THIS ISSUE - JUNE 2021 2
American Coal Ash Association Coal Combustion Products Production and Use Survey Results 2019
Postponed World of Coal Ash 2021 to 2022
From the Ashes
Australia’s Largest Battery at Coalfired Power Plant
A Secure Future for Yallourn Power Station Repositories
Boral’s Ash-Infused Envisia® Concrete and New Western Australia Project
Coal Ash Helping The US Promote Circular Economy Principles Through Rare Earth Market
Suppy & Demand: How Boral Plans to Keep Up
5 Minutes with the CEO: Mr. Craig Heidrich Discusses New Parliament Inquiry
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Coal Ash Matters is a bi-annual publication
ADAA | JUNE 2021
Membership COMPANY MEMBERS A primary role of the ADAA is to bring together producers and marketers of coal combustion products (CCPs). Our activities cover research and development into CCP usage, advocacy and technical assistance to CCP producers and users, as well as a forum for the exchange and publication of CCP information. For more information visit us at www.adaa.asn.au CURRENT MEMBERS • BG&E Materials Technology • Boral Quarries & Recycling • Brickworks Ltd • CS Energy • Daracon Constructions • Delta Electricity • Dr. Jane T Aiken Consulting & Environmental Services • Energy Australia (NSW) • Golden Bay Cement (New Zealand) • Heeleys Consulting • Hyrock (NSW) • Intergen (Millmerran) • Latrobe Magnesium • NRG Gladstone Power Station • Origin Energy Eraring Power Station • Roads and Maritime Services • Sphere One • Stanwell Corporation • Synergy • Tremline Pty Ltd • Ultimate Housing RECIPROCAL MEMBERSHIPS • CSIRO www.cmit.csiro.au • Association of Canadian Industries Recycling Coal Ash (CIRCA) www.circainfo.ca • European Coal Combustion Products Association (ECOBA) www.ecoba.org • UK Quality Ash Association www.ukqaa.org.uk • American Coal Ash Association www.acaa-usa.org • World Wide Coal Combustion Products Network (WWCCPN) www.wwccpn.org
EDITORIAL Welcome to the first edition of Coal Ash Matters for 2021! First of all, I’d like to introduce myself and say hello! My name is May Anderson, and I will be following on from the wonderful Steph Hazelton as ADAA’s new Digital Content Coordinator and Editor for Coal Ash Matters. I am thrilled to be working with the ADAA and hope you enjoy my first issue of CAM. In this first issue for 2021, we take a look at the ‘American Coal Ash Association Coal Combustion Products Production and Use Survey Results’ and analyse the recycled rates of coal ash. We report on the announcement regarding the postponement of the World Of Coal Ash 2021 to 2022, what you need to know about and what this means for ADAA members can get involve in a post vaccinated world! Next, in our “from the Ashes” story, we discuss the likely impacts on coal combustion products with further planned closure retiring coal powered electricity plants. Following this is a story about Origin Energy’s giant 700-megawatt capacity battery in the NSW Hunter region that then leads onto a story about the closure of the Yallourn Power station and what it means for Victorian energy in the near future. Next, we show-case a new and exciting project announced by Boral where the ash-infused Envisia® low-carbon concrete has entered the trial phase to test the viability of its use for a new logistics facility in Perth known as the Roe Highway Logistics Park development (RHLP). Then over to the US, a story on developments in new technology developed by Dr Linda Wang and her team that extracts rare earth materials from coal ash that provides opportunities for America to become more independent in extraction processes. The future of Boral’s US fly ash business is next, where the company is brainstorming ways to keep up with demands for concrete following Biden’s new grant for improving infrastructure across the country. The June issue will then be wrapped up with a feature article on Ash Development Association of Australia’s CEO, Mr Craig Heidrich and the opportunities that have arisen for his business and the ash industry. Thank you to all who receive this newsletter for the ongoing support to The Ash Development Association of Australia, and we hope you enjoy this issue.
ADAA | JUNE 2021
ACAA CCP PRODUCTION AND USE SURVEY RESULTS 2019 Fifty-two percent of the coal ash produced during 2019 was recycled – marking the fifth consecutive year that more than half of the coal ash produced in the United States was beneficially used rather than disposed. The volume of fly ash used in concrete increased 1 percent over the previous year, but most other uses saw significant declines, leading to an overall decrease in recycling activity of 31 percent.
