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(Solar-) Architecture Design Construction House Installation Repairs & Maintenance

Straw Bale

HOUSE CONCEPT 2


CONTENT

U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

U7 TIME

5

U7 Learning Outcomes U7 Intro: Solar Architecture Intro: Solar Architecture-Lexikon Intro: History Passive and Active Solar Architeckture

3h

U7 Session 1 : Concept of the House – Basics 2 days Presentation: Design Prorcess & National Standards Info 1 : Architecture Short Course: Designconcept Info 2: : Architecture Short Course: Architectural Concept Info 3: : Architecture Short Course: Building Costs Info 4: : Architecture Short Course: Selectionl Building Materials Info 5: More Architecture Videos Info 6: 5 Prinziples of Sustainable Architecture Info 7: Architects and Visions Info 8: Organic Architecture Info 9: Organic: Straw Bale Building & renewable Materials Lesson: Construction plan Straw Bale House (Sketchup) U7 Session 2: House Technique Presentation: HouseTechnique Info 1 : Heating and Cooling Info 2: Thermal Solar Devices Info 2: Biomass Heating System Info 2: Heat Pumps Info 3: (Controlled) Ventilation Info 4: Wall- and Ffloor Heating Info 5: Mass Oven and Radiation Info 3: Chimney Info 3: (Elektrical) Installations U5 Session 3: Repairs and Maintenance Info 1 : Common mistakes

Credits and Imprint

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„To survive, we need to adept all activities to the natural rhythm of the earth.“ Sir Norman Foster

INTRO

SOLAR ARCHITECTURE 4


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture

INTRO

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001 Europ. Charter for Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning Roughly half of the energy consumed in Europe is used to run buildings. A further 25 % is accounted for by traffic. Large quantities of non-renewable fossil fuel are used to generate this energy, fuel that will not be available to future generations. The processes involved in the conversion of fuel into energy also have a lasting negative effect on the environment through the emissions they cause. In addition to this, unscrupulous, intensive cultivation, a destructive exploitation of raw materials, and a worldwide reduction in the areas of land devoted to agriculture are leading to a progressive diminution of natural habitats. The history of man is the history This situation calls for a rapid and fundamental reorientation in our thinking, particularly on the part of energy transformation. Every historical epoch has developed of planners and institutions involved in the process construction. The form of our future built its own energy-harvesting techniques. of environment must be based on a responsible Today we are on the threshold approach to nature and the use of the inexhaustible energy potential of the sun. of a new solar age. The role of architecture as a responsible profession is of far-reaching significance in this respect. In future, architects must exert a far more decisive influence on the conception and layout of urban structures and buildings on the use of materials and construction components, and thus on the use of energy, than they have in the past. The aim of our work in the future must, therefore, be to design buildings and urban spaces in such a way that natural resources will be conserved and renewable forms of energy - especially solar energy - will be used as extensively as possible, thus avoiding many these undesirable developments. In order to attain these goals, it will be necessary to modify existing courses of instruction and training, as well as energy supply systems, funding and distribution models, standards, statutory regulations and laws in accordance with the new objectives.

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture Planners Architects and engineers must design their projects with a knowledge of local conditions, existing resources, and the main criteria governing the use of renewable forms of energy and materials. In view of the responsibility they are thus required to assume, their role in society must be strengthened in relation to that of nonindependent planning companies and commercial undertakings. New design concepts must be developed that will increase awareness of the sun as a source of light and heat; for an acceptance of solar technology in construction by the general public can only be achieved by means of convincing visual ideas and examples. This means:

- cities, buildings and their various elements must be interpreted as a complex system of material and energy flows; - the use of environmentally friendly forms of energy must be planned from a holistic point of view. A professional knowledge of all functional, technical and design relationships, conditions and possibilities is a precondition for the creation of modernarchitecture; - the extensive and constantly expanding body of knowledge about the conditions governing the internal climate of buildings, the development of solar technology, and the scope for simulation, calculation and measurement must be systematically represented and made available in a clear, comprehensible and extendible form; - the training and further education of architects and engineers must be related to future needs and should take place within mutually related systems on various levels, using the facilities afforded by the new media. Schools, universities, and professional associations are called upon to develop relevant options. Building sites The specific local situation, the existing vegetation and building fabric, climatic and topographical factors, and the range and availability of ecologically sustainable forms of energy seen in relation to the duration and intensity of their use, as well as local constraints, all have to be analysed and evaluated as the basis for each individual planning project. The natural resources available in a given location, especially sun, wind and geothermal heat, should be harnessed for the climatic conditioning of buildings and should be reflected in the design of their layout and form. Depending on the geographical situation, the physical form, the material composition and the use to which a structure is put, the various existing or emerging patterns of building development will enter into a reciprocal relationship with the following local factors:

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- climatic data (elevation of the sun, seasonal and regional range of sunlight, air temperatures, wind force and direction, periods when winds occur, quantities of precipitation, etc.); - the degree of exposure and aspect of open spaces and the surface of the ground (angle of slope, form, contour, proportion, scale, etc.); - the location, geometry, dimensions and volume of surrounding buildings, topographical formations, areas of water and vegetation (changing patterns of shade, reflection, volume, emissions, etc.); - the suitability of existing earth masses as thermal storage bodies; - human and mechanical patterns of movement; existing building conventions and the architectural heritage.

INTRO

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture

INTRO

U7

The Materials and Forms of Construction Buildings and urban open spaces should be designed in such a way that a minimum of energy is needed to light and service them in terms of harnessing heat for hot water, heating, cooling, ventilation and the generation of electricity from light. To cover all remaining needs, solutions should be chosen that meet the criteria of an overall energy balance and that comply with the latest technical knowledge on the use of environmentally compatible forms of energy. The use of materials, forms of construction, production technology, transport, assembly and dismantling of building components must, therefore, take account of the energy content and the life cycle of materials.

- Regenerable raw materials that are available in adequate quantities and forms of construction that have a minimal primary energy / "grey" energy content should be given preference. -The recycling of materials should be guaranteed, with scope for eventual reuse or for ecologically sustainable disposal. - Load-bearing structures and the skins of buildings must be of great durability so as to ensure an efficient use of materials, labour and energy, and to minimize the cost of disposal. An optimal relationship between production or embedded energy, (also known as embodied energy), and longevity should be achieved. - Building elements that serve the passive or active harnessing of solar energy and that can be easily accommodated to constructional, design, modular and dimensional requirements should be subject to further development and given priority in use. - New systems and products in the field of energy and construction technology should be capable of simple integration into a building and should be easy to replace or renew. Buildings in use In terms of their energy balance, buildings should be regarded as self-contained systems with an optimal exploitation of environmentally sustainable forms of energy to meet various needs. They should be developed as permanent systems that will be capable of accommodating different uses over a long period. - Functions should be laid out in plan and section in such a way that account is taken of changes of temperature and thermal zones. -The planning and execution of buildings and the choice of materials should be based on a flexible concept, so that later changes of use can be accommodated with a minimum expenditure of materials and energy. -The permeability of the skin of a building towards light, heat and air, and its transparency must be controllable and capable of modification, so that it can react to changing local climatic conditions (solar screening, protection against glare, light deflection, shading, temporary thermal protection, adjustable natural ventilation). - It should be possible to meet comfort requirements largely through the design of the building by incorporating passive measures with a direct effect. The remaining energy needs in terms of heating, cooling, electricity, ventilation and lighting should be met by active systems powered by ecologically sustainable forms of energy. The technical and energy resources used in a building should be appropriate to its function. Graphs showing the requirements for different user categories should be reconsidered and, where appropriate, modified. Buildings with special uses, such as museums, libraries, hospitals, etc., should be considered separately, since specific climatic constraints exist for these types.

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture The City Renewable forms of energy present an opportunity to make life in cities more attractive. In the realms of energy supply and transport infrastructures, the use of these kinds of energy should be maximized through the actual form of the building. The existing building fabric should be used as far as is practical and possible. The combustion of fossil fuels must be drastically reduced. The relationship between cities and nature should be developed to achieve a symbiosis between the two. Alterations and other measures carried out in public spaces or existing buildings, or caused by new construction, must take account of the historical and cultural identity of a location and the geographic and climatic conditions of the landscape. The city must be comprehended in its entirety as a selfcontained long-living organism. It must be possible to control the constant changes in its use and appearance, as well as in technology, in order to ensure a minimum of disturbance and a maximum conservation of resources. Cities are resources in built form and have a high primary energycontent. To achieve a closer integration with the overall balance of nature, their various neighbourhoods, buildings and open spaces, their infrastructures, and their functional, transport and communication systems must be subject to a constant process of Signatories: Alberto Campo Baenza, Madrid E; modification and reconstruction that follows natural cycles of Victor Lûpez Cotelo, Madrid E; renewal. Ralph Erskine, Stockholm S; The form of the urban and landscape structures that man Nicos Fintikakis, Athen GR; Sir Norman Foster, London GB; creates must be governed by the following environmental Nicholas Grimshaw, London GB; and bioclimatic factors: Herman Hertzberger, Amsterdam NL; Thomas Herzog, München D; Knud Holscher, Kopenhagen DK; Sir Michael Hopkins, London GB; Francoise Jourda, Lyon F; Uwe Kiessler, München D; Henning Larsen, Kopenhagen DK; Bengt Lundsten, Helsinki FI; David Mackay, Barcelona E; Angelo Mangiarotti, Mailand I; Manfredi Nicoletti, Rom I; Frei Otto, Leonberg D; Juhani Pallasmaa, Helsinki FI; Gustav Peichl, Wien A; Renzo Piano, Genua I; JosÈ M. de Prada Poole, Madrid E; Sir Richard Rogers, London GB; Francesca Sartogo, Rom I; Hermann; Schröder, München D; Roland Schweitzer, Paris F; Peter C. von Seidlein, Stuttgart D; Thomas Sieverts, Berlin D; Otto Steidle, München D; Alexandros N. Tombazis, Athen GR

Source: "Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning. Solarenergie in Architektur und Stadtplanung. Energia solare in architettura e pianificazione urbana.". Prestel Verlag, Munich; New York 1 996. This document was drawn up by Thomas Herzog in 1 994-95 in the context of READ (Renewable Energies in Architecture and Design) project supported by the European Commission DG XII. The contents were discussed and the wording agreed with leading European architects.

