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DYKAS, Monica; INCACUTIPA, Cleida. Healthy Homes and Environments: A strategy for Food Security Lima: Heifer Perú, 2015.99 pp. (Work document N°7) Healthy Homes: Food Security; Rural Development; Values; Gender Equity; Quality of Life; Peru.

HEALTHY HOMES AND ENVIRONMENTS A STRATEGY FOR FOOD SECURITY Hecho el Depósito Legal en la Biblioteca Nacional del Perú N° 2015-03710 Edition N° 1, February 2015 Print run: 500 unit

Edited by ©2015 Heifer Project International - Perú Av. Brasil 2948 Magdalena del Mar, Lima 17 - Perú Phone number: (51) (1) 261-3122 E-mail: oficina.nacional@heiferperu.org www.heifer.org www.heiferperu.org

Authors: Monica Dykas – Cleida Incacutipa

Photographs: Heifer International Perú documentary archive Layout and design: Ymagino Publicidad S.A.C. Proofreading: Doris Moromisato Miasato

Printed in the workshops graphics Ymagino Publicidad S.A.C. Mz. E Lt. 8, II etapa. Urb. Santa Elisa – Los Olivos (51) (1) 528-5843

Printed in Peru on February 2015 All rights reserved. Full or partial reproduction and distribution of this work by any means, whether mechanical, photochemical, magnetic or other, without written permission from the editors is strictly prohibited under the penalties established by law.


>> Presentation

Healthy Homes and Environments A STRATEGY FOR FOOD SECURITY Systematization of Experiences

Monica Dykas - Cleida Incacutipa WORK DOCUMENT Nยบ 7 5


Healthy Homes and Environments

Table of Contents Presentation

6

Executive Summary

8

I. Healthy Homes and Food Security in Peru

11

1.1 Definition of a “Healthy Home� 1.2 Definition of Food Security 1.3 The relationship between healthy homes and food security 1.4 Healthy Home Projects in Peru. 1.5 Healthy Homes and Heifer Peru

11 12 15 16 17

II. Context

20

2.1 Project Area location 2.2 Characteristics of Local Populations. 2.3 Characteristics of the family home 2.4 Characteristics of Food Security 2.4.1 Food availability 2.4.2 Food access 2.4.3 Food use 2.4.4 Stability

20 21 23 26 27 28 29 30

III. Implementation of the healthy homes initiative

32

3.1 Strategic partnerships 3.2 Implementation Process. 3.3 Implementation Strategies 3.4 Evaluation and follow-up 3.5 Conditions for replicating this experience

32 33 39 41 42

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IV. Results of the healthy homes and environments initiative

44

4.1 Results related to food security 4.1.1 Food availability 4.1.2 Food access 4.1.3 Food use 4.1.4 Stability 4.2 Results related to personal development 4.3 Results related to emotional health and quality of life

44 45 46 48 56 58 60

V. Meaningful experiences

64

VI. Lessons learned

72

6.1 Project implementation 6.2 Passing on the Gift 6.3 Impacts of the healthy homes and environments initiative 6.4 Expanding the healthy homes initiative to ensure fair and sustainable development

73 74 75 76

VII. Conclusions

78

Bibliography

79

Appendices

81

Appendix 1. Case Study Methodology Appendix 2. Number of participant families with healthy homes and environments Appendix 3. Resources provided by Heifer Peru as part of the healthy homes and environments initiative on Puno Region Appendix 4. Resources provided by Heifer Peru as part of the healthy homes and environments initiative on Cusco Region Appendix 5. Passing on the Gift (POG) ceremonies for healthy homes and environments Appendix 6. Healthy Homes and Environments Implementation Guide Appendix 7. Tools used for case study analysis Appendix 8. Pictures of healthy home components

81 83 84 85 86 87 89 93

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Healthy Homes and Environments

Presentation While discussing the effects of climate change at a community assembly held a few years ago in a high-altitude community in the District of Pitumarca, in the Region of Cuzco, community members mentioned a number of issues: issues interfering with their raising alpacas, and the subsequent loss of resources; the frequency with which their children came down with respiratory illnesses and the vulnerability of their homes to ever-stronger gusts of wind. This drove Heifer Peru, over 15 years ago, to develop a number of initiatives focused on improving living conditions, such as: using less firewood and promoting improved cookstoves, the division of rooms within the home, and management of the area surrounding the home, the latter being linked to food security. These initiatives fostered significant mutual learning for both the participant families and Heifer Peru; at all times, the culture and creativity of the local population were respected and the use of local resources was encouraged in order to ensure sustainability. Heifer International uses a value and rights-based approach to its work, and, as such, has 12 cornerstones1 (guiding principles) which drive our work in all projects. These cornerstones include: sustainability and self-management, which seek to help empower local families and improve their skills so they can be the protagonists of their own development; and Passing on the Gift, the heart of our identity, which allows Heifer to reach and expand the number of families participating in our projects. Through sharing, project participants become donors of resources to other needy families, and, in this way, we create a chain of solidarity and sustainability, improving the quality of life of families and entire communities. Harnessing this approach, the Healthy Homes and Environments initiative was incorporated as a main component in all of Heifer Peru’s projects, and taken on as an institutional commitment. We are convinced that, through improving living conditions in the home, scenarios can be achieved for the proper preparation and consumption of food (use) while at the same time ensuring the sustainable availability of and access to healthy food (stability); this ideal scenario coincides with the concept of a healthy home defined by participant families as “a pleasant space providing shelter and family togetherness 1

Aaker, Jerry. “The Heifer Model. Cornerstones Values-Based Development” , Little Rock, Heifer International, 2007 (Third Edition)

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>> Presentation

“a pleasant space providing shelter and family togetherness which allows its members to share a positive atmosphere, have sufficient food for the family, and live in harmony with the environment”

which allows its members to share a positive atmosphere, have sufficient food for the family, and live in harmony with the environment.”2 This precious learning has been reflected in this systematization entitled Housing and Healthy Environment: Strategy for Food Security, which has been built on the experience gained with the families of communities from Cusco and Puno regions. I wish to offer my sincere gratitude and congratulations to each and every one of those involved in this effort: the participants of the projects, who shared their experiences with energy and selflessness and revitalized themselves to remain committed to its development; Mariela Wismann’s determination to perform the systematization of healthy homes from its impact and contribution in the perspective of food security; Advisors Monica Dykas and Cleida Incacutipa, so committed to the social development of women and Andean communities, who assumed the task of retrieving, analyzing, synthesizing and turn this experience into the document that we have in our hands today. Furthermore, I would like to highlight the editing effort of Katia Melgarejo and Madeleine Muñoz, the support from Magaly Lopez, at first, and later from Solange Avila, as well as recognize that this systematization and publication was made possible thanks to the strong support of Edwin Rocha, from Heifer International’s Americas Area. I hope this book will help all of us to advance and excel in similar efforts. Alfredo Garcia Country Director Heifer Peru Lima, March, 2015

2

Focus group workshops held in Cuzco and Puno, 2013.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

Executive Summary This document presents the analysis of the implementation of the healthy homes and environment initiative and the impact thereof on food security in the Regions of Cuzco and Puno. The work on healthy homes and environments began in 2007 within the framework of the following projects: 1) Gender Integration and Leadership for Community Development in Peru, 2) the High Mountain Project in Cuzco, 3) Strengthening the Association of Campesino Women of Puno [ADEMUCP, as per its acronym in Spanish] for Food Sovereignty in the Puno Region, 4) Improvement of Food Security and Development of Entrepreneurship – FEED, financed in cooperation with the Walmart and TJ Meyer Foundations, and 5) Cuzco Alpaca Umbrella Improvement of Housing and Production Tools through Adaptation to Climate Change Project. Institutional partnerships were established with local NGOs in order to implement this initiative, including Programa de Desarrollo Social y Recurso Ambiental de los Andes (AMDARES), Instituto de Medio Ambiente y Género para el Desarrollo (IMAGEN), Asociación Especializada para el Desarrollo Sostenible (AEDES), and Red para el desarrollo Social; these partners were key to motivating, both directly and indirectly, substantial changes in the food systems of hundreds of families in Puno and Cuzco. During the implementation of healthy homes and environments, the institutional partners capitalized on local knowledge and introduced new environmentally friendly and socially-satisfying technologies, all within the context of climate change. The implementation process encompassed four stages:

1

Planning and design through the use of 3-D models and “talking maps”, presenting a visual representation of each participating family’s medium and long-term plans;

10

2

Establishment of strategic guidelines and design of informational materials to facilitate the implementation of each component;

3

Implementation, validation, and replication of successful experiences, entailing decisions and commitments made at the family and community levels; and

4

Self-assessment and lessons learned, oriented toward the sustainability and replication of successful experiences without losing sight of matters related to food security.


>> Executive Summary

The results of this initiative are positive changes in the families’ food systems and living situations. These changes are reflected in concrete facts such as an increase in domestic production and consumption of vegetables (availability), proper hygiene practices in food preparation and consumption (use), food consumption habits focused on nutritional value (access), and safe infrastructure in order to conserve food products for domestic consumption (stability); additionally, emotional health improved for individual family members as well as the family as a whole. These results are sustainable over time and can be replicated at scale for other families throughout the region and Peru as a whole. In order to reconstruct these experiences in such a way as for the results and lessons learned therein to be properly analyzed, this document has been prepared in seven sections: Chapter 1 provides background information concerning healthy homes and food security. Chapter 2 presents the contextual characteristics of the project intervention areas based on an analysis of the families’ current housing situation and food security conditions. Chapter 3 describes the main strategies used in the implementation process of the healthy homes in the different communities throughout Southern Peru. Chapter 4 illustrates the main results obtained over the course of six years of project execution, organizing these results by the four dimensions of food security: availability, access, use, and stability. Chapter 5 includes participants’ first-person narratives of their most significant experiences regarding healthy homes and food security. Finally, chapters 6 and 7 present the main lessons learned and conclusions reached based on this experience.

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I Family living space in which the proper physical conditions are present both indoors and outdoors, such that the social, psychological, and overall health of the family are ensured, as well as their food security.

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>> I. Healthy Homes and Food Security in Peru

I. Healthy Homes and Food Security in Peru 1.1 DEFINITION OF A “HEALTHY HOME” The Heifer Peru healthy home and environment initiative starts with the premise that the home and its surrounding environment are integral and important components in the creation of sustainable living systems that include food security and nutrition. These matters are of such significant importance to Heifer International that they are one of the five pillars of the organization’s theory of change. Heifer Perú has been working on this issue since 1994, mainly through his interventions in the dry forest of northern Perú. Food insecurity and chronic childhood malnutrition are considered to be the main mechanisms by which poverty and inequality are transmitted from one generation to the next due to the impairment of cognitive development of children and the consequent life-long health effects. This situation is particularly visible in the rural areas of Peru, and thus the decision was made to focus on the implementation of healthy homes and environments as a strategy to ensure food security in Peru. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) define a “home” as the conjunction of: the “house” as a physical refuge, the “household” as the group of people residing in the house, the “environment” as the physical area surrounding the home, and “community” as a group of neighbors. Moreover, a home is an inhabited space which promotes good health if it meets the following fundamental conditions: ownership and safe location, adequate structure, sufficient space, access to utilities, furniture, household utensils and safe consumer goods, a proper environment and appropriate use of the home.3 3

Regional Symposium: “Viviendas Saludables: A en los Asentamientos Precarios de América Latina y el Caribe [Healthy Homes: A Millennium Goal for Precarious Settlements in Latin America and the Carribean], 2005.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.”

The participant families in the Heifer Peru project communities define a healthy home as a “a pleasant space providing protection and family togetherness which allows its members to share a positive atmosphere, have sufficient food, and live in harmony with the environment.”4 Their experience in the projects was based on this definition at the family and community levels. Since 2008, Heifer Peru has focused on the healthy home dimension in all of its projects in order to improve and ensure family food security. Heifer Peru defines a “healthy home” as a “family living space in which the proper physical conditions are present both indoors and outdoors, such that the social, psychological, and overall health of the family are ensured, as well as their food security (made up of availability, access, use and stability) and environmental conditions; a place favorable to family development where human values and healthy lifestyles are reinforced and promoted.”5

1.2 DEFINITION OF FOOD SECURITY The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) states that “food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.”6 Food security is made up of four dimensions, as described in the chart below:

4 5 6

14

Focus Groups conducted in Cuzco and Puno, 2013. Muñoz Zegarra, Madeleine. “Promoviendo Cambios Sostenibles para la Equidad de Género y el Desarrollo Social a través de las Cocinas Mejoradas: Sistematización de Experiencias.” Heifer Project International - Perú. Lima, Ymagino Publicidad S.A.C. 2008. FAO. “Comité de Seguridad Alimentaria Mundial.” http://www.fao.org/cfs/es/


>> I. Healthy Homes and Food Security in Peru

FIGURE 1. THE FOUR DIMENSIONS OF FOOD SECURITY7

1

AVAILABILITY

4

STABILITY

FOOD SECURITY

Households and individuals have adequate resources to obtain appropriate food for a nutritious diet. Social inclusion and economic conditions of the poorest are fundamental aspects of accessibility.

ACCESS

Access to appropriate foods at all times. Ensure the supply of and continuous and stable access to foods over time.

2

Sufficient quantities of food are consistently available for all. This entails ensuring the existence of sufficient food in a timely manner, whether produced domestically, through imports, or food aid. The availability component is fundamentally related to production.

The inherent biological use of foods to provide nutrients is essential; it requires basic health conditions, sufficient energy, acess to potable water, and adequate sanitation; an adequate knowledge of nutrition and best practices for food preparation and consumption are also necessary.

3

U SE

Additionally, the nutritional aspect is an integral part of food security. UNICEF defines nutrition as: “the sufficient consumption of foods which prevent infectious diseases, weight loss, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies.”8 The main factors influencing the four dimensions of food security are presented in the figure below.9

7 8 9

“Monitoreo de Impacto Global: Teoría de Cambio e Indicadores de Impacto.” Heifer International. Wismann, Mariela. “Taller de Monitoreo de Impacto Global: Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición.” Heifer International. Ibid.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

FIGURE 2. CAUSE AND EFFECT MODEL OF FOOD (IN)SECURITY

FOOD

SECURITY

Human causes

Extreme climate events

STABILITY

Education level

Access to drinking

Adequate use of food

USE

Poverty index

Location of home

ACCESS

Salary

Quality of roads

Plot size

Food production

AVAILABILITY

Food security may behave in different ways. At the regional or national level, food security tends to work hand in hand with the adequacy of the national food balance or the ability of food supply to meet the needs of the population. The degree of national food security presumes that there is equal access for all regions and social classes. At the family level, food security refers to the ability of families to obtain sufficient food to cover their nutritional needs, whether through the production or purchase thereof. The supply of foods at the family level depends on multiple factors, such as the price of foodstuffs, storage capacity, and environmental influences.10 In order for all households to be food secure, each one must have physical and economic access to proper foods. Each household must always have the capacity, knowledge and resources needed to produce or obtain its required foods. Furthermore, a proper diet that provides sufficient protein, energy and micronutrients is needed; the lack thereof results in malnutrition and the excess thereof generates other health risks.

