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ISSN 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

# 191, Sector-19 B, Pocket B, Near OPG School, DDA MS Flats, Sanskriti Apartments, Dwarka, New Delhi-110075 Email : editorsangharsh@gmail.com Website : www.dalitsahitya.com , www.dalitliterature.com , http://sangharsh.open-journal.com

Vol. 03, Issue 01 (2014)

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

(Refereed & Peer Reviewed International e-Journal) Vol 3 Issue 1 Jan. to March 2014

Indian Women and Dalit Women Struggle (स्त्री-संघर्ष) Impact Factor

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies


Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

|| अत्त दीपो भव ||

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

|| अत्त दीपो भव || | | SANGHARSH /STRUGGLE || E-JOURNAL OF DALIT LITERARY STUDIES (Refereed & Peer Reviewed International e-Journal) Vol 03 Issue 01 Jan. to March, 2014 www.dalitsahitya.com http://eklavyapublication.in http://sangharsh.open-journal.com Mo. 09408110030

Editor Dr. Parmod Kumar

Guest Editor Dr. Rekha Kurre

Associate Editors Haresh Parmar Dr. Shivdatta Wavalkar Dr. Rekha Kurre Pravin Kumar

Editorial Office Niroj Kumar Sethi Dalip Chavda Namita Satyen Smita Mishra Asmita Sharma Anamika Yadav

Front Page Background Image by Adil Khan (Asmita Theater, New Delhi) www.dalitsahitya.com

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

Editorial board:  Prof. Vimal Thorat, Professor Hindi, School of Humanities, IGNOU, New Delhi E-mail: thorat_vimal@yahoo.com  Prof. Prasad Brahmbhatt, Ex-Director, ASC-UGC, Gujarat Uni., Ahmedabad  Dr. Jitendra Kumar Srivastava, Assosiate Professor in Hindi, School of Humanities, IGNOU, New Delhi. E-mail: jitendra82003@gmail.com  Dr. Ramchandra, Assistant Professor Hindi, J.N.U., New Delhi E-mail: ramchandra.jnu@gmail.com  Prof. Narender Kumar, Dr B. R. Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P E-mail: narenderanju@gmail.com  Dr. Visier Sanyu, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Australia E-mail: nokpao@gmail.com  Dr. Mansukh Gaijan, Head, Deptt. of English, Samaldas Arts College, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar (Gujarat),E-mail : gaijanmb@yahoo.co.in  Dr. Devendra Kumar, Assistant Professor, R.L.A. College (Evening), University of Delhi, Delhi E-mail: tanwar_deven@yahoo.com  Dr. Parmod Kumar, Assistant Professor in English, School of Humanities, IGNOU, New Delhi. E-mail: parmod.mehra@gmail.com  Dr. M. N. Vaghela, Head Of Hindi Department Dr. Virambhai Rajabhai Mahila College opp. Khichadi Mg road, Porbandar – 360575 (Gujarat)

ADVISORY BAORD :       

Prof. Sukhadeo Thorat Prof. Chouthiram Yadav Harish Manglam Omprakash Valmiki Lakshman Gaikwad Chandra Shrimali Vahru Sonvane

|| Sangharsh /struggle ||

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ISSN : 2278-3067

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|| Sangharsh /struggle || E-Journal of DALIT Literary Studies

Objective Sangharsh/Struggle offers to fill the gray areas and address the huge gap in the current day literary discussion and debate (that hide entire sections of our literary and artistic culture), through an alternative perspective, analyzing the Dalit Literature and Culture in its myriad facets and that too on a large scale and in an international context. This literary e-journal seeks to serve the primary objective of initiating an alternative perspective in literary studies and criticism and create space for the voices and opinions which have largely been ignored and overlooked. The journal will encourage and publishes both creative and critical writing and offers a wide range of research based articles on poetry, short fiction, essays and also includes conversations with writers, book reviews and the like. Dalit literature is written in more than seventeen languages but we have opted to focus more on English, Hindi, Marathi and Gujrati Send submissions via e-mail using the following Subject Line: editorsangharsh@gmail.com parmod.mehra@gmail.com hareshgujarati@gmail.com This website is a collaborative effort and a substantial literary and cultural platform. For any query, please feel free to write to below address. Correspondence Address: Dr. Parmod Kumar # 191, Sector-19 B, Pocket B, Near OPG School, DDA MS Flats, Sanskriti Apartments Dwarka, New Delhi-110075 Mobile: +91-9818209985 Send us your creative writings Thank you

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Editorial Voice Sangharsh- e-Journal (A Special Volume on Indian Women and Dalit Women) This special issue is dedicated to the voices or may be the screaming silence of billions of women and girls who have been discriminated, insulted and violated by Patriarchal forces over the years. Though this set of literary arguments is not about the women crisis is general but if we look at the global trends as far as the stretch of the problem is concerned, it is really worrying. According to the UN, one in every three women experiences violence in her life time. This means one billion women are being violated. What is worse is that this war takes place within the home and at the hands of people closest to us. This is domestic terrorism which is global. The two great Civilizations India and China have killed close to 100 million women and girls because of patriarchal reasons. This has been done using the latest technology and done mainly by educated and well off people!! Millions of women were killed in Europe as witches between the 16th and 18th centuries. The story goes on- millions trafficked, millions forced to undergo genital mutilation, millions sick with anorexia in order to look like Barbie doll, millions raped. As a result of all this, for the first time in human history there are less women than men on this Planet. A new EU study of March 2014 conducted by Joanna Goodey of the European Fundamental Rights Agency states that one third of the women in the EU i.e. 62 million women, have experienced physical and/or sexual violence. Germany is even above average, with 35%. 55% women have experienced sexual harassment, among them 75% women in leadership positions. This clearly reveals that sexualised violence is not a result of economic „backwardnessâ€?. This edition raises some very fundamental questions on and about women in general but focuses more on the women who face the worst part of the patriarchal violence. Dr Ambedkar treated all Indian women as dalits (well beyond their caste status) as to fight their domestication introduced Hindu Code Bill. He felt that all women in India continue to live a life that of a second class citizen. He wanted to introduce legislative provisions and legal safeguards through a Bill but that was not allowed to happen. Our contributors have done praiseworthy work in giving voice to the most voiceless women in Indian society. Singularly positioned at the bottom of Indiaâ€&#x;s Page V

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

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caste, class, and gender hierarchies, largely uneducated and consistently paid less than their male counterparts, Dalit women make up the majority of landless laborers and scavengers, as well as a significant percentage of the women forced into prostitution in rural areas or sold into urban brothels. As such, they come into greater contact with landlords and enforcement agencies than their uppercaste counterparts. Their subordinate position is exploited by those in power who carry out their attacks with impunity. Dalit women are at the bottom in our community. Within the women's movement, Dalit issues have not been taken seriously. Within the Dalit movement, women have been ignored. Caste, class, and gender need to be looked at together. Dalit women have contributed to this discourse. Violence to dalit Women is not all news these days. Numbers of Dalit women being raped is alarming through govts are saying so much about measures to control those. The nirbhaya protests and outrage also suggest the hypocrisy of our society in the sense that we come out of our houses only when a person like us get attacked and raped. If there is a case of Dalit Woman, it is very difficult to see any media spotlight or statements from our seasoned politicians. Women's labor is already undervalued; when she is a Dalit, it is nil... The atrocities are also much more vulgar. Cases documented by India's National Commission for Women, by local and national nongovernmental women's rights organizations, and by the press, reveal a pattern of impunity in attacks on women consistent with our findings. In all cases of attacks on women documented in this report, the accused state and private actors escaped punishment; in most cases, attacks were neither investigated nor prosecuted. Until recently, the plight of Dalit women has also been neglected by various political movements. Hopefully, this volume of Sangharsh will take the issues in the right direction. There is a single thought behind this : All what is against women must STOP.

Dr. Parmod Kumar Editor in Sangharsh/Struggle Email : parmod.mehra@gmail.com

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ऄतततथ सम्पादकीय अजादी के आतने सालों बाद अज तियों के संघर्ष की बात की जा रही है क्योंकक ऄब तियों ने तिद्रोह करना और प्रततरोध लेना प्रारं भ कर कदया है| दतलत िी का संघर्ष हो या अम िी का संघर्ष, संघर्ष तो संघर्ष ही होता है ककन्तु आस संघर्ष की तथथतत-पररतथथतत और पररिेश तभन्न–तभन्न होते हैं| ‘संघर्ष’ पतिका का यह तिशेर् ऄंक ‘िी-संघर्ष’ के नाम से हम तनकाल रहे हैं| आस तिशेर् ऄंक तनकालने के पीछे का हमारा ईद्देश्य के िल आतना था की िी जीिन के संघर्ष की तिडम्बनाएँ तभन्न-तभन्न पररतथथततयों के माध्यम से रचनाकार ऄपनी रचना में तलखेगा| मैंने यह कल्पना की थी कक आस ऄंक में तमाम दतलत और गैर दतलत तियों कक समथयाएं, जीिन-संघर्ष चाहे िह पाररिाररक, सामातजक, अर्थथक, धार्थमक और सांथकृ ततक तथथततयों से गुजरते हुए ऄपनी समथयाओं एिं जीिन में बीते ईन लम्हों को तजनसे िे या तो जूझ रहीं हैं या ईभर चुकी हैं, ईन्हें बेबाक ढंग से तलख डाले या किर सातहत्य, सातहतत्यक कृ ततयों और किल्म के माध्यम से ऄपने तिचारों को ऄतभव्यति प्रदान करें | आसके तलए हमारी टीम ने ऄथक प्रयास भी ककया| ऄतधक से ऄतधक व्यतियों, तियों, तिद्यालयों, महातिद्यालयों और तिश्व तिद्यालयों के साथ ही साथ ईन तियों को भी जोड़ने का प्रयास ककया जो (गृहणी) गृह कायष करने में ऄपना जीिन यापन कर रहीं हैं| हम के िल ईनके जीिन के संघर्ष कक सच्चाआयों को लाना चाहते हैं तजससे समाज में तियों के संघर्ष को पढ़ा जा सके | तियों में भी अत्मतिश्वास अ सके , की िे भी कु छ तलख सकती हैं और ईनके जीिन का संघर्ष भी हमारे समाज के संघर्ष का ही तहथसा है| सातहत्य से जुड़े व्यतियों के अलािा भी ऄन्य व्यति जो तलखने-पढ़ने में रूतच रखते हैं एसे व्यतियों को भी जोड़ना हमारा ईद्देश्य रहा है| अज भी तियों में लेखन के क्षेि में साहस की कमी है| ऄपने ऄनुभिों को तलखने में भी कदक्कत है भले िे ऄपनी सारी बातें ऄपने करीबी ररश्तेदारों या दोथतों को बता देती हैं ककन्तु तलखने का साहस नहीं जुटा पातीं हैं| क्या िे लेखन से डरती हैं या किर तलखकर समाज के सामने अने िाली सच्चाइ से डरती हैं| भले ही िे ऄपना समय टीिी, किल्म, धूमने किरने या लोगों की बुराइ करने में लगा दे, ककन्तु तलखेंगी नहीं| यहाँ तक की पढ़ी तलखी नोकरीपेशा तियों ने भी बहुत कम तलखा है| अज सभी व्यति कहते हैं और देखते भी हैं की पहले की तुलना में मतहलाओं में बदलाि अ गया है ककन्तु मुझे ऄब लगता है कक यह बदलाि तशक्षा ऄर्थजत करने, नौकरी करने, पैसा कमाने, ऄपने घर के सामान जुटाने और दूसरों कक देखा-देखी करने में ही बदलाि अया है, मतहलाओं में यह बदलाि ऄभी लेखन के क्षेि में बाकी है| लेखन के क्षेि में बदलाि लाने के तलए हमने यह कदम ईठाया ताकक आस ऄंक से हर अम और खास िी–पुरुर् जुड़ सकें | अज भी हम पीछे पलट कर देखें तो हर क्षेि में दतलत तियों की संख्या बहुत कम है| बस! आतना जरूर कहा जा सकता है कक िे भी अज पढ़-तलख कर नौकरी करने लगी हैं, घर कक तजम्मेदारी ईठाने लगीं हैं| हालांकक दतलत िी जीिन की ऄनेक चुनौततयाँ हैं जैसे जातत, रं ग, अर्थथक पररतथथतत, सामातजक पररतथथतत, सांथकृ ततक और धार्थमक पररतथथतत अकद| जातत के अधार पर िी हो या पुरुर् दोनों शोतर्त होते हैं, ककन्तु तिडम्बना यह है कक िी का शोर्ण ऄतधक होता है| बाहरी समाज के द्वारा और घर में पतत, तपता, पुि अकद के द्वारा| अज भी दतलत िी सामान्य तियों कक तुलना में ऄतधक मार सहन कर जीिन यापन कर रहीं हैं| िे ईनका तिद्रोह चाह कर भी नहीं कर पा रहीं है| बहुत सी दतलत नौकरीपेशा िी अर्थथक रूप से अज भी थितंि नहीं हो पाइ है| Page VII

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िीिाद और िी-तिमशष दोनों ऄलग–ऄलग मुद्दे हैं, जो की ऄब पुराने प्रतीत होने लगे हैं, ककन्तु अज भी िी से जुड़ा प्रत्येक मुद्दा समकालीन और चुनौती भरा है| तपतृसत्ता के तखलाि अज तियों के द्वारा ककया जा रहा तिद्रोह और अत्म तनणषय की क्षमता ने ही ईन्हें अगे बढाया है| तियों के आसी बदलाि को देखने परखने और ईनसे जुड़ी समथयाओं को समाज के समक्ष प्रथतुत करने एिं कायष करने का एक छोटा सा प्रयास ककया है| तजसमें हम कहाँ तक सिल हुए हैं आसका जिाब अप पाठकों से ही जानना चाहेंगे| हमने प्रयास ककया है आस पतिका में तिशेर्कर नए शोधार्थथयों के ईत्साह और लेखन को एक थथान तमलना चातहए| कु छ ऐसे भी शोधाथी या लेखक हैं तजन्होंने पहली बार शोध पि या अलेख तलखा है, ईन्हें भी आसतलए शातमल कर रहे है ताकक ईनमें अत्मतिश्वास पैदा हो और िे ऄगली बार आससे बेहतर प्रयास कर सकें | डॉ. रे खा कु रे ऄतसथटेंट प्रोफ़े सरहहदी तिभाग, मानतिकी एिं भार्ा ऄध्ययन के न्द्र राजथथान के न्द्रीय तिश्वतिद्यालय, बादरहसदरी, तहसील- ककशनगढ़, तजला – ऄजमेर, - 305817 Email : rkurre1705@gmail.com

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Table of Contents  

Editorial Voice Guest Editorial

V VII

English 1. Human Rights of Dalit Women: Issues and Challenges Dr. Seema Mathur 01-07 2. Breaking Prolonged Silence of Women with reference to Henrik Ibsen‟s “A Doll‟s House” Ruchi Tomar 08-14 3. Relevance of Freedom To Women In Buddhism Dr. Manish Meshram 15-22 4. Dalit Studies: A new critical perspective Dr. Rajesh Kumar 23-35 5. A Namika A Sexual – Anamika Asexual Dr. Shiva Prasad G. 36-40 6. Role of Women and their Impact on Manipur's Society Chingangbam Anupama 41-45 7. Local government and the women participation among the Scheduled Caste villages in Manipur: A case study of Sekmai Nagar Panchayat, Sekmai. Rakesh S. Khwairakpam 46-61 8. The Dancing Women: A Postcolonial Study into R.K Narayan‟s The Guide and The Man -Eater of Malgudi Kousik Adhikari 62-73 9. Oppression and Resistance: A Study of Sivakami‟s The Grip of Change Darshan Lal and Dr. Mukesh Ranjan 74-82 10. The Translation into English: Elaborate life‟s experiences in Dalit Autobiographies to Ambedkarist, A word with you, world and The Scar Navnath B Sonwane 83-98 11. The alarming violence against northeastern women in India Kirti Bhardwaj 99-106 12. Social Mobility among Scheduled Caste: A Sociological Analysis Harish Kumar 107-118 13. The rise and development of Indian Nationalism and External Forces during 1885 to 1905 Mr Virendra Kumar 119-133 Hindi 14. ऄमृता प्रीतम जीिन, किन और िीतिमशष डॉ. एम. एन. िाघेला

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15. तिधिा ईद्धार की ‘प्रततज्ञा’ प्रमोद मीणा

140-147

16. दतलत कहानी का िीिादी थिर डॉ. ब्रह्मा नंद

148-158

17. मीरां बाइ का भति-सातहत्य और ईसकी प्रासंतगकता डॉ. कदिाकर गरिा

159-162

18. महत्िकांक्षी नारी की हजदगी : एक सिरनामा ( ‘मुझे चाँद चातहए’ ईपन्यास के तिशेर् संदभष में ) डॉ. भरत कु मार. िी. भेडा

163-166

19. ‘दोहरा ऄतभशाप’ अत्मकथा में ऄतभव्यि दतलत िी जीिन का संघर्ष जयराम कु मार पासिन

167-171

20. िी सशतिकरण : संभािनाएँ एिं लक्ष्य शीला अयाष

172-178

21. मतहला सशतिकरण में डॉ. ऄम्बेडकर एक प्रेरणा िोत के रूप में नानकचन्द गौतम

179-181

22. ‘पचपन खंभे लाल दीिारे ' ईपन्यास में नारी समथया जयंतीलाल बाररश

182-185

23. मतहलाओं पर एतसड ऄटैक के रूप में हो रही हहसा : एक ऄध्ययन मनोज कु मार गुप्ता

186-189

24. कातलदास के रूपकों में नारी समथया जहाँ अरा

190-192

25. िी सशतिकरण : संभािनाएँ और चुनौततयाँ देतिना ऄछ्यिर

193-196

26. िणषव्यिथथा के संिास को ऄतभव्यि करती ‘आततशेर्’ ऄंतशता शुक्ला

197-202

27. िेद कालीन समाज में िीयों की दशा ऄनीस ऄब्बास ररजिी

203-205

28. दतलत-अन्दोलन और िी-संघर्ष (कनाषटक के तिशेर् सन्दभष में ) सुनील कु मार यादि

206-212

Sort Stories 29. Posted from the prison Jai Anbu

213-214

30. पुनःथथातपत मूल मराठी लेतखका– मथु सािंत हहदी ऄनुिाद- शेख ऄंसारपाशा

215-220

तिजेंद्र प्रताप हसह

221-225

31. तशखर

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32. रोशनी गोतिन्द बैरिा

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33. भूत (लघुकथा) पूरन हसह

171

Poem’s 34. आलू-आलू ईदय प्रकाश

233-234

35. ऄपना अने िाला कल ... पूनम दतहया

235

36. िी और बंधन मुति रे खा कु रे

236

37. काँच की चूतड़याँ और पीड़ा ऄनातमका यादि

237

38. िी तुम ऐसा ही रहो रम्या िी.

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कतिता भदौररया

239-240

39. माँ 40. नयी सदी की औरत ऄनुपम मोंतगया

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Human Rights of Dalit Women: Issues and Challenges Dr. Seema Mathur1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. So, we are all equally entitled to our human rights without any discrimination. 2 Human rights are moral principles that set out certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in national and international law. They are "commonly understood as fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being. But in case of Dalits, women and Dalit women in particular it is not applied as they are treated unequal. “Many [Dalit women] experience some of the worst forms of discrimination. The reality of Dalit women and girls is one of exclusion and marginalization, which perpetuates their subordinate position in society and increases their vulnerability, throughout generations.” Rashida Manjoo, the UN Special Rapporteur and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, on June 4, 2013, in Zeneva on Multiple and Intersecting Forms of Discrimination and Violence against Dalit Women. According to her the combination of caste and gender makes millions of Dalit women extremely vulnerable to discrimination and violence, including rape, forced prostitution, and modern forms of slavery. Specific types of work continue to be assigned to them on the basis of their hierarchical status. Although there are laws to protect them, implementation remains an obstacle. Also new laws are useless unless they are implemented, as we have seen with previous efforts to ensure protection of Dalit rights. Therefore all United Nations member states should focus urgent attention and decisive action to improve conditions for Dalit women.3 In India, some around 200 million people or more than 16% are ranked as ―untouchables‖ or Dalits at the bottom of caste system. Dalits are ‗outcastes‘ falling outside the traditional four classes of Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, & 1

Dr. Seema Mathur Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Kalindi College, University of Delhi, Delhi Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) „Women and Girls Facing Caste-Based Discrimination Need Special Protections‟, available on http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/06/07/take-action-improve-conditions-dalit-women, retrieved on 10.4.2014 2 3

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Shudra. They are typically considered low, impure & polluting based on their birth and traditional occupation. Thus they face multiple forms of discrimination, violence, and exclusion from the rest of society. Dalits are discriminated against, denied access to land and basic resources, forced to work in degrading conditions, and routinely abused at the hands of police and dominant-caste groups that enjoy the state's protection. Though, the Constitution of India guarantees all citizens basic human rights regardless of caste, creed, gender, or ethnicity in favor of Justice, Equality, Liberty, and Fraternity but the implementation and enforcement of these principles has, unfortunately, been a terrible failure. Despite the fact that ―untouchability‖ was abolished under the article 17, the practice of ―untouchability remains very much a part of rural areas and in urban also. ―Untouchables‖ may not use the same wells, visit the same temples, drink from the same cups in tea stalls, or lay claim to land that is legally theirs. Dalit children are frequently made to sit in the back of classrooms, and communities as a whole are made to perform degrading rituals in the name of caste. Most Dalits continue to live in extreme poverty, without land or opportunities for better employment or education. With the exception of a small minority who have benefited from India‘s policy of quotas or reservation in education and government jobs, Dalits are consigned to the most menial of tasks, as manual scavengers, removers of human waste and dead animals, leather workers, street sweepers, sewage workers and cobblers. Dalits who dare to challenge the social order have been subject to abuses by their dominant-caste neighbors through social boycotts, including loss of employment and access to water, grazing lands, and ration shops. For most Dalits in rural India who earn less than a survival living as agricultural laborers, a social boycott may mean poverty and starvation.1 But Dalit women, treated as ‗last person in the society‘ are the most vulnerable because they face the triple burden of caste, class, and gender. They face untouchability, discrimination and violence much more than their male counterparts. Violence on dalit women by the dominant caste communities reveals the ―world view‖ as inferior, impure, of low character, easily available and accessible. Being a Dalit woman, abuse is used to remind her of her caste and keep her oppressed. Not only their performance with regard to human development indicators are much lower compared to their counterpart from rest of the women, also the instances of atrocities are far higher than non-Dalit women.

Overview of Dalit Human Rights Situation‘ available on http://www.ncdhr.org.in/dalit-rightssituation, retrieved on 12.04.2014 1

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Physical assault, verbal abuse, sexual harassment, rape, forced prostitution, kidnapping are the common experiences of dalit women. But certain kinds of violence seems to be reserved for dalit women like extreme filthy verbal abuse and sexual epithets, naked parading, dismembership, forced to drink urine and human excreta, tied to a pole and beaten, pulling out the teeth/tongue/nail and murder by proclaiming witches. Forced prostitution through dedication to Goddess is reserved only for dalit women as is the fact that majority of manual scavengers are dalit women. Demands for sexual relationship, sexual exploitation, rape, mental, harassment, torture by police and other administrative machinery are most often placed only on dalit women. Apart from this untouchability and social exclusion being faced by the Dalit community, takes shape of an institutionalized system in some places in context to Dalit women, called ‗Devadasi‘, Jogini and ‗Chira system‘. It is estimated that 5000 to 15,000 dalit girls between the ages 6 to 13 years old are dedicated as devadasi or jogini every year in AP, Karnataka, Maharastra and Orissa. These dalit girls are unable to marry and instead forced to become a prostitute for temple priests, dominant castes and all men in the village. According to National Human Rights Commission Rape is used as a political instrument and these women become the targets of anger and wrath of the dominant castes. While women from other social groups have also been the victims of rape, Dalit women are particularly vulnerable to such crimes. In the state of Haryana, for example, 17 cases of alleged rapes were registered in September 2012 alone. But the vast majority of crimes against Dalit women are not reported due to fear of social ostracism and threats to personal safety and security.1 The socio-economic status of Dalit Women directly depends on their participation in politics. In spite of reservation given to them at panchayat (village) level their participation is dismal in the local governance. Dalit women face direct obstacles right from the time of filing nominations right up to announcement of the election results, including caste and sexually-based verbal abuse; harassment, threats or physical assaults; property destruction; restrictions on freedom of movement; and illegal and fraudulent voting practices. The members of the higher castes, who are not prepared to hand over the power to the lower castes, grabbed their land. An easier method to retain power is to putup proxy candidates but keep the control in the hands of the dominant castes, 1

http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/Discussion2013/InternationalDalitSolida rityNetwork.pdf

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always men. An important obstacle is the no-confidence motion against dalit women as Pradhan by the dominant sections. Dalit women also face violence when they try to access rights and entitlements provided by the constitution and the government. In addition to facing discrimination and untouchability in accessing welfare schemes, women from Dalit community also face sexual and other kinds of physical violence. The recent years has also seen a rising violence against Dalit human rights defenders, and Dalit women activists are all the more vulnerable in this scenario as the violence against them take the shape and form of sexual violence-rape, gang rape, being paraded naked etc. According to official Indian crime statistics, averaged, ―27 atrocities against Dalits every day, 13 Dalits murdered every week, 5 Dalits’ homes or possessions burnt every week, 6 Dalits kidnapped every week, 3 Dalit women raped every day, 11 Dalits beaten every day, every single crime committed against a Dalit for every 18 minutes”.1 A three-year study of 500 Dalit women‘s experiences of violence across four Indian states (UP,TN, Bihar and AP) done by NCDHR shows the majority of Dalit women report having faced one or more incidents of verbal abuse (62.4%), physical assault (54.8%), sexual harassment and assault (46.8%), domestic violence (43.0%) and rape (23.2%) but the perpetrators are punished in less than 1% of the cases. They go scot-free in more than 99% of the crimes committed. The study also reveals that in 39% of the instances of violence the victims did not seek legal redress for fear of bringing dishonor to the family or did not trust that she will get justice or for lack of human or financial support. In 20% cases of violence the appeal for justice to the Gram Panchayat or administration in thwarted by pressure and threat from the perpetrators. In 18% of cases the police thwarted justice be threatening, refusing to file complaint case. In only 2% cases some kind of informal justice was arrived and in 4% cases are in the court and the rate of conviction is only 0.1%. The UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women visited India in May 2013. She concluded that Dalit women and women from other marginalised groups exist ―at the bottom of the political, economic and social systems, and they experience some of the worst forms of discrimination and oppression -

‗Cast an Eye on the Dalits of India-166, 635, 700 of them: Impoverished and excluded, abuse and humiliated, denied justice, exploited untouchables‘ by International Dalit Solidarity Network (IDSN), Denmark, pg-4, website- www.idsn.org, dated on July 6, 2008 1

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thereby perpetuating their socio-economic vulnerability across generations.‖ 1 The Special Rapporteur‘s 2009 report contains an overwhelming number of accounts of Dalit women in India being raped and beaten by higher castes, when attending their daily doings, such as working in the field, going the market or doing domestic work. Sometimes disputes over land and resources can be a cause of violence, but just as often they are violated simply because they are Dalit women.2 Inefficiency of Police Police also often registered the cases of atrocities against dalit women under the ordinary IPC provisions not under Schedule caste and Schedule Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. However not actors state can find under section 4 of the SC/ST (PoA) Act 1989 for official negligence. On a similar line one can easily see in how many states District Vigilance Committee established to monitor caste tensions and prevent atrocities against dalit, have been set up but remain only on papers. Unreachable Judiciary It should be also noted that in India about 90 percent crimes against Dalit women are not reported to the police for the fear of social ostracism and threat to personal safety and security especially Dalit women. Also the legal proceedings are so complicated, delayed, time consuming, costly and unfriendly to Dalits that usually they do not approach courts or other law enforcing agencies for their redressal. Laws- unimplemented: Laws granting Dalits special consideration for government jobs and education reach only a small percentage of those they are meant to benefit. Laws designed to ensure that Dalits enjoy equal rights and protections have seldom been enforced. Instead, police refuse to register complaints about violations of the law and rarely prosecute those responsible for abuses that range from murder and rape to exploitative labor practices and forced displacement from Dalit lands and homes. Laws and government policies on land reform and budget allocations for

1

http://idsn.org/fileadmin/user_folder/pdf/New_files/Key_Issues/Dalit_Women/DALIT_WO MEN_-_IDSN_briefing_paper.pdf 2 Yakin Ertürk, (UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women), ‗Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural, including the right to development‟-Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences , May 2009‘.

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the economic empowerment unimplemented.1

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of

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community

remain

largely

The lack of access to education is a problem for the Dalit community. Many Dalit families living in rural areas are unable to send their children to school because of geographical or financial constraints. In addition, young women are often married young and thus unable to continue their education, resulting in high illiteracy rates and the inability to be self-sufficient and financially contribute to the family. Their daily diet is the leftover of family meals, inadequate in quantity and quality. Health services are either not available in case of illness or unaffordable even if available. In addition to that, due to early marriage and too many pregnancies their health is always at risk.2 These women are also suffer from social, political, and economic powerlessness.3 In brief the major issues of Dalit Women are:  Untouchability/Caste discrimination  Economic backwardness  Ignorance  Absolute poverty  Malnutrition  Severe condition of reproductive health  High mortality and fertility rate  Sexual exploitation  Lack of employment opportunity  Compulsion for prostitution  Illiteracy  Lowest life expectancy  Less representation at political including policy and decision levels  Trafficking Suggestions recommendation:  The dignified representation of Dalit women at all state mechanisms should be ensured.  Reservation mechanism should be implemented effectively so that Dalit women can access to their economic, social, cultural and civil and political rights. Mathur, Seema, ‗Dalit Women and Violence‘, Ph.D. Thesis, JMI, Delhi. ‗Dalit Women Atrocities‟, available on http://dalitmarch.org/dalit-women-atrocities.html, retrieved on 15.4.2014 3 „Dalit Women and their Major Issues‟ http://www.jagarannepal.org/dalit-women-and-theirmajor-issues, retrieved on 4.12.2014 1 2

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  

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Dalits ownership on land should be ensured with due consideration to Dalit women on their access and control over resources. Compensation to the victims of trafficking, rape, sexual exploitation, displacement should be provided timely. Campaigns for equal and rational distribution of natural resources among weaker sections can be organized to secure their rightful means of livelihood. Massive awareness against caste discrimination should be increased and strong legal action should be taken in the case of caste discrimination and abuses. NHRC and NCW should take steps to stop violence against dalit women. But the most important thing is that all the women movement and organizations should give space for dalit women in their programs as well as in their studies so that sisterhood comes true in this world of globalization. The Government of India (GOI) should bring out disaggregated data based on caste and gender and build schemes to address the needs of Dalit women.

Violence against Dalit women is to deny them opportunities, choices and freedoms at multiple levels, undermining not only dalit women‘s dignity and self-respect, but also their right to development. Therefore, now the time when India is rising as star on the world stage, we all committed to human rights and principles of justice, equality, liberty, fraternity must not allow Indian Government to ignore the injustice and oppression against Dalits and Dalit women in particular any longer. Also India is a democracy and is a Party to most of the major human rights treaties. These treaties provide the same rights for men and for women. Because India is also a Party to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Government has an extra obligation to make sure that women can realise their human rights. 1 Government should step ahead to erase its deep-rooted castementality and to properly enforce its laws, implement its policies, and fulfill its responsibility to protect the basic human rights of ALL of its citizens. 2 It is absolutely necessary that common people need to be sensitized about the prevailing atrocities against Dalit women. There is a growing need to capture violation of human rights of dalit women, so that talent and potential of Dalit Women can be used for development of nation.3

1

www.rightlivelihood.org/fileadmin/.../Background_Manorama.pdf

2‘Overview

of Dalit Human Rights Situation’ available on http://www.ncdhr.org.in/dalit-rightssituation, retrieved on 12.04.2014 3 ‗Dalit Women Atrocities‟, available on http://dalitmarch.org/dalit-women-atrocities.html, retrieved on 15.4.2014

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Breaking Prolonged Silence of Women with reference to Henrik Ibsen’s “A Doll’s House” Ruchi Tomar1 Unlike any other movement, Feminism his both an intellectual commitment and a political movement that seeks justice for women and puts an end to sexism in all forms. In fact, Feminism has numerous definitions and several interpretations because the theory itself varies according to which division of feminism is using it. However, it has a general aim that gathers all these definitions under one umbrella, which is changing the degrading view of a woman as a ''nonsignificant other'' both in real world and in literature. Simone de Beauvoir, in her essay ―Introduction to The Second Sex” states that women are classified as ‗the Other‘ in society, hence making them secondary to men. It is based on the idea that each person is unique even if men and women may have different tendencies, , and it is culture which has enforced a uniform set of expectations of what is ‗feminine,‘ as contrasted to what is ‗human‘ which is equated with what is male. It is argued that through individual decisions and collective action women can free themselves. Men are viewed as the leaders in society and women are simply viewed as secondary objects, thus creating class struggle and gender. Man can think of himself without woman. She cannot think of herself without man. Simone De Beauvoir in her essay asserts: ―He is the Subject, he is the Absolute – she is the Other.”(34) The lives and experiences of women and men occur within complex sets of social and cultural expectations. Importantly, there is value placed on the ‗differences‘ that exist between women and men. Existence of women heavily depends on men, they have no existence of their own. Simone further argues: “One is not born, but becomes a woman”(14) and elaborates it in this way: ―No biological, psychologiacal, or economic fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society: it is civilization as a whole that produces this creature, intermediate between male and eunuch, which is described as feminine.”. (14) Men‘s characteristics 1

Ruchi Tomar

Research Scholar, Department of English and Modern European Languages, Lucknow University, Lucknow

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and behaviors are perceived as more valuable then women‘s behaviors – as a result, we see gender inequality ‗Men are first, women are after; this is a very well known idea of a man‘s and an anti-feminist‘s mentality. Therefore, Ibsen's play, especially ―A Doll's House” is a realistic play, and perfect example of feminism for this play address a universal problem that women faced in the nineteenth century, and depict everyday life. It seems that Ibsen has noticed the inequalities that existed in society at that time between men and women, and he attempted to write about them by showing how women were the real victims of this discrimination. During this period of nineteenth century and even after that, women were viewed as homemakers, not able to perform in society with men. They were completely dependent on men for livelihood and were degraded and debased by men to believe that they were worth almost nothing, only worthy of bearing children. This superfluous male domination lead to many women feeling trapped in their own homes, unable to escape from the confinements placed on them by their husbands. They were depraved of many human rights and given little in return for their contributions to society. The roles of women have been a big part of literature and are usually a representation of how the roles of women in real life have evolved. Although accomplished in different ways like financial, personal and social some female characters decide to take their life choices in their own hands and step outside of the box society has made for them in search for the identity. It is difficult to balance our personal need for freedom with our responsibility to others. Men would never find the need to write books on the situation of the human male…a man does not ever need to begin any book, sentence, paragraph, what ever the case may be by presenting himself as an individual of a certain sex: it goes without saying he is a man. Even after stressing the importance of women through many works, they are constantly ignored or criticized by the society. Simone De Beauvoir in ―Introduction to the Second Sex‖ said: “Man is defined as a human being and a woman as a female - whenever she behaves as a human being she is said to imitate the male.”(3) Women are victims of suppression and oppression by the dominating male, brother, father or husband. Furthermore, they argue women's rights for freedom and equality, and they limelight on the reality of the marriages. They conclude by asserting that women, who attempt to fight maledomination, are the real victims because they are unable to deal with the circumstances and eventually take their own way out of it. Henrik Ibsen‘s play ―A Doll‟s House‖ shows a woman‘s struggle for freedom in her marriage and society. Through the use of character change, Ibsen conveys his theme that by breaking away all the expectations of the society, one can be true to himself. In Ibsen‘s play through the character of Nora Helmer, one sees a ‗perfect‘ wife, who Page 9

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lives in a ‗perfect‘ house with a ‗perfect‘ husband and children. Nora and Torvald's relationship, on the outside appears to be a happy. Nora is treated like a child in this relationship, but as the play progresses she begins to realize how phony her marriage is. Torvald, for all his faults, appears to be a loving, devoted and generous husband. But it later transpires that he is a shallow, vain man, concerned mainly with his public reputation, and too weak to deliver on his promise to shoulder any burden that would fall upon Nora. The Helmer‘s marriage appears loving, but turns out to be based on lies, play-acting and an unequal relationship. Torvald defines his life by what society finds acceptable and respectable. He is more concerned about the attractive appearance of his wife and home than he is about his wife's happiness. When she tries to convince him to keep Krogstad in his job, his main concern is what the bank employees will think of him if they believe he has been influenced by his wife. And even after he has rejected Nora, he wants her to remain under his roof to preserve the image of a respectable marriage. Throughout the drama, Nora keeps referring to ‗the wonderful.‘ This ‗wonderful‟ is what Nora expects to happen after Krogstad reveals the truth of her forgery. She had been hoping that Torvald would emerge as a saviour and take the blame upon him in order to protect her good name. She feels that this will be the true test of his love and devotion. But Torvald does not offer to help Nora, in fact, he belittles her. The irony, of course, is that Torvald's ‗doll wife‟ had been, from the beginning of their marriage, a strong woman of courage who acted independently to save his life. Because of her position in society, she was forced to commit a crime to follow her conscience and save her husband, another choice that never should have been forced upon her. The main problem in A Doll's House does not lie with Torvald alone. Though he does not help the situation, he is a product of his society. In the society of this period, females were confined in every way imaginable. Everything they did had to have their husband's approval, whether it dealt with money, business, or anything else of significance. At times, they could not even speak their true thoughts or feelings without a harsh reprimanding. In this society, wives were to be seen and not heard. Torvald even calls Nora pet names like ‗my sweet little lark‘ and ‗my squirrel‟. (37) These names may seem to be harmless and cute little nicknames, but the names actually show how little he thinks of her. Nora is ―regarded as property rather than a partner‖. He isn‘t treating her like a real person. In Torvald eyes, she isn‘t an equal. Nora is viewed as an object, a toy, a child, but never an equal. Torvald makes little rules for Nora to obey. During the time period when the play was written, a husband controlling his wife and making rules for her

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was common. One incident of control is when Nora comes home from Christmas shopping. Torvald knows how much Nora loves macaroons and suspects she has bought some to eat. He comments to Nora: “My sweet tooth really didn‟t make a little detour through the confectioner…not even munched a macaroon or two” (54) Torvald is making a huge issue over something small and worthless. This is an example of how much control a man had over a woman. Nora wasn‘t supposed to do anything without his consent. Torvald controlled Nora in everyway possible or so he thought he did. Torvald doesn‘t like her spending so much. Nora is enslaved by Torvald in economic terms. Torvald also teases Nora about being a spendthrift: this is his way of displaying his dominance over her, since he who controls the money controls the relationship. Nora's attempt to take partial control of the money in their marriage by taking out the loan ends in disaster, as Torvald feels morally shamed by her action. It has put him at the mercy of Krogstad and, it is implied, compromised his standing as a man and a moral member of the society. Nora has several secrets she has been hiding from her husband. One secret is the loan she forges her father‘s signature on. She borrows the loan from Krogstad to save Torvald‘s life. ―She has committed forgery and she is proud of it, for she did it out of love for her husband, to save his life”. (73) Woman borrowing money during this time period is not a small issue. As Kristine tells Nora, “A wife can‟t borrow without her husband‟s consent‖. (145) Torvald eventually gets well and Nora is left with paying the loan back. She finds ways to save money. As Nora herself states, ―Torvald gives me money for new clothes and such, I never used more than half”. (145) Nora also searches different methods of earning. She got a job where she has to do lot of copying. Nora shows that she is a responsible person when she repays the loan at great personal sacrifice and feels equal to her husband. She was happy with the feeling that she is now a earning woman in a maledominated society. ―Still it was tremendous fun sitting there working and earning money. It was almost like being a man."(145) On noticing the change in Nora‘s character one sees two different sides of her. The beginning of the play reveals a woman totally dependent on her husband for everything. It isn‘t until the end of the play that she realizes she can be herself and she doesn‘t have to depend on her husband. Nora realizes that if she wants an identity as an adult that she must leave her husband‘s home. "I have another duty equally sacred...My duty to myself." (197) By examining Nora, we see from Ibsen‘s theme that if we ignore all the expectations the social world has for a person; our true selves can be revealed. At the very heart of A Doll‟s House is a drama of human metamorphosis. Ibsen was fascinated by the way human beings are capable of radical change,

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and he recognized that such transformations are the fundamental precondition for what he called self realization. The character of Nora Helmer in Ibsen‘s play goes through the dramatic transformation of a caring and loving housewife, to a desperate and bewildered woman, who will ultimately leave her husband and her home. Ibsen uses both the characters of Torvald and Nora to represent the tones and beliefs of nineteenth century society. By doing this, Ibsen effectively creates a dramatic argument that continues to this day; that of feminism. In today's society, many women are in a situation similar to Nora's. Although many people have accepted women as being equal, there are still those who are doing their best to suppress the feminist revolution. Torvald is an example of men who are only interested in their appearance and the amount of control they have over a person. These are the men that are holding society down by not caring about the feelings of others. But Torvald is not the only guilty party. Nora, although very submissive, is also very manipulative. She makes Torvald think he is much smarter and stronger, but in reality, she thinks herself to be quite crafty as far as getting what she wants. However, when the door is slammed, Torvald is no longer exposed to Nora's manipulative nature. He then comes to the realization of what true love and equality are, and that they cannot be achieved with people like Nora and him together. When everyone finally views males and females as equals, and when neither men nor women overuse their power of gender that society gives them, is when true equality will exist in the world. Simone said in her essay “Introduction to the Second Sex”: “Women have gained only what men have been willing to grant; they have taken nothing, they have only received.” (5) For Ibsen his aim in life was to inspire individuals to freedom and independence, which was shown throughout the play A Doll House. Since he wrote modern theatre, the characters were original and readers could relate to them. He particularly questioned the role of men and women during his time. Ibsen used A Doll House to motivate women so they would seek more power and freedom in their relationships. Audiences could then look up to characters such as Nora and Mrs Linde who were independent, some what ahead of their times. Ibsen‘s purpose was to not only to enlighten women of their unfair status but also to make the men understand women are much smarter than what they think. His goal was to change these attitudes of all humans so equality could be reached. Ibsen's A Doll's House is classified under the ‗second phase‘ of Henrik Ibsen's career. It was during this period which he made the transition from mythical and historical dramas to plays dealing with social problems. It was the first in a series investigating the tensions of family life. Written during the

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Victorian era, the controversial play featuring a female protagonist seeking individuality stirred up more controversy than any of his other works. The heroine, Nora Helmer, progresses during the course of the play eventually to realize that she must discontinue the role of a doll and seek out her individuality. Ibsen in his A Doll's House depicts the role of women as subordinate in order to emphasize the need to reform their role in society. Definite characteristics of the women's subordinate role in a relationship are emphasized through Nora's contradicting actions. Henrik Ibsen‘s A Doll’s House illustrates, through the characters of Nora and Torvald Helmer, the subordinate and confining position of women in marriages of the late nineteenth century. Through the character of Nora, Ibsen shows us that a woman was expected to be little more than a child in her own marriage, incapable of taking on serious issues, and useful only for her ability to amuse her husband. Nora‘s decision at the end of the play conveys Ibsen‘s idea that a woman has a duty to herself and that marriage is so confining that she can fulfill that duty only by leaving. Ibsen, through this controversial play, has an impact upon society's view of the subordinate position of women. By describing this role of woman, discussing its effects, and predicting a change in contemporary views, he stressed the importance of woman's realization of this believed inferiority. Woman should no longer be seen as the shadow of man, but a person in herself, with her own triumphs and tragedies. The exploration of Nora reveals that she is dependant upon her husband and displays no independent standing. Her progression of understanding suggests woman's future ability to comprehend their plight. Her state of shocked awareness at the end of the play is like the awakening of society to the changing view of the role of woman. Through, A Doll's House Ibsen magnificently illustrates the need for and a prediction of this change. The character of Nora is not only important in describing to role of women, but also in emphasizing the impact of this role on a woman. Nora's child-like manner, evident through her minor acts of disobedience and lack of responsibility compiled with her lack of sophistication further emphasize the subordinate role of woman. By the end of the play this is evident as she eventually sees herself as an ignorant person, and unfit mother, and essentially her husband's wife. Nora has been spoon-fed everything she has needed in life. Never having to think has caused her to become dependent on others. Determining Self and Other is usually a reciprocal relationship and one can usually discover and understand it. Self to one is Other to the Others.

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Class struggle has been a major part of society from a very long time and will continue to be one as generations pass. Men need to start viewing women with more respect as women are the sole reason these men are here in this world today. If men consider themselves the rulers of society then they should give women some sort of consideration for this. The same women that are looked upon as the Other and are degraded by men, are the same females that are responsible to bringing men to the position they are today. Many women experiencing oppression need to speak up. Although many women feel that speaking up makes no difference; well staying silent is not going to make any different either. Hence, men and women both need each other and the inequalities between them should be erased.

Works Cited De Beauvoir, Simone. Introduction to The Second Sex. New York: Bantam House.1949. Print Ibsen, Henrik. A Dollâ€&#x;s House. New Delhi: Penguin Publishers, 1985. Print.

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Relevance of Freedom to Women in Buddhism Dr. Manish Meshram1

Introduction Buddhism is a philosophy of life expounded by Gautama Buddha ("Buddha" means"enlightened one"), who lived and taught in northern India in the 6th Century B.C. The Buddha was not a god and the philosophy of Buddhism does not entail any theistic world-view. The teachings of the Buddha are aimed solely to liberate sentient beings from suffering. Women have been a part of Buddhism since the Buddha first made his enlightenment known in Northeast India in the 6th century BC. Looking back to the earliest roots, several nuns and laywomen were among the Buddha‘s ablest and wisest Disciples. The everyday role of women in many countries is quite different from that defined in Buddhist scriptures. In one scripture, the Visuddhi Magga, a monk asked, ―Reverend Sir, have you seen a woman pass this way?‖ And the elder said: Was it a woman or a man that passed this way? I cannot tell. But this I know, a set of bones is travelling upon this road. Although this verse attempts to show the equality of women on the spiratual path, there was, and still is... sexual stereotypes present in the culture of Buddhist communities. By contrast to such bigoted practices that hinder spiritual development, Buddhism can be claimed to be the least discriminatory in attitudes towards women. There is no doubt at all that the Buddha was the first religious teacher who gave women equal and unfettered opportunities in the field of spiritual development. Although He had on several occasions pointed out the natural tendencies and weaknesses of women in general, He also gave due credit to their abilities and capabilities. He truly paved the way for women to lead a full religious life. This implied that they were equally able to develop and purify their minds and realize the bliss of Nibbana as well as men. This fact is amply proven by the testimonies of the Theris (Nuns) during the Buddha's time. The teachings of the Buddha did a great deal to wipe off numerous superstitious beliefs and meaningles0073 rites and rituals - which also included sacrifices - from the minds of many people. When the Buddha revealed the true nature of life and death, and explained the natural phenomena which govern the universe to these people, 1

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they began to understand. This subsequentlyarrested and corrected the prevailing social injustices and prejudices. The Buddha’s Attitude to women Thus it enabled women to lead their own way of life. Although the Buddha had elevated the status of women socially, He also pointed out the social and psychological differences that exist between men and women. This was shown in the manner in which He was realistic in His observations. His advice, given from time-to time, seen in the light of His observations was just practical. These many instances were clearly depicted in the Anguttara Nikaya and Samyatta Nikaya. It was mentioned that a man's duty is his unending quest for knowledge. He should improve and stabilize his skills and craftsmanship, and be dedicated to his work. He must also be able to find the means to maintain and sustain his family. On the other hand, it was also stated that it was the woman's duty to look after her home and her husband. The Anguttara Nikaya contains valuable advice which the Buddha had given to young girls prior to their marriage. Foreseeing the difficulties that will arise with the new in-laws, the Buddha advised the girls to give every respect to their parents-in-law, serving them as lovingly as they were their own parents. They were also requested to honor and respect their husband's relatives and friends so that a congenial and happy atmosphere will be created in their new homes. They were advised to study and understand their husband's nature, ascertain their husband's activities, character and temperament, and to be useful and co-operative at all times in their new homes. They should be polite, kind and watchful in their relationship with the servants. They should also safeguard their husband's earnings and ascertain that all household expenditure was economically maintained. Such is the timeless quality of the Buddha's advice. The Buddha appreciated that peace and harmony in a home is to a great extent ensured by a woman. The role of married women by Buddha’s advised Thus, His advice to women on their role in their married life was realistic and practical. He listed a good number of day-to-day qualities which a woman should or should not emulate. On diverse occasions, the Buddha advised that a wife:  Should not harbor evil thoughts against her husband;  Should not be cruel, harsh or domineering;  Should not be a spendthrift but should be economical and live within her means;

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 Should zealously guard and save her husband's property and hard-earned wealth;  Should always be virtuous and chaste in mind and action; should be faithful and harbor no thoughts of any adulterous acts;  Should be refined in speech and polite in action; should be kind, industrious and hard-working;  Should be thoughtful and compassionate towards her husband and her attitude should equate that of a mother loving and protecting her son;  Should be modest and respectful;  Should be cool, calm and understanding serving not only as a wife but also as a friend and adviser to her husband when the need arises. In the days of the Buddha, other religious teachers had also spoken on the duties and obligations of a wife towards her husband. They stressed that it is the particular duty of a wife to bear an off-spring for the husband, and render him faithful service and to provide conjugal happiness. This is a similar view shared by Confucianism. However, although the duties of a wife towards the husband were laid down in the Confucian code of discipline, it did not stress the duties and obligations of the husband towards the wife. The teaching of the Buddha was not as biased towards the husbands. In the Singalovada Sutta, the Buddha had explicitly stated both the duties of the husband towards the wife and vice versa. On the part of the husband, he should be faithful, courteous and not despising. It is the husband's duty to hand over authority to his wife; and from time to time, provide her with adornments. Thus, we witness the unbiased attitude shown by the Buddha towards both men and women. The Buddha had also indicated various handicaps and drawbacks a woman had to undergo. For instance, the trials and tribulations a woman had to bear in the agony of leaving her family on the day of her marriage and the trauma of accommodating herself in a new environment fraught with problems and difficulties. Added to these the physiological pain and suffering which a woman subjected to during her menstrual periods, pregnant and childbirth. The Buddha's teachings on the real nature of life and death - of karma and samsaric wanderings - change social attitudes towards women during that period. This is especially so with regard to the greater important attached to the birth of a son. Buddhism never shared the brahmin's view that a son was essential for the father' passage to heaven. The Buddha taught that according t. the Law of Karma, one is responsible for one's own action and its consequence. The well-being of a father o' grandfather does not depend upon the action of the son or and grandson. Each individual is responsible for its own actions.