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- orientation of streets and building structures to the sun; - temperature control and use of daylight in the public realm; - topography (land form, overall exposure, general situation); - direction and intensity of wind (alignment of streets, sheltered public spaces, systematic ventilation, cold-air corridors); - vegetation and distribution of planted areas (oxygen supply, dust consolidation, temperature balance, shading, windbreaks); - hydro-geology (relationship to water and waterway systems). Urban functions such as habitation, production, services, cultural and leisure activities should be co-ordinated with each other where this is functionally possible and socially compatible. In this way the volume of vehicular traffic can be reduced. Production and service facilities can complement each other and be used more intensively and efficiently. Pedestrians, and vehicles that are not propelled by the combustion of fossil fuels must be given privileged treatment in urban areas. Public transport should enjoy special support. Parking needs should be reduced and the consumption of petrol and other fuel minimized. An economic use of land, achieved through a reasonable density in new planning schemes coupled with a programme of infill developments, can help to cut expenditure for infrastructure and transport and reduce the exploitation of further areas of land. Measures to restore an ecological balance should also be implemented. In the public spaces of towns and cities, steps should be taken to improve the urban climate, temperature control, wind protection and the specific heating or cooling of these spaces. Berlin 3/1996

INTRO

U7


Alberto Campo Baeza: DBJC House, www.javiercallejas.com

Thomas Herzog, Solarhaus

Victor Lûpez Cotelo, Santiago, nuevasarquitecturas.blogspot.co.at

Sir Norman Foster, Reichstagsgebäude Kuppel (wikimedia)

Nicholas Grimshaw: Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center Hermann Hertzberger, Diagoon Delft (Wikimedia)

Francoise Jourda, Sixth form college (lycée) building (wikimedia)

Henning Larsen, Harpa Music Hall (wikimedia)


Angelo Mangiarotti, 3 cylinders house", Milan (Wikimedia)

Manfredi Nicoletti, Arezzo courthouse (Wikimedia)

Frei Otto, Berliner Ökohäuser, architectuul.com/architecture/eco-houses Gustav Peichl, Haus der Barmherzigkeit, Wien (wikimedia) ReGen Villages are a new type of community designed to be fully

self-sufficient, growing its own food, making its own energy, and handling its own waste in a closed loop. Any household waste that can be composted will feed livestock or soldier flies. The soldier flies will feed fish, and fish waste will fertilize an aquaculture system that produces fruit and vegetables for the homes. Seasonal gardens will be fertilized by waste from the livestock. By using the most advanced methods for growing food – a combination of aeroponics, aquaponics, permaculture, food forests, and high-yield organic farming – the ReGen Villages will grow much more food than a traditional farm of the same size, with fewer resources. Aquaponics, for example, can produce 1 0 times as much produce on the same amount of land, with 90% less water.

Renzo Piano, Jean-MarieTjibaou Cultural Centre (Wikimedia)

4,200 families have already signed up for the first 300 homes breaking ground in the summer of 201 7 in Almere, Netherlands, on certified organic farmland. Initially, ReGen rolls out with 45 Dutch units in 201 7, then 1 00 units in 201 8, and 1 55 in 201 9. A worldwide rollout plan is next. designtoimprovelife.dk/regen­villages/


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture

INTRO

U7

002 History of Passive and Active Solar Architecture The passive solar architecture is not new, it has been used in all parts of the world for millennia. An example may be ancient Greece about 2,500 years ago, which was then also in an energy crisis. As a solution to the problem of ever scarcer and more expensive firewood, the glazed south face with a protruding stem (roof overhang) has been developed. Socrates described it this way: "In houses facing the south, the sun penetrates through the vestibule into the living rooms in the winter and warms them. In summer, however, the roof of the vestibule keeps the sun off and provides cooling shade. " The massive walls and the thick slabs of the dark stone floor absorbed sunlight during the day and radiated it back at night - inventing the ' storage heating system '. Within only a decade, the new architectural style should have prevailed to the farthest colony! In addition, the world-wide clay/earth construction architecture is connected with solar energy in more than one form after all, the clay bricks are usually dried and hardened by the sun. An early form of passive solar use are the so-called Beehive houses made of mud bricks, which are used as living and storage space. Due to its conical shape, one part of the roof is irradiated more and more strongly than the other, creating an air circulation inside, which sucks the warm air through a hole in the upper part to the outside. In addition, the thick clay walls protect from the sun.

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture in North America The term solar house (Sonnenhaus) was mainly used for those buildings that cover both their hot water and their heating energy needs with solar energy. For the Central European climate energy technologies are only under very favorable circumstances able, to cover the total heat demand on their own - should things not be prohibitively expensive. Especially, if the electric current is also to be produced solar-energetically, it seems to be necessary to interconnect with other systems (heat pumps, wind turbines, heat recovery, methane gas, etc.). The architectural target projection then corresponds more to that of an energetically completely selfsufficient house. A pioneering designer of passive solar homes in the 1930s and 1940s is the architect George Fred Keck of Chicago, Illinois. For the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago, he designed the fully-glazed, three-story, and twelve-page House ofTomorrow to reflect 'European Modernism'. Keck notes that the house, clad in aluminum, warms up enough on sunny winter days, even before the stove is installed - and begins to incorporate large south-facing windows into his designs. In 1940, he designed a passive solar home for property magnate Howard Sloan of Glenview, Ill. As the Chicago Tribune calls it, which is the first modern use of the term. Sloan himself then begins with the construction of passive solar houses and is considered a co-initiator of a veritable solar house movement in the 1940s. In 1940, the first reports appeared that the scientific staff of the Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology (MIT) Hoyt C. Hottel and Byron B. Woertz have been building a house that uses the sun for heating and hot water. It will be used as a habitable laboratory for various forms of solar energy production. The water heated by the solar collectors of the roof called " heat traps" is stored in a large cellar tank. It is MIT's Solarhouse I , which plays a crucial pioneering role in the development of this technology. Even the world-famous Frank Lloyd Wright uses in some of his designs principles of passive solar architecture, especially at his built in 1944 near Madison in Wisconsin Jacobs House II, with his characteristic quadrant shape with fully glazed, inner south facade, known also under the name, Solar Plenary Hall'or' Solar Hemicyclo' (left picture). The Dover Sun House is the first house built in 1948 to incorporate flat solar panels and a passive solar energy concept that will allow the five-room house to be constructed throughout the year using only solar energy for heating! Core element is a large-scale 'heat trap', which consists of two separate glass panes with a black metal plate in between. Here, the air is heated to around 65 ° C and then distributed by fans in the house. Instead of water, Glauber's salt (sodium sulfate decahydrate) is used as the heat storage medium.

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INTRO

U7


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture in Europe

INTRO

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In 1973 , Vagn Korsgaard developed a DTH energy house at the Danish Technical University in Copenhagen , carried out simulations, optimized designs and finally built a passive house that is still used as a university guesthouse, as all passive systems still work. The active solar technology was not renewed after defects. The goal zero-energy house at the DTH is later reset in favor of the low-energy house. The first eco-house in Belgium was built in 1976 by the architect and visionary Luc Schuiten to "make it possible to survive even after the end of the oil and coal". The Orejona solar wooden house is located in a wooded area near Brussels. (Photo: www.vegetalcity.net/en/topics/thecarrying-out/) Still, the high prices of these high-quality and sophisticated multi-component solar energy systems prevent a broader application. However, profitability increases with increasing living space, and in 1973 300 m2 of living space is considered a minimum. Between 1974 and 1977, the number of (simple) solar houses in the United States rose from just 250 to around 10,000, with half of the builders receiving public support. The goal is to increase this number to 2.5 million houses by 1985. Meanwhile, the use of solar heating and cooling systems is also being tested in high-rise buildings, as has been the case to a lesser extent in Jordan and Kuwait. In Germany, a model house is being built in Walldorf near Heidelberg, where a reduction of the annual fuel oil demand by up to 75% is achieved, as well as the solar house of Stuttgarter Energieversorgung Schwaben AG (EVS) with 1 ,100 m2 of living space in 1977, which already had two winters in 1980 additional energy use is inhabited. The house has a large earth / water storage for heat energy but is not yet profitable as a single product. Price advantages would only arise in a series production. Architect Thomas Herzog built a futuristic solar house with a triangular cross-section in Regensburg from 1977 to 1979, which in addition to the passive utilization also integrates thermal collectors and solar cells from AEG. The house is energetically finely divided into zones: energy collection zone or garden zone / distribution zone / room zone / side room zone. The large slanted glazing in the south for energy gathering also forms a buffering transition zone. Storage mass stores the collected heat and releases it with a time delay. The heated living area is a compact partial zone to the west, and the east, north and west facades are heavily insulated. All rooms are open passageways, allowing the air to circulate as needed. The overheating protection is done by venting - the cut of the house follows thermal conditions. In addition there is a sunscreen, which prevents the conversion of sunlight into heat energy in summer.