10 Santa Jiménez Acosta. Métodos de Medición de la Seguridad Alimentaria, 1995.

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>> I. Healthy Homes and Food Security in Peru

1.3 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTHY HOMES AND FOOD SECURITY The components of a healthy home and environment are closely linked to food security. Family vegetable gardens have a direct impact on food availability given that they allow for a sufficient quantity of vegetables to be available for meal preparation. Vegetable gardens are also related to food access as excess produce can be sold and thus provide additional income in order to purchase other foods that the families would not otherwise have access to; also, the families can exchange their own products for diverse products of their neighbors, thus ensuring that all food needs are met. Most components of a healthy home, such as the separation of rooms, improved cookstoves, hygiene and sanitation, patio decoration and paving, and the organization of animal shelters, have an influence on the use dimension of food security. The kitchen constitutes an essential element in the life of a human being. A poorly planned kitchen lacking strategic spaces for storing utensils and foodstuffs substantially increases the hygiene- and sanitation-related risks and may cause health problems for the family members. The surrounding environment also has an influence on such matters, especially as concerns food production; the presence of inorganic waste in farm and garden plots results in the contamination of plants and has a direct effect on the health of family members. Likewise, a patio in unhygienic conditions has a direct effect on food products during the selection process (the patio is the designated space for the temporary storage of harvested products); thus, the patio must be kept clean and orderly. These components of the healthy home facilitate favorable conditions for the use dimension of food security, that is, the preparation and consumption of foodstuffs. The components of food production and conservation guarantee the stability of family food supplies over time. Proper storage techniques permit food stability for the family; thus, it is necessary to ensure the conditioning of a specific room and the strategic location thereof (isolated from moisture and rodents) in order to avoid contamination of any kind. The components of a healthy home and their relationship to the four dimensions of food security are presented in Figure 3.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

FIGURE 3. LINKS BETWEEN A HEALTHY HOME AND ENVIRONMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

Food Security Dimensions

AVAIL ABILITY

ACCESS

Family garden

Family garden

Components of a healthy home

USE

Separation of rooms Improved cookstove Hygiene and sanitation Patio decoration and paving Organization of animal shelters

STABILITY

Food production Food storage

1.4 HEALTHY HOME PROJECTS IN PERU. Over the course of the past ten years, several public and private Peruvian institutions have implemented healthy homes projects. The Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion [MIDIS, as per its acronym in Spanish], the Ministry of Health [MINSA, as per its acronym in Spanish], and the Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation [MVCS, as per its acronym in Spanish] were among the most active institutions in Southern Peru. International development agencies such as the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), Caritas, CARE Peru, and Practical Action have included this topic in their projects. Likewise, United Nations agencies, such as WHO and the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (MGD-F), have also worked on these goals in tandem with international development agencies and local organizations. Each institution has its own approach towards the design and implementation of healthy homes. While MIDIS, CARE Peru, and Caritas include the objective of improving food security and nutrition of the participants, ADRA and WHO are more focused on holistic health. MVCS and MGD-F, in contrast, focus on the structure of the home itself in order to ensure the family’s safety with regard to climate change and natural disasters. Just as their objectives differ, these institutions also have differing approaches to implementing the healthy homes. Some agencies have utilized strategies similar to those employed by Heifer Peru. For example, ADRA works with community promoters, CARE Peru employs contests for the healthiest home in the community, and CARITAS promotes “internship” experiences for participants to observe the experience of people in similar situations.

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>> I. Healthy Homes and Food Security in Peru

1.5 HEALTHY HOMES AND HEIFER PERU Heifer Peru began working on the healthy home and environment initiative by building upon its experience with improved cookstoves in the Eco Project for Dry Forest Sustainability in the communities of Lambayeque in 2000 and the Agro-ecological Management in the Mid and Lower Piura Valley Project in 2001. Work on healthy homes and environments started with a focus on health and the environment and other aspects, such as gender equality and food security, were progressively added. The following is a timeline of the changes in Heifer Peru’s approach in the healthy homes and the environment initiative: After executing the improved cookstove project in Northern Peru in 2000, this experience was replicated at the national level. The main purpose was to avoid deforestation, due to firewood extraction for commercial purposes and use as a domestic fuel source, which jeopardizes valuable forest species such as carob, acacia and Chloroleucon chacoense, as well as other species.11 The first healthy home projects in 2000 emphasized improving family health. Healthy homes, which include the organization of rooms and the distribution of spaces for different family members, resulted in providing favorable living conditions that promote healthy habits and reduce the incidence of disease. Starting with the “Gender and Development” project in 2002, special attention was paid to women’s development under the gender and family equality focus. The healthy homes initiative was integrated as one of the components of holistic family development, thereby strengthening self-esteem and facilitating respectful relationships between family members. The project also promoted greater female leadership within the family and communal spheres; with an improved cookstove that reduces the amount of time spent cooking and with better distribution of household chores, a woman with a healthy home has more time available to participate in productive and community management groups. In the latest phase, begun in 2008, the healthy homes initiative sets out with the premise that a healthy home is a space providing not only a physically and emotionally favorable environment for the family, but, fundamentally, the key factor in achieving the optimal conditions with which to guarantee food security. The figure below is a graphical representation of the progression of the work related to healthy homes and environments.

11 Madeleine Muñoz. Promoviendo Cambios Sostenibles para la Equidad de Género y el Desarrollo Social a través de las Cocinas Mejoradas - Sistematización de Experiencias

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Healthy Homes and Environments

FIGURE 4. HEIFER PERU’S APPROACH TO HEALTHY HOMES AND ENVIRONMENTS

Family health

Reduced

Gender equity

deforestation and increased protection of the environment

and community development

1 1999

20

2 2000

Food security

2001

2002

3 2003

2004

4 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017


II

>> I. Healthy Homes and Food Security in Peru

2018

Despite the major progress Peru has made in poverty reduction, families in rural areas are still greatly affected by poverty and children are especially vulnerable to different risks. 21


Healthy Homes and Environments

II. Context 2.1 PROJECT AREA LOCATION Since 2008, Heifer Peru has been implementing healthy home and environment projects in a number of districts and communities in the Cuzco and Puno Regions. The Cuzco Region is located in Southern Peru, composed of the Andes Mountains and part of the high jungle, and has a total land area of 72,104 km2. The climate in Cuzco is generally cold and dry, but rainy in the summer. The region has a population of 1,292,201 people and is divided into 13 provinces which, in turn, are divided into a total 108 districts. The work on healthy homes and environments has been concentrated in the Acomaya, Canchis, and Quispicanchi provinces.12 FIGURE 5. MAP OF THE INTERVENTION AREAS IN CUZCO

Acomaya

Quispicanchis

Canchis

CUSCO 12 “Región Cusco.” Ministerio de Comercio Exterior y Turismo. http://www.mincetur.gob.pe

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>> II. Context

The Puno Region is located in the extreme southeast of Peru, consisting of the high plateau, the Andes Mountains, the Amazon rainforest, and Lake Titicaca, with a total land area of 71,999 km2. The climate in Puno is generally cold and dry. The region has a population of 1,377,122 people and is divided into 13 provinces which, in turn, are divided into 108 districts. The work on healthy homes and environments has been concentrated in the Azángaro, Melgar, and Moho provinces.13 FIGURE 6. MAP OF THE INTERVENTION AREAS IN PUNO

Melgar Azángaro Moho

PUNO 2.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL POPULATIONS. Heifer Peru began promoting healthy homes and environment initiatives related to food security after analyzing the socioeconomic situation in Southern Peru. At the regional level, the main problems identified were poverty, malnutrition, food insecurity, and inadequate living conditions; these problems directly influence the family’s physical and psychological development. These social challenges were and are especially visible in the areas in which Heifer Peru operates. Despite the major progress Peru has made in poverty reduction, families in rural areas are still greatly affected by poverty and children are especially vulnerable to different risks. In Cuzco, 51.1% of the population is poor whereas Puno has a poverty rate of 60.8%.14 This situation is particularly visible in the campesino communities15 located in the districts of Marcapata, Ocongate, Pitumarca and Pomacanchi, Cuzco Region, and in the communities located in the districts of Azángaro, Conima, Huayrapata, Santa Rosa and Umachiri, Puno Region.

13 “Historia de Puno.” Puno.info. http://www.puno.info/ 14 Ugarte Ubilluz, Óscar Raúl, et al. “Programa Nacional de Formación en Salud Familiar y Comunitaria.” Ministerio de Salud. 2011. 15 Translator’s Note: Campesino communities are legal entities whose members practice communal land ownership and land use, and are often made up of Peruvians of indigenous ancestry.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

The poverty level in Peru is also apparent in the healthcare situation. At the national level, 35.3% of the population does not have health insurance, and 55.1% did not attempt to seek medical attention, mostly due to living in poverty or extreme poverty. In Puno, 41.3% of the population lacks health insurance, while the corresponding figure in Cuzco is 33.2%; according to the Peruvian National Institute of Statistics and Information [INEI, as per its acronym in Spanish] report for 2008-2009, 72.7% of Puno residents and 63.1% of Cuzco residents did not seek medical care at any public health centers. These figures demonstrate the high level of exclusion prevalent in the country in terms of health services. Another fundamental problem in Peru is malnutrition. The vulnerability map of chronic childhood malnutrition in Peru shows that risk factors are concentrated in 879 districts throughout the country, of which 509 districts have moderately high risk levels, while 307 districts have very high risk levels. Although these 879 districts at risk for malnutrition are located throughout all regions of the country except Tumbes and the Constitutional Province of Callao, the districts with the highest levels of vulnerability are located in the provinces of the following regions: Cajamarca (102), Ancash (95), Puno (85), Huancavelica (83), Ayacucho (78), Cuzco (71), ApurĂ­mac (61), HuĂĄnuco (61), and La Libertad (50). According to the World Food Program (WFP), chronic childhood malnutrition in Peru goes hand in hand with indicators such as the location of the home, with rural and high elevation areas being the most vulnerable. All participant families in Heifer Peru projects earn a living mainly through farming activities such as raising llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs and chickens, and growing potatoes, corn, barley, wheat or quinoa. Income earned through these activities is quite unstable due to high variations in the market prices of these goods. Further, commodity brokers do not pay fair market rates for the products produced in these areas. The average monthly income of participant families in the Cuzco Region is approximately S/. 120 Peruvian Nuevos Soles (roughly US$ 40); this is based mainly on the sale of alpaca meat and root vegetables, though is also occasionally supplemented through day labor. In Puno, the monthly income is similar at S/. 130.00 Peruvian New Soles (roughly US$ 44) and is generated mainly through the sale of livestock and day labor. In both areas, families have vegetable gardens and use a small amount of the produce to sell or barter for other products.

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>> II. Context

2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FAMILY HOME As concerns the characteristics of family homes in Peru, 78.3 % of poor families and 78.8% of those living in extreme poverty live in mud-brick (adobe) or cordwood dwellings with corrugated iron/plastic, straw, or thatched roofing. Furthermore, 36.8% of those living in poverty and 54.9% of those living in extreme poverty have no access to running water, while 30.6% of those living in poverty and 42.1% of those living in extreme poverty lack access to sanitation services. These types of dwellings and lack of services are concentrated mainly in rural areas, and the Heifer Peru intervention areas in Cuzco and Puno are no exception to this rule.16 Prior to Heifer Peru’s work on healthy homes and environments, most of the homes in the communities in Cuzco and Puno lacked the characteristics required to provide adequate shelter, a healthy environment, proper services, and conditions conducive to sanitary preparation and consumption of food; in summary, the home was not a place in which the family could live with dignity.

16 INEI 2008-2009.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

Most participant families lived in precarious homes built using locally available materials and traditional technologies. The main issues with stone and mud brick dwellings with thatch roofs is that they do not provide sufficient shelter nor protection against endemic and bronchopulmonary diseases. Additionally, space within the home was quite limited and was often shared with small farm animals, resulting in overcrowding and poor hygiene. In most of the homes in Cuzco and Puno, the kitchen was the room that was least taken care of and was uncomfortable and poor lit; nevertheless, the kitchen was the space used for almost all household activities (sleeping, cooking, and raising small animals such as chickens and guinea pigs). The traditional stoves used in such kitchens filled the rooms with smoke and the walls were always covered with a thick layer of soot; local families had traditionally become accustomed to live in this reality. According to the baseline study of 120 of the 738 participant families in Cuzco and Puno17, preliminary information was gathered on the family homes and is summarized in the table below: TABLE 1. BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANT FAMILIES’ HOMES Nº

I

II

HEALTHY HOME COMPONENT

BASELINE STATUS

DESIGN AND PLANNING

100% of the families built their own homes, with no thought given to healthy home components. All planning revolved around the conception of a home being composed of one room and possibly a separate kitchen area.

SPATIAL ORGANIZATION AND DISTRIBUTION

As per the perception of a home on the part of these families, The perception of the families of the organization and spatial distribution of the home was based on the most basic home environments: a kitchen and a single bedroom. Even more rudimentary, some families only had one room which was used as a bedroom, kitchen, living room, and even a space for raising small animals. These families were generally not concerned about the maintenance or cleanliness of their homes and surrounding environment.

17 Baseline study from the Fortalecimiento Organizativo, FEED and Sombrilla Cuzco Projects.

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>> II. Context

NÂş

HEALTHY HOME COMPONENT

BASELINE STATUS IMPROVED SPACES

3.1 Bedroom organization and cleanliness

III

3.2 Kitchen characteristics

Bedrooms in most of the homes were described as multi-purpose rooms, housing a single bed, school supplies, the family’s groceries, clothing drying on hooks, bundles of dirty clothes, and tools such as shovels, pick-axes, wheelbarrows, seeds, insecticides, and other items. As such, these were complex and impractical spaces that made it difficult to easily find something in the case of an emergency. Kitchens in most homes were considered of little importance, and were small, poorly built, and very comfortable rooms. Families generally prioritized the building of their bedroom over the kitchen. Most kitchens were provisionally built with no finishing touches on the interior nor exterior. Average kitchen sizes were 3 X 2 m of floor space with 2-m high walls and were mostly built out of stone in Cuzco and mud brick in Puno, covered in thatched roofing and very poor illumination. The kitchens were equipped with traditional cookstoves which filled the room with smoke and left the walls and roofs covered in a thick layer of soot. Pots and pans and other kitchen utensils were left scattered on the floor without worrying about cleanliness or order. Food products were left on top of a cardboard box or some other object so as not to be scattered about; fruits and vegetables were often dried out. For food preparation, the floor was used in lieu of a table, and, as water was unavailable inside the kitchen, cooking utensils were washed on the floor or on the patio. Additionally, the family members used the floor as a dining space.

3.3 Organized pantry or storage space for foods

3.4 Clean and orderly tool shed

IV

SAFE WATER CONSUMPTION

Some families maintained a traditional storage area for seeds, but most left food products and seeds on the bedroom floor.

None of the families had a space set aside for agricultural, bricklaying, or chemical tools used for crops and livestock.

Some families had piped-in water, though most drank spring or river water; it was observed that families drinking well water did not keep their drinking water in a safe place and drank from the same containers as their animals. Those drinking piped-in water installed the faucet outside the home, sometimes on the patio, but no one installed it inside the kitchen. Moreover, most families did not have the habit of boiling their drinking water, except in the mornings and evenings when they generally drink herbal teas. During the day, they drank non-boiled water from springs located close to their fields or animal pastures.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

HEALTHY HOME COMPONENT

BASELINE STATUS

FAMILY VEGETABLE GARDENS

Only three families, 2 in Cuzco and 1 in Puno, out of all the families who were interviewed had any experience with family vegetable gardens, whether out of their own interest or because they had participated in a community project. Nevertheless, most of the participant families involved acquired vegetables from local fairs and markets.

VI

SANITATION AND HYGIENE

In the communities of Santa Rosa, Umachiri, Sacacani, Huayrapata and Pomacanchi, none of the families had a latrine, whereas some of the families in Marcapata and Conima had benefitted from government programs that provided for the construction of outhouses with underground tanks. In terms of household waste products, families did not sort organic from inorganic waste, and trash was accumulated in different areas around the home. Families were not accustomed to personal hygiene practices and most did not have a designated place for washing and bathing.

VII

ORGANIZATION OF ANIMAL SHELTERS

V

Most families had designated spaces for large animals, but smaller animals such as guinea pigs and chickens were kept in the kitchen, where food is stored and prepared, or on the patio.

2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF FOOD SECURITY WFP and MIDIS state that the risk factors for food insecurity include “poverty, illness, lack of access to basic housing services, insufficient access to healthcare and education, recurring disasters due to natural phenomenon, and environmental pollution, among others.”18 Families in the Heifer Peru project communities are especially vulnerable to food insecurity, mainly due to the following factors: poverty, recurring natural disasters, and the lack of development in rural areas. Most families in these communities generally make a living raising large and small animals and growing crops; their low incomes limit their ability to guarantee their own food security. Climate change affects the temperatures, particularly in the high elevation areas where these families live, thus severely affecting crop and livestock production. Families have been through many crises related to environmental factors, such as droughts, freezing spells, floods and landslides, all of which fundamentally affect the basic household economy and living conditions of the poorest families, putting their food security in jeopardy. Furthermore, the rural context itself, with a lack of basic services and utilities, few improved technologies, scarce water supplies, limited amounts of forage material and unproductive soils, presents a great obstacle for families trying to improve their production techniques and ensure their food security. According to WFP and MIDIS, out of the 25 regions in Peru, Cuzco and Puno occupy the 18th and 19th place, respectively, in terms of food insecurity. The vulnerability index in Cuzco is 0.436, while the corresponding figure for Puno is 0.486 (where 0 means not vulnerable and 1 means high vulnerability). Cuzco and Puno are also among the 4 regions with the greatest number of districts classified as 18 Trivelli Ávila, Carolina. “Mapa de la Vulnerabilidad de la Inseguridad Alimentaria, 2012.” MIDIS and FODM. 2012.