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Women and the Buddha's Path Therefore, there was no cause for the married women to be anxious just because they could not produce sons just for the sake of performing the "rites of the ancestors". This also meant that daughters became quite as good as sons. It was possible, in the early Buddhist period for a girl to remain unmarried, and yet unabused. She could be contented at her home and adequately occupied in caring for her parents, younger brothers and sisters. She could even be the owner of great possessions. The Buddha did not attach greater importance to the birth of a son. On one occasion when King Kosala was with the Buddha, news was brought to the King of the birth of a daughter to him. Expecting a son, the King was displeased. Noticing this, the Buddha paid a glowing tribute to women, delineating their virtues in the following manner: "Some women are indeed better (than men). Bring her up, O Lord of men. There are women who are wise, virtuous, who have high regard for mother-in-law, and who are chaste. To such noble wife may be born a valiant son, a Lord of Realms, who will rule a kingdom." The Buddha opened the gates for the full participation of women in the field of religion by making them eligible for admission into the Bhikkhuni Sangha - the Order of Nuns. This opened new avenues of culture, social services and opportunities for public life to women It led implicitly to the recognition of their importance to society, and in doing so enhanced the status of women Although there were some caustic comments in the Tipitaka about women's wiles and be honor, of Buddha also mentioned in the Samyatta Nikaya many their redeeming features. It was said that under circumstances women are considered wiser and discerning than men, and that they are also consul f capable of attaining perfection or sainthood treading the Noble Eight fold Path. Although. So we filed sound unpleasant, through careful observation, we find that what the Buddha said about women still holds well today. Thus, in revealing the nature of women, - as the , when King Kosala found that he had a daughter Instead of a son - the Buddha pointed out not only their weaknesses but also their potential The Buddha clearly showed that women are capable of understanding His teachings and also to practice them to some degree of spiritual attainment. This is clearly indicated by the advice that the Buddha gave to different women on different occasions and circumstances. The Buddha taught the lesson of impermanence to the vain and beauty- conscious Khema. Khema was the beautiful consort of King Bimbisara. She was at first reluctant to see the Buddha because she had heard that the Buddha used to refer to external beauty in disparaging terms. One day, she paid a casual visit to the monastery ust to enjoy the scenery of the place. Gradually, she was at first reluctant to see to the hall where the Buddha was preaching. Buddha, through the use of His psychic

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powers read her thoughts and created a vision of a young lady Standing In front of her. Khema was admiring her beauty the Buddha transformed the created beauty from to middle age and subsequently to old age, till it Y fell on the ground with broken teeth, gray hair and tinkled skin. This transformation caused Khema to know the vanity of external beauty and to appreciate the c fleeting nature of life. She then pondered: Has such a body come to be wrecked like that? Then so will my body also.' this realization she subsequently attained Arahatship and with the King's consent, she entered the Order of Bhikkhuni. To women who were unduly emotional and grief- striker on the loss of their beloved ones, the Buddha spoke on the inevitability of death as enunciated in the Four Noble Truths. He also quoted various parables to emphasize His point. Thus, to Visakha, a deeply emotional and affectionate grandmother who had lost her granddaughter; the Buddha spoke as follows: "From affection springs grief, From affection springs fear, For one who is wholly free from affection, There is no grief, much less fear." The establishment of the Bhikkhuni Sangha - the Order of Nuns - in the fifth year of the Buddha's ministry paved the way for full religious freedom for women. It was successful in the sense that there were many eminent nuns who were brilliant in the study and practice of t e Dhamma. In the eyes of the world, Buddhism rose hag highly. The Bhikkhuni Order produced a hundred of the number of brilliant preachers and exponents of the Dhamma like Sukha, Patacara, Khema, and Maha Pajapati (the foster mother to Siddharta) According to Buddhism, a son was not essential for the father's passage to heaven, daughters were as good as sons, with the liberty to lead an independent life. By granting women an active share in the religious life, the Buddha also helped to raise their status in secular life However, the admission of women into the religious life was too advanced for that period. Because of the nature of the improvement being too advanced in thinking for that particular era, people were unable to adapt themselves thus causing a regression. Hence the period of the Bhikkhuni Sangha was short-lived because the people failed to master the situation. The Brahmins who found their privilege in the caste system threatened was another factor which caused the decline of the Order. They issued hostile propaganda against this 'new' attitude of granting women religious freedom. In Sri Lanka, the Order of Nuns flourished till 1017 A.D. in the reign of King Mahinda IV. After that it teared and was not revived. But the Order of Nuns was introduced into China by Sinhalese nuns, and it still exists there as- well as in Japan today. However, in the Mahayana tradition they occupy a subordinate position which is by no means on par with the monks.

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Towards Equality and Freedom of women The advent of the modern era in the 19th and 20th was a far cry from the days of the Buddha. Women's emancipation, their quest for freedom and equality achieved tremendous strides particularly in the West. This came about as the result of modern trends and thinking, and modern education for women in all seats of higher learning. Susan B. Anthony, an American pioneered the drive for the equality for women in 1848, more than 148 years ago. Since then, the movement and struggle, with wider objectives, had forged ahead under various pioneer women and women's organizations. These people believed that women had a role to play in patriotic fellowship with their men folk in contributing to the building of a better world through a better society and country since 1848, there were popular organized movements for equal educational opportunities, equal political rights and economic equality for women. In the West, the status of women was enhanced by conditions generated by the industrial revolution, humanitarian movements and women's movement for equality. By, Asia and other countries which were not so industrially advanced, the changes were brought about by with a strong religious background steady. In the last fifty to sixty years there ha e increase in women's participation in the economics tries as well as the political life of their respective fields - in social science, in be described economics and even in the political field as phenomenal. Ironically, though so reached the utmost in the political arena as Prime Ministers of their country, in certain other countries their contemporaries have yet to be given the franchise - their right to vote! Although most countries have now adopted fairer attitudes and have opened educational and career opportunities to women, the unpleasant experiences and discriminations that they have to put up with together with rivalries and fears are but part of the still prevailing attitudes. It is an understatement to say that certain forms of discriminations still exist against women. International action to raise the status of women began In a small way with the now defunct League of Nations, shortly after the first World War. Subsequently United Nations Charter went further to grant the principles of equality and freedom to all women The omission on the status of women, an organ of the noted Nations, probed the question of discrimination based on sex and deliberated on questions pertaining to political rights of women; equal pay for equal work; the status of women in common law; the nationality of married women; educational and economic opportunities of women; technical assistance and participation by women. Though much had been accomplished through women s suffragette movements and international organizations In relation to greater women's participation in the social economic and political fields, the problem of real freedom has yet to be solved.

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Real freedom is that of being free from all forms of bondage. It can be achieved only through the proper spiritual development and purification of one's own mind - of cleansing oneself from all taints of greed, hatred and delusion. No amount of public debates, demonstrations and universal charters can bring full freedom. These can only be achieved through one's own diligence and heedfulness through regular practice of meditation as taught by the Buddha. The Buddha, in promoting the cause of women was considered to be the first emancipator of women and was the promoter of a democratic way of life. It is in the Buddha-Dhamma that women were not despised and looked down upon but were given status with men in their spiritual endeavor to gain wisdom and liberation. Conclusion Women's position in Buddhism is unique. The Buddha gave women full freedom to participate in a religious life. The Buddha was the first religious Teacher who gave this religious freedom to women. Before the Buddha, women's duties had been restricted to the kitchen; women were not even allowed to enter any temple or to recite any religious scripture. During the Buddha's time, women's position in society was very low. The Buddha was criticized by the prevailing establishment when He gave this freedom to women. His move to allow women to enter the Holy Order was extremely radical for the times. Yet the Buddha allowed women to prove themselves and to show that they too had the capacity like men to attain the highest position in the religious way of life by attaining Arahantahood. Every woman in the world must be grateful to the Buddha for showing them the real religious way of living and for giving such freedom to them for the first time in world history. The Buddha has confirmed that man is not always the only wise one; woman is also wise. Nowadays many religionists like to claim that their religions give women equal rights. We only have to look at the world around us today to see the position of women in many societies. It seems that they have no property rights, are discriminated in various fields and generally suffer abuse in many subtle forms. Even in western countries, women like the Suffragettes had to fight very hard for their rights. According to Buddhism, it is not justifiable to regard women as inferior. The Buddha Himself was born as a woman on several occasions during His previous births in Samsara and even as women. He developed the noble qualities and wisdom until He gained Enlightenment or Buddhahood.

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References:  Ambedkar, B.R., The Buddha and His Dhamma, Buddha Bhoomi Publication, Nagpur, 1997.  Bhatt Kullak, Manusmruti, Bambai, 1946.  Buddhgosha, Acharya, Visuddhi magga, Bhartiya Vidhya Bhavan, Mumbai, 1940  Dhammika, Shravasti Ven. The Edicts of King Ashoka. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society,  Dhirasekera, Jothiya, "Women and the Religious Order of the Buddha," Sambhaasaa, 277-301.  Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, 2nd edn, Routledge, London, 2006,  Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, 1990  Horner, I. B. Women under Primitive Buddhism, London: 1930  Jones, J. J. Mahavastu. England: Pali Text Society, 1952.  Kashyap, Jagdish, Therigatha, Nav Nalanda Mahavihar, Nalanda, 1958.  Kousalyayan, Bhadant Anand, Jataka, Vol.1-VI, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan Prayag, 1995.  Maslow, Abraham J., Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences. New York: Viking Press, 1970.  Narada, Mahathera. A Manual of Buddhism. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Buddhist Missionary Society, 1992.  Ratnapala, Nandasena, "Buddhist Jurisprudence" article in Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Colombo: 1992.  Sankrutayan, Rahul, Majjim Nikay, Bhartiya Bouddh Shiksha Parishad, Lukhnow, 1991  Shastri Dvarkadas, Digha Nikaya, Vol.1-3, Bouddh Bhartiya Prakashan, Varanasi, 1996  Shastri, Dvarkadas, Samyuktt Nikay, Vol.1-IV, Bouddha Bharatiya Prakashan, Varanasi, 2000.  Singh, Kabil, Bhikkhu Paatimokkha, Varanasi, 1983.  Vimalkirati, Therigatha, Samyak Prakashan, New Delhi, 2003 1. ory of India: Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteen Century to the Modern Age. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999.Print. 2. Dirks, Nicholas B. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton UP, 2001. Print. 3. Valmikis, Omprakash. Jhoothan: A Dalit‟s Life. Kolkata: Samya, 2003. Print. 4. Sen, Amartya. The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture and Identity. London: Penguin, 2005. Print. 5. Adiga, Arvind. The White Tiger. New Delhi: Harper Collins. 2009. Print.

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Dalit Studies: A new critical perspective Dr. Rajesh Kumar1 I strongly believe that the Hindu social system is a historically specific social construct; a discursive formation based upon the Manav Dharma scheme of Manu who is the chief architect of the Hindu society, and the theory that the caste Hindus, particularly Brahmans, have all the privileges and the Shudra (Dalits) do not have even the rights of a human being. Nothing can show the shamelessness and absurdity of this Manav Dharma better than turning it upside down. The discourse of Manusmriti, on analysis, reveals bios that privileges certain epistemes while deprivileging certain others. The privileged classes are here no doubt, none other than the caste Hindus and deprivileged Dalits. The caste Hindus have made their best efforts to establish a hegemonic social power by dissembling its epistemological premises and social – historical paradigms as being normative so that what is a historically specific social construct, is made to appear essential and incontrovertible. Language, being relational and constitutive, shapes and constructs it, giving it hegemonic power by textualizing it. Further, this central discourse posits what does not conform to its normative standards as the marginal (Dalit discourse here in his context) to simultaneously designate and denigrate its alterity. The marginal discourses are accommodated, contained, excluded and even silenced by the central discourse, and its meaning, value and identity have become conditional concepts determined by the moderators of the central discourse. However, marginal discourses, I assert, have the power, by virtue of their alterity, to offer resistance to the hegemony of the central discourse by interrogating its hollowness, incongruities and contradictions thereby effecting the disruption of its normative claims. Moreover, by exposing and revealing how in society with the help of sophistry, dominant culture have become automatized agency, Marginal discourses can allow subversive elements to identify the determinants of hegemony and eventually alter power configuration in their favour. Here I would like to use the theoretical framework developed by Michael Foucault to understand the relationship between power and knowledge in the construction of images of Dalits in the Hindu social system where the scheme of Manu has been instrumental in the subjugation and marginalization of knowledges from Dalits. These knowledges would otherwise challenge or 1

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rupture the apparent linearity of Manav Dharma. Subjugated knowledges are defined by Foucault in Power – Knowledge as being ―the historical contents that have been buried and disguised in functionalist coherence or formal systematization.‖ The insurrection of subjugated knowledges ―allow us to rediscover the ruptural effects of conflict and struggle‖ (Foucault: 1972) that the new order or functionalist coherence ―is designed to mask‖ (Foucault: 1972). Subjugated knowledges also include: …a whole set of knowledges that have been disqualified…a particular, local, regional knowledge…which owes its force only to the harshness with which it is opposed by everything surrounding it. In Indian context, official history has served to marginalize or subjugate ‗Dalit‘ knowledges, customs and beliefs and further ensured a privileged place for the caste Hindus-Brahmanical knowledge in particular-as the foundation of Hindu social system. The caste Hindu culture has come to be considered the ‗natural‘, central or dominant culture which is passed on through birthright. I assert that Manav Dharma is a fiction that both creates and substantiates a political reality that is itself fictitious. A more equitable account of history is possible if official history is mediated by a reading of ‗Dalit literature‘ as history. Counter – histories that both disrupt the apparent linearity and homogeneity of the caste Hindus historiography and foreground subjugated ‗Dalit‘ knowledges are emerging in a growing body of writings by ‗Dalit‘ literature that can be read as ‗history‘. This takes interesting dimensions at the level of literary discourse. Dalit Writing in India has begun to emerge discursively as powerful visible forms of protest against a chequered history of exploitation both in the socio-politically materialist and discursive realities. This discourse has become site for the contestation and negotiation of identities at several levels and in several ways. The construction of ‗Dalit‘ as identity category evoking a sense of homogenized collective community has evinced a problematic relationship within the social, historical, political and discursive frameworks of conceptualizing national identity. This is largely because the socio-political and discursive marginality historically assigned to with this rubric has been concomitant with the epistemological otherization of Dalit identity within the natural framework. Dalit literature resembles the legendary bird phoenix which kills itself on a funeral pyre but is reborn from the ashes: Dalit literature too, is born from the ashes of the anguish, anger of the unjust social system based on caste and class inequities and is an expression of the agony suffered by these deprived groups for ages. Dalit literature, in the main, is an attempt to establish an independent identity for the Dalits. It engages the theme of protest directed against the existing intellectual and social system. It also opens several debates on the issues

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of caste and identity politics. Dalit literature has become an expression of community rather than the individuals by challenging traditional literary aesthetics, traditional slogans, ideologies and idioms of existing literature, which they assert, do not capture the reality of the oppressed. As far as the mode of expression of Dalit literature is concerned, it can be seen that the poetry has been its dominant mode of expression. In addition to this, Dalit literature has produced a spate of autobiographies, few novels and short stories as well. One has to be especially sensitive to the distinctive aesthetics created by Dalit writers whose language is generally direct, spearing and its imagery hair-raising and hard-hitting. Dalit literature is being represented through various regional languages such as Tamil, Malayalam, Bhojpuri, Gujarati, Punjabi, Oriya, Hindi and others. What is interesting to note is that there are many common elements of anguish, anger and protect in the Dalit literature of these various languages, the reason being the commonality of the repressive caste and class categories that exist in various parts of the country. Dalit literature has produced many writers, poets committed both to literature and to ‗literature as a weapon‘ against social injustice. One of the most existing things and the most recent trend in the ever-changing field of Dalit literature that has been taking place is the increasing importance of woman poets, novelist and autobiography writers. Nevertheless, the disappointing thing for the Dalit Literature is the fact that till now it has not been recognized as full – fledged marketable national literature. While Dalit literature has been academic possibilities, it is being equated with on Maharashtrian Dalit literature especially that which is available in easily consumable translated anthologies. The mindset of such researchers has to changes that Dalit literature does not confine to Maharashtrian Dalit literature but it expands beyond that in other different regional languages as well. Now the situation is changing slowly as English translations of Hindi, Tamil, Telegu, Kannada, Oriya, Bhojpuri Dalit literatures are becoming available. But it is disappointing that it has not changed sufficiently for Dalit literature to be considered nationally or internationally marketable as bonafide ‗Indian literature.‘ It has been noted that Dalits find greater publicity when mediated, represented or incorporated in the texts of mainstream writers such as Mulk Raj Anand, Mahashweta Devi, Gail Omvedt, Arundhati Roy etc. This explicitly shows that Dalit voices are variously mediated, appropriated, co-opted, accommodated and even commodified, which has to stop immediately. What I believe is that Dalit literature must be produced by Dalits themselves who have well awareness of what it is to be a Dalit. I do not disagree with the view that there are many prominent non-Dalit writers who have contributed significantly

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to Dalit literature; but what I contend to say is that they must stop showing their sympathies towards Dalits by taking credits. After all they are the ones who have subjugated ‗Dalit‘ knowledges. Dalits are now capable of ―doing it ourselves‖ about their inhumane experiences. I assert that unless Dalits control the content, the publishing, the ultimate presentation of the articles or texts then it is not Dalit literature: that it ceases to be Dalit when it is interfered with, when it is tampered with by the mainstream writers. It is no good for Dalits to be writing what the caste Hindus i.e. mainstream writers, what their publishing companies, what governments, government agencies decree that they ought to write. The Dalit literature must come, flow freely from the Dalit people, for the Dalit communities without any restrictions placed upon them. Dalit writers must come to grips with the fact that they are Dalit. Now if they are sincere about Dalits, about their feelings for it; if they are sincere about wanting justice for Dalits, then that commitment must be made and they must be united and directed with one slogan ―we will do it ourselves‖. The Dalit search for identity grows out of the development of a new consciousness and a need to come to grips not merely with the question of ―identifying‖ as a dalit person, but seeking to know, to understand, what can be the components of a dalit identity, credible to individuals, which they can select, and which they can build upon in order to attain a personal identity, to demand aggressively their share in the shaping of the destiny of the nation and most importantly to seek radical empowerment and complete self assertion. It is a problem which has not been addressed to any great extent in India by researchers from the Mainstream discourse. My article is centered on changes taking place in the structures of tradition–oriented people and is defined within a Dalit framework of thought. The Mainstream discourse has focused, by and large, on the accommodation and segregation of Dalit people into a caste Hindu world of culture and living, a world where Dalit identity is absorbed. The dalit people have started analyzing the problem of caste discrimination, socio-cultural discrimination to seek radical empowerment in the society and started projecting a time when Dalits would grab hold of their identity themselves. The Dalits have conscientized Dalit masses for assertion, protest and mobilization against the act of monopoly on every social institutions by the Indian upper castes. They are threatening the Brahmanic hegemony on all theoretical issues. Living an untouchable life in Indian caste society is a tremendous unfortunate affair as the untouchables are thrown not only to the lowest rung of the social ladder but also they are compelled to swallow inhuman tortures. Untouchability, in basic sense, is out and out an Indian phenomenon, and it has deeply penetrated into the social philosophy of the totalistic Indian life where the

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privileged sections of the stratified society enjoy the life at the cost of the untouchable sections which have been forced to do all sorts of menial and labourious jobs, work as scavengers and sweepers and removers of carcasses of dead animals in the villages and also as the carriers of night soil. Because of this the fate of the untouchables has become miserable and what is important to note is that it is being continued in one form or other through the ages. The atrocities are antihuman such as butchering the dalits, beating them and chopping off their bodies, raging dalit women ad girls, parading them naked and burning them, forcing the dalits to consume human excreta and urine, poisoning their water sources, evicting them from their land and places of living and denying them access to public places including temples etc. The atrocities on dalits are all outrageous violations of human rights and criminal offences. The provisions of the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989 are not being used effectively to prevent the offences and punish the culprits. There is increasing tendency of police officials of not writing FIRs and asking dalits to give complaints in writing on plain papers. The role of National Commission for Scheduled castes and Scheduled Tribes, State commissions of SC/ST, law and order machinery and judiciary in arresting the discrimination and violence against dalits needs to be questioned and scrutinized. One of the outstanding facts about the Dalit in rural India is their lamentable and extreme poverty. Ill clothed and cold in winter, badly housed, and insufficiently fed, they belong to the poorest of the land. They are greatly in debt on account of loans both for the purchase of raw materials with which to carry on their traditional occupation and for seed and for cattle for their agricultural enterprises. In most cases their obligations are such as to keep them in perpetual bondage to their creditors; and as a consequence, they are never able to rise above the lowest economic level. In many instances the whole family is engaged in satisfying the insatiable demands of the zaminders or some other creditors. They live at the back and call of others, and are obliged to do a great deal of work for which they receive no pay whatever. This is but a phase of the general condition of depression in which they live. They have been so conquered and broken by centuries of oppression that they have but little self respect left and no ambition. Their condition is in reality serfdom, and at times they are sore oppressed. They are the worst sufferers and have to bear the brunt of the rigidity of the caste system. The social and economic lives of Dalits in cities or towns have relatively improved compared to the Dalits living in villages. A Dalit in urban setup is generally a government servant, a teacher in a state school, a lecturer, a reader or a professor in the central universities or a politician. However, he is never a

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member of the higher judiciary – except for the first time the first Dalit Chief Justice of India has recently been appointed – nor an eminent lawyer, industrialist or journalist. His freedom operates in designated encloses: in politics and in the administrative posts he is required because of constitutional policies. The fact of the matter is that in areas of contemporary social exchange and culture, his ―untouchability‖ becomes his only definition. Not only this; even the right to pray to a Hindu god has always been a high caste privilege. Intricacy of religious ritual is directly proportionate to social status. The dalit, in a nutshall, has been formally excluded from religion, from education, and is a pariah in the entire sanctified universe of the ―dvija.‖ The dalit is physically indistinguishable from the upper castes, yet metaphorically and literally, the dalit has been a ―shit bearer‖, toiling at the very bottom of the Hindu caste hierarchy. Dalits are the main targets of what can be termed ―caste-related crimes‘. In the rural countryside, stripping, hocking to death, massacres and chopping off heads are the marks of a horrific bestiality inspired by the unshakable joint of dirtiness. The dalit body, powerful, suppressed and perennially dirty from such tasks as removal of dead cattle and waste, towing, or toddy (collecting juice from the bud of palm tree flowers) is to be violently exorcised, ritually cleansed, from the pure ―Aryan‖ body of the Hindu caste system. The Theory The Dalit people, in voicing the need to ―grab‖ or ―build‖ their identity, place themselves unconsciously within the theoretical framework provided by the sociology of knowledge. Within this framework, the society into which one is born is conceptualized as a social construct, and identity is the result of social processes within that construct. Caste system in India is not only the age-old and depth oriented socio-cultural phenomenon but it has also been working, since the remote period, as the symbol of Indian social practice with the help of hierarchical categories. The purity–pollution concept developed round the Brahmanical order not only to make discriminations amongst the different castes and community groups but also to dictate their modes of behaviour inside and outside the pale of Chaturvarna pattern of classification exclusively fashioned under mythological viewpoints. The Hindu caste hierarchy refers to the mythological law of Manu who is the chief architect of the Hindu society and whose law has formed the foundations on which it is built. According to Manusmriti in the hoary part four predominant Varnas emerged from various parts of the Holy Body of the creator: 31. But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra to proceed from his mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his feet.

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87. But in order to protect this universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned separate (duties and) occupations to those who sprang from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet. 88. To Brahmanas he assigned teaching and studying (the Veda), sacrificing for their own benefit and for others, giving and accepting (of alms). 89. The Kshtriya he commanded to protect the people, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study (the Veda), and to abstain from attaching himself to sensual pleasures; 90. The Vaisya to tend cattle, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrificies, to study (the Veda), to trade, to lend money, and to cultivate land. 91. One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Sudra, to serve meekly even these (other) three castes.(Islam: 2004)

It is to be noted that this Varna system is characterized by two distinct patterns. The first three of this group i.e. the Brahmanas, the Kshatriyas and the Vaishyas are entitled to go through the initiation ceremony to have ―sacred thread.‖ It is for this reason these three groups are known as dwija or twice-born. As days went on, the Sudras who were destined to serve the three upper groups in all walks of their life, were practically detached from the arena of the higher social groups in the schematic structure of Chaturvarna principle and thus they were forced to live outside the general habitations governed by the higher upper castes. Later on Sudras became so much unsanctified that, as was assumed by the three groups in the Chaturvarna, their very touch would defile the members of the higher upper groups. Hence, there developed a consciousness of keeping them aside and preferably out of touch. The fierceness of the societal norms transformed that consciousness into the very ill-fated situation known as untouchability. The word ―dalit‖ or ―crushed underfoot‖ or ―broken into pieces‖ is the contemporary version of the word ―untouchable‖. ―Dalit‖ owes its genesis to the nineteenth–century writings of Jotirao Govindrao Phule as well as to the literature of the Dalit Panthers, a political group formed in 1972 in the state of Maharashtra. British colonial census takers grouped together all those communities‘ neighbours considered ―polluted‖ and called them ―untouchable‖. ―Harijan‖ or ―children of god‖ was Mahatma Gandhi‘s term for dalits. Today most untouchable castes would prefer to use the term ―dalit‖ as an identity of assertion. Prior to adoption of Dalit as an identity, untouchables were addressed by different names such as exterior castes, depressed castes, outcastes, Pariahs, Mlechha, Chandala, Avarnas, Achhuts, Pariahs/ Panchama etc. These identities had stigma, segregation and contempt at large. New Perspectives Dalit people in the past have been thwarted, exploited and forced to do all sorts of menial, and labourious jobs, work as scavengers and sweepers, removers of

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carcasses of dead animals in the villages and also as the carriers of night soil in their efforts to respond to the Hindu Caste hierarchy system which is to a great surprise still being practiced and continued in one form or other even today in the 21st century. If Dalits now wish to follow a different path and locate themselves in a Dalit world, then, in terms of the constitutional provisions made available to them above, they must locate themselves in a world of meaning that has characteristics that are specifically Dalit, a world which is legitimated, made credible to the self, at all levels of ―theorizing‖. It is not enough, for the construction of identity, for individuals to locate themselves unilaterally within a particular ―world‖. Identity is a social construct; its maintenance depends not only upon the individual, but upon the readiness of others to confirm the chosen identity of the individual. The construction of Dalit identity may lead to a conflict situation as the theorizing of Dalit people about a ―Dalit‖ world of meaning within which a dalit identity may be found, may well be at variance with that of mainstream theorizing. The maintenance of the ―world‖ of meaning of the mainstream group (dwija i.e. twice born) may then be threatened by version of a deviant world, held by a visible group that has been excluded from the mainstream. The Dalit ―World‖, as a site for the location of identity, must therefore be studied not in isolation, but in relation to the mainstream upper caste society. An understanding of the ―objective reality‖ for Dalit people, that is knowledge about dalit world which is objectivated and taken for granted, demands an understanding therefore, at the conceptual level, of the machinery by which the world of dalit society has been managed in the past, and is being managed in contemporary society by the dominant upper caste groups. The only machinery used by upper castes is the fact that they have tried to establish dehumanising, mythological philosophy of Manusmriti as fundamental law of the country or to enforce Manusmriti as part of legal set up, which preaches for the enforcement of codes, which are barbaric, inhuman, racist and forcist and most importantly casteist. If there is nothing wrong with casteism in Hinduism then who are Manu‘s Sudras? How can one call Manu‘s code humane when it has the following contents in chapter 8: A once-born man (a Sudra), who insults a twice–born man with gross invective, shall have his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin (code number 270). If he mentions the names and castes (jati) of the (twice–born) with contumely, on iron hail, ten fingers long, shall be thrusted hot into his mouth (271). If he arrogantly teaches Brahmanas their duty, the king shall cause hot oil to be poured into his mouth and into his ears (272). With whatever limb a man of a low caste does hurt to (a man of the three) highest (castes), even that limb shall be cut off; that is the teaching of Manu (279). A low – caste man who tries to place himself on the same seat with a man of a high caste, shall be branded on his hip and be banished, or (the king) shall cause his buttock to be

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gashed (281). If out of arrogance he spits (on a superior), the king shall cause both his lips to be cut off; if he urines (on him), the penis; if he breaks wind (against him), the anus (282). A man who is not a Brahmana ought to suffer death for adultery (samagrahana); for the wives of all the four castes even must always be carefully guarded (359). A Brahmana who approaches unguarded females (of the Kshatriya or Vaisya (castes), or a Sudra female, shall be fined five hundred (panas); but (for intercourse with) a female (of the) lowest (castes), one thousand (385). (Islam : 2004)

Reproduced parts of Laws of Manu need no further elaboration and commentary, as these are too glaringly venomous, fascist and degenerated against untouchables who are referred to as Sudras by Manu. There is a recent flood of low priced editions of Manusmriti. In one of such editions, the back cover has the following illuminating description of Manusmriti: The Manusmriti is the oldest social system of the world which establishes constitution and justice. Largely the social and judicial systems of today‟s India are modelled after this book. It is an essential book for each family, organization and society.

It is important to note that this Manusmriti is based upon the theory that the Brahmana is to have all the privileges and the Shudra is not to have even the rights of a human being, that the Brahman is to be above everybody in all things merely by reason of his high birth and the Sudra is to be below everybody and is to have none of the things no matter how great may be his worth. It may be mentioned here that after Independence, India has undergone great social and structural changes. Not only was the form of government being changed from foreign administration into self-rule, but also the cultural, regional and linguistic boundaries within the nation was being redefined. A new experiment in nation-building was being undertaken in all spheres of life. The basic Indian social reality, however, remained unchanged. It was the reality of pluralism, a pluralism of caste-discrimination, religious separation and cultural identities. It was a pluralism which graded social groups into those with more power and those with less power. Indian society was relatively dominated by the ―upper castes‖ who were rich and powerful and therefore played important role at the centre of the decision–making process and a whole lot of people who were poor and didn‘t have any access to sources of power were apparently excluded from the decision–making process. The irony, however, lies in the fact that in spite of the secular and democratic goal accepted by leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, the Indian leadership at the time of independence was predominantly Hindu in religious sentiment and in political vision. This ―Hinduness‖ sentiment of the dominant community largely affected the nation–building process in India. It affected the conditions of the Scheduled castes. They were removed from their status as a minority in Page 31

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Hindu society and the concept of justice to weaker sections came to mean privileges to those who paid allegiance to Hinduism. For example, in the constitution (Scheduled Castes) order, 1950, it was clearly mentioned that no person who professes a religion different from Hinduism shall be deemed to be a member of the Scheduled Caste. Till date Scheduled Caste status has not been extended to Dalits belonging to Muslim and Christian religious. Even in 21 st Century, our newspaper is not free from a headline relating to some sort of violence against Dalits or a crime committed on Dalits. The very recurrence of Dalit assertion and Dalit movement stand testimony to their ongoing discrimination and victimization. In fact, the very identity of ‗Dalit‘ is nothing but a reaction against a hegemonic order, a challenge against perpetual oppression and a counter-identity against an irrational Brahamanic order that seeks to dehumanize and enslave a section of Hindu fold on ascriptive ground. It represents a voice that has perpetually remained unheared; an identity that has long been derecognized/ suppressed; a category that has hitherto been deprived of its dignified existence. It is not enough to revile Brahmanism and upper caste hegemony and declare them the root of all evils. What is important for Dalits is the question of empowerment. Facing each other, the Dalits and the caste Hindus exemplify the characteristic relationships of the dominated and the dominant. As the dominant impose their ideas and will on the dominated, they offer a scheme of justification to maintain their position. The dominated, on the other hand, either accept such schemes or refute them in a way suitable to social circumstances. And this has been the standard social script for the Dalits. The clear traditional notions of dominance and privilege are becoming blurred as democratic law, politics and economies release new forces in India. Urban centers usually show this effect more, where the weakness of the strong and the strengths of the weak are constantly uncovered in new ways. In this circumstances the dominant feel threatened and the weak emboldened for new reasons. This is evident from the fact that gradual awakening of the Dalits under the leadership of the towering personalities, no doubt, has exerted a strong protest against the unjust thinking patterns nurtured by the advantageous caste groups. The emergence of a newly developed perception of identity among the Dalits has brought forward a challenging force against the age-old system of exploitations at cultural, economical and political levels. Now new phase has emerged, which raises the expectations of the lowest and the fears of the highest. In this ethos, Dalits especially in the cities have begun to argue that they are much more than their abjectly low status in relation to the caste Hindu reflects. They dare to question the schemes of the Hindu social precedence. Dalits insist that they are not merely ―The signified‖, they signify as well. Despite their long-standing dependence on

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the dominant Hindu social system, they offer evidence that they are alert and sensible about themselves and the larger society in which they live. If they must face numerous concrete problems in everyday life, they seek survival with social dignity. They are ready to challenge the tradition as they test the promises of Indian democracy. Thus, compared to the last decades of last century, much has, in this 21st century, changed for them more than ever before perhaps; but compared to what they should have in a democratic society, these changes are hardly enough. The issues of positive self-image, social fairness, and practical effectiveness engage the contemporary Dalits in India. To survive in today‘s political culture, therefore, the Dalits must have not only a positive cultural ideology but also an ideological voice; they must have an effective cultural reasoning. A fundamentally positive ideology and assertive identity are therefore indispensable to the contemporary Dalits. As Derrida has said, ―In deconstruction the opposition is first…..to overthrow the hierarchy‖. The construction and deconstruction of differences actually go hand in hand in indigenous thought and experience, each must not only culminate in the other but also transcend itself and the other. A Dalit genuinely experiences a ―double bind‖, perhaps a sociological expected condition among the deprived. Hence, whatever he thinks, constructs, and does, a ―deconstruction‖ immediately takes over. As he assembles his new identity, he also feels that a dispersal and blurring take place. As he decides on a new plan, a dissipation begins to occur. This recalls Derrida‘s subtler conjugations of ―structure‖ and ―deconstruction.‖ We can employ two Derridian concepts to interpret the overall condition of a dalit. These concepts prove to be congenial vehicles for reflecting on a deep civilizational paradise and ambiguity that neither the caste order nor a dalit can get away from. Generally, as we have seen, when a Dalit comments on his civilizational condition, he forces the observer to think about the caste order as a paradoxical segment of the much larger Indic cultural system. I will bring in Derrida here essentially for a ―rectified‖ structuralism that I think refines certain concepts and procedures in exactly those ways that would render them more sensitive to a Dalit‘s condition as well as Indian circumstances. Let us remember that Derrida. ―argues within a particular philosophical system but at the some time attempts through the productivity of language to break or exceed that system.‖ He tests the limits of logocentrism, engaging in ―deconstructive reversals.‖ If ―deconstruction‖ means that ―we must do a thing and its opposite, and indeed we desire to do both, and so on indefinitely,‖ the Derridan ―double bind‖ helps us characterize the civilizational blind in which a Dalit in fact exists. He continuously constructs and deconstructs himself in relation to the caste

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Hindu (and vice versa), without knowing whether this ―perpetually self deconstructing movement‖ could ever be total and complete. To sum up, now it is important for the Dalits to construct a new wave of direct opposition against the caste system. They need to reorder, reformulate and review the equation of the caste Hindus versus Dalits. Dalits must interrogate accepted notions regarding caste and class relations in contemporary society by engaging themselves in a continuous deconstruction of formulated notions that govern critical perception of social intercourse. The recent militant protests by Dalits in different parts of Maharashtra could herald a new phase in Dalits activism as youth disillusioned with traditional political frameworks seek to assert their rights on the streets. The protests were not just a reaction to one incident – the desecration of Dr. Ambedkar‘s statue in Kanpur or even the Maharashtra government‘s inexcusably slow response to the bestial killing in Khairlanji of four members of the Bhotmange family. The political system has failed to read the signs of the anger boiling up in Dalit youth and the out built of fury in the form of militant protests was a consequences of years of frustration over the indifference of the government towards Dalits. Educated Dalit youths are disillusioned with the existing political leadership and are looking for ways to express their dissatisfaction. But the question that needs to be asked in why would thousands of ordinary Dalit youths come out on the road and vent their anger in this way unless their sense of disillusionment with the system had not already reached boiling point? The caste Hindus must understand the basis of this fury or get ready for a siege. Dalit studies as a new perspective There is a need for serious thinking in understanding the dalit structure of knowledge and for the establishment of Dalit Studies as a new perspective. Dalit Studies should not be treated as a mere body of knowledge, rather there is a need to construct a new perspective that cuts across all disciplines in the Social Sciences and Humanities to comprehend the Indian reality. There is also a need to establish Dalit Studies as a separate discipline and as a new perspective; as an independent mode of knowledge, an autonomous discipline within the larger framework of social science to intervene in the pedagogic discourses of the system of higher education and contemporary socio-political discourses at large in order to sensitize them to the issues of the marginalized sections of society. Every effort must be made to "de-normalize" caste as the lasting category of Indian society that gets easy acceptance in the categories of Indian social sciences, either in the form of universal or national. Moreover, there is a greater need for exchanges of ideas and views, discussions and debates to concretise the

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dalit perspective of Social Sciences towards developing a new perspective called Dalit Studies—both as an autonomous discipline and as a critique-cumrestructuring of existing disciplines in Social Sciences and Humanities for the recovery of history and culture of dalits by undoing the hegemony of the dominant knowledge system and preparing enough ground for understanding the history of suffering of marginalised groups and from this point critiquing the dominant system. All efforts should be made towards creating a universal that will subsume all the knowledge systems from below which would aim at undoing the ‗normalisation‘ of caste as a characteristic of Indian society and history. References Hira Dome. 1914. ―Acchoot Ki Shikayat‖ in Saraswati. Ed. Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi. Michael Foucault. 1972. Archeology of knowledge. London: Tavistock. P. 81. Khare, R.S. 1984. The Untouchable as himself. New York: C.U.P. PP IX-X. Ambedkar, B.R. 1979. Writings and Speeches, vol 1. Bombay: Education Department. Govt. of Maharashtra. PP.50. Sarkar, R.M. 2006. Dalit in India: Past and Present. Delhi : Serial Publications. Kumar, Vivek. 2006. India‟s Roaring Revolution: Dalit Assertion and new Horizons. Delhi : Gangandeep publications. Derrida, Jacques. 1976. Of Grammatology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Dangle, Arjun. 1992. The Poisoned Bread. Bombay: Orient Langman Ltd. Kumar, Sukrita Paul, et al, eds. 2005. Cultural Diversity Linguistic Plurality and Literary Traditions in India. New Delhi : Macmillan India Ltd, University of Delhi. Islam, Shamsul. 2004. Untouchables in Manu‟s India. 4th ed. New Delhi : Books for change. Anand, Mulk Raj. 1935. Untouchable. London : Penguine Books, 1940. Roy, Arundhati. 1997. The God of small Things. New Delhi : Penguin India, 2002. Lynch, O.M. 1974. The Politics of Unsociability: Social Mobility and social change in a city of India. New Delhi: National Publishing House. From Soliloquy to Public Debate: The Dialectics of Identity construction in subaltern writing in India and Australia. Http://wwwmcc.murdoch.edu.au/ Reading Room / litserve/ SPAN /32/ Trees. html.>

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A Namika A Sexual – Anamika Asexual Dr. Shiva Prasad G. Abstract: In Sanskrit ‗Nam‘ means name, ‗Namika‘ means somebody who is named or labelled and ‗Anamika‘ means somebody who is not named or labelled. We are not just named our names but also invariably tagged with a multitude of labels. We look at an individual with these lenses of labels and not at the individual self. In doing so, we scrutinize and stereotype in piece meal and thus miss the individual‘s holistic essence. Heteronormative patriarchal society also expects an individual to confirm to binary gender roles, to be heterosexual, sexual and contribute progeny. This piece is a poetic-prose rendition of my coming out of this tangle of labels and identity politics, coming out about my androgynous gender identity and my sexual orientation as a homosexualasexual. I first presented this as a dramatised reading/monologue at National Queer Conference 2013, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, the experience of which I knitted into this rendition. Monologue: I am a romantic, aromatic, homosexual,asexual, these are the pheromonal embellishing linen accentuations on my garment of labels. I am labelled as a man(by my sex), a quarternaarishwara(by my anglicized gender identity), a doctor(by my profession), a brown (by my sun kissed milk chocolate skin color) and anIndian (by my nationality), these labels form the base fabric of my garment. Other labels such as, I am a Hindu (by my way of life), a spiritualist (by my faith), a lacto ovo vegetarian (by my food habits), a shaivist (by the cast that I was born into), an earthling (by my patriotism beyond boarders and by my love for the environment) etc etcetc and etc, these labels give structure, form and flow to my garment. These labels forming my garment are limitless. Every fabric of alabel that might describe a certain aspect of my life has been sewed into my garment every now and then as I grew up. I din't stop growing as an individual and so did my garment. For the first quarter of my life it has already formed sizeable and grand enough to beat that of any drag queen in a Sanfransisco night club drag show. However, personally I prefer to be a nudist by my identity. It is an honest depiction of your true self. By that I mean not being labelled and not physical nudity. I however have nothing against physical nudity. My individuality is my true identity. A bunch of labels cannot describe me in the entirety. There is a lot missed between the labels and thus my individual self as a whole. Nudism may be an attention seeking tool in the west but not so in India.

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We Indians are flabbergasted by nudism. People will turn away their heads, constrict their visual fields with their palms or simply walk ahead with their God given twin optic bulbs focused straight ahead into infinity or on the path ahead of their strides but never pollute their vision with nudity. So in India to catch people's attention six yards of organza is always a better option that being nude. So I decided to wear this heavy garment of labels and catwalk the roadways of India. These labels forming a haute couture are my political tools to make myself visible to my fellow Indians and to sensitize them. Priyadarshini (name changed, event Co ordinator at Queer Conference, Jadavpur University, Kolkata) once spotted me sashaying the gardens in front of Victoria memorial. She approached me and the swath of fabric flowing down my waistline, bustline, butline and hemline kept her three feet away. She picked up at me saying that the monument was just the perfect back drop and the grand dome complimented my garb. She invited me to JadavpurUniversity and so here I am to show off my gown. She however strictly instructed me to restrict my show to 20 minutes. So, I can take you through the color, texture, cut and stitch of only a few labels. For more, see you later in the corridors and lawns of the university. First let me take you through the label of homosexuality. I was precocious. I started fantasizing idiotic bollywood scenes against the back drop of magnificent Swiss alps from as early as I could remember, may be at around 10 years of my age. The most handsome boy in my class would be my hero. When I would run out of fantasizing dreamy bed time ideas of that boy I would visually scout for a new face on my school grounds during morning assembly, lunch break or after school while waiting for school bus. Or god would send a cute new class mate during the next academic year or sometimes even in between. Those walking in between would usually be coming from far away outside Hyderabad, like from Gwalior, Mangalore, Lucknow, Guwahati or some other place in Andhra Pradesh. They were exotic for me, adding a sizzle to my bed time stories. They spoke a different language or atleast a different dialect, had different stories to tell from their mouths and from their one, two, three or sometimes four tiered tiffin boxes. They would quarrel for my freshly formed curd rice that my mom used to set in the morning with milk and curd seeding. I was the brightest in class academically, of course by our screwed victorian standards and so my class teachers would seat the new entries beside me. My favorite guy would be my dream boy and my favorite girl would be my chat window to my fantasy world and I would only charitably help those other ordinary girls and guys. I am a singleton for my parents and the king of the kingdom. I was not pampered though. I shared a close relationship with my mother. Every evening she would turn on the radio box mouth of her's and shares her day's happenings

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and I would in turn reel out mine. It would be a no holds barred confession including my boy crushes. As years passed by and as I entered adolescence the confessions were not so candid and were more articulate and as a matter of fact than vivid. I told her that I wouldn't like to get married and exampled mother Theresa of how I could lead a happily unmarried life. Then I used to say that I would get married to a girl but wouldn't bare children. Mind you, I dint even know about intercourse then, leave alone the concept of homosexuality and all the technical terms associated with it, but all these thought processes were happening in my hind brain. As years passed by I said I din't get attracted to girls and then finally I mustered the courage and verbalized my attraction towards boys. By then I was in med school and extensively explored medical literature on homosexuality. My mother too did her homework on the Internet and we finally rounded this issue by visiting a psychologist who happened to write an article about it in a Telugu daily. My mother outed me to my father. By then, I and my mother were armed with answers to all the questions he had. My mother literally lived day to day of my coming out process. Coming out to myself, my parents and to others who mattered to us in our personal lives. I don't believe in coming out to the society. I believe in just being yourself in front of the society. Why should you trumpet the society about your sexuality and isn't it narcissistic to think that all the society should be interested in what you do in bed? Well until now it was a cake walk. Looking back I sometimes even wonder how my parents din't revolt against me. I started my sex life, building my gay social circuit, attending parties etc. Still, I felt something was mismatch and the puzzlement of my sexuality was not complete. For me sex meant the scout, the chase, the hunt and when the ripe fruit is in your hand, nestling, cuckooing in the bed, sweet nothings, cuddling and frolicking. I thought I was virgin no more. However, there was this bomb shell of a girl friend of mine. She was so insecure without a boyfriend that the window period between two boyfriends would be less than 24th of a second. She would kiss, get her boobs suckled, get rubbed against the gates to heaven and still claim to be virgin and not have had sex. I would say "ahaaa? Bitch!!!‖ She seemed nothing in front of my gay friends. They were redefining bitchiness by the variety of things they did in bed and their partners being just one of the things. I thought something was wrong with me. I got down to things. The sight, smell and sense of the act was disgusting and revolting. I was reminded of being a vegetarian, I don't eat sausages. Even the ooze is so cheap; it liquefies into nothing in seconds. Kneeling down in front of it is humanity stooping to its lowest and Ayyoooo Rama! digging from behind is even lower. I shared this experience with a close gay friend of mine, he laughed. I tried again a couple of times with months‘ gap in between and with guru gyan of

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my gay friends. I felt the same. I felt so lost, I was at square one again. Did I confuse myself as a homosexual? My friends would say how lucky I am for having such accepting parents, but what was the use? I still dint know what am I and what was happening with me. Few dirty dick and asshole bed mates would say that I am not good enough. For my age I have been a good student and a good son. I wanted to be a good performer and boyfriend too. Chocolate sauce, honey, kissan jam lubricated my sensory friction. I would entice guys with elaborate, meticulously structured thematic sex plans. Like devil themed sex on an amavasya day at 12 o'clock in the night, with red wine and dark chocolates on the side table and lady gaga and in the grave yard mixed music playing in the back ground. I had varying degrees of success. I was however not at ease with what I was doing. I was in search of "What am I", in search of that elusive label that would describe and declare me "Who I am" and thus bring in stillness in my mind and psychological security. I once happened to come across the web page of a group called AVEN (Asexual Visibility and Education Network). I learnt about the gray area of asexuals, demisexuals etc. I probably cannot describe the relief I experienced. I felt I was at the right place, that I belonged there. It was my euphoric eureka moment. Things suddenly started falling in place and making sense.I retrospectively remembered reading Dr Alfred Kinsey's work, where he acknowledged the existence of asexuals as X on his sexuality scale. I dint share this discovery with my mother, I have been enough of a mama's boy I thought. If I revealed this new dimension to straight folks who accepted my homosexuality I was scared of being labeled as crazy, given so unheard of is asexuality. The only door open was my gay circle, but I was laughed at or dismissed of by them. They wouldn't listen to me or understand what I was saying. They considered me being playful and pranky. They called me a late bloomer or I still have to grow up to be a man. I don't really blame them for not lending me an ear, given how I used to exaggerate my sexcapades to sound cool and in. I, who had all the support and acceptance from family and friends, was alone. I however dint feel lonely, lost or anguished. I felt calm, composed and at peace with myself. In the following few months, things became clearer and I started identifying myself as a romantic, homoerotic asexual. At the start of this reading, I described these labels on me as pheromonal to emphasize the fact that despite my asexuality I still feel sexy, like to attract and get attracted to. I tried to meet people like me in person. But being a minority among a minority and lack of visibility, I am yet to meet one. I proudly paraded asexuality flag at Hyderabad pride parade. I am deeply in gratitude for what I am. It was introspection and self discovery of who I am by peeping into the mirror of life than being photographed by the society and shown who you are or painted by the society

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and told who you should be. I describe the whole process meditative. Like the rush of thoughts darting your brain when you initially sit to meditate, I defined, redefined, labeled, relabeled and unlabeled myself. And like the sublime serenity that you experience later in meditation I emerged discovering my individual self with crisp clarity. Conclusion: The entire world‘s a stage and our births are our debut stints. As we grow acting out our life courses we assume certain identities by default, certain by choice and a certain lot which the society bestows and loads on us. These labels might help us in reaffirming ourselves and our existence in the society. However, some labels seem misfit and some are forcibly tagged on us. Not all aspects of us as individuals can be tangibly and palpably molded and bracketed into well defined labels. Identifying individuals with these labels can be restrictive and confining to the sense of freedom. Sense of freedom is even more restrictive when it comes to exploring human sexuality and gender. Reaffirming my androgynous gender identity in a society of binary gender was challenging. I identify myself as homosexual asexual i,e a minority among a minority. I felt misfit as a homosexual in this predominantly heterosexual society and as an asexual felt misfit among the homosexual society. Coming to terms with my sexual identity and coming out twice as homosexual and asexual was a hurkuline task but it was nevertheless a gratifying journey.