• Synthetic gypsum use in agricultural applications – in which the gypsum improves soil conditions and prevents harmful runoff of fertilizers – declined 38 percent to 572,399 tons.
“As coal ash production declines, beneficial use markets are adopting new logistics and technology strategies to ensure these valuable resources remain available for safe and productive use in the highest value applications,” said Thomas H. Adams, Executive Director of the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) – an organization that advances the environmentally responsible and technically sound use of coal ash as an alternative to disposal. “However, declining use in applications with lower economic value represents a lost opportunity to create significant environmental benefits. We must continue to support these practices that safely conserve natural resources while dramatically reducing the need for landfills.”
According to ACAA’s just-released “Production and Use Survey,” 41 million tons of coal combustion products were beneficially used in 2019 out of 78.6 million tons that were produced. The rate of ash utilization decreased from 58.1 percent to 52.1 percent and the total volume of material utilized decreased by 18.4 million tons compared to the previous year. Coal ash production volume decreased 23 percent (or 23.6 million tons) from 2018 levels. “Coal ash” is a generic term that encompasses several Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) that can be beneficially used in a wide variety of applications. Highlights of CCP production and use in 2019 include: • Use of coal fly ash in concrete increased 1 percent to 12.6 million tons. Concrete producers and consumers indicated a desire to use more fly ash, but several regional markets were affected by shifting supply dynamics associated with closures of coal-fuelled power plants. Fly ash improves concrete durability and significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with concrete production.
panel products (i.e., wallboard) declined 21 percent to 9.7 million tons.
• Use of CCPs in pond closure activities declined 26 percent to 2.4 million tons but remained well above 2016 total of only 435,000 tons. This activity is driven by utility compliance with coal ash regulations enacted in 2015 that effectively require an end to the practice of wet disposal. Fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and synthetic gypsum were all used in construction of new permanent disposal facilities. • Following a one-year volume increase in 2018, use of CCP in structural fills resumed a multi-year decline in 2019, dropping 62 percent to 1.7 million tons.
• Production of boiler slag declined 37 percent as the number of cyclone boilers producing this material also continued to decline. Approximately 246,000 tons of boiler slag was utilized in the production of blasting grit and roofing granules. Approximately 362,000 tons of bottom ash was used in this application, a huge increase over 2018’s utilization of only 27,000 tons and an indication that consumers have begun to shift away from the declining boiler slag resource.
• Approximately 944,000 pounds of cenospheres were sold in 2019, down 21 percent from the prior year but still well above 2017’s volume of 148,000 tons. Increased cenosphere recovery was likely linked to increased pond closure activities.
• Resources related to the 2019 survey are available on ACAA’s website, including a news release, the summary survey report, helpful charts exhibiting production and use trends, and the updated “American Recycling Success Story” brochure providing background on coal ash types and beneficial uses.
• Use of all coal combustion products in cement production declined 22 percent to 5 million tons.
• Utilization of a key “non-ash” coal combustion product also declined. Synthetic gypsum is a by-product of flue gas desulphurization units, also known as “scrubbers,” located at coal-fuelled power plants. Use of synthetic gypsum in
ADAA | JUNE 2021
2021 WOCA POSTPONED After close consultation with its partners, meeting planners, Kentucky officials, as well as attendees, the American Coal Ash Association and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research [‘the Organisers’] have made the difficult decision to postpone the World of Coal Ash (WOCA) from 2021 to 2022. The Organisers will still be hosting WOCA in Northern Kentucky, utilizing the same facilities, during the same time period – May of 2022. Working with its partners in Northern Kentucky the Organisers hope to confirm the new dates soon, so once we have those new dates, we will share them with you. Having spent the past 18 months working with WOCA exhibitors, sponsors, speakers, and event partners, the Organisers were hoping to be able to host this meeting in a safe and effective way in 2021. However, it has become abundantly clear that providing our true WOCA experience was not going to be possible. As anyone who has attended a past WOCA knows, the engaging, lively, and social aspects of the meeting are what separates WOCA from other conferences. Those aspects of the meeting would be greatly diminished as organizations are still facing travel bans and state and international lockdowns continue in many parts of the country and the world. For those of you that have submitted your abstracts for WOCA 2021, you have several choices: you will have access to your abstracts, so you can update the current abstracts (timeline for new abstract submission to be determined) or delete the current abstracts and upload new abstracts when the new submission window for WOCA 2022 is open (to be determined). Additionally, for those of you interested in writing a ‘proceedings paper’ for your current abstract, as you want to get your current research/work out into the stratosphere, but want to present new data in 2022, we will be publishing a non-peer reviewed Spring 2021 issue of the CCGP journal online for that purpose. For questions about abstracts, please contact anne. firstname.lastname@example.org. The Organisers are excited to make WOCA 2022 the best and most memorable conference yet. Being able to gather the world’s leading coal ash products experts under one roof is the highlight of our year, and they can’t wait to see you in Northern Kentucky next year. If you have any questions, please contact Alyssa Barto at email@example.com or Dave Melanson at firstname.lastname@example.org.