28


>> II. Context

“high” or “very high” on the vulnerability index; there are 73 such districts in Puno and 65 such districts in Cuzco.19 A map of the food insecurity vulnerability index at the district level is presented below. The food insecurity vulnerability index in the Heifer Peru project areas in 2012 is presented in the table below: TABLE 2. VULNERABILITY TO FOOD INSECURITY IN HEIFER PERU PROJECT AREAS

REGION/PROVINCE/ DISTRICT

DISTRICT AND REGION RANKING (OUT OF A TOTAL OF 1834 DISTRICTS)

Cuzco

FOOD INSECURITY VULNERABILITY INDEX

18

0.436

Quispicanchi/ Ocongate

1691

0.867

Canchis/ Pitumarca

1706

0.862

Quispicanchi/ Marcapata

1691

0.856

Acomayo/ Pomacanchi

1549

0.807

19

0.486

Moho/ Huayrapata

1546

0.806

Moho/ Tilali

1481

0.783

Moho/ Conima

1416

0.766

Melgar/ Umachiri

1381

0.752

Melgar/ Santa Rosa

1331

0.736

Azangaro/ Azangaro

535

0.366

Puno

Fuente: MIDIS. Mapa de Vulnerabilidad a la Inseguridad Alimentaria, 2012.

As shown in the table above, 6 districts are classified as having a “very high” level of vulnerability: Ocongate, Pitumarca, Marcapata, Pomacanchi, Huayrapata and Tilali, as per the range of very high vulnerability, which is 0.781 – 0.972. Additionally, there are 3 districts - Conima, Umachiri and Santa Rosa – classified as having a “high” level of vulnerability, which is 0.651 -0.780; only the district of Azángaro is ranked below that range, being classified as having a “moderately low” level of vulnerability. In the section below, the vulnerability to food insecurity in the Heifer Peru project intervention areas is described in more detail below according to the four dimensions of food security.

2.4.1 Food availability In the communities in which Heifer Peru operates in Cuzco and Puno, food availability depends on the amount of food produced by each family and the foods available at local markets. These communities are far from large cities and towns, thus resulting in a limited amount and variety of foods being available on the marketplace. Families produce limited amounts of food due to their small plots of land. Prior to Heifer Peru’s work with healthy homes, a large majority of families (>90%) did not have vegetable gardens, thus their home production did not include any fruits or vegetables. The only 19 Ibíd.

29


Healthy Homes and Environments

self-produced foods available to these families were those grown on their farms, which include potatoes and corn in Cuzco and potatoes, corn, barley, oca, quinoa and fava beans in Puno. Within the project areas, the districts classified as “very high” vulnerability in terms of food availability are Pitumarca, Pomacanchi, and Ocongate in Cuzco and Conima, Tilali, Umachiri, and Santa Rosa in Puno. The district of Marcapata is classified as “high” and Azángaro is classified as “low” vulnerability in terms of food availability.

TABLE 3. VULNERABILITY TO FOOD INSECURITY (FOOD AVAILABILITY)

Cuzco Canchis/ Pitumarca Acomayo/ Pomacanchi Quispicanchi/ Ocongate

VULNERABILITY INDEX (AVAILABILITY) 0.414 0.829 0.794 0.788

Quispicanchi/ Marcapata

0.701

Puno Moho/ Conima Moho/ Tilali Melgar/ Umachiri Moho/ Huayrapata Melgar/ Santa Rosa Azangaro/ Azangaro

0.541 0.939 0.922 0.900 0.881 0.799 0.320

REGION/ PROVINCE/ DISTRICT

Source: Mapa de Vulnerabilidad a la Inseguridad Alimentaria, 2012.

2.4.2 Food access As presented in the table below describing the areas in which Heifer Peru operates, all four districts in Cuzco, as well as the Districts of Huayrapata and Santa Rosa in Puno, are classified as “very high” vulnerability in terms of food access, while Tilali, Umachiri, Conima and Azángaro are classified as either “high” or “moderate” vulnerability. The families in these areas have low levels of educational attainment and earn a living mainly through domestic agricultural and livestock activities; therefore,

30


>> II. Context

these families do not have sufficient economic resources at hand to purchase many other foods such as fruits and vegetables in order to complement their daily diet that is composed mainly of root vegetables and grains. Some families earn additional money through other activities, thus providing them with slightly higher total incomes, and consequently better access to more varied produce. TABLE 4. VULNERABILITY TO FOOD INSECURITY (FOOD ACCESS) REGION/ PROVINCE/ DISTRICT

VULNERABILITY INDEX (ACCESS)

CUZCO

0.427

QUISPICANCHI/ MARCAPATA

0.903

CANCHIS/ PITUMARCA

0.888

ACOMAYO/ POMACANCHI

0.867

QUISPICANCHI/ OCONGATE

0.844

PUNO

0.482

MOHO/ HUAYRAPATA

0.911

MELGAR/ SANTA ROSA

0.790

MOHO/ TILALI

0.760

MELGAR/ UMACHIRI

0.756

MOHO/ CONIMA

0.703

AZANGARO/ AZANGARO

0.420

Source: Mapa de Vulnerabilidad a la Inseguridad Alimentaria, 2012.

2.4.3 Food use In terms of the vulnerability index for food use, the districts of Ocongate, Marcapata, and Pitumarca are classified as “very high,” while the districts of Pomacanchi, Tilali, and Conima are classified as “high,” followed by Huayrapata, Santa Rosa, Umachiri, and Azángaro, classified as either “moderate” or “low.” The high vulnerability related to food use is due to limited production, the geographically-isolated location of these districts, and the inability to purchase a variety of foods due to low incomes. Family diets general lack fruits and vegetables and are limited to dry foods that are low in vitamins and minerals. The lack of dietary diversity, together with the consumption of foods low in micronutrient content, results in poor food use. Moreover, the poor hygiene and sanitation in the families’ homes can jeopardize proper food use.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

TABLE 5. VULNERABILITY TO FOOD INSECURITY (FOOD USE) REGION/ PROVINCE/ DISTRICT

VULNERABILITY INDEX (USE)

CUZCO

0.466

QUISPICANCHI/ OCONGATE

0.970

QUISPICANCHI/ MARCAPATA

0.964

CANCHIS/ PITUMARCA

0.871

ACOMAYO/ POMACANCHI

0.758

PUNO

0.437

MOHO/ TILALI

0.668

MOHO/ CONIMA

0.657

MOHO/ HUAYRAPATA

0.626

MELGAR/ SANTA ROSA

0.617

MELGAR/ UMACHIRI

0.601

AZANGARO/ AZANGARO

0.358

Source: Mapa de Vulnerabilidad a la Inseguridad Alimentaria, 2012.

2.4.4 Stability In all intervention areas for the healthy homes and environment initiative, there is great vulnerability in terms of the stability of food security. Climate change, the occurrence of dry spells during the rainy season, frost and hail leave constantly endanger domestic production; additionally, pests and wild animals attack plants and can deplete production levels. The stability of food security is also affected by unpredictable monthly incomes; given that most families make a living from their livestock, agriculture, fishing, and as day laborers, their economic stability is entirely dependent on the volatile conditions of these activities.

32


III

>> Presentation

Despite the major progress Peru has made in poverty reduction, families in rural areas are still greatly affected by poverty and children are especially vulnerable to different risks.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

III. Implementation of the healthy homes initiative 3.1 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS In order to implement the projects20 which incorporated healthy home and environment components, the participation of local NGOs was crucial and allowed for work to be completed efficiently in the prioritized communities. These NGOs include: •

Programa de Desarrollo Social y Recurso Ambiental de los Andes (AMDARES) – worked with communities in the District of Marcapata, Cuzco.

Instituto de Medio Ambiente y Género para el Desarrollo (IMAGEN) – worked with communities in the District of Pitumarca, Cuzco.

AEDES – worked with communities in the District of Ocongate, Cuzco.

Red para el desarrollo Social – worked with communities in the Districts of Pomacanchi, Cuzco and Santa Rosa, Umachiri, Azángaro, Huayrapata, Conima, and Tilali, Puno.

20 1) Gender Integration and Leadership for Development within Communities in Peru, 2) the High Mountain Project in Cuzco, 3) Organizational Reinforcement of the Association of Campesino Women of Puno [ADEMUCP, as per its acronym in Spanish], and 4) Improvement of Food Security and Development of Entrepreneurship – FEED

34


>> III. Implementation of the healthy homes initiative

3.2 IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS. At the outset of the projects, approximately 80% of the 120 families interviewed lived in homes with extremely poor conditions (disorganized rooms, unhygienic states of cleanliness, and lack of appropriate infrastructure, among others) and 34% of the homes were characterized by overcrowding.21 Given this situation, a number of stakeholders were needed to help foster innovation in the communal ways of life by working on home improvement with 738 families. In Cuzco, community authorities, promoters and pilot project families were the main drivers, as well as the local health centers and schools; by contrast, in Puno, the female leaders were the main drivers of change as they motivated families to make changes and advocated for the local authorities to help implement their innovations and initiatives. The activities used during the implementation of the healthy homes and environments initiative are shown in Figure 7 and then further described in detail below. FIGURE 7. HEALTHY HOMES AND ENVIRONMENTS INITIATIVE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Step 10 Passing on the Gift ceremony

Step 8 Field trips to other healthy homes communities

Step 9 Inter-family and intercommunity contests

Step 6 Formation/ training of promoters, leaders, and pilot project families

Step7 Sharing of knowledge and success stories

Step 4 Implementing the plan for change Step 2 Baseline evaluation

Step 5 Training Step 3 Planning for change / vision of the future Step 1 Preparation of the Implementation Guide

1

. Preparation of the Implementation Guide. To prepare for the process of healthy home and environ-

ment implementation, the technical team designed an implementation plan and training materials, always taking into account the socio-cultural and geographical characteristics of the participant families. The healthy home components utilized as part of the implementation plan are presented in summary form in Table 6. The purpose of the majority of these components was to contribute to generating favorable conditions that help guarantee food security (availability, access, use and stability). Heifer Peru has prepared a series of documents and technical files for use in training sessions in places like Cuzco22 and Puno.23 21 Baseline studies for the: Fortalecimiento organizativo, FEED and Sombrilla Cuzco Projects, 2009 and 2010. 22 Huaranca Espirilla, David. “Manual de Vivienda Saludable – Guía de capacitación para el facilitador.” Project Report (currently under review). 2013. 23 Incacutipa, Cleida. “Manual de Implementación: Viviendas Saludables.” 2009. 35


Healthy Homes and Environments

TABLE 6. HEALTHY HOME AND ENVIRONMENT COMPONENTS AND SUBCOMPONENTS I 1.1

Talking map and/or 3-D model

II

Spatial organization and distribution

2.1

Cleanliness and organization in and around the home

2.2

Separating the kitchen from bedrooms

2.3

Separating storage spaces from bedrooms

III

3.5

Improvement of household environments Cleanliness and organization within the bedroom Organized ecological bed Organized ecological closet Organized study space First-aid kit Proper kitchen infrastructure Organized arrangement of the kitchen Improved infrastructure Improved kitchen subcomponents: Improved cookstove Cupboards for pots, pans, and utensils Pantries Ecological refrigerator Kitchen sink/ wash area Family dining room Adequate lighting Firewood storage area Organized food pantry Produce for domestic consumption Produce for sale or exchange Products to be saved for seed Organized and clean tool shed

IV 4.1 4.2 4.3 V 5.1 5.2 VI 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 VII

Safe drinking water Protected water source Water stored in clean, sealed containers Boiled drinking water available in clean, sealed containers Family vegetable garden Organic garden plots Garden plots in open fields Sanitation and hygiene Adequate handwashing Washrooms Clean and functioning latrine Adequate solid waste management Paved and/or organized patio Organized spaces for animals

7.1

Organized spaces for domestic and farm animals

3.1

3.2

3.3Â

3.4

36

Planning and design


>> III. Implementation of the healthy homes initiative

2

. Baseline evaluation. The baseline evaluation was conducted in two ways. First, at the beginning of the project, the implementing partner organizations used an observational evaluation form with 100% of the participant families, who were asked to describe the physical conditions of their home. This same tool was employed to perform follow-up assessments and verify progressive change. The second way in which the baseline evaluation was conducted was through participative self-diagnostic workshops held in each community with the use of talking maps. In these workshops, families analyzed their current situation, going into minute detail concerning the size of their property, access to water sources, availability of materials, the number of family members and their housing, healthcare, nutritional and educational needs, and their occupations.

3

. Planning for change / vision of the future. By means of talking maps and 3-D models, families were encouraged to visualize their future home and plan out the strategies that would help them achieve their goals. Families, recognizing their current conditions, planned their medium- and longterm goals in relation to their needs and potentials identified during the self-diagnostic process. The families in Cuzco employed talking maps to set out their plans for the future, while families in Puno preferred to create 3-D models for this purpose.

4

. Implementing the plan for change. The implementation of the healthy homes components began with the organization and distribution of different rooms, construction of a new kitchen, and the building of improved cookstoves with the incorporation of new technologies such as stoves with three

37


Healthy Homes and Environments

burners, a chimney, and some which an oven. Ovens are an optional component and serve as a practical means for families to diversify their food preparation options. Within the kitchen, cupboards, an ecological refrigerator, a kitchen sink, family dining area, and see-through corrugated plastic roofing (to allow for better illumination) were also implemented. Next, families also worked on organizing the bedrooms, food pantry, and tool shed. This was followed by the preparation of vegetable gardens which improve food availability and access. Finally, the environment surrounding the home was improved, including the organic garden, household landfill, and latrine.

5

. Training. Families were provided with training in four overall fields in order to implement their plans for change:

Personal development and leadership with a gender focus. A healthy home is a direct reflection of a family’s self-esteem. This sense of self-worth allows families to be the protagonists of their own development, with a dignified home and new, healthier lifestyles as a starting point.

Healthy homes and environments with a focus on food security. The healthy homes initiative focused on topics that the families had not previously known how to put into practice; this included improved living conditions as well as guaranteeing a healthy diet. These ideas were articulated in a development proposal that sets out by recognizing the right to a dignified home, a healthy diet, and the value of the biodiversity of local foods.

Efficient use of resource and technological adaptation. Prior to receiving resources from Heifer Peru to aid in the improvement of their homes, families were trained in the efficient use of certain improved, appropriate technologies, such as: 1) the use of transparent corrugated plastic roofing as a source of illumination in the kitchen; 2) the construction of improved cookstoves incorporating an oven, allowing for diet diversification and eliminating the presence of smoke in the kitchen; 3) the production and use of organic fertilizer (compost) for the garden; 4) the installation of a kitchen sink (or wash area) to improve hygiene; and 5) the construction and use of ecological refrigerators to conserve fruits and vegetables, among other technologies. These technologies

38


>> III. Implementation of the healthy homes initiative

are based on the procurement of local resources, prioritizing only those resources defined as necessary. •

Organic gardening and family vegetable gardens. This was one of the fundamental components that directly impacted food security; thus, particular emphasis was given to the training and follow-up of the gardens. A vegetable garden must be planted close to the home, close to a source of water, fenced in to avoid grazing by animals, and have sufficient space for expansion. Furthermore, the preparation and use of organic fertilizers was reinforced to grow vegetables in a healthy manner.

6

. Formation/ training of promoters, leaders, and pilot project families. At the beginning of the project, not all families were convinced of the need to make changes; thus, one way to motivate change was to strengthen and train community promoters, leaders, and the groups of families who showed great interest. Training included the proper use and implementation of technologies to be incorporated in the healthy homes, with the idea that these families would not only make the changes in their own homes but would then also share their knowledge and help other families.

7

. Sharing of knowledge and success stories. Heifer Peru and the institutional partners utilized the methodology of campesino to campesino training which promotes the best experiences of families who have already implemented their healthy home and environment to teach new families in a similar situation. Families who have made considerable progress in improving their homes may visit other communities to share their experience and/or receive visits from others in their community or other communities to showcase their home and explain their process of change. It is extremely rewarding for a family who put a great amount of effort and dedication into improving its home to share its experience because, in this way, the family members become experts in healthy homes. For new families, the simple act of hearing about the changes achieved by a family similar to themselves has a greater impact than just attending a workshop with a team of technical consultants.