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Role of Women and their Impact on Manipur's Society Chingangbam Anupama1 In a country like India, the treatment of women has always been paradoxical. If we have people praying to goddesses Shakti, Kali, Lakshmi, widows are also being burned and female infanticide is on rampage. Though, of late education has changed some of the atrocities done to women, a closer look at the society reveals much exploitation on the basis of sex. But it is also true that in some parts of the country women do enjoy equality in a society with men or somehow they have a better role in the society. When the question of equality is raised, a further study is required as the deeper we go into the complexities of a community, subtle form of gender inequality tends to crop up. Manipur is such a state where women have always played an important part in the society. Women of Manipur have always been involved in the socio-political and economic sphere of the state. Unlike in some parts of India, women of Manipur have never stayed behind the veil but have crossed the threshold of their homes and been active like their male counterparts. One good example is the Ima Market of Manipur, the only market in the world entirely run and controlled by women. The entire process of trade in this market is managed by women from all parts of Manipur. From selling vegetables to clothes, these women have achieved expertise in their trade. From early morning to late night, they manage the market and they have done so for many years. These women run their household too and when it comes to taking care of their family, they seem to play a larger and a more important role than the male members. Women's involvement has not only been limited to their household, it has also expanded to include their society as well. The two Nupi Lans (Women‘s war) are the time‘s testimonial of women‘s involvement in the community. Women of Manipur have never stayed behind their men whenever there has been a need of larger numbers to be active as functional members of the civil society. The Two Nupi Lans Nupi Lan literally means women's war. History has witnessed two Nupi Lans in Manipur. The first Nupi Lan broke out in 1904 against the then British Political Agent Mr. Maxwell, against the forced labour system. It happened so that a State 1

Chingangbam Anupama ( Ph. D scholar working on Manipuri Literature), Teaches English Literature Kalindi College, University of Delhi. Page 41

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Bungalow was burnt down on 16 th March 1904. When Political Agent Maxwell could not find the culprit, he ordered a collective punishment that all the men of Imphal will go to Kabow to fetch teakwood to build the bungalow. When Maxwell ignored all the petitions to repeal the order, the men folk of Imphal began to prepare to go to Kabow. But women of Manipur refused to accept the unjust punishment. Thousands of them gathered at the road and started protesting the order. Finally, the British had to give in and withdraw the order. The second war broke out in 1939 against the export of rice from Manipur while people were starving in the state. The most important facet of this war was the protest against the Maharaja of Manipur and Political Agent Mr. Gimson of British Government (1933-45). From thereon, the movement signaled the start of an era of constitutional and administrative reform in Manipur. Women were predominantly involved in the production, marketing and selling of food-grains. Women managed the internal trade for food as well as clothing and maintained a just business standard in society as most of the buying and selling the markets was done by women. One of the most popular markets was the main markets called Khwairamband Bazar which was founded by Khagemba Maharaj around in 1580 AD and which is also known as Ima Keithel. The outbreak of Nupi Lan took place at this bazar in 1939. The agitation started on December 11, 1939 when the women reached the Khwairamband Bazar and found no one to sell rice in the market. Another group was getting ready to protest price rise and both groups joined forces to find out if foreign traders were buying rice at lower prices from the local traders. Thousands of women gathered at the State Durbar Office to protest against rice export from the state. When a platoon of Assam Rifles was called to control the situation, the women became even more agitated and shouted slogans like ―Manipur Mata Ki Jai‖. In the charge of the soldiers, some 21 women received injuries from the bayonets of the soldiers' guns. But the women were firm on their demands and they kept protesting even without any male support for their efforts. The women received male support for their efforts on December 16th and the protests became even more active. The support came in form of political activist Hijam Irabot of Nikhil Manipur Mahasabha who formed a new political party, Manipur Praja Samelini to support the women's movement. A poet himself, Irabot wrote, Tonight is spent A day has gone

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Tie up the hair women That is flowing in disorder A December 12 has passed Another December 12 has arrived Have you forgotten? Ever imagined that hair should be tied up? Ever imagined that this day would come? When Irabot was arrested on January 9th 1949, his followers took up the cause of Nupi Lan and organized meetings which gave a boost to the protests. As their protests continued and the new women's political party, Manipur Praja Samelini, also demanded the change of Durbar and the Administrative setup in Manipur. The agitations that started with the export of rice led to changes in the whole political set-up of Manipur, the constitutional, political and economic effects of which are felt even today. The political impact of the protests led to establishment of a better government in Manipur that was responsible and accountable to its people. The Role of Manipuri Women in Today's Society After these movements, Manipuri women, whether in the form of Nisha Band or the Meira Paibi have vigilantly guarded the society. They have never stayed behind men but courageously stepped forward fighting the injustice and taking part in the politics and the economic activity of the state. They are living up to their rich heritage. They are relentlessly fighting the violence in the society. Recent incidents, like the naked protest by twelve Meira Paibis in front of the Assam Rifles as a protest against rape and murder of Thangjam Manorama in 2004, show the strength of their resolve and their ability to bring to light the lacunae in the local law and order system. Deepti Priya Mehrotra, a long time activist in women's and human rights movement, writes, ―Meira Paibis challenged the gendered division of private and public spaces, and the secrecy with which 'private' matters are supposed to be treated. Publicly identifying state security forces as perpetrators of rate, they challenged the State to own up to its crime, demanded transparency and accountability.‖ (Gill, 2010) Irom Sharmila Chanu who has been on an indefinite fast asking the Government of India to repeal the Arms Forces Special Power Act is an epitome of Manipuri women‘s resistance against any injustice. She started the protest from November 2000 when army personnel shot dead 10 innocent people on the

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ground of AFSPA. She has been fighting this lonely war ever since then, fighting for the people of Manipur. A poet herself, she wrote, Free my feet from the shackles Like bangles made of thorn Confined inside a narrow room My fault lies in Being incarnated as a bird. Inside the dark room of the prison Many voices echo around Unlike the sound of birds Not the merry laughter Not that of a lullaby A child snatched away from the mother's bosom The lamentation of a mother A woman separated from her husband The cry of anguish of a widow A cry springing out of a sepoy's hand A ball of fire is seen Dooms day follows it The ball of fire was lit By the product of science Because of oral experimentation Servants of sense organs Everybody is in trance Intoxication – the enemy of thinking Wisdom of thinking is annihilated No experimentation of thinking Laughing with smiles on the face By the traveller of coming beyond the hill ranges Nothing remains but my laments Nothing saved by the seeing eyes Strength cannot show itself Human life is precious Before life comes to an end Let me be light of darkness Nectar will be sown www.dalitsahitya.com

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A true of immortality will be planted. Putting on artificial wings All the corners of the earth will be covered Near the joining line of life and death Morning songs will be sung The chores of the world will be performed. Let the gate of the prison be flung wide I will not go on another path Please remove the shackles of thorn Let me be not accused For being incarnated in the life of a bird. (Translated from Manipuri to English by Wide Angle Social Development Organisation) No doubt that Manipuri women's have played a significant role in the social set-up as compared to other parts of India. Even after taking in consideration this role, can we really say that they are empowered, and they have achieved equality in the overtly patriarchal Indian society? Do women play an equally magnified role in the domestic sphere as they do in the society and the community? These are the issues that need to be examined with a critical eye, and only then, the true status of women in the society will be revealed. References Singh, N Joykumar, Social Movements in Manipur, Mittal Publications, 2005, New Delhi Ed Gill, Preeti, The Peripheral Centre – Voices from India's North East, Zubaan, 2010, New Delhi http://classic.kanglaonline.com/index.php?template=printkshow&kid=6&Idoc_ Session=1b22ddd2873ef8925aed15a52b69a133 http://www.cpiml.org/liberation/year_2011/may_11/cover.html

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Local government and the women participation among the Scheduled Caste villages in Manipur: A case study of Sekmai Nagar Panchayat, Sekmai Rakesh S. Khwairakpam1 Abstract: In Manipur, the local government is the third level of government after the Central and State governments. There are two types of local governments in Manipur in rural and urban areas. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts of 1993 were implemented in rural and urban areas.According to these Act, 1/3 positions in all the elected bodies are reserved for persons belonging to SC/ST and women. In addition, the positions of Chairperson, Vice Chairperson, Adaksha and Up-Adaksha are also reserved for them. It is applicable only in all valley districts and Moreh Town in the hills district of Chandel. Despite all these, the participation of women is still low. Sekmai is one of the few Scheduled Caste Loi villages where women play an active role in the Local government of Sekmai Nagar Panchayat. Some of the women even contested and defeated the male candidates. The paper will study the role of women representatives, their functioning and the implication of their participation. Study village: Sekmai village is located on the northern side of Manipur. It is 18 km. away from the capital city of Imphal. It is predominantly inhabited by persons belonging to the Sekmai Scheduled Caste Loi. Methodology: A qualitative method was adopted for the study. In-depth interviews, case studies and observation were the multiple tools use for data collection. Keywords: Sekmai Nagar Panchayat, Sekmai, women representatives and councillors. Introduction: There are different types of governance: global governance, corporate governance, project governance, information technology governance, participatory governance, non-profit governance, Islamic governance, measuring governance and local government (Dun, 2011: 60-64). Local government is an administrative body for a small geographical area, such as a village, town, city or a state. It will typically have control over its specific geographical region and cannot pass or enforce laws that will affect a wider area (Business Dictionary, 2013). It means an intra-sovereign governmental unit within the sovereign state dealing mainly with local affairs, administered by local authorities and 1

Rakesh S. Khwairakpam PhD Scholar, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai www.dalitsahitya.com

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subordinate to the state government (Jahan, 1997:92; cited in Fardaus. Ara. 2006: 78). The first local self-governance was known to the Indian subcontinent, including Nepal, some four to six thousand years ago. It was known as Panchayat, literally meaning an assembly of five elders elected by villagers. In ancient times, these five Panchas were considered as the incarnation of Gods. The functioning has been handed down from generation to generation through indigenous knowledge ( Pokhrel and B.J. Willet, 1996; 109-110).. Local government is a direct and active involvement of the people of a local area in the administration of local affairs for the satisfaction of local need with the help of local resources, and through organised local affords. The villages themselves manage the simple affairs of the village. Originally, the village were completely self-governing and were practically free from central control (Bhuyan and Pradhan, pp 1-4). During the pre-independence period, the village Panchayats were replaced by the village administrative set up under the government control with limited powers of levying and collecting taxes. The first municipal corporation was established in Madras in 1687 with power to levy taxes for building. Another significant step in this direction was the government of India Act, 1935, which empowered the provisional government to enact legislation for investing the Panchayat with administrative powers, including dealing with matters relating to criminal justice. Definitions of Local government According to Sedgwick, ―Local government consists of certain subordinate bodies which have defined power of making rules and regulations within their prescribe areas of administration‖. According to W.A. Robson, ―Local government may be said to involve the conception of territorial, non sovereign community possessing the legal right and the necessary organisation to regulate its own affairs‖ (Ghosh, 2013). Mahatma Gandhi propounded the concept of the autonomous village republic - completely self-sufficient in all respects. His vision of local selfgovernment was gram swaraj (Dua, 2011, p 1). Mahatma Gandhi‘s concept of economically and politically self-sufficient villages inspired most of the political leaders to conceive of Panchayati Raj Institutions as models of grassroots democracy. In consonance with Bapu‘s vision, , Article 40 of Directive Principles of the Indian Constitution reads ‗the state shall take steps to organise village Panchayats and endow them to function as units of self-government‘. The PRI was introduced for the first time on 2nd October 1959 in Nagaur District of Rajasthan by the then Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. Rajasthan is the first state in India where PRI was implemented in the whole state (Pillai, 2010: 170175).

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The 73rd & 74th Constitution Amendment Act of 1993 ensures the effective participation of rural and urban people in the institutions of local selfgovernment. The provision of 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1993 is related to Panchayati Raj bodies in rural areas at the village, block and district levels. It has provisions for reservation of 1/3 of the seats at all the three levels in favour of women and persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and the OBCs. For urban self- government, the 74th Constitutional amendment Act was enacted with effect from 1st January, 1993 under Part IX of the Constitutional provisions for Municipalities from Article 243 P to 243 ZG. As per this constitutional amendment, three types of urban institutions have been established of the basis of population. These are: Nagar Panchayat, Municipal Council and Municipal Corporation. Nagar Panchayats have been established in those towns which are in the process of transition from rural areas to urban areas. Municipal Council have been established in small urban areas and Municipal Corporations, established in larger urban areas (Darpan, 2007: 154161). There are a total of 6, 45,000 local governments in India. Local governments of the rural areas are termed as Panchayats and those in urban areas are referred to as Nagar Panchayats and the Municipalities. The function of local government is divided into two categories: obligatory and discretionary. Obligatory functions: These include: Registration of births and deaths, Supply of pure drinking, water, Construction and maintenance of public roads, Lighting and watering of public streets, Naming streets and numbering houses, Establishment and maintenance of primary schools and Maintenance and support of public hospitals. Discretionary functions: These include : Planting and maintenance of trees, Housing for persons belonging to low income groups, Construction and maintenance of public parks, gardens, libraries, museums, rest house and other public buildings and Securing or removal of dangerous building or places (Local Government of India, 2013). Political participation of women in India: The total population of India was 102.70 cores as per 2001 Census report of India. Out of this, 49.5 per cent were females. The political participation of women is mandated in all the three tier institutions; i.e., central, state and local governments. In the first Lok-Sabha election of 1952, the women participation was 4.4 per cent, 5. 4 per cent in 1957, 6.7 per cent in 1962, 5.9 per cent in 1967, 4.2 per cent in 1971, 3. 4 per cent in 1977, 8.9 per cent in 1984, 7.1 per cent in 1991, 7.9 per cent in 1998, 9 per cent in 1999, 8.2 per cent, 8.2 per cent in 2004 and 11 per

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cent in 2008 till today. The participation of women in the Upper House has been slightly higher, compared to Lok-Sabha (Chapter II, 2013: 55. 70-71). In the State Legislative Assemblies, the participation of women in Assam is six women out of 122 members in the 1996 election, two women in J.K. out of 87 members in the 1999 election, eleven women out of 288 members in 1995 election, seven women out of 117 in the 1997 election. Madhya Pradesh, with twenty-six women members out of 320 members, has the highest number of women participation in the 1998 election. There is not a single women member in Nagaland State Legislative Assembly in 1998 election (Election Commission of India, cited in Indian report, (n.d),). According to 73rd and 74th Constitution Amendment Act, 1/3rd seats of elected members are reserved for women in all the rural and the urban Local governments. In addition, 1/3rd of the positions of Chairpersons and Deputy Chairpersons are also reserved for women. But it was not applicable to scheduled and tribal areas (Baseline Report, n.d): 1-3). It has increased the political consciousness and facilitated women participation in local governments in rural and urban areas for persons belonging to all castes, classes and regions. With this, nearly one and a half million women are participating in the decision making process and many more are exercising their citizenship rights as voters and candidates (Women in Governance, n.d: 50-52). The proportions of woman, SC and ST Representatives in all the Panchayats in India were 36.9 per cent, 18.5 per cent and 11.3 per cent respectively, as on July 1, 2011 (Rajesekhar, 2012: 46). Brief account of Manipur: Manipur is one of the north eastern states of India. It is located on the north-eastern frontier of India. The total geographical area of Manipur is 22,327 square kilometres. It is broadly divided into hills and the valley. There are nine districts in Manipur, five in the hills and the four in the valley. The hill covers around 90 per cent of the total geographical area of the state. The people of Manipur predominantly belong to the Mangoloid race and speak Tibeto Burman language. They are broadly divided into different ethnic groups - the Meiteis, the Scheduled tribes (ST) of Nagas and the Kukichins, the Meitei Pangal (Meitei Pangal) and the Scheduled Caste (SC) Lois and the non-SC Lois. The hills districts are mainly inhabited by 33 recognised ST members who have their own socio-cultural and language identity. It is the gateway to south East Asia. Manipur is bounded by Nagaland in the north, Myanmar in the east, Mizoram to the west and Mizoram to the south. It was an independent kingdom for about two thousand years before its merger to the Indian Union. It was ruled by 76 recorded kings, as recorded by the royal chronicle called Cheitharol Kumbaba (Khelchandra Singh, 2009; 64-67).

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Local government in Manipur: The 73rd and 74th Amendment Act 1993 was implemented in Manipur for decentralisation of local self-government in all the valley Districts. Rural Local Government: The provision of 73rd Constitution Amendment Act related to Panchayati Raj Bodies in rural areas. The Manipur Panchayati Raj Institution are functioning in accordance with the two Acts, namely, the Manipur Panchayati Raj Act of 1975 and The Manipur Panchayati Raj Act of 1994. The Manipur Panchayati Raj Act of 1994 replaced the Act of 1975. Only two tier system; the Gram Panchayat at the village level, and the Zilla Parishad at the District level, are actually functioning. The main objective of the Act was to ensure the participation of the people in the effective implementation of rural development. It provides for people‘s participation, irrespective of caste, class, gender from the rural areas. It also provides for the reservation of seats for SC/ST and the women. In addition, the office of the Pradhan, Up Pradhan of the Gram Panchayat and Adhyakshas and UP-Adhyaksha of the Zilla Parishad are earmed for for SCs/STs and women. There are 166 Gram Panchayat Constituencies in all the four valley districts of Manipur. There are four Zilla Parishads in Manipur, i.e., Imphal East, Imphal West, Thoubal and Bishnupur, represented by 61 elected members. Imphal East has the highest number of members and Bishnupur, the smallest number. Urban Local Self- Government: There is a three-tier urban local self government system in Manipur. Municipal Council: There are nine Municipal Councils, i.e., Imphal Municipal Council, Jiribam Municipal Council, Thoubal Municipal Council, Kakching Municipal Council, Nambol Municipal Council, Moirang Municipal Council and the Bishnupur Municipal Council. Small Town Committee: There is only one Small Town Committee, the ‗Moreh Small Town Committee‘. It is represented by 9 elected wards members. It is in the Hills areas of Chandel District of Manipur. Nagar Panchayat: There are 18 Nagar Panchayat in the valley districts of Manipur. These are functioning in the semi-rural and semi-urban areas. These are: Samurou Nagar Panchayat, Thongkhong Laxmi Bazar Nagar Panchayat, Lilong Nagar Panchayat, Wanggoi Nagar Panchayat, Lamsang Nagar Panchayat, Sekmai Nagar Panchayat, Andro Nagar Panchayat, Lamlai Nagar Panchayat, Lilong Nagar Panchayat, Kakching Khunou Nagar Panchayat, Yaripok Nagar Panchayat, Wangjing Nagar Panchayat, Shikhong Nagar, Sugnu Nagar

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Panchayat, Heirok Nagar Panchayat, Kwakta Nagar Panchayat, Kumbi Nagar Panchayat and Oinam Nagar Panchayat represented (Decentralisation and Government, n.d). The 73rd and 74 Amendment Act was not implemented in the hills districts, except Moreh areas of Chandel District. The hills are governed by the six District Councils under the Manipur (Hills Areas) District Council Act since 14th February, 1972. The districts councils are: Chandel Autonomous District Council, Churachandpur Autonomous District Council, Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council, Senapati Autonomous District Council, tamenglong Autonomous District Council, and Ukhrul District Autonomous District Council (NE News letter, 2010). Study village: Sekmai is located at the north western corner of Manipur. It is 18 kilometres away from the capital city of Imphal. It is the second largest Scheduled Caste (SC) village in the state in terms of geographical size and population. Presently, there are fifteen Leikais (hamlets): Awang Leikai, Kanglatongbi Leikai, Khunou Makha Leikai, Khunou Mathak Leikai, Koujengleima Leikai, Laipat leikai, Makha Leikai, Mayai Leikai, New Market Leikai, New Sekmai Leikai, Nongthomband Leikai, Pangantabi Leikai, Sekmai Bazar and Yariband Leikai. These are predominantly inhabited by the Sekmai Loi of seven clans Angom, Khaba Nganba, Khuman, Luwang, Mangang/ Ningthouja and Moirang of the eleven Sageis (sub-clans/lineage) Angom, Ayangbam, Chandam, Khwairakpam, Laimayum, Laishangbam, Maharabam, Moirangthem, Thangjam, Usham, Yumlembam.The village comes under the jurisdiction of Imphal West District. Sekmai is the only SC reserved constituency out of 60 constituencies of the Manipur Legislative Assembly. Sekmai have all the urban facilities such as Community Health Centre, Veterinary office, SubDeputy Collector, Post Office, branch of State Bank of India, a well developed market, Sekmai Nagar Panchayat, Governments Higher Secondary School, Water Supply, Police Station, Excise Station, and Costume Office, etc. Research Issue: Sekmai village was governed by the traditional institution Phamneiba during the period of the independent kingdom of Manipur for about two thousand years. After the merger of Manipur to the Indian Union, it was governed by traditional and formal governments. The first local government was introduced at Sekmai village in the year 1965. Later on, it was declared as a notified area after two terms and Town Committee was formed in between 197778. It was represented by nine ward members. The ward members were nominated for the initial term for three years. For the second and third terms, the

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wards members were chosen through elections. But there was no reservation system. This was replaced by the Sekmai Nagar Panchayat in January 1995 and the election was held subsequently. According to the 74th Amendment Act of 1993, 1/3rd seats were reserved for women. Unlike the others Nagar Panchayats of Manipur, one seat was reserved for persons belonging to the general people. But there is no reservation SC as the village is predominantly inhabited by the Sekmai SC Lois. Rationale of the study: The present study would be of significance in exploring the background of the traditional government in Sekmai village. It will also facilitate the study of the historical background of the local-self governments. It will also explore the implications of reservation policy and women participation. Objectives: 1) To explores the historical background of the local governance. 2) To study the factors for women participation in the Sekmai Nagar Panchayat. 3) To examine the peopleâ€&#x;s perception of women representatives in the Sekmai Nagar Panchayat. Scheduled Castes of Manipur: The eight Loi villages, namely, Andro, Khurkhul, Kotha, Koutruk, Leimaram, Phayeng, Sekmai and Tairenpokpi, Yaithibi, Dhupi/Dhubi, Namsudra, Muchi/Ravidas, Patni and Sidradhar are recognised as Scheduled Castes under the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Amendment) Act No.6 of 1956 of Manipur under Article 341 (1) of the Indian Constitution. The Lois and Yaithibi are the indigenous people of Manipur and the others are migrants after merger of the state to Indian Union (Khwairakpam, 2012: 68-69). The Lois is classified into two groups, Chakpa and Sekmai. The Chakpa can be largely found in seven villages, except Sekmai. The Sekmai are the principal inhabitants of Sekmai village. Local Administration of the Scheduled caste villages: The traditional governments have been functioning like village republics in all the Scheduled Caste Loi villages during the kingdom of Manipur. These continued to enjoy a reasonable degree of autonomy even after the Manipur State Assembly Election under the Manipur Constitution Act of 1947. These became informal or traditional institutions after the merger of Manipur to the Indian Union and subsequently after the implementation of three tier institutions. The traditional institution of the Chakpa is called Phamdou and that of the Sekmai is called Phamneiba. The traditional institution Andro village is governed by six elected members. It has been in existence for about 2 thousand years (Khwairakpam, 2013: 10-11). www.dalitsahitya.com

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Local government of Sekmai village: The traditional institution Phamneiba has been in existence at Sekmai village since the beginning of the settlement. The Phamneiba means all the elected members of the Loishang. Loishang means the traditional Sekmai Assembly. It is represented by twelve elected members. The Phamneiba legislates and implements laws of Sekmai village. The Phamneiba functions like the three organs of the government - legislative, executive and judiciary under the traditional self-governance system. The Phamneiba became the traditional institution after the implementation of three-tier government system and it is in existence even today. Local Government after the merger to Indian Union: The first Gram Panchayat was established at Sekmai village in the year 1964. Chandam Kumar and Khwairakpam Angangjao were elected for the first and second term respectively. After the two terms, Sekmai village was declared as a ‗notified area‘ for around three years. During this time, nine wards committees were formed and the wards members were nominated by the concerned Bureaucrats. The first Town Committee was established in the year 1977. It was named as Sekmai Town Committee. The first town committee members have been appointed by the concerned SDO of Imphal on the advice of the local MLA. The elected members are shown in the Table below Ward No Name of the Counsellor Gender 1 Moirangthem Kshetrasingh Male 2 Akim Anal Woman 3 Khwairakpam Khamba Male 4 Khwairakpam Gaorasingh Male 5 Maharabam Tomba Male 6 Khwairakpam Nilamani Male 7 Khwairakpam Gopal Male 8 Angom Rajesh Male 9 Khwairakpam Shangai Male From the above Table, it can be seen there is only one woman member out of nine wards members. The 2nd Sekmai Town Committee wards members are shown in the Table below Ward No Name of the Councillor Gender 1 Potshangba Raghumani Male 2 Usham Leirijao Male 3 Khwairakpam Mahindra Male Page 53

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4 5 6 7 8 9

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Angom Lilamangol Maharabam Tomba Khwairakpam Gopal Khwairakpam Nabachandra Maharabam Roman Maharabam Mangi

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Male Male Male Male Male Male

Khwairakpam Mahindra was the Chairman during his tenure. There was not a single woman member. The third and the Sekmai Town Committee members are shown in the Table below Ward No Name of the Councellor Gender 1 Angom Chandraketi Male 2 Warappam Dhaneshwar Male 3 Khwairakpam Khamba Male 4 Khwairakpam Gaorasingh Male 5 Yumlembam Khema Male 6 Yumlembam Surjamani Male 7 Khwairakpam Bheigya Male 8 Angom Lotonsingh Male 9 Maharabam Umasingh Male Khwairakpam Gaorasingh was the Chairman and there was not a single woman member. The Sekmai Nagar Town Committee was replaced by ‗Sekmai Nagar Panchayat after implementation of the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1993 ( date extracted by interviewing Khwairakpam Amujao, Khwairakpam Gaorasingh, Khwairakpam Lotomani, Khwairakpam Yaiskul during the field work between January-February, 2012). In terms of this Constitutional Amendment, three types of urban local institution have been established of the basic of population. In Sekmai village, the Nagar Panchayat of the semi-urban and semi-rural areas has been implemented. The positions of Chairman and Vice-Chairman are replaced by those of Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson. As per this Act, there is a reservation system for disadvantaged and minority groups. In addition, there is also a reservation system for the position of Chairperson and the Vice-Chairperson. The elections are held every five years. The first Sekmai Nagar Panchayat election was held in the year 1995. The elected members are shown with the Table below.

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Name of the Reserved/ Councillor Unreserved Khwairakpam Rashi Reserved for woman Khwairakpam Unreserved Surjamani Khwairakpam Unreserved Captain Khwairakpam Chaobi Reserved for woman Khwairakpam O Reserved for Ranjana Woman Angom Benoy Unreserved Ayangbam Oken Unreserved Ibopishak Meetei Reserved for general Khwairakpam Unreserved Romani

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

Gender

Political party

Female

INC

Male

Independent

Male

Independent

Female

INC

Female

INC

Male Male Male

INC INC INC

Female

INC

Ayangbam Oken was the Chairperson, but in between was replaced by Khwairakpam for around two months. A women councillor was elected from an unreserved ward. The second Sekmai Nagar Panchayat election was held in the year 2000. The elected members are shown in the Table below. Ward No Name of the Reserved/ Gender Political Councillor Unreserved party 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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Warappam Dhaneshor Khwairakpam Memcha Khwairakpam Sarana Laimayum O Chaobi Khwairakpam Biren Yumlembam Bormani Khwairakpam Bheigya

Reserved for general Reserved for woman Reserved for woman Unreserved

Male

BJP

Female

BJP

Female

BJP

Female

BJP

Unreserved Reserved for woman Unreserved

Male Female

BJP BJP

Male

BJP

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Khwairakpam Ibochou Khwairakpam Premjit

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Unreserved

Male

BJP

Unreserved

Male

BJP

Khwairakpam Premjit was the Chairperson for this term. One woman was elected from an unreserved ward. The third Sekmai Nagar Panchayat election was held in 2006. The elected members are shown in the Table below:. Ward Name of the Reserved/Unreserved Gender Political No. Councillor party 1

Ahongshangbam Ashok Kh. Purnimashi Angom manglem Laimayum O Chaobi Thangjam Raghu

Reserved for general

Male

INC

Reserved for woman Unreserved Unreserved Unreserved

Female Male Female Male

Reserved for woman Reserved for woman

Female Female

8

Kh. Kiranbala Khwairakpam Romoni Angom Ramananda

BJP BJP INC Independ ent BJP INC

Unreserved

Male

9

M. O. Landhoni

Reserved for woman

Female

2 3 4 5 6 7

Independ ent INC

Laimayum O. Chaobi was the Chairperson for this term. Women members are more in number than the male members. The fourth Sekmai Nagar Panchayat election was held in 2011. The elected members are: Ward Name of the Reserved/Unreserved Gender Political No. Councillor Party 1 Thiyam Surjit Reserved for general Male INC 2 Kh. Surjamani Unreserved Male INC 3 Angom Manglem Unreserved Male INC 4 Khwairakpam Unreserved Male INC Surjit 5 Th. O Reebika Reserved for woman Female INC 6 L. Purnimashi Reserved for woman Female INC www.dalitsahitya.com

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Khwairakpam Mangi Angom Ramananda Ayangbam Kulamani

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Unreserved

Male

INC

Unreserved

Male

INC

Reserved for woman

Female

INC

Ayangbam Kulamani is the present Chairperson as it is reserved for woman. Four case studies were conducted with different women to know their perceptions regarding the reservation policy and women participation in functioning of the Sekmai Nagar Panchayat: Case: 1 Kh. Ongbi Amubi (62) is a married woman with two sons and one daughter. She resides at Sekmai Bazaar. She is the founder Secretary of Advance Women Society Apunba Meirapi (women Organisation) of Sekmai village. From the very beginning, Sekmai women were not only confined to performing household tasks. All the unmarried girls who attained puberty were trained in the art of cleanliness, weaving, and distilling wine. They were trained by the women Chairperson of Pakhanglakpi and Naharakpi. There are two Local government institutions in Sekmai villages, the traditional institution Phamneiba and the Sekmai Nagar Panchayat. It is mandatory for all the married women to be members of the traditional institution. Widowers and widows are customarily prohibited to be members of the Phamneiba. But the formal local government of Gram Panchayat and Sekmai Town Committee not only ignore women participation, but also practise inequality to some degree. Fortunately, there has been a change for the better after the establishment of Sekmai Nagar Panchayat in local government. This can be attributed to introduction of reservation system for women and those belonging to the minority sections of society. It has also enabled women to contest elections from unreserved wards. Case 2: Laimayum Ongbi Chaobi (44) is a married woman having two sons and a daughter. She is the wife of Laimayum Tomba a resident of Sekmai Leikai. Her father-in-law is the third oldest man Khungi Lai of Sekmai village. She is a B.Sc. from Manipur University. She was the Councillor of Sekmai Nagar Panchayat for three consecutive terms. She was elected from an unreserved ward for the second and third terms. She was appointed as the Chairperson in third term from the women‘s reservation quota. The reservation system enables participation by women in the functioning of the Sekmai Nagar Panchayat. It also facilitates decentralisation of grassroots government, irrespective of caste, class, gender, regions, etc. But still 50 per cent of the listed subject is not implemented. She was

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motivated by her husband and father-in-law in all the three terms. She does not experience teasing, verbal and physical abuse, ill treatment, humiliated, harassment etc inside and outside the villages. But sometimes she was verbal abused and harassed by the non-state actors when she refused for toll tax extortion. The villagers of Sekmai are very cooperative in implementing the policies and programmes. However, people are not cooperating at the time of collection of taxes from private vendors and shops. The masses are not aware of fund sources. There is still stereo type of understanding that the Sekmai Nagar Panchayat fund is a government institution. It has full sanction from the central and state governments. Holistically, it has been functioning more successful with at least 3 women members out of 9 members. Some people are still coming regarding queries, seeking help and for others matters. Case 3: Maharabam Anita (40) is an unmarried woman. She is the daughter of (L) Maharabam Luwang and Maharabam Ongbi Thabung. She passed her Bachelor of Engineering (BE) Electronics from NIT, Silchar, Assam in the year 2001. She holds many positions in different capacities. She is the Coordinator of the Manipur Pradesh Congress Sevadal, Director-in-charge of the Bharatiya Farmer Agro Business Multi State Cooperative Society, Assam, Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland, President Awang Koubru Women and Child Development Society ( specially for SC and ST). The women reservation system has helped to ensure more women participation. It has facilitated the empowerment of the weaker sections and promoted greater gender equality.. She feels that there will be Ram Rajya if the reservation system is implemented in all the three tier government systems throughout India. Case 4: Khwairakpam Ongbi Jamuna (39) is a married woman with two sons and a daughter. She married to Khwairakpam Sanatomba who is popularly known as a social worker. She is a graduate from Presidency College Motbung, Senapati District. She is working as Primary Investigator, Economic and Statistics under the Central Government. From the very beginning, Sekmai men and women are participating equally in the traditional government. Both are interdependent to each others. In the local formal government only one woman member has participated for about 3 decades. But after the implementation of 1/3rd women reservation system in Sekmai Nagar Panchayat, women members are actively participating along with male members. There is still gender difference in Sekmai village but during the tenure of Laimayum Ongbi Chaobi (the woman Chairperson), development works were more visible.

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Case analysis: The first case study shows that the Sekmai women are not confined to the home alone. They have been provided different types of training at women morung by women members of Phmaneiba. After the merger of Manipur to the Indian Union, a new formal local government has emerged. In the beginning, women were ignored in political participation and faced gender discrimination. But after the implementation of 1/3 women reservation, women are able to actively participate in running of the Sekmai Nagar Panchayat. The second case study reveals that even an unmarried woman is able to take part in local government. They are also contesting and winning from unreserved constituencies. Reservation for the position of Chairperson provides a constitutional opportunity for women to execute policies and programmes. There is no gender or caste discrimination against women representatives and chairpersons as found in the case of K. Shanthadevi, Ms, Sakundala, and Ms, Sahayammri of Dalit women chairpersons in local government in Tamilnadu (Palanithurai, 2010: 343-347). It is also seen that many people are not aware of the Nagar Panchayat fund and people are not cooperating in tax collection from private vendors and shops. The third case study shows that the reservation policy has facilitated the mass participation of women in Nagar Panchayat. It is believed that there will be Ram Rajya if the three-tier system of government is properly implemented throughout India. The last case study reveals that the traditional institution of Sekmai has equal representation of males and females. In the formal local government, there was only one woman among the 27 members. But after introduction of the 1/3rd reservation women system, the political consciousness and the number of women representatives have increased. The development programme of Sekmai Nagar Panchayat has been more visible during the Chairpersonship of women. Reference: Chapter II (2013) Political Participation of women in India http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/2392/10/10_chapter%202.p df Accessed on 01/02/2013. Decentralisation and Government. (n.d). Decentralisation, Governance and the Institutional Framework of Development in Different Regions of Manipur. Chapter-XVIII. http://manipur.nic.in/planning/DraftMSDR/Draft_SDR_pdf/Chapter%2018_ Decentralisation.pdf Accessed on 08/02/2013. Dictionary. Business (2013) http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/local-government.html accessed on 08/02/2013

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Dua. S.P. (2011) Panchayati rak and Urban Planning. Alfa Publications. New Delhi. Election Commission of India. Cited in Indian Report (n.d). State of women in urban Local Government India Description of the country. http://www.unescap.org/huset/women/reports/india.pdf Accessed on 01/02/2013. Ghosh.RN(2013)http://www.icisa.cag.gov.in/resources%5CiCISA%20Research %20Papers%5CAcccountability%20of%20Local%20Governments.pdf accessed on 07/02/2013. Indian Polity. (2007). Pratyogita Darpan. Delhi. Khelchandra Singh. N. (2009). The Historical, Archaeological, Religious & Cultural Significance of Kangla: The Ancient Citadel of Manipur (ed). Dwijasekhar Sharma. H. In New Insight into the glorious heritage of Manipur (vol.1). Akansha Publishing House. New Delhi. pp 64-67.Institute of Public Auditors of India. (2008). Report on Monitering of the Financial Management and procurement relating to Sarva Shaksha Abhiyan in Manipur. New Delhi. Khwairakpam. Rakesh S. (2012). Traditional Administrative Institutions among the Scheduled Caste Loi village in Manipur: A caste study of Koutruk village. Maheirol. Manipur Students Association. Delhi. Khwairakpam. Rakesh S. et al. (2013). People Initiatives on Agricultural Land Management: A study of tairenpokpi village of Imphal West District, Manipur. February. Vol. 3 Issue 1. Local Government of India (2013) http://www.mapsofindia.com/governmentof-india/local/ Accessed on 01/02/2013. Mohan. Shantha Mahan, Manorama. Ruth, Paparanna. Geeta Devi and Pushpa rani. Lata martha. (n.d). Baseline Report. Women and Political particapition in India: National Institute of Advance Studies-Gender Studies Unit (NIAS) Women Voice National Alliance of women (NAWD) and Initiatives-women in Development (IWID). International womens Rights Action watch Asia pacific (IWRAW Asia Pacific). Kuala Lampur, Malasia. NE Newsletter (2010). Autonomous District Council/Autonomous District Councils in the State of Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura. Ministry of Home Affairs. Government of India. Vol.XII. No.7 July.

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Palanithurai. G. (2010). Status of Dalits and Dalit Gram Panchayat Leader in Tamin Nadu (ed) Dutt. Sunil and Hooja Rakesh in Fifty Years of Panchayati raj and Decentralised Development. Kanishka Publishers, Distributors. New Delhi. Poffenberger. Mark (ed) (2007) Indigenous Forest Stewards of Northeast India. Shillong Pokhrel.Durga and Willet.B.J.A.1996. History of an indigenous community management organization in Nepa. In: Indigenous Organization and Development ed.by Blunt.P and Warren.D.M. . Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd. London. Rajesekhar. D.(2012). Local Self-government in India: An overview. NITTE Management Review. Vol.6 Issue 1 Women in Governance (n.d). Introduction. Ncf.nic.in/pdfreports/women in governance.pdf. accessed on 01/02/2013.

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The Dancing Women: A Postcolonial Study into R. K. Narayan’s The Guide and The Man -Eater of Malgudi Kousik Adhikari1 Abstract: In Indian sense dance, the most aesthetic and subtlest form of all human aesthetics is not only an exposition of gestures and bodily movements but also an art which is a recourse for spiritualism, a divine art. The first treatise on dance, Natyashastra, relates and glorifies dancers with their divine aspects like the apsaras because of the divine aspects of this art. Later, various mythological scriptures and our two great epics severally attest their supposed degeneration into baser instincts as the dancing women are being used more for personal interests by the authorities. Thus the very antithetical dualism becomes a core point into the structure and disposition of dancing woman. In Narayan‘s two novels The Guide and The Man- Eater of Malgudi we could glimpse that same dualism permeating and constructing the narrative structure of the text that remains unchanged throughout the ages. Thus the present essay attempts to see the very presentation of the dancing women in these two novels with their obvious dualism that Indian culture attests. Keywords: art, natyashastra, dualism, dancing woman, culture. The performance traditions of India, Farley Richmond noted very pertinently consists of many forms that cannot be included in the other groups that constitute the vast area of perfomative art forms of the world. Dance is an inseparable part of Indian culture from the ancient times. Dance, which has been regarded as one of the most complicated and sophisticated expression of human beings, is an unending treasure trove for the lovers of arts and simultaneously a rich subjective arts. Indian‘s cultural tradition of attributing it to the spiritual significations led it to another psychological texture that undoubtedly lends somewhat rich symbolism, variety as well as complexity to its enactments and production. The earliest treatise on this art is Natyashastra which is said to be communicated by Lord Brahman to sage Bharata, who is believed to write 1

Kousik Adhikari National Institute of Technology, W.B. Email : kousikadhikari051@gmail.com Bio-note: PhD research scholar, participated and presented papers in several national and international seminars, has some publications in reputed national and international journals, consisting of both creative and critical work; he is interested in comparative literature, linguistics, culture studies etc.

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Natyashastra (The art of the Play). The noted critic, Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee in his introduction of Indian Drama, published in 1956, clearly refers its dating back to the 4th century AD at the latest. Chatterjee in the same discussion states that, ―In south India, the Sanskrit tradition lingered, and it was dance rather than drama proper which attracted the attention of creative artists there‖ (Chaterjee 13). This is very significant and relevant for the present context of our essay. However Natyashastra is the first documented text on Indian classical dance and where the significance of dance is described as which aims not to flatter any party but to represent the true and essential character of the world. The proclaimed aim is somewhat symbolic and tricky for it seeks to represent the true and essential character of the world. whether dance‘s objective should be same or not that is another question, but on the very position of the structure of dancing and its associated characters throughout the evolution of Indian cultural history and its associated literature questions this very definition with some resultant ambiguity, that is undoubtedly one of the rich characteristic of any Indian classical text. Simultaneously Indian classical dance is inherently linked with different emotions. The perfect harmony between classical music and body movement is its ulterior motif and objective that create different moods in the mind of the beholder. On the other hand there are two main doctrines or concepts in classical Indian dance. ‗Nritta‘ comprises of the technology or technical aspects of dance and ‗Abhinaya‘ is the emotional effects that it casts on the spectators. ‗Nritta‘ in combination of ‗Abhinaya‘ with gestures and expressions of face, represent the written part of script into performing dance. The contention of Abhinaya is to effectively present human emotions. One of the most notable characteristic of Indian classical dance is that devotion has a very formidable part in its delineation and like other ancient Indian arts it is also viewed as a deliberation to spirituality and thus it is supposed to be very natural that dancers could or would occupy a proximal place in the circle of divinity. The love relationship between two mortals is also seen in the graphic renderings of divine love, a desire for the unification with the god that will result into a perfect harmonious and blissful experience which is akin to ‗Brahman‘ or the supreme spiritual bliss in upnashadic doctrines, as for example the Taittarya Upnishad states that Brahman is akin to rasa, which is a divine experience and it is here that dance becomes a kind of yogic principle where human beings gets merge into the vast realm of the divinity, which is the ultimate aim of Indian spiritualism. Indian tradition also says that it was Brahman who presented Natyashastra to sage Bharata. In myths and purans we have numerous examples of apsaras who were the court dancers of Indra, the king of the gods. They were revered as almost the gods, because they were born out of sagar manthan, the churning of sea, from

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where along with different materials they evolved and from where nectar evolved also. We can fairly ascribe the event of churning sea as a perfect metaphor for these apsaras or dancing women. As we know that along with other things this churning caused also halahal or kalkut, the crudest poison that the world ever seen. Apsaras or dancing women had the taste of the same fate; they had the privilege of being associated with the taste of both the nectar and the poison at the very same time. In our two greatest epics ‗The Ramayana‟ and ‗The Mahabharata‟, we have also numerous examples of these apsaras who are being used by Indra, the king of gods for his selfish interests either to distract the saints from their meditations or the Asuras, the mythical antagonists of gods, aspiring for more power. This is the seed of the very corruption of the structure and disposition of the apsaras that culminate into an negative antithetical dilemma over the Indian mind and as a result the original intention of dance as a divine art, a devotion to god become provocatively shadowed by the baser pattern of the structures of court dancers in the following ages. The erotic part or the sringara rasa of it becomes more and more prominent subsequently in the later expositions associated with the form. Rambha was molested by king Ravana, Menoka was used to distract the sage Viswamitra, Urbashi was used more often to prey on saints and aspiring monarchs that Indra thought to be a threat to his throne. Even she was sent to Arjuna by Indra when Arjuna showed some inclinations towards her in a dance program at Indra‘s court. The subsequent refusal of Arjuna and Urbashi‘s curse to him further attest the less divine instincts of these dancing women, that becomes more and more prominent in the later projections. Rigveda describes Indra as a famed dancer delivering grandiose monologue being intoxicated by the Somrasa, the heavenly liquor in conversation with his wife Indrani and his pet monkey Vrishakapi. Lord Vishnu incarnates into Mohini, the dancer and lures Vhasmasura into death which certainly smells of eroticism that become more and more associated with the dancers. The most famous dancer in all the time is Lord Shiva, who is referred as dancing in the cremation ground, besmearing with the ashes of burning pyre, wearing tiger skin and garland made of skulls. This concept of dancing Shiva is the basis of the doctrine of the construction of natraja or the king of dance in Hindu mythology and literature. Shiva‘s dance is conceptualized as tandava and is often been represented as a cosmic dance of the divine universe. He is thought to be responsible for creation, sustenance, destruction and recreation of the universe through this dance, the cosmic energy riveted thorough the cosmic ritual, represented through dance. The antithetical elements of nature and the broad universe are on the other hand represented by his consort Parvati, dancing the lasya mode, the feminine part of universe along with Shiva‟s tandava, the vigorous male part, conjoined to bring the much needed equilibrium. This very

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concept of a male divine entity powering and mastering over the universe along with the consort, is pointed out very pertinently by Anand Coomarswamy in his famed book The Dance of Shiva as the ‗Eros Prognosis‘ of Lucian as he wrote, ―It would seem that dancing come into being at the beginnings of all things, and was brought to light together with Eros, that ancient one, for we see this primeval dancing clearly get forth in the choral dance of the constellations, and in the planet and fixed stars, their interweaving and interchange and orderly harmony‖ (Coomarswamy 56). Coomarswamy also cites a very pertinent example from Bengal where the mother instead of the father aspect of Shiva is revered. Kali, the mother principle is here the omnipotent prototype of Shiva, the devotees need to purify their heart by the sacrificial fire and renunciation for her entrance, awakening spiritual consciousness. A Bengali hymn in the praise of goddess Kali is quoted by Coomarswamy in this context: ―Because thou lovest the burning ground, I have made a Burning-ground of my heart That thou, Dark one, hunter of the burning ground, Mayest dance Thy eternal dance Naught else is within my heart, O Mother. Day and night blazes the funeral pyre; The ashes of the dead, strewn all about, I have preserved against Thy coming, With death-conquering Mahakala neath Thy feet Do Thou enter in, dancing Thy rhythmic dance, That I may behold Thee with closed eyes.‖ (Coomarswamy 62) He also pointed out the Sivajnana Siddhiyar, Supaksha Sutra V, 5: ―For the purpose of securing both kinds of fruit to the countless souls, our Lord, with actions five, dances his dance‖ (Coomarswamy 62).Both kinds of fruit that is referred to here are ‗Ilham‘ or reward in this world, and ‗Param‘ or bliss in mukti. So dancing here ceases to be what is merely called dancing and comes to pose a well-connected and in depth theological meaning that Indian tradition is known to ascribe its associations. The point is that both the baser and intellectual side of is expressed, like a human soul, capable of determining its development even from its most derogated and degenerated state of being. The point also remains that this ambivalent duality that permeates dancing and its associated forms also stretch its shadows in literature and in the present context in Narayan‘s work it is very much evident as well as relevant for a sufficient and in depth study.

