That signature binds them to a college where they will grow to their full potential as athletes, just as the ink binds to the paper. This year, Hillsborough High School had four athletes sign with colleges and universities around the country. Although fewer athletes signed than last year, this is still an impressive number, according to football coach Earl Garcia, who notes, “It gets harder and harder to receive athletic scholarships each year.” Some athletes signed for athletic reputation. “I really want to push myself to my limit, and become as good as I can,” Murphy said. Others like Espinosa, “chose to sign here because of the academic credentials.”

Purdue Anthony Brown

Southeastern University Alicia Espinosa Soccer

Fo ootball/Track

The Red & Black, February 2012  

The Red & Black, Hillsborough High School. February 2012.

The Red & Black, February 2012  

The Red & Black, Hillsborough High School. February 2012.