39


Healthy Homes and Environments

8

. Field trips to other healthy homes communities. Two types of field trips were conducted during the projects to motivate the families to continue pursuing their goals for their healthy home. First, some families were able to visit another community, district or region that had previously implemented healthy homes in order to learn about their most significant changes and develop new ideas. Secondly, field trips were planned for families to visit other families within their own communities. Both types of field trips were decisive in helping new families see the impact of the change from the baseline situation to the final healthy home.

9

. Inter-family and inter-community contests. This was an interesting activity pitting not only families, but also whole communities in competition with one another. The inter-family contest entailed a greater degree of dedication and effort on the part of participant families to showcase their results; however, in the inter-community contest, it was the community’s image, rather than that of a single family, that was on the line. Thus, for the community contest, each family had to work on and finish their improved homes in order to accumulate enough points for their community to win. Prizes were awarded based on the needs of winning families; for example, if the technical team had identified the

40


>> III. Implementation of the healthy homes initiative

need for a dining room table, the winning family received a table, and if the family needed pots and pans for the kitchen, the family was awarded such items. The prize committee was generally made up of three judges (1 community authority, 1 representative of the municipal government, and 1 representative from the health center) who evaluated the families and chose the winners.

10

. Passing on the Gift ceremony. At the beginning of the project, families were given resources with which to improve their homes. At a determined point in time, families then shared these same resources with new families, who in turn shared them with more families, thus resulting in a large chain of sharing and solidarity. The resources received by the first participant families were generally those deemed as priorities by the families themselves, and were administered by the Sharing Committee or Leadership Board of the community organizations. Communities could decide to either share the same resource they received (for example, guinea pigs) or monetize the resources in order to purchase new animals/materials in accordance with the priorities set forth by each new family; the new resources were passed on in public ceremonies. Additional methods of Passing on the Gift also occurred; families in Pomacanchi and Marcapata shared with other families in the form of training sessions and technical assistance rather than providing tangible materials, while families in the district of Huayrapata shared small farm animals.24

3.3 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES Heifer Peru has incorporated a number of fundamental strategies in all of its projects. These strategies are what set Heifer Peru apart and are of vital importance to the healthy homes and environments initiative. •

Value-based work. Heifer Peru, just like Heifer International, is guided by 12 cornerstones (principles) that lay the framework for change and define the culture and work of the organization. These guiding principles focus on strengthening self-esteem and solidarity to help other families in the development process. These cornerstones are also incorporated into all training workshops in each of the projects.

•

Holistic development approach. The experience of participant families is consolidated into a holistic perspective on development in which families seek to build an improved home, produce more

24 Cuadro de Compartir de recursos.

41


Healthy Homes and Environments

food, increase their income, learn new skills, make changes through their own effort rather than depending on others, and to foster closer family relations. For this holistic development to happen, the healthy home and environment initiative is a fundamental part of the larger projects. By incorporating the healthy home into a larger project, families can maximize progress in other important areas, such as improved management of alpacas and llamas (main source of income) and raising smaller animals such as guinea pigs, chickens, and trout (important for domestic consumption). •

Collective work. Through the healthy homes and environments initiative, ayni, a traditional reciprocal labor system between families, is revived. In communities in the district of Conima, ayni consisted of families taking turns to help one another; for example, the families organized their time to work on one house one day and another house the next. During this collective work, each family also brought food to share with the others for lunch. This tradition has allowed many families to work together and build their houses more quickly.

•

Follow-up and support. In most of the communities, the achievement of familial goals is the result of the constant support and accompaniment provided by the technical team, consisting of responding to family and community concerns in a timely fashion, motivating and orienting task completion, helping out with methodology-related issues, and contributing to the achievement of agreed-upon objectives.

•

Partnerships with public schools and health centers. Through these partnerships, families have been able to take immediate action in the implementation process. Cooperation with health centers took on distinct forms in different areas. In San Juan, the health center analyzed the nutritional status of children and the effect that poor diets and lack of hygiene can have on their health and education. The results of the study were presented to the families to teach them the importance of a healthy diet. In Marcapata, Heifer Peru worked with the health center to provide workshops on

42


>> III. Implementation of the healthy homes initiative

in-home hygiene and health issues. Partnerships were made with schools (both elementary and high schools) in Pomacanchi and Umachiri to organize events where the students and parents were involved and the healthy homes initiative could be presented by means of talking maps and 3-D models. In other communities where it was not possible to partner with the health centers and schools, community authorities took on the role to motivate participant families.

3.4 EVALUATION AND FOLLOW-UP This is the final phase of the healthy homes and environments initiative. Four fundamental activities were performed upon the conclusion of the implementation process: 1. Healthy home evaluation. The observational evaluation form that was used in the baseline evaluation was also applied during follow-up visits and for the final evaluation. An adequate amount of time was allotted to be able to visit each family and evaluate their progress. An evaluation committee was formed in each community and consisted of a healthy home leader or promoter, a representative of the local government, a member of the local health center, and, in some cases, representatives of the local schools and the community. 2. Prizes and sharing of resources and/or experiences. The last step of the process was the Passing on the Gift ceremony. This activity was held as a public event in which families spoke about their experiences as well as passed on tangible resources to new families. During the ceremony, the winning families were announced and were awarded prizes such as pots and pans, tables, shelves, small animals, tools for the implementation of family vegetable gardens, and other materials.

43


Healthy Homes and Environments

3. Self-assessment workshops. One of the most important elements promoted by Heifer Peru is self-assessment. No activity or project is complete without a participative self-assessment workshop. Self-assessment allows a family to think back to where it started, review its achievements and progress, and to once again create new goals. Furthermore, this activity reinforces personal and communal commitment to ensure sustainability of the projects. 4. Institutional partnerships to ensure sustainability. One final aspect of great importance is the institutional partnerships with local organizations who help to ensure project sustainability. Throughout the implementation process, strategic partnerships were developed with health centers, community organizations, and municipal governments. Once the implementation stage of the project is complete, the institutions that have been informed of and participated in the process are able to provide continuity and dovetail with their own activities. For example, in the communities located in the district of Conima, the municipal government financed the raising of guinea pigs as a supplementary activity to the healthy homes initiative. In the district of Huayrapata, the local health center discussed issues relating to food security in the nutrition workshops given to the participant families.

3.5 CONDITIONS FOR REPLICATING THIS EXPERIENCE It is the hope of Heifer Peru that this document can serve as a tool for other organizations to replicate this experience in other parts of Peru or even in other countries, always taking care to adapt the project to the local conditions. Firstly, it is fundamental to have a good understanding of the context and conditions of the project area. The next step is to follow the processes and strategies set forth in this section, which will help to obtain significant results in terms of healthy homes and food security. It is also important to partner with local institutions who are familiar with the area as this facilitates the process of earning the trust of the local people. Planning activities jointly with families and the realization of the Passing on the Gift are important in order for families to feel involved and take up the work as their own. Training workshops, community promoters, and field trips are very effective ways in which to impart knowledge regarding the different techniques and designs in the construction of healthy homes and environments; it is essential for families to see other people and communities similar to their own who have already successfully completed this kind of project. At the end of the implementation process, the evaluation and contests are ways in which to motivate families to continue improving their home. Heifer Peru also promotes strategies such as value-based work and collective labor that help participants to not only implement their homes, but also contribute to their personal, familiar, and communal development.

44


IV

Healthy Homes and Environments

>> Presentation

For the 738 families participating in the projects in Southern Peru, the healthy homes and environments initiative generated living conditions favorable to the four dimensions of food security: availability, access, use, and stability.

45


Healthy Homes and Environments

IV. Results of the healthy homes and environments initiative The work performed by Heifer Peru and the partner organizations awakened within the participant families the hope of improving their quality of life; after realizing what they could achieve in their homes, the families now want to continuing making changes. During the six years of project implementation (2008-2013), the healthy homes and environments initiative has achieved significant results in the communities of Southern Peru. The first part of this section consists of an analysis of the main results in terms of food security based on the experiences in four districts in Cuzco (Marcapata, Ocongate, Pitumarca, and Pomacanchi) and six in Puno (AzĂĄngaro, Conima, Huayrapata, Santa Rosa, Umachiri and Tilali). The second and third sections describe other significant results in terms of the social development of participant families and their communities.

4.1 RESULTS RELATED TO FOOD SECURITY For the 738 families participating in the projects in Southern Peru, the healthy homes and environments initiative generated living conditions favorable to the four dimensions of food security: availability, access, use, and stability. Healthy home components have mainly been helpful as relates to the “use� dimension of food security, providing the basic conditions needed to ensure the consumption of healthy, hygienically prepared foods. Training workshops also provided a space for families to reflect upon and develop a greater awareness of their diet and nutrition.

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>> IV. Results of the healthy homes and environments initiative

4.1.1 Food availability Prior to the healthy homes and environments initiative, many families’ diets consisted mainly of crops from their farms, generally belonging to a single food group – carbohydrates, such as corn and potatoes. Most families currently eat more vegetables, since they now have vegetable gardens; as such, they have more diverse and complete diets. Quintín Mamani and Dionisia Flores, of Marcapata, Cuzco, stated that the vegetables from their organic garden not only contribute to a more diverse diet, but are also much tastier. In the project areas in Cuzco and Puno, 78% of families now have family vegetable gardens where they plant lettuce, onions and carrots; some families have additional vegetables such as beets, radishes, parsley, Swiss chard, turnips, cilantro, and tomatoes. For the families who have worked hard on their gardens, these vegetable have now become a crucial source for the availability of vegetables in their daily diet. TABLE 7. COMPARISON OF FOOD PRODUCTS AVAILABLE PRE- AND POST-PROJECT FOOD PRODUCTS AVAILABLE PRE-PROJECT

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION

PURCHASED AT LOCAL MARKETS

FOOD PRODUCTS AVAILABLE POST-PROJECT

Potatoes Potatoes Chuño (traditional freeze-dried Chuño (traditional freeze-dried potatoes) potatoes) Corn Corn Alpaca meat Alpaca meat Oca Oca Oca Pudding Oca Pudding Vegetables Fish Guinea pig Fruit Vegetables Fish Cheese Beef Chicken Bread Sweet Potatoes Rice Pasta Cooking Oil Sugar Salt Condiments

Fruit Vegetables Fish Cheese Beef Chicken Bread Sweet Potatoes Rice Pasta Cooking Oil Sugar Salt Condiments

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Healthy Homes and Environments

However, food availability cannot be generalized on the part of all participant families only in terms of vegetable gardens. Families in Pomacanchi, for example, produce greater amounts of potatoes, chu単o, and corn than families in Conima, while the latter have more vegetables available from January through April and a lack of root vegetables from October through February. Similarly, families in Santa Rosa and Umachiri generally produce significantly less vegetables; rather, they are dedicated to raising cows and sheep and thus have a greater availability of meat and dairy products. These families have also incorporated the open-field method of growing basic vegetables such as onions, lettuce, carrots, and beets into their production system.

4.1.2 Food access In the project intervention areas, family incomes are below the cost of the basic food basket, as determined by the Peruvian government to measure poverty. As such, the incorporation of vegetable gardens is the main component of the healthy homes initiative which has improved food access as these gardens have permitted some families to increase their incomes and other families to avoid the expense of purchasing vegetables at the market. Gardens have given these families access to home-grown vegetables, thus allowing the money previously spent on vegetables to be spent on meat, fish, rice, cooking oil, sugar, and fruit. For example, Candida Canaza built a large vegetable garden and now sells over half of what she produces; she then uses this money to purchase other foods such as potatoes, corn, and fish. Similarly, the Mamani Quispe and Quispe Yana families, members of the community of Yanacancha, have grown enough vegetables in their organic gardens for them to be able to exchange some of them for other foods produced by their neighbors. Balbina Mamani, of Pomacanchi, Cuzco, states that her vegetable garden has contributed to solving the issue of a lack of diversified foods; by selling her vegetables, she is easily able to purchase other foods on the local market. In this way, it is possible for these families to access food products they do not produce themselves but that are needed for an adequate diet.

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>> IV. Results of the healthy homes and environments initiative

In addition to the family gardens, many families took into account the training they received in regards to spatial management and built pens for small animals such as guinea pigs and fowl. Through the use of these pens, families can raise guinea pigs and fowl in a more technically sound, healthy manner, and then sell these animals for additional income. As stated above, Heifer Peru projects incorporate multiple components, the home being one element of holistic development. Other project components also help to improve food access. For example, in the communities of Marcapata, Ocongate, and Pitumarca, families have worked on adding value to their alpaca breeds. By producing higher-quality wool, families receive higher prices on the market when they sell the wool. Families then use this additional income to buy diversified foods. In the district of Huayrapata, the 120 participant families received a total of 960 egg-laying hens from the project; each hen lays 2 to 4 eggs per day. NÊlida Huanca, for example, has taken care of her hens and developed her production so that she now includes eggs in her daily diet and sells the excess to other families; in this way, she has an additional income with which to purchase fruit and fish. In the specific case of Conima, two additional income-generating components were incorporated in the project: the growing and local sale of flowers and ecotourism. Families sell the flowers at fairs and on All Saints’ Day, thereby generating additional income which is then used to purchase food. As part of the eco-tourism component, the community of Isla Soto has received visits from a number of local tourists and students from the National University of Puno (Universidad Nacional de Puno), generating additional income by providing tourists with transportation, lodging, food, and tour guide services.

As noted in all of the abovementioned cases, the extra income from the sale of vegetables, meat, or wool greatly improves food access as the families are better able to purchase a wide variety of high-quality foods.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

4.1.3 Food use The healthy homes and environments initiative has contributed mainly to this dimension of food security, generating basic health conditions in the homes such as the division of rooms, improved cookstoves, the consumption of safe drinking water, hygiene and sanitation, and organized spaces for household animals. In some communities, nutritional education has also been emphasized, while always valuing the local food culture.

SPATIAL ORGANIZATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ROOMS A healthy home does not only entail the physical infrastructure, but also the way in which rooms and the surrounding environment are split up and organized. Once having learned that an orderly home promotes better health, 91% of families have successfully maintained cleanliness and order. Furthermore, 92% of families now maintain separate areas for their kitchens and bedrooms and 95% of families have accommodated separate spaces for storing tools and food products.