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In this context we shall begin our discussion on Narayan‘s dancing women as presented in his two novels namely, The Guide (1958) and The Man eater of Malgudi (1962). Narayan‘s presentation of dancing women in his novels is the reportrayal of hindu-mythic dancing girls with its obvious duality as well as the cultural role reversal ingrained in it that have all the structures, nuances, physic and the psyche of those dancers that we are accustomed to glimpse in our two great epics and several of theological texts, the conjoined configuration of the unmitigated amalgamation of nectar and poison. In The Guide we have Rosie, the dancing woman trying to build a space of her own through several role reversals and negations made up by society, customs and cultural inhibitions of worldly minds. In his narration of his life story Raju credited Rosie about everything that occurred to him ―My troubles would not have started …but for Rosie‖ (Narayan 9). It is symbolic and at once full of connotation that shows the two faces at once as Rosie is here not only a woman but also a dancer to whom the protagonist credits all his troubles and the novelist paints her not less as a dancer than as a woman and all her reciprocal identity is thoroughly submerged in the structure of a dancing woman and that also in the Indian sense of the term. One of the finest characteristic of Narayan‘s story telling art is that thus he simultaneously builds, creates, fashions and refashions the two simultaneous and even supposed opposite identities of Rosie and one of the enigmatic paradoxes of the novel is to determine where and how far these two identities are being able to shadow each other reciprocally in the continuation of the narration of Raju, the supposed guide, that is also a narration of a dancing woman. Raju thought that as she was Indian, she could have very easily assume such traditional names as Devi, Meena or Lalitha etc., and he added somewhat sarcastically, ―She choose to call herself Rosie. Don‘t imagine on having hearing name that she wore a short shirt or cropped her hair. She looked just the orthodox dancer that she was‖ (Narayan 9). The point is that the names that Raju refers are all the very methodical and traditional Indian names and most of them are associated with the divinity and goddess that most apparently the name ‗Rosie‘ blatantly lacks, which is somewhat obviously non-Indian and the question remains whether Narayan wants to project Rosie as a non-manifestation of Indian sensibilities as presented through her somewhat abrupt desertion of Marco, which is not very typical of Indian women and again regaining somewhat sympathetic attitude towards Marco, the legal husband when permeated in ‗Nalini‘, the name which is given by Raju, who later turns to be a supposed saint. At the very first opportunity Raju praised her as a great dancer and that she fostered India‘s great cultural traditions without having a single chance to see her performance! This is because he has his own idea of dancers as he says, ―Anyone likes to hear flattering sentiments, and more than others, I suppose, dancers.‖(Narayan 9) This satiric

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comment proves the cultural inhibitions playing in the subconscious in Raju‘s mind against the dancers whatever he might say afterwards about the dancers or about Rosie. Raju thus here represents the typical antithetical Indian minds ever perfect and earnest in attaching ambiguity in any kind of cultural discourse. In chapter five, we have brief conversation between Rosie and her husband Marco. Narayan‘s special treatment of narrative technique also lent a significant symbolical part into it, creating dimensions to the richness of the text. While describing in first person that is assumed to be Raju‘s reminiscences, looking back and forward constantly, using the flashback technique, he assumed the tone of an ancient sage or a grandmother concocting stories to children in the epic technique of narration as he says: ―There was a girl who has come all the way from Madras and who asked the moment she get foot in Malgudi, ‗can you show me a cobra-a king cobra it must be –which can dance to the music of a flute?‖ (Narayan 64), her husband interrupted this desire and clearly declared that, ―I can‘t stand the sight of a snake; your interest are morbid‖ (Narayan 64). On the other hand, Raju‘s response to this taunt is equally equivocal as he ponders, ―I disliked this man. He was taunting such a divine creature‖ (Narayan 64). Thus from the beginning the novelist prepares the readers for such cultural confrontation in the critical discourse of the dancers but the point is that one cannot safely harbor a definite conclusion from the context if we just consider the final outcome of the novel which ends in Raju‘s seemingly spiritual upliftment and somewhat spiritual awakening, that the possible coming rain symbolizes. It is Narayan‘s equivocal stance on the dancers, at once there is the present days ridicule and taunt preserved for them, that are presented by Marco, who is selfish, self-interested and self-absorbed, presumably representing a modern man looking at the universe at objective vision. On the other hand Raju‘s vision and demeanor represent the ancient sage‘s who at last tries to be turned into a saint after strives in worldly life and also speaking in an epic narration style like our great two epics. When Rosie first appeared at the station, the description of the narrator at the first glance also highlights this theme favorably, ―… but she did have a figure, a slight and slender one, beautifully fashioned, eyes that sparkled, a complexion not white, but dusky, which made her only half visible-as if you saw her through a film of tender coconut juice‖ (Narayan 65). This is not only the character of Rosie only, but we have to remember that from the very first chapter of the novel, the author has introduced Rosie to the readers as dancer, this feature marks the dancers as whole as per Narayan because if we consider the structures of many of Narayan‘s novels, having a definite mythological allegory to be represented in the specific modernized version, this above quoted text shall

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certainly make us remember about the apsaras, who were born of water and like them Rosie is seen only ―through a film of coconut juice‖. In the occasion of cobra dance, as the man played his flute and the cobra raised itself and darted and swayed, Raju remembered, ―the whole thing repelled me‖ (Narayan 68). In this occasion he seems to be quite akin with Marcos‘ thought, but at the very same time he records, ―She stretched out her slightly and swayed it in imitation of the movement; she swayed her whole body to the rhythm for just a second, but that was sufficient to tell me what she was, the greatest dancer of the century‖ (Narayan 68). Raju‘s mother response is equally provocative, while she learnt about the cobra dance and Rosie‘s demeanor, she at once replied, ―I had a cousin living in Burma once and he told me about the snake women there‖ (Narayan 69), and when Raju replied, ―Don‘t talk nonsense, Mother. She is a good girl, not a snake-worshipper. She is a dancer, I think.‖ (Narayan 69) She replies, ―Oh, dancer! Maybe, but don‘t have anything to do with these dancing women. They are all a bad sort.‖ (Narayan 69) In this chapter we could also see Raju‘s tongue of flattery like, ―who could decorate a rainbow?‖ and ―The way you danced, your forward figure haunted me all night‖ etc., (Narayan 72) persuaded grunting Rosie to join Marco in his visit to cave paintings at Mempi hills which only extracted an amazement from Marco for Raju saying, ―you are a wizard!‖(73). When in a conversation Rosie related that they belong to a family traditionally dedicated to temples as dancers, her mother, grandmother, and before her, her mother and as a young girl she danced in her village temple and she also asked, ―you know how our caste is viewed?‖ (84). Raju replied, ―It is the noblest caste on earth‖ ( 84) and she said, ―We are viewed as public women‖(84) and the narrator records, ―She said plainly, and I was thrilled to hear the words,‖ we are not considered respectable; we are not considered civilized.‖ (84) Raju though said, ―All that narrow notion may be true of old days, but it‘s different now. Things have changed. There is no caste or class today‖ (85). Though he managed to say this, there is obvious duality and ambiguity in his speech and thought that can clearly demonstrate the break in between as there is simultaneous gap between Rosie‘s speaking ‗plainly‘ and Raju‘s getting ‗thrilled‘. Though the marriage of Marco and Rosie was a kind of arranged one, it did not benefit Rosie, because as Raju remarks ―Unfortunately his choice was wrongthis girl herself was a dreamer if ever there was one. She would have greatly benefitted by as husband who would care for his career; it was here that a handy man like me proved invaluable‖ (113). So here another and probably an unprofitable quality for the worldly purpose at least is attached with the dancers, that they are dreamers also. Naryan‘s hinting at this point is presumably clear that the dancing women ultimately prove nothing but the women and also

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perhaps a woman with baser qualities. Her ready submission to Raju‘s crouching hand does not either mark her as traditional Indian women and Narayan has not portrayed Marco as out and out villain either to justify any of Rosie‘s point against him. At the end of chapter five though she accuses about Marco, ―He is interested only in painting and old art and things like that‖, and Raju very promptly added, ―But not one which can move its limbs, I suppose‖ (86), now these are not very sufficient provocation to push Rosie to Raju as Raju‘s rushing flattery: ―I placed my hand on her shoulder and gently stroked it...I am really very unhappy to think of you, such a gem lost to the world. In his place I would have made you a queen of the world‖ and Raju remembers simultaneously, ―She didn‘t push away my hand. I let it travel and felt the softness of her ear and rushed my fingers through the locks of her hair‖ (86). With this we can put side by side their encounter at the last of chapter five at the hotel: ―At the door of number 28 I hesitated. She opened the door, pushed in, and hesitated, leaving the door half open. She stood looking at me for a moment, as on the first day ―Shall I go away?‖ I asked in a whisper. ―Yes. Good night.‖ She said feebly. ―May I not come in?‖ I asked, trying to look my saddest. ―No, no. Go away.‖ She said. But on an impulse I gently pushed her at the way, and stepped in and locked the door on the world.‖ (Narayan 88-89) This passage is famed for several reasons. At once it points out to Narayan‘s archetypal attempt to tell a tale that tries to arrest the equivocal ambiguities of the human world and its seeming and supposed relations. The hesitations, whispers, feebleness and impulsivity leave at once the door ‗half open‘ and simultaneously ‗locked the door on the world‘. Raju admits that on an impulse he gently pushed her out of the way, but the very undecidability of this pushing and stepping of where, whom, how and when made the passage a fabled philosopher‘s stone to wreck havoc upon many more critics to come. In chapter seven, Raju also admits, that he found it rather difficult to understand the girl. He found that she was gradually losing the free and easy manner of her former days. Though she still allowed Raju to make love to her of course but she was also beginning to show excessive consideration for her husband on the hill. Raju thinks that his knowledge of women being poor and restricted and he could not understand whether she was pretending and whether her present pose was a mere pretence or whether her account of all her husband‘s shortcomings was false, just to entice him. It is very complex and obscure and full of ambiguities. In chapter seven while Rosie was accompanying Marco in the cave which was to her a ‗fierce, terrifying place‘, she says, ―There

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may be cobra here,‖ and Marco ignored her fears and says rather cynically, ―You should feel at home, then‖ (Narayan147).The comment certainly attests Raju‘s mothers‘ fears and apprehension about Rosie. Marco manage to spell out the letter around the ancient paintings of various figures and takes them down as musical notations, but when Rosie said, ―If these were about dancing, I could perhaps have tried-‖,(Narayan 147) he looked up sharply. The word ‗dance‘ always stung him. Further Marco thinks dancing as ‗street acrobatics‘ and there is no intelligence or creative in it and he also said to Rosie, ―You are a woman who will go to bed with anyone that flatters your antics‖ (Narayan 152). Raju‘s mother objected Rosie staying in their house because they cannot have a dancing girl in their house and whispered to him, ―She is a real snake woman, I tell you‖ (Narayan 154). His uncle also told in chapter eight to Rosie, ―…after all, you are a dancing-girl. We do not admit them in our families‖ (Narayan 169). In this chapter we also see Raju‘s endeavor to change the name Rosie and he says, ―The trouble with you is that although your people are a traditional dance family, they don‘t know how to call one. For our public purposes, your name must be changed‖ (Narayan175-176) and the present name is not a sober or sensitive name and further added that for a classical dancer she must have one name which is appealing and poetic. We have seen in this novel from the very first Raju‘s handling names as in case of Marco. Now Rosie the wife of Marco with whom he has made love and whom he has pushed out of her way and ‗locked the door‘ on the world, should be a forgotten world after all the mishaps and confrontations with his mother and uncle. And thus the name should be changed and it was all to pose a more deliberate view to juxtapose somewhat authenticity and to draw a borderline between dancers of the first stage of theory at the outset and dancers of their practical steps and the narrator acknowledges that, ―…with the attainment of a new name, Rosie entered a new phase of life‖ (Narayan176). The statement is equally equivocal as to question Narayan‘s ultimate purpose in transferring Rosie‘s water like identity that can take a shape as perhaps it pleases. But the question remains as to what purpose does it serve? In chapter nine Rosie herself says about dancing, ―Till the thought of it makes me sick…I feel like one of these parrots in a cage taken round village fairs or a performing monkey, as he used to say-‖.(Narayan 203) This speech broods on the theme from different angles and now we are confronted with the dancer‘s own view of the art in a sense of the term which ultimately exposes the equivocal and most complex duality that Narayan‘s art is capable to tell always with absolute and unpretending simplicity. Unlike Rosie who had appeared on the very first of The Guide, Rangi the dancing women in The Man eater of Malgudi is a late arrival in order of sequence and appears only in chapter nine though mentioned before. Like Rosie she is

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careful to be responsible for turning the wheel in one passive placid Natraj, engrossed in his own happy world. Her appearance is near mystical in a midnight and when Natraj was working on printer for the poet‘s monosyllabic epic on Lord Krishna. She seems to be the, ‗animated hyena‘ in Natraj‘s nightridden eyes. But when the light from the treadle fell on the other side and illuminated the face of Rangi, the narration records Natraj‘s response which is very symbolical and significant for the sake of the present essay, ―My hair stood on end. Rangi! The woman to avoid‖ (Narayan 166). Earlier in chapter six at the hyena‘s corner one day Shastri heard the jingling of bangles and turned to see a woman go down the steps and out of the building. Soon we came to know about Rangi from the desperate Shastri about Rangi who was a ‗notorious character‘ of the town. She was the daughter of Padma, an old dancer attached to the temple of Lord Krishna. Padma was now retired being old, fat and ―frightening like the harem guards of Ravana‖ and her daughter has succeeded her at the temple. Shastri also refers to her school life and commented that she come back in the town ―after seducing all the men folk she had set eyes on‖ (Narayan 117). We can fairly recall Raju‘s pondering in chapter five of The Guide, ―…was she sane or insane?...did she bring all these charges against her husband at our first meeting just to seduce me? Would she be leveling various charges against me now that she seemed to be tiring of me-…‖ (Narayan 202). Shastri also terms Rangi the ‗worst woman‘ who had ever come back to Malgudi. Like Raju, Natraj also feels attached to her in a way as he clearly admits that he felt curious to know what she would look like in the evenings-perhaps she would powder her face, the talcum floating uneasily over her ebonite skin. He also thinks that every inch of her proclaimed that she was a perfect ‗female animal.‘ Is it Narayan‘s formula of identifying the dancing girl by equating them with animals-the primal energy of the nature as he had done in The Guide by repeatedly referring and equating Rosie with the snake, even at the time of Raju‘s arrest she was dancing the snake dance and the novelist did not fail to remind us that , ―..she rarely chose to do it indeed‖ (212) and Raju remembers that she always said that a special mood was needed and he remembers as he was seeing the dance he could not possibly figure out whether it was for the first time that he was seeing it and keep on remembering his mother‘s words about Rosie on the first day ―A serpent girl! Be careful.‖ This turns the whole picture from the time present into a time eternal which is very much relevant for the present discourse on dancing women. Natraj felt equally dragged towards Rangi, ―…there was an irresistible physical attraction about her, and I was afraid that I might succumb to her charms‖ (167).Though he tried to impose needless sternness in his voice perhaps to guard himself for any seeming danger that he thinks awaiting from her, he could not but think very much alike Raju , ―Not bad, not bad. Her breasts are

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billowy, like those one sees in temple sculptures. He hips are also classical‖ (167). This is his impulse on the dancer‘s and a desperate effort to accentuate her in the domain of classical unblemished dance, the divine art. Rangi disclosed Vasu‘s plan of killing the elephant to Natraj when she ran up the steps, Natraj‘s reaction is very symbolical as he recounts his blood ―tingled with an unholy thrill‖ and he led his minds glided into a ―wild fantasy of seduction and passion‖, even in chapter ten when she has come to him after Natraj‘s shout at the temple for Vsihnu to protect the elephant and all the others taking part in the procession, he can think like that ―…even in the dark I could see the emphatic curves of her body‖ (215) and not only that he shows his son‘s response, ―My son, who had stood around uneasily, feeling rather shy in the presence of a dancing woman, went away and hid himself in the kitchen‖ (216). Now this body of seduction can be changed into another dimension of womanhood or here the dancing women because he found her ‗irresistible‘ so the narration curves a little and it should be. So she stood now on the last step ―a goddess curved out of cinder.‖ Even Narayan in his desperate effort in accentuating Rangi to divinity, the other side of the dancing woman‘s face and it goes ―the shadows cast by the low powered lamp were tricky and created a halo around her‖ (169) which simultaneously differentiates her from who is said to be having a kind of black halo around him, usually associated with the devilish forces of the universe. Narayan ambivalent attitude towards dancing as is expressed in The Guide in Raju‘s heaping praise what Marco thinks as street acrobatics and perhaps Raju has not any earnest enthusiastic view about it, is repeated here again when Rangi is said to be the ―most indifferent dancer in India‖ and ―people were used to seeing her before the god and no one cared how she performed‖ (170). Rangi even can declare that she will be there in the procession because it is her duty as a dancer, even though Vasu wanted her not be there and declares, ―…no man so far has stopped my doing what I like‖(170). In chapter ten of The Guide, Raju had the almost same idea about Rosie ―She would never stop dancing …I know looking at the way she was going about her business, that she would mange-whether I was inside the bars or outside, whether he husband approved it or not. Neither Marco nor I had any place in her life, which had its own sustaining vitality and which she herself had underestimated all along‖ (222-223). The only point if difference there is that Rangi does not underestimate herself in anyway that Rosie did perhaps and because of author‘s inherent dualism of narrative style forbids us clearly to pronounce that it can be said Rangi is the unsophisticated elder sister, the sequel to Rosie in a way or other. Thus these two novels are virtually a presentation on the discourse on dancing, where the very duality on dance as a theory and the representation of dancers as the characters are veritably portrayed through these two

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representative women characters in Narayan‘s The Guide and The Man eater of Malgudi, in which the novelist‘s ambivalent mode of narration certainly plays it role in enriching the text. Further these two texts can also be seen as a specific commentary of Narayan on dancing and its related identities that are prone to melt and be melted by different emerging issues in between down from the Vedic period to India after the colonialism. Marco‘s simultaneous abhorrence on Rosie as a dancing girl and his academic interest on musical notations and dancing sculpture, Raju‘s ambivalent attitude on the reciprocal identity of Rosie as a woman and a dancer as well as dance as an aesthetic art attest that aptly. Works Cited: 1. Coomarswamy, Ananda. The Dance of Siva, New York: The Sunrise Turn Inc. 1918. 2. Doniger, W. The Hindus: An Alternative History, New Delhi: Penguin, 2009. 3. Ghosh, Manmohan. The Natyashastra Translation, Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1950. 4. Khokar, Mohan. Traditions of Indian Classical Dance, New Delhi: Clarion Books, 1984. 5. Narayan, R.K. The Guide, Madras: Indian Thought Publications, 1958. 6. Narayan, R. K. The Man Eater of Malgudi in A Town Called Malgudi, Edited S. Krishnan, New Delhi: Penguin Books, 1999.

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Oppression and Resistance: A Study of Sivakami’s The Grip of Change Darshan Lal and Dr. Mukesh Ranjan1 Abstract P. Sivakami one of the most widely read Dalit female writers articulates the aspirations and anxieties, hopes and fears, past and present of her society. This paper is an attempt to discuss marginalization of women, their predicament, and their struggles against patriarchy as reflected in Dalit literature. The paper is focused on Sivakami‘s semi-autobiographical Tamil novel ―Pazhaiyana Kazhithalum‖ (1989) and later translated by the author herself ―The Grip of Change” (2006). The creative writing of Sivakami is based on lived experiences. She exposes the ground realities of Dalit suppression. Women are treated as objects. They are victims of male domination. Dalit women face triple marginalization as they are oppressed on the basis of caste, class, and gender. Of late women have started protesting against the discrimination, oppression and injustices inflicted upon them and are trying to create a space for themselves. There are a large number of women Dalit writers like Bama, Urmila Pawar, Baby Kamble and Sivakami, who brought Dalit texts into mainstream visibility. Sivakami feels that for the better survival of women, empowerment is necessary and it is possible only by eradicating inequality and untouchability and by enabling them through education and employment so that they can take pride in their identity. Key words-Oppression, discrimination, gender, resistance. B. Mangalam rightly observes: ―Sivakami‘s fiction documents violence against women within the domestic space. Her fiction exposes caste and gender hierarchies outside and inside the home that renders the woman an outcaste in her community‖ (Mangalam 111). Sivakami‘s novel ―The Grip of Change” presents multiple sections of Dalit society at different levels of development, facing different kinds of repression, exploitation, injustice and different ways of asserting their human dignity. 1

Darshan Lal Ph.D Scholar, Department of English, Jamia Millia Islamia, (A Central University), New Delhi Dr. Mukesh Ranjan Associate Professor, Department of English, Jamia Millia Islamia, (A Central University), New Delhi www.dalitsahitya.com

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Lowest placed are Dalit women who are exploited by the upper-caste landlords and patriarchal Dalit society including their own families. Still more miserable are the widows, both Dalits and otherwise, who have nothing to fall back upon. Slightly above them are illiterate Dalits, who are dependent for their livelihood or employment on the landlords and therefore can‘t take any independent actions to assert their dignity. It is the patriarchal division that defines woman as a marginalized creature. As Simone de Beauvior remarks: ―It is civilization as a whole that produces this creature, intermediate between male and eunuch, which is described as feminine‖ (Simone 16). As Sivakami states in her Preface: ―The Grip of Change is a process of understanding the dynamics of caste and the ‗woman‘ who was inextricably involved in the process…. That it is natural for me as a Dalit and a woman – factors decided by birth – to write about those factors…. I understand that it is the need of the hour and the requirement of the future.‖ The story of exploitation and brutal treatment of women is presented here mainly through the story of Thangam, a Dalit widow. The novel begins with Thangam lying like an injured animal at the doorstep of Kathamuthu creating a dramatic effect. After Thangam became a widow her own family and relatives didn‘t give her any share in the land and her husband‘s relatives spread the story that she had become Paranjothi‘s concubine. As a result, the relatives of Paranjothi‘s wife beat her and nearly killed her and no one in the village or no one of her relatives tried to help her: My husband‘s relatives spread the story that I had become Paranjothi‘s concubine. That‘s why Paranjothi‘s wife‘s brothers and her brother-in-law, four men, entered my house last night. They pulled me by my hair and dragged me out to the street. They hit me, and flogged me with a stick stout as a hand. They nearly killed me. No one in the village, none of my relatives, came to help me. I begged for mercy, but they wouldn‘t stop. They abused me and threatened to kill me if I stayed in that village any longer. They called me whore (Sivakami 6). It is indeed a manifestation of inferior position and degradation of women that Paranjothi‘s wife‘s relatives punished Thangam and beat her brutally but said nothing to Paranjothi, who was at least equally if not more at fault. Thangam admits that she has nobody to depend upon for her livelihood so she works as a labourer in the fields of Udayar and she is raped by him: ―He raped me when I

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was working in his sugarcane field. I remained silent; after all, he is my paymaster. He measures my rice‖ (Sivakami 7). She tells Kathamuthu that she never yielded to anyone else, not even to her husband‘s brothers who tried to force her to satisfy their sexual desire: ―My husband‘s brothers tried to force me, but I never gave in. they wouldn‘t give me my husband‘s land, but wanted me to be a whore for them! I wouldn‘t give in‖ (Sivakami 7). Unlike women in the past who meekly submitted to such cruelty, Thangam wants revenge upon the relatives of Paranjothi‘s wife and thus asserts her dignity: ―I want those men who beat me up to fall at my feet and plead‖ (Sivakami 8). That‘s why she seeks Kathamuthu‘s help. Ranting against her tormentors, she showers curses and abuses on them for exploiting her: ―May they be hanged. May they go to hell. The ground will open up and swallow you. You‘ll eat mud. Bastards! You abused a helpless woman. You curs! Come now! Come and lick…‖ (Sivakami 4). There is an overt exploitative dispensation against women as portrayed in the novel. Paranjothi can rape Thangam for which she is punished not Paranjothi. Kathamuthu himself can have a widow Nagamani as his concubine because he has money and power but a widow can‘t have affair with a man. Kathamuthu justifies his keeping of Nagamani. He admits that he lives with this woman who doesn‘t belong to his community and is an upper-caste. He points out that she was a struggling widow and he provided her safe haven and no one can question him because he is powerful and rich and once even elected President of Panchayat. He tells Thangam that Dalit woman can never have a place of dignity in the house of an upper-caste like Nagamani has in his house: You are a woman. Upper caste men may fancy you, but they‘ll not marry you. You won‘t even be able to step into their houses. Well, there may be some rare exceptions and you may get to spend your life as concubine. But tell me, why did they beat you up? Because you are lower caste, that‘s why (Sivakami 10). When Thangam was beaten by the relatives of Paranjothi‘s wife, the village people had sympathy for her but she rejected the sympathy of those ―who had not said a word to her husband‘s brothers when they refused to hand over her husband‘s share of land. She had lived alone, earning her food by toiling every day on Udayar‘s land. The village women would not talk to her when she went to draw water from the well. No one looked in on her when she fell sick‖ (Sivakami 26-27). With the help of Kathamuthu, Thangam filed a complaint against Paranjothi. Paranjotji can‘t understand why Thangam lodged a police complaint against him. He believed that she was ungrateful. She should have

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been thankful for being touched by an upper caste man like him. He believed that money could bring immunity to any crime that he might commit and making a pompous assertion of a phallocentric specious logic he states: ―Ungrateful whore! Even if she was hurt, she was hurt by the hand adorned with gold! A Parachi could have never dreamt of being touched by a man like me! My touch was a boon granted for penance performed in her earlier births! And then the dirty bitch betrays me!‖(Sivakami 31). He was not so much worried about the police case but the caste concerns made him anxious--- the exposure of an affair with a Parachi was humiliating. Paranjothi believed that he had every right to rape a low caste labourer: ―She was a servant. Besides, Thangam was no princess or minister‘s daughter. For that matter, she did not even have a husband. There would not be a soul to rescue her if he imposed himself on her. Moreover, she was only a lower caste labourer‖ (Sivakami 32). Thangam struggled when Paranjothi grabbed her from behind and despite her protest he overpowered her and pushed her down. She resisted him stubbornly. Her resistance only excited him further and forcefully he subdued her. She had spent her three years of widowhood untouched by a man and hated yielding to the hateful old man‘s lust but she had no choice because she depended on him for her livelihood and she had no one to turn back to. When Paranjothi tells of Thangam‘s police complaint, another upper caste landlord Ramalinga Reddiar remarks: ―You should have hacked her to pieces and buried her!‖(Sivakami 49). While Kathamuthu exerts his best and makes all efforts to secure maximum compensation for Thangam, his own treatment of women is no better. One of the incidents of the novel shows how Kathamuthu treats his wives with extreme anger: ―Hopeless bastards. Nothing to eat. Yet they have all the pride in the world…‖ (Sivakami 13). He had his first wife Kanagavalli and yet he rejected her and took in a second wife Nagamani. Paranjothi‘s wife Kamalam an upper-caste Hindu woman can send her brothers to teach Thangam a lesson for having an illicit affair with her husband but Kangawali a lower-caste Dalit woman can do nothing but has to put up her husband‘s second wife Nagamani silently.Just as Paranjothi believed that he was justified in raping Thangam, Kathamuthu justifies living with Nagamani, who didn‘t belong to his community and thinks that by taking in Nagamani, a struggling widow he had provided her a safe haven. Paranjothi believed that he had every right to rape poor Thangam because he was an upper caste and had money but when he found Kaliyan in the tight embrace of Santha, he finds it disgusting. Santha was harsh to Kaliyan during the day but had equally strong desire for him during the early morning hours. Paranjothi justified himself because he was upper caste and rich and Kathamuthu justifies because he is powerful, a former elected President of the Panchayat with some say in the community. Just as Paranjothi justified himself

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because he gave money to Thangam similarly Kathamuthu justified himself because Nagamani lives with him like a queen. However there is a difference that Paranjothi acted forcefully whereas Nagamnai was herself willing. In contrast to this if a woman, whether Dalit or upper caste, looks to satisfy her sexual desire, it is thought to be highly immoral and condemnable. That‘s why Paranjothi believes that Santha‘s affair with Kaliyan is worse than even a murder. Kathamuthu takes away all the money that Thangam got as compensation and takes her land when she wins the case against her husband‘s brothers and keeps her as his third wife but like Nagamani, Thangam too is willing. Thangam lives in Kathamuthu‘s house and works on his fields but she is happy that she gets good food, fine clothes and the status of a wife and makes payments to the workers on Kathamuthu‘s land. Later both Kangawali and Nagamani started bearing Thangam in their home. There developed a bond of friendship between these three exploited Dalit women: ―After lunch, they sat together in the coconut grove chewing betel leaves and chatting. They no longer served her the leftover food. She ate what they ate‖ (Sivakami 88). The ditch of caste exists not only between the Dalits and the upper-castes but also among the Dalits too. As Sivakami herself states in this novel about the caste-hierarchal order within Dalit community: Even among the lower castes, hierarchies existed--Pallars were agricultural labourers, Parayars were drummers and menials, and the Chakkiliyars were cobblers. The first grade – the Pallars – were absent in Puliyur. The Pallars considered themselves superior to the rest. The Parayars considered themselves higher than the Chakkiliyars, who in turn considered themselves superior to the Para-vannars, the washer community. The Para-vannars men washed clothes for the lower Castes and the women worked as midwives for them. Similar to almost all other human communities, the women were considered to be lower than the men. Everyone established their worth by pointing to those beneath them. (Sivakami 63) Dalit women become the victim of this culture of caste-hierarchy within Dalit community. Due to this culture Dalit women face various layers of exploitation at the hands of their fellow Dalits. Even Dalit women have no sympathy for a fellow Dalit woman when she (Thangam) is exploited brutally by an upper caste man. Thangam‘s husband‘s brothers‘ wives refused to help her. When Kathamuthu tells the story to some villagers, they believe that she had

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committed adultery and the villagers had every right to punish her and police could do nothing in the case. Kathamuthu then rightly points out that: ―If the land owners and upper caste feudal lords take the law into their own hands, why do we need the police? If she is guilty of adultery, what is Udayar guilty of? Who is going to punish him? If your wife is beaten like that, will you talk in the same manner?‖(Sivakami 38). Kathamuthu rightly asks the villagers including Rangasamy that the upper castes‘ women commit adultery but that can‘t be addressed in the Panchayat and they can‘t punish those women but they beat up Thangam because she was a low caste and had no protection. Issues of caste-discrimination against women are again portrayed through the characters of Lalitha, an upper caste young woman and Elangovan, a Dalit working as a peon in a bank, while travelling in the bus, talk about Thangam‘s case. Elangovan asks her why she didn‘t raise any question when her people assaulted Thangam, she asks him whether he was talking in support of that whore. He retorts: ―If she was a whore, what is your Udayar?‘ ‗He is a man! He can do anything that pleases him‖ (Sivakami 56).This shows a belief in one law for men and another for women. The stereotypes get embedded in human psyche and generate predictable responses. Education and employment are other source of awareness and empowerment and help Dalits to assert their human dignity. To Gowri it appears that education transcends the caste barriers. When she enters the college she feels she has crossed over human-made boundaries while she is in the college. But when she comes for holidays the caste-monster seems to chase her: ―She blended among the many intelligent and attractive young women in the college, and it pleased her. During floods, waters from overflowing wells mingle with the waters of huge water bodies, transgressing their boundaries. Gowri felt that she had crossed over human-made boundaries – her father, her caste and her village – and merged with the ocean of people. But when the rain stops, the floods recede and thorn bushes emerge. Whenever she went back home for holidays, caste revealed its murderous teeth like an invincible monster‖ (Sivakami 95). Gowri who was educated and had done her Ph.D refuses to marry as desired by her father and asserts against parental authority. When Kathamuthu tried to force her to marry, she shocked him with her revolt: ―The sufferings that my mother underwent in her marriage! I don‘t want to be tortured like her by some man.‘ She also added, ‗Moreover, I need a father who can respect his son-inlaw.‘ This, from the Gowri who used to be scared to stand in front of him! She would fill her plait with flowers, hide from her father and run to school like a hunted creature. She was earning her living now. Her self-confidence had grown in proportion to her independence‖ (Sivakami 124-125).

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When Thangam was being dragged and beaten, her relatives use abusive language for her instead of helping or sympathizing with her: ―She deserves this and more! She seduced Udayar…shameless bitch…ignoring all of us she found succour in him!‖(Sivakami 26). If anyone of Dalits dares to express a contrary view, Kathamuthu would turn wild literally demolishing the person: ―What do you know about the government and the way it works? Have you ever entered the collector‘s office? You have the brains of a sparrow. It‘s a mystery how your wife sleeps with you! And you have the gall to speak on matters you know nothing about!‖(Sivakami 35). Valliymmai, the sister-in-law of Thangam told the Dalit youths who were guarding Thangam‘s hut to be careful not to get into a quarrel on account of that worthless bitch, because they won‘t hesitate to burn down the entire cheri, Resandran retorts: ―First they beat her and then they want to brand her a thief! Now they‘ll burn us alive? Didn‘t he enjoy sleeping with her in every nook and corner of his field? Didn‘t he enjoy the fruits of labour how can we put up with this any longer? I‘d like to chop all those shits into small pieces‖ (Sivakami 51). When Gowri comes to know how Kathamuthu had had sex with Thangam in the kitchen, Kathamuthu heard Gowri‘s door being rattled. He asks her whether she wasn‘t asleep and Gowri simply shouts: ―Dogs! Dogs in this house! Shameless as dogs!‖(Sivakami 93). A famous Dalit poet and critic Jyoti Lajewar dwells upon the Dalit women‘s courage and resistance in Dalit literature: The female Dalit characters in Dalit literature are dynamic and not static, Dalit writers do not look upon widows, prostitutes, depraved women, as Dalit, the exploited, with compassion alone; but they make them valiant, create commotion in their inner minds and take them towards radiance…the individual‘s mind‘s conflict takes the form of group mind‘s conflict. As a consequence, Dalit female characters end the journey of deep darkness and behold dreams of sunrise. In the uncivilized world, they accept the civilized path. They fight for truth and for themselves. They revolt to protect their self-respect. They do not brood over the injustices perpetrated on them, nor do they just rave against it, but take up arms and prepare to fight. The revolt of Dalit women is not person-centred but societycentred. The fight for values of these women, who refuse to sit in the shadow of evil

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persons to avoid starvation, is important. The courage to fight, resoluteness, and rebelliousness are the very essence of their life.(Lanjewar 193) Thus ―The Grip of Change” is a criticism of the caste-ridden patriarchal society as well as a powerful tool for Dalit women helping them to change their attitudes. The novel deals not only with the pangs of the Dalit women but also their frustration highlights their inner strength and courage. It also celebrates their strong desire to fight against the injustice and their determination to imprint their existence in a male-dominated, hierarchical society. In fact, Gowri becomes the voice of the voiceless Dalit women, who are bearing sub-human treatment for centuries silently. Though the novel is factious but the characters and incidents are realistic and are enough to mouth the reality of modern society. Sivakami has succeeded at some extent to formulate the poignant tales of Dalit women, their struggle to fight for their dignity and survival in the maledominated society. Sivakami through the story of Thangam and Gowri‘s protests showing that oppression and silence may be replaced by identity and dignity. It is said that from the beginning till the end, the novel is a fine critic of violent realities, sexual assaults, psychological torments and economic exploitation. In opinion of another famous Dalit writer Bama, education is the only way to eradicate poverty and exploitation and rigid caste-system. She also gives a message at the concluding part of her novel ―Sangati‖: We must bring up our girls to think in these new ways from an early age. We should educate boys and girls alike. We should give our girls the freedom we give our boys. If we rear our children like this from the time they are babies, women will reveal their strength. Then there will come a day when men and women live as one, with no difference between them; with equal rights. The injustices, violence, and inequalities will come to an end, and the saying will come true that ‗Women can make and women can break‘ (Bama 123). Works Cited  Bama. Sangati(Events) Trans. Laxmi Holmstrom. New Delhi: OxfordUniversityPress, 2005. Print.  Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. Trans. And Ed. H.M. Parshley. Hammondsworth: Penguin, 1972. Print.

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Lanjewar, Jyoti. ―Dalit Literature and Dalit Women” in Dalit Women in India: Issues and Perspectives” (Ed.), P. G. Jogdand. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 1996 Print. Mangalam, B. ―Caste and Gender Interface in Tamil Dalit Discourse.” Signifying the Self: Women and Literature. New Delhi: Macmillan,2004.Rpt. 2007.print. Sivakami, P. The Grip of Change and The Author‟s Notes. Trans. Sivakami New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2006. Print. Singh and Acharya(eds). Survival and Other Studies. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan, 2012. Print.

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The Translation into English: Elaborate life’s experiences in Dalit Autobiographies to Ambedkarist, A word with you, world and The Scar Navnath B Sonwane1 Abstract Introduction: Indian English literature is a source to elaborate various literary genres as like a poem, drama, novel and autobiography. Dalit literature is a literature of suppressed groups; those are living with marginal life. The present paper will be focus on fact of Dalit literature in this nation. Why? They (Dalit) write own literature? Who has motivation of this group and caste? I will be focuses on above three questions are serious to narrate by Dalit life. Now, Dalit life has little changes. Even today‟s literary writing tells us the Dalit‟s communities are a try to mobilize and organized our communities‟ problems and issues. The translation is sources of Dalit writer‟s voices are loudly speaking against the caste system, poverty and injustice. Dalit writers are carved into his heart for reputed person‟s self- dignity, who gave us motivation of personal life. Dr. Ambedkar has been the ideal and an icon of Dalit people. The humanity has evolved as freedom, equality and justice. The Dalit peoples are changing his identity and they are demanding to we are a need to give us our rights and statues as human. The present paper will be focused on Dalit autobiographer life narrative that is needed to understand for social and moral rights. How to need we would able to improving own statues and dignity? To examined contemporary society? What is need to government responsibility to provide a right of humanity? The two selected autobiographies are Non- Marathi and they are accepted modern thought of Ambedkar. The Ambedkar and Ambedkarist thought have a stream of humanity that is explained by Buddhist philosophy. A. K. Gunasekaran and Dr. Siddalingaiah are author‟ of above two autobiographies. They are explained life of Dalit and lack of natural resources. But, Dalit youth is struggling for education, emancipation, inter-caste marriages and dignity of Dalit peoples. It is a thought of Ambedkar and his philosophy. They are adapting to the Ambedkarist idea in personal life. These two autobiographies have been translated into English and spread the voices against evil things. Key: Literature, Caste, Tradition, Education, Arts, Plight. Navnath B Sonwane A research scholar, doing Ph. D (Integrated VII Semester) in Comparative Literature & Translation Studies, School of Language Literature& Cultural Studies, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar. 1

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Introduction to some citation: The candid nature of the autobiographies that have come into English clearly show that the writing of such autobiographies must have been an act of courage. (Kothari, Rita, EPW, 62) At the national level, Ambedkar and Rettaimalai Srinivasan are the precursors of the Dalit autobiographical form as per research indicators at present. (Introduction note, The Scar, Ravikumar, X) We are choosing memories that create social change. (Translator‘s Preface, P. X) It seems curious that this autobiography is only about the writer‟s childhood to college days. It throws light on a significant belief that has taken root in the modern Kannada literary sensibility: that childhood is not just a period in a man‟s life, but rich creative condition. (Siddalingaiah, P. 288) Because of English translation I get [a] world platform to present myself and my community. It proves that the academic discussion is started today on Dalit problem. Dalit literature is a socio-political document of Dalit movement. We use our words as weapons. It is our struggle through pen and pain against inhumanity. We want liberty, fraternity, and freedom. We want to eradicate this cruel Hindu caste system. This message reached out [to the] the world at large through English translation. Not only my life, but our movement strengthened. People know we are living here. (Kothari, Rita, EPW, 62) Introduction: The Indian Dalit literature and the autobiographical narratives would be coherent topics to elaborate by own community problems. Dalit are various subcaste and caste. Entire this nation is also they are faces lots of problem. Even after independence the Dalit‘s are live without respect and few writers write against the traditional social system. The selected two autobiographies are talked against caste system, poverty and hunger. Its characteristic of Dalit autobiographies and that‘s why? We wants need to change terminology of this word. K. A Gunasekaran written by The Scar (2009), which is first Dalit Tamil autobiography. He is a professor of arts and performance in Pondicherry University. This book is eradicating caste prejudice in the Dalit pupils mind, and more talked about Ambedkarian point of view. Dalit and Ambedkarist are interrelated word, its shows the progress of human dignity.