ADAA | JUNE 2021
FROM THE ASHES whilst the an landfilled fly ash requires suchfor as “Reports the demise of fly ash have been greatly has And Fly ashonfrom coal-fired power stations become important raw treatment material screening, drying, de-agglomeration (and, when it’s used as a exaggerated!” said Nigel Cooke, Director of the UK construction. But does the decline of coal power there’s nobemore pozzolan, mean carbon removal might required)ash? the UKQAA has Quality Ash Association (UKQAA), the latest trade identified commercially viable technologies proven to produce body to become an affiliate member of the Mineral materials that meet the required standards for construction. Products Association. UKQAA represents companies Indeed, when it comes to demonstrating the performance of ash in involved in the supply or use of fly ash in construction cement-based applications, the UKQAA has a history of sponsoring materials – a practice that has grown rapidly in the past research projects with institutions such as the Concrete Technology decade, similar to the Ash Development Association of Unit at Dundee University. Australia. Fly ash, in the UK, has been commonly known as pulverised fuel ash (or PFA) and is a by-product of coal-generated electricity and is widely used in the manufacture of mineral products such as concrete blocks, ready-mixed concrete, grouts and mortars. And because of its pozzolanic properties – it behaves like cement – fly ash can enhance the performance and properties of concretes, mortars and grouts. Using fly ash also helps to reduce the demand on primary quarried minerals and means the buildings created with fly ash have a lower carbon footprint than if they had used the equivalent newly manufactured cement. In 2012, 50% of the fly ash produced in the UK was landfilled – just five years later, there was a net extraction of fly ash from landfill deposits. Over the next decade UK demand is expected to grow to 3 million tonnes – some of this could be met with imports but making use of the UK’s own reserves makes economic and environmental sense. However, UK Government policy in response to climate change has meant that the UK has seen a rapid decline in coal fired power generation. Today, the UK’s demand for power is mainly met by renewables, gas and nuclear. The few remaining coal-fired power plants are all scheduled to close by 2025 at which point no more CCPs [fly ash] will be produced in the UK. But the story doesn’t end there . . . “In fact, there are huge ‘reserves’ of coal derived fly ash across the UK,” explained Nigel. “These reserves have accumulated over previous decades when supply far outpaced demand and fly ash was seen as a waste, rather than a resource. Together the accessible reserves are estimated to be over 100 million tonnes – enough to supply block manufacturers, concrete producers and grouters with an excellent cementitious material for many decades to come.”
“Despite the fact that these single use deposits of fly ash are an important national resource, many organisations – from government departments and local planning authorities to landowners and developers – have written off, overlooked or simply not been aware of the potential of fly ash as a construction material,” continued Nigel. “Until the reserves are safeguarded and treated in the same way as primary minerals by inclusion in national planning guidance, these locations are viewed as brownfield sites for redevelopment. That could prevent the deposits from ever being used. As a consequence, the fly ash should first be extracted and then over time, the land can be restored and prepared for future use whether that’s built development, agriculture or nature conservation.” Safeguarding is also important because in the UK the landfill deposits are 100% fly ash rather than mixed with other coal power station by-products such as bottom ash, gypsum or ‘scrubber’ wastes. This means the ash is already of a relatively consistent quality which is essential to optimise its use as a secondary mineral or aggregate. “So far we’re getting positive signs from Government about safeguarding these single use deposits of coal derived fly ash,” continued Nigel. “we’re aware that it can take years to change planning guidance and we don’t have that long before some of these sites come up for redevelopment. In the meantime, we hope that planning authorities will see the advantages of using coal derived fly ash and make the right decisions to allow this secondary mineral to make a valuable contribution to the UK construction sector for many decades to come.” There are at least 16 locations of single use deposits of coal derived fly ash across the UK. Gale Common near the former Eggborough Power Station, North Yorkshire could supply up to one million tonnes of fly ash per year for 25 years.