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture in Europe Already in 1979, the Freiburger Stadtbau GmbH commissioned the Solarhaus Freiburg as a trend-setting pilot project for the use of solar energy. In the GermanAmerican demonstration project, solar technologies are being used for the first time in an apartment building . Amongst others, vacuum tube collectors from Philips / Stiebel Eltron and the Corning Glass Works are being tested. After 25 years, the solar heating system is still working flawlessly with continuous operation, with low maintenance and high yield: Solar heat has saved 65,000 liters of fuel oil during this period. If the insulation measures are added, the solar house has until 2004, so over the course of its first 25 years of operation, consumed less than a quarter of a million liters of fuel oil less than comparable conventional buildings from that time! Between 1979 and 1985, the first Austrian thermal solar plant in the Neumarkt II multi-family residential building was erected in the Salzburg's Alpine foothills in four phases, comprising a total of 11 8 residential units. There is now a general breakdown that differentiates between four categories of passive solar energy systems, which are used partly or jointly by solar houses. These are: • • • •

the direct exploitation the thermal storage the thermal buffer zones the thermal circulation

The techniques generally used in low-energy houses can be summarized as follows, according to the Gesellschaft für Rationelle Energieanwendung: • • • • • • • • • • • •

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Compact building form Particularly high thermal insulation Highly insulated windows with high solar energy consumption (passive) Temporary heat protection of the windows at night (insulated, tightly sealed) Reduction of thermal bridge losses through carefully executed connection details Windproof building envelope Ventilation systems with heat recovery Highly adjustable, adaptable heating systems with high efficiency Active solar energy use (brewing water / heating flow) Translucent thermal insulation materials in the exterior wall or roof area Ground channels for supplying fresh air at low outside temperatures heat pumps (soil / groundwater / outside air)

INTRO

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture in Europe

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The largest low-energy house in Europe to date is built in 1995 in Vienna-Leopoldstadt, it consists of 333 apartments in two opposite parts of the building of 8 and 9 floors and has among other things a sun roof with swimming pool - although it is a project of social housing. Designed by the architect Harry Glßck, this Alt Erlaa residential complex has a compact, energy-saving building form, heat-resistant windows and a heat recovery system that heats the process water. Here again, in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, a total of 500 sensors are distributed throughout the complex, registering 1 3 different parameters every 10 minutes. In May 2006, the solar company Jenni Energietechnik AG built the first exclusively solar-heated multi-family house in Europe in the Swiss Oberburg . 276 m2 of solar panels supply their heat to a 205,000-liter solar storage tank, which stands in the middle of the building and stores up to 95 ° C hot water for the winter months. The building does not require additional heating. In addition to the central hot water storage tank, the building is also state-of-the-art in terms of energy consumption and comfort in the ventilation, exterior noise and heating sectors. The 100% solar apartment building was inaugurated in August 2007. The Sonnenschiff by Rolf Disch is considered to be the world's first commercial plus energy service center at its opening in 2006 in Freiburg. On the building, which stands directly next to the solar settlement Freiburg (see below), Sunstream is obtained, and at the nose of the solar ship, a rather symbolic small wind turbine provides additional renewable electricity. In addition, state-of-the-art building technologies ensure optimal energy savings. The exterior walls, parapets and ventilation flaps of the office and commercial building are vacuum-insulated, and the large mass of the building is used as storage for heat or cold. The exterior walls are glazed over a large area with floor-to-ceiling, highly insulated special windows, and the ceilings and walls contain additional latent heat storage (cold accumulators). There is also a unique ventilation system with heat exchanger. The solar ship already wins the European Solar Prize 2002 during its planning phase - followed by five further high honors until 2008. The Solarsiedlung Freiburg (Am Schlierberg) is considered to be the largest solar housing estate in Germany with over 210 plus-energy houses and apartments (from 75 m2 to 260 m2 of living space) when completed in 2007.

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

INTRO

Intro: Solar Architecture in Europe 2007 : After being able to speak of the previous years as a beginning, the green, ecological, adapted or even sustainable architecture is rapidly gaining momentum. Which also makes the solar architecture more and more conscious of the specialists, the decision makers and the public. Nevertheless, these are first and foremost technological (high-tech) concepts that actively convert solar energy and make less passive use of it, and that only partially addresses the need for a CO2-free cycle economy and sustainable materials.

The Russel House (also Sliding House) was developed in 2008 in Suffolk, UK. The biggest difference can be seen when suddenly the greenhouse appears, as you can see on the photos left. Passive heating or cooling saves a lot of energy. Next door is also a small wind turbine set up. In contrast to many other projects this is excellently documented and therefore also described here. In June 2010, the first Solar Decathlon Europe (SDE) took place in Madrid. The rules are based on the original American competition rules. New are the evaluation points for innovation and sustainability of the concept. Team Austria of TU Vienna won in 201 3 with the passive house LISI, www.solardecathlon.at A particular form of solar application in architecture is formed by entire SOLAR CITIES, which make extensive use of solar and other renewable energies. One of the first solar settlements was the village of Penzberg , which had already converted to solar energy in Bavaria in 1980, which subsequently also became the first town in Germany where - according to WĂźstenrot - "no oil was needed at all". The BedZed (Beddington Zero Energy Development) community in Hackbridge, London, is a carbon-neutral planned solar estate built between 2000 and 2002 by the Peabody Trust, a charitable foundation and registered housing cooperative. It comprises 99 apartments and around 1 ,400 m2 of work space. In addition to equipping with solar cells and combining boilers to generate electricity and heat, energy meters are placed prominently in the house rather than hidden away from sight. Other effective steps include extra thick insulated walls, strategically placed windows to maximize light and heat from solar energy, and airflow that eliminates the need for fans or air conditioning.

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Text: Achmed A. W. Khammas, Buch der Synergie (www.buch-der-synergie.de) with remarks by Herbert Gruber; Photos: Wikimedia (or source mentioned in the text)

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Intro: Solar Architecture in Europe

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In Linz, Austria, a new district was built in Pichling starting in 2001 with 1 ,294 apartments, whose name solarCity stands for a comprehensive use of solar energy. This starts with the planning of the buildings according to the principles of solar architecture through the use of passive and active solar energy. The individual access to the sun results from apartments with large windows, and solar panels on the roofs contribute to warm water heating. The 1995 planned city was originally intended for 25,000 people. After 2001 , a former barracks area in the Spanish city of Zaragoza is rededicated for housing, created since 2004, the eco-city Valdespartera , a municipal funded housing project with about 10,000 housing units whose special feature is the adaptation of ecological housing with the local microclimatic conditions. The Ecociudad Valdespartera is set up as an implementation company, of which the city holds 80%, and the regional government 20%. The main approaches of the project are the urban design, which is based on solar radiation and terrain, as well as ecological materials and logistics concepts. The buildings are equipped with solar panels, with heat-storing tiles and a good insulation of the interiors. (Image: vimeo.com/99166929) Several sets of criteria for ECO-CITIES have been suggested, encompassing the economic, social, and environmental qualities that an eco-city should satisfy. The ideal "eco-city" has been described as a city that fulfils the following requirements: Operates on a self-contained economy, resources needed are found locally Has completely carbon-neutral and renewable energy production Has a well-planned city layout and public transportation system that makes the priority methods of transportation as follows possible: walking first, then cycling, and then public transportation. Resource conservation—maximizing efficiency of water and energy resources, constructing a waste management system that can recycle waste and reuse it, creating a zero-waste system Restores environmentally damaged urban areas Ensures decent and affordable housing for all socio-economic and ethnic groups and improve jobs opportunities for disadvantaged groups, such as women, minorities, and the disabled Supports local agriculture and produce Promotes voluntary simplicity in lifestyle choices, decreasing material consumption, and increasing awareness of environmental and sustainability issues Future Visions of SMART CITIES : www.youtube.com/watch?v=RAU85nCfFTA

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Eco-Cities & Straw Bale Building Lammas is the UK’s first planned Ecovillage. Lammas is a project which began as a fireside chat (as so many do!) with Simon Dale, Tony Wrench and Paul Wimbush. Tony Wrench had built a low impact roundhouse which has come to define low impact living in the UK. Paul Wimbush had been living in low impact communities for most of his adult life and was ready to create a blueprint from what he had learned. The houses at Lammas use lowimpact architecture with a combination of recycled and natural materials. The project is essentially a self-build affair, where nine families have 5 acres on which to build a family home, a workshop/shed and animal shelters. There are a combination of building styles including straw bale, earth sheltered, timber frame and cob. The houses feature the latest environmental technologies and design techniques. The dwellings blend into the landscape. Indeed they are largely made from elements of the landscape (for example turf roofs, cob walls, timber cladding). http://lammas.org.uk/