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South India writing is also influence of Ambedkarist philosophy which is indicated by entire Indian Dalit‘s is adopted by Ambedkarian philosophy. Dr. Ambedkar‘s philosophy has major impact on literary writing and social movement. Siddalingaiah is a poet, autobiographer and activist in the state of Karnataka state. He has been active person of academic and social movement. He has a founder member of Dalit Sangarsh Samittee, which is motivated Marathi Dalit panther. He has major impact of Ambedkar slogan, to educate, to organize and to struggle. It is Ambedkarian philosophy. He has leader of a various Karnataka Dalit liberation movement and twice member of Karnataka State Assembly. (MLA) and he is a working as a Professor in Ambedkar chair, Bangalore University, Bangalore in Karnataka. The autobiography entitled, A word with you, world, in published 2013 and depicted courage for reader and activist. The English language as Voice Of Expression: The present paper focuses on the high educated Dalit authors autobiographies are needful to social awakens and mobilization. Which is depicted various examples to courage by next generation. They are change own identity and live with dignity in personal life. The present paper would be focuses on local language autobiographies are now translated into English and our pride would be shown to other depressed class in the worldwide. Limbale is a pointed to English translated autobiographies are gave us stage to performed our social reality to understand Dalit pain and pride. In Sharnkumar Limable‘s opinion should be important in the translation in English. In his opinion to talk with email interview he mentioned important of English language in Dalit/ Ambedkarist writings and translation. I cited by Rita Kothari words: Because of English translation I get [a] world platform to present myself and my community. It proves that the academic discussion is started today on Dalit problem. Dalit literature is a socio-political document of Dalit movement. We use our words as weapons. It is our struggle through pen and pain against inhumanity. We want liberty, fraternity, and freedom. We want to eradicate this cruel Hindu caste system. This message reached out [to the] the world at large through English translation. Not only my life, but our movement strengthened. People know we are living here. (Kothari, Rita, EPW, 62) The Dalit autobiographies are majorly written in own mother or native language and later translated into English. The Dalit youths are firstly motivated to Ambedkarian philosophy and secondly they are educated. This is revolution of way of peace and silent to social and literary field. The new era of social movement start in Ambedkarist peoples struggle for human rights that is a one assertion of the Dalit writing. Ambedkar always motivated to women and Dalit‘s, Page 85

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depressed class in this nation. They are live without social respect and they are neglect to human rights. I cited here Farahna Sayad‘s opinion about Dalit autobiography entitled, The Against Night written by Modhopuri. In his/her words: Dalit writings like Changiya Rukh are a powerful commentary on the intimate otherness of India‟s subaltern section of population. Its translation into English is yet another sincere effort in providing a strong voice by using English as the language of protest and empowerment. (Sayad, 268) The Dalit‘s writing to narrate as a personal voice within Expression the anger against the caste systems, social discrimination, and demand of equal rights for depressed castes in this nation. And try to self -empowerment for the society and family. The English language gave us the Dalit writing to freedom of speaking and few words are translated as the original form of the local language. It is not only Changiya Rukh: The Against Night but also other Ambedkarist autobiographies are involved in that point of view. Each and every of the Dalit autobiographies central theme or concept would be destroyed traditional social and cultural hierarchy. The reputed academician Rita Kothari also pointed by the Dalit peoples writings are the narratives give us courage to explained own dignity. Her words about an explained how to give us platform for Dalit literature translation into English is a got stage of shows fact of Indian society. Dalit‘s activist and author are explained by their voices of poverty. But they are written of ambedkarist society‘s achievement. Dalit word is indicating depression or broken people. Ambedkarist activist explained the respect given into English language and got success to achieved human dignity. Kothari remarks: The candid nature of the autobiographies that have come into English clearly show that the writing of such autobiographies must have been an act of courage. (Kothari, Rita, 62) Ambedkar’s Impact on Dalit literature: Dalit literature expressed the opinion of Dalit communities‘ social fight to need eradicate on the traditional norms. Ambedkar‘s voice is always loudly to remembered by Ambedkarist societies minds. Who belong to Dalit, scheduled caste, down-trodden groups, and New Buddhist communities that believe to challenge by old social norms in this nation. We need to learn good things for humanity. Dalit literature is an inspiration and now this literature won respect. This literary genre was not only won respect but this literature also explained by power of Dalit to need for other peoples for empowerment. Dr. Ambedkar was an inspiration to indicate in this autobiography. Translation has pointed by Ravikumar in his words in The Scar (2009) Ravikumar remarks: At the national level, Ambedkar and Rettaimalai Srinivasan are the precursors of the Dalit

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autobiographical form as per research indicators at present. (Introduction note, The Scar, Ravikumar, X) Siddalingaiah is an activist of ambedkarist movements. It is an example of the established to Dalit Sangarsh Samitee, and struggle for Dalit‘s rights in the Karnataka state and he has a respective person journey towards Dalit to ambedkarist movement. His two autobiographies and poems central theme should be eradicated illiteracy and he learn how to need empowered in the Dalits to need motivated for struggle that is a needed to social reformation. He was reads Ambedkar‘s literature in His words: I bought a book by Ambedkar called Asprishyru (the untouchable: Who Were They and Why They Became Untouchable) translated in to Kannada by Kumara Venkanna. ( Siddalingaiah, 94). Second incident of karnatka dalits are fallower of Ambedkar. Ambedkar is allover Indian Dalit‘s are accepted his leadership. Due to he is master of various subject. He has talked within fluently English language for communication of any problematic issue the British administrative officers also gives respect due to his deep knowledge and serious issues against humanity. The society‘s historical document is seen in the few dalit activist account. He writes: I also found a letter Ambedkar had written to Ingledevo. Since it had Ambedkar‟s signature, Rayannanavar valued it highly, and kept it. Ingledevo was among theforemost of Ambedkar‟s fallowers. (268) The two selected autobiographies are south Indian that is narrated social and political situation of Dalit peoples. Tamil language the first Dalit autobiography narrated fact of Dalit life to elaborate by fact of Dalit in village life. The poverty is serious issues to mentioned by Gunasekaran in his Autobiography entitled, The Scar (2009) the Dalit peoples life to narrated on the social fact and personal experiences in the social atmosphere. How to upper caste people‘s behavior against the Dalit peoples in Tamil Nadu first narrated by author? Ravikumar remarked on the Dalit autobiography in the introduction in his words: I want to point out two important issues related to the form called autobiography portrayed as the voice of the victim the Dalit autobiography is a testimony and an appeal. The person who submits it does not have the right to judge. It is also doubtful if the Dalit autobiographies would remain the same if they were to take up a judgmental role. Autobiographies are written based on truthfulness and trustworthiness. (Introduction Ravikumar, xvi) The Caste Experience: Tami Nadu is a most important state to elaborated social experience in the Dalit writing and Dalit writings progress on the Ambedkarist vision to resist caste, class and dominated group‘s injustice. Caste problem is major aspect of Dalit Page 87

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writing I mention in this autobiography to point by caste psyche. When one he was going on journey to bullock carts and empty bullock carts gave us lift to Thovoor. But after communication latter the cart man asked about caste. He writes: The cart just then caught up with us. The cartmen asked, „Dei, what is your caste?‟ „Parayar‟, I said. „Get on the cart‟, he said. My brother and I replied in chorus, „No need‟. The Cartman asked, „So, who are you visiting?‟ We are going to John‟s house. His son„s name in Arpudam and that is our periamma‟s house‟, I said. (Gunasekaran, 21) Caste discrimination is also similar in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka same narrated by Siddalingaiah. He was shows exploitation of his father to narrate as serious issue. That is not only written but it also tries to control in the medium of literary pieces. He mentions his father‘s discrimination in the field of agricultural in Karnataka state. He expressed his father‘s woe in his word: A man had fastened a yoke onto the shoulders of two other men and was ploughing Ainrus fields. It was amusing to watch the two men trundle on like bullocks, while the third followed them swimming a whip and making them plough. Then I realized that one of them men carrying the yoke was my father a strange agony gripped me at that moment. (Siddalingaiah, 15-16) Family and Poverty: K. A. Gunasekarn family was educated his father is teacher and his mother also educated women. But, some social norms to fallowed by his family and it‘s a major reason father was don‘t allow her job. Lack of future family planning to management and author‘s family member eight persons live with poverty life. If you see teacher family also faces problem of money and they are failure to fallow new vision. He writes: My mother was educated by the church authorities. Our father did not allow my mother to take up a government job. Looks like those days there was not enough publicity for the red triangle. Having had half-a –dozen children, my father found it difficult to manage the house with his salary alone. (Gunasekaran, 8) Siddalingaiah also portrayed by fact of Dalit Families in Karnataka state. They are live without landownership. That community faces a lot of problems. They are failure to provide the needful facility in his family members and they live poor life. He explained hunger of poor families. When, his parent gone some www.dalitsahitya.com

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private work and childhood the owner of mango tree gave us food. Non-Dalit people gave us food of left over. he has feel satisfied .in his words: When my father, mother and I went to town and stood in front of his house, he gave us chitranna and poori left over from the night before. I had never tasted these delicious, and found them delicious. (Siddalingaiah, 16) Educational Vision of Father: Gunasekaran family lives with poverty and only his father‘s respect in that village. He was managing the money for books, note books and stationary work. He has a majorly non-Dalit and Muslim‘s are shown respect and gave us little help too. He has narrated to fact of Dalit‘s peoples in this autobiography. When every year new academic session started then father was busy to arrange the stationary work. His words: Every year, when school re-opened, our father would ask some muslims to help towards the cause of our education. They would buy us text books and note books, and even paid our school fees. They would show respect to father, even as they helped him. (9) Siddalingaiah‘ Father was a very positive affection of his child. He always explained his opinion to express in the important of education would be needed to read. The vision of every Dalit autobiographer narrated in this inherited things. Dalit people are awakened to education is power of social and political changes. He says: I must make my son study at least enough to read our relatives letters. (Siddalingaiah, 24) Another example of father is always to care his child future when he was wrote some revolutionary poem then they are fear about his child‘s life. He has always careful of Siddalingaiah future. Father explained his thought on the poems central theme to understand on the other peoples opinion, Siddalingaiah writes: My father had no knowledge of poetry. His only concern was that I shouldn‟t be harmed. He and my well-wishers got together and dug out my poetry notebooks. (Siddalingaiah, 211) The Goal of Respect: The second important thing is Dalit writer and academicians are versatile in the various filed. They are developed to cultural activities too. Gunasekaran was a good singer and play actor. He was various play performed his educational life beginning. He mentioned him having a tenth class then he performed the play on Tipu Sultan. He writes: Cultural Programmes also conducted to collect donation. Khader Kani Sir was then the Tamil teacher. He prepared a play called Theeran Tippu Sultan, and Sahjan Kani sir

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prepared the sets, including a crouching tiger made of paper mould, painted to look like a real one. I was the lead singer of this play. (Gunasekaran 14) Siddalingaiah also narrated some incident to class that incident he has given by courage in school atmosphere. We are forgetting the boundaries of caste and try to talk speak in world in songs in class. The teachers always try to need of Dalit student talks with freedom to talk in school atmosphere. He writes: Intrigued, the teacher turned to me, and demanded, “What is that? Come on, show me.” Encouraged by my classmates, I enthusiastically mimicked the inspector‟s speech, his gestures, facial expressions and his gait. (Siddalingaiah, 26) Social Narrative of Lives Towards Dignity: This autobiography also focuses on the historical background of family. Which are mentioned by author? In fist time he was meet his Marandai. The location of his ‗Thatha‘ means grandfather live in this place. Dalit families are migrated for the purpose of employment. The generation of Dalit families to evolve in educational and major Dalit walk on the Ambedkarist ideology. We are rejected traditional rule and captured form modern views. Some peoples of Dalit colonies are respectively for authors as like his family to educate and his statues change. Due to employment that is his children to perform as respective job, as teacher, doctor and little bit change in Dalit colonies in rural area. Dalits are live with poverty and they are trying to struggle for self-empowerment. His grandfather has called whole village as nickname Karupa. He was given us moral support in the Dalit student to learn good education and get good position in social life. He is also vision of Ambedkarist activist. He writes: Thatha educated our father and his brothers. Thatha too was keenly interested in studies and made good use of what little opportunity he got. If a government official required signatures, of any two villagers on a petition, one of them would definitely be my Thatha‟s. This was because Thatha was considered to be a learn man. (Gunasekaran, 47) Siddalingaiah also narrated the his maternal grandfather reputation in home and society as like in Manchabale village Dalits ‗Katti‘ live with dignity and his house was big to comparatively fathers house. He was an activist of Mahatma Gandhi. He was fallowed some moral things in personal life and they are gave us message of discipline in the family and society. He writes: When Gandhiji had asked non-drinkers to raise their hands, grandfather had been one of those who had so there was no drinking in his house. (Siddalingaiah, 29) The grandfathers vision his sons and grandson was learning good education and they are hospitality due to old age of his grandfather. He teaches to moral view if the need to empowerment in the Dalit youth. Dalit life is a motivated to www.dalitsahitya.com

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good historical background, and they are achieved due to brave mind. He tell us the old school system is also caste bases and Dalit to learn outside now government provided equal statues‘ to Dalit‘s in school and college. But grandfather always to remember his previous school day experience, and explain the that times reputed school banned for Dalit student s are learn education without proper sitting arrangement. He learns education to outside of class and the social change of Dalit‘s are struggle for equal rights. Gunasekaran writes: Our Thatha went to a thinnai school. But he would not be permitted to sit with the other boys because of his caste. He had stand at a distance and listen to his teacher. He would often ask me to sing. He frequently spoke out his hope for the family saying, „One of us should become a doctor.‟ (Gunasekaran, 50) The Karnatka Dalit peoples have awakened to own rights that time in the Dalit politics. Siddalingaiah‘s uncle also has elected as member of Magadi Municipality. Through, The election proceeds later won without investment of single paisa. His reputation that time valuable in the Dalit colony, he writes: Alayya, who won an election to became a member of the Magadi municipal council. He got off the house and touched my grandmother‟s feet. The procession turned back .my uncle was the most educated and uncourageous man among the dalits. (Siddalingaiah, 27) Dalit society has been changes of thoughts of gaining power within the educational achievement thoughts. It would be need to Dalit‘s societies first generation wants to our next generation should be live with dignity and reputation. The grandfather talks in his thoughts in the family meeting. He always motivated to his son and grandson to need higher education. Dalit are need to adopted by Ambedkar‘ vision of create new social system within the educational achievement. We are needed to obtain by the good administration posts. The grandfathers ambition would be fulfilled to got good education and grandson (Machan), he has a performed as post of doctor. The grandson‘s achievement, honors praised by them (Thatha). He writes: Now and then he would come from Madurai to treat grandfather in Marandai.‟Ei, allow Gunasekaran to speak. He speaks well‟, he used to praise me to Muniyandi Machan. (50) In this autobiography has actually Gunasekaran‘s one brother as a doctor. He was treatment in his old Thatha‘s. It is not only dream but also it is a symbol of social change in Dalit communities walking on the way of Ambedkariste philosophy and they are trying to re-established Buddhist era of social system.

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Which is a casteless or class less society? Every person lives with dignitary and respect. Siddalingaiah is always membered his poverty and live to stand for fact and reality he narrated by his parents are poor and he feels dignity and proud of them, he writes: My parent were laboures, and I came from working class this awareness remained alive in e all the time .it rids me of the problems arising out of false pride. ( Siddalingaiah, 155) Gunaskekaran, Siddalingaiah’s Self- Achievement: The scar narrated the caste, poverty and dignity within the framework of Ambedkarist point of view. Dalit are live in this nation as a powerless people and they are live with poverty. It is a seriously need to understand. How to they are live without natural resources ownership? and what is a main aim of Dalit peoples in personal life? This questions answer will be simple. If you see Dalit‘s are poor peoples in this nation. They are search to eradicate some social issues as like caste discrimination and humiliation. Particular the locality of this class has been towards attracted in the educational system in India. Dalit studies main to elaborate Dalit problem and to walk the way of education, self-respect and performed as good human and live with happy in society. Arvinda malagatti‘s opinion about Dalit autobiography is medium of social change in his words: ‗We are choosing memories that create social change‟. (Translator‘s Preface, P. X) This is to also autobiography narrated the fact of Dalit students need to shows courage, in the academic and cultural sphere. When Gunasekaran was B.A and he was sang song in Trichy all India Radio station. This is an opportunity got the poet Meera. He narrated her help in college life in his words: ‗I had opportunity to sing on the radio while still at the Sivganga College because of poet Meera. Both my village and college, I had a very good name because of this. (Gunasekaran, 52) Siddalingaiah has speaking to encourage of his teacher support in public speech on occasion of Ambedkar birth ceremony. This memorial incident he has expressed in this autobiography. The Dalit students talk with reputed person with on stage. He writes: On Amedkar day at the town hall, Chief Minister Veerendra Patil High Court Judge K. Bhimaiah, IAS officer Bharanaiah, and Minister B. Rachaiah were the guests of honour. Shantaveri Gopala Gowda was the main speaker. I liked his style. Arakeri invited me to speak. Forgetting that I was still only a high school student, I spoke with confidence. (Siddalingaiah, 90)

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Teacher Meera was always motivate him to sing song. She is a well-wisher. In college level competition is always won prize and the name of teachers in cultural activities to gives us honour. In the college room my songs to attract by audience in the class of competition. His quatrain is based on lover to address to his beloved into his voice. This song is composed by Tamil poet Bharthiyar‘s. The audiences enjoyed with gives me support with clapped. They are appreciating words of within my rhythms and rhyme, his words: My body burn –my darling, My body does burn-my head whirls, And gives me trouble –my darling, Aah ……aah….aah… (Gunasekaran, 67) I sang plaintively: Kannamma, Kannamma, Kannamma, Kanamma. (68) Siddalingaiah is a revolutionary poet who wrote in poem on stating writing 1968s. He mentioned my writings motivation is Marathi Dalit writing, Kannda Vachana Literature, and Telgu literature. The debate of intercollege has selection would be a part of poem, which for the attraction of student and audience to started by Kannda poet Kavemppu‘s line who was a nationalist poet in history of Kannda. He writes: Temples are houses of black magic, Religion leaders are magicians, Pilgrims centers are places of disease, Innocent, idiots, these pilgrims. (Siddalingaiah, 105) He also sings his poem as a radical point of view. These lines are a revolutionary to mobilize by Dalit‘s. The school, college and society that‘s poems are mobilized by the Dalit peoples. Siddalingaiah‘s one of the poems stanza to understand meaning of his word. These poems lines are encouraged to peoples mobilized by Dalit people towards revolutionary, self-respect and awaken own rights. He writes: May the heads of the rich roll May the rebellion begin May blood spurt and flow like the waters of the Ganga. (Siddalingaiah, 211) The cracked social system: The Dalit autobiographer has always one serous issues handled by casteless society and they are mention in every major Dalit autobiographies that central aims in autobiographical narration to understand reader to trying to crack the social system. That is why? Gunasekarn also Memories of College experience in Page 93

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the beloved friends. Her statues in caste system in Hindu norms in upper caste student mind. But he mentioned attraction and love is explaining for same quality people in each other. He narrated beautiful handwriting letter. I cited here: Dear Gunasekaran, Forgive me. I shouting, not allowing you to sing. Only later did I notice the sweetness of your voice. I underestimated you. Having only your caste in mind and not talking into account your true talent. With affection, Athiappan. (Gunasekaran, 68) Siddalingaiah is also mention the same situation when he has joined as research fellows. The village life and college lives experiences are basically based on human relation. He has also known as poet. The bus traveling is in bus one girl romantic communication described by author. He writes: She offered to hold the book I was carrying. I declined politely. But she insisted, “No problem at all, give it to me‖. (Siddalingaiah, 174) Inter-caste Marriage as Theme of Ambedkarist Autobiographies: Gunasekaran talks about his narrative in the inter-caste marriage. How to need for understand the affair of different caste young couples as serious in village life. This autobiography is a symbol of cultural diversity in village life. He pointed the problem of Tamil Nadu. Every autobiographies central theme talks against caste system and they are supporter of ceaseless society. Inter-caste marriage is a not simple but it‘s a challenged to contemporary social system. Without devotion any movement has not success in the world, the one way love affairs also serious social problem, that lovers life destroyed without lack morality, the society divided in upper caste and lower caste is part in Indian social system. Micheal Amma was Udayar caste and boy caste is Pallar caste, his words: They fell in love when they were at school. (37) This affair not success that maturity of understanding and upper caste peoples fear of girls mind. Thovoor village, it is tragic history in carved lover minds. Thovoor Cheri an ideal example to narrated by in this autobiography. The central characters to narrate by author form the sensitive issue about in Tamil Nadu state, Thangarasu and Tamilarasi Akka the couple of lover and beloved in the same caste. They are got marriage after fifteen years. She was a teacher in school. He was a working as a lobour in one shop at London, The owner of the native of Bombay. The couple challenged the social norm and he writes: They got married. A few months later they left London. (39) www.dalitsahitya.com

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Another example of controversy he depicted in this autobiography. The art and cinema is depicted a lots of love movies in every language.so many serious issues are in this society. Love is natural human instinct. But love is also serious questions in finds in this nation and worldwide. His words are most important narrated social fact, I cited his words: Actor and actress become MLAs, MPs and chief ministers in our country. But the love they depict in the movies simply vanish into thin air in reality. People protest against movies these days. Some movements also do so. (39) Siddalingaiah is an activist of Ambedkarist movement. When, I meet him at Bangalore on dated 5th august 2013. I talked with him on various subjects in literature, academic and social situation. He gave me one question answer. His words: I was married non-Dalit girl. This is forget written my autobiographies. It is long years before I remembered my youth age. When I became early stage of life 1976, she meets me a romantic way of my life. I performed last36 year‟s marriage life. Both are dedicated to ambedkarist thoughts and the Dalit struggle. She is belongs to Naidu community. This community is a moneylender and landowner in this state. (Personal Interview Siddalingaiah, 4) They told me I also got inter-caste marriage and hundred and above intercaste marriage I organized in my under leadership at Karnataka. that why? I am activist Ambedkarist movement. This book also he gave us reference to marriage of Dalit and Brahmin as historical era started by Ambedkar. The Ambedkarist movement major idea is to create new society. The Ambedkarist communities‘ officers and professors are motivation new students. He writes: I finally asked Mrs Bhoj,” You were a lecture at the Government Arts College, weren‟t you”? She not only said yes, but also confirmed she had seen me in my student days. She was a Brahmin. She had married a dalit official called Bhoj, and turned into Mrs Bhoj. When I heard about her inter-caste marriage, I felt proud of her. (Siddalingaiah, 242) Academic issue in Indian Higher Education: It is majorly exploited by Dalit‘s. Which serious are issues by narrated by these autobiography. When Dalit‘s student and professors are faces lots of problem in under reservation. Siddalingaiah is a professor at Bangalore and member of various Dalit teacher associations. They are known with respect in various international universities and they are seriously got name of specific field. He writes: A history professor, he had lectured in India and abroad, and he had achieved repute as a scholar. He had bought car abroad and drove it himself. It used to break down suddenly on the university campus. (Siddalingaiah, 277) One reputed faculty told him important of power that is need to few e days vice-chancellor need will be work of those files are pending should be gives us Page 95

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justice to student and Dalit faculty. His words written by author in his words: Narasaiah would say he wanted to become the university‟s Vice-Chancellor at least for a day, and pass orders to help the exploited classes, even if it meant losing his position later. (Siddalingaiah, 277) Bandaaya literary Conference: Siddalingaiah narrated by third Bandaaya Literary Conference discussion one the social system should be needed for eradicate caste system that is The activist Polanki Ramamurthy opinion attracted by the issue of caste prejudice in human mind. And he has talk against untoachability. The black colour is a symbol of downtrodden communities‘ lives in his words: He said Durpadi of the Mahabharata and the movies star Rekha were both dark beauties and only the lower caste can bring about social change miraculously, he said. His words were interestingly enough to make me forget the fatigue of the procession. He naturally opposed untouchability and was a proponent touch. (Siddalingaiah, 275) Most Important evidence pointed by author for the next generation would be Dalit‘s motivated in the life journey village to Madurai. The Dalit‘s had encouraged for education and to live with dignity. It is a journey of struggle. When, he meets Indira Gandhi on the celebration of republican day. The south Indian society to far away distance to the pace of Madurai to Delhi is a journey of Dalit student‘s life achievement. Due, to education Prime Minister Indira Gandhi invited to all artists in her house and he meets to her, in his words: Indira Gandhi shook hands with me and enquired in English, what I was doing? When I said I was studying, she advised me to do research in folk arts. I promised to do so. Before return from Delhi to Madhurai Tyagaraja College, I found the local papers had published the photographs of Indira Gandhi talking to me. I continue being the cultural secretory at college. (Gunasekaran, 70) Siddalingaiah was a narrating his experiences in this autobiography. He pointed the courageous events are motivated by Dalit movement. He has organized one movement when Indira Gandhi visits in Karnataka state. She was a prime minister and Karnataka faces problem of water. The movement for struggle organized his few friends Dr. Venkatesh and Dr. D.R. Nagaraj. Government‘s moral duty to provided facility for those people are faces drought problems that area would needed to give some package for encouraged by people to forget loss of agricultural crops and cattle‘s. India is welfare state. Water drought has serious problem to shows on the few slogans against Indira Gandhi government. When, her speech started then, he loudly speaks slogans to indicate Bidar districts water problem. She was not target for personal www.dalitsahitya.com

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but also her responsibility to provided facilities for peoples. But that day public sphere police had beaten up due to disciplinary reason. He writes: As soon Indira Gandhi began her speech, they shouted anti –Indira slogan. “Not to Udipi, go to Bidar,” they shouted. The policemen immediately caught hold of them and beaten them up, with the help of some members of the audience. (Siddalingaiah, 113) The Courage of Dalit People: It is a motivation to give us moral support to other caste people. He pointed few incident of accident one Muslim child felled in side of the well. Every of the colony people was crowd inside of well and young girl are crying Allah! Allah! The child drowns the water and Gunasekaran shown courage for help to save of one human life. He, writs: This thought made me take off my clothes and get into the well in my underpants. I slid down holding the pipe, and the next minute caught of the child. (Gunasekaran, 78) Siddalingaiah narrated his view on the Ambedkarist peoples are neglected the important of god, norms of traditional superstition in the society. When, he had joined competition of inter-college debate at Bangalore. He chosen topic on god does not exist. He won awards in this competition. This is courage of Dalit youth to talks with the courage and logical argument to scientific examples are given by audience and he won this debate. His words: In my speech, I said I have put out the lamp that was god incarnate. If your god does exist, let him stop me from speaking.” My speech went off smoothly. (Siddalingaiah, 108) Conclusion: Gunasekaran is an artist, poet and play writer in Tamil literature. He was awarded the fellowship and invited to America for the Tamizh Sangam had Awarded Chevaliar literary work by him. The Tamil literary organization to working on Tamil literature and Shivaji Ganeshan felicitate the reputed award for literary activity. He writes: „I went to Canada also. ‘ (88) Both Autobiographers have depicted the picture of their live achievement in the elaborated by their autobiographies. The Dalit words to coin by meaning similar to depression, and broken life. It would be walk in the self-dignity on the way Ambedkariste notion. The Scar and A Word With You, World, explained to personal achievement of good life. Dalit life is always depicted by woe, poverty and discrimination. These two both autobiographies are model of Ambedkariste vision. Dalit‘s are lots of sub-caste. They are narrated to personal view on eradicated caste, class and try to new build social structure. Education is most important to work for Dalit‘s communities to empower as equal statues.

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Gunasekaran and Sidhalingaiah are a locality difference, but they are live with in Cherri and Katti. It is a social structure they are change and involved with global world. They are performed various role, as like poet, artist, leader and professor in both in academic field. He is professor in central university Pondicherry and Bangalore University at Bangalore. They are good examples to progress on the Dalit communities should be changes identity the Dalit to elite class. They are shown personal and public struggle for the way silence, peace and brotherhood. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are not only examples but also is this progress also Indian Dalit history. They are walking on Ambedkarian perspective. The Dalit autobiographers are challenging to contemporary society to create or re-establish new Buddhism in Indian sub-continent. Work Cited Siddalingaiah. A Word With You, World: The Autobiography of Poet. Trans S. R. Ramakrishna. New Delhi: Navayana, 2013 Gunasekaran, K. A. The Scar. Trans. V.K Kadambari. New Delhi: Orient BlackSwan, 2009 Malagatti, Arvind. Government Brahmana. Trans Dharni Devi Malagatti. et.al, Chennai: Orient Longman, 2007 Kothari, Rita, Caste in a Casteless Language? English as a Language of „Dalitâ€&#x; Expression Economic Political Weekly, Web 10 August 2014. P- 62. Ravikumar, Introduction The Scar. K. A, Gunasekaran. New Delhi: Orient BlackSwan, 2009 Sayad, Farahna. The Goddess English: Language of Protest and Empowerment. Language in India. Web 12 June 2014. P-268 Sonwane, Navnath. Interview with Siddalingaiah, 5th August 2013, P -04

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The alarming violence against northeastern women in India Kirti Bhardwaj1 .

Abstract:- Violence against women in India is an issue rooted in societal norms and economic dependence. Discriminatory practices are underlined by laws favoring men. Inadequate policing and judicial practices deny female victims proper protection and justice. Although female participation in public life is increasing and laws have been amended, India still has a long way to go to make Indian women equal citizens in their own country. In India in every 26 minutes there is one case of sexual harassment in every 34 minutes one women is raped, In every 93 minute one women is killed. These figures are based only on the basis of registered complaints only otherwise the situation is very terrific whether women is working or household, most of the women are victim of domestic violence and sexual harassment. There is strong need for protection of women against violence and sexual assault. This requires firm determination and attitudinal charges so that the laws made for protection of women can be properly implemented.

Introduction:- The issue of violence against women in India was brought to the forefront after the brutal gang-rape of a 23-year-old woman in Delhi on 16 December 2012. The December incident led to a sudden outpouring of anger and frustration about the situation that allowed such attacks to take place. People took to the streets in large numbers calling for change. But the issues involved are complex and deeply rooted. The challenges Indian women face include an often misogynistic society outdated and sometimes repressive governance structures, an inefficient legal justice system, a weak rule of law and social and male centric political structures. Much of the violence against Indian women is in the form of domestic violence, dowry deaths, acid attacks, honor killings, rape, abduction, and cruelty by husbands and in-laws. One of the key challenges is dowry – a practice of the bride‘s family giving gifts of cash and kind to the groom and his family. In some cases the groom‘s family mistreats the bride if such demands are not met.

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Kirti Bhardwaj Research Scolar, Gautum budh university, greater noida (u.p.) Page 99

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Objectives – The present dissertation describe the status of violence against women in North eastern states of India and the laws for the protection and safety of women. Today in whole world violence against women in increasing tremendously, her rights are crushed like anything. With the growing growth rate like GDP, the crime against women are also increasing, whether we talk of rapes, dowry deaths or any sort of violence, in every sphere her rights are crushed terribily. The traditional mindset towards women in our social system is also responsible in one way or the other. Male dominated society has set up their own rules, standards and parameters for defining women rights and considered himself as God for women. Males started violating women and thereby violence against women began.

Types of violenceIt is said that women are unsafe in outer world, whereas when violence is by her own family members it becomes more inhuman, Married or unmarried women both can become victim of violence. In India there are three types of violence against women. 1. Social violence- Kidnapping, Robbery, Rape and Sexual harassment., violence at work place. 2. Domestic violence- Violence for dowry, violence for self-respect and so on. Lawyers Collection Rights Initiative describes violence as any act of inhuman behavior which tortures living (life style) and makes her life miserable is violence, which includes physical, sexual and economics harassment.* 3. Sex determination-These days another sort of violence is spreading i.e. Sex determination during pregnancy known as Kanya Bhroon Hatya. Twenty Six out of hundred women are victim of this type of violence. If any of women gives birth to girl child repeatedly she is forced to suffer from mental and physical torture resulting in killing or suicidal death. If any girl is involved in any act like:  Love marriage  Inter -caste marriage  Non-acceptance of marriage of girls  Gay conduct She is liable to be stabbed to death. The honor killing is done by family members (father, brother or family members). The family members consider it their disrespect of family in the society. Status of Violence in North East States in India Male dominated society always take women take it granted. He always tortures women on different issues like dowry demand, respect in society or sexual www.dalitsahitya.com

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demand etc. In India violence against women is increasing tremendously day by day. In Northeastern states of India, Aasam, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Maghalaya etc the cases of violence and sexual harassment are on high rise. The reason behind this may be less developed states in comparison to other states and their ways and life styles are different from other parts of country. According to census 2001 the population of Aasam is 2.59% of total population of country the sex ratio is 1000:932.* Twenty six percent women are victim of domestic violence. In eastern states 50% women are victim of husbands violence. Mainly there are following reasons which are responsible for domestic violence. Factors responsible for Domestic violence:  To ignore children and home  Out of house without permission  Disrespect to elders  Suspicious attitude of husband  Inefficient in cooking

- 40 percent - 37 percent - 34 percent - 33 percent - 45 percent

Not only husband other members of family like sister-in-law, mother, brother-inlaw also get involved in domestic violence. Figures-* Crimes against women in six of the eight North Eastern states increased significantly in the last year compared to the year before as Assam led the list, although Manipur and Mizoram registered a downward trend. At the all-India level, Assam remains in the seventh place, like in the previous year. The list is headed by Andhra Pradesh, followed by Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, the National Crime Records Bureau said in its Crime in India, 2013, report.Reported instances of crimes against women in Assam jumped to 17, 449 in 2013 as against 13, 544 the previous year. In Tripura, between 2013 and the previous year, it had risen to 1,628 from 1, 559 while Meghalaya saw a jump to 343 from 255. In Arunachal Pradesh, it was up from 201 to 288, in Sikkim to 93 from 68 and in Nagaland to 67 from 51. Manipur and Mizoram, however, recorded a slide in crimes against women with the incident rate in the former falling to 285 from 304 while the latter saw it drop from 199 to 177. Assam head the list for all recorded crimes against women, including rape, kidnapping and abduction, dowry deaths and cruelty by husband and his relatives. The state recorded 1, 937 incidents of rape in 2013 as against 1, 716 the previous year. It was followed by Tripura, which saw 233 such cases as against 229 in 2012.

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In Meghalaya, the number of rape case increased to 183 from 164, in Arunachal Pradesh to 75 from 46, in Manipur to 72 from 63, in Sikkim to 43 and in Nagaland to 31 from 21. Mizoram was the only state in the region which witnessed a drop in rape case, with such incidents coming down to 89 from 103 the year before. In crimes related to kidnapping and abduction, Assam‘s rate increased significantly to 4,222 from 3,360 while in Tripura it went from 114 to 124. Among other states to register an increase were Arunachal Pradesh (from 58 to 86), Meghalaya (from 24 to 33), Sikkim (from 10 to 16) and Nagaland (from 10 to 11). Manipur recorded a downward trend in kidnapping and abduction with a drop to 125 from 133 the previous year while in Mizoram it decreased from three to two. As to dowry deaths, it was Assam again which led the list with 170 deaths reported over 140 the previous year. Tripura saw a decline here- to 29 from 37 – while in Meghalaya it increased to two from one. Nagaland, which reported no dowry deaths in the earlier years, saw one incident. Neither Arunachal Pradesh nor Sikkim reported any dowry deaths in 2013 although, in the previous year, both states had a case each. In Manipur and Mizoram, no dowry deaths were reported in either year. Assam also recorded the highest incidence of 8,636 cases of cruelty by husband and his relatives towards women, which was up from 6,407 the previous year. In Tripura, incidents of cruelty came down from 858 to 827 last year, in Manipur it was down from 43 to 29 and Mizoram from eight to five. The survey conducted recently in North eastern status reveals that 11% people think that 1% working women is victim of domestic violence 17% fields that 3% women of friends and family suffer from domestic violence and to eight percent feels that 1% neighbors women are victim of domestic violence.* Similarly in 2007 the sexual violence in North east states was 10,950, where husband and relation were involved in sexual assault and rapes with women. 2013 census states of women in kidnapping Assam 4222 Manipur 125 Maghalaya 33 Mijoram 02 Nagaland 11 Sikkim 16 2013 census states of women in violence. Assam 170 Manipur 0 Maghalaya 2 Mijoram 0

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1 0

2013 census states of women in Harassment Assam 2409 Manipur 59 Maghalaya 98 Mijoram 81 Source: NCRB Report 2013. In a country like India it is unbelievable because thousands of cases are not even registered or police do not register. I feel that not registering of case in police station is one of the major factors for occurrence of incidence of domestic is violence According to NCBR report it is reflected that in North east states the condition of women is not strong enough. Presently women are stabled to death due to dowry demand or harassed at home and outside. Some women are kidnapped and raped publicly. All this is reflected is survey report. Reasons for Non-registering of criminal cases:  Disrespect in society  Considered as personal reason  Fear of self-security  Considered as fate Some incidences of domestic violence in North East States:  Two sisters viz; 29 years old Leshram Manishing and 52 years Leshram Bimlodevi resident of Pukhaon Avang Lekai were arrested only on the basis of suspect by central Reserve Police Force and were beaten by iron rod. But without proof police freed them and they had to undergo thospitatis for two weeks*.  On January 14, 1999 one eleven year old girl was arrested because of doubt by Assam Rights for incitement in terrorist activity and friendly relations with terrorist. The girl was discussed in media and due to that on April 2, 1999 she committed suicide*  Not only in their own state North East girls are also treated inhumanly in other states also. Let we have a look at some of the incidences of inhuman behavior with them.*  A thirty year old Mijoram lady who was working in BPO was raped in Dhaula kuan in 2010.  A seven year old girl was gangraped in Mahipalpur Delhi in 2009 and after that she was stabbed to death in water tank.  A nineteen year old Manipur lady was saped by cab driver and stabbed to death. Similarly there are several unquoted incidences

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An Upsurge in Crime or Upsurge in Reporting on Crime? In India, where the culprits are largely known to the victim, the social and economic "costs" of reporting such crimes are high. General economic dependence on their families and fear of social ostracization act as significant disincentives for a woman to report any kind of sexual violence or abuse. Therefore the actual incidence of violence against women in India is probablymuchhigher. Another barrier to reporting is the unwillingness of police officials to register complaints. If the case is lodged, sub-standard investigative procedures and low conviction rates strengthen the impression that there is little benefit in reporting the crime. Moreover, most police in India function within the framework of the Police Act of 1861 which emphasizes enforcing order rather than upholding rights* Therefore, if a police station registers many crimes within its jurisdiction, it is considered to be incapable of enforcing law and order. This perception is a severe disincentive for a police officer to record a crime in his jurisdiction. Laws for preventing domestic violence. Laws for prevention of domestic violence received special recognition during international suffering from domestic violence and sexual assault, so that they can also survive gracefully is societwomen years (1975-86)*. In 1979 United National Organistion (UNO) made these laws Internationally acceptable by which laws were framed for those women who are y. In 1992 United National Commission on the status of women gave a provision of an International law which also included human aspects i.e mental hidden tortures. In India in 1993 Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women in family decided to resolve such discriminations. On seeing the procedures of trials of such cases on September 13, 2005 a bill was passed on Prevention of Domestic violence, By this bill first time law was able to prevent women from sufferings of domestic violence*. To protect women against this threat the Indian government had enacted the Dowry Prohibition Act and the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act and cruelty under Sec 498A of the Indian Penal Code. In 2012, according to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), dowry deaths – or murders of women by the groom or in-laws because of unmet high dowry expectations – constituted 3.4% of all crimes against women. In other words, last year in India on average 22 women were killed per day because their families could not meet dowry demands* The presence of more women police officers might help in dealing with the problems most women encounter in reporting cases of rape, violence or

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harassment. Unfortunately there are only 84,479 women police personnel in India, constituting only 5.33% of the total police force. Nevertheless the one positive note is that the NCRB noted that 72.2% of the total registered cases of crimes against women in 2010 were investigated by 2011, making for a strong argument that if a case is registered by the police it is likely to be investigated and disposed of. North East Network organization for women securityThis organization was made taking into consideration the crime against women against this segment of society. This organization has established some laws and policies for them for their security and honour prestings. According to this organization ―Awareness must be created in society for violence against women‖.* This organization runs sixteen days awareness campaign every year in some or the other part of country following departments have been set up under this organization. 1. Proper counseling - Four Departments 2. Legal Counselling - Nine Departments 3. Institutional care - Twenty Nine Departments All these departments assist in safety, security and prestigious living of North east women. Conclusion- In spite of these laws and organizations Indian women are consturtly fighting for the liberty of women and empowerment. Although police force has been set up for there, but that also it is make dominated like our family system in society strict laws should be farmed and implemented against people committing domestic violence, sexual assarelt. Rapists should be given harsh treatments so that afraid committing such incidences and women also live gracefully in society. References: *Louis Prakash (2008) Gharelu Hinsa Virodhi Muhim; Ek Duslavej. Indian Social Institute, New Delhi P. 64.publication 2008 *Data census of India 2001. *Devsare Vibha (2008) Gharelu Hinsa Aur Vaishvik Sandarits Arya Prakashan Manal 9/221, Saraswate Bhandar Gandhi Nagar Delhi, P.75. publication 1998 * www.Alternative.in *WWW.conversation for a better world.com *India Today – North East Residence Delhi Facing Bias (Report) 18 April, 2011. Khanna Santosh (2007) Ekiswin Sadi Mein Kanoon our Sarokar, Vidhi Bharti Parishad, B-48, Shalimar Bagh New Delhi P. 120. publication 2007

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*www.freiheit.org *Ajeetrayjada (2005) Mahilaon Par kiya gaye Apradh; Police Anukriya Lekh. Samadhan M.P. Garnth Academy P. 54. publication 2005 *www.human rights. Asia/fear of rape. *www.northeast.nework.org.

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Social Mobility among Scheduled Caste: A Sociological Analysis Harish Kumar1 Abstract This is a study of Social mobility among Scheduled caste in Indian context with emphasis on their Education, Occupation, Cultural and Political mobility in different regions of India. The paper becomes important concerns, because the condition of Scheduled Caste is up warded since independence period under the measurement of Government welfare programs and their own struggles. Because Scheduled Caste have been considered, for centuries, as lesser human beings and subjected to Caste based atrocities for various historical, social and economic reasons. The caste based discrimination sanctified by the Hindu religious scriptures, is still haunting a large segment of Indian society. In the initial part of the study, it introduces with the concept and nature of Social mobility and also has given few illustrations, than the paper has discussed a brief outline of review of literature in regard to the social mobility among scheduled caste in various terms. Introduction There is no doubt that Caste system is a unique feature of Indian Society. Caste is a very complex phenomenon and it acts as a principle of social stratification. According to Varna theory, there are four types of Varnas such as Brahmins, Kshatriyas Vaisyas, and Sudras. It was considered that Brahmins were originated from the mouth of Brahma, Kshatriyas from the arms, Vaisyas from the thighs, Sudras from the feet. Since Sudras were supposed to have sprung from the lowest part of the body, they were assigned the lowest position in the Varna hierarchy. The scheduled castes of today belong to Sudra Varna. Viswanath Leela (1993) it is well known that the lower castes had no place in the ancient fourfold varna system and were referred to as untouchables, depressed classes, or exterior castes. Discrimination was the main feature of social structure and status was determined by birth. Due to their very low social and ritual status in the traditional Hindu society, they have remained extremely poor backward for centuries. 1

Harish Kumar (M.Phil Research Scholar), Department of Sociology, School of Social Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi-110068 biltoriya@gmail.com Page 107

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In the year 1901, Risely, the Census Commissioner of India, attempted for the first time, to classify the Hindu castes according to their social standing. In the Census of 1911, an enquiry was instituted to ascertain the castes and tribes which suffered specified religious and social disabilities. Although the term depressed class has been mentioned in the Census report of 1921, the castes constituting the depressed class have not been defined. The term ―depressed castes‖ was used before 1930, but since the enactment of the Government of India Act of 1935, they have consistently referred to as Scheduled Castes‖. In the various Indian languages they were known by many versions of words that mean ―Untouchables‖ or ―out caste‖ of variations thereof: Panchamas, Atishudras, Avarnas, Antyjas, Nama Sudras etc. In 1933 Gandhi coined the new term ―Harijans‖ meaning ―children of God‖. Dr. Ambedkar proposed the words ‗Protestant Hindus‘ or ‗No-conformist Hindus‘. Finally, as recommended by the Simon Commission, the term ―Scheduled Castes‖ was adopted by the Government and also emphasized in constitution of India. There were many social and legal restrictions and other disabilities that were traditionally associated with the scheduled caste people. They were denied access to religious places, and to use water from public wells, not allowed to attend schools and had to remain outside because their contact should polluted upper caste Hindus. Besides these, they were debarred from using public roads and forced to live on the outskirts of higher cast‘s residential area, thus creating hindrance to their mobility. They had no share in the social, political and judiciary powers. Sivamram P. (1990) the term Mobility has a very wide meaning and represents a multi- dimensional problem. As suggested by Hall, mobility is usually approached from a number of dimensions. One such dimension is the phase of mobility. A second dimension of mobility involves its direction. The first is vertical mobility, indicating up or down movement. The second axis is a change in social function, that does not involve change in status or horizontal mobility, the third axis is spatial mobility, change in the location of the occupation. The early writers on the caste system in India argued that its occupational structure was complex and rigid and possibilities for occupational change did not exist. However there are some studies which have thrown some light on changes in the traditional occupational structure, which have occurred throughout Indian history. They have brought to lights instances which were not only possible theoretically, but they have actually occurred. According to Hazara (1940) occupational mobility was allowed among the lower castes even during the classified Hindu Period. Sharma C.L (1996) there has been a considerable number of studies on the www.dalitsahitya.com

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Scheduled castes in India since independence. Apart from such studies, many social scientists have elaborately analysed the changing status of scheduled castes in India who are widely referred to as the Harijans. It is an open fact that these sections of people have suffered severely due to many atrocities put on them through the ages of history in the caste-ridden Indian society Since the implementation of protective discrimination of the reservation policy for all the backward classes for the last five decades, there has been a significant appearance of social, economic, political and educational changes among the scheduled castes Social Mobility (An Understanding) Pritrim Sorokin (1972) made the first systematic formulation of the concept of social mobility. He defined social mobility as ―any transition of an individual or social object or value, anything that has been created or modified by human activity, from one social position to another‖ According to Barber (1957) ―The term social mobility has been in use to movement, either upward or downward between higher or lower social classes. A more or less similar definition of the concept has been offered by Lipset and Bendix (1959) ―the term social mobility according to them refers to the process by which individuals move from one position to another in society‖-Position which by general consent have been given specific hierarchical values. When we study social mobility, we analysis the movement of individuals from positions, possessing a certain rank to positions either higher or lower in the social system. Thus social mobility is a much wider term and includes within it upward or downward changes in the economic, political or occupational status of either the individuals or a whole groups of positive reference groups. M.N. Srinivas pointed out that Sanskritization has contributed much to social mobility though it did not lead to a structural change or change of the system as such. ―It marked & Positional change in the ranking of caste strata. The importance of Sanskritization as a process of social mobility, however, lies in the fact that it activated a series of latent structural processes within the system of stratification. Firstly it contributed to the collective mobilization of the aspirations of the lower castes for status ascendency, and secondly, it implied a reference model for the aspired – for status, usually of the dominant castes in the villages or the religions concerned. Types & Measurement of Mobility:Sivamram P. (1990) defined majorly two types of mobility measurement which can be described under as follows points:-

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1. Vertical Mobility:- It is a movement of the individual or group, upward or downward with a gain or loss in social rank. The vertical mobility may occur in several ways. The simplest kind of vertical mobility is a change of occupation which involves a change in social position, as when a waiter becomes a businessman or a businessman becomes a factory worker. A different form of mobility involves promotion or demotion within an occupational group with a change in his rank, as when a police inspector becomes a superintendent of police. 2. Horizontal Mobility:- which involves a change in function including both the technical and social function without any gain or loss in social rank, as when an executive is transferred from the production division to the transport division of the same company. Another example is a farm labourer becoming manual labourer in factory. Measurement of Mobility: - Generally speaking, measurement of mobility is of two types: inter-generational occupational mobility and intra-generational occupation mobility. Inter- generational occupational mobility, an individual‘s position is compared with that of his father and possibly that of his grandfather. Intra-generational mobility, an individual is compared with himself at another point of his career. Factors of Social Mobility There are multiple factors contributing to social mobility as pointed out by Scholars such as Sorokin Cohn, Flichter, and Dubey. Sorokin has divided the factors of social mobility into primary and secondary. The primary factors are: demographic factors dissimilarity of parents and children, change of environment, especially of the anthropo-social environment and defective social distribution of individuals within social layers. The secondary factors discussed by Sorokin are pattern of stratification, educational opportunities, urbanization and the psychological motivation. Cohn in his study revealed that, education is the primary factor for social mobility. Occupational opportunities and governmental programs were the other factors which promote mobility among scheduled caste. According to Joseph H. Fitcher ―the person who is striving for upward mobility must have access to the objects that give high status‖ The conditions that help or hinner this access may be called the factors of mobility. For any particular individual who has the personal abilities as well as the desire for upward mobility, the following conditioning factors must be taken into consideration:(i)

The policy and practice of immigration into a total society and into

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a local community will greatly affect the possibilities of upward mobility. (ii) The presence or absence of individual competition as a value in the culture significantly affects mobility. A competitive society actually encourages upward mobility, but it also permits downward mobility of unsuccessful persons. (iii) The availability of opportunities to prepare oneself for the competitive process is secondary factor. (iv) The patterns of equality and inequality in a society have much to do with chances of social mobility. Social Mobility in Pre Independence Period Sivamram P. (1990) Historical instances of upward social mobility by change of occupation from lower to higher and to respectable occupations are cited by Maynard (1970) Thapper (1966) Thapper noted that there is evidence of jati mobility from the Gupta period as when silk weavers organized as a guild ….‖ Moved across to another region and rose to new and respectable occupations. Stein stated that ―during the medieval period vast tracts lands were available for settlements, and enterprising families could move from one region to another and settle down as Rajas or Feudal Lords and establish peasant settlements‖. The early reform movements such as Arys Samaj, Brahma Samaj , Prarthana Sama, and National Social Conference were induced with a liberal ideology of social welfare and upliftment of backward classes. The early social reform movements were concerned with two major questions: the emancipation of women and the amelioration of the condition of a section of society called the depressed classes. The basic problems of these depressed castes were economic, educational, political, ritual and civil disabilities of varying degrees. M.N. Srinivas is one of the earliest sociologists to deal with phenomenon of social mobility in Hindu Caste system, systematically. He had argued that opportunities for upward social mobility had been available throughout PreBritish Indian History. He employed the concept of ―Sanskritization and Westernization to examine this process. According to Prof. Srinivas Sanskritization is the process by which a low Hindu caste or tribe or other group changes its customs, rituals, ideology and war of life in the direction of a high and frequently, ‗twice born‘ caste. The traditional avenue of social mobility of the scheduled castes through Sanskritization gained added momentum during the British period. The policy of recording castes in the census gave a fillip to the process of Sanskritization. Many Scheduled castes claimed higher status in the caste hierarchy. The Jatavs and the Nadars started claims to Kshatriya status by Sanskritising their way of life. The jatavs traced their origin to the gotra of Siva and stopped eating beef and buffalo. Similarly,

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the Nadars began to tie the dhoti in the fashion of the Brahmins. Srinivas (1966) Westernization, as defined by ― characteristics of changes brought about in society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, and the term subsumes changes occurring at various levels-technology, institutions, ideology, values‖. The upward mobile untouchable castes adopted the life style implied in Westernization. These new opportunities - educational, economic, political were in theory Caste –Free; they were open to all no one was banned from having access to them by reason of birth in a particular caste or sect or religion. Example of such success are provided by the Teli or Oilman castes of Eastern India, the Distillers in Orissa and elsewhere, the Noniyas (salt-makers) of Uttar Pradesh, the Kolis of Coastal Gujrat became wealthy by local standards by engaging himself in trade in hides and skins, for which modern communications had provided a much wider market than would have been available traditionalist. The handling of hides and skins is traditionally done by the Untouchable castes, and here is a good example of caste providing a monopoly. The desire for social mobility was articulated through caste groups. The increase in horizontal solidarity which occurred with improvement in communications enabled allied jatis living over a wide region to be drawn into the mobility process. Caste associations came into existence in different parts of the country and each association had as its aim the improvement of the social and economic standing of its caste. Many published journals devoted to caste welfare, collected funds for endowing scholarships and building hostels for students from their respective casts and undertook programs of reform of caste customs. These reforms were generally aimed at sanskritising the style of life and ritual. Sivamram P. (1990) the efforts of social reformers and politicians helped a lot in improving scheduled caste‘s status and also their civil position. Gandhi ji was the first Indian to carry on an organized movement against the atrocities practiced towards the depressed castes. He insisted that the untouchables should be treated as Hindus with all the rights which the caste Hindus enjoyed and as such he paved the way to social mobility among scheduled castes. Gandhi‘s efforts in securing social mobility for the Harijans in the economic, political, occupational and religious fields had been widely acknowledged. Another important effort to raise by status of the scheduled caste was made by great leader, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar who belonged to the untouchable Mahar Caste of Maharashtra. He laid emphasis on horizontal mobilization of the scheduled castes and made them a political force to reckon with. He emphasized secular avenues of politics, education and administration for social mobility of the scheduled castes. He held that political power was the key to all progress and that the scheduled caste. He set up the Scheduled Castes Federation in 1942 www.dalitsahitya.com

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for securing political rights and representation for the scheduled castes through acquisition of power. Along with that he embraced Buddhism with a large number of SC after independence. Social Mobility in Post-Independence Undoubtedly, it was realized that scheduled castes constituted some of the most backward population. Hence, to protect them from the difficulties of open competition and safeguards their interests, the policy of ‗protective discrimination‘ was adopted the term protective discrimination implies that the Government under the Constitution of India considers them i.e. the Scheduled Castes a separate category which has to be helped through welfare measures, reservation of seats in educational institution, jobs etc. so that this backward section of Indian population can catch up with the other sections. The deprivation of this group is associated with the historical processes of economic and social exclusion, and discrimination based on caste. Recognizing the special problems of the group, the government has, over the years, continuously introduced policies and programs for building their human capacities and capabilities. The government‘s approach towards the SCs primarily draws from provisions in the Constitution, which legally abolished the practice of untouchability and the discrimination arising out of untouchability (Article 17). The Constitution guarantees equality before the law (Article 14); provides for the promotion of the educational and economic interests of SCs and for their protection from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.(Article 16, 335) and in representation in the Lok Sabha and the state Vidhan Sabha (Article 330, 332). The position of commissioner for the Schedule Castes and Scheduled Tribe has been created at the Centre, Five Year Plan now have a special component earmarked for the welfare and the development of the scheduled castes. (Thorat2009). Scheduled Caste Population in India:Source Census of India- 1961, 1971,1991,2001,2011 Year 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