ADAA | JUNE 2021
AUSTRALIA’S LARGEST BATTERY AT COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT Origin Energy support transition away from coal-fired power with plans to build a giant 700-megawatt capacity battery in the NSW Hunter region. The project is currently the largest battery projects under consideration in Australia with an overall capacity of up to 700 MW supplying power to the grid - a duration of four hours. Upon completion, the battery would be more than four times larger than Tesla’s lithium-ion battery in South Australia. Origin has issued an Expression of Interest to suitably qualified firms to supply and install the large-scale battery at its coal-fired power plant in Eraring, south of Newcastle. "Following selection of a preferred supplier, achievement of the required permitting, and establishment of the network connection, as well as Origin Board approval, the operational capacity of the battery is expected to be deployed over three phases, with the first phase expected to be reached by late 2022." - Origin Energy
ADAA | JUNE 2021
A SECURE FUTURE FOR FOR SECURE FUTURE YALLOURN POWER YALLOURN POWER STATION STATION REPOSITORIES On March 10, 2021, Energy Australia (EA) announced that the iconic Yallourn W power station in Latrobe Valley will close four years ahead of schedule, moving the closure up to 2028. Yallourn Power Station, the largest power station in Victoria, plays a major role in supplying the state’s electricity through coal power. Whilst this may be the end of the road for Yallourn W, it doesn’t come without its opportunities. The closure of the plant may be the catalyst needed to promote further dialogue regarding re-utilisation and beneficiation of the station’s Coal Combustion Products. One ADAA member, Latrobe Magnesium (LMG), is well positioned to take care of the repositories located at Yallourn W through future harvesting the repository of CCPs. That is, CCPs in the Latrobe Valley repository is unusually high in magnesium oxide and Latrobe Magnesium has recognised an opportunity to recover MgO whilst producing other value-added products from its innovative process. LMG plans to sell the refined products under long-term contracts to Australian, Japanese and American users, selling into the 1,000,000-tonne annual
global market for magnesium. Prior to the closure, Energy Australia has promised to build and commission a utility-scale battery likely to be co-located at the Jeeralang power station, supporting energy reliability as renewable energy plays a larger role in our energy system. This will ensure energy storage is built to firm increased renewable energy in Victoria before Yallourn closes. As stated in the media release on EA’s website, the goal is to become carbon neutral by 2050. The retirement of Yallourn will reduce the company’s emissions profile by 60%, accelerating the pathway towards achieving this goal. As discussed previously, the closure of this station provides an opportunity for the promotion of CCPs in Australia. Repositories at Yallourn will be put to use, contributing to the future of ash development whilst allowing for future technological advances like the new battery to surface. While the premature closure of Yallourn W is unfortunate, it will ensure the industry continues to adapt with the everchanging landscape of future energy development. opportunity.
ADAA | JUNE 2021
BORAL’S ASH-INFUSED ® ENVISIA CONCRETE AND NEW WA PROJECT Boral’s Envisia® low-carbon concrete has entered the trial phase to test the viability of its use for a new logistics facility in Perth. If successful in passing a detailed trial phase, Boral will supply their decarbonised concrete to be used on Perth’s new Roe Highway Logistics Park development (RHLP). The Envisia® concrete features 10-30% fly ash in its mixture that overall results in a 40% reduction in carbon content when compared with standard concrete mixtures. Expected to be built over the next two years, Perth’s new logistics facility is set to be funded by the Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) having already received $95 million on behalf of the Australian Government. CEFC aims to use solar panels together with the low-carbon concrete to create the most sustainable industrial property in the state. “The construction sector is a significant emitter of greenhouse gases and the lack of low carbon alternatives to traditional building material has so far made it difficult to abate” CEFC, CEO Ian Learmonth said.