The Eco-Village Sieben Linden is a socio-ecological model settlement and community in the Altmark community Beetzendorf (SaxonyAnhalt). It sees itself as a model and research project for a futureoriented way of life in which work and leisure, economy and ecology, individual and community, cosmopolitan and village culture find a balance in small life circles. For Siebenlinden the architect Dirk Scharmer has planned numerous multi-family houses in straw bale construction (the first in Germany). http://www.siebenlinden.de

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Standing for ‘Low Impact Living Affordable Community’ LILAC is the UK’s first cohousing project. A community of 20 people are living and sharing this area in Victoria Park, making the world a better place for it. It’s a world away from any of the more modern buildings in the Leeds area, yet it’s probably the most ambitious, looking to improve the environment and make housing more affordable for the local community. Working with architects at White Design Associates, the community used the ModCell system to build their houses using renewable, locally-sourced materials that help to reduce carbon emissions by nearly half. Comprising of 20 households, it’s an important build, because it allows first time buyers to get their foot on the property ladder with affordable housing that is unconditionally their own. The idea of LILAC is that you buy shares in the community, splitting the cost of your home with the rest of the citizens, helping out with building, cooking, cleaning and, well, being nice to each other. http://www.lilac.coop/

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Solar-Architecture & Straw Bale Building

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With the use of straw bales as insulating material, in 2007 a further step was taken in the single-family home of Christian and Barbara Fink in Graz to reduce the energy required for the construction of a building. Together with the timber-framed construction, the use of clay plaster on the storage walls in the interior and the energy supply concept, which is 100% based on renewable energy sources, a building was erected in Gleisdorf that most convincingly demonstrates the program ideas of " Energy in minds! " Designed by architects Hegedys & Ull , this ecological building material, low energy demand and the use of solar energy and biomass make possible a concert ("CONCERTO") of sustainability and cosiness. www.baubiologie.at/strohballenbau/passivhaus-fink-3/oder www.aee.at/aee/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=269&Itemid=113 In Tamera (Portugal), two construction methods have been implemented so far: clay construction - based on the idea of realizing cost-effective alternatives that use the resources of the environment - and the multi-zone architecture that is currently visible above all through the shadow roof constructions. The SolarVillage is still looking for a visionary concept for a solar architecture of the future. In the following, the two approaches are described by the respective architects: Gernot Minke, former Professor of Earth Building in Kassel, Germany, and Martin Pietsch , designer and master builder, Tamera. The walls of the auditorium ofTamera tower eight meters high. With 400 seats, the Auditorium of the Peace Research Center is the largest bale-and-loam construction in the Iberian Peninsula. The auditorium consists of a wooden framework, which was bricked up with straw bales and plastered inside and outside with a clay layer. On the outside wall, lime was added to the clay to protect it from the weather. The gently sloping roof is overgrown with grass and herbs. With the help of loans and a donation from its network in 2011 , Tamera was able to set up a so-called " grid-connected island system ": The existing 20kW tracked photovoltaic systems directly suppliesTamera with electricity, saving the harvested surplusSince 201 2, Tamera has been able to meet its electricity needs by 60% in summer and 40% in winter through solar energy. The rest comes from the public network. For a complete self-sufficiency it would be necessary - not least by the seasonal fluctuations - to build a very large-sized and expensive energy storage. For this reason, Tamera is currently aiming for an 80% supply from renewable energy sources. When this goal is achieved, complete energy can be achieved in the event of a breakdown or failure of the care systems through behavioral change. www.tamera.org/

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HOUSE CONCEPT 20


SESSION PLAN S1

U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

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Session Plan U7-S1 : House Design Objectives:

• understanding the main concept of the building (purpose, main structure: foundation, walls, openings and roof) • knowing general principles of sustainable building (sustainable, wider context, external influences: location, climate, shape… energy saving/alternative energy, sources/water, waste, building materials, everyday use, building surrounding/permaculture), requirements for healthy environment, inner climate • being acquainted with different tools to measure environmental impact (ecological foot print, building biology, life cycle management systems: LEEDS, BREEM…. • knowing criteria of national standards for sustainable houses, eg.: passive house concept, bioclimatic house in France, …, solar and internal gains, insulation, windows, reduction of thermal bridges, airtightness, natural or MVHR (mechanical ventilation with heat recovery), shading in summer, use of thermal mass • knowing criteria for choosing building materials (sustainability, embodied energy, CO 2 equivalents, health, price, cradle to cradle concept, social aspects) • reading plans and technical details (meaning of different line types, floor plan, sections)

Methods:

Practice

Theory

• Explanations, discussions, working in groups • Presentation for the group • Sketching a basic house design • Main concept of the building (purpose, main structure: foundation, walls, openings and roof) • External influences (location, climate, shape …) and requirements for inner climate • Principles of national standards for sustainable house, eg.: passive standard concept: external solar gains and internal gains, insulation, windows, elimination of thermal bridges, airtightness, MVHR (mechanical ventilation with heat recovery), shading in summer) • Steps of designing process • Building materials (sustainable use, primary energy, CO 2 equivalents, health, price) • Sketching a basic house design • Reading plans

Trainer:

Place:

Classroom Workshop

Duration: 1 day

Equipment:

Beamer Flip chart Laptop Training resource pack

Documents:

Info Sheets: i1 – Concept of the House i2 – Sustainability i3 – Designing Process i4 – National Standards i5 – Building Materials i6 – Understanding Plans i7 – House Design Trainer Sheets: Tr1 Exercise – Sustainability Tr2 Exercise – Materials Tr3 Exercise – Sketches Text Sheet: Tx1 Concept of the Building Tx2 Sustainable Principles

Evaluation:

Multiple Choice

Organisation:

• Preparing examples of building materials (2 hours in advance)

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Session Plan U7-S1 : House Design

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INFO S1

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Architecture Basics

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003 Architecture Short Course 1 : How to Develop a Design Concept All architecture begins with a concept. If you’re struggling to find one, curious about what one is, or wondering how architects begin their projects; this short course will walk you through the process I use and some of the techniques I rely on to develop architectural concepts all illustrated with one of my residential projects. Design is a dialogue, and the concept ensures you have something to talk about. In this video I discuss the precise steps I take when beginning each project and how those steps lead me to an architectural concept. Before we can develop the concept, we have to first understand the practical constraints. My design process begins only after gathering and assessing all the given parameters for a project. Now, this primarily consists of three types of information. There’s information derived from the site things like: local climate, the prevailing winds, the solar aspect, vegetation, neighbouring structures, the site’s history, and any unique liabilities or opportunities. The site of course also comes along with legal frameworks for development, which describe where and what we can and can’t build. The second type of information we’ll gather is from the client. Every client has a set of cultural beliefs and preconceptions, preferences and agendas. Of course, we’ll want to determine their budget, and understand the personality traits and organizational politics which might also shape the design. The client and the building type together determine what architects call, “the program” which is essentially a detailed accounting of all the spaces the building will contain. And the third type of information I gather is related to the building typology – is it a museum, a home…or a school for example? To learn about a building typology we often conduct an analysis of notable or relevant historical precedents. We want to know the essential problems these types of structures grapple with. Understanding the history of the archetype allows us to approach a problem from a fresh perspective. All of this is necessary information that we collect for every project. This inventory can also serve as the progenitor for the design concept – our seed idea. And, rather than shunting creativity, these constraints often incite the creative process. Concept Inspirations Discussed: - Site - Client - Narrative - Materials - Structural Mainifestos – Formal As with a good film, the setting, the characters, the cinematography, and the plot all conspire to make it what it is. It’s the experience you’ll recall rather than the concept per se. Sure, the concept sets the film in motion and it’s the starting point for all that follows. But this concept – the one or two-line description – can’t possible capture the richness and depth of the finished film…or in our case the architecture. Yet without it, the work is unfulfilling and so it should be clear that the concept is necessary for all our work as architects. VIDEO-TIPP https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=k4dVgbuxBAw 30X40 Design Workshop