Total Population 439234771 548159652 685184692 846302688 1028610328 1210569573

Total Scheduled Caste Population 64449275 80005398 10602707 138864477 166635700 201378086

Percentage of Scheduled caste population to total 14.67% 14.60% population 15.47% 16.41 16.20% 16.60%

Education Mobility among Scheduled Caste Page 113

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The scheduled castes, most of which had been subjected to various social disabilities of extreme nature were exploited and kept subservient mainly because they were illiterates. Their mass illiteracy was, in turn, due to religious and social sanctions imposed on them by caste Hindus. Education is a dynamic agent of social change and social mobility. Education has a major role in enabling a person to acquire modern occupation leading to higher economic status, and thus social mobility. Oomen has argued in favour of ―education‘ being strategic point for initiating social change. According to him it enables members of the society to play new roles. The significance of formal education in social mobility had been pointed out by M.S.A Rao. ―Education helps in promoting values and achieving new goals. It is widely recognized that formal education plays a vital role in social mobility, both horizontal and vertical. Both the Government of India and the state have been convinced of the crucial role of education and have placed great emphasis on it so as to improve the conditions of the scheduled castes. Thorat (2009) the focus of Government program has been on improving both school-level and higher education, with various steps being incorporated at the school level (primary, middle and secondary) as well as at the higher level to facilitate enrolment and admission, reduce the dropout rates, improve the quality and capabilities of educational content and encourage retention at the higher levels, including professional education and research that could lead to higher degrees of SCs. Under the National Policy on Education 1986 there is strong emphasis on the education mobility of scheduled caste through the incentives of free textbooks, uniforms, stationary and school bags, reduce in tuition fee, scholarship on various level, Hostel facility and reservation in intakes. This initiative led the education mobility among scheduled castes. Literates & Literacy Rate (Persons) among Scheduled Caste Source Census of India: 2001, 2011 Indicator

Literates

Effective Literacy Rate

Scheduled Castes Total

2001

2011

2001

2011

7,53,18,285

11,37,59,907

54.7

66.1

Rural Urban

5,58,06,266 1,95,12,019

8,20,20,232 3,17,39,675

51.2 68.1

62.8 76.2

Occupational Mobility among Scheduled Caste It is fact, in the traditional Indian social system, occupation were allotted on

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the basis of caste. The occupations depended on the hierarchical order of state. Each caste had its own status. The categorization of occupation depended on caste status. The higher caste people were enjoying higher levels of occupation. Since independence and measurement of welfare programs in the context of economic betterment of scheduled castes as well as increased pace of urbanization, industrialization and liberal economy broke the concept of traditional caste occupational structure and provide space for mobility among scheduled caste. Viswanath Leela pointed out in her book the study taken by M. Showeb (1986) examined the socio- economic changes of chamar community in the Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh. In order to measure the social changes taking place among them, the study adopted a comparative framework. On the one side the chamars engaged in traditional occupations, on the other side, the educated chamars engaged in modern salaried occupations: who gone through education, job reservation and other measures of economic betterment, have achieved a new economic status which delinks them from their traditional social nexus. There was also a third category of respondents who were students of Chamar community. The analysis of career mobility of respondent showed their shifted from one job position to other and have also got promotion in the work organization. As regard the manner of recruitment, 70 per cent of employed respondent have been selected under reserved quota. According to Sharma C.L, in 1981 the total population of Chamars and Raigers, Mochi and Meghwal in Rajasthan was 1,872133 which were 32 per cent of the total SC population of the state. However, now after implementation of Eight Five year Plan and social welfare measures adopted by the government, the socio-economic condition of these castes in change occurred in these castes is regarding their occupations or jobs. Nobody could visualize such a radical social change. Though, there are normal changes in the occupations or jobs in almost all the castes and people in Indian society, the radical changes experienced by the Raigars and Cahamrs of rural as well as urban. Zakir Abadi (2010) many Hindu Dalits have achieved affluence in society, although vast millions still remain poor. In Particular some Dalit intellectuals such as Chandrabhan Prasad have argued that the living standards of many Dalits have improved since the economic liberalization in 1991. Political Mobility among Scheduled Caste:The first significant political movement in the state was launched by the Scheduled Caste Federation (SCF) in 1944-45. The SCF attracted Dalit organizations, particularly Chamar organizations like the Jatav Mahasabha of

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Agra, the Raidass Mahasabha of Allahabad, and the Kureel Mahasabha and Chamar Mahasabha of Kanpur. After that RPI originated (Republican Party of India) in 1957 in Maharashtra; the Dalits of U.P again responded and organized themselves under the banner of RPI. In fact, the main aim of the party was to unite all the Dalits against the Congress party (Lynch 1974:108). But the party became ineffective during the 1970. Because did not represent an abandonment of achhut identity and politics, nor did it represent a move to class politics as suggested by a host of scholars. The third political organizing of the Dalits in the state took place, during the 1980s, with the establishment of Dalit Panthers in the Avadh regionKanpur and adjoining areas (Kumar 2000:121). But the organization was too revolutionary to attract masses and it subsided soon. There is development of political consciousness among the Dalits in the state since the fourth decade of the past century when Kanshiram formed Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in 1984 in Uttar Pradesh. Today, the Bahujan samaj party is regarded to be the main representative of Dalits in the Indian context. The party has declared social transformation and economic emancipation of Dalits as is prime objective. Loynd (2009) The outright win by the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in the 2007 Uttar Pradesh assembly elections confirmed that Dalit political assertion is a powerful force, Several recent studies have analysed the innovative methods employed by the BSP since the early 1980s to reach and mobilize millions of Dalits and other oppressed groups (Jaoul, 2006; Pai, 2002; Narayan, 2006). With its unabashed one-point program for getting into power, the BSP established vast networks of cadres in villages across the state. It has also achieved status of the National Party. The political mobilization of Dalits has created relatively more solidarity among the various Dalit castes that never used to interact among them previously. Most of them now sit together, discuss about various issues and chalk out their strategies. Prior to this, only the Dalit political leaders and educated persons used to have commensal relations among themselves. But now, even the general masses of these castes in the Uttar Pradesh have started commensal relations among themselves. Wankhede (2008) the year 2007 will be contemplated in the history of Dalits as one of the most significant years as it witnessed a new rise of Dalit assertion in the arena of politics and religion. The emphatic victory of Mayawati‘s Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in Uttar- Pradesh ridiculed all ―poll pundits‖ and showed that the dalits‘ political activism has come of age and it was high time that dalits got their proper share in the national political mainstream. At the same time in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, while celebrating the 50th anniversary of Babasaheb Ambedkar‘s Buddhist conversion, numerous Dalit castes are converting to Buddhism. Both www.dalitsahitya.com

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these historic events should be linked together and seen as the progressive realization of Ambedkar‘s vision. Cultural Mobility among Scheduled Caste: Srinivas (1966) the process of social mobility among the scheduled castes through Sanskritisation has continued during Post-Independence period. They have adopted upper caste names, discovered myths regarding their glorious origin, adopted Sanskritic deities, customs. In kerala the Scheduled Castes have adopted upper caste names, e.g. Uma, Ramani, Pushkaran and so on. The Barwis of West Bengal anoint turmeric on the day of marriage. Moreover Mahar of Maharashtra conversion into Buddhism as well as Pasi of Uttar Pradesh, Baira of Rajasthan have given up their traditional polluting occupation and taken up clean occupations in agriculture and so on. Assessment After the above statement it can be said that the Social mobility comes true among Scheduled Caste in terms of education, occupation, political & cultural. These have brought so many changes in the lives of Scheduled Caste in the society especially the tag of untouchability and polluted. After a long journey of their struggle for dignity the Indian government and concern state has started so many developmental policies as well as flagship schemes to uplift the conditions of them. Despite of that, still there are some disparities in terms of upward social mobility because occupational mobility of the SC has been very limited. They are under-represented in class I and II services but over represented in class III and IV services. Higher education attainment is very low and they constitute the bulk of the people living below the poverty line. Oppression and atrocities against the SC continue to exist even at the 21st century. Regarding the Scheduled Caste elites Sachchidananda (1977) correctly pointed that since they are educated and therefore, comparatively more enlightened than the rest of the community, they are better able to foresee social change. This perception helps them to take advantage of the various concessions and welfare measures adopted by the government for them. The scheduled caste elites, both in the town and the villages show little concern for their lowly brethren. Instead, they are largely concerned with their own self-interests and those of their family and kin. References:Abraham Francis, Morgan John. (1985). Sociological Thought From Comte to Sorokin. Macmillan India Publication. New Delhi

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Abedi Zakir. (2010). Dalit Social Empowerment in India. Arise Publication. New Delhi Bhuimali. Anil. (2007). Development of Scheduled Caste. Serials Publication. New Delhi Loynd Maxine. (2009). Understanding the Bahujan Samaj Prerna Kendra: Space, Place and Political Mobilisation. Vol. 33, pp. 469–482. Asian Studie s Review Sivaram.P (1990). Social Mobility (A Sociological Study). Discovery Publishing House. New Delhi Sharma. C.L. (1996). Social Mobility among Scheduled Castes. M.D.Publication. New Delhi Srinivas. M.N. (1966). Social Change in Modern India. Orient Blackswan Pvt. Limited. New Delhi Selvanthan.S. (1989). Status of Scheduled Castes. Ashish Publishing house. New Delhi Thorat, Sukhadeo. (2009).Dalits in India, Search for a Common Destiny. Sage Publication. New Delhi Viswanath. Leela. (1993). Social Mobility among Scheduled Caste Women in India (Astudy of Kerala) Uppal Publishing House. New Delhi Wankhede S Harish (2008) ―The political and social in the Dalit movement today‖ Economic and Politically Weekly

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The rise and development of Indian Nationalism and External Forces during 1885 to 1905 Mr Virendra Kumar1 It would not be inappropriate to begin by saying that the rise and development of Indian nationalism, among other causes, can be attributed to Western education. The education made a growing corpus of alumni familiar with the Western concepts of democracy, liberty, equality and nationalism. Their minds were nurtured on the writings of Milton, Mill, Mazzini and a host of others. They studied the literature of the War of American Independence, the events of the French Revolution, the development of constitutional freedom in England and the struggles for unity and national independence of Europe. In 1871, the Indian Daily News of Calcutta noted : ―The political aspirations of the English speaking natives on both sides of India seem insensibly drifting towards a common hope, or day-dream. They are qualifying for a place in that strange European society of an extremist who preach up an universal republic. In Bombay and Bengal the tendency of the English-speaking natives is away from the English. They have imbibed the most exalted notions of their intellectual capacity, and resent with secret bitterness the practical superiority of the English race. . . . Further, the same class professes a sort of Indian patriotism. They claim a right to act as interpreters of the feelings, hopes and wishes of India. . . . .‖. English education not only enabled Indians to absorb European ideas, but also provided them with new and powerful means of inter-regional, interlinguistic solidarity. English educated Indians in different provinces, because of more or less uniformity of education, came to possess common feelings and aspirations. On the visit of Lal Bihari Dev to Bombay in early 1860, the Bombay Guardian wrote: ―We have had an illustration this last week of the extent to which the English language is becoming a medium of communication between the natives of different presidencies. A representative of Bengal was among us, …. He delivered a lecture, but the only language in which he could communicate with a Bombay audience was the English‖. Commenting on K.C. Sen‘s recent ‗mission‘ to Madras and Bombay, the Hindu Patriot wrote on 9th May, 1860: ―English education has opened a new tie of fellowship between the different races of India, the Bengali, the Maharathi, the Madrasee, the Parsee, the Hindoostani, and the Sikh are united in one common brotherhood by the freemasonry of English education. They now all breathe the same breath of life and regeneration and share in one common feeling for the good of their common country‖.

1

Mr Virendra Kumar, Buxar

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Fifteen years later, S.N. Banerjea, after his return from England in June, 1875, imbued with the conception of united India derived ―from the inspiration of Mazzini‖ undertook a whirlwind tour from Caluctta to Lahore embracing such places as Amritsar, Meerut, Allahabad, Delhi. Kanpore, Lucknow, Aligarh and Benaras. Lord Dufferin in derisively referred to this educated, intellectual elite as a ‗microscopic minority‘. Microscopic minority undoubtedly it was in a country of teeming millions. But it was this rising group, imbued with common ideas and inspirations, controlling professions, native press, educational institutions and capable of concerted action which wielded an influence in society out of all proportions to their numerical strength. It was this educated class which exercised a large influence on the mass of the people, Dabadhai Naoroji wrote: ―The educated class is becoming their national leaders… The isolation of thousands of years is now being broken through. Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and other places of importance now freely and fully exchange ideas. A common language among the educated is forging strong bonds of nationality‖1. S.N. Banerjea testified from his personal experience when he told a Calcutta audience in 1878: ―English education has uplifted all who have come under its influence to a common platform of thoughts, feeling and aspirations. Educated Indians, whether of Bengal, Madras or Bombay or the North-Western provinces, are brought up under the same intellectual, moral and political influences. Kindered hopes, feelings and ideas are thus generated. The educated class of India are thus brought nearer together‖. The Western education brought ‗Young India‘ into contact with European movements working for national regeneration. The spirit of the young nationalists has found expression in the ‗political nationalism‘. India‘s response to Western influences was twofold : first, Indians reacted sharply to Western persuations and maneuverings in the domain of culture: Secondly the political concepts with which we are concerned, struck sympathetic chords in the hearts of nationalists. Thus, while cultural influences led to increasing alienation, the political influences produced a passionate fondness for their emulation. Valentine Chirol, tracing ‗the importation of Western influence upon India‘, wrote: ―That have of all Indians been the most slavish imitators of the West, as represented at any rate by the Irish Fenian and the Russian anarchist … The annals of the Italian Risorgimento have also been put under contribution, and whilst there is no Indian Life of Cavour, Lajpat Rai‘s ‗Life of Mazzini‘ and Vinayak Savarkar‘s translation of Mazzini‘s autobiography are favourite nationalist text-books of the milder order ….‖ The Political nationalisms in India owed much to the study of national movements in the west, particularly the Italian Risorgimento. Mazzini was one of the principal figures whose example and teachings fired the zeal of the Indian Youths. One of the nationalist leaders, who regarded Mazzini his political Guru wrote:

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―On the political side Indian nationalism has been inspired and strengthened by the forces of European nationalism… The nationalist calendar of great men followed by ‗Young India‘ contains such name as those of Washington, Cavour, Mazzini… by the side of Pratap, Ramdas, Guru Govind Sing, Shivaji, Tipu Sultan and the Rani of Jhansi‖. The national literature in India became a vehicle of freedom. The fertilizing effect of Italian Risorgimento could be seen in such regional literature as Tamil, Bengali and Marathi. S.S. Bharati, Professor of Tamil, in Annamalai University, pointed out that the ‗extempore melodies‘ of the nationalist poet, Bharati, touch high levels of perfervid patriotic poetry. ―He is the product of new dynamic nationalism which tells of Mazzini‘s noble passion and Garibaldi‘s prowess have inspired in young India. His, ‗Soul-stirring songs‘, as they have been called by a staid Malayali High Court Judge, are expression of the new-born emotions and passions for freedom inspired by Western ideas and advanced modern ideals, and they have helped to translate patriotism from the sphere of ‗passion into that of religion‘. His works are replete with references to Mazzini. The ―Oath of Mazzini‖ was flung broadcast in Tamil poetry by this national poet of Tamil. Mazzini raised the concept of nationalism from an idea into a religion. In the Marathi Language, the nationalist leader, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, published the life of Mazzini in 197019. The two thousand copies of which were sold in three months. Lala Lajpat Rai wrote Mazzini‘ biography in Urdu in 1896 which was widely read by the Urdu-speaking readers, Surendra Nath Banerjea wrote the life of Mazzini in English. In Calcutta and Mufossil colleges essay competitions were organized on the life and thought of Mazzini while the teachers in their lectures referred eloquently to Mazzini and his deeds .In a series of interesting articles-published in the newspaper Kesari Mr. P.S. Khankhoje has given an account of the revolutionary activities in the Madhya Pradesh since the beginning of the century. He says that inspired by the teachings of Chiplunkar, Ranade and Tilak, he and his fellow students founded a society called Bal Samaj in primary school at Wardha. On every Sunday the lives and the heroic deeds of Indian patriots were discussed under the banner of the society. They also studied the lives Mazzini and Garibaldi, and although most of them were ten to fourteen years old, they were profoundly affected by an anti-British feeling‖ J.B. Kripalani, another nationalist leader, delivered a series a lectures on Mazzini and on his thought provoking work ‗Duties of Man‘ which inspired the young generation of revolutionaries. Jadu Gopal Mukherji, one of the most notable revolutionary leaders in the beginning of this century reminisced in his autobiography ‗Biplabi Javbaner Smiriti‘, ―In those days I used to take up Mazzini Classes weekly. Our listeners went on swelling in number‖. Some of the Bengali papers like ‗Arya Darshan‘, edited by Jogendra Nath Vidyabhusan (18451904), furthered the cause of nationalism by preaching revolutionary ideas through the lives of Mazzini, Garibaldi and other revolutionary leaders of Italy. Again the editor of ‗India‘ (Gujranwala) in the article ―How Natives can Obtain Swaraj‖, exhorts the people of India, and act in the same way… When the oppression practiced in Italy, fired the anger of young Mazzini and prompted him to gird up his loins to put an end to the suffering of his country, his

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compatriots paid no heed at first to what was said by him. Thanks to the efforts of his brave young man, however, the Italians are a free nation today … ―Will not the brave young men of India‖, asks the paper, ―Exert themselves to accomplish such a notable work.‖ Not only the ideas of Mazzini but the technique and phraseology of Mazzini‘s political movements were borrowed unstintingly; all were grits to the nationalist mill. Political associations were formed with names adopted or adapted from his style, such as ‗Young India‘ of the revolutionaries. Lajpat Rai named his book ‗Young India‘, after Mazzini‘s society ‗Young Italy‘. The Western machinery of agitation was set to work through pamphlets, press, platform oratory etc. A revolutionary-terrorist movement, separatist in its aims and violent in its methods, was set on foot which justified its violent deeds on the writings of Mazzini. This great Italian, in the days of Italy‘s deepest humiliation, gave the first eloquent and luminous expression to the national ideas as ―the antithesis of imperialism‖. This blood brother of democratic self government and international institutions, dispelled the gloom that the imperial colonial governments had cast all over the world. Ramananda Chatterjee editorialized that ―the prophet of Italian unity and independence, the most forceful exponent of the ideal of nationalism‖ inspired many Indian patriots, who borrowed freely from his writings and ideas to serve their own cause. He became an Oriental David assiling the Imperialist Goliath. It was no wonder, then, that the career and writings of Mazzini, noted a British historian, equally widely studied, offered an example of nationalist movement directed to the overthrow of foreign dominion. Under these Western influence small groups of educated Indians began to set before themselves as an ideal the transformation of the basis of government and the gradual extrusion of foreign control. Mazzini became an Oracle for Indian patriots who provided ―the emotional stimulus for the nationalist movement‖. Why, among all the western thinkers, did the young generation of Indian nationalists select Mazzini as the fountain-head of their inspiration? The question is worth asking. India and Italy, two ancient countries had much in common than the other countries of the globe, particularly in the nineteenth century. If the Austrian foreign domination and excessive provincialism pervaded Italy, the British foreign domination and individualism of the ‗princely India‘ characterized the Indian sub-continent. Both the countries were torn by mutual dissensions which were buttressed by the imperial Powers to their own advantage. The British policy of ‗divide et imperia‘ is too well known and has been referred to by non-British historians. Italian sunkenness and degradation had moved the heart of Mazzini. He rose to become the prophet and hero of Italian Risorgimento but his nationalism was transcendental. For Mazzini the virtue of nationalism lay at least as much in the belief that it would be bridge to the brotherhood of man as in the calculation of the benefits it would bring to the particular nation concerned. So, his nationalism was a plane highway to the internationality. He held that: ―Between nationality and internationality there can be no antagonism. On the contrary agreement: nations are the natural organs of humanity…. It will be

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the liberation of the nations which will make possible the organic association, the federation of nations, of Europe and of all mankind‖. This concept of ‗human nationalism‘ was inspired by his high since of morality and spiritualism. His enquiry into the domain of India‘s cultural heritage had strengthened the foundation of his ‗humanising nationalism‘. He admired the oriental religious systems, particularly of India (nei sistami religiosi d‘orientale specialmente dell‘ India); paid tributes to the intellectual culture of India (cultura intellectual degli indiani‘); and wrote feelingly about the ‗intellectual indiani‘ Referring to Manu, the law-giver of ancient India, who sanctioned caste system and inequality in the Indian society, Mazzini wrote that the ―sons of the progressive world of Europe‖ were also practicing inequality in the political field. He wished to write a comprehensive history of religions beginning from India to his day but his preoccupations with political activities did not allow him to lay his hands on the project. It remained an unfulfilled dream. Mazzini‘s nationalism with its foundation bricks of humanism, spirituality, cosmopolitanism was nearer and more special appeal Mazzini held for the young Indian nationalists. This also explains an underlying and continuous thread of spirituality, humanism and cosmopolitanism that runs through out the Indian national movement from Raja Mohan Roy to Jawaharlal Nehru. Aurobindo Ghose wrote in the Mazzinian strain, ―our ideal of patriotism proceeds on the basis of love and brotherhood and it looks beyond the unity of the nation and envisages the ultimate unity of mankind‖. The Indian independence pledge (26th January, 1930) reflected this spirit. It read: ―We believe that it is inalienable right of the Indian people as of any other people to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if the government deprives the people of these rights and oppresses them, the people have further right to alter it or abolish it. The British government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually. We believe therefore that India must severe the British connection and attain Purna Swarajya or complete independence…‖. The drafters of the pledge never lost sight of ‗other people‘ and allowed their vision to be circumscribed. Pattabhi rightly commented that the leaders of the national movement realized its destiny ―by the final absorption of its national culture, integrated and purified, into the wider and vaster culture of internationalism or Cosmo-nationality‖. The ‗Quit India Resolution‘ brings home the point still more clearly wherein the Congress demanded the with-drawl of British rule not only ―for the sake of India‖ but also ―for the success of the cause of the united nations‖. It is difficult to ascertain, despite the best efforts, the direct links between Indians and Mazzini. Mazzini‘s concern for India was more in his thoughts than in his personal contacts. Before 1854, his contact with India was limited to his inquisitiveness about Indian culture and religion. But from may, 1855, he began

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to write about and reflect on Indian political problems. Then, under the impetus of evangelicals and radical humanists, there was in existence a movement for reform and general emancipation. Among the many off springs of this reformative enthusiasm was the ‗Committee of north England Against the slavery and society of reforms for India‘, the guiding spirit of which was Dr. Beard. Expressing his inability to attend the meeting of the ‗Society‘ due to his illhealth and being away in Switzerland, Mazzini wrote to Dr. Beard in a passionate outburst that ‗ No man has right to inscribe the sacred word ‗liberty‘ on his flag‖ if he is not prepared to work in a spirit of unison with all. He added, ―Liberty is the divine gift of all the races and of all the nations‖. 6+9-Just then, India was in throes of turmoil. Revulsion had set in India against the aggressive innovations of the British. The ground work for the first ‗War of independence in India‘ had begun to be done. Peshwa Nana Saheb sent Azimullah khan to England to plead his case in 1855. Azimullah, through European press, drew the attention of European people towards the question of India‘s freedom. He obtained a printing press from Italy in order to bring out the first national paper, Payame Azadi, (The message of Freedom) in India. During his sojourn in Europe, he met Sir William Howard Russell in the Crimean War theatre when the latter was working as the special correspondent of the ‗London Times‘. Russell has mentioned this fact in his book that Azimullah was full of anxiety for want of a potential paper in India. On his return from Europe, Azimullah inspired the publication of ‗Payame Azadi‘ in 1857 from Delhi. ‗The Narrative of the Indian Revolt, published from London in 1858, had quoted seditious and inciting passages from the ‗Payame Azadi‘. Mazzini‘s paper ‗Italia del ‗Popolo carried the news of the happenings of 1857 to its readers. ―The solid edifice of British imperialist domination‖. Wrote Mazzini, ―wavered and cracked at the one stroke‖. It is difficult to establish the links of the news feeding channel from India to Mazzini. But the inference is inescapable that Mazzini‘s writings were concerned at this time with ‗political India‘. On 15 September, 1858, after the embers of the rising in India died down, Mazzini wrote that it was an ―insurrection (I‘ ‗insurrezione) of the first magnitude which caused great anxiety to the ‗perfidious Albion‘ (perfida Albione). The people of Europe, wrote Mazzini, watched the british discomfiture with unconcealed joy, describing the incidents of the revolutionary period at considerable lengths, Mazzini commented that the events of 1857 shook the centuries old somnolence of the Indian people . It showed the germs of resistance to a foreign power in India which were mazzini predicted bound to destroy the oppressors sooner or later. Continuing his reporting about the revolt of 1857, he lamented on 15 October 1857 ―the grand insurrection is now reduced into a war of bands probably the most sophisticated and revealing analysis of the events of 1857, among all the reporters of the Western countries, was provided by Mazzini‘s papers. He raised the revolt of 1857 to the dignity of a rebellion. Mazzini‘s appeal was irresistible to Indians because he thought like many Indians and gave expression to their inarticulate feelings. His concept of Cosmonationality, human freedom and spiritualism were fundamental to the Indian way of thinking. He espoused the cause of the downtrodden and placed the

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happenings of 1857 before Europe in their proper perspective. It is, then, small wonder that people of India contributed to his fund which Mazzini utilized for the liberation of mankind. We come across one reference when chanda (charity money) was sent to him from Allahabad in 1861. In 1871, an year before his death, Mazzini appears to be in direct touch with someone in Calcutta for he disapproved the sending of Corrado, a fellow-exile, to the Indian metropolis. O‘ Malley rightly observed that as younger members of intelligentsia read Karl Marx eagerly after the Russian revaluation, the earlier generation had read Mazzini. It is not easy to determine with any accuracy how great in influence Mazzini exercised on those men who came into his contact either personally or through his writings. The fact that some of Mazzini‘s ideas have been realized, is not necessarily due, wholly or even in part, to the results of his preaching. Mazzini‘s influence can only be proved when it is explicitly recognized by those subjective to it, or when other positive, if indirect, proofs exist . We have positive proofs, as will be discussed in the following chapters, that man as dissimilar as S.N. Banerjea, V.D.Savarkar and Lala Lajpat Rai frankly acknowledged the debt of influence they owed to Mazzini. On the other hand, certain historical events may have been brought about by men who have acted under a more or less genuine Mazzinian impulse of which we know nothing. The modern historical approach, based on strict documentation, as Salvemini pointed out, might well ignore perhaps the greatest sphere of his influence that widely diffused atmosphere of inspiration and sympathy that extended far and wide beyond his immediate circle. Jane Addams reminisced that a sense of genuine relationship which may exist between men who shared large hopes and like desires, even if they differ in nationality; language and creed: that these things count absolutely for nothing between groups of men who are trying to abolish slavery in America or to throw off Hapsburg oppression in Italy . Without knowing Mazzini many in India held a special veneration for him and he became a formative influence on their lives. They absorbed the spirit of Mazzini as the bread and water of their life. Lajpat Rai called him a ‗Mahatma‘ as millions of Indians of the later generation called Gandhi ‗Mahatma‘ out of their veneration. Salvemini wrote while assessing direct and indirect influence of Mazzini‘s teachings‖: ―The Indian Nationalists used Mazzini‘s biographies and translations of his works in making their own propaganda. In an issue of The Indian Socialist (November 1912), the nationalist Savarkar, who was threatened with the death penalty by the English courts, was described as Mazzini‘s martyr in India‖. The political life of India received a new orientation. Tendulakar wrote that: ―inspired leadership of mazzini and Garibaldi in Italy attracted a good deal of attention in India. The life and works of Mazzini were made available in many Indian Languages. ―The leaders of the Italian Risorgimento have exercised a powerful influence on the freedom struggle of India right from Surendranath Banerjea to Jawaharlal Nehru …the leaders of the three school of India‘s freedom struggle miscalled, Moderates, Extremists and Revolutionaries-owed a great deal to the leaders of Italian movement. They expressed their debt of gratitude in

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unequivocal terms to these leaders. Giuseppe Mazzini stands at the front of Italian leaders who had influenced the minds of India‘s freedom fighters. The Moderate leaders of the nationalist movement vindicated Macaulay‘s prediction that as a result of Western influence English-educated Indians would become ―Indians in blood and colour but English in taste, in opinions, in moral, and in intellect‖ Surendra Nath Banerjea, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Pherozeshah Mehta the three leaders Moderate opinion in the spectra of the Indian National Movement grew up within the framework of oriental family traditions and western education without being affected by their potential incompatibility. Gokhale dressed himself in peculiar Marathi apparel and yet he championed the cause of the Western education. Banerjea whole heartedly accepted Western in deals and modes of behavior yet thought his career he was proud of being kulin Brahman‖ Pherozeshah Mehta was the confluence of Parsi, western and oriental traditions. The Moderates have been regarded as the pioneers of nationalism in India. They tried to weld India into a nation. They preached and practiced a secular type of nationalism in a multi-lingual and plural society like India. They wished to reconstruct India in the image of the West. They created and deepened political interest among the educated elite by creating political organisations and by emphasizing unity. They toured the parts of country and inculcated ideas of patriotism, unity and organization through their speeches and writings. They carried on a genuine dialectical argument about the nature of freedom, the character of nationhood and the obligations of individuals of society. The debate that they initiated was carried forward for more than fifty years until at last independence from British domination was achieved. They, supplied ―bricks and mortar‖ to the foundation of the Indian National Movement. They constituted the vanguard of the movement. ―It is impossible to imagine the Nationalist Movement India without Mr. Banerjea‖.His expulsion from the coveted Indian civil Service proved to be a turning point in his career. He wrote: ―I felt that I had suffered because I was an Indian, a member of a community that lay disorganized, had no public opinion, and no voice in the Counsels of their Government. I felt with all the passionate warmth of youth that we were helots, hewers of wood and drawers of water in the land of our own birth‖. He realized the ―helpless impotency‖ of the people and determined to address himself to the task of making the community. Capable of redressing its grievances and of protecting its rights, personal and collective‖. Surendra Nath had studied, while in England, the history of movements of national emancipation in modern Europe. These studies had revealed to him the very important place which the youth of these countries held in the freedom movements of their own land. He had been particularly impressed by Joseph Mazzini. Surendra Nath Benerjea started his public career by trying to follow in steps of Mazzini and organized youth movement in his own province .In 1876, Banerjea set upon the task of stirring political interest among Bengali students and community. He delivered a series of lectures on ‗Mazzini‘, on ‗The study of

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Indian History‘, ‗England and India‘ and on ‗Indian Unity‘. He introduced Mazzini to the ‗Young Bengal‘ with a rallying cry for Indian patriotism and unity. He projected ‗young Italy‘ as an inspiring example for a self-reliant united India ,although he discarded the revolutionary doctrine of Mazzini. . The training of the Moderate leaders and the conditions of India. More so, after the suppression of the upheaval of 1857, did not permit them to advocate the revolutionary tendencies of Mazzini. Addressing the congregation of the Uttarpara Hitkari sabha, on 2nd April, 1876, Banerjea described Mazzini as ‗one of the sublimest spirits that every graced the ranks of humanity…the watchword of freedom, the symbol of downtrodden races, and the rallying point of dispersed nationalities‖. Justifying the choice of his subject of lecture on Mazzini, the silver-tongued orator observed that the life of Mazzini‖ presents us in a most striking manner with those traits of character which we ought to imitate, and which secure national greatness… . He said: ―I feel that Mazzini‘s is a life which my countrymen ought to be in possession, for that life is full of lessons of the deepest importance to us all. The Italians were degraded, down-trodden and oppressed. Under the influence of Mazzini‘s teaching, they achieved their unity and their nationality, and now they are on the high road to the climax of national greatness. As the Italians were miserable and degraded, so are we…‖ Through the preaching of Mazzini, Banerjea sermonized his audience that the moral revolution must precede the national revolution, moral regeneration must precede political regeneration, and must precede the accomplishment of national greatness. He continued that the path towards moral greatness is‖ strewn with sorrows and sufferings‘ which the apostle of Italian unity bore cheerfully in the name of Italy . Next to moral regeneration is the principle of nationality, a principle of universal application. The felling of nationality is necessary before a nation could exist, that in fact the desire for national existence must precede the achievement of nationality. Turning to the Sikh listeners, Banerjea said that Guru Govind Singh also roused a lofty desire for political freedom and national ascendance. The reign of democracy and liberty must replace that of monarchy and oppression. The reign of monarchs must be substituted by the reign of the peoples. ―The life of Mazzini‖, thundered Banerjea, ‗teaches us, in the most striking manner the great duty of self-sacrifice…let us learn to forget self before the interests of Fatherland. Tens of thousands of people listened with breathless attention and admiration to the eloquence of Banerjea. Ram Chandra Palit, who attended Banerjea‘s speeches, was an eye-witness to that activity which galvanized the educated elite of Bengal. He noted regarding the merit of these speeches that they have already excited in the country ‗deeper and a more fervid interest‖ than the speeches of any other speaker in this country. How could Banerjea keep his listeners spell-bound unless he himself had not been captivated by the spirit of Mazzini? He admits that upon my mind the writings of Mazzini had created a profound impression. He recalled with a gusto:

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―The purity of his patriotism, the loftiness of his ideals and his all embracing love for humanity expressed with the true eloquence of heart, moved me as I had never before been moved… I inculcated, with all the emphasis that I could command, the enduring lessons of his noble life, lived for the sake of others, his lofty patriotism, his self abnegation and his heroic devotion to the interest of humanity. It was Mazzini, the incarnation of the highest moral forces in the political arena Mazzini, the apostle of Italian unity, the friend of the human race, that I presented to the youth of Bengal .‖ Banerjea represented the moderated School of political opinion in India. He discarded Mazzini‘s revolutionary teachings as ―unsuited to the circumstances of India‖ and asked the youth to abjure his revolutionary ideals‖. Banerjea‘s lowkey citation and guarded speech on the secret revolutionary societies, in spite of his proclaimed faith in constitutionalism and orderly progress, must have fired the hotheads and the youth of the country. Referring to Carbonari, he said: ―There comes a period, gentlemen, in the history of a nation‘s development when these secret associations abound. When a nation having passed through a preliminary stage of moral preparation is on the eve of entering into a contest with the object of subverting the government under which it lives, the government being opposed to the tendencies of the times and suppressing freedom with the high hand, then is it do we find these secret societies starting up on all sides around in the prolific abundance‖ The Hetairea prepared the Greeks for that anti-imperialistic struggle which culminated in the independence of their country. It was the secret society of the ‗United Club of Irishmen‘ which prepared the Irish for the great struggle of 1798; and finally, noted Banerjea: ―It was the secret society of ‗Young Italy‘ founded by Mazzini which by evoking the sentiment of national unity and national independence helped very materially towards consummation of Italian unity and Italian independence‖. These lectures had an electrifying effect on the youth of Bengal. Under their impetus, testified Bipin Chandra Pal, he and his fellow students, formed secret societies, and took solemn, secret vows of service and devotion to the motherland. Banerjea not only felt that Mazzini‘s life ought to be presented to the countrymen but he made sincere effort in that direction. Besides, delivering lectures on Mazzini, he persuaded Babu Jogendranath Vidya Bhusan and Babu Rajani Kant Gupta, both distinguished Bengali writers, to translate into our language (Bengali) the life and works of Mazzini. . . so as to place them within the reach of those who did not understand English‖. The impact of Banerjea‘s speeches was most marked on the life of Lala Lajpaty Rai who later shed luster on India‘s freedom struggle. Lajpat Rai was Banerjea‘s greatest prize. The latter‘s speech on Mazzini‖ deeply moved‖ the former while he was still a student. He noted in his autobiography,: ―At about this time I happened to come across the English speeches of Babu Surendranath Banerjea. Amongst those was his speech on Giuseppe Mazzini which moved me to tears several times I read it. It made a deep impression on my tender heart‖

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Banerjea advised to discard Mazzini‘s doctrine of revolution but pleaded for the adoption of political association to educate public opinion. He said: ―Mazzini‘s labours teach us the importance of political associations and how such associations must be worked in order to secure the highest amount of good possible to be secured from them ― Referring to ‗Young Italy‘ and ‗ young Europe‘, Banerjea opined: ―…it is the duty of political associations more to educate public opinion with regard to important public question of the day, and less to present partitions to Governments, on every conceivable and unconceivable occasion ― He rejected the association whose only concern would be to heap up ―cartloads of petitions‖ for he believed that the Government could be made to bend only by ―creating a deep and ardent feeling‖ in the minds of the people for or against any measure rather than by deluging parliament or the Lord Lieutenant with petitions‖. He appealed to political associations to ―seriously set themselves‖ to the task of educating public opinion and only then could they be hoped to supply a real want felt by the country. For his own part, Banerjea set himself to the task seriously. The example of Italy was working like a leaven in his consciousness. If the different Italian people were united by the bonds of common nationality and common institutions, he asked to himself and his listeners, ―Might we not see in this much to guide and to instruct us‖. Indian greatness was not possible unless her people were thoroughly welded together into a compact mass. To those doubting Thomas‘s who regarded the fusion of the varied nationalities into one whole as chimerical, he addressed, ‗why may we not try and establish al least a bond of sympathy, of fellow feeling and brotherly love, between the varied races that inhabit this vast continent‖. Banerjea was struck by the idea of transforming the institution of Hindu Mela. The inadequacy of the existing political associations and their parochial, provincial character convinced Banerjea that they were not equal to the task of pursuing the higher ideal. Banerjea, therefore, ―began seriously to consider the advisability of forming an association to represent the views of educated middle class community and inspire them with living interest in public affairs‖. He had already become an idol and the hero of the student community and the youth of Bengal. .He had endeared himself to them by addressing their associations. His educational background and subsequent dismissal from the Indian Civil service made him a focal point for the rally of emerging nationalist forces. He was wellset to channels the growing anti-imperialist forces and malcontents of the society... In pursuance of the idea of forming an Association, senior leaders of advanced political thought, headed by Banerjea, issued a prospectus of the new association with the object of ‗representing the people, of educating the people on all industrial, educational, and other topics of general interest, and thus help. . .towards the formation of a healthy public opinion‖ its operations would be ‗extensive‘. It would seek members in the mofussil and its travelling salesmen would visit different parts of the country. The promoters hoped to secure the support and patronage of all parties for their broad platform, which they

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assured, would not conflict with those of exiting association. The new organization was christened as the Indian Association‘. On 26th July, an important and very ‗largely attended‘ public meeting was held at the Albert Hall, Calcutta. The Indian Association set as its objectives ―to represent the people; to from a healthy public opinion, and to promote by every legitimate means the political, intellectual, and material advancement of the people‖ . Banerjea, the principal organizer justified the establishment of another association in Calcutta on the ground that none of the existing associations represented ―oppressed coolly or the oppressed ryot‖ or had an organisation ―capable of keeping up and stimulating public opinion‖. To appreciate the full import of Mazzini‘s influence on Indian Association, set forth the following objectives: 1. The creation of a strong body of public opinion in the country. 2. The unification of the Indian races and peoples upon the basis of common political interests and aspirations. 3. The promotion of friendly feeling between Hindus and Mohammedans. 4. The inclusion of the masses in the great public movement of the day How the idea of creating such an association originated? Banerjea himself explained: ―For the idea that was working in our minds was that the Association was to be the centre of an All-India movement. For even then the conception of a united India, derived from the inspiration of Mazzini, or, at any rate, bringing all India upon the same common political platform, had taken firm possession of the minds of the Indian leaders in Bengal. We accordingly resolved to call the new political body, ―The Indian Association‖ Michael Edwards wrote, ―the idea of truly All-India organization was very much in the minds of the men present at the founding of The Indian Association‖. A critic described these men as ―England-returned, hated, coated gentlemen‖. Who had their own ideas on policies. Their prophet was Mazzini and they took young Italy for their model of a political organistion. ―This association is of special interest,‖ Malley wrote,‖ as showing the infiltration of European ideas, originating not so much in English as in Italian thought‖. And he added, ―One of its main objects was the unification of the people of India on the basis of common political interests and aspirations and this idea was very largely from Mazzini. . .‖ After having set up a strong nucleus for an All-India political agitation, Banerjea utilized public issue, such as Civil Service, for ‗the awakening of a spirit of a unity and solidarity among the people of India ―. He got himself appointed as a ‗special delegate‘ to carry forward his gospel of unity ―the underlying conception, and the true aim and purpose, of the Civil Service‖ agitation to various parts of the country. Banerjea discharged his humorous duty with great ability and industry. He left Calcutta on 26th May, 1877, and made a prolonged tour of upper India, visiting Benaras, Allahabad, Kanpur, Lucknow, Algarh, Delhi, Agra, Amritsar and Lahore. At all these places he not only addressed

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crowded public meetings but also helped in organizing new political associations to act in concert with the Indian Association, particularly at Allahabad, Kanpur, Lucknow, Meerut and Lahore. The foundation of concerted political action was thus well and truly laid. Benerjea‘s propaganda circuit was the first of its kind. Before him, leaders like Keshab Chandra Senhad delivered speeches in different towns of India but these were on religious topics. It was given to Benerjea to stir up political awakening throughout the length and breadth of the country. Banerjea‘s labours under the auspicious of the Indian Association found, later in the late day its. ―Culminating expression in the congress movement‖ . This claim of his has been sustained by A.C.Majumdar and R.C. Majumdar among many others. The programme and activity, commented Daniel Argov, ―were to form the axioms of the yet unborn Indian National Congress‖. The outlook of the leaders of Indian Association was broad and they were full of patriotic zeal and missionary spirit. They had succeeded in making their organization the head and centre of the national movement in the country. They were invigorated by their success in the all-India agitation over the Civil Service question. Yet Banerjea continued his determined effort to teach patriotism and politic to the. Younger generations and the organisations of Student Association‘ on the subject of ‗Indian unity‘ contained the familiar theme. He said: ―India is inhabited by peoples separated by language, by religion, by manners, and customs. It their intellectual, social, moral union possible? I say such a union is possible-is practicable. Let us take the example of Switzerland….‖Take again the case of Belgium….Let us now take the case of Germany,….I shall take one more instance, and this time it will be Italy. Italy, you are aware, was united in 1870…. Differences of language added to the confusion. Neapolitan understood not the Roman, the Roman understood not the Venation….They were the strangers in each other‘s sight, Under the guidance of… Mazzini Italy rose to the conception of Italian unity; …. The unification of Italy was effected not withstanding dialectal differences‖. In 1883, after his release, he asked the students, who came to meet him‖ who of you will be Garibaldi and Mazini,‖ and the crowd replied,‖All-All‖ Among the leaders of Moderate opinion in India, while Banerjea acknowledged the debt of Mazzini, it most unlikely that others might not have come under Mazzini‘s speed in lesser or greater degree. Both as student and teacher, Gokhale was influenced by the writing and ideas of Western savants. ―The ideas of Western liberalism‖, wrote one of Gokhale‘s biographers, ―permeated this age and the works of Milton, Burke, Mill, Macaulay, Spencer, Garibaldi and Mazzini‖ became significant forerunners in energising the springs of Indian nationalism . He taught Mathematics, English, History, Economics, and Politics to the students of Fergusson College at Poona till he left the Deccan Education Society in 1902. As a teacher of history Gokhale must have introduced the ideas of Mazzini to the generations of students coming in his contact. This ―great saint and soldier of national righteousness‖ as Sarojini Naidu called him, , has not left any autobiographical account like S.N. Banerjea and others. This has made our task difficult in determining what exactly was the i9nfluence of

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Mazzini on him. In the Constitution of Servants of India society Gokhale enunciated the pre-requisite of an ideal public worker in the following words : ―Public life must be spiritualised. Love of country must so fill the heart that all else shall appear as of little moment by its side. A fervent patriotism which rejoices at every opportunity of sacrifice for the motherland, a dauntless heart which refuses to be turned back from its object by difficulty or danger, a deep faith in the purpose of providence which nothing can shake-equipped with these the worker must start on his mission and reverently seek the joy which comes of spending oneself in the service of one‘s country‘. Mahatma Gandhi regarded Gokhale as his political Guru because he was pure as crystal, gentle as lamb, brave as a lion, and chivalrous to a fault. Spiritualism and righteousness were the most outstanding characteristics of the two men. They shared these characteristics with Mazzini. Gandhi was capitulated by the ‗moral energy‖ of Mazzini and Mazzini‘s convocation in the ultimate triumph of ‗Truth‘ and ‗Justice‘ was nearest to the grain of the Mahatma. Kaka Joseph Baptista, the fathor of the Home Rule Movement in India, was called‖ the Mazzini of Matharpacody‖. He roused the people of Maharastra from their torpor and inertia by his ceaseless propaganda in favour of Home Rule. Charles Free Andrews, the great teacher of English literature at St. Stephens College, Delhi, showed to his students that the ―Italy of Mazzini could illuminate the problems of India in the twentieth century‖.. He exercised ―incalculable influence on the students of that decade‖ The Moderates believed in political evolution of the British pattern which arose form a sense of sheer helplessness. The British Socialist, Hyndman, pointed out to Dada Bhai that it was mistake to ask for charity, ‗what do you judicious people gain by your modernisation? Dada Bhai replied, ‗All that you say is true, but Indians cannot do yet what you say…John Bull does not understands the bark. He only understands the bite, and we cannot do this‖ Hyndman continued to press Dadabhai and held up the example of Mazzini, his old friend, but the force behind Dadabhai were weak and he could not agree with Hyandman in thinking that India would rebel. The Moderates, including Gokhale, commended Mazzini‘s patriotism to their countrymen, but exhorted them to abjure violent methods. The ideal in which the Moderates believed might be the same as that of the revolutionary Mazzini, but the method they sought to employ was that of the conservative Burke the method of constitutionalism. It would thus be seen that Mazzini inspired the Moderate leaders of India who were the architects of Indian unity. They were the founding fathers of public life in the country. Among them S.N. Banerjea occupies a prominent place for it was he who caught the idea of political unity from the writings, activities and ideas of Mazzini. He founded India Association –the first effective, all –India political organization-the precursor of the India National Congress. He carried the message of Mazzini from Calcutta to Lahore in his tour of 1877. Through his speeches; writings and inspired translations of Mazzini‘s life in regional languages, he created new awareness and passionate love for unity and liberty.

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He has been truly likened with Mazzini. Leonard A . Gordon wrote: ―he likened himself to Mazzini raising a fallen and degraded Italy‖. References: L.S.S. O‘Malley, (ed), ‗Modern India and the West – A study of the Interaction of their Civilizations, London, 1968 Lala Lajpat Rai, Young India-An Interpretation and a History of the NationalistMovement from withing, 1965, New Delhi B.T. McCully, English Education and the Origins of Indian Nationalism, N.Y., 1940 Sir Percival Griffith, ―The British Impact on India‖, London, 1952 B.G. Gokhole, The Making of the Indian Nation, Bombay, 1960 S.N. Banerjea, ‗A Nation in Making‘, London, 1925 Dufferin papers, (Microfilm) Reel No. 518, Dufferin to Cross, 3 December, 1888; N.A.I. Dadabhai Naorji, ―England‘s Duties to India‖, Journal of the East Indai Association, 1867, Vol. I, No. 1, pp., 37-38. R.C. Palit (ed), Speeches of Babu Surendra Nath Banerjea, 1870-80, vol. I , Calcutta, 1885, p.p. 113-114. Valentine Chirol, ‗Indian Unrest‘, London, 1910, pp. 145-146. B.C. Pal, Birth of Our New Nationalism, ‗Memories of My Life and Times, Vol. I. Calcutta, 1932, pp. 245-248. Bhartiar Kavidaigak, (Sixth edition), Madars, Decmeber, 1963, pp. 73-36 B.D. Kher (ed.), Savarkar Sahitya Navaneet, Maharashtra Granth Bhandar, Bombay, 1958 Dhananjaya Keer, Veer Savarkar, Bombay, 1966 B. Majumdar, (Indian Political Assoications and Reform of Legislature Calcutta, 1965, p. 292). V.C. Joshi, ‗Lala Lajpat Rai : Autobiographical Writings; Jullender, 1965, p.4. V.P. Varma, Modern Indian Political thought, Agra, 1971 Manmathnath Gupta, ‗They Lived Dangerously, New Delhi, 1969 Jadu Gopal Mukherji, Biplabi Jaibaner Smriti‖ (in Bengali), pp. 277-278. R.C. Majumdar (ed.), ‗British Paramountancy and Indian Renaissance‘, 1965 (Bombay), pp. 177, 243.