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FIGURE 8. SPATIAL ORGANIZATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ROOMS

The household and the surroundingenvironment are clean The kitchen and bedrooms are separed The bedrooms(s) and storage areas are separed

91%

95%

92%

IMPROVED KITCHENS The participant families in Cuzco and Puno define an improved kitchen as a room in which foods can be prepared and consumed (the room includes an improved cookstove, cupboards for storing foods and kitchen utensils, a dining area, a kitchen sink with piped-in water, ecological refrigerator, firewood storage area, and sufficient illumination). Participative training sessions and the planning process were especially key in encouraging the families to makes changes in their kitchens. Based on the reflections with the technical teams, the families decided to build new, improved kitchens that have enough space to include all required sub-components. To date, 70% of families have built entirely new kitchens, while 30% renovated their existing kitchen incorporating the technical concepts introduced by the initiative. FIGURE 9. KITCHEN INFRASTRUCTURE The kitchen is remodeled according to the family’s ability The kitchen is a proper infrastucture,according to technical indications

70%

30%

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Healthy Homes and Environments

The improved kitchen the healthy home component that required the most time and effort due to the fact that most did not have the building materials readily available; however, the hard work paid off as the kitchen is the change that has brought the greatest satisfaction. Timoteo Flores, of Marcapata, Cuzco, stated that the lack of tidiness and the presence of small animals in his kitchen were what most bothered him in the food preparation process. “My kitchen was small and made of thatch, there was a lot of smoke and chaos, and we shared that space with all of our animals. Now, we have a new kitchen that is a little bigger than before and has an improved cookstove with a chimney, so we are able to prepare our meals hygienically.” Alejandro Mayhua, of Santa Rosa, Puno, describes the discomfort he once felt at mealtimes and the satisfaction that he receives in his new home, “Before, we would eat sitting on the [kitchen] floor, and any dust or hair in the air would fall onto our plates. When it rained, the soot [from the roof] would fall on our plates as well. Now, everything has changed; my home is like an apartment and my kitchen has all the necessary components. There is no reason to be disorganized anymore. When I return from a trip, I am pleased when entering the kitchen because I find warm food and clean drinking water.” The families themselves now speak of their achievements with great enthusiasm and the positive changes this has brought to their daily lives. The figure below shows percentage of interviewed families who have implemented the different components of the improved kitchen components: FIGURE 10. IMPROVED KITCHEN SUBCOMPONENTS

100

92% 78%

80

70% 53%

60

62%

75%

87%

75%

40 20 0

Improved cookstove

Cupboards for pots, pans, and utensils

Food pantry

Ecological refrigerator

Improved cookstove. 92% of families now have improved cookstoves with three burners, a chimney, and a flame controller. Some families have also included small, practical ovens as part of these cookstoves. Improved cookstoves reduce smoke emissions, thus contributing to better health. Augusto Gonzáles, of Marcapata, Cusco, states, “The smoke that came out of our traditional cookstove affected the eyes and lungs of every member of my family.” Now that a new cookstove incorporating a chimney has reduced these problems, Gerardo Quispe considers his family to be

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Kitchen sink

Dining area

Proper lighting

Firewood storage area


>> IV. Results of the healthy homes and environments initiative

in better health, stating, “We are in better health now. My family doesn’t get sick very often anymore, what affected us the most was a [persistent] cough.” Vicente Solórzano believes that the quality of his food has also improved since installing an improved cookstove. “Our food doesn’t taste like smoke anymore and ashes don’t fall into the pot; our food tastes better and is healthier.” Furthermore, this type of improved cookstove provides additional heating for the home and uses less fuel (firewood and/ or manure). Cupboards for pots, pans, and kitchen utensils. The majority of participant families lacked cupboards prior to the project. Since the kitchen environment was not properly set up, the families were used to keeping their cooking instruments on the floor or on top of a simple box, with no care given to avoiding contaminants. Through the healthy home and environment initiative, 78% of families have built cabinets in their kitchen, incorporating four or five shelves to be able to conveniently store kitchen instruments in an organized manner. Additionally, many families created beautiful cloths to cover and protect the utensils. Ecological refrigerator. One problem brought up by a number of families in the baseline evaluation was how to conserve fruits and vegetables in geographically isolated areas with high temperatures and low humidity. Ecological refrigerators or other types of homemade conservation appliances gave them the opportunity to do just this. Families now purchase fruit and vegetables on a weekly, bi-weekly or monthly basis, confident that these purchases can be stored properly and will stay fresh for a decent amount of time until the family is able to purchase more fruits and vegetables. With proper food conservation tools, the fresh produce lasts much longer. Irma Rojas, of Huayrapata, Puno, states that, due to the long distance from her home into town, she does not purchase fresh produce on a frequent basis; now that she has a refrigerator, she can purchase more fruits and vegetables and preserve them for much longer. The ecological refrigerator is 1 m high and 80 cm wide. A tray of water is placed at the foot of the appliance in order to increase humidity and preserve vegetables, so they can be kept fresh for at least a week. 53% of the families were able to implement this component and more families are in the process. Families who now have an ecological refrigerator state that it is extremely useful because they can conserve products for longer periods and in a clean manner. Kitchen sink. Families have traditionally lacked access to a kitchen sink. Small plastic basins were commonly employed, or, in some areas, homemade ceramic basins, but none of the families had ever had a proper kitchen sink. Through the healthy homes and environments initiative, 62% of families have installed a sink in their kitchens. While communities in the districts of Conima, Marcapata, and Pomacanchi generally have access to piped-in water, those in Santa Rosa, Umachiri and Azángaro have water tanks. Not all of the families had the financial means to be able to purchase a metal sink, so some chose to build their own sinks out of cement and steel. This component is extremely useful because it facilitates the process of washing and cleaning kitchen utensils, thereby ensuring that the foods consumed by the family are protected from contaminants.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

Dining rooms. Prior to the project, most families sat on the floor at mealtimes, while some would take their plates and eat on the patio or in the bedroom. Currently, 75% of families have created a space for family dining area. This space fulfills an important role in the food consumption process and has become a very comfortable part of the home. Moreover, the dining area contributes to family togetherness as family members no longer individually seek out comfortable spaces to eat their meals. Lighting. In order for a kitchen to be considered “improved�, it must have adequate lighting. Unlike the baseline situation, most families now have spacious, well-lit kitchens, most of which are fitted with large doors and windows. 87% of families now have kitchens lit through the use of windows and transparent corrugated plastic roofing. Proper lighting is crucial for the hygienic preparation of food and also allows for greater detail to be put into the presentation of the meal. A well-lit dining room also becomes a pleasant place for the family to gather. Firewood storage area. One important aspect contributing to hygienic, healthy food preparation is a firewood storage area. Many families in Puno use a large part of the space in their kitchen to store fuel (firewood or animal dung). In Cuzco, families store firewood on top of their cookstoves; this storage method is dangerous and can cause fires. Through the health homes initiative, 75% of families have set up a safe space for firewood storage that also makes cooking easier.

Safe drinking water Ideally, families would have access to treated drinking water, but, in the project areas, 47% of families lack access to piped-in water, much less treated drinking water; however, most families do protect their wells and store water in clean containers. The 53% of families with access to piped-in water (taken from underground springs) have a better chance of maintaining good health. The installation of infrastructure for drinking water was not a defined component of the healthy homes initiative; however, training was provided regarding the care and use of water for drinking and cooking purposes. As a result of the initiative, 68% of families now store their water in clean containers with lids to avoid contamination. This same percentage of families has developed the habit of boiling water and having safe drinking water always available. Water is an indispensable element of food security. A family that drinks clean, safe water can avoid many diarrhea-related illnesses, stomach pains, and infections.

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FIGURE 11. SAFE DRINKING WATER CONSUMPTION

100 90 80 70 60

54%

68%

68%

Water is store in clean, covered containers

Boiled drinking water is available in clean covered containers

53%

50 40 30 20 10 0

Has clean, protected well

Has drinking water

Hygiene and sanitation Hygiene practices directly influence food preparation and consumption processes. Jesús Solórzano, of Marcapata, Cusco, states that his family did not previously take hygiene into account when preparing meals. “Straw and dung would fall in our food, and even the water we drank came from the river; we did not realize this was affecting our health.” A family which has not improved its hygiene habits and incorporated best practices is putting its health at risk. For this reason, the healthy homes and environments initiative promoted five important hygiene and sanitation practices. The percentage of families having implemented these practices is shown in the graph presented below: FIGURE 12. HYGIENE AND SANITATION PRACTICES

80 60

56%

66%

72% 46%

48%

40 20 0

Good handwashing habits

Washroom

Ecological latrine

Microlandfill

Patio decoration and stone paving

Handwashing habits. Due to many houses being located far from sources of water and unfamiliarity with the importance of handwashing, families often neglected this hygiene habit, thus putting their health at risk. Due to the training workshops, 56% of families now incorporate handwashing into their daily routines, especially before preparing and eating meals. The most positive results have been achieved in areas with greater availability of water resources.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

Washrooms. Most family members bathed on a weekly basis or right before important socio-cultural events. As a result of the project, the entirety of participant families have created a washroom to store and use personal hygiene implements (toothbrushes, toothpaste, towels, soap, shampoo, detergent, and a mirror). Of these families, 48% make proper use of this space by washing their hands and bathing on a regular basis, thereby reducing the frequency of diarrhea, vomiting and fevers. Ecological latrines. As a result of the initiative, 66% of families currently make proper use of their latrines. Many families had not developed the habit of using them, and instead used the space for other purposes; through the project, the proper use of latrines was fostered. The motivational message used was “a family with a clean, functional latrine is less vulnerable than a family that lacks this service.â€? Families that did not have a latrine, such as in the case of Huayrapata, Puno, were motivated to build one. Most families in the project intervention areas had previously benefitted from government programs, such as those which installed simple pit latrines in the communities of Marcapata, Santa Rosa, Umachiri, Conima and AzĂĄngaro and hydraulic-drag latrines in the communities of Hoya de Pomacanchi.

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>> IV. Results of the healthy homes and environments initiative

Micro-landfills. Another important component of a healthy home and environment is the creation of micro-landfills. In order to mitigate the presence of organic and inorganic waste inside and outside of the home, families built micro-landfills, which protect the environment by decreasing the effects of contamination caused by inorganic waste. 72% of participant families built micro-landfills, separating organic waste from inorganic waste. Now, inorganic waste such as bottles, plastic containers, and aluminum cans are nowhere to be seen in the participating communities, whereas before these items were scattered around the homes and fields. Patio decoration and stone paving. The patio is a space in which families do their chores together, relax, and receive visitors, but many families also previously used this space as a sleeping area for large animals and/or for a storing useless items. Through the project, the patio was returned to its rightful purpose and currently 72% of participant families have fixed up, paved and creatively decorated their patio. Stone paving helps control the dust during the dry season and the formation of mud in the rainy season. The patio now serves as a welcoming, clean and comfortable space for the family, as well as being a practical place for sorting produce at harvest time.

Organized spaces for animals. This component was of fundamental importance, given that all families in both Cuzco and Puno kept small animals such as guinea pigs, chickens, and cats in their kitchens, thus not an adequate place for food to be prepared and eaten. 95% of participant families relocated their small animals in areas isolated from the kitchen and built specific corrals with good infrastructure. With their own personal space, small animals develop better and have increased production levels, thus families have a better chance of receiving additional income through the sale of guinea pigs and chickens.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

FIGURE 13. SEPARATE SPACES FOR ANIMALS 100

95%

80

68%

60

40

20

0

Domestic animals are in corrals, away from the kitchen

Corrals have proper infrastucture

4.1.4 Stability For families in Southern Peru, the stability dimension of food security is dependent on a number of factors: stable food prices on local markets, social, political and environmental stability, and, above all, the production and proper storage of food products. Through the implementation of the healthy homes and environments initiative, the stability of food security has been strengthened, capitalizing on local knowledge and cultural practices.

In order to increase production of food products, the technical teams reinforced the traditional production practices of the communities by providing resources such as potato seeds, quinoa seeds, vegetable seeds, materials for trout farming, and small animals (guinea pigs and chickens). These resources have increased the food available to the families. One aspect particularly important to the families living in Conima, Puno is a lack of land; families have, on average, a single hectare with which

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to do all their farming and raise their animals. Due to this factor, their food stocks were exhausted prior to the harvest (between October and January). With the vegetable and fava bean seeds received during the project, these families can now produce additional foods during the scarce times. Families in other sectors of Cuzco and Puno have a greater chance of ensuring good production levels throughout the year, and thus they are also more likely to be able to exchange or barter their products for other products such as cooking oil, sugar, rice, pasta, and fruits and vegetables they don’t grow themselves.

Raising small animals was another component which allowed families to supplement and diversify their diet in a stable manner. Meat is typically only sporadically available to many families because large animals such as cows and alpacas are not easily slaughtered for sale or home consumption. Small animals are much easier to sell and/or slaughter and allow the family to consume meat and eggs on a regular basis. As part of the healthy homes and environments initiative, all participant families were motivated to create a food pantry, a separate space exclusively for storing produce. In Cuzco, families opted to build this area on the second floor of their homes, due to high levels of moisture during the rainy season, while in Puno it was more comfortable to keep the pantry on the first floor. The food pantry allows families to better supervise the quantity of food products they have stored and properly manage the amounts that can be consumed or sold. A family that has not installed a food pantry does not have the same level of awareness of their food stocks and are thus more vulnerable to food insecurity. As concerns food conservation practices, the project took advantage of traditional local practices. In both areas, families use ancient techniques to conserve food products for the entire year after the harvest. In Cuzco, products are kept in large, cylindrical containers made of long flutes of eucalyptus wood and straw. In Puno, products are kept in special bags referred to as costales or in sejes (cylinders made of reeds). The products kept in these traditional containers include dehydrated potatoes, fresh potatoes, chuĂąo and tunta (traditional freeze-dried potatoes), oca, caya (dried oca), fava beans, and corn. Using these traditional methods, food can be preserved for over three years without spoiling. After the harvest, families sort produce into various groups: 1) kept for seed, 2) daily consumption, 3) to be dried out, and 4) to be sold or exchanged. Workshops about food security have directly influenced the stability dimension. Previously, families did not greatly value their local products; often, in years with good harvests, they would sell their pro-

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Healthy Homes and Environments

duce and use the money to buy less nutritious products. Now, after learning about the nutritious value of products and reflecting upon their traditional foods, most families keep their products for their own consumption and seek out other income-earning opportunities to buy the other complementary foods. The graph below presents practices pertaining to the sorting of products once the harvest is complete. 100% of the participant families conserve at least some of the crops they grow for domestic consumption and for seed, though the exact quantity varies from family to family. Comparatively, only 49% of the families save some of their products to sell at local markets or exchange. FIGURE 14. ORGANIZED PANTRY OR FOOD STORAGE AREA

100 80

100%

100%

60

49%

40 20 0

Products for consumption

Products for sale or exchange

Products for seeds

4.2 RESULTS RELATED TO PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT Though the healthy homes and environments initiative targeted results related to food security, additional results were achieved in relation to the personal development of participant families and community development. Skills and knowledge acquisition. Adults who participated in the Heifer Peru projects demonstrate that, through their newly-acquired knowledge, they have better ideas for personal development. The participative methodology utilized in the workshops allowed social inequalities to be overcome and favored the contributions of the families, thereby strengthening the use of their imagination and crea-

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tivity to meet their own needs. For example, Augusto Gonzales of Ccanccalayo, Marcapata was unable to attend school as a child; however, he was the first to value the training courses as a fundamental aspect for achieving change. “I didn’t know how to improve my home. I learned how in the AMDARES [and Heifer Peru] training workshops.” Hands-on, demonstrative training is essential for families to see that they can indeed make changes, as well as come up with their own ideas and ways of doing so. Equitable relationships. Women now have a more active role, both within their families and in the community at large. Husbands and children have been supportive of women’s objectives, particularly in relation to improvements in the kitchen. In many homes, the kitchen was previously the least cared-for area and was thought of as “the women’s space.” However, with the project, these “women’s spaces” were given greater importance; both the physical infrastructure of the kitchens and the role of women in the home and the community improved greatly. Women now participate more and, in many cases, have greater decision-making power in terms of their family development. Vision for the future. With their newly acquired knowledge regarding how to build a healthy home and the desire for growth which has emerged, the participant families now place greater value on their own lives and believe that one can live just as healthy, if not more, in the country as in the city. Prior to the project, families’ visions of the future and their own development always involved migrating to the city; now, they project their futures in their own communities, recognizing the importance of the diverse natural ecosystems, the environment, community relations, and reciprocity (a traditional cultural practice that provides emotional support and cohesion for the families). Participation and organizational strengthening. At the community level, the project experience has generated greater integration and organizational strengthening. Families in the project intervention areas were those living in the worst conditions and who had the fewest opportunities for improvement. Given this situation, one of the main elements which helped achieve results was the practice of ayni (a system of community work based on reciprocity). Mutual aid as practiced in Cuzco resulted in household transformations being executed more quickly, while the practice in Puno motivated the families and helped strengthen relationships as families not only worked together but also shared meals together while they were working. Now, the participant families work not only for healthy homes but for healthy communities.

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Healthy Homes and Environments

Putting values into practice. One of Heifer International’s 12 cornerstones for fair and sustainable development is Passing on the Gift, which goes hand-in-hand with sharing knowledge and experiences. This cornerstone is based on loving one´s neighbor. All participant families in the Heifer Peru projects receive resources, whether that be animals, seeds, materials and/or trainings in the form of a “gift” or “seed capital”. After one or two years, these families then pass on the gift to other families with similar needs. This manner of working has helped the families to maintain a capital fund to use specifically for home improvements. Those families which successfully completed the implementation phase a year ago have continued improving their homes.