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Architecture Basics

004 Architecture 2: Developing the Architectural Concept Developing the architectural concept into floor plans, designing the form, and refining the spatial ideas are all covered in part 2 of our architecture short course. The first step in making the abstract concept real is to sketch a floor plan and then give that plan a three-dimensional form. A floor plan is a quick way of describing the hierarchy and relationship of spaces and it begins fixing their real physical dimensions and shapes. Throughout the design process architects must continually consider the design in both the plan, or overhead view, and the sectional, or volumetric view. The easiest way I’ve found to do this is to begin by sketching a plan and then construct a three-dimensional version of that plan either in model form or by sketching. In order to get to three dimensions, we have to make some decisions about form, space, and order. When we speak about form we’re referring not only to a building’s shape but also to its size, scale, color, and texture…basically, all the visual properties of an object. Form has a direct relationship to space in that it influences both interior and exterior rooms. And lastly, order is how we choose to orient and relate the forms and spaces to each other. This directs the inhabitant’s experience of a place. VIDEO-TIPP

www.youtube.com/ watch?v=U2W5Wmp1 5YA 30X40 Design Workshop

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Architecture Basics

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005 Architecture 3: Building Costs as a creative constraint Building cost has a direct impact on our design and it's one of the most basic and obvious concerns for architects and clients. In this video I'll show you how I use it as a creative constraint that informs our building design. Building cost is divided into two general categories: soft and hard costs. Soft costs are the indirect cost of design: architectural fees, consultant fees, permitting, financing, and legal fees. Hard costs are all the cost directly attributed to the construction of the physical building. Early on in the design process we know little about the building and so we use square footage as a means for estimating the building's cost to construct. But square footage alone won't provide all the information we need to properly describe the cost of a structure, some spaces cost more to build than others. Factoring the square footage provides an added level of precision and allows clients and architects to better plan how design affects the overall budget. Planning for unforeseeable conditions is important as well and I describe how much of a contingency to add to the project at each phase of the work. Cost considerations are crucial to realizing both our client's project and our vision for the work in the world and this video shares the framework I use to get there. VIDEO-TIPP

www.youtube.com/ watch?v=oZbd-S7WcwU 30X40 Design Workshop

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Architecture Basics

006 Architecture Short Course 4: Choosing Architectural Materials

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A primer on how to choose architectural building materials. In part 4 of the architecture short course I share my personal system for selecting materials and I walk you through the selection process for the case study residential project we've been following. The lesson is divided into five general categories: 1 - Physical characteristics 2 - Context, 3 - Experiential qualities, 4 - Cost, 5 - Manufacturing concerns Each category can be thought of democratically, that is, none is necessarily more or less important than another. Your design will begin to suggest what materials best represent your ideas. Study the work of architects likeTadao Ando, Louis Kahn, Peter Zumthor, LeCorbusier or Aalto – and witness the depth of knowledge and skill they deployed using a relatively limited set of building materials: wood, concrete, glass, and brick. You can say quite a lot using a very spare palette of materials. The real lesson here is that the material selections were a result of intentionally considering all aspects of the experience I wanted to create for our client as well as the necessity of building something durable and meaningful here in an extreme coastal environment. It has to look good and tell the right story. It has to comfort and shelter, reduce and minimize our impact on the site and recreate - in an abstract way - the quiet of the forest in the new place we’ve created. It’s a tall order, but by following a process which prioritizes the most important characteristics for each part of the architecture you can find a methodology for choosing wisely. Material selection requires you to be an observer and student of the built world. Study buildings you admire and note how the material qualities effect how you feel there. Choose a few simple materials and get to know them deeply. Concrete and wood are excellent places to start. And if you’re likeTadao Ando, perhaps make a career of. Learn to exploit their inherent qualities: heavy and light, cool and warm, malleable and permanent. Use these as a basis for your own explorations and tests to make your designs more truthful, more beautiful and more interesting. VIDEO-TIPP 30X40 Design Workshop: www.youtube.com/watch?v=dcbgDFpfScY

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Architecture Basics

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007 30X40 Design Workshop: More Videos Floor Plan Design Tutorial (8:36) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R7YxG4nsqeg In this design tutorial I'll show you how I develop and sketch floor plan ideas quickly. From diagram to rough sketch and on to more formalized plan layouts, you can follow along as I show you everything you need to draw a floor plan using one of our new residential projects as an example. I discuss in detail: - why you should start with diagrams (and not floor plans) - information you'll need before drawing - tools I use and recommend - tips for developing better ideas - form, space, and order (of course) - using grids - scale - and what I listen to when designing... How to Find Architectural Ideas (10:48) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CqQumzZVa1 U Eight strategies I use to find architectural ideas. Do you find the blank page as terrifying as I do? I'm starting a new project and I thought I'd use this video to talk about how I deal with this and precisely how I search for new ideas for my architecture. I discuss in detail: - Bisociation -Trusting the design process Embracing constraints - Inventing deadlines - Doing the opposite (anti-project) Subtracting to solve - Stealing (like an artist) These are just a few of the design hacks I use to help grease the creative wheels and instill the confidence I need to keep moving forward. What's great is these techniques work for a whole host of disciplines and creative fields, it isn't exclusive to architecture. Draw like an Architect - Essential Tips (11 :51 ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=24rnfO8s0hU&t=1 3s In this video I share my tips for improving your architectural drawing technique. I'll walk you through a detail sketch, a basic section sketch and then transition into a few of my CAD working drawings to illustrate how a simple toolset can produce a range of drawings. Important concepts discussed: - Lineweight (and the pens I use) Atmospheric perspective - Drawing technique - Corners - Iteration - Foreground, middle-ground, and background -The 'squint' test - Shade + shadow - Entourage (http://www.mrcutout.com/ , http://skalgubbar.se/ , http://pimpmydrawing.com/ ) In the end, it’s not about copying my drawing style or anyone else’s. It’s about developing your own and the best way to do that is by seeking out the architectural drawings you like and try and duplicate their results. Study their commonalities, how do they differ from the way you draw? Some of my favourites are found in the Detail in Contemporary Residential architecture books or Detail magazines…all the German stuff. How to Choose the Right Projects + How to Say No to the Wrong Ones (An Architect's Guide) (7:37) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XUlJoiOWhqE Often our first inclination is to accept every opportunity that presents itself, but somewhat counterintuitively - saying no can actually help your business grow buying you freedom and helping you build a stronger brand. In this video I list the questions you should ask when deciding which projects to take on and how best to determine which ones to decline. I share the framework I use when choosing which clients my small business can collaborate with. Be sure to watch the end where I describe the benefits and a methodology for saying, "No..." Although these questions specifically apply to a residential design practice, they can be applied more broadly to many facets of life helping you to focus on your priorities and goals rather than the priorities of others.

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Sustainable Architecture

008 5 Prinziples of Sustainability in Architecture (Frey Architects) Ecology, economy, society, creative will and incentive: these are the five principles of sustainability for the architect Wolfgang Frey. With his five-finger principle, he makes clear that an isolated consideration of individual aspects is not sufficient and rather a holistic planning approach is necessary to build ecologically, economically and socially sustainable. 1. Ecology in architecture The use of abundantly available cheap materials and construction models often runs counter to the intelligent use of resources. It takes both: the development of concepts that lead to intelligent and viable solutions, also helping to raise the awareness of those who stand to benefit from these solutions. In addition to ecological architectural designs, we focus on the economic and social aspects of housing development. Only taking account of all these aspects can lead to lasting changes. Energy-optimized A building should preferably not consume energy, but instead produces an energy surplus (so-called ‚positive energy house’). Energy efficiency is not only about the energy consumed in the building, but also the energy that has been used in materials to construct the building.

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Modern architecture: energy-saving and energy-efficient Ideally, a building does not consume energy, but it produces an excess of energy, as in the case of the Plus Energy House. Saving energy and using regenerative energy costs less and has no negative impact on the environment. Knowledge of state-ofthe-art technologies and their use as well as existing environmental standards are the planning basis for realizing sustainable buildings.

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Sustainable Architecture

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The long-term protection of the environment and climate, not least as a habitat for humans, is one of the most urgent goals of modern, sustainable architecture. The construction of energy-saving and energy-efficient buildings and the further development of corresponding concepts in architecture is therefore of particular concern to us. The Resources It is common practice to use materials whose production consumes a lot of energy to build houses that are supposed to be very energy efficient once occupied. For instance, the manufacturing of cement or the firing of roof tiles (this is also true for those that ensure high degrees of insulation) requires extreme amounts of energy and results in massive CO2 emissions. Also materials containing asbestos are admittedly cost-effective but will also cause major liabilities. Natural building materials are easier to process even after decades. Renewable materials need less energy to be manufactured. They don’t produce waste and therefore have no negative effect on the energy balance. So wherever it’s possible we only apply renewable resources and equipment. Healthy materials Environmentally harmful materials also have impact on people’s physical and emotional well-being. That’s why we do not use materials such as PVC, solventbased paints and lacquers or herbicide agents. 2. Economy in architecture We recognize the responsibility of architects in both structural and financial planning. Just as it is necessary to plan the dimensions of a building, it is also necessary to work out various financing alternatives, with the aim of arriving at an alternative that is optimally cost-effective and ideally matches the interests and capacities of owners and users. For us, it is far better to ask the right questions instead of avoiding them. Questions like: How should we approach the execution of these details? What distinguishes this variant? What would it cost? The answers to each question can shed light on various aspects of the task. And finally, it is worthwhile to cultivate a culture of discourse in the interest of arriving at common solutions. Management Control System Over the years we have developed a management control system that monitors the budget of a project. The systems works with construction index figures relating to work sections. Affordability Affordable building costs guarantee affordable financing costs. If the building costs could be limited to the necessary expenses and remain low, these savings can be passed on to the residents. For instance: the approach to building an apartment house is based on the identification of a group of homeowners whose members can join forces to reduce the costs of construction. Financial modelling In order to achieve new ideas we also had to develop new financial models that fit the projects, which otherwise wouldn’t been possible. One example is ‘pro scholare’ – a non-profit organization that provides rental payment guarantees to protect both owners and tenants.