“Exciting developments in low carbon construction materials are giving us the chance to accelerate decarbonisation, and success in this sector will help spur Australia’s transition to a low emissions economy.” Learmonth encourages the use of products such as Boral’s Envisia concrete as it has the opportunity to change the face of the construction landscape. “Importantly, the focus on low carbon construction materials at RHLP can play a critical role in influencing supply chains in the construction industry. This offers a new pathway to cut emissions from the supply chain, known as scope three emissions, and provides a world-leading example of low carbon options for the industry,” Learmonth said. The Ash Development Association of Australia welcomes these innovations which capitalise on the low embedded carbon in CCPs. Whilst we continue to monitor this project, we would like to congratulate Boral on this exciting opportunity.
ADAA | JUNE 2021
COAL ASH HELPING THE US PROMOTE CIRCULAR ECONOMY PRINCIPLES THROUGH RARE EARTH MARKET Newly licensed technologies developed at Purdue University could make use of Indiana’s growing amount of coal ash through new technology. American Resources has licensed the environmentally beneficial separation and purification technologies developed by Dr Linda Wang, Purdue’s Maxine Spencer Nichols Professor of Chemical Engineering, to extract Rare Earth Elements (RREs) from coal ash. “I am very pleased to see it move from the laboratory to licensing and provide an important environmental value for processing and purifying of rare earth elements,” said Dr Wang. If you are unfamiliar with REEs, they are essentially a set of 17 metallic elements that are required to make cell phones, computer monitors, fibre optics, lasers, medical imaging and various other products. Coal ash naturally contains high concentrations of REEs because of the burning process of coal, meaning that this new technology allows for the coal ash to be repurposed. As a result of this, circular economy principles are being promoted. The research all began in 2006 with American Resources’ purchase of a mining complex in Eastern Kentucky. Ever since then, new ways to move into the REE market have been sought after. “The technology developed at Purdue University
under Dr Wang and her great team allows us to separate and purify REEs in a greener method than traditional solvent-based separation methods,” said American Resources CEO Mark Jensen. “Additionally, this technology is specific to our feedstocks that are entirely focused on recycling and reprocessing waste material from coal waste, coal by-products, and waste permanent magnets and lithium-ion batteries”. Indiana has more coal ash than any other state in the US and utility plants require large sources of cooling water to operate, which has led to their being built along all the major waterways in the state. Several spills have been reported, and incidents of coal ash contaminating ground and well water have also been reported across the state which is why it is so important for this ash to be used in other projects- to prevent occurrences such as this. Currently, China controls more than 80% of the world’s supply of these minerals, while the U.S. produces only three of the critically needed minerals. This is mainly because REEs processing facilities are hard to come by. The standard process is expensive and not environmentally friendly. A new story by the Financial Times reported that the Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has proposed possibly limiting production and export of REE to see how much it would impede U.S. defence contractors. This sparked concern as the supply chain for REEs would then be compromised. Dr Wang’s technology offers an environmentally safer alternative to process and purify these elements and also providing an opportunity for the U.S. to become less dependent on China as a supplier. US President Biden signed an order asking for a review of the supply chain for REEs and ways to make it more secure, resilient and diverse. Wang’s technology could help address some of these issues, while also supporting the circular economy through repurposing the coal ash.
ADAA | APRIL 2020
ADAA | JUNE 2021
SUPPLY & DEMAND: HOW BORAL PLANS TO KEEP UP Earlier this month, Boral announced the completed sale of its 50% share in the USG Boral joint venture to Gebr Knauf KG. On the 15th of April 2021, the company also announced its plans for the North American fly ash business. Options of a potential joint venture, strategic alliance or divestment to a third party or continued ownership were mentioned in preparation for an increase in demand for concrete and fly ash put forth by the US government. Commenting on the company’s faith in the fly ash industry, Boral’s CEO Zlatko Todorcevski said: “We have conducted a detailed study of the US fly ash industry and remain confident in the long-term demand dynamics for the industry, including significant incremental demand growth potential from the US government’s proposed new infrastructure program”. This comes after United States’ President Joe
Biden pledged to spend up to US $2 trillion to ‘revamp’ the US economy and upgrade the nation’s ageing infrastructure. Naturally, this will only push demand for fly ash and concrete. Addressing the benefits of harvesting repositories for future generations, Todorcevski continued: “New opportunities for supply exist from harvesting landfills, imports and natural pozzolans, which we expect will more than offset the decline in fresh fly ash supply as the US transitions away from coal-fired power generation. As we continue to build our alternative supply strategy, strategic alliances and opportunities for partnership will be considered in parallel with divestment options or continued ownership”. Boral has said it has acquired advisors to assist with the study and development of the fly ash business within the company. The results of the study are set to be released around August this year that may bring ash to the forefront of sustainable infrastructure.
