ELL Report - Summer 2015

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E L L R E P ORT / S UMM E R 2015

English Language Learners The opportunities and challenges of increased cultural and linguistic diversity in our region.


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L ATIN L ATIN O O ENEN D OW D OWME M E N TNFTUFNUDN D

In 2014 –15, the Latino Endowment Fund at the Hartford Foundation for Public Giving focused on the issue of English Language Learners (ELL)* through a series of forums. This report examines what we learned and highlights the opportunities and the challenges of increased cultural and linguistic diversity. Our schools and communities are more diverse than ever, with more than 100 different languages spoken in homes throughout Greater Hartford. State and national data demonstrate significant educational attainment and income gaps for English Language Learners when compared to their English-speaking peers. At the same time, the little growth we have seen in the working-age population in Greater Hartford has been driven by migration from outside the continental United States. How can we harness the assets of by a multilingual population to enhance our community and create stronger links to the global marketplace?

We hope this report will be used as a resource to address the challenges of increased cultural and linguistic diversity in our region and continue the dialogue for effective solutions.

*If it is determined that a student’s English proficiency is insufficient “to assure equal educational opportunity in the regular school program,” that child is classified as an “eligible student” for ELL programs.


EN G LIS H L A N G UAG E LEA R N ER S RE P ORT / S U MME R 2 0 1 5

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The globalization of Connecticut and Metro Hartford

500,000

FOREIGN-BORN*

CT RESIDENTS

METRO HARTFORD

1

foreign-born residents

40 %

from LATIN AMERICA

POPULATION GROWTH

in last 25 years

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REFUGEE POPULATION

LATINO

200 %

ASIAN

300 %

4,800 PEOPLE to the state since 2005*

This population arrives with complex social and economic needs.

For the last decade, growth in Metro Hartford’s population has been almost entirely foreign-born.

1/3 of Hartford’s population is Puerto Rican, making it the 4th highest percentage of Puerto Rican people in the continental U.S. PUERTO RICO Not included in “foreign-born” stats but is a significant factor for the issue.

*According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the term foreign-born applies to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth and includes naturalized U.S. citizens, legal permanent residents, temporary migrants, humanitarian migrants and unauthorized migrants. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013 American Community Survey; Refugee Processing Center.


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L ATIN O EN D OW M E N T F U N D

Place of origin, students, and schools in our region

Across Connecticut, there is a concentration of ELL students in the lowest performing schools within the lowest performing districts.

In 2010–11, 78% of all children labeled ELL attended schools in the 30 lowest performing districts. Within these 30 lowest performing districts, 64% of ELL

About ¾ of Connecticut ELL students speak Spanish.

In Metro Hartford, more than 1 in 5 people speak a language other than English at home.

students attend schools that are identified as ‘focus,’ ‘review’ or ‘turnaround’ schools, compared with 43% of non-ELL students in those same districts.

Of the population that speak a language other than English at home, 35% or 85,000 are not proficient in English.

ELL ENROLLMENT IN METRO HARTFORD C REC

H ART FO R D

HIGHER PERFORMING*

UNDER-PERFORMING**

P UB LIC CH ART ER

P E RCE N T E L L STUD E N TS

20%

15%

10%

5%

0% 2010-11

‘11-12

‘12-13

‘13-14

‘10-11

‘11-12

‘12-13

‘13-14

‘10-11

‘11-12

‘12-13

‘13-14

‘10-11

‘11-12

‘12-13

‘13-14

‘10-11

‘11-12

‘12-13

‘13-14

Shor tage Rank By Teacher Type

TEACHER SHORTAGES IN CONNECTICUT For the last 4 years, two of the top 3 shortages in our state have been bilingual and world languages educators.

YEAR

BILINGUAL EDUCATION PK-12

WORLD L ANGUAGES 7-12

2009–10

4

3

2011–12

1

3

2012–13

3

1

2013–14

1

3

2014–15

2

1

* In Metro Hartford: Andover, Avon, Bolton, Canton, East Granby, Ellington, Enfield, Farmington, Glastonbury, Granby, Hebron, Marlborough, Newington, Rocky Hill, Simsbury, Somers, South Windsor, Stafford, Suffield, Tolland, West Hartford, Wethersfield. Based on SDE classification. ** In Metro Hartford: Bloomfield, East Hartford, East Windsor, Manchester, Vernon, Windsor and Windsor Locks. Based on SDE classification. Source: State Department of Education.


EN G LIS H L A N G UAG E LEA R N ER S RE P ORT / S U MME R 2 0 1 5

The persistent academic gap From 3rd grade through high school, ELL students’ performance is much lower than non-ELL students.

% AT / A B O V E G O A L

GRAPH KEY

ELL Students

Non-ELL Students

100

50

MATHE M AT I CS G AP

MULTIPLE NEEDS, MULTIPLE CHALLENGES

0 3

4

5

6

7

8

10

% AT / A B O V E G O A L

GRADE

Researchers believe that, on average, it takes 2 years to master conversational English, yet 5-7 years to master academic English.