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Y[PPPPD{\ D]lxS, ;[ TLG AZ; SL YL4HA 3]8GM\ S[ A, R,GF C]VF D[ZF KM8F EF." GCL\ ZCF × VF{Z HA D{\ 5]Z[ uIFZC AZ; SL EL GCL\ YL4TA DF¥ GCL\ ZCL × VF{Z lOZ D[Z[ lH; l5TF G[ D[Z[ CFY D[\ S,D NL YL4J[ EL GCL\ ZC[PPPP×―― lCgNL D[\ .; NN" ;[ HgD[\ ;FlCtISFZM\ SL SM." SDL GCL\ C{ × T],;L4 k[DR\N4 5\THL4 lGZF,F ;EL G[ VD'TF kLTD SL EF¥lT AF,SF, D[\ CL DF¥ SM BMIF C{ × VD'TFHLG[ NN" SM EL B]A h[,F VF{Z lHgNUL SM EL EZ5]Z lHIF × NN" VF{Z D]CaAT NMGM\ S[ klT V5GL klTAâTF HTFT[ C]È A0L CL ."DFGNFZL S[ ;FY SMZ[ SFUH 5Z NF:TFÈ¥ VD'TF NH" C]." C{ × VD'TFHL SL GFGL pgC[\ SCF SZTL YL lS v——VZL4HA T} 5{NF C]."4JQF" –T] D[\ 5gN=C EFNM\ SM TA N[JTF ;M ZC[ Y[ ×――N[JTFVM\ SM ;MÈ CMG[ SL AC]T A0L lSDT VD'TF SM VNF SZGL 50L × ICL SFZ6 YF lS pgCM\G[ N[JTFVM\ SM HUFG[ SL CZ ND R[q8F SL C{ v——D{\ ;FZL lHgNUL HM EL ;MRTL ZCL4l,BTL ZCL JC ;A N[JTFVM\ SM HUFG[ SF kItG YF4pG N[JTFVM\ SM HM .g;FG S[ ELTZ ;[F UÈ C{ ×――$PpgCM\G[ V5G[ ELTZ ;N{J N[JTFVM\ SM HUFG[ SL SFDGF SL C{ G lS ZF2; SM × .;SF bIF, VF5SM Z:LNL l8S8 5-G[ ;[ VJxI VFÈUF × ICL JC JFlSIF C{ lH;S[ ;CFZ[ VD'TF kLTD S[ jIl¾TtJ VF{Z S'lTtJ SF[ VF,[lBTvlJJ[lRT lSIF HF ;STF C{ × VD'TFHL SF lJJFC ;M,C ;F, SL pD| D[\ CL ÈS ;\5FNS kLTD l;\C ;[ C]VF × I[ lZxTF AR5G D[\ CL DFvAF5 G[ TI SZ lNIF YF × IC J{JFlCS HLJG EL !(^) D[\ 4T,FS S[ ;FY 8}8 UIF × ICF\ 5Z D{\ G[8 ;[ p5,aW SlJTF SF p<,[B H~Z SZGF RFC¥}UF v D{\G[ V5G[ 3Z SF GdAZ lD8FIF C{ U,L S[ DFY[ 5Z ,UF U,L SF GFD C8FIF C{ CZ ;0S SL CZ lNXF SF GFD 5MK lNIF C{PPPPP UZ VF5G[ D]h[ SEL T,FX SZGF C{PPPP TM CZ N[X S[4 CZ XCZ SL4 CZ U,L SF äFZ B8B8FVM\ IC ÈS XF5 C{vÈS JZ C{ VF{Z HCF\ EL :JTg+ ~C SL h,S 50[ ;DhGF IC D[ZF 3Z C{PPPPP× ;GŸ !(^) D[\ 5lT ;[ T,FS S[ AFN .GSL ZRGFVM\ D[\ DlC,F 5F+M\ SL 5L0F VlWS UCZFG[ ,UL × J{JFlCS HLJG S[ S8] VG]EJM\ SF UCZF ÈC;F; DC;}; lSIF HF ;STF C{ × :+L ;\;FZ S[ TDFD V\W[ZM\ pHF,M\ SM A[AFS VF{Z VG}9L X{,L ;[ ;TZ\UL K8F kNFG SZG[JF,L ZRGFSFZ VD'TF kLTD G[ ;FlCtI ;FWGF S[ HlZÈ 5\HFAL SM lJxJ ;FlCtI D[\ :YFG lN,FG[ D[\ DCtJ5}6" E}lDSF VNF SL C{ × pGSL ZRGFvIF+F JT"DFG NF{Z SF HLJ\T www.dalitsahitya.com

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N:TFJ[H C{ × VD'TFHL SL ,[BGL D[\ V,U kSFZ SF :+LvlJDX" YF × pgCM\G[ CZ AFZ GFZL S[ klT 5]~Q SL pNF;LGTF SM k:T]T lSIF × V5GL ZRGFVM\ S[ HlZÈ pG DlC,FVM\ SM ÈS ZF:TF lNBFIF YF HM TA NZJFHM\ S[ 5LK[ l;;SF SZTL YL × VD'TFHL SF S'lTtJ VF{Z jIl¾TtJ NMGM\ CL SM ,MUM\ G[ V5ZFW S[ S83Z[ D[\ B0F SZG[ SF EZ5]Z kIF; lSIF × ZFH[XRgN=F4—;F2L R[TGF―v 5'q9 !@ D[\ ATFT[ C{ vICF\ TS lS pG 5Z D]SND[\ EL lSÈ UÈ × VD'TFHL SF V5ZFW ¾IF C{\ m pgCM\ G[ SEL l,BF YF — V2ZM\ S[ ;FI[― 5'q9v%& v ——SEL TM SM." .G NLJFZM\ ;[ 5}K[ lS S{;[ .AFNT U]GFC AG U." ×―― VD'TFHL SL EFQF 5Z EL TZC vTZC S[ .<HFD ,UT[ ZC[ × EFQF SL VX]lâ 5Z :JI\ ZFq8=SlJ lNGSZ SM SCGF 50F v ——GCL\4VD'TF ¦ T]dCFZL lCgNL VX]â GCL \ × T]dCFZ[ 5F; ÈS X{,L C{4XAGD SL X{,L p;S[ l,È SM." EL EFQF CM 9LS C{ ×――%PDCF5\l0T ZFC], ;F\S'tIFIG G[ EL SCF v——JC EFQF SEL DZ GCL\ ;STL lH; EFQF D[\ VD'TF kLTD l,BTL C{\ ×――^PpGSL Un EFQF SF —SFIF S[ NFDG D[\―5'q9v!@ 5Z ÈS pNFCZ6 N[B[ v—— ÈS AZ; D[\ ;}ZH S[ lC;FA ;[ AFZC DlCG[\ CMT[ C{ ,[lSG RgN=DF S[ lC;FA ;[ T[ZC DlCG[ CMT[ C{ × ;}I"Xl¾T DN"Xl¾T lUGL HFTL C{ VF{Z RgN=Xl¾T :+LvXl¾T × IC NMGM\ Xl¾TIF¥ :Y},Xl¾T VF{Z ;}1DXl¾T SL kTLS C{ ×―― VD'TF kLTD SM lCgN]:TFG VF{Z lCgN]:TFG 5FlS:TFG S[ VJFD G[ A[X]DFZ D]CaAT SL C{ ×;FlCtI VSFNDL 5]Z:SFZ4EFZTLI 7FG5L9 5]Z:SFZ4 XTFaNL ;dDFG4 5çzL4 5çlJE}Q6 VF{Z VG[S lJxJlJnF,IM\ SL 0LPl,8Ÿ SL ;JM"rR DFGN p5FlW ;[ VD'TFHL SM GJFHF UIF × VD'TFHL SM ,[SZ —VgTZF"q8=LI jIl¾TSMQ―;\5FNS o lJxJlD+ XDF" 5'q9 ##^ D[\ NH" lSIF UIF v——;]kl;â EFZTLI ,[lBSF VD'TF kLTD G[ V5GF ;FlCltIS HLJG 5\HFAL SlJTF ;[ VFZdE lSIF × 5ZgT] VA pGSL U6GF lCgNL S[ kl;â ;FlCtISFZM\ D[\ SL HFTL C{ × .gCM\ G[ SlJTF4 SCFGL4 p5gIF;4lGAgW VFlN ;EL lJWFVM\ D[\ ;O,TF5}J"S l,BF C{ × VF{Z .gC[\ —7FG5L9 5]Z:SFZ―;[ ;dDFlGT lSIF HF R]SF C{ ×――;DSF,LG ;FlCtISFZ SD,[xJZHL SM EL IC DC;]; C]VF v——IC D[ZL B]XG;LAL C{ lS D{\ p; NF{Z D[\ ;F¥; ,[ ZCF C}¥ lH; NF{Z D[\ VD'TF kLTD C{ ×―― 0F"PDMCGHLTG[ V5G[ ÈS VF,[B ZFH[XRgN=F ;\5FlNT —;F2L R[TGF― 5'q9 o@@ l,BF C{ vVD'TF SF GFD pG S]K GFDM\ D[\ C{ lHG;[ EFZT S[ ZRGFSFZ VF{Z lRgTGXL, ;FlCtI SL ;}ZT AN,TL C{ ×XFIZL D[\ SC[ TM VD'TF kLTD UCZ[ V2ZM\JF,L J6"DF,F C{ ×PPPPVD'TF l;O" ÈS ,[lBSF CL GCL\ JC AC] VFIFDL Xlb;IT C{ × JC .;l,I[ kD]B C{\ lS JC ÈS ;\:YF C{ × VD'TF S[J, ÈSXFIZF GCL\4 U<5SFZ4 JFTF"SFZ4 ;\5FlNSF4 NFX"lGS4 jIFbIFSFZ4 7FGJ[¿F4 lRgTS VF{Z kEFJXF,L jIl¾TtJ C{\ × VD'TF ,MSDG D[\ A;F C]VF :+L ;\J[NGF SF lAdA C{ ×―― 0F"PB[Dl;\C 0C[lZIF S[ GHlZI[ ;[ ——VD'TF kLTD SF p5gIF; ;FlCtI pGS[ SFjI SL V5[2F VlWS ;DFHMgD]BL C{ ×pGS[ SFjI D[\ HCF¥ k[D SL ÈSF\lTS VG]E}lTIF¥ C{\ JCF¥ p5gIF; D[\ ;FDFlHS ;tI SF lNuNX"G C{ × pGSL ZRGFVM\ D[\ lHgNUL S[ E[NM\ TS 5C]\RG[ SL T05 C{ × ICL SFZ6 C{ lS pGSL ;H"GFtDS klTEF SM lS;L lJWF lJX[Q SF A\WG :JLSFZ GCL\ × HLJG TM TlAIT ;[ HFG ,[G[ VF{Z EMU ,[G[ SL C;ZT pGS[ lGHL HLJG D[\

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

EL ZCL C{ VF{Z ;FlCtI D[\ EL IC A{R[GL 5F." HFTL C{ × ICL\ SFZ6 C{ lS pGSL ZRGFVM\ D[\ HLJG VF{Z HUT S[ klT VFS|MX TM C{ lSgT] p;SF D}, :JZ ;JM"5ZL DFGJTF C{ ×――&P EFZT lJlJWTF D[\ ÈSTF SF N[X ZCF C{ × CDFZF kFgTLI ;FlCtI VtIlWS ;D'â VF{Z ;X¾T C{ × 5\HFAL U]0L VD'TF kLTD .;SL lHgNF lDXF, C{ × VD'TF ;FlCtI SL HF\Rv50TF, SZG[ ;[ ;FlCtI k[lDIM\ SL ;\XMWFtDS N'lq8SM6 SF lJSF; CMUF × pGS[ ;FlCtI D[\ :+LtJ S[ U]6FtDS 5lZDF6 SL VG[SFG[S ;\EFJGFÈ¥ DF{H}N C{ × 5\HFA SL A[8L S[ HlZÈ EFZT EZ D[\ CM ZC[ GFZL 5Z XFZLlZS VF{Z DFGl;S Ig+6FVM\ S[ lB,FO :+L;Xl¾TSZ6 SF ND EZTL C{ × JT"DFG EFZT D[\ A[l8IM\ SM H],DM\ SF lXSFZ AGT[ N[B ~C[VD'TF lRtSFZ SZ p9TL C{ × JC JFlZ;XFC SM ;\AMlWT SZTL C{\ ov—— 5\HFA SL ÈS A[8L ZM." YL T}G[ ,dAL NF:TFG l,BL VFH TM ,FBM\ A[l8IF¥ ZMTL C{\ T]dC[\ JFlZ;XFC ;[ SCTL C{\PPPP NN"DgNM\ SF NN" HFGG[ JF,[ p9M ¦ VF{Z V5GF 5\HFA N[BM ¦ VFH CZ A[,[ D[\ ,FX[ lAKL C]." C{\ VF{Z RGFA D[\ 5FGL GCL\PPPPVA ,C} ACTF C{PPPPP×――*PICF¥ I[ SCG[ SL VFJxISTF GCL\ C{ lS VD'TF DlC,FVM\ S[ klT AC]T ;\J[NGXL, ZCL C{ × pGSL 3GLE}T 5L0F SF ACFJ A0L UCGTF S[ ;FY AC lGS,F C{ × DlC,FVM\ S[ lB,FO ZMHvAvZMH CMG[ JF,[ V5ZFWM\ ;[ VD'TF S[ ;A| SF AF¥W EZ R]SF C{ × J[ DlC,F HUT SM V5G[ :JFlEDFG SL ,0F." ,0G[ S[ l,È CD[XF k[lZT SZTL ZC[UL × 0F"PB[Dl;\C 0C[lZIF IYFY" CL SCT[ C{ lSv——VD'TFHL S[ 5F+ S[J, lSTFAL 5{NF."X GCL\ C{\ Vl5T] pGS[ ñNI SL ;F¥;[\ EL .G 5F+M\ D[\ W0STL C{ ×――(PVFU pGS[ CL XaNM\ D[\ SC]\ TM v——GFZL 5L0F SM VlEjIl¾T N[G[ JF,L ZRGFVM\ SL G TM SDL C{ VF{Z G ZRGFSFZM\ SL4lJX[QT o DlC,F ZRGFSFZM\ SL ¸ lSgT] .; EL0 D[\ VD'TF V,U B0L GHZ VFTL C{ ×――!)P VD'TF SL SFIF S[ —S[{GJF;― 5Z .DZMH äFZF S." Z\U .TGL DF;]lDIT S[ ;FY O{,F N[GF lS VD'TF SF .DZMHDI CM HFGF × .G Z\UM\ S[ ;FlCZ SL XFIZL S[ Z\U EL lD, HFGF × HLJG SL V\lTD 26M\ D[\ EL .DZMH G[ VD'TF SF ;FY GCL\ KM0F × HGJZL @))@ D[\ J[ V5G[ 3Z D[\ lUZ 50L YL VF{Z .gTSF, TS RFZ5F." 5Z ZCL × .DZMH G[ ÈS ;F2FtSFZ S[ TCT ATFIF lS v——.G NM ;F,M\ D[\ SM." EL ;DSF,LG ,[BS VD'TF SL ;]W ,[G[ GCL\ VFIF VF{Z G CL lS;LG[ CF,RF, 5}KG[ SL H~ZT ;DHL × B]N .;[ ,[SZ lGZFX GCL\ Al<S ATFT[ C{ lS CDFZ[ l,È TM VD'TF S[ 5F9S ;AS]K C{45F9S VFH EL pgC[\ IFN SZT[ C{ VF{Z A0[ RFJ ;[ VFH EL VD'TF SL ZRGFÈ¥ 5-T[ ;]GT[ C{ × CDFZ[ l,È ICL ;A;[ A0L AFT C{ × lOZ TDFD ;DSF,LG IFN SZ G SZ[4CD[\ .;;[ SM." OS" GCL\ 50TF ×――!!P.DZMH ÈS VrK[ lR+SFZ ZC[ C{ HM 5LK,[ RFl,; ;F, ;[ VD'TF S[ ;]BvN]B S[ ;FYL ZC[ × VD'TF SL lSTFAM\ S[ O|g8 5[.h 5Z TYF lSTFAL 5'q9M\ 5Z pGS[ ;]gNZ lR+ V\lST C]È C{ × VD'TF SL lADFZL SM N[BT[ C]È pgCM\ G[ I[ SFI" EL KM0 lNIF YF × lS;L S[ 5}KG[ 5Z pgCM\ G[ ATFIF v——D{\ V5GL S}RL SDF. S[ l,I[ GCL\ R,FTF4V5G[ lN, SL T:;,L S[ l,I[ 5[lg8U SZTF C}¥ VF{Z lOZ VFHS, TM VD'TF CL D[ZL 5[lg8U C{ lHgC[ \ D{\ V5GF 5}ZF J¾¿ N[ ZCF C}¥ ×――!@PVD'TF SL ÈS GßD BF;L DXC}Z C{ o——D{\ T]h[ lOZ

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fo/kok m)kj dh ^izfrKk* izeksn eh.kk1 L=h dks fdlh Hkh jk"Vª vkSj laLd`fr dh vfLerk ds lkFk tksM+dj ns[kk tkrk gS vkSj fons”kh vkSifuosf”kd “kklu }kjk ckjackj gekjh blh detksj dM+h ij gh izgkj fd;k tkrk FkkA fir`lRrkRed Hkkjrh; lekt esa fo|eku L=h fojks/kh iwokZxzgksa vkSj “kks"k.k ds f[kykQ vaxzst jktlRrk vkSj bZlkbZ fe”kufj;ka tc&rc gesa yfr;krh jgrh FkhA vr% Hkkjrh; lektlq/kkjd L=h fojks/kh dqjhfr;ksa vkSj dqizFkkvksa esa lq/kkj ykus ds fy, vkanksyujr FksA fganh vkSj vU; Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa ds lkfgR;dkj Hkh viuh ys[kuh ds ek/;e ls bl fojkV nkf;Ro esa viuh&viuh fgLlsnkjh fuHkk jgs FksA ,d ftEesnkj O;fDr vkSj lkfgR;dkj dks Hkkjrh; lekt esa L=h fo"k;d tks leL;k lcls T;knk dpksV jgh Fkh] og fo/kok fganw L=h dh O;Fkk vkSj ihM+k FkhA Ikzsepan dks fdlku thou dk fprsjk dgk tkrk gS fdarq fganh uotkxj.k dh ;g tks ifj;kstuk Hkkjrh; L=h ds /kjkry ij lkfgR;dkjksa }kjk pyk;h tk jgh Fkh] mldh vuqxt wa gesa izsepan ds lkfgR; esa Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA izsepan ds izkjafHkd miU;klksa esa ls ,d ^izfrKk* fo/kok m)kj dks ysdj Bkuh x;h ys[kdh; izfrKk dk gh O;atd gSA fdarq ys[kd izsepan ftl :<+hoknh Hkkjrh; lekt ds ukxfjd Fks] mldh lhek,a bl fo/kok m)kj dk;Zdze ds lanHkZ esa Hkh lkQ fpfUgr dh tk ldrh gSaA ftl L=h dk ifr mlds thrs th ej tkrk gS] mls fgUnw lekt esa ^fo/kok* dh laKk ns nh tkrh gSA fgUnw L=h dks ifr ds nsgkar ds ckn ifjokj vkSj lekt ls cfg"Ñr dj fn;k tkrk gS vkSj mls fo/kok L=h dk thou fcrkuk iM+rk gSA igys rks fo/kok L=h dks mPp tkfr;ksa esa thfor jgus dk gh vf/kdkj u Fkk fo’ks"kr% jktiwrksa esaA fo/kok ngu dks ^lrh* dk ntkZ nsdj bls ifjokj vkSj dqy ds lEeku ds lkFk tksM+ fn;k tkrk FkkA ysfdu okLro esa czkã.koknh fir`lRRkk dk ;g dzwj fo/kku laifRr ds mRrjkf/kdkj ls lEc) Fkk & ^^jktiwrksa esa lrh gksus dk fjokt cgq fookg izFkk ls vkSj vkfFkZd o jktuhfrd dkj.kksa ls izR;{k tqM+k gqvk FkkA bldk lh/kk laca/k laifRr ds mRrjkf/kdkj ls FkkA fo/kok vkSjrksa dks jktLFkku esa ifr dh laifRrk esa dqN Hkh Hkkx ikus dk gd ugha FkkA mRrjkf/kdkj ds vf/kdkj iq:"kksa ls iq:"kksa dks gh tkrs FksA nhu&ghu fHk[kkjh cudj thus ls csgrj ekudj dbZ vkSjrsa ;wa vius thou dk var vf/kd ilan djrh FkhaA**2 fgUnw 'kkL=kuqlkj oS/kO; dks >syrh L=h dk thou thrs th ujd cu tkrk gSA ia jekckbZ blss Åaph tkfr dh fgUnw L=h ds thou dh lcls cnrj vkSj Hk;kud vof/k crkrh gSaA vkfnoklh vkSj nfyr lekt dks NksM+dj leLr fgUnw lekt esa ifr dh e`R;q ds fy, L=h dks nks"kh crk;k tkrk jgk gSA ;g va/kfo'okl lekt esa xgjs rd cSBk gqvk gS fd L=h }kjk fd;s x;s ikiksa ;k iwoZ tUe ds vijk/kksa ds dkj.k gh mlds ifr dk nsgkar gksrk gSA vr% izk;f'pr Lo:i L=h dks oS/kO; dk ujd Hkksxus ds fy, /keZ vkSj lekt ckè; djrk gSA ia- jkekckbZ us ^fgUnw L+=h dk thou* esa oS/kO; thou dh dBksjrk ds lanHkZ esa fo/kok L=h dh vk;q o ekr`Ro ds vk/kkj ij fdafpr LrjHksn dk mYys[k fd;k gS & ^^vxj fo/kok iq=ksa dh 1

izeksn eh.kk] lgk;d izksQslj] fgUnh foHkkx] ikf.Mpsjh fo”ofo|ky;] ikf.Mpsjh &605014 2

eerk tSryh vkSj Jhizdk”k “kekZ] i`"B 39&40] vk/kh vkcknh dk la?k"kZ ] jktdey izdk”ku izk-fy-] ubZ fnYyh] izFke iqLrdky; laLdj.k 2006] izFke isijcSDl laLdj.k 2011 www.dalitsahitya.com

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ekrk gks] rks og izk;% ?k`.kk dh ik=k ugha gS] ;|fi og fuf'pr :i ls ikfiu dh Hkkafr ns[kh tkrh gS] rFkkfi lkekftd uQjr vkSj fuankvksa ls ,d gn rd futkr fey tkrh gS] D;ksafd og csVs dh eka gksrh gSA blds ckn ,d cw<+h fo/kok dk LFkku vkrk gSA cw<+h fo/kok lnkpkj@ifrozr ds dkj.k viuh gtkjksa ykylkvksa dks cgknqjh ls jksdrh gS rFkk vusd vkns'kksa dk lko/kkuh ls ikyu djrh gSA lHkh yksxksa ls lEeku ikrh gSA blesa ge ;g tksM+ ldrs gSa fd fn;k x;k lEeku cw<i+s u dks ysdj gSA yM+fd;ksa dh fo/kok eka ds lkFk vyx rjhds ls O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh LokHkkfod ?k`.kk ds lkFk] fo'ks"k :i ls rc] tc mlds ifr ds jgrs mldh iqf=;ksa dh 'kknh ugha gks ikrhA ysfdu cky fo/kok vkSj larkughu fo/kok ds lkFk leqnk; fo'ks"kr% ?k`.kk ,oa nqO;Zogkj djrk gSA bUgsa lcls cM+s vijk/kh dh Hkkafr ns[kk tkrk gS] ftls Åij ls vkns'k lquk;k tk pqdk gSA**1 vius ifr ds oa'k dks vkxs c<+kus okyk okfjl nsus ds dkj.k ifjokj&lekt L=h ds oS/kO; dks ysdj vis{kkÑr FkksM+k de dBksj gksrk gSA blh <ax dh ,d fo/kok ik= “kjrpan ds miU;kl ^nsonkl* esa nsonkl dh eka gSA ;g L=h ik= tc fo/kok gks tkrh gS] rks thou dh lq[k&lqfo/kkvksa vkSj le`f) dks R;kx djds oS/kO; vks<+ ysrh gSA ysfdu bls og ?k`.kk vkSj csbTtfr ugha >syuh iM+rh gS D;ksafd buds nks&nks toku csVs gSaA ;gka è;krO; gS fd Je'khy oxZ esa L=h dks oSèkO; ds dkj.k ml izdkj dh vkx esa ugha tyuk iM+rk ftlesa mPp tkfr dh ?kj esa can jgus okyh L=h dks fo/kok gksus ij tyuk iM+rk gSA larkujfgr ;qok vFkok cky fo/kok dks rks mlds llqjky okys vius xys dh vkQr gh le>rs gSaA larku u gksus ls ifr ds ?kjokys fo/kok dks O;FkZ dk cks> le>rs gSa vkSj ;su&dsu&izdkjs.k mlls NqVdkjk pkgrs gSaA vxj fo/kok cPph gks rks mls vkSj T;knk mis{kk ,oa rkus >syus iM+rs gSa D;ksafd tc mldk ifr gh u jgk rc llqjky okys D;ksa mldh ns[k&Hkky vkSj ikyu iks"k.k djus dh tger mBk;s! fgUnw /keZ'kkL=ksa ds uke ij fo/kok fL=;ksa ij reke rjg dh cafn'ksa Fkksi nh tkrh gSaA Ldaniqjk.k ds dk”kh[kaM ¼v/;k; pkj½ ds vuqlkj fo/kok dks viuk flj eqafMr j[kuk pkfg,] mls fnu esa dsoy ,d ckj [kkuk pkfg, ;k mls pkUnzk;.k ozr djuk pkfg,A tks L=h Ik;Zad ij lksrh gS og vius ifr dks ujd esa Mkyrh gSA dÙkZO;ikyu ds uke ij euqLe`fr vkfn /keZxazFkksa us fo/kok L=h ds thou dks ujd cukdj j[k fn;k gSA Hkkjr ds /keZ Hkh: ekrk&firk u pkgrs gq, Hkh /keZ'kkL=ksa ds Mj ls viuh cgw&csVh dks oS/kO; dk thou fcrkus dks ckè; djrs gSaA euqLe`fr esa fo/kok ls vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd og ifr dh e`R;q ds ckn lknxh&la;e ls jgsA mls iki vkSj ujd dk Hk; fn[kkdj ckè; fd;k tkrk gS fd dan&ewy&Qy [kkdj vius 'kjhj dks {kh.k dj ysA og czãp;Z dk ikyu djs vkSj nwljs iq#"k dk uke Hkh u ysA ^ge lH; vkSjrs*a esa euh"kk oS/kO; dh ltk dk dkj.k /keZ dks crkrh gaS & ^^/keZ lc r; djrk gS vkSj f>adkrk gS mls Tkhou HkjA fo/kok gksus dk vFkZ gS & uaxs ikao pyuk] ,d oDr #[kk&lw[kk [kkuk [kkuk] izHkq Hktu djuk] eSys diM+s iguuk] vkHkw"k.k ;k lkSan;Z laca/kh phtksa ls nwj jguk] ds'k lTtk u djuk] mRlo vkfn ls nwj jguk] eaxy dk;ks± esa 'kjhd u gksukA ,slh gtkjksa ikcafn;ka ml ij ykn nh tkrh gSaA** 2 fo/kok L=h ij yxk;s x;s bu reke izfrca/kksa ds ihNs mldh dkeksíhid ÅtkZ dks dqpyus&nckus dh iq#"koknh ekufldrk dke djrh gSA ifrfoghu L=h dks ;fn nckdj la;fer thou ds fy, ckè; u fd;k tk;sxk] rks og viuh dke Hkkouk dks cq>kus dk iz;kl djsxh vkSj iq#"k dh bTtr dks vkap vk;sxhA ;g iq#"koknh #X.k ekufldrk fo/kok L=h 1 2

ia- jkekckbZ i`"B 73] fgUnw L+=h dk thou] izdk”kd & laokn izdk’ku] esjB] izFke laLdj.k tuojh 2006 euh"kk] i`"B la[;k 197] ge lH; vkSjrs]a izdk”kd&lkef;d izdk”ku] ubZ fnYyh] f}rh; laLdj.k 2004

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dks ,d fnu esa flQZ ,d ckj gh Hkkstu dh btktr nsrh gSA mls ozr&miokl j[kus dks ckè; djrh gS rkfd mldh lgt izkÑfrd bPNkvksa dks o'k esa fd;k tk ldsA mls vPNs Hkkstu vkSj feBkb;ksa ls oafpr j[kk tkrk gSA fo/kok L=h ds pfj= ij yVdrh iq:"koknh lansg dh bl ryokj dh vksj ^izfrKk* esa ys[kd us lkQ b”kkjk fd;k gS & ^^fo/kok ij nks"kkjksi.k djuk fdruk vklku gSA turk dks mlds fo"k; esa uhph&lh /kkj.kk djrs nsj ugha yxrhA ekuks dqokluk gh oS/kO; dh LokHkkfod o`fRr gS] ekuks fo/kok gks tkuk] eu dh lkjh nqokZlukvks]a lkjh nqcZyrkvksa dk meM+ vkuk gSA**1 yaiV deykizlkn dks ?kk;y djds fo/kok iw.kkZ mlds paxqy ls cpus esa rks lQy gks tkrh gS fdarq vc og lekt ls feyus okys laHkkfor vieku vkSj yTtk ds Hk; ls og xaxk dh xksn esa Lo;a dk izk.kkar rd djus dks rRij gks tkrh gSA ysfdu vius bl miU;kl esa izsepan fo/kok L=h ds pfj= ij yka{k.k yxkus okys fganw lekt dh vPNh [k+cj ugha ys ikrs cfYd mYVs dbZ LFkyksa ij fo/kok iw.kkZ dks vfLFkj eukso`fRr dh fn[kkdj bu feF;k vkjksiksa dks gh lPpk lkfcr dj x;s gSaA vius e`r ifr ds izfr ,dfu"B iw.kkZ tSlh L=h VÍh dh vkM+ ls f’kdkj [ksyus esa ekfgj deykizlkn tSls yaiV vkSj pfj=ghu foyklh iq#"k dh fpduh&pqiM+h >wBh lgkuqHkwfriw.kZ ckrksa esa vkdj dHkh&dHkh lkspus yxrh gS fd ^^LoxZ vkSj ujd lc <dkslyk gSA vc blls nq%[knk;h ujd D;k gksxk\ tc ujd esa gh jguk gS] rks ujd gh lghA de ls de thou ds dqN fnu vkuan ls dVsx a (s thou dk dqN lq[k rks feysxkA ftlls izse gks] ogh viuk lc dqNA fookg vkSj laLdkj lc dqN fn[kkok gSA pkj v{kj laLd`r i<+ ysus ls D;k gksrk gS\ eryc rks ;gh gS u] fdlh izdkj L=h dk ikyu&iks"k.k gksA** 2 ,slk ugha gS fd iw.kkZ tSlh pyk;eku cqf)okyh L=h ugha feyrh vkSj fQj xjhch&Hkq[kejh esa mnjiwfrZ ds fy, O;fDr uSfrd&vuSfrd dk fopkj ugha dj ikrkA vkt dk ukjhokn iw.kkZ ds bl {kf.kd fopyu ds fy, mls nks"k Hkh ugha nsxk fdarq izsepan us ,sls bDdk&nqDdk izlaxksa dh ;kstuk fo/kok vkJe dh vko’;drk dks fo/kok leL;k ds ,dek= leqfpr gy ds :Ik esa lgh lkfcr djus ds fy, dh gSA “kk;n izsepan de ls de bl miU;kl esa rks fo/kok L=h ls T;knk fgUnw L=h ds lrhRo dks ysdj T;knk fpafrr gS] vU;Fkk os bl miU;kl dh ukf;dk izsek ds eqag ls ;g u dgyokrs & ^^eSa fo”okl ls dg ldrh gwa fd vxj mu cguksa dks :[kh jksfV;ksa vkSj eksVs diM+ksa dk Hkh lgkjk gks] rks os var le; rd vius lrhRo dh j{kk djrh jgsAa L=h gkjs nt+Zs gh nqjkpkfj.kh gksrh gSA vius lrhRo ls vf/kd mls lalkj dh vkSj fdlh oLrq ij xoZ ugha gksrk] u og fdlh pht dks bruk ewY;oku le>rh gSA**3 gj L=h dks vius dksey&pednkj&yEcs ds'kksa ls I;kj gksrk gSA gj L=h vkHkw"k.k iguuk pkgrh gS] ltuk&loajuk pkgrh gSA ysfdu ifr ds ejrs gh L=h ds vkHkw"k.k mrkj fy;s tkrs gSaA lqgkx dh fu'kkuh flUnwj dks feVk fn;k tkrk gSA mldh pwfM+;ka QksM+ nh tkrh gSaA mls oSokfgd thou dh gj fu'kkuh dks NksM+uk iM+rk gSA jaxhu oL=ksa ds LFkku ij lQsn@yky@dkys jax dh eksVh lkM+h bR;kfn iguuh iM+rh gSA oS/kO; dk Mªsl dksM cspkjh L=h dks ckj&ckj ;kn fnykrk jgrk gS fd mldk ifr ugha gSA lqgkfxuh L=h vkSj fo/kok L=h dh os'kHkw"kk] lkt&J`axkj vkSj vkHkw"k.k vkfn ds varj oS/kO; ds ?kko dks Hkjus ugha nsrsA mldh pksV ij I;kj dk eyge yxkus ds LFkku ij ifjokj vkSj lekt mldh pksV dks dqjsnrk jgrk gSA ckj&ckj mls crk;k tkrk gS fd og lqgkfxu ugha gS] vr% fo/kok L=h dh rjg jgsA fdarq ^izfrKk* esa fo/kok L=h ds nhu&ghu vkSj :[ks&lw[ks thou ;FkkFkZ ds LFkku ij mlds lrhRo 1

izsepan] i`"B la[;k 36] izfrKk] izdk”kd & lqfe= izdk”ku] bykgkckn] laLdj.k 2006 ogh] i`"B la[;k 74] 3 ogh] i`"B la[;k 58] 2

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

j{kk dk iz”u dgha T;knk egRoiw.kZ cu x;k gSA oSls ,d izlax esa deykizlkn vius firk cnjhizlkn }kjk vkJ; ik;h fo/kok iw.kkZ ds fy, js”keh lkM+h [kjhndj ykrk gS tgka lkekftd fof/k&fu"ks/k ds pyrs iw.kkZ dks og lkM+h ykSVkuh iM+rh gS D;ksafd ^^ckcw th] js”keh lkM+h iguus dk eq>s fu"ks/k gS] ysdj D;k d:axh] ,slk gh gS rks dksbZ eksVh&>ksVh /kksrh yk nhft,xkA**1 izk;% fgUnw lekt esa fo/kok L=h dks ifjokj ij vfrfjDr vkfFkZd Hkkj ekuk tkrk gSA mldk ifr u jgus ij og iw.kZr% vuqRiknd gks tkrh gS &^^Hkkjr esa gky rd Åaph tkfr;ksa ds chp oS/kO; lkekftd e`R;q dh fLFkfr FkhA bldk dkj.k ifr dh e`R;q ds mijkar L=h dh ifjokj dh bdkbZ ds :Ik esa ekU;rk [kRke gks tkuk vkSj iztuu vkSj ;kSu fØ;k ls mldk foyxko ¼,fy,us”ku½ FkkA tSls gh L=h dh iRuh dh Hkwfedk [kRke gks tkrh Fkh mldk ¼[kkldj ;fn og fularku gks½ ,d O;fDRk ds :Ik esa Hkh vfLrRo ugha jg tkrk FkkA** 2 ifr ds jgrs L=h dks llqjky esa jgus dk tks Bksl vk/kkj feyk gksrk gS] og vk/kkj fo/kok L=h [kks pqdh gksrh gSA fo/kok L=h ds dkj.k mlds ifjokjokyksa dks ckj&ckj vius fiz; O;fDr dh Le`fr lrkrh jgrh gSA fo/kok L=h dh dkeqdrk ds pyrs ?kj dh bTtr tkus dk Hk; Hkh ifjokj dks jgrk gSA ,d fo/kok L=h 'kkL= vkSj lekt dh xyr ekU;rkvksa ds pyrs ifjokj ds fy, ekufld&HkkoukRed leL;k Hkh cu tkrh gSA mls eugwl ekuk tkrk gSA mls lnSo Hkn~ns vkSj cqjs ukeksa ls iqdkjk tkrk gSA mls xkyh nh tkrh gSA fo/kok ds ?kj okys lnSo mls Hkyk&cqjk lqukrs jgrs gSa D;ksafd os mls vius fiz; dh e`R;q dk dkj.k ekurs jgrs gSaA fo/kok dh Nk;k ls ifjokj dks cpkus ds fy, vkSj mlds vkfFkZd Hkkj ls eqfDr ikus ds fy, fgUnw lekt esa fo/kokvksa dks /kkfeZd LFkyksa ij NksM+ vkus dh dqizFkk jgh gSA fo/kok L=h dh lEifÙk gfFk;kus ds fy, Hkh e`r iq#"k ds ukrs&fj'rsnkj mldh fo/kok L=h dks ?kj fudkyk nsdj eFkqjk&o`ankou esa QSad vkrs gSaA o`ankou vkSj cukjl esa fo/kok vkJeksa esa gtkjkas fo/kok,a fry&frydj ejrh gSaA izk;% eafnj vkSj fo/kok vkJe esa /keZ dh vkM+ esa os';ko`fÙk rd pyk;h tkrh gSA eafnjksa ds iaMs&iqtkjh vkSj fo/kok vkJeksa esa laj{k.k ds uke ij lapkyd lqanj fo/kokvksa dk ;kSu 'kks"k.k djrs gSaA ,d vksj tgka czkã.koknh O;oLFkk vkn”kZ ds uke ij fo/kok L=h dks lknk&la;fer thou thus dks ck/; djrh gS] ogha deykizlkn tSls yksx vius Hkksx&foykl ds fy, HkkSfrdoknh n”kZu ds dqrdZ x<+rs gSa & ^^izse ds lalkj esa vkneh dh cuk;h lkekftd O;oLFkkvksa dk dksbZ ewY; ughaA fookg lekt ds laxBu dh dsoy vk;kstuk gSA tkr&ikar dsoy fHkUu&fHkUu dke djus okys izkf.k;ksa dk lewg gSA dky ds dqpØ us rqEgsa ,d ,slh voLFkk esa Mky fn;k gS] ftlesa izzse lq[k dh dYiuk djuk gh iki le>k tkrk gS] ysfdu lkspks rks lekt dk ;g fdruk cM+k vU;k; gSA**3 fo/kok leL;k dk ,d gy fo/kok dk iqufoZokg Hkh crk;k tkrk gS fdarq mPp tkfr;ksa esa fo/kok ds fookg dk iw.kZ fu"ks/k jgk gSA euqLe`fr fo/kok ds fy, czãp;Z ikyu dk fo/kku djrh gS vkSj fo/kok fookg dks ?kksj iki ekurh gSA euqLe`fr dh ;g ekufldrk ge izsepan ds ^izfrKk* miU;kl ds izfri{kh ik=ksa dh ekufldrk esa lkQ ns[k ldrs gSaA bl miU;kl dk uk;d ve`rjk; rRdkyhu vkSifuosf”kd Hkkjr esa py jgs lektlq/kkj vkanksyu dk izfrfuf/k gSA og fo/kok fookg dk leFkZd gS ysfdu mlh dk ijefe= nkuukFk vkSj fudV fj”rsnkj vkfn oS/kO; dks fganw /keZ dh vkRek ds lkFk tksM+dj ns[krs gSaA ve`rjk; ds llqj cnjhizlkn rks fo/kok fookg esa fganqRo dk fouk”k gh ns[krs gSa &^^vkf[kj fganw vkSj eqlyeku esa fopkjksa dk gh rks vaj 1

ogh] i`"B la[;k 35] mek pdzorhZ] i`"B 79] tkfr lekt esa fir`lRrk] vuqoknd & fot; dqekj >k] Tkkfr lekt esa fir`lRrk] izdk”kd & xzaFk f”kYih izk- fy-] fnYyh] izFke fgUnh laLdj.k 2011 3 izsepan] i`"B la[;k 40] izfrKk] izdk”kd & lqfe= izdk”ku] bykgkckn] laLdj.k 2006 2

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

gSA euq"; esa fopkj gh lc dqN gSA og fo/kok fookg ds leFkZd gSaA le>rs gSa] blls ns”k dk m)kj gksxkA eSa le>rk gw¡] blls lkjk lekt u"V gks tk;sxk] ge blls dgha v/kksxfr dks igqap tk;saxs] fganqRo dk jgk&lgk fpUg gh feV tk;sxkA bl izfrKk us mUgsa gekjs lekt ls ckgj dj fn;kA**1 fu;fr vkSj HkkX; esa ftl /keZ ds izk.k cls gks]a ogka oS/kO; dks bZ”ojh; bPNk dgdj mlds fu.kZ; dks myVus dk lkgl djus okys lektlq/kkjdksa ds ekxZ esa iqjkruiafFk;ksa }kjk reke ck/kk;sa Mkyuk LokHkkfod gh gSA ve`rjk; fo/kokvksa ds ikyu&iks"k.k dh ekdwy O;oLFkk gsrq viuk loZLo nku djds vkSj lekt ls pank mxkdj ofurk vkJe dh LFkkiuk dk tks Hkkjh m|ksx djrs gSa] mlesa mudk Lo;a dk lkyk deykizlkn Hkz"Vkpkj dk nq"izpkj djds vM+axk yxkus ls ckt ugha vkrkA pans dh jdeksa ls ets ywVus dh ckrsa cukrk gSA fe= nkuukFk rd viuh /keZiRuh dh utjksa esa ve`rjk; dks uhpk fxjkus ds fy, fo/kok vkJe ds cgkus mu ij d`".k&dUgS;k cuus dk Hkwr lokj crkrk gS & ^^nl&chl toku fo/kokvksa dks b/kj&m/kj ls ,d= djds jklyhyk ltk;sx a As pkjnhokjh ds vanj dkSu ns[krk gS] D;k gks jgk gSA**2 bl izdkj ds L=h fojks/kh czkã.koknh dqlaLdkjksa dk izHkko mPp tkfr;ksa ij gh T;knk jgk gSA fuEu tkfr;ksa vkSj vkfnokfl;ksa esa fo/kok iqufoZokg vke jgk gSA bu tkfr;ksa esa czkã.koknh ;kSu 'kqfprk dk nqjkxzg Hkh mruk ugha gksrk & ^^nfyrksa esa iqufoZokg] fo/kok fookg vkfn izpyu esa gSa] ogk¡ ;g vkSjr ds foosd ij NksM+ fn;k tkrk gS fd og oS/kO; dk thou ilan djrh gS ;k iqufoZokg djuk pkgrh gSA lo.kks± okyh ladh.kZrk,a] ijEijkvksa ds uke ij 'kks"k.k] vkSjr ds lkFk nks;e ntsZ ds O;ogkj ls ;s vNwrs gSa] exj i<+& s fy[ks le>nkj nfyrksa esa lo.kks± ds bu nqxq.kks± dks 3 rsth ls viukus dh gksM+ yxh gqbZ gSA** izsepan rks bl miU;kl esa fo/kok fookg dk foe”kZZ pykdj Hkh O;kogkfjd /kjkry ij fo/kok fookg laiUu ugha djk ikrs fdarq csnh ds miU;kl ^,d pknj eSyh lh* esa fo/kok ukf;dk ds iqufoZokg dks dFkkud dh ewy Fkhe cuk;k x;k gSA iatkc&jktLFkku&gfj;k.kk vkfn jkT;ksa esa d`"kd tkfr;ksa esa HkkbZ dh e`R;q gksus ij nwljk thfor HkkbZ mldh iRuh ls fookg dj ysrk gSA bl fookg dks pknj Mkyus dh izFkk ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA lq/kh’k dDdM+ miU;kl ij ppkZ djrs gq, bl izlax esa fo/kok fookg ds leFkZu esa fu;ksx izFkk dk mYys[k djrs gSa & ^^Hkkjr ds lkekftd bfrgkl esa ,d le; fu;ksx dh izFkk vf/kd`r :Ik esa izpfyr Fkh ftlds rgr ifr ds NksVs HkkbZ ;k nsoj ds J`axkfjd egRo dks ekU;rk nh x;h FkhA og cM+s HkkbZ dh fo/kok ds lkFk ;kSu lac/a k j[k ldrk Fkk ;k j[krk FkkA _Xosn esa Hkh ifr dh fprk esa lkFk tyus ds fy, rS;kj iRuh dh rjQ gkFk c<+k dj fookg dk vk”oklu nsus okys iq#"k dk mYys[k feyrk gSA osn ds Hkk";dkjksa us bl iq#"k dh f”kuk[r ifr ds NksVs HkkbZ ds :Ik esa dh gSA**4 fdarq okLro esa ifjokj dh e;kZnk cuk;s j[kus vkSj d`f"k Hkwfe ds caVckjs dks jksdus ds fy, izk;% fo/kok L=h ij tcnZLrh pknj Mkyh tkrh gSA bl miU;kl esa Hkh xkao dh iapk;r&fcjknjh gh QSlyk ysrh gS fd jkuks dk nsoj eaxy ml ij pknj MkysA jkuks dh =klnh nsf[k, fd ftl nsoj dks og vius cPps dh tSls ekurh vk;h Fkh] mlh ds lkFk pknj Myokus dks mls ck/; fd;k tkrk gSA jkuks fojks/k Hkh djrh gS] ysfdu enksZa dh ckrksa esa vkSjr dk cksyuk cnkZLr ugha fd;k tk ldrk FkkA cPpksa ds isV vkSj csVh ds gkFk ihys djus dh fpark,a mls pknj Myokus dks etcwj dj nsrh 1

ogh] i`"B la[;k 6] ogh] i`"B la[;k 47] 3 euh"kk] i`"B 133&134] ge lH; vkSjrs]a izdk”kd&lkef;d izdk”ku] ubZ fnYyh] f}rh; laLdj.k 2004 4 lq/khj dDdM+] i`"B 31] varjaxrk dk LoIu] vuqoknd & vHk; dqekj nqcs] izdk”kd & ok.kh izdk”ku] u;h fnYyh] igyk laLdj.k 2007 2