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Sustainable Architecture 3. Realizing Shared Visions Architecture and city development always entail a certain shaping intervention in the lives of people. It is incumbent on those who are involved in the process of city development to recognize and embrace the responsibility attached to the authority invested in them. After all the decisions they make will lead to abiding states of development that can have a major impact on people’s life. Political will All municipalities have a certain societal responsibility. The municipalities themselves usually define the value of the fulfillment of their responsibility to the public. Municipalities often have the power to shape planning laws. They can pass project-specific development plans, issue calls to tender for development proposals relating to property that was formerly not available for development and so on. We have over 40 years of experience in municipal constructions and offer consulting services for municipalities. Aesthetic design While the development of urban environments requires the possibility of securing both commercial and socio-cultural interests, the challenges of modern city development, especially in connection with these societal usage structures, can only be met with the people who live in the city. City development depends on initiative and liberty. The environment should meet the THE MAIN PURPOSE OF BUILDING IS interest of the people in order to achieve identification. TO CREATE LIVING ENVIRONMENTS. Legal framework Development in sustainable buildings always implies that the legal frame has to be revised or new implementation needs to be developed. One example took place in a traditional nursing centre where residents were not allowed in the kitchen. Working together with the political authorities, we found a solution that permits the residents of small communities to access in the kitchens. 4. Society and Architecture Sustainable architecture intends to create living places wherein social integration takes place. Sustainable urban planning includes human dignity, need for security, public facilities and much more. This distinguishes the task of designing residential buildings from other architectural tasks because all people need a place to live. Other buildings are designed to certain functions. In case of residential buildings, the focus is solely on people and their existential needs. Everyone needs a place to live, and their homes should be as individual as the people who live inside. We firmly believe that a comfortable and appropriate home is a potential source of peace and inspiration and that this peace and inspiration are a part of the foundation of a flourishing society. Integrative People have always lived in groups together. The more individual the members, the more viable the group.

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Safety aspects We make a difference between “active” and “passive” safety aspects. One of the passive measures is to create guidelines of sight and create visual references in order to avoid unexpected and overwhelming contact. Through this disorientation of the individual is avoided and therefore the risk for potential aggression is reduced.

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Sustainable Architecture

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Reducing the anonymity is one of the active measures. This increases the responsibility of the residents, thus arise the willingness to actively participate in the community. Participation is an important factor to ensure security of all. Measures from the aspect of architecture design are, for instance, turning corridors into welcoming meeting rooms and building communicative entranceways. Public Spaces and encounters The public space is an important factor to improve the communication of residents. However, it doesn’t mean the purely physical encounters that are restricted to the anonymous meeting of requirements. Dignity is preserved only when people actually recognize the humanity of those they encounter. This is an area where architecture can help. If the architect takes the dignity of people into consideration and such people feel that they have been taken into consideration, then they will be more inclined to respect their fellow human beings. Urban development If city developers succeed in increasing the attractiveness of the public spaces around us, then people will be encouraged to spend more time outdoors. This highlights the importance of paying careful attention to the appeal of the residual space around the structures, so that people will experience them as pleasant, both on account of and despite the weather. This task of offering people opportunities to spend time outdoors usually requires relatively little structural expense. The creation of a partially sheltered transition zone between indoor spaces and outdoor spaces, for instance, offers a pleasant place to stay, come rain or shine. 5. The incentive systems for sustainable architecture Motivation is also a crucial factor because while many people may readily grasp the importance of sustainability, they will not necessarily feel capable of acting accordingly when it comes to making the big and the little decisions. It is a matter of supplying people with the motivational content they need to act in the manner that, all things considered, is right. Energy Contracting The owner of the building is usually responsible for installing heating systems in apartment buildings. However, the installation of heating systems is usually not something that has a direct impact on the owner’s interests. Building owners who invest in intelligent engineering systems face increased up-front costs and no possibility of refinancing. Therefore the model of energy contracting is used in the apartment buildings designed by Frey Architekten. According to this model, an independent contractor is responsible for the heating system of the building. This contractor also assumes responsibility for procuring and supplying the required energy, which is then invoiced exactly in proportion to the amount of heat supplied. The tenants therefore no longer pay for consumed oil or gas, but instead according to certain kilowatt heat rates for the heat they’ve actually used. Public Private Partnership The task of achieving common goals requires the introduction of incentives that tend to unify the interests of those involved. Public private partnerships (PPPs) represent one such model. One particular model includes the architect as building promoter. Thus, the financial responsibilities become a personal commitment. As owners, they’re responsible in finding the optimal solutions for top quality at low cost.

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Sustainable Architecture Shared Use In urban centers with densely built-up areas, the combined and share uses are feasible and meaningful. For example, the sharing of underground parking lots saves investments and operating costs while increasing the usable floor space. Added value through additional uses Additional options can generate more value and are thus sustainable. For example, roof surfaces can be rented for solar panels installations. For the owner, this results in incomings and a better IF WE ONLY DO WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW, weather protection against rain, UV rays and heat. Other WE ONLY ACHIEVE WHAT WE HAVE ALREADY ACHIEVED. elements can also be added around a compact building envelope to give shape to the building and its setting. Such elements may also serve various practical functions that enhance the experience of those who spend time in or around the building. Ownership In our “motivation through ownership”-concept, the craftsman becomes owner in the condominium he builds. Our approach is to involve the skilled craftsmen as stakeholders. This gives us access to a tremendous amount of knowledge that is relevant to the building process and that is not only free of charge, but saves money and leads to higher quality work. This sort of optimization lowers the construction costs and the re- financing costs to the point where the revenue drawn from the rental payments suffices to cover the total investment and more.

Source/Quelle: http://www.freyarchitekten.com/en/sustainability/

Heidelberg Village in Germany will be part ofthe world's largest passive housing complex when complete. Designed by FreyArchitects

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Sustainable Architectural Visions

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009 Architects & Visions Video-(TED)Tipps Cameron Sinclair (Architecture for Humanity) at TED2006: A call for open-source architecture www.ted.com/talks/cameron_sinclair_on_open_source_architecture/ We founded "Architecture for Humanity" with $ 700 and a website. And Chris somehow decided to give me $ 100,000. So why not so many people? Open source architecture is the way. You have a diverse community of stakeholders - and we do not just talk about inventors and designers, we also talk about the funding model. My role is not that of a designer, it is a channel between the designer and the humanitarian world. And what we need is something that replicates me globally because I have not slept for seven years. Second, what will that be? Designers want to respond to humanitarian crises, but they do not want any company in the West to take their ideas and make profits from them. So Creative Commons designed the Developing Nations license. Designer Alastair Parvin / WikiHouse: Architecture for the People by the People www.ted.com/talks/alastair_parvin_architecture_for_the_people_by_the_people When we use the word "architect" or "designer", we usually mean a professional, someone who is paid. We tend to think that these professionals will be the ones who will help us solve the really big systemic design challenges like climate change, urbanization and social inequality. That's our way of thinking. But it is wrong. Jeanne Gang: Buildings that blend nature and city www.ted.com/talks/jeanne_gang_buildings_that_blend_nature_and_city I am a "relationship builder". When you think of Relationship Builder, don't you automatically think of architects? Probably not. That's because most people think architects design buildings and cities, but they actually build relationships because cities are about people. There are places where people meet for all kinds of exchanges. In addition, urban silhouettes are very specific urban habitats, with their own insects, plants and animals, and even their own weather. Marc Kushner at TED201 4: Why the buildings of the future will be shaped by ... you www.ted.com/talks/marc_kushner_why_the_buildings_of_the_future_will_be_shaped _by_you "Architecture is not about math or zoning - it's about inner emotions," says Marc Kushner. In a rousing - often witty - lecture, he zooms through the last thirty years of architecture to show how the public, once separated, has become an integral part of the design process. With the help of social media, the feedback reaches the architects years before a building is created. The result? Architecture that will do more for us than ever before.