Image: New road in Wyongah with recycled materials. Photo credit: Coast Community News.
ADAA | JUNE 2021
5 MINUTES WITH THE CEO MR. CRAIG HEIDRICH DISCUSSES NEW PARLIAMENT INQUIRY On Monday the 22nd of March, the NSW Government and Public Works Committee (PWC) released a final report for the inquiry regarding costs for remediation of coal ash repositories in New South Wales. This particular inquiry (commissioned in 2019) was tasked with taking a closer look at coal ash, its history and the future of the industry, with a specific focus on the potential commercial use of by-products in large scale projects.
“We [as an organisation] have worked towards finding ways to economically and in an environmentally sound way to successfully harvest CCPs where their use is ‘fit for purpose’ and maximise CCPs stored for future generations”. Promoting CE solutions to problems in the present and future, whilst minimising harm to the environment.
“We hope that PWC report, once reviewed and elements have been adopted / endorsed by Minister Kean’s CEO of the Ash Development Association of Australia (ADAA), Office -- it will further promote the value-added benefits that Craig Heidrich, sat down with us recently and offered arise from the utilization and beneficiation of CCPs -- acting to his perspective on the NSW Senate Inquiry and how the correct the misconceptions that often surrounds CCPs”. Association, specifically identified as driver for change in the Inquiries recommendations, and his hopes to work with all “There’s always different views on what’s best way to maximise any resource… in my experience working around stakeholders to maximise coal combustion products. a common table, based on sound science, sound In January 2020, Mr Heidrich and the Board Executive crafted a economics and facts we hope to work with all relevant submission to the New South Wales Parliament Legislative stakeholders to find common sense solutions,” said Mr Council – Public Works Committee (PWC), ‘Costs for remediation Heidrich. of coal ash repositories’ in New South Wales, a number of recommendations on behalf of the Ash Development In the coming months the Ash Development Association Association of Australia. The recommendations were focused of Australia will work with Matt Kean MP, Minister for heavily on the benefits of using coal combustion products Energy & Environment, and his Department Policy advisers consistent with circular economy principles and developing a about the PWC report and key recommendations. strategy to ensure the successful implementation of CCPs into “Our objective is simple, to reinforce what the beneficial projects. association understands are the critical elements in the recommendations that we support and to provide the Minister Mr Heidrich said, “This [report] is a significant milestone and with an evidence-based approach to understanding which an opportunity for our industry to get true recognition for the recommendations have the highest probability of success,” benefits that arise from recovering these [CCPs] resources.” A he said. majority of the ADAA submissions to the PWC were supported in the final report and have been outlined in the recommendations. “We acknowledge that the government has concerns about the long-term unknown liabilities of CCPs remaining in these repositories and we hope that our science-based / evidence approach recommendations will be adopted so we can work ‘hand-in-glove’ with the government and relevant agencies to decipher ways we can use CCPs effectively”. Mr Heidrich noted. In his 26 years of experience managing Industry Associations Mr Heidrich said this is an important milestone in the journey towards changing attitudes about CCPs, in particular how the beneficial use can contribute to the grow focus on the NSW circular economy.
ADAA | JUNE 2021
WRITE FOR COAL ASH MATTERS Coal Ash Matters is the ADAA’s main educational publication that is produced twice a year for the benefit of ADAA members and readers. Before each publication is drafted, an email is sent out to all members, urging them to contribute stories that they think are of interest. The types of content we are looking for include: • New Developments • Technological Innovations • New Projects • New Employees • Industry Research If you have an idea or some content that you think should be shared with the CCP community, get in contact with the editor, May Anderson at email@example.com
COAL ASH matters www.adaa.asn.au