4.3 RESULTS RELATED TO EMOTIONAL HEALTH AND QUALITY OF LIFE The home and its surroundings greatly affect the well-being and emotional health of a family. Although improvement in emotional health was not one of the main outcomes expected from the healthy homes and environments initiative, significant progress has been achieved in this area. Rural households generally consist of one or two rooms that incorporate all the components of a home – the kitchen, bedroom (one or two beds shared by all family members), storage space, etc. These characteristics affect the family’s health since everyone shares the same space and there are not different spaces for boys and girls or parents and children. This situation does not allow for the personal development of each family member nor the holistic, harmonious development of the family. The healthy homes and environments initiative has increased comfort in homes as well as harmony between family members. Before participating in the project, many families did not enjoy being in their homes, especially in the kitchen that was always full of smoke. This same smoke and the small animals that lived in the kitchen were a frequent source of conflict between family members. Spouses would often fight or lose patience with their children due to the dirtiness of the home. Now, the family members, especially the women, mention that they enjoy being in the kitchen and they feel better. Family relationships have also improved; husbands and wives as well as parents and children get along better. Jesús Solórzano, of Marcapata, Cusco, states, “Now that I’ve made progress on my home, I am very happy and my wife is really pleased… the cleanliness of the kitchen has greatly helped us. Before, I would complain a lot [when] the wind blew, the fire would go out, and my kitchen would fill up with smoke. It made me really mad. Now we are much happier… it seems like we are not more patient and understanding with each other.”

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Furthermore, the proper division of rooms within the home has improved relationships vis-a-vis sexual health, which also influences emotional health. One unanticipated result of the healthy homes and environments initiative in regards to family unity was the improved relationship between parents and their adult children living in other localities. Clemente Soncco, of Marcapata, Cusco, shared that his children had moved to the city and did not come to visit very often since they did not feel comfortable in their parents’ home due to the inadequate conditions and limited space. Clemente states, “Now [with properly divided rooms and a clean home], our children who live in [the city of] Cuzco come to visit us more often. I recommend this project to our neighbors so that all families can live better and so their children can continue living at home in optimal conditions.” It is noticeable that the family is now more cohesive and Clemente breathes more easily knowing that his children want to come visit him and his wife and feel comfortable in the family home. Furthermore, the proper division of rooms within the home has improved relationships vis-a-vis sexual health, which also influences emotional health. Before the project, parents slept in the same bedroom as their children, a situation which is often uncomfortable for both parents and children given that the parents lack space for their own intimacy. By building separate bedrooms, both parents and children acquire more freedom, privacy, and independence. Through the healthy homes and environments initiative, family members’ self-esteem and energy have increased; they are now aware of their own skills and capacities and are motivated to keep moving forward. Abraham Monroy, of Sahuancay, Cusco, proudly spoke about his achievements, “[I learned to] value life and now understand that one can live better, cleaner, and organized in the countryside… Heifer Peru and AMDARES arrived two years ago and motivated us to improve our lives.” His neighbors, Epifania Condemayta and Francisco Champi, said, “We already had the idea to make changes in our home; when Heifer Peru came, the team motivated us even more and showed us that we could make improvements with our own resources.” Through the project, strategies were put into place to motivate families to find their own solutions to their problems. Now that the families have been trained by Heifer Peru and the partner institutions and have recognized their own progress, the families value themselves and have a vision for the future, knowing that they have the knowledge and resources they need to achieve their dreams. Quality of life (or at least one’s perception thereof) also has a direct effect on emotional health. 50% of families interviewed in Cuzco and Puno stated that they no longer get sick as often as they used to. Cleanliness and organization contribute to better health for both parents and their children; specifica-

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Healthy Homes and Environments

lly, they no longer have headaches, scratchy throats, nor sore eyes due to smoke in the kitchen. By the end of the project, most of the families are now happier, more relaxed and more comfortable, since they now live in a home that has space to relax and enjoy time with the other family members and neighbors. Of the families assessed in Cuzco and Puno, 88% mentioned one or more of the following changes in their lives after the project: increased levels of happiness, increased levels of calmness, and/or increased levels of comfort. For example, Sofía Arivilca, of Chillcapata-Conima, Puno, said, “My life has completely changed; before, I didn’t have anywhere to sleep or to rest, and now this is my place. With my new home, I am very motivated. I have a place to arrive to and put my feet up. When my granddaughter comes to visit, she will jump with joy because, for the first time, I have a home where I can receive my children and grandchildren; this is my greatest joy.” From a cultural point of view, in tandem with common social policies, the home constitutes a determining factor for one’s quality of life. A home helps meet a large part of one’s needs and contributes significantly to a family’s physical, social, and emotional well-being.

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Redistributing space within our house has helped too, because we do not sleep in the kitchen anymore. Our children who live in [the city of] Cuzco come to visit us more often now; when they have vacation, they come and stay with us and they are happy.

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V. Meaningful experiences Heifer Peru greatly values the participation and cooperation of the participant families in all the projects. As such, it is important to share the experience of the healthy homes and environments initiative from point of view of the families in order to understand the most significant changes in their lives.

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ABRAHAM MONROY CALCINA AND CELIA CHAMBI CONDEMAYTA Sector: Canchapata, Community: Sahuancay, District: Marcapata, Region: Cuzco “Before the project, I always thought about having a more comfortable home, but it was not possible due to our lack of resources. I lived for a long time sharing my living space with the animals. The room we lived in was used for everything (bedroom, kitchen, storage space, eating and entertaining company). Since Heifer Peru and AMDARES arrived, I have built a new kitchen and bedroom, and I have started an organic vegetable garden. The most important change has been our improved kitchen. I am very happy because we don’t have to deal with smoke anymore; our dark, smoky kitchen is a thing of the past. The rainy season was really difficult [because] the wet firewood gave off a lot of smoke and my wife was the one who suffered the most. Before, [our children] ate on the floor; now, they sit at the table to eat. With the new cookstove we just built, we will be able to cook different meals for our children. We are beginning to realize that we need to prioritize [healthy] food. We have changed a lot and this has helped us to get along better. Now that things are clean, my wife is no longer angry about the house being dirty and our children are happy.”

CLEMENTE SONCCO LEÓN AND AGUSTINA NINACHI RIVAS Sector: Ccañimaco, Community: Sahuancay, District: Marcapata, Region: Cuzco “Before, [my kitchen] was black and we slept next to the stove, which was made of straw. Now, we have a stove, which we are still thinking about remodeling. Before, we were very uncomfortable, with red eyes and headaches. [However,] now everything is cleaner; there is no smoke and our food is healthier. Redistributing space within our house has helped too, because we do not sleep in the kitchen anymore. Our children who live in [the city of] Cuzco come to visit us more often now; when they have vacation, they come and stay with us and they are happy. I recommend this project to our neighbors so that all families can have live better and so their children can continue living at home in optimal conditions.”

EPIFANIA CONDEMAYTA CCOTALUQUE, FRANCISCO CHAMPI SONCCO AND THEIR DAUGHTER MARTHA Sector: Ccaja, Community: Sahuancay, District: Marcapata, Region: Cuzco. “From the beginning, we wanted to improve our home. Thanks to the technical assistance and the workshops provided by Heifer Peru, we have been able to make it a reality. The workshops helped us feel qualified to build our homes. During the field trips, we learned how to replicate these teachings.

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Now, our house is more adequately distributed into different spaces; our bedroom is separate from our children’s bedrooms. The kitchen [and] the living room have been improved and there are special storage areas. We also have a specific space set aside to store our [alpaca] wool. We now have more peace of mind and live more comfortably.” Martha (21 years old, the youngest of 4 children): “Now, everything is clean and the residue left over from the smoke in the kitchen has disappeared. My father’s health has improved since the smoke has disappeared; he doesn’t cough like he used to.”

JESÚS SOLORZANO HUAYHUA AND MARGARITA SONCCO KANA Sector: Thunthuna, Community: Marcapata Collana, District: Marcapata, Region: Cuzco “Now, I like my house. I’ve redone the bedroom, the kitchen and the dining room, and in the future I’d like to set up a store. I have finished the walls inside and outside the house. The cleaning has helped us the most; now, the food we eat is cleaner. Before, we prepared meals without taking hygiene into account – straw and dung would fall in the food. Even the water we drank was collected from the river. Now, with piped-in water, we’ve changed even more. Before, I would complain a lot when my kitchen was filled with smoke; this made me angry. Now, we understand each other better. Since we do not have children, everything is in its place; when we come back from the fields, the house is always clean, just like we left it. We are cleaner now – this is the biggest change. Now, we live happily.”

VICENTE SOLORZANO HUALLPA AND NOLUBERTA HUILCA CANA Sector: Lacco, Community: Marcapata Collana, District: Marcapata, Region: Cuzco “I had the idea to make changes in my home before the project, but the project was an incentive for me. We already slept in separate bedrooms. I feel like my children are different from before; they are cleaner and tidier when they go to school. They look to the future and want to make their home better. Another big change that we recognize is the kitchen. It is cleaner and there is no longer smoke. Before, we had a wood cooking platform and the whole house filled up with smoke; it was black. Now, we are happier, more comfortable, and cleaner. Before, I coughed a lot and everything we ate tasted like smoke. Our eyes would get infected, too. Before, there was a layer of black soot on the ceiling and it would fall onto our dishes while we were eating. It was really bitter. Now, our food tastes better. We are now healthier; before, the food we ate was not acceptable and [our children] got sick. Now, there is enough food and we can combine different foods.”

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GERARDO QUISPE TURPO AND AMBROCIA HUANCA PACSI Sector: Toctopata, Community: Yanacancha, District: Marcapata, Region: Cuzco “Our kitchen was small and because of the smoke it was all black. Now that we have built our new kitchen and improved cookstove, the smoke does not affect our eyes or lungs. Our family’s health has improved. Our children do not get sick as often and they are happier because now they each have their own room. Since we learned to grow vegetables, raise improved alpaca breeds, raise trout, chickens, and guinea pigs, and maintain a clean kitchen, we prepare a variety of [healthy] foods. Since we improved our home, our way of life has changed little by little; this is why we have to keep working. We have been taught to share and I am more than happy to help other families that want to improve their own homes.”

MÁXIMO QUISPE TURPO AND FELICIANA YANA CCALLO Sector: Toctopata, Community: Yanacancha, District: Marcapata, Region: Cuzco “Before, we didn’t have any vegetables. In contrast, now we have a variety of produce that we can combine to improve our diet; we only buy a few things that we do not grow ourselves at the market in Ocongate. [In our community], we share vegetables or exchange them for other vegetables we don’t grow, and now we only have to buy tomatoes, onions, and carrots. The rest comes from our garden that is right next to our house. My children do not get sick anymore and they now live well and are happy. With [the foods] we produce, [my children] now eat well.”

SAMUEL MAMANI PUCUTUNI AND MARÍA JANCCO MAMANI Sector: Intipujllana, Community: Yanacancha, District: Marcapata, Region: Cuzco “I like the whole house now, especially the kitchen and the bedrooms. Before, we all lived in a single room, with our children; the bed wasn’t big enough, five of my children slept cramped together on the same bed. Now, they each have their own bed. Before, my kitchen was in the same room [as the bedroom]. Now, we have an improved kitchen with a large dining area where we can eat lunch together as a family and also invite other people. I also have an organic vegetable garden... now I grow all kinds of vegetables – onions, carrots, tomatoes, cabbage, Swiss chard, parsley, beets, etc. I no longer buy any of my vegetables in the city; what’s more, sometimes I have more than we can use and I give some to other family members. The only fresh produce I still buy is fruit. We live better and our diet is also much better. My older children suffered, they were not very well nourished. Before, we only ate potatoes because we thought that, at this elevation, nothing else would grow. Now, my younger children are spoiled – they have everything they need and our food is much more diverse. Before, our kids would get sick all the time; now, they are stronger.”

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MODESTA SUCATICONA Locality: Chillcapata, District: Conima, Region: Puno “I am the former president of the Chillcapata Rose Producers Organization. Through this organization, 80 families in my district have worked to improve our homes. We have improved kitchens, bedrooms, vegetable gardens, and bathrooms. We are also more unified as a community; now organizations, university students, and Heifer Peru staff come to visit us to learn about our experience. In the future, we would like to attract more tourists to our area. Personally, I am very happy with my house because it is different now. Before, my kitchen was very small and I raised guinea pigs there because there was no other heated space in the house. Now, things have changed a lot; I have an improved kitchen, orderly bedrooms, a tool storage area, pantry, firewood storage area, and I have a larger vegetable garden than other families here in Chillcapata. Because of my hard work, I have greatly improved my diet; the place where I prepare meals is cleaner and more organized and I have more than enough vegetables to eat and to share. Also, my children are happier. My older children grew up in a disorganized home. Now, my youngest child, who is 11 years old, and I live very comfortably. He is proud, just like I am of our home; his self-esteem has improved and he is doing better in school. I like working with Heifer Peru because we are taught to share. We do not just share our resources and our work here in the area, but we share our happiness too.”

HILDA CHOQUEHUANCA DE SUCATICONA Locality: Chillcapata, District: Conima, Region: Puno “Before, I just had two rooms; now I have four, as well as a kitchen and a storage area. The changes I made in my kitchen make me happy because now it is more comfortable. My children came to visit after a four-year absence and were surprised to see how different my house is now. Before, when we lived together, there were a lot of things we needed that we didn’t have, but now it is different to live in a beautiful, comfortable home. We have also learned to value the foods that we produce; we have a small areas to grow crops and our harvest is limited, so we have learned to select and preserve our crops as if they were gold. Potatoes and fava beans are the main food we eat, though we also have other vegetables. In my vegetable garden, I mainly grow carrots, turnips, onions, lettuce, celery, and other vegetables. Before, I would buy these vegetables, but they did not taste very good. The vegetables from our garden are better because they do not have any chemicals in them and they taste better.”

MARÍA CONCEPCIÓN APAZA MAMANI Locality: Chillcapata, District: Conima, Region: Puno Things have completely changed, my bedrooms are better organized, my children each have their own room, and my kitchen is new and has cupboards to store our food and kitchen utensils; even the way we eat has changed. Before, we sat down anywhere to eat, but now we have a table to sit at and share a meal as a family. The most important change has been our new kitchen; the kitchen was the worst part of the house and now it’s the prettiest, and this motivated us to redo other rooms. Now we live with greater cleanliness and more organization and we are all very happy.

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Before, we weren’t very aware of [the importance of] nutrition; we drank a lot of soda and ate a lot of cookies and smuggled [Bolivian] noodles because they are cheaper. Now, aside from improving our kitchens and cookstoves, we have learned to value ourselves and consume the foods that we produce: vegetables, potatoes, quinoa, and guinea pig. There are still a lot of families that have not improved their homes, and I tell them that they should not continue to suffer; all we have to do is put forth the effort and we can change the way we live.”

JULIA LOURDES APAZA DE CAHUAPAZA AND CELSO CAHUAPAZA APAZA Locality: Chillcapata, District: Conima, Region: Puno “Now, things are completely different, it gives me great pleasure to return to my house from the fields and find everything clean and beautiful. I feel like there’s more comprehension between my husband and I; he is very happy and wants to live well. The kitchen and the bedroom are the rooms we built with the project; the rest I renovated according to my own taste. My kitchen is very warm and comfortable because it has wood flooring. I prepare our meals in a clean, organized way. Also, now we eat more vegetables than before; we have everything within reach and we only have fewer vegetables in the dry season (July through December). I have everything in my garden: carrots, onions, parsley, cabbage, celery, turnips, radishes, beets, and other vegetables. I don’t sell any of it, we eat it all. I also have flowers like roses, quantus and passion fruit. Heifer Peru and Red Social para el Desarrollo motivated us to make changes so that we live better.”

SANTUSA CANAZA CAHUAPAZA AND MARTÍN LUQUE JULI Locality: Soto Island, District: Conima, Region: Puno “Before, my family and I lived at my father-in-law’s house which was really uncomfortable, but we had no other choice. Later, we moved to Juliaca, thinking that we would have better opportunities there, but it did not work out the way I thought it would, so I came back to the island and rejoined the community. Thus, I had tobuild my new house starting from zero, working night and day, and we finished it in three months. Now, my children come every week to visit and they are very happy because our house here on the Island is better than the one in Juliaca. Now, in my kitcen, I have an improved cookstove, a cupboard built into the wall, an ecological refrigetator, and a kitchen sink that uses well water that we put in the water tank every three days. I have mud brick and stone chairs covered with sheep leather cushions, my dining room floor is carpeted with plastic, there is no dust, and the walls are finished and painted light brown. Here on the Island, we live and eat better than we did in the city; we have natural, healthy food. When we feel like having lettuce, we go over to our vegetable garden; if we crave fish, we go down to the lake to go fishing, and at 5 in the morning we’re already cooking a fish soup. The only thing we do not have is beef.”