100

50

S C I E N C E G AP

0 3

4

5

6

7

8

10

An ELL student may appear fluent in English for everyday conversation, but still struggle with academic English proficiency.

% AT / A B O V E G O A L

GRADE

79% of ELLs are eligible for free/ reduced-price lunch, compared to 35% of all students.*

100

50

R E AD I N G G AP

0 3

4

5

6

7

8

10

8

10

% AT / A B O V E G O A L

GRADE

16% of ELL students are identified for Special Education services vs. 11% of non-ELLs.

100

50

W R I T I N G G AP

0 3

4

5

6 GRADE

7

*

Based on 2011-12 academic year, via State Department of Education, CMT / CAPT data and 2011-12 ELL Data Bulletin.

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L ATIN O EN D OW M E N T F U N D

Linguistics, immigration, and economic development In Connecticut (2013), there are over 191,000 working-age adults with limited English proficiency.

For the 174,000 households in CT that are considered

LINGUISTICALLY ISOLATED* HOUSEHOLDS

62 %

This population has grown 32% since 2000 and now represents 10% of the total workingage population. Over 58% of these are Spanish-speaking.

BELOW $50k household income 88 % BELOW $ 100k

About 20% of all adult ELLs experienced poverty in the last year, about twice the rate in the state as a whole.

NOT LINGUISTICALLY ISOLATED HOUSEHOLDS

28 %

In Connecticut, the earned income of ELL adults is $25,000 per year—less than half of English-speakers’ earnings.

BELOW $50k household income 58 % BELOW $ 100k

Working-age adults with limited English proficiency earn 25-40% less than their English-proficient counterparts.

* All household members 14 years old and over have at least some difficulty with English.

We have an opportunity: Globalization is the future of our workforce and economic development Diversity contributes to our local economy and makes our region more competitive nationally and globally.

Immigrants and their children will account for almost all growth in our labor force in the coming decades.

HISPANIC ENTREPRENEURS IN THE UNITED STATES

577,000

2,000,000

from 1990 to 2012

Immigrants employ 10% of all American workers and generate 16% of the overall US business income.

14K

The number of Hispanic entrepreneurs in the U.S. more than tripled since 1990. Hispanic entrepreneurs grew almost 10 times faster than the U.S. population overall.

HISPANIC / LATINO SMALL BUSINESSES

~ 50% growth rate since 2007

Sources: American Community Survey data via IPUMS-USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 2013; “Better Business: How Hispanic Entrepreneurs Are Beating Expectations and Bolstering the U.S. Economy,” http://www.renewoureconomy.org/; Small Business Administration


EN G LIS H L A N G UAG E LEA R N ER S RE P ORT / S U MME R 2 0 1 5

English Language Learners are an asset to our increasingly global society. Much needs to be done to increase the opportunities for ELL children and adults and to build on the assets of a more culturally diverse population. The Latino Endowment Fund, as an endowed fund at the Hartford Foundation for Public Giving, supports the advancement of the social, economic, educational and leadership development of the Latino community. Building on the expertise of our members, community, providers, and educators, we ask:

What can be done to ensure equitable opportunities for English Language Learners in our region and state? S O M E O F T H E S O LU T I O N S D I S C U S S E D I N C LU D E : State and local education policies should recognize that speaking multiple languages is an asset and something to build on.

Increase the maximum number of months for which students can receive ELL services from 30 to 60 months.

Expand dual-language immersion programs to build a more supportive multilingual environment that can cater to both urban and suburban families.

Introduce a 2-year moratorium on new ELL students being required to take statemandated standardized tests.

Amend teacher certification requirements in Connecticut to allow for greater reciprocity with other states to better attract talent. Provide greater access to affordable professional development to public school teachers for supporting ELL students, and integrate this training into teacher certification programs. Eliminate the state requirement that a district must have a minimum of 20 students requiring ELL support before receiving state funding. All districts that teach students who need ELL support should be eligible for state assistance.

Strengthen efforts to educate parents of ELL students on the availability of supports to assist their children as they transition to English. Support better coordination and collaboration between various adult ESL training programs. Develop an ESL/adult education curriculum for parents that focuses on interactions with their children’s schools and teachers. Provide additional support to create a smooth transition from adult education ESL classes to college-level ESL classes through the development of a coordinated curriculum.

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ABOUT US:

The Latino Endowment Fund at the Hartford Foundation for Public Giving was founded in 2003 by Latino leaders in Greater Hartford to increase philanthropy in their community and to strengthen nonprofits working to improve the quality of life for Latino residents. Members examine issues affecting the Latino community and recommend grants from the fund to address those issues. For more information, contact Wanda Y. Correa at 860-548-1888 or wcorrea@hfpg.org or go to www.hfpg.org/latino.

The Hartford Foundation for Public Giving , established in 1925, is the community foundation for 29 communities in the Hartford region. It is dedicated to putting philanthropy into action to create lasting solutions that result in vibrant communities within the Greater Hartford region. It receives gifts from generous individuals, families and organizations, and in 2014 awarded grants of $33 million to a broad range of area nonprofits. For more information, visit www.hfpg.org or call 860-548-1888.

Let us continue the dialogue to find effective solutions together.