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Organic Architecture

010 Organic Architecture Biomorphism What is the charm of a hobbit cave? Why does it seem idyllic? Pastoral? Sublime? Part of its attractiveness lies in the architectural fusion of habitable structure and existing landscape. This approach summarizes the design aesthetics of organic architecture. Among the most recent examples of organic art of the 21 st century are the art of Andy Goldsworthy and the fashionable interior accessories that you can find at Ikea orTarget. However, the design aesthetic of organic architecture emerged from a special style of early 20th century art that sought to translate the forms found in nature into unique works of art. Since the beginning of the 20th century, artists have begun to accept the principles of natural form as a particular aesthetic. The style gained ground in the 1930s when artists rejected the inspiration of science and technology and the aesthetics of plastic and metal that were seen in earlier forms of modern art. Instead, artists began to engage with both inspiration in nature and the general trend of abstract art. Artists who adopted the philosophy of biomorphism attempted to translate the principles of natural form into their work by channeling the appearance of organic objects and mimicking the flow of natural currents such as water and wind. Video-Tipp: Study.com/Ivy Roberts: The Impact of Organic Art on Architecture & Sculpture study.com/academy/lesson/the-impact-of-organic-art-on-architecture-sculpture.html

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011 Organic Architecture Video-Tipps Antti Lovag: Maison Bernard - The Approach https://vimeo.com/101 275024

Antti Lovag has a unique vision of architecture. To underline the unconventional dimension of his approach, he defines himself as a "biologist". He does not care about architecture as such, but focuses on humans and their habitat to create a shell that encompasses human needs. Friedensreich Hundertwasser – 3:40: Hundertwasser Art Centre, Whangarei, New Zealand https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4PmONVJyVsI

Whangarei, the gateway to New Zealand's beautiful north, has the opportunity to build the world's last authentic Hundertwasser building. Designed by the artist in 1993 and taken over by the Hundertwasser Non Profit Foundation in Vienna, the iconic and unique building is nearing completion. Ross Lovegrove: Organic design inspired by Nature www.ted.com/talks/ross_lovegrove_shares_organic_designs

Designer Ross Lovegrove explains his philosophy of "grease-free" design and gives insight into some of his exceptional products, including theTy Nant drinking bottle and the Go chair. Javier Senoisiain: Organic Architecture/Bioarchitecture spanish with engl. subtitles: www.youtube.com/watch?v=_rCKzi3Cusc spanish: vimeo.com/229654910 or vimeo.com/220527737 Javier Senosiain is a Mexican architect who is celebrated as a key figure and discoverer of so-called organic architecture. He is currently Professor of Architecture at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Javier Senosiain's architectural creations - such as the well-known Shell House - have attracted both comment and controversy. A house in Vista del Valle, north of Mexico City, sits on a hill overlooking the city and is built in the shape of a shark. It is a reinforced concrete structure coated with polyurethane and UV-resistant elastomeric sealant. Inside is a complex labyrinth of rooms and interconnected carpet tunnels.

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Session Plan U7-S1 : Organic Architecture

01 2 Organic Architecture with Straw Bales & NAWAROs

Michel Post/Orio Architekten: Ontwerp Aardewoning Slijk-Ewijk orioarchitecten.wordpress.com/201 7/06/30/ontwerp-aardewoning-slijk-ewijk-krijgtsteeds-meer-vorm/ Wood construction (CUT technique) with curved frames. StrohNatur (www.strohnatur.at) has already proven that such organic constructions are also suitable for straw bale construction and can also do without cement sprayed plaster and steel, with the OrganiCut technology, see image series below:

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Schilf/Reed: Reviving an Ancient Technique in the Iraq Marshlands / ©TraceyShelton2011 www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXjNTEVwxQA With over 4,000 years of history, the ancient craft of the Mudhief or Reed House still has its place of cultural, social and political importance in the Iraqi swamps, but these ancient architectural creations are now known to few aging craftsmen, slowly fading with time. Near the town of Chabyish on the edge of the central swamp, the Nature Iraq team has launched a pilot project to revive this ancient style of construction.

Marcel Kalberer and others have modernized the technology with reed, bamboo and other fast-growing "canias". A sturdy shoring that can also be insulated with straw bales, as Okambuva has proven: Taller de cañas y paja - Benidoleig 201 6 (www.youtube.com/watch?v=8mOL5e0LpXU)

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S1 : Sketchup Lesson - Construction Plan

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TIPPS

U7


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S1 : Sketchup Lesson - Construction Plan

TIPPS

U7

Sketchup - Import Floor Plan: www.youtube.com/watch?v=paXB5_tNTUA

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Straw Bale

HOUSE INSTALLATION 40


SESSION PLAN S2

U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

U7

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation Objectives:

• Knowing about different heating systems, their advantages and disadvantages (emissions, CO 2, renewable, …) • Knowing principles how to provide inner climate comfort in winter and summer (cooling systems) • Knowing principles of house infrastructure (electricity, water, sewage) and know the specific requirements for straw bale houses • Being aware of integration of other trades and service installation of the house (plumbing, electrics, etc.)

Methods:

Practice

Theory

• Explanations • Presentations • Demonstrations

• different heating systems, its advantages and disadvantages (emissions, CO 2, renewable, …) • basic rules of stove and chimney construction in complete safety • principles how to provide inner climate comfort in summer – cooling systems • necessity of air ventilation and know how to provide it • principles of house installations (electricity, water, sewage, ventilating system) • techniques of fixing installations in straw walls • regulations and norms • good execution of installation (water, sewage, ventilating system) – airtightness, water proof, wind proof, acoustic insulation, fire protection • integration of other trades and service installation of the house (plumbing, electrics etc.) • fixing sockets and cables in straw walls • fixing heating tubes in straw walls • fixing tubes for a wall heating • provide air tightness (tape or mortar)

Organisation:

• Preparing the walls for demonstrations and installation materials (2 days before)

Trainer:

Place:

Classroom Workshop

Duration: 2 days

Equipment: Beamer Flip chart

Documents:

Info Sheets: i1 - Heating and cooling i2 - Ventilation i3 - Installations i4 - Health and safety i5 - Stove and chimney Trainer Sheet: Tr1 Exercise – sketching the house design Text Sheets: Tx1 Heating and cooling Tx2 Ventilation Tx3 Health and safety Other document: Project of installations

Presentations:

Slide show: Ppt1 Installations Photo documentation: Wall Heating (good) Electric Installation (good and bad)

Evaluation:

Multiple Choice

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

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INFO S2

U7


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

INFO S2

U7

01 3 Renewable Energy and its forms Currently, we cover our energy needs mainly from fossil energy sources. The energy sources coal, oil and gas are extracted from the depths of the earth and used. Originally, they were also created from biological sources, eg. by deposition of algae. But the time of their creation is so long back (millions of years) that we can not simply renew it. Renewable energy sources are therefore those that are available again at least in the temporal context of a human generation. There are only a few sources of energy, these are our sun, our earth and also our moon. Strictly speaking, the energy of the earth and the moon comes from the formation of our solar system. How much energy does the sun provide to the earth? The radiant power of the sun, which strikes the earth, is the so-called solar constant and amounts to 1 367 W / m2. Accordingly, the power constantly radiating onto the projected surface of the disc is approximately 1 75 PW. This results in the energy of 5.5 * 1024 Joule over one year. The total technical energy turnover of humans is currently around 500 EJ. This means that approximately 10,000 times our technical energy requirement is radiated by the sun. The earth itself continuously supplies a heat output of approximately 63 mW / m2 to its surface. This power is composed of roughly equal parts of radioactive decay processes in the Earth's interior and stored in the earth's crust heat from the time of Earth's origin. Summed over the entire earth's surface and a year, this gives the total energy of about 1 * 1021 Joule, twice the total energy needs of people. In other words, together with solar energy, our energy supply would be more than sufficiently ensured.

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

INFO S2

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

01 4 How you plan a Thermal Solar Energy Device In order to plan a thermal solar system, the hot water demand and - in case of a supporting heating system - also the heating demand must be determined. Basically, the size of a solar thermal system depends on the desired solar coverage, but the existing available space (roof, facade) and the static limits the space. Another important parameter is the orientation of the system. For solar panels, roof pitches between 20 ° and 60 ° are optimal, with shallower roofs (between 20 ° and 30 °) more favorable in summer and steeper roofs (50 ° to 60 °) in winter. (Austria Solar) The guideline value for a 4-person household for domestic hot water heating is 1.5 m2 of collector surface per person with a solar storage volume of 0.3 to 0.4 m3 and an annual average coverage of 50 to 60% (Lenz et al., 2010). For systems with additional heating support, 8 to 1 6 m2 are dimensioned, combined with a water storage tank of 1 ,000 liters. In the case of energy-efficient buildings, 20 to 30% of the total heat demand can be covered with a collector area of 10 to 20 m2 and a storage volume of 0.7 to 2.0 m3 (Lenz et al. 2010). Ideally, family houses in passive house quality can cover the total heat demand of solar energy. Essential for an efficient operation are the quality of the components (collector, heat exchanger) the optimal design and combination of collector surface, storage (buffer storage, stratified storage tank), dimensioning of the piping system. Video-Tipp Thermal Solar: www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0FAqkfBLZ0, 1 :1 3 min

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U7


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

INFO S2

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

U7

01 5 Selection and Dimensioning of a suitable Biomass-Heating System All forms of wood fuels - firewood, wood chips and pellets - can now be incinerated (thanks to the technological developments of the past 20 years) with low emissions and high efficiencies. Which wood fuel or wood heating system is the right solution for a building depends on various factors: How big is the heat requirement? Detached house, multi-family house, public institution etc. New building or inventory Space heating or central heating What about the local availability of wood fuels? How big is the need for comfort? How much space, especially for fuel storage, is available? Wood heating systems can be used in both new construction and renovation. The only exclusion reason would be that there is no storage space available for the fuel in the existing building and also that there is no possibility to build one retrospectively. It should be noted that after thermal renovation of a building, the heating load must be redetermined. The new biomass boiler can often turn out to be much smaller in terms of its rated power.