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

gSaA bl rFkkdfFkr fookg dks jkuks dh csVh lgu ugha dj ikrh vkSj vkRegR;k rd dh dksf”k”k djrh gSA jkuks vkSj mlds nsoj ds lac/a kksa esa Hkh Hk;kud ruko vk tkrk gSA Li"Vr% fo/kok dks iqufoZokg dk vf/kdkj rks gksuk pkfg,] fdarq bl izdkj mls pknj Myokus dh ;a=.kk esa tykuk vekuoh; gh dgyk;sxkA jkuks ds bl iqufoZokg dks mldk cw<+k va/kk llqj xjhcksa dh xjhch ij pknj Mkyuk crkrk gSA oSls iap&iVsy blfy, jkuks ij pknj Myokrs gSa rkfd mldh ;kSfudrk ij fu;a=.k j[kk tk ldsA mUgsa Mj Fkk fd dgha jkuks fdlh ckgj okys ds lkFk Hkkx u tk,A Li"Vr% jkuks dh fpark fdlh dks u FkhA okLro esa iqufoZokg fo/kok leL;k dk okLrfod gy gks gh ugha ldrkA igyh ckr rks ;g gS fd lekt esa ,d fo/kok L=h ls fookg djus ds fy, lkekU;r% dksbZ iq#"k vkxs vkus dk lkgl ugha djrk vkSj nwljh ckr ;g gS fd vxj dksbZ ;qod fgEer djrk Hkh gS] rks lekt mlds fojks/k esa [kM+k gks tkrk gSA mldk cfg"dkj djds tkfr&lekt ls ckgj dj fn;k tkrk gS &^^vU; fjiksVksZa ls irk pyrk gS fd vusd nf{k.k Hkkjrh; lq/kkjdksa] ftUgksaus Hkh fo/kok ls fookg fd;k] dks lekt ls cfg"d`r dj fn;k x;kA vusd ,sls yksxksa dks vafre laLdkj lEiUu djkrs le; dkQh dfBukb;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+kA** 1 ^izfrKk* ds ve`rjk; fj”rs esa ykyk cnjhizlkn ds nkekn yxrs Fks vkSj mudh lTturk ls izHkkfor cnjhizlkn viuh cM+h iq=h ds nsgkar ds ckn viuh NksVh iq=h dk fookg Hkh vius bl iwoZorhZ nkekn ds lkFk gh djus ds bPNqd FksA fdarq ve`rjk; }kjk fo/kok fookg dk i{k ysuk gh mUgsa cnjhizlkn ds fganw lekt ds fy, vNwr cuk nsrk gS & ^^ykyk cnjhizlkn ds fy, ve`rjk; ls vc dksbZ lalxZ j[kuk vlaHko Fkk] fookg rks nwljh gh ckr FkhA lekt esa brus ?kksj vukpkj dk i{k ysdj ve`rjk; us vius dks mudh ut+jksa ls fxjk fn;k FkkA muls vc dksbZ laca/k djuk cnjhizlkn d fy, dyad dh ckr FkhA** 2 oSls Hkh fo/kok thou ds gy ds :i esa iqufoZokg iq#"k }kjk izLrqr gy gS] ,d fo/kok ds gkFk esa bl fodYIk dks vius thou esa vkxs ls vey esa ykuk lEHko ugha gksrkA O;kogkfjd Lrj ij fo/kok iqufoZokg dh vizklafxdrk le> esa vkus ij ukjhokn dh nwljh ygj esa fo/kokvksa dks vkRefuHkZj cukus o lekt lsok ls tksM+us dh eqfge O;kid Lrj ij pyk;h x;hA 20oha lnh ds izkjEHk esa fo/kok x`gksa o vukFkky;ksa dh ck<+&lh vk x;hA buesa f'k{kk] izf'k{k.k o jkstxkj ij è;ku fn;k tkrk FkkA fpfdRlk vkSj vè;kiu ds ekè;e ls fo/kok fL=;ksa dks ns'k dh lsok esa yxk;k x;kA fo/kok iqufoZokg dks rks Lo;a fo/kokvksa }kjk Hkh udkj fn;k x;k Fkk] fdarq fo/kokvksa dh n'kk lq/kkjus ds fy, mUgsa vkRefuHkZj cukus dh ;g eqfge O;kid Lrj ij fo/kokvksa dk leFkZu ikrh gSA è;krO; gS fd jk"Vªh; vkanksyu ds uk;d xka/khth Hkh fo/kokvksa dh nqnZ'kk ls nzfor FksA os dgk djrs Fks fd NksVh&NksVh cfPp;ksa ij oS/kO; Fkksiuk ,d t?kU; vijk/k gSA fo/kok vkJeksa esa oS/kO; dh leL;k dk gy ns[kuk 20oha lnh ds iwokZ)Z ds Hkkjrh; lekt dk izca/kdkS”ky gh dgk tk;sxkA ;gka og ,d vksj fganqRo dks if”peh vk/kqfudrk dh vksj ls fey jgh pqukSfr dk izR;qRrj gS] ogha nwljh vksj oS/kO; dh lukruh ijaijk dks Hkh fdafpr gsjQsj ds lkFk cpk;s j[kuk gSA fganw fo/kok L=h dh nqnZ”kk ij ckj&ckj loky mBkus okyh fons”kh lRrk vkSj bZlkbZ fe”kujh ds vkØe.kksa ds pyrs fganw lekt ,d dne vkxs c<+dj fo/kokvksa dks vkRefuHkZj cukrs gq, mUgsa mHkjrh gqbZ Lons”kh vFkZO;oLFkk ls tksM+rk gS] ogha nks dne ihNs gVdj mudh bl vkfFkZd Lokyacurk ij vkJe dk igjk Hkh cSBk nsrk gSA vkJe ds can ifjlj 1

MkW- vejukFk] i`"B 69] L=h la?k"kZ dk bfrgkl] jsek/ko ifCyds”kal a izkbosV fyfeVsM] ubZ fnYyh] izFke laLdj.k 2007 2 izsepan] i`"B la[;k 21] izfrKk] izdk”kd & lqfe= izdk”ku] bykgkckn] laLdj.k 2006 Page 145

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

esa fganw fo/kok L=h tgka ^izfrKk* ds deykizlkn tSls NqÍs lkaMksa ls egQwt jg ldrh gS] ogha Lo;a mldh ;kSfudrk ij fdlh izdkj ds inL[kyu dh dksbZ vk”kadk ugha jgrhA vkSj vxj ,slh dksbZ nq?kZVuk ?kVrh Hkh gS] rks mldh [kcjsa vkJe ds lsl a j dh utjksa ls cpdj ckgj Hkh ugha tk ldrhaA izsepan vius ^izfrKk* miU;kl dh “kq:vkr fo/kok fookg ij foe”kZ pykdj djrs gSaA izsepan dk foosd le; dh ekax dks lqu jgk Fkk fd ,d thrh&tkxrh ;qorh dks oS/kO; dh HkÍh esa >kSaduk iki gS] vekuoh; gSA ysfdu fir`lRrkRed fganw /keZ dh reke [kkfe;ksa ij izdk”k Mkyus ds ckn Hkh ijaijkxr /keZ O;oLFkk ds f[kykQ fu.kkZ;d pksV djus esa os yM+[kM+k tkrs gSaA ,d vksj os deykizlkn ds eqag ls oS/kO; ds fo/kku dks iq#"k dh dkeokluk rqf"V dk "kM~;a= rd dgyok nsrs gSa ysfdu fo/kok iw.kkZ dk fookg u djkdj varr% mls ofurk vkJe dh “kj.k esa gh /kdsy nsrs gSaA okLro esa leqfpr ckr Hkh vxj xyr lanHkZ vkSj xyr O;fDr ds eq[k ls fudys rks viuk izHkko [kksdj gkL; vkSj O;aX; dk fo"k; fdl izdkj cu tkrh gS] ;g ;gk¡ /;krO; gSA deykizlkn ,d nqjkpkjh vkSj foyklh O;fDr gSA d`i.krk vkSj dk;jrk ds dkj.k mldh ;g nq%izo`fr nch jgrh gSA ysfdu iw.kkZ tSlh fo/kok&vcyk L=h dk f”kdkj djus esa mls Qalus dh dksbZ vk”kadk ugha jgrhA og mlds oS/kO; ds izfr lgkuqHkwfr fn[kkdj vkSj fo/kok ds iqufoZokg ds rdZ nsdj mlds lrhRo dk Hkksx djuk pkgrk gSA vr% ,sls vik= O;fDr ds eq[k ls izsepan }kjk fo/kok fookg dk leFkZu djkuk fo/kok fookg fu"ks/k fo"k;d “khyn`"Vk lukruh fganw ekufldrk ij eqgj yxkuk gh gSA fganw fo/kok L=h dh =klnh ds izfr izsepan dh fpark vkSj eaxydkeuk dks ysdj lansg ugha fd;k tk ldrk ysfdu fo/kok L=h ds izfr ys[kd dk ut+fj;k n;k vkSj lgkuqHkwfr ls Åij ugha mB ikrkA fo/kok L=h Lo;a D;k lksprh gS vkSj D;k pkgrh gS] blls ^izfrKk* miU;kl essa ys[kd dk dgha dksbZ ljksdkj ugha jgk gSA fdlh Hkh LokfHkekuh balku dks fdlh dh n;k Lohdk;Z ugha gks ldrhA ,d fo/kok L=h esa Hkh laons uk,a gksrh gSa] og Hkh fdlh ls I;kj ds nks cksy lquuk pkg ldrh gSA mldk eu Hkh ltus&laojus vkSj ?kweus&fQjus dk gks ldrk gSA :fpdj vkSj LokLF;o/kZd Hkkstu mldh Hkh vfHkyk"kk dk fo"k; cu ldrk gSA ,d ftank balku dks vkJe ds tM+ fu;eksa esa lknxh&la;e ls jgus dks ck/; djuk ljklj mlds f[kykQ vU;k; gh gSA cslgkjk ,dkdh fo/kok iw.kkZ dks viuh iq=h rqY; ekudj nzfor gks mldh xqtj&clj dh O;oLFkk vius ?kj esa gh dj nsus dh ’kqHk fpark djus okys cnjhizlkn vkSj fo/kokvksa ds fy, i`Fkd ls ofurk vkJe [kksyus okys ve`rjk; esa fo/kok iqufoZokg dks ysdj pkgs miU;kl esa lS)kafrd erHksn fn[kkbZ nsrk gks ysfdu O;kogkfjd /kjkry ij fo/kok iqufoZokg dh ftEesnkjh ve`rjk; Hkh mBkrs ut+j ugha vkrsA fo/kok fookg dks ysdj okn&fookn os pkgs ftruk djsa ysfdu Lo;a ,sls ,d Hkh fookg ds fufeRr ugha cursA gka] pwfa d fganw lekt esa fo/kok fookg fuf"k) gS vr% os Lo;a fo/kqj gksus ij Hkh fookg ugha djrsA okLro esa ve`rjk; vkSj cnjhizlkn] nksuksa dh okLrfod fpark fganw fo/kok L=h ds lrhRo dh j{kk djds fganw /keZ dh ykt j[kuk gh gSA igys lTtu blds fy, oS;fDrd Lrj ij ,d fganw fo/kok dks vius ?kj esa vkJ; nsrs gSa tcfd nwljs lTtu laLFkkxr Lrj ij ofurk vkJe ds ek/;e ls ;gh dk;Z djrs gSaA bl ofurk vkJe dh vafre ifj.kfr thou ds vafre lzksr dh ryk’k esa iw.kkZ tSlh vlgk; fo/kok fL=;ksa dk d`".k HkfDr dh “kj.k esa tkuk gh gks ldrk FkkA iw.kkZ dk bZ’oj HkfDr dh vksj >qdko mldh Lora= bPNkvks& a dkeukvksa ds “keu gsrq t:jh Hkh FkkA fo/kok m)kj dk HkkxhjFkh vkanksyu pykus okys ve`rjk; dh ,d vkn”kZ fganw L=h dks ysdj tks vo/kkj.kk gS] og Hkh miU;kl esa ys[kd ds Åij fir`lRrkRed fganw ijaijk dk izHkko www.dalitsahitya.com

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

dgh tk ldrh gSA os vius fe= nkuukFk ls vuqjks/k djrs gSa fd og izsek ds izse ds izfr dksbZ vk”kadk vius fny esa u vkus ns D;ksafd ^^og dqyizFkk ij ej feVus okyh lPph vk;Z je.kh gSA mlds izse dk vFkZ gh gS ifr&izseA izse dk dksbZ nwljk :Ik og tkurh gh ugha vkSj u “kk;n tkusxhA eq>ls mls blfy, izse Fkk fd og eq>s viuk Hkkoh ifr le>rh FkhA cl mldk izse mlds drZO; ds v/khu gSA** 1 Li"V gS fd ^izfrKk* miU;kl esa izsepan dk fo/kok m)kj fo"k;d n`f"Vdks.k lq/kkjoknh gh gS] Økafrdkjh ughaA vk/kqfudrk vkSj ijaijk dk “kk”or }a} ;gka Hkh gSA oSls fo/kokvksa dks /kkfeZd LFkyksa ij NksM+ vkus dh vekuoh; dqizFkk ds LFkku ij muds fy, fo/kok vkJe dk funsZ”ku izsepan dh fdafpr izxfr”khyrk dk |ksrd rks gS ghA

1

Okgh] i`"B la[;k 25]

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

nfyr dgkuh dk L=hoknh Loj MkW- czãk uan1 nfyr efgyk ysf[kdkvksa dh dFkk n`f”V fulangs nfyr iq#”kksa ls vyx gS vkSj ;g vyx gksuk LokHkkfod Hkh gSA nfyr efgyk dh fLFkfr iq#”k dh rqyuk esa vf/kd ;krukxzLr ,oa n;uh; gS mlds nX/k vuqHko nfyr iq#”kksa ds vuqHkoksa dh rqyuk esa T;knk d”Vdkjh gSA nfyr fL=;ksa dks ,d lkFk frgjk ‘kks”k.k vFkkZr~ fyax] tkfr ,oa vFkZ ds vk/kkj ij lguk iM+rk gSA nfyr lekt dh L=h dks nfyr iq#”kksa dh fiŸk`lRkkREkd ekufldrk dh ihM+k dks lgrs gq,] mPPk o.kZ ds iq#”kksa ds Øwjre vR;kpkj Hkh lguk iM+rk gaSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd nfyr efgyk ys[ku iq#”k ys[kd dh vis{kk vf/kd vkØks’k ls Hkjk gqvk gSA nfyr efgyk dFkkdkj bl fcUnq ij le>kSrk ugha djrh gSaA og ys[kuh dks gfFk;kj cukdj lkekftd ,oa lkaLd`frd x<+ra ij dM+k izgkj djrh gSA blh izgkj ds ifj.kkeLo:Ik og u;s lkekftd ,oa LkkaLd`frd izfrekuksa dk l`tu Hkh djrh gSA nfyr efgyk dFkkdkjksa dk ys[ku&deZ blh vksj ladsr djrk gSA thou ds dVq vUkqHkoksa us budh jpukvksa dks vf/kd fonzksgh cuk;k gSA ;g fonzksg ,oa vkØks’k O;oLFkk ds izfr gS] ;g fouk’k dk i;kZ; u gksdj l`tu dk i;kZ; cu dj mifLFkr gqvk gSA dqlqe fo;ksxh dh dgkuh ^vafre c;ku^ dh dFkkokLrq dk vk/kkj ;gh gSA xkao ds ncax tehankjksa }kjk nfyr fL=;ka ges’kk ls viekfur gksrh vk;h gSaA [ksy&[kfygkuksa esa fcuk etnwjh fn;s dke djkuk] ckr&ckr ij tkfr dk cks/k djkuk vkSj tcju~ ‘kkjhfjd ‘kks”k.k tSlh ?kVuk,a nfyr lekt dh fL=;ksa dks fujarj lguh iM+rh gSA ;g ?kVuk,a nfyr efgykvksa ds vkRelEeku dks Bsl igqapkrh gSaA ,slh ?kVukvksa dk nfyr fL=;ksa ds O;fDRkRo ij nwjxkeh izHkko iM+rk gSA blls mudk vkRelEEkku rks [kafMr gksrk gh gS lkFk gh og ekufld :Ik ls dqaBk dh f’kdkj Hkh gks tkrh gSaA bldk lcls ?kkrd ifj.kke ;g gksrk gS fd os bls HkkX; ds :Ik esa Lohdkj djus yxrh gSa] vkSj og Hkfo”; dh laHkkoukvksa ds izfr iw.kZr% udkjkREkd gks tkrh gSaA /;ku nsus okyh ckr ;g gS fd nfyr efgyk dFkkdkjksa us bl leL;k ls eqfDr ikus dk jkLrk Lo;a ryk’kk gSA viuh eqfDRk ds fy, og iq#”k ij fuHkZj ugha gS] nfyr efgyk ysf[kdkvksa esa ;g ckr fo’ks”k :Ik ls mHkj dj vk jgh gS ftls vyx ls fpà djus dh vko’;drk gSA ^vafre c;ku^ dh vrjks dk thou la?k”kZ blh vksj ladsr djrk gSA Hkkjrh; lekt esa L=h dk lkSan;Z gh mlds ‘kks”k.k dk dkj.k cu tkrk gS] ;g mlds thou dh lcls cM+h foMEcuk gSA xkao ds tehankj] ftuds [ksrksa esa og dke djus tkrh gS] ml ij dqn`f”V j[krs gSa vkSj volj feyrs gh viuk tkfr; naHk iznf’kZr djus ls ugha pwdrs gSaA dqlqe fo;ksxh us fcydqy Bhd dgk gS fd ^^xkao dh izFkk gh dqN vyx gSA xjhc dh yqxkbZ xkao Hkj dh HkkStkbZ tks yxrh] lkB lky dk cw<k+ Hkh chl lky dh vkSjr dks HkkHkh dgus esa ‘kjekrk] ijUrq chl lky dh vkSjr ds fny esa vkx&lh t:j yx tkrh] fdlesa lkgl gS tks fojks/k ds Loj mBk ikrhA^^1 tks dfFkr vkykspd ^LokuqHkwfr^ rRo dks [kkfjt djus ij rqys gSa mUgsa nfyr lkfgR; vkSj fo’ks”kdj L=h&foe’kZ dk lkfgR; t:j i<+uk pkfg,] dqlqe fo;ksxh L=h gSa] vkSj tkfr ls nfyr HkhA og fL=;ksa ds nnZ dks le>rh gSa] fo’ks”kdj nfyr efgykvksa ds] rHkh rks tc lkB lky dk cq<+k O;fDr chl lky dh ;qorh dks HkkHkh dgrk gS rc mlds fny esa tks vkx yxrh gS] mldk og lVhd o.kZu djrh gSaA bl izdkj dh ihM+k ;qDr euksn’kk dk o.kZu ogh dj ldrk gS ftlus ;g ihM+k lgh gksA ‘kksf”kr L=h vieku dk ?kaVq ih dj jg tkrh gS og fojks/k ugha dj ikrh gSA fojks/k djus dk lh/kk vFkZ gS xkao dh dqfRlr ijaijk dk fojks/k djuk] tks o”kksaZ ls xkao dh lkekftd ,oa lkaLd`frd thou dk fgLlk cu dj yksxksa ds fnyks&fnekx esa bl izdkj cSB x;h gS fd ‘kksf”kr ,oa ihfM+r tu mls vius thou dh fu;fr eku pqds gSaA ,sls esa xkao dh iqjkuh ih<+h ls ifjorZu dh mEehn djuk O;FkZ gh gS] ,slk ugha gS fd mlesa fryfeykgV ugha gS] mlesa fryfeykgV gS ysfdu ;g fdl :Ik esa izdV gks bldh 1

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

Li”V js[kk muds lkeus ugha gS blhfy, mldh fryfeykgV nch jg tkrh gSA ^vafre c;ku^ dgkuh esa ;gh gksrk gSA xkao ds iz/kku dk yM+dk jktsUnz xkao dh nfyr yM+dh vrjks ij dqfn`”V j[krk gS] ;g ckr vrjks dh HkkHkh deyk vkSj Hkjrjh nksuksa tkurh gSAa [ksr ls U;kj ysus tkrs oDr jktsUnz vrjks ij v’yhy fVdk&fVIIk.kh djrk Fkk] vrjks dks ;g cqjk yxrk gS] mldh HkkHkh mls fojks/k djus ls euk djrh gSa] D;kafs d og tkurh gaS fd fojks/k dk ifj.kke nfyrksa ds fy, gkfudkjd gksxk] ysfdu vrjks dks ;g cqjk yxrk gS] og lkgl djds vdsys fojks/k djus dk fu.kZ; ysrh gS] mldk fu.kZ; lcdks pkSadkrk gS] jksxa Vs [kM+s dj nsrk gSA tc jktsUnz vrjks ds lkFk [ksr esa tcjnLrh djrk gS rc og gafl;k ls ml ij izgkj djrh gS vkSj mlds iq#”kRo ds izrhd dks dkV nsrh gSA ‘kkjhfjd ‘kks”k.k dk ,slk izfrjks/k ‘kk;n gh dgha ns[kus&i<+us dks feys] izfrjks/k dk ;g <ax ikBd ds jkaxs Vs [kM+s dj nsrk gS] lkFk gh og ‘kks”k.k dh f’kdkj L=h dh ekufld ihM+k ,oa mlls mRiUu vkØks’k dk Hkh ,glkl djrh gSA laosnuk ds Lrj ij ;g dgkuh ikBd ds eu esa cspSuh iSnk djrh gS] ,slh gh ,d dgkuh dqlqe es?koky dh gS ogka Hkh l=g o”khZ; nfyr ;qorh teuk vius lkFk gq, cykRdkj dk izfrdkj blh <+xa ls djrh gSA xkao ds Bkdqj dk yM+dk lqesj vkSj mlds lkFkh teuk dks rhu fnu rd ca/kd cukdj j[krs gSaA teuk fdlh rjg muds paxy q ls Hkkx fudyrh gS] vkSj vius xkao igqprh gSA xkao okys Bkdqj ds yM+ds dk fojks/k djus dh txg ij teuk dks gh nks”kh ekurs gSaA teuk xkao okyksa ds O;aX; ok.k ls vkgr gks tkrh gS rHkh mldk HkkbZ ghjk vkxs vkrk gS vkSj mls fgEer ca/kkrk gSA blh fgEer ds cy ij og Bkdqj ds yM+ds ls vius vieku dk cnyk ysus dk iz.k djrh gSA ghjk xkao ds uo ;qodksa ds lkFk Bkdqj ds yM+ds lqesj ds f[kykQ ekspkZcna h djrk gS vkSj teuk vius vieku dk cnyk ysdj viuk izfr’kks/k iwjk djrh gSA dqlqe es?koky us fy[kk gS ^^ghjk dk lkgl ns[k dj vU; ;qod Hkh viuh >ksifM+;ksa ls yV~B ysdj eSnku esa vk VwVs----teuk vk¡[ksa QkM+s viuh bTTkr ywVus okys uj&fi’kkp dks ns[k jgh FkhA vc mldh ckjh Fkh] vaxkjk cuh teuk nkSMh+ &nkSM+h ?kj esa xbZ vkSj dksus esa iM+h njkrh mBk ykbZA ljdkj vkSj iqfyl ftls ltk ugha ns ikbZ] mls teuk us ns nh] viuk izfr’kks/k iwjk fd;kA mlus lqesj ds iq#”kRo ds izrhd vax dks gh dkV dj mlds ‘kjhj ls vyx dj fn;kA og rM+i jgk FkkA vc mldk cpuk laHko ugha FkkA^^2 /;ku nsus okyh ckr ;g gS fd ;gka teuk dk izfrjks/k Hkh vrjks ds izfrjks/k ds leku gh gS fgald vkSj vkSj fryfeyk nsus okyk gSA dqN iy ds fy, ikBd lksp esa iM+ tkrk gS] ;gka teuk izrhdkRed :Ik ls mu lHkh nfyr efgykvksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrh gS ftUgsa tkfr ds vk/kkj ij izfrfnu viekfur gksuk iM+rk gS vkSj teuk dk izfr’kks/k mu nfyr fL=;ksa dk izfr’kks/k cu tkrk gS ftUgsa xkao ds dfFkr tehankj vius tkfr; vge dh rqf”V ds fy, ‘kkjhfjd ‘kks”k.k dk f’kdkj cukrs gSaA eq[;/kkjk ds lkfgR; esa bl rjg ds izfr’kks/k dh dYiuk Hkh ugha tk ldrh Fkh ;gka izfrjks/k dh rhozrk ds dkj.kksa dks tkuuk t:jh gS lkFk gh Hkkjrh; lekt O;oLFkk ds mu rarvq ksa dks Hkh le>uk t:jh gS ftlds dkj.k nfyr fL=;ksa us ;g fgald jkLrk viuk;k gSA o.kZ&O;oLFkk tfur Hkkjrh; lekt esa nfyr L=h xSj&nfyr iq#”kksa dk ftruk ‘kkjhfjd ‘kks”k.k lgrh vkbZ gS mls ‘kCnksa esa c;ku djuk laHko ugha gSA ih<+h&nj&ih<+h nfyr fL=;ksa dks xkao ds dfFkr tehanjksa dk ‘kkjhfjd ‘kks”k.k lguk iM+k gS ftls L=h ewd Hkko ls lgrh vkbZ gSA og izfrjks/k rks djuk pkgrh Fkh] ysfdu mldk izfrjks/k ?kj dh ngyht esa gh ?kqVdj jg tkrk FkkA dHkh ^cgw&tqBkbZ^ ds uke ij rks dHkh ^nsonklh^ ds uke ij] mlus mu vufxur vR;kpkjksa dks lgk gS ftldh lH; lekt esa dYiuk rd ugha dh tk ldrh gSA eksgunkl uSfe’kjk; us ^viuk xkao^ dgkuh esa nfyr ;qorh dcwrjh ds ek/;e ls bl nnZ dks c;ku fd;k gSA uSfe’kjk; ds vuqlkj ^^ftl xkao us vkt rd dcwrjh dk eqag rd us ns[kk Fkk] dykbZ esa iM+h pwfM+;ksa dh Hkh dsoy vkokt lquh Fkh] mlh dks eknjtkn uaxk ns[kuk iM+k FkkA nsoj] lkl] uun lHkh rks bdV~Bk gks x, FksA cPPks] cw<+s vkSj toku vf/kdka’k vkSjrsa rks ;g lc ns[krs gh ph[krs gh Hkkx xbZ FkhaA dqN yqd&fNidj ns[k jgh FkhaA ekavksa us viuh csfV;ksa dks fNik fy;k FkkA mUgksua s vius&vius ?kjksa ds njoktksa dks cUn dj lkady yxk yh FkhA lkeus ls vkrs tqywl esa ykSaM&+s yqa?kkM+s vf/kd FksA gj ,d dh vka[kksa esa vyx&vyx Hkko] ‘kEkZ ls ysdj ftKklk dh vuqHkwfr;ka] langs vkSj vkØks’kA lcdh vka[kksa ds leus dcwrjh dk ‘kjhj cQZ dh rjg fi?kyus yxk FkkA ‘kjhj dk ,d&,d vax [kqy x;k FkkA vfLerk drjk&drjk gksdj fc[kj xbZ FkhA----mldh tkr esa Page 149

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

cgqr de vkSjrsa ,slh gksxa h] ftUgsa Bkdqj ds cqykos ij gosyh esa u tkuk iM+k gksA ,d&,d ds cnu us vupkgs og lc >syk FkkA blfy, xkao esa de mez dh csfV;ksa ds gkFk ihys dj mUgsa llqjky Hkst fn;k tkrk FkkA tks ckgj ls bl xkao esa cgq cudj vkrh Fkha] muds igys nks&rhu lky vthc&ls /keZ ladV esa xqtjrs FksA xkao esa igys ls gh dqN ,slh ijaijk FkhA mUgha ijaijkvksa dks xkao ds yksx vks<+u&s fCkNkus ds fy, etcwj FksA^^3 bruk ‘kks”k.k vkSj viekuA bldk izfrjks/k rks gksuk gh Fkk] Øks/k ds ykos dks ,d fnu QqVuk gh FkkA eksgunkl uSfe’kjk; iq#”k gksdj Hkh ftl lthork ls nfyr L=h dh euksn’kk dks O;Dr dj jgs gSa blls nfyr L=h ds ‘kkjhfjd ‘kks”k.k dh Hk;kogrk dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA dVq ls dVq] fo”ke ls fo”ke lkaLd`frd ,oa lkekftd vieku dks lgus ds ckn tSls gh nfyr efgykvksa ds gkFk esa ys[kuh vkbZ mUgksua s viuk izfrjks/k vR;ar dBksj ‘kCnksa esa ntZ djuk ‘kq: dj fn;kA blhfy, nfyr efgyk ys[ku nfyr iq#”k&ys[ku dh rqyuk esa vf/kd dBksj Loj esa izfrjks/k ntZ djrk gSA nhxj ckr rks ;g gS fd Hkkjrh; lekt esa fir`lŸkkRed O;oLFkk dk bruk vf/kd izHkko gS fd u dsoy nfyr L=h] cfYd xSj&nfyr fL=;ksa dks Hkh thou ds izR;sd {ks= esa fyax vk/kkfjr vklekurk ,oa ‘kks”k.k lguk iM+rk gS] ysfdu izfrjks/k dk bruk eq[kj :Ik xSj&nfyr fL=;ksa ds ys[ku esa ugha feyrk gSA vDlj nfyr ys[ku ij ,d Lojh gksus dk vkjksi xSj&nfyr vkykspdksa ds }kjk yxk;k tkrk gS nfyr dgkfu;ka bu vkjksiksa dk Lo;a gh [kaMu dj nsrh gaS] fo’ks”kdj nfyr efgyk dFkkdkjksa dh dgkfu;kaA bu dgkfu;ksa dh fo”koLrq esa ftruk fo”k; oSfo/; gS] vkSj u dsoy oSfo/; gS] cfYd os laosnuk dh n`f”V ls ftruh ekfeZd gSa ml izdkj dh dgkfu;ksa dk vU; dgha feyuk nqyZHk gSA dosjh dh ^lqeaxyh^ dgkuh blh izdkj dh gSA fo”k; oLrq dh n`f”V ls ;g dgkuh nfyr dFkk&lkfgR; dks u;k vk;ke nsrh gSA dgkuh dh fo’ks”krk ;g gS fd bl dgkuh esa dkosjh iq#”k dh rqyuk esa i’kq dks Js”B ekurh gaSA tc pkjksa rjQ L=h&nsg ij ut+j xM+k;s iq#”k gks rks ,sls esa vlgk; L=h ds ikl ,d ek= vk/kkj euq”ksrj tho gh cprk gS ftldk og vkJ; ik dj lcy eglwl djrh gSA ftlls og ckrphr dj viuk nq%[k ckaVrh gSA dkosjh dh ^lqeaxyh^ dgkuh bldk l’kDRk mnkgj.k gSA dkosjh dk ;g dFku jksxa Vs [kM+s dj nsus okyk gS &^^cq[kkj ls lqfx;k cspSu gSA ‘kkjhfjd ihM+k ls dgha T;knk ihM+k mlds eu esa gSA D;ksfa d viukiu ds nks ‘kCn fdlh ls ugha feysA bl Hkjh nqfu;k esa mldk viuk dgykus okyk gS Hkh dkSu \ dksbZ rks ughaA flQZ eaxyh dh dqfr;k gh ,slh gS] ftls og viuk dg ldrh gSA viuh etnwjh dk vk/kk fgLlk og eaxyh dks gh f[kykrh gS vkSj vk/ks ls viuk xqtkjk djrh gSA tks I;kj mls euq”; ls ugha ns ik;k] og I;kj og bl ewd tkuoj ls ik jgh gSA^^4 fulangs fyax&Hksn vk/kkfjr fo”kerkiw.kZ O;oLFkk ek= dkosjh dh fpark ugha gS ;g fpark nfyr lkfgR; dh ewy fpark gSA ;gka dqfr;k izrhd ds :Ik esa vkbZ gS tks dfFkr iq#”k dh rqyuk esa L=h ds fy, vf/kd Hkjkslsean fe= fl) gksrh gSA Hkou fuekZ.k ds Bsdsnkjksa dk pfj= mn~?kkfVr djrh ;g dgkuh ukjh ‘kks”k.k ds ml :Ik dks c;ku djrh gS tks laHkor dHkh&dHkh gh lkfgR; dh fo”k; oLrq curh gSA vukFk] cslgkjk] lqfx;k tc ^^vkB ;k ukS lky dh Fkh vius dks Bsdsnkj dh j[kSy gh le>k FkkA Bsdsnkj ds gokys mls fdlus fd;k Fkk] ;kn ughaA Bsdsnkj ds dkfeuks ds chp og Hkh dkfeu dk dke djrh----lqfx;k tc ek= ckjg o”kZ dh Fkh] rHkh mls vkSjr cuk fn;k x;k FkkA mls ;kn gS og dkyh eugwl jkrA viuh Vksyh ds chp og cs[kcj lksbZ FkhA vpkud mlds ‘kjhj ij ykSg&Li’kZ&lk gqvkA vkSj ml ij ,d nSR;uqek Nk;k lokj FkhA og ph[krh jgh] lqcdrh jghA Hkxoku dk okLrk nsrh jgh] ij mldh ph[k iqdkj jkr ds vaf/k;kjs esa foyhu gks xbZ vkSj ml cglh nfjans us] Hkw[ks HksfM+;s Bsdsnkj us viuh euekuh djds gh mls NksM+kA^^5 ;gh ls lqfx;k ij vR;kpkj dk flyfylk ‘kq: gksrk gSA xHkZorh gksus ij Bsdsnkj lqfx;k dh ‘kknh nq[kuk etnwj ls djk nsrk gSA dke djrs gq, ,d fnu fcfYMax dh pkSFkh eafty ls fxj dj nq[kuk dh ekSr gks tkrh gSA dky dk Øwj pØ ,d ckj fQj lqfx;k dks ueZ f’kdkj ds :Ik esa rCnhy dj nsrk gSA Bsdsnkj fQj ls lqfx;k dk ‘kks”k.k djrk gSA var esa lqfx;k dks ,slk yxus yxrk gS fd ekuo ls dgha T;knk Hkjksls dk tho Ik’kq gSA ;g lqfx;k ds thou dh foMEcuk gS ;k fQj ekuo tkfr dh foMEcuk] ;gka ;g ,d cM+k iz’u gSA ;gka vkdj ;s dgkuh mu lHkh dkedkth etnwj vkSjr dh dgkuh cu tkrh gS] tks izfrfnu&izfriy ewdHkko www.dalitsahitya.com

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

dfFkr Bsdsnkjksa ds vR;kpkjksa dks lgrh gSaA nfyr ysf[kdkvksa dh jpuk,a vius O;kid dysoj esa mu lHkh fir`lŸkkRed&O;oLFkk ds miknkuksa dk fo’ys”k.k djrh gS ftuds dkj.k L=h dks ^L=h^ cuuk iM+rk gS dgus dk vFkZ ;g gS fd nfyr ysf[kdkvksa dh n`f”V cgqr gh lw{e ,oa ekjd {kerk ls ySl gS] tks mUgsa lekt ds mu dfFkr rUrqvksa dk xaHkhjrk iwoZd fo’ys”k.k djus dh ‘kfDr nsrh gS ftlds dkj.k og ekuo laLd`fr ds mu izR;sd igyqvksa dks ekuork ds /kjkry ij i[krh gaSA ^ifo=rk^ ds uke ij fd, tkus okys vekuqf”kd O;ogkj nfyr ,oa xSj&nfyr fL=;ksa dks ekufld ,oa ‘kkjhfjd :Ik ls izrkfM+r djrs gSa bl dfFkr ^ifo=rk^ dks lkaLd`frd ,oa /kkfeZd vk/kkj ds lkFk la;qDr djds Hkkjrh; lekt esa bls ,d ,sls feFkd ds :Ik esa fufeZr fd;k x;k gS] ftldk Lo:Ik loZekU;&lk gks x;k gS] nwljs ‘kCnksa esa lekt ds dfFkr lkaLd`frd rUrqvksa us mls HkO; ekudj izdkjkUr ls L=h ds fy, mfpr ekuk x;k gSA ;g L=h ‘kks”k.k dk gh ,d :Ik gSA ;g O;oLFkk ukjh ds lkFk gq, nqO;Zogkj dks mfpr Bgjkrh gSA nhxj ckrk ;g gS fd bl dfFkr ifo=rk dh ekj nfyr ,oa xSj&nfyr nksuksa oxZ dh efgykvksa ij iM+rh gSA pwfa d nfyr efgykvksa dks Hkkjrh; lekt esa frgjk ‘kks”k.k lguk iM+rk gS blfy, nfyr efgykvksa dh dgkfu;ksa esa bu rhukas izdkj ds ‘kks”k.k dh rfY[k;ksa dks eglwl fd;k tkrk ldrk gSA laHko ;gh dkj.k gS fd ;s dgkfu;ka ek= dgkfu;ka ugha gSa] cfYd lekt dk og ;FkkFkZ gS tks vc rd misf{kr Fkk] efgyk dFkkdkjksa us ml ;FkkFkZ dks ys[kuh ds ek/;e ls mdsj dj lekt ds lekus j[k fn;k gSA njvly nfyr lkfgR; us ,d Lis’k fufeZr fd;k gS tgka nfyr fL=;ka vius Åij gq, vR;kpkjksa dk [kqydj o.kZu djrh gSaA pwfa d nfyr leqnk; dh Hkh dqN tkfr;ksa dh lkaLd`frd ,oa /kkfeZd ekU;rk,a bl izdkj dh gSa fd og L=h ‘kks”k.k dks U;k; laxr Bgjkrh gSaA ^datj^ leqnk; ij dsfa nzr lq’khyk VkdHkkSjs dh dgkuh ^jkedyh^ bl rF; dks mn~?kkfVr djrh gSA ;g ,d ?kwera w lekt ij vk/kkfjr dgkuh gSA ;|fi bl leqnk; dh fL=;ka Je Hkh djrh gSa vkSj vius ifjokj dk ikyu&iks”k.k Hkh djrh gaS] blds ckn Hkh ;g lekt efgykvksa ds lanHZ k esa iwokZxgz ls xzfLr gSA bl leqnk; dh L=h fo”k;d ekU;rk,a iq#”koknh ekUkfldrk ls xzLr gSA VkdHkkSjs ^jkedyh^ ds ek/;e ls datj leqnk; dh mu lkaLd`frd ekU;rkvksa dk fo’ys”k.k djrh gSa tks L=h dks lgt ugha jgus nsrh gSaA ‘kknh fookg dh ekU;rkvksa dk Mj fujarj yM+fd;kas dks Mjkrk jgrk gSA VkdHkkSjs ds vuqlkj ^^jkedyh dh lqUnjrk dks ns[kdj xkao ds eupys ukStokuksa dk fny epy tkrkA os mlls galh etkd djrsA jkedyh galrh] eqldqjkrh] etkd Hkh djrh exj dHkh fdlh ds pDdj esa ugha vkrhA mls irk gS fd mldk C;kg mldh tkfr esa gksxkA---muds ;gka ‘kknh ds jhfrjhokt Hkh cgqr dBksj gSaA os ?kqeDdM+ thou thrs gSaA muds lkFk&lkFk muds toku csfV;ka Hkh txg&txg vkSj xkao&xkao tkrh gSaA cktkjksa vkSj cLrh ds ?kjksa esa jfLl;ka vkSj cjfu;ka csprh gSaA fdldk pfj= dSlk gS&fdlh dks fdlh ij fo’okl ugha jgrkA blfy, muds ‘kknh C;kg ds jhfr&jhokt Hkh vyx izdkj ds gSaA^^6 ;g jhfr&jhokt jkedyh ds eu esa Hk; iSnk djrs gSa bu jhfr&jhoktksa dh lkjh dBksjrk L=h ds gh i{k esa vkrh gSA xkao &xkao leku cspus ds fy, HkVdus okys datj leqnk; dh yM+fd;ksa dks ‘kknh ds oDr viuh ifo=rk dh ijh{kk nsuh gksrh gSA ftlds ckn gh mudh ‘kknh laiUUk gksrh gSA jkedyh vius leqnk; dh yM+dh xkserh ds fookg dk o.kZu djrs gq,] vius lekt dh mu dfFkr ijaijkvksa dk mn~?kkVu djrh gS] tks okLro esa jksxaVs [kM+s dj nsus okys gSaA ’kknh ds oDRk viuh ifo=rk dks izekf.kr djus ds fy, xkserh dks yky /k/kdrs vaxkjksa ij pyus ds fy, dgk x;k] og Mj xbZ ^^fQj ckjkr ds le>nkj yksxksa us dgk&yM+dh uknku gSA NksVs /khes vaxkjs mldh gFksyh ij j[k nks--rc mlds nknk&llqj us mlls dgk] csVh gFksyh lkeus QSykvksAa xkserh Mj ds dkj.k eqag fNik dj gFksyh QSyk nhA rc mUgksua s NksVs&NksVs cq>s vaxkjs mldh gFksyh ij j[ks vkSj mls eqVBh cka/kus ds fy, dgkA xkserh us vius gkFkksa dh eqVBh esa vxkajksa dks cka/k fy;k vPNk gqvk iV~Bh us vkokt gh fudkyhA u jksbZ u fpYYkkbZA rc tkdj lcdks larks”k gqvkA lc [kq’kh ls ukpus yxsA lc rjQ ‘kksj gqvk] lc dgus yxs&thr xbZ---thr xbZA fQj Hkkaoj Qsjk gq,A---nqYgu ds thrus ls ek;ds vkSj llqjky nksuksa rjQ [kq’kh gks tkrh gSA xkserh dk [kwc eku lEeku gqvkA eSus iwNk&;fn xkserh ph[k dj vaxkj Qsad nsrh rks \ Page 151

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

rks ckjkr ykSV tkrhA eka cki vkSj iwjs [kkunku dh ukd dV tkrhA xkserh dk Hkh [kwc vieku gksrk fQj mldh dgha ‘kknh ugha gksrhA fdlh nqtoj ds lkFk mlds ?kj fCkBkuk iM+rkA feyrk dksbZ cw<+k] nks&pkj cPPkksa dk ckiA og Hkh ftUnxh Hkj mls rkus nsrk&mBrs&cSBrs ijs’kku djrk] jkr fnu dgrk&rw thrh ugha Fkh] rw cknek’k gS] rw fNuky gSA^^7 egRoiw.kZ rF; ;g gS fd ifo=rk dh izekf.kdrk iq#”k dks ugha nsuh iM+rh gSA fir`lŸkkRed lekt vius fgrksa dh j{kk djus ds fy, bl rjg ds dfFkr fu;eksa ds }kjk L=h dks vius vk/khu j[krk gSA L=h f’k{kk blls eqfDRk dk ,d ek= mik; gSA f’k{kk ds fy, la?k”kZ nfyr ysf[kdvksa dh jpuk esa rhozre :Ik ls fo|eku gSA os bl rF; dks le> pqdh gSa fd f’k{kk ds vHkko esa gh os ‘kksf”kr ,oa ihfM+r gksrh gSaA f’k{kk ds vHkko esa os rdZghu gksdj HkkX;oknh curh gSaA jtr jkuh ehuw vkSj lq’khyk VkdHkkSjs vkfn ysf[kdkvksa dh jpuk,a HkkX; ,oa deZQy vkfn ds fryLe dks rksM+rh gaSA ;fn O;ogkfjd n`f”V ls ns[ksa rks vkt Hkh nfyr efgyk ds fy, f’k{kk izkIr djuk vklku ugha gSA blds fy, mUgsa lekt dk dM+k izfr’kks/k lguk iM+rk gSA dHkh xSj&nfyrksa rks dHkh vius gh ifjokj ds lnL;ksa dk dksi lguk iM+rk gSA nfyr efgykvksa dh vkRedFkk bldk izek.k gSA lp rks ;g gS fd pkgs og jekdyh gks fQj flfy;k budh eqfDRk dk jLrk f’k{kk ls gh [kqysxkA lq’khyk VkdHkkSjs dh ^flfy;k^ ;g tkurh gS fd vkRelEeku f’k{kk ls gh izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA og lksprh gS fd ^^ge brus ykpkj gSa] vkRelEeku jfgr gSa gekjk viuk Hkh rks dqN vga Hkko gSA----ge muds Hkjksls D;ksa jgsAa i<+kbZ d:axh] i<+rs jgwxa hA f’k{kk ds lkFk vius O;fDRkRo dks Hkh cM+k cukÅxhaA mu lHkh ijaijkvksa ds dkj.kksa dk irk yxkaÅxh] ftUgksua s mUgsa vNwr cuk fn;k gSA fOk|k] cqf) vkSj foosd ls vius vkidks Åapk fl) djds jgwxa hA fdlh ds lkeus >qdxwa h ughaA u gh vieku lgwaxhA^^8 vLi`’;rk ds dkj.kksa dh rkyk’k gh flfy;k dks i<+us ds fy, izsfjr djrh gS] ysfdu lHkh nfyr L=h dk thou flfy;k dh rjg ugha gksrk gSA dbZ ckj ifjokj ds lnL;ksa ds }kjk f’k{kk esa ck/kk mRiUUk djus dk Hkh iz;kl fd;k tkrk gSA fir`lŸkkRed ekufldrk Hkh nfyr fL=;ksa dks i<+us ls jksdrh gSA fulangs nfyr lekt dh ;qok ih<+h ifjorZu dk Lokxr djrh gS og L=h vf/kdkjksa dh fgek;rh gSA ijUrq efgyk dFkkdkjksa dh jpukvksa esa dbZ ckj blds foijhr pfj= Hkh vk,a gSaA ;g lp gS fd efgykvksa }kjk ys[kuh mBuk gh lcls cM+h Økafr gS] og csokd <+Xa k ls vius Åij gq, vR;kpkjksa dks RkFkk vklikl ds lekt ds dfFkr psgjks dks csudkc djrh gSA og fn[kkoVh izxfr’khyrk dks csudkc djrh gSA blesa dksbZ nks jk; ugha fd nfyr iq#”k ds vanj Hkh dbZ ckj iq#”k vagdkj tkxzr gks tkrk gSA lq’khyk VkdHkkSjs us viuh vkRedFkk ^f’kdats dk nnZ^ esa bldk o.kZu djrs gq, vius ifr lqanjyky VkdHkkSjs ds }kjk fd, x, ekufld ,oa ‘kkjhfjd ‘kks”k.k dk o.kZu fd;k gS] ogha ejkBh nfyr fpard ukenso <lky dh iRuh efYydk vej’ks[k us viuh vkichrh ^eSa [kk[k esa fey tkuk pgrh gw^a esa vius ifr ds ?kjsyw O;ogkj ds fo”k; esa fy[kk gS fd ^^mldh jktuhfr eq>s jkl ugha vkrh Fkh vkSj eSa mlds fopkjksa ls vkSj vkpj.k ls dqN nwjh cuk, gq, FkhA fQj Hkh ?kj ds yksxksa dh /kkj.kk ;gh Fkh fd mldh iRuh gksus ds ukrs eSa iw.kZr% mlds lkFk g¡wA eq>s ;gh ckr vf/kd lkyrh FkhA ifr ds vkykok Hkh iRuh dk dksbZ vfLrRo gksrk gS] mldk vyx O;fDRkROk gksrk gS& bl RkF; dks dksbZ Lohdkj ugha djrkA9 ;|fi ;g lgh gS fd nfyr lekt eas fir`lŸkkRed O;oLFkk dk Øwjre :Ik ugha feyrk gS] ysfdu fQj Hkh dqN ys[kd bl ekufldrk ds xzflr ,oa lapkfyr gaS rHkh nfyr fL=;ka mu fLFkfr;ksa dk o.kZu dj jgh gSaA jtr jkuh dh dgkuh ^os fnu^ blh izdkj dh ?kVuk ij vk/kkfjr gSA jtr jkuh ehuw dh ^/kks[kk^ dgkuh dks ;fn nfyr dgkuh dh miYkfC/k dgk tk, rks ;g vfr’;ksfDRk ugha gksxhA tks xSj&nfyr vkykspd nfyr lkfgR; ij ,dlqjh; gksus dk vkjksi yxkrs gSa mu vkjksiksa dks ;g dgkuh ,d eqdEey tkokc nsrh gS vkSj nfyr dgkuh ds ljksdkjksa dks uohu vk;ke nsrh gSA ^fyfoax fjys’uf’ki^ ;kfu dh lgthou vFkkZr ^fcuk ‘kknh ds L=h&iq#”k dk ,d lkFk jguk^] bl ubZ lkekftd&lkaLd`frd O;oLFkk us Hkkjrh; lekt esa vkSj fo’ks”k :Ik ls L=h&thou esa tks fu.kkZ;d cnyko fd, gSa ;g dgkuh ml ij pksV djrh gSA bls nfyr n`f”Vdks.k dk foLrkj gh dgk tk,xkA dgkuh ds ek/;e ls jtr jkuh us bl vR;k/kqfud oSdfYid&fookg laLFkk dk fod`r :Ik fn[kk;k gS] tks izdkjkUr ls fir`lRRkk ds fofo/k :Ik dk gh ,d fgLlk gSA dgkuh dh rkukckuk veh”kk dh csVh Jqfr ds bnZ&fxnZ ?kwerk gSA www.dalitsahitya.com

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

Jqfr vkfFkZd :Ik ls LokyfEcr gS] vius vkWfQl esa dke djus okys vfer ds lkFk lgthou O;rhr dj jgh gS] ysfdu tc veh”kk viuh csVh ls fookg djus dh ckr dgrh gS rks Jqfr viuh ek¡ ds fopkjkas dks iqjkus&fopkj dg dj [kkfjt dj nsrh gSA Jqfr mu f’kf{kr vk/kqfud ;qofr;ksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrh gS tks Lo;a ^fyfoax&fjys’uf’kIk^ dks