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MÁXIMA APAZA CONDORI Locality: Soto Island, District: Conima, Region: Puno “My kitchen is the best part of my house; it is what I have worked on the most because I was tired of all the smoke and the stains on my clothes. Before, my kitchen was all black because of the soot, and I couldn’t see what I was cooking. Now, my kitchen is yellow and I can even cook in new clothes if I want; I don’t get dirty and there is no dust or straw in my food. I like cooking and I learned a lot from the demonstrative training workshops Red Social gave us so now I cook even better. Before, our favorite dish was “thimpo de pescado,” it’s very good; however, now we can prepare other delicious meals and accompany them with cooked vegetable salads or cream of vegetable soup. We have also learned how to bake quinoa pies, main dishes, and desserts using our own produce such as fava beans, oca, and other vegetables.”

SOFÍA ARIVILCA QUISPE Locality: Chillcapata, District: Conima, Region: Puno “I am really motivated by my new house because I now have a place to go to and relax. When my granddaughter comes to visit, she will jump with joy because, for the first time, I have a home where my children and grandchildren can come visit me; this is my greatest joy. I have learned a lot from the training sessions, especially about sharing and loving your neighbor. The women here in the community have shared their affection with me, their work, and they have even shared materials with me, for which I am very grateful. Now, just like I received from others, I wish to share from the bottom of my heart with other families. That is why I saved money a little at a time until I was able to fulfill my “sharing fee;” with this money, we purchased healthy home materials to share with other families. On October 25th, I shared with Mariluz Cancapa, of San Antón-Azángaro, a single mother who has no home or family, who suffered cruelly at the hands of her partner, and is now pregnant with a little boy. Just like me, she now lives under the care of the wonderful families from San Antón and it is my hope that she be able to build a home for her children. I thank God for providing us with this opportunity to share and help one another”.

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Heifer International, as an institution, promotes selfmanagement and the valuation of the physical, technical, and economic capacities of the participant families. Furthermore, solidarity and loving one’s neighbor permit families to make their own resources available to peers and to share the experiences and resources they received from the project with other families. 73


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VI. Lessons learned

The following lessons, which may be used as reference data in the design of other projects and/or institutional policies concerning food security, were gathered based on the experiences in all project implementation areas and with the contributions of the participant families, community promoters, leaders, and technicians.

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6.1 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION Geographic Focus. The purpose of focusing on a particular geographic area is to achieve greater efficiency in implementing healthy homes and the increase the quality of the benefits provided to participant families. Furthermore, it allows effects and impacts to be generated to a greater degree in other areas. Motivation and sensitization to generate changes. Motivation means “sowing concern, inserting a seed of change into the mind, for this seed to then permeate one’s the imagination and innovative vision [of the future].”25 In order to motivate families, their own powers of personal motivation must be identified; field trips, audio-visual aids, and lived experiences are powerful tools to inspire reflection and motivate the participant families. A comprehensive, holistic approach. Contributing to improving the quality of life of the families requires treating the different areas of human life as equally important. At the beginning of the project, the most important space for local families was the “hatun wasi” for Quechua speakers and the “jacha uta” for Aymara speakers, both terms translating as “the big house.” The big house is the main, multi-purpose room used as a bedroom, storage area, pantry, and sometimes a toolshed. The kitchen was typically the smallest and least important part of the house and built out of the lowest-quality materials available. Training sessions and field trips provide families with the opportunity to learn to give equal importance to all components of the home and to prioritize areas that help guarantee good health and food security, thus seeking comprehensive, holistic family development. Improved construction technologies. Implementing healthy homes starts with the premise of technological innovation. During the healthy home implementation process, new construction methods and styles were incorporated. For example, kitchens were traditionally 2m by 2m; with the project, this space was increased, allowing families to incorporate built-in cupboards, pantries, improved cookstoves, kitchen sinks, metal door and window frames, and dining room tables. Outside of the kitchen, other technologies that were promoted include wooden wardrobes, techniques to turn mud into a proper finishing for indoor walls, and preparing the ground for family vegetable gardens. Coordination with local institutions. A healthy homes and environments initiative requires institutional partnerships, ideally including local governments. A healthy home is the result of the vision of the future, commitment, and dedication of the participant families; additionally, the availability of resources is also a fundamental element for the families to be able to live in dignified homes. The local government is the main institution able to provide these resources and expand the initiative to include more families. It is important to design a strategy for political advocacy including the formation of a local Healthy Home Management Committee, tasked with presenting the initiative in different venues such as community and district assemblies, participative budget meetings, and other such meetings, using these as an opportunity to advocate for the incorporation/expansion of the healthy homes initiative to benefit as many families as possible, as well as the community at large. Inter-family and inter-community contests. Contests are an attractive way to motivate families to achieve their goals. The inter-family contest implies a great degree of dedication and effort on the part of participant families. However, in the inter-community contest, it is the community’s image, rather than that 25 Testimony of Duverly Incacutipa, technical team for Red para el Desarrollo Social.

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of a single family, that was on the line; this entails much more determination on the part of each family to work on and finish their improved homes in order to accumulate enough points for the community to win. Passing on the Gift and Healthy Homes Management Committee. In order to ensure participants act responsibly and to achieve the best results possible from the implementation process, as well as the responsible administration of resources given to each family, the community established a Passing on the Gift and Healthy Homes Management Committee. The main role of this committee, together with the community leaders, is to oversee the responsible use of project resources, supervise the achievement of agreed upon goals in accordance with the established timeline, help generate teamwork and reciprocity between the participants, lead the Passing on the Gift ceremony, and serve as representatives on the subject of healthy homes at community and other gatherings. Sharing experiences and knowledge. An experience is considered successful when families have gone beyond fulfilling the project objectives and can demonstrate significant achievements where they have added their own creativity and dedication. Having validated their experiences, these families are designated as leaders or healthy homes promoters and are encouraged to share their experiences with other families through field trips and workshops designed for new families who are just starting to work on their homes. This process is also known as sharing experience and/or knowledge between families, campesino to campesino training, or participant to participant training.

6.2 PASSING ON THE GIFT Strategic harnessing of existing knowledge and resources. Heifer International, as an institution, promotes self-management and the valuation of the physical, technical, and economic capacities of the participant families. Furthermore, solidarity and loving one’s neighbor permit families to make their own resources available to peers and to share the experiences and resources they received from the project with other families. Sharing resources. Global problems are solved through the participation of the entire community. Sharing is a guiding principle, a philosophy grounded in love for one’s neighbor, and is the cornerstone of Heifer International’s work worldwide. Sharing is part of the process of expanding capacities and opportunities. A resource, an animal, or a training course is a gift given to project participants; in a previously determined time, these participants will pass

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on these same gifts to other families, thus creating a chain of love, solidarity, and cooperation. Passing on the Gift was essential for the implementation and achievement of results related to healthy homes. The participant families have adopted this philosophy and unreservedly share project resources with new families. Further, the original families signed an agreement to commit to loving one’s neighbor by means of Passing on the Gift. The act of Passing on the Gift occurs in a previously determined amount of time, on average one year, after receiving the resources and is carried out in a large community celebration in which each original family shares its resources with a new family.

6.3 IMPACTS OF THE HEALTHY HOMES AND ENVIRONMENTS INITIATIVE Healthy homes and food security. The articulation of healthy homes with food security reinforces for the families that their health and well-being are not only dependent on just the foods they eat, but also on the environment surrounding their home, including an improved kitchen, hygiene and sanitation, an organic vegetable garden, and safe drinking water. Workshops and training courses about the links between a healthy home and food security help families becomes more aware of the need to improve their home in order to ensure their food security. Healthy homes with a focus on gender rights and equality. The right to a dignified home is a human right, and this right is feasible if there is a corresponding responsibility. The responsibility is to build a dignified and healthy home jointly and responsibly, involving all members of the family and community. The work of building a better home and the results thereof helped participant families to improve relationships between husband and wife and parents and children, fostering greater integration and respect. Each family constructed its vision of a healthy home based on a talking map and/or 3-D model; working together as a family to design and then implement this vision helped the families to make decisions democratically, to divide up tasks depending on each person’s abilities, and to satisfy the needs and desires of each and every family member. Articulation of healthy homes with personal and family development. Improving living conditions goes beyond improving physical infrastructure and access to basic services. The work on healthy homes and environments and food security also seeks to develop the skills and capacities of the participants. Training courses and technical assistance are important for promoting human rights, improving self-esteem, and forming harmonious relationships between all family members. By working in a holistic, comprehensive manner, Heifer Peru seeks to contribute to building a better quality of life for rural families. Healthy homes and emotional health. Working on a healthy home also requires the personal commitment of each and every member of a family in order to strengthen emotional health. The technical teams from Heifer Peru and the partner institutions play an important role in promoting work based on the values and cornerstones of Heifer Peru, the families, and the communities. Through workshops and training sessions, families are able to recognize their own values and then work together to improve not only the physical structure of their home, but also the emotional health and quality of life of each member of the household.

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6.4 EXPANDING THE HEALTHY HOMES INITIATIVE TO ENSURE FAIR AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Heifer Peru and its partner institutions should consider incorporating the following aspects into future projects: Healthy homes for food security. The close relationship between homes and food security was demonstrated by this experience. As such, the healthy homes and environments initiative should be considered as more than just a project component, but, rather, projects should be specifically designed to tackle these two issues. Healthy homes and adapting to climate change. Together with the focus on food security, healthy homes projects must also incorporate climate change adaptation methods. Families in rural areas are continuously exposed to extreme cold spells, excessive rainfall, and droughts. It would be interesting to design an initiative articulating healthy homes with adaptation to climate change together with a strategy for ensuring food security. Incorporating a well-defined nutrition strategy. While the technical team in Puno included nutrition workshops and demonstrations of local foods, this model was not implemented in Cuzco. Nutrition is part of the use dimension of food security, thus knowledge regarding nutrition must be strengthened for the families participating in the healthy homes and environments initiative. In addition to the division of rooms, an improved cookstove, and better hygiene conditions, the preparation of nutritious foods and the use of local resources are important components for ensuring the health and food security of the families.

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>> Presentation

Values-based work and holistic development help project participants to value themselves and their peers and work together to create sustainable ways of life.

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VII. Conclusions The healthy homes and environments initiative is a significant component of Heifer Peru’s strategy to improve the food security of the families living in Southern Peru. The articulation of the link between housing issues and food security is not new; however, Heifer Peru’s implementation strategy involves a holistic solution to such issues. Values-based work and holistic development help project participants to value themselves and their peers and work together to create sustainable ways of life. During the healthy homes and environments initiative, the field trips, the campesino to campesino strategy for sharing knowledge and experiences, and the contests greatly helped families learn how to make changes in their homes and also served as motivations to put these transformations into practice. These changes in their homes have allowed families to increase the availability of fresh vegetables, expand access to diversified, nutritious foods, and enhance the stability of food security. These achievements will continue to improve the lives of other families when participants pass on the gift and transmit the knowledge they have received. Taking into account the results of the project and the lessons learned, it is clear that healthy homes and environments are a fundamental condition for ensuring food security, and thus an essential element in fighting poverty and eliminating hunger. As such, healthy homes and appropriate technological innovations must be combined with the promotion of income-generating activities in order for families to ensure their own food security and holistic development. To ensure sustainability, the support of local institutions is crucial; thus, projects must include the strengthening of social capital of the families so they can advocate for continued initiatives on the part of local institutions. Heifer Peru will continue to work hand-in-hand with communities throughout Peru to disseminate the results of this experience.

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Bibliography AAKER, Jerry 2007 El Modelo Heifer de desarrollo basado en Valores y Fundamentos. Tercera edición. Little Rock: Heifer International. HEIFER INTERNATIONAL s/a Monitoreo de Impacto Global: Teoría de Cambio e Indicadores de Impacto. Heifer International. HEIFER PERÚ 2010 Línea de base de los proyectos Fortalecimiento Organizativo, FEED y Sombrilla Cusco. Heifer Perú. 2009-2010. HUARANCA ESPIRILLA, David. 2013 Manual de Vivienda Saludable – Guía de capacitación para el facilitador. 2013. Cusco, Heifer Perú. INCACUTIPA, Cleida. 2009 Manual de Implementación: Viviendas Saludables. 2009. Puno, Heifer Perú. INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADÍSTICA E INFORMÁTICA 2013 Población y Vivienda. Lima: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. <http://www.inei.gob.pe/estadisticas/indice-tematico/poblacion-y-vivienda/>. 2013

Informe Técnico: Evolución de la Pobreza Monetaria 2007-2012. Lima. INEI.

JIMÉNEZ ACOSTA, Santa. 1995 Métodos de Medición de la Seguridad Alimentaria. Revista Cubana Aliment Nutr. La Habana, número 1158. <http://bvs.sld.cu/revistas/ali/vol9_1_95/ali11195.htm> MINISTERIO DE COMERCIO EXTERIOR Y TURISMO 2006 Región Cusco. Ministerio de Comercio Exterior y Turismo. Lima: MINCETUR <http://www.mincetur.gob.pe/newweb/Portals/0/Cusco.pdf> MINISTERIO DE DESARROLLO E INCLUSIÓN SOCIAL DEL PERÚ 2012 Mapa de la Vulnerabilidad a la Inseguridad Alimentaria 2012. Lima: MIDIS <http://www.midis.gob.pe/seguimiento/archivos/VulnerabilidadInseguridadAlimentaria.pdf> MUÑOZ ZEGARRA, Madeleine. 2008 Promoviendo Cambios Sostenibles para la Equidad de Género y el Desarrollo Social a través de las Cocinas Mejoradas: Sistematización de Experiencias. Documento de trabajo. Heifer Perú.

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ORGANIZACIÓN DE LAS NACIONES UNIDAD PARA LA ALIMENTACIÓN Y AGRICULTURA 2014 Comité de Seguridad Alimentaria Mundial. FAO. <http://www.fao.org/cfs/es/>. ORGANIZACIÓN PANAMERICANA DE LA SALUD 2005 Vivienda Saludable: Reto del Milenio en los Asentamientos Precarios de América Latina y el Caribe. Simposio Regional. 2005. <http://www.cepal.org/pobrezaurbana/docs/OPS/ informedelareunion.pdf> PUNO.INFO 2013 Historia de Puno. Puno.info. La capital folclórica del Perú. <http://www.puno.info/>. WISMANN, Mariela. s/a Taller de Monitoreo de Impacto Global: Seguridad Alimentaria y International.

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>> Appendices

Appendices APPENDIX 1. CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY This case study was conducted by a team made up of professional staff based at the Heifer Peru country office, the Cuzco regional office, and a consultant specializing in healthy home and food security issues, as well as the participation of the AMDARES and Red Para el Desarrollo Social technical teams. In order to analyze background and theoretical information, secondary data was gathered on healthy homes and food security, leveraging the contents of in-house documents such as: semi-annual reports on the activities in Cuzco and Puno, the Heifer Peru database, Heifer Peru case study documents, and the project experiences of other domestic and international institutions with similar goals. Based on this analysis, the decision was made to prioritize the experiences in the Marcapata, Cuzco and Conima, Puno due to the significant changes achieved in these communities as well as the fact that these were very recent experiences. The first healthy homes and environment experiences, such as those in the Pomacanchi, Cuzco and Santa Rosa, Umachiri, Azángaro, Huayrapata and Tilali in the Puno Region were utilized as complementary information, especially in regards to the sustainability of and the lessons learned through these experiences. Next, the key stakeholders who participated in the Healthy Homes and Environments initiative between 2008 and 2013 were identified as contacts for the collection of primary data. These stakeholders are presented below with the selection criteria used to decide who would participate in the interviews and focus groups:

Participant Families •

Received materials and/or original training regarding healthy homes and environments

Participated in the healthy home initiative for at least one year

Promoters and Community Leaders •

Occupied the position of promoter or community leader involved in the healthy homes project

Shared knowledge and skills with at least five families regarding the healthy homes and environment implementation process

Heifer Peru and Institutional Partner Technical Teams •

Participated in the healthy homes and environments implementation process

Worked as part of the project management team

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Once the key stakeholders were identified, data collection tools were designed in order to gather primary data from each stakeholder in accordance with the objectives of the case study: interview and observation guides for use with the participant families, a focus group guide for use with the promoters and community leaders, and a focus group guide for use with the Heifer Peru and institutional partner technical teams. Primary information was gathered through home visits, interviews and focus groups with the key stakeholders, all of whom contributed their opinions on the lessons learned, impacts, and challenges encountered during the experience. 27 participant families residing in Marcapata and Conima were interviewed, two focus groups were held with a total of 22 promoters and community leaders from both areas, and two focus groups were held with the technical teams. Additionally, project information and the life stories of the families of Pomacanchi, Cuzco, and Santa Rosa, Umachiri, Azรกngaro, Huayrapata and Tilali, Puno, were taken into account.