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

01 6 Air-Water, Earth-Water, WaterWater Heat Pumps A heat pump is a work machine that raises heat from a lower to a higher temperature level with the help of high-quality drive energy (electrical energy). Heat is extracted from a heat source (eg, outside air, geothermal, groundwater, or waste heat) and used to produce the desired indoor air temperature in a building. The compression heat pump is the most common type. A refrigerant moves in a cyclic process and repeatedly changes the state of aggregation between liquid and gaseous: 1. In the evaporator, the refrigerant evaporates at low pressure, absorbing energy from the heat source. 2. The compressor compresses the refrigerant, increasing pressure and temperature. This requires high-quality (usually electrical) energy. 3. In the condenser (condenser) the refrigerant condenses again. Energy is released via a heat exchanger to the heating water. 4. In a throttle body (expansion valve), the refrigerant is relieved to the (low) outlet pressure, while it cools down. Thereafter, the refrigerant is returned to the evaporator, the cycle starts from the beginning.

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Video-Tipp: "Die Funktionsweise des Wärmepumpenkreislaufs", 0:39 min. /www.youtube.com/watch?v=orAjaSibepg

INFO S2

U7


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

INFO S2

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

U7

Heat recovery ventilation systems/units

1 ) inventer - decentralized ventilation directly through at least two units mounted in the wall. They work together, switching the opposite direction. Heat recovery is done through ceramic element. 2) De-centralized unit - small unit is usually mounted in the room and serves to one – to max.3 adjacent rooms. Volume of exchanged air is max.100 m3/h (50 Pa). 3) Centralized unit - can be of different size, the heat recovers in one unit and than is distributed in the whole house by tubes, or by cascading system, just through gaps or holes with small vents. 4) Hot air solar panel AIR-INVENT Works only on solar energy, pushing inside the warm air heated by sun in the solar panel fixed on a façade.

017 (Controlled) Room-Ventilation Ventilation is needed to provide oxygen for metabolism and to dilute metabolic pollutants (carbon dioxide and odour). It is also used to assist in maintaining good indoor air quality by diluting and removing other pollutants emitted within a space but should not be used as a substitute for proper source control of pollutants. Good ventilation is a major contributor to the health and comfort of building occupants. Recommended air exchange nA=0,4h-1 according to EnEV 2002 and DIN4701 V-10 Possibilities to ventilate a house: Opening windows and doors regularly Through micro ventilation in windows Automatic window ventilation Extract ventilators HRV (Heat recovery ventilating units) Ventilation by opening windows increases the energy needed for heating or cooling, however heat recovery ventilation can be used to mitigate the energy consumption. Video-Tipp: www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQbNvYm3P_k (InVENTer) DIY Pop Can Solar Air Heater: youtu.be/bRZvAAqzXIw

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

018 Heat distributors: Mass Oven vs. Wall- and Floor Heating Systems Depending on the way in which the heat energy is distributed in the building and brought into the room, different climatic conditions develop in the rooms. A pleasant and healthy indoor climate depends on several factors: • the room air temperature • the temperature of the surrounding components (walls, floor, ceiling + furniture) • the relative humidity To feel comfortable in a room, the room air temperature should be about 20 ° C. If the temperature of the surrounding areas is also at least 20 ° C, the air temperature may even be lower than 20 ° C without making us feel uncomfortable. This increases the relative humidity, which is much healthier for the respiratory tract and mucous membranes. With reference to a healthy indoor climate, it can be listed as follows:

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1. Mass Oven 2. wall heating systems (under plaster) 3. Floor Heating 4. Open fireplace 5. radiator heating 6. Luftheizungsöfen 7. Air heating via Ventialation systems

INFO S2

U7


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

INFO S2

U7

019 Mass-(Tiled) Furnace: Radiation from a large surface It is possible to cover the heating demand of modern buildings with a relatively low heating load (up to approx. 8 KW) exclusively with a mass furnace. However, when planning such facilities, there are some important points to keep in mind: •The heating load should be determined relatively accurately in order to design the dimensioning = performance of the furnace accordingly •The space for storage of the determined amount of timber must be planned •The location of the furnace system is to be optimized with regard to room layout and heat distribution •The builders must be aware of the need to heat at least 1 -2 times a day to maintain the appropriate temperature level • Domestic hot water production should be electrically secured with solar support In addition, it is possible to introduce part of the heat generated in the mass furnace via absorbers in a water circulation system, and to provide heat energy to remote areas, or to support the hot water system. In this case, the intervall for heating new wood in winter can increase to 8 hours, synonymous with 3 times heating throughout the day. Picture left: Basic diagram ofmass furnace with absorber system

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

018 Types of chimney and Selection of the matching fireplaces The chimney is required for the safe discharge of flue gases from fireplaces inside the building. For this, the chimney must fulfill primarily 3 tasks: 1. Ensure that all exhaust gases are permanently discharged safely into the atmosphere (gas-tightness, resistance to temperature and acids!) Especially with vacuum systems additionally: 2. Apply so much force = delivery pressure that all resistances in the furnace are overcome 3. Aspirate the air required for combustion There are many different types of chimneys: brick edged, bricked round, made of metal or ceramic, single-walled or multi-walled, 2- or 3-shell, with or without insulation, ... Each design has both advantages and disadvantages and must ultimately be evaluated according to the following criteria: insulation, mass of the inner shell, smoothness of the inner wall. Hints for choosing the right chimney:

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•The hotter the exhaust gases from the stove go into the chimney, the easier the function of the stove will forgive a poorly insulated or too high chimney. •The better the efficiency of the fireplace, the colder its exhaust gases and the more important are good insulation, low mass and suitable cross-section. •The larger the amount of flue gas in the fireplace (for example, in very high power appliances), the larger the cross section of the chimney must be.

INFO S2

U7


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

INFO S2

Session Plan U7-S2: House Installation

U7

019 Electrical installations: take care of air-tightness Electric cables are laid either in specially designed installation levels (for example 3.5 cm Heraklith BM) or in armored pipes on the surface of the straw bale wall. They can be fastened with a clamp made of 3 mm copper wire which is inserted into the bales of straw approx. 10-1 5 cm deep. When the armored pipes are plastered over, they disappear completely into the plaster level (loam/clay), which also guarantees fire protection. Only flush-mounted boxes (for sockets and light switches) completely break through the plaster level, which is why additional air-tightness must be ensured here. Sockets can be installed airtight, if under the flush box a continuous layer of plaster is available (to the straw something hollow (alligator, electric fox, kitchen knife), lubricate plaster into the recess and put the box in the still damp plaster.To guarantee fast durability, the box can also be attached with a quick cement. the flush-mounted box is mounted on a Fermacell (cellulose-reinforced gypsum plate) or wood plate piece (screwed on) and this is then plastered over, the plate can be provided on the back with a wooden skewer, so they can be better fixed on the straw wall holds (skewer also screw). external penetrations (such as façade or garden lighting are best laid through the bales during filling, but holes can subsequently be drilled in the bales afterwards) If the pipes penetrate the plaster layer, they must be provided with cuffs (adhesive tapes) for the air tightness. These must not stick to the straw surface but to the cable or the armored tube, for which the airtight tape should be plastered over, the same applies to water connections in the garden.

51


REPAIRS & Maintenance 52


SESSION PLAN S3

U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

U7

Session Plan U7-S3: Repairs and Maintenance Objectives:

• Awareness of most common faults of straw bale construction, their damage and cause • Knowing steps and principles how to repair most common faults and damage of straw bale construction • Awareness of different life duration of the construction parts and their maintenance intervals • Repairing common damages of the house

Methods:

• Explanations • Presentations • Demonstrations

Trainer:

Place:

Classroom Workshop

Duration: 1 day

Equipment: Beamer Flip chart

Practice

Theory

Documents: • Most common faults of straw bale construction, their damage and cause • Steps and principles how to repair most common faults and damage of straw bale construction • Different life duration of the construction parts and their maintenance intervals • How to repair common damage of the house

Info Sheets: i1 – Damage Text Sheets: Tx1 Damage Tx2 Repair and Maintenance

Presentations: Slide Show: Ppt1 Damage

Evaluation:

Multiple Choice

• Repair and maintenance

Organisation:

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U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S3: Repairs and Maintenance

54

INFO S3

U7


U7 – CONCEPT OF THE HOUSE

Session Plan U7-S3: Repairs and Maintenance

INFO S3

U7

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STEP – Straw Bale Training for European Professionals UNIT 7 – Concept of the House (201 7) Editor/Tipps: Herbert Gruber (ASBN) Coworkers: Helmuth Santler, Karsten Bäsmann, Zuzana Kierulfova, with texts from: 30X40 Design Workshop, TED, TU Vienna - e-genius (House Installation), Buch der Synergie (buch-der-synergie.de). Design: Herbert Gruber (HG); Fotos: HG, Wikimedia, Pexels, Sol Power: Prestel (U4); Illustrationen/Icons: Michael Howlett (SBUK) Dieses Handbuch bases on the Handbook of the LeonardoGroup STEP (201 5)

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Profile for Herbert Gruber

STEP Handbook U7 Solar Architecture and Design of a Straw Bale House  

Handbook to STEP - Straw Bale Training for European Professionals, Unit 7 - (Passive) Solar Architecture and House Concept, Installation and...

STEP Handbook U7 Solar Architecture and Design of a Straw Bale House  

Handbook to STEP - Straw Bale Training for European Professionals, Unit 7 - (Passive) Solar Architecture and House Concept, Installation and...

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