Hugo Carvallo MArch. canditate at IaaC-11 BArch. at USC A.S. Arch. at ECC
WIND FOR URBAN SPACE
using renewable energy source for a better Barcelona
Introductory Design Studio_Barcelona 0 Emissions
Team: Vicent Gullart, Willie Muller, Martha MalĂŠ, Lluis Viu, Jordi Pages, Areti Markopolou, Tomas Diez Model Advisor: Marco Galofaro
page . Investigation + background Context Facts Ecotect Studies Wind Diagrams . Proposals Maximazing efficient wind energy Financial Incentives for on-site power generation Mantain and improve nature without affecting ecosytems Small, medium, and large scale power collections Power to be distributed within adjacent neighbor hoods Urban evolution to improve wind speed
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Samples of wind devices use Diagrams + Close-Up to the Wind Wall . Timeline Short-Term Mid-Term Large-Term Phases . Renderings
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Investigation + Background
CONTEXT: The area of study is located northwest of Placa Glories (north-west of IAAC), its topography is dominated by ascendant hills forming the ‘Parc del Ginardó’, and the ‘Parc del Carmel’. As a any new visitor to a city, it took me sometime to realize the possible and potential option to investigate the wind phenomena in the given ‘barrios’. After several visits, I notice the constant presence of a rapid and fluid wind. To develop this wind study, I had to learn more about heat, and pressure. In reality, wind energy is a converted form of solar energy. The sun’s radiation heats different parts of the earth at different rates-most notably during the day and night, but also when different surfaces (for example, water and land) absorb or reflect at different rates. This in turn causes portions of the atmosphere to warm differently. Hot air rises, reducing the atmospheric pressure at the earth’s surface, and cooler air is drawn in to replace it. The result is wind. (http://www.changetorenewables.com/tag/wind)
Parc del Carmel
Parc del Guinard贸 Can Baro
el Guinard贸 el Baix Guinard贸
FACTS: First, I identify two main different directions of wind related to the area. In the morning, we have wind in direction towards the mountains [sea breeze], and in the afternoon this direction changes towards the ocean [land breeze]. Secondly, in all of the wind directions I found that there are 3 different levels of wind. The lower wind that runs on street or ‘base ground’ level at moderated speed of 5-12 Km/hr. approx. The medium level wind that runs very speedily on the hills of the mountain at 13-50 km/hr. approx. And the top wind that runs over the mountains at a speed of 10-25 km/hr. approx. Thirdly, I found that this wind [mainly the medium level] energy might be favorable to the inhabitants of the area. This ‘green’ energy cannot only serve to ventilate interior spaces, but also to generate the necessary power to produce electricity. And finally, as initial ideas, wind power devices can be located on the hills of the mountain, and mainly where the lowest part of the hills meet.
ascending wind becomes weak reaching top of the hills
13 - 50 Km/hr
pre ssu r 10 - 25 Km/h
cold - h i gh
5 - 12 Km/hr
A.M. - sea breeze
P.M. - land breeze wind speed chart
dic nov oct sept aug jul jun may april mar feb jan
low wind levels chart
500 630 800 930 1100 1230 1400 1530 1700 1830 2000 2130
ECOTECT STUDIES: The following images taken from Ecotect show different wind calculations. To the right, it shows the predominant wind directions and speed during the 4 different seasons of the year according to Ecotect. Further right, are 2 perspective images showing the two main wind behaviors in 3d towards the interesting topography of the area. The levels of calculation go from 50 m, and 100 m approximately above ground. Notice the vector lines representating wind directions during the sea and land brezees.
wind frequency [spring] - ecotect
wind frequency [summer] - ecotect
wind frequency [fall] - ecotect
strongest wind gust - ecotect
wind frequency [winter] - ecotect
wind as vector lines - sea breeze - ecotect
wind as vector lines - land breeze - ecotect
WIND DIAGRAMAS: Types of Wind: Beaufort Speed Mi/hr Speed Km/h Descripton Effects on the Environment Code 0 <1 <1 calm smoke rises vertically 1 2 - 3 1 - 5 light air smoke drifts slowly 2 4 - 7 6 -11 light breeze leaves rustle, wind can be felt, wind vanes move 3 8 - 12 12 - 19 gentle breeze leaves and twigs on trees move 4 13 -18 20 - 29 moderate breeze small tree branches move, dust is picked up from the ground surface 5 19 - 24 30 - 38 fresh breeze small trees move 6 25 - 31 39 - 51 strong breeze large branches move, tel ephone and power overhead wires whistle 7 32 - 38 51 - 61 near gale trees move, difficult to walk in the wind 8 39 - 46 62 - 74 gale twigs break off from trees 9 47 - 54 75 - 86 strong gale branches break off from trees, shingles blown off roofs 10 55 - 63 87 - 101 whole gale trees become uprooted, structural damage on build ings 11 64 - 74 102 - 120 storm widespread damage to build ings and trees 12 >75 >120 hurricane severe damage to buildings and trees source: http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7n.html
predominant wind path
north-south P.M. direction land breeze
wind levels diagram
wind levels/city diagram
south-north A.M. direction sea breeze
wind levels-intensity/city diagram
My proposal is based on the initial investigation, research, and studies of the wind phenomena in this particular area of study in Barcelona. Knowing that Spain is the worldâ€™s fourth biggest producer of wind power, after the United States, Germany and China with an installed capacity of 16,740 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2008, a rise of 1,609 MW for the year. Wind energy has consolidated as the third technology of the Spanish power system in 2009, having reached an output of 36,188 GWh, only overtaken by thermal gas combined cycle at 78,364 GWh and nuclear that reached 52,741 GWh. For the first time in the annual calculation, wind has overtaken coal that produced 33,844 GWh. In the entire year, wind energy has covered 14.3% of the demand, compared to 11.5% in 2008. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_Spain
After learning about the wind influence in Spain, the different intensities and wind paths, I decided to propose the following.
1. FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR ON-SITE POWER GENERATION Technology have never been cheap, especially if we talk about large, and mid-size wind turbine. Therefore, economic incentives or reduction of taxes should be offered by public office as an option to provide equal renewable energy to everybody. 2. MAXIMIZING EFFICIENT WIND ENERGY: To start, large scale wind enery devices should be place on hills, where the hills meet, and at the top of mountains. But before that, a deep and consious study of the terrain, the parks, animals, and neighborhoods should be done as to not disturb any of those. 3. MANTAIN AND IMPROVE NATURE WITHOUT AFFECTING ECOSYSTEMS A constant and further studies on the building and natural environments should be performed to analized, store data, and propose new strategies of implementing wind technology. 4. SMALL, MEDIUM, AND LARGE SCALE POWER COLLECTIONS The proposed implementation of the 3 different scales of wind power collector is an important option to take into consideration. Large scale, [classic] wind turbines should be placed on and around the two main mountains that form the parks of the El Carmel and the El Guinardo. As additional implementation, following examples from Denmark, coast line and off-shore wind turbines should also be taken into consideration and installed. 5. POWER TO BE DISTRIBUTED WITHIN ADJACENT NEIGHBORHOODS: The electrical power harvested from the wind devices [large scale] should be distributed within the neighborhood and their closest barrios, so everybody near this area will have the opportunity to use it. 6. URBAN EVOLUTION TO IMPROVE WIND SPEED: Throughout the pass of years, the Barcelona urban condition in this area will start emerging as an adaptable city corresponding to its natural goodness, the wind. Weâ€™ll start even noticing the change not only of buildings to try to catch the maximum benefit of wind speed, but the metamorphosis of their traditional linear walls. These walls will also help to speed up the wind energy towards a wind device or turbine.
SAMPLES OF WIND DEVICES USE
Wind [turbines] and other devices related to the production of energy through wind have already been implemented into the urban context. Countries such as Denmark and England have incorporated this technology in their urban landscape. This â€˜greenâ€™ energy cannot only serve to ventilate interior spaces, but also to generate the necessary power to produce electricity. And finally, wind power devices can be located on the hills of the mountain, and mainly where the lowest parts of the hills meet. Also, in the future, a re-location or de-formation of the urban condition towards the mountain can be proposed to help speed up and harvest the wind energy in pro of their community. Carvallo 14
DIAGRAMS + CLOSE-UP TO THE WIND WALL These diagrams show the possible re-distribution of blocks in the area of study to improve wind speed and therefore to gain more natural power. Notice that the Cerdaâ€™s traditional urban context is been kept. The blocks will be in triangular shapes facing the narrow parts opposite to the mountain, so it will create the adequate spaces for wind to flow rapidly and be used by their inhabitants as natural cross ventilation during hot days and harvested through the different wind recollecting devices. Special walls containing wind energy receptors should be placed on strategic points around the area of study.
mountain-wind profile diagram
8 m/s 16 m/s
mountain-wind plan diagram
mini wind belt
proposed wind wall member close-up
proposed wind wall with different materials, colors, and textures
This proposal would be divided into 3 different stages, based on the conclusion of having 3 different scales [large, medium and small]. The stages will represent different time frames where the evolution of harvesting wind power will be one of the most natural and renewable energies used in the area. The small, medium and large scales are based on the wind device. The small is for residential uses, the medium is for buildings, and the large is for the community; this proposal does not intend to promote any particular wind brand or manufacturer. The phases would depend on social, political, and economical conditions of the time. For the first phase, I am proposing a prompt and radical social/political concept for the use of these devices, with economical incentives from public offices and tax discounts for their users. Those devices would be easy to buy through governmental offices with an appropriated technical installation --to get government discounts. Those wind apparatuses would only produce energy for single-family houses, and small electrical devices such as televisions, radios, microwaves, computers, etc.
The second phase, would be in a short period of time [5 to 10 years], and mainly dedicated to the medium scale of the project. It would be based on the development of wind turbines for individual buildings where the energy harvested will be distributed to their occupants. And the last 3rd phase would be projected in a long term period, letâ€™s speculate that in the next 15 or 20 years that specific parts of Barcelona would be experimenting a wind metamorphosis, where buildings will start adopting different shapes, and the urban context towards the mountains will be modified to try to catch maximum wind speed, and therefore gain more renewable energy. These proposals are intended to satisfy; the need for energy demand in this specific part of Barcelona, the constant evolution of its urban area, the natural condition of the terrain, and its topography, and last but not least taking into consideration our environment and ecosystems.
Long Term 10-20 years
Renderings Carvallo 22
Proposal @ barrio scale
Proposal @ city scale
Proposal @ port
Proposal @ the beach
Hugo Carvallo MArch. canditate at IaaC-11 BArch. at USC A.S. Arch. at ECC firstname.lastname@example.org +34 615840494 +34 651948633 Faculty:
Jordi Pages Lluis Viu
Booklet containing the final anaysis, research and proposals for an area in Barcelona, Spain.