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>> Appendices

APPENDIX 2. NUMBER OF PARTICIPANT FAMILIES WITH HEALTHY HOMES AND ENVIRONMENTS PROJECT

TIME PERIOD

REGION

PROVINCE

DISTRICT

COMMUNITY

NUMBER OF FAMILIES

Cuzco

Acomayo

Pomacanchi San Juan

43

Cuzco Gender Integration and Leadership for Community 2008-2009 Cuzco Development in Peru Puno

Acomayo

Pomacanchi Santa Lucía

36

Acomayo

Pomacanchi Tocorani

30

Moho

Huayrapata

Altos Huayrapata

51

Moho

Huayrapata

Totorani

30

Melgar

Santa Rosa

Santa Rosa

40

Melgar

Umachiri

Unión Collana

40

Azángaro

Azángaro

Sacacani

80

Puno

Moho

Conima

Chilcapata

38

Puno

Moho

Conima

Cambría

22

2011-2013 Puno

Moho

Conima

Isla Soto

20

Puno

Moho

Tilali

Tilali

15

Puno

Moho

Huayrapta

11 sectores de Huayrapta

121

Cuzco

Quispicanchi Marcapata

Sahuancay

12

Cuzco

Quispicanchi Marcapata

Collana Marcapata

10

Cuzco

Quispicanchi Marcapata

Yanacancha

7

Cuzco

Quispicanchi Ocongate

Upis

27

Cuzco

Quispicanchi Ocongate

Pacchanta

19

Cuzco

Quispicanchi Ocongate

Marampaqui

32

Cuzco

Quispicanchi Ocongate

Pampacancha

15

Cuzco

Quispicanchi Ocongate

Mahuayani

18

Cusco

Quispicanchi Ocongate

Mallma

22

Cuzco

Canchis

Pampachiri

10

Puno Organizational Puno Strengthening of the ADEMUCP for 2009-2011 Puno Food Sovereignty in the Region of Puno Puno

Improving Food Security and Fostering Entrepreneurship – FEED

Cuzco Alpaca Umbrella Improvement of Housing and Production Tools through Adaptation to Climate Change Project

2012-2014

Total number of families to date

Pitumarca

738

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Healthy Homes and Environments

APPENDIX 3. RESOURCES PROVIDED BY HEIFER PERU AS PART OF THE HEALTHY HOMES AND ENVIRONMENTS INITIATIVE IN THE PUNO REGION ORGANIZATION

Asociación de mujeres Los Claveles de ChillcapataConima- Moho

Asociación de mujeres del Centro Poblado de Cambría- ConimaMoho

86

Nº OF FAMILIES

38

22

RESOURCES PROVIDED BY HEIFER PERU HEALTHY HOME VEGETABLE SEEDS MATERIALS For each family: ¼ plywood, 2 window frames, 10 panes of glass, 1 chimney, 14 sheets of corrugated metal roofing, 1 sheets of transparent corrugated plastic roofing, 2 kilograms of roofing nails, ½ kilogram of five-inch nails

For each organization: For each organization: 4 cans (0.4 kg each) of Early Wonder beet seed, 6 cans (0.5 kg each) of Giant Crimson radish seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg) of Royal Chantenay carrot seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of Arequipa red onion seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of White Boston lettuce seeds, 5 cans (0.4 kg each) of holy cilantro seeds, 2 cans (0.5 kg each) of c/m emerald turnip seeds, 5 cans (0.5 kg each) of Fordhock Emerald Swiss chard seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of Emerald parsley seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of Bonanza cucumber seeds, 2 cans (0.5 kg each) of Arequipa cauliflower seeds, and 12.5 cans (0.1 kg each) of Arequipa cauliflower seeds

For Each Family: ¼ plywood, 2 window frames, 10 panes of glass, 1 chimneys, 14 sheets of corrugated metal roofing, 1 sheets of transparent corrugated plastic roofing, 2 kilograms of roofing nails, ½ kilogram of five-inch nails

For Each Organization: For each organization: 4 cans (0.4 kg each) of Early Wonder beet seed, 6 cans (0.5 kg each) of Giant Crimson radish seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg) of Royal Chantenay carrot seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of Arequipa red onion seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of White Boston lettuce seeds, 5 cans (0.4 kg each) of holy cilantro seeds, 2 cans (0.5 kg each) of c/m emerald turnip seeds, 5 cans (0.5 kg each) of Fordhock Emerald Swiss chard seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of Emerald parsley seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of Bonanza cucumber seeds, 2 cans (0.5 kg each) of Arequipa cauliflower seeds, and 12.5 cans (0.1 kg each) of Arequipa cauliflower seeds


>> Appendices

Comunidad Campesina de Isla SotoConima- Moho.

20

For Each Family: ¼ plywood, 2 window frames, 10 panes of glass, 1 chimneys, 14 sheets of corrugated metal roofing, 1 sheets of transparent corrugated plastic roofing, 2 kilograms of roofing nails, ½ kilogram of five-inch nails

For Each Organization: For each organization: 4 cans (0.4 kg each) of Early Wonder beet seed, 6 cans (0.5 kg each) of Giant Crimson radish seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg) of Royal Chantenay carrot seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of Arequipa red onion seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of White Boston lettuce seeds, 5 cans (0.4 kg each) of holy cilantro seeds, 2 cans (0.5 kg each) of c/m emerald turnip seeds, 5 cans (0.5 kg each) of Fordhock Emerald Swiss chard seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of Emerald parsley seeds, 4 cans (0.5 kg each) of Bonanza cucumber seeds, 2 cans (0.5 kg each) of Arequipa cauliflower seeds, and 12.5 cans (0.1 kg each) of Arequipa cauliflower seeds

APPENDIX 4. RESOURCES PROVIDED BY HEIFER PERU AS PART OF THE HEALTHY HOMES AND ENVIRONMENTS INITIATIVE IN THE CUSCO REGION DISTRICT Pitumarca

Marcapata

COMMUNITIES

Nº OF FAMILIES

RESOURCES PROVIDED BY HEIFER PERU HEALTHY HOMES MATIERALS

Chillca, Hanchi- 65 pacha, Japurá Suyo, Ananiso, Ausangate

POR FAMILIA: 01 plancha de calamina, 01 chimenea ,01 plancha para fogón mejorado, tubos, codos, clavos.

Marcapata Cco- 106 llana. Sahuancay, Puyca, Yanacancha

POR FAMILIA: 01 Calaminas, 01 Módulos de cocina mejorada (horno, chimenea, sistema de agua caliente, tubos, pegamento, niple, codos)

Se entregó en total 213 calaminas de iluminación

01 Planchas de concreto, 04 calaminas para iluminación 01 Accesorios para cocina mejorada (horno y tubo de agua) 05 módulos de fogones mejorados (chimenea, sistema de agua y horno)

Ocongate

M a r a m p a q u i , 60 Upis, Mallma, Mahuayani, Pamacancha

For each family: 1 improved cookstove (chimney, nails), 1 sheet of transparent corrugated plastic roofing, 1 kitchen sink

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Healthy Homes and Environments

APPENDIX 5. PASSING ON THE GIFT (POG) CEREMONIES FOR HEALTHY HOMES AND ENVIRONMENTS Case: Puno Region ORIGINAL FAMILIES AND DISTRICT/ ORGANIZATIONS DATE OF POG PROVINCE/ CEREMONY Nº OF REGION ORGANIZATION FAMILIES 21/05/2011

Juchuy Ayllu Santa Rosa/ Achaco, CanlliMelgar/ cunca y Santa Puno Rosa

POG FAMILIES AND ORGANIZATIONS Nº OF ORGANIZATION FAMILIES

40

Jatun Ayllu Umachuco

20

24/06/2011

Umachiri/ Melgar/ Puno

Umachiri

40

Pailla-Miraflores y Pailla-Chuquibambilla

20

25/10/2012

Conima/ Moho/ Puno

Asociación de Mujeres las Rosas de Chilcapata

38

Parcialidad de Chilcapata

36

25/10/2012

Conima/ Moho/ Puno

Asociación de Mujeres Virgen Villa Carmen de Cambría

22

Centro Poblado de Cambría

22

25/10/2012

Conima/ Moho/ Puno

Comunidad Campesina de Isla Soto

20

Comunidad Campesina de Isla Soto

20

03/04/2013

Huayrapata/ Moho/ Puno

11 sectores y 01 Centro Poblado

120

11 sectores y 01 Centro Poblado

121

88

RESOURCES SHARED Per organization: the sum of S/. 5718.50 Per organization: the sum of S/. 2850.00 Per family: 16 sheets of corrugated metal roofing and 02 sheets of transparent plastic roofing, 01 kg of nails. Per family: 25 bags of plaster, 05 bags of cement. Per family: 22 sheets of corrugated roofing, 01 Window Frame 01 Kg of nails Per family: 16 sheets of transparent corrugated plastic roofing. 02 sheets of transparent plastic roofing 01 chimney 01 metal door 01 cookstove heat regulation valve


>> Appendices

APPENDIX 6. HEALTHY HOMES AND ENVIRONMENTS IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE Planificación y diseño

Refrigerador ecológico

Espacio de aseo

Organización de la vivienda

Dormitorio

Espacio de estudio

Construcción de ambientes

Almacenes

Ambiente para animales

Fogón mejorado

Letrina ecológica

Huerto familiar

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Healthy Homes and Environments

Compartir de Recursos

Alimentaci贸n familiar

90


>> Appendices

APPENDIX 7. TOOLS USED FOR CASE STUDY ANALYSIS Healthy Homes and Environments Case Study: Family Interview Guide I.

II.

III.

GENERAL INFORMATION •

Name: ………………………………….……………………………….…………….……...

Age: ………………………………………………………..…………………………………

Marital Status: …………………………………………..………..………………………….

Education level attained: ………………………………………………………………………

Number of Children: ( )…..…………….………………………….….……………………..

Main occupation: ...…………………………..……………………………………………...

Community: ……………………………………………………………………………….....

Community leadership position: …………………………………….………………………

METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS 1.

I see that you have a healthy home; how were you able to build it? Who in your family supported you? How did it feel?

2.

I see that you know a lot about healthy homes; what did you learn, and how did you learn it? How did you become aware of the topic?

3.

What constitutes a healthy home in your opinion?

IMPACTS 3.1.1 General Impacts 4. After all the work you’ve put into your home, would you say that you have improved your way of life? Why? 5.

Which of the changes you made in your home helped the most? Why?

3.2 Impacts on Food Security 3.2.1 Food Availability 6. Once you built your healthy home, did the type of foods you eat change? How? 7.

How do you organize your pantry and store your seeds?

3.2.2 Food Access 8. What do you grow in your organic garden? What do you do with the vegetables you grow? Do you have the possibility of selling or bartering them? 9.

How much of the food you eat comes from your vegetable garden?

10.

What else do you grow on your farm? How much of what you grow do you eat?

11.

How do you get foods you do not grow yourself? How much do you buy?

3.2.3 Food Use and taking advantage of changes in the home 12. What was your kitchen like before the project? What have you changed in your kitchen?

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Healthy Homes and Environments

13.

Do you think your new kitchen allows you to have a healthy life? Why? How has it helped your family?

14.

Do you think your healthy home helps you prepare food safely? How does it help? (ask about hygiene in the room and in preparing food)

15.

How are your children doing? Have you seen a difference in them since working on your healthy home? (If the interviewee does not say much, try to dig deeper and see if they are in better health, etc.)

3.2.4 Strategies for Stability 16. Have there been months in which you didn’t have enough to eat?

IV.

92

If the answer is NO – What do you do to make sure you have food all the time?

If the answer is YES – What do you do to deal with the months in which you don’t have enough to eat?

17.

Do you want to keep making changes in your home? What plans do you have to achieve a healthier home?

18.

If you had to recommend to a neighbor to work on creating a healthy home, what would you recommend they do? What would you tell them to do differently from what you did so they could do a better job? How would you help them make changes?

FAMILY CONTRIBUTIONS REGARDING THEIR EXPERIENCE 19.

Is this the first time you’ve worked on a healthy home project?

If the answer is NO – What institution did you work with before? Are there any differences in your work before and the way you’ve worked this time with Heifer Peru?

20.

What difficulties have you had in working on a healthy home?


>> Appendices

Healthy Homes and Environments Case Study: Focus Group Guide: Promoters, Leaders and Local Authorities Year that the healthy homes and environments initiative began:

I.

PARTICIPATION AND ORGANIZATION 1.

II.

METHODOLOGY AND THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS 2.

III.

IV.

V.

How did the community organize itself to support the healthy homes implementation process?

What was the role of promoters, leaders and local authorities in the healthy homes implementation process?

IMPACTS 3.1. 3.

General Impacts What changes have the healthy homes generated in the way families live? (Knowledge, personal development, nutrition, gender equality, etc.)

3.2. 4.

Impacts on Food Security Do you believe that the healthy homes initiative has helped families achieve better nutrition? Why? How has it helped you?

SUSTAINABILITY 5.

When we interviewed local families, they said they wished to continue working on healthier homes. How will you, as leaders, help sustain the healthy homes initiative in your community?

6.

After you succeeded in changing your homes, what was the reaction of local authorities and institutions?

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM PROMOTERS, LEADERS AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES 7.

If you had to complete the work of implementing a healthy home again, what would you do differently? Do you have any suggestions to improve the way Heifer Peru works on healthy homes and environments? (participants, activities, stakeholders)

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Healthy Homes and Environments

Healthy Homes and Environments Case Study: Focus Group Guide: Technical Teams I.

II.

III.

94

METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS 1.

What methodological strategies did you use while implementing the healthy homes initiative? Which were the most effective?

2.

Were the resources you had to work with for this strategy adequate? Why?

IMPACTS 2.1. 3.

General Impacts What changes has the healthy homes initiative generated in the way families live?

4.

At what level can these changes be seen? (Knowledge, personal development, nutrition, health, gender equality, etc.)

5.

Do you see a benefit in Passing on the Gift as part of the healthy home process? What is the benefit?

2.2. 6.

Impacts on Food Security Do you believe there is a link between a healthy home and environment and a familyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s food security?

7.

Which healthy home components are most significant in ensuring food security?

8.

Is there a plan in place to ensure the sustainability of the healthy home program in the community? What is it? Who does it involve?

TECHNICAL TEAM CONTRIBUTIONS 9.

Do you have any suggestions to improve the way Heifer Peru works on healthy homes and environments? For example, in terms of participants, resources, stakeholders, allies

10.

What constitutes a healthy home in your opinion?


>> Appendices

APPENDIX 8. PICTURES OF HEALTHY HOME COMPONENTS HOUSING INFRASTRUCTURE TRADITIONAL HOME Alejandro Mayhua (Puno)

HOME WITH IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE Santusa Canaza (Puno)

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Healthy Homes and Environments

ORGANIZATION AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ECOLOGICAL CLOSET Quintín Mamani Choque and Dionisia Quispe Turpo (Cuzco)

ECOLOGICAL BED Alejandro Mayhua (Puno)

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>> Appendices

IMPROVED KITCHEN KITCHEN ORGANIZATION AND CLEANLINESS Alejando Mayhua (Puno)

IMPROVED COOKSTOVE WITH OVEN Abraham Monroy Calcina and Celia Chambi Condemayta (Cuzco)

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Healthy Homes and Environments

IMPROVED COOKSTOVE Mar铆a Concepci贸n Apaza (Puno)

ECOLOGICAL REFRIGERATOR Alejandro Mayhua (Puno)

98


>> Appendices

KITCHEN SINK Candida Canaza Huacco (Puno)

HYGIENE AND SANITATION WASHROOM Balbina Mamani (Cuzco)

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Healthy Homes and Environments

MICRO-LANDFILL Hilda Choquehuanca de Sucaticona (Puno)

SEPARATE SPACES FOR ANIMALS PIG PEN Candida Canaza Hancco (Puno)

100


>> Appendices

FOOD STORAGE AREAS FOOD STORAGE ROOM Quintín Mamani and Dionisia Quispe (Cuzco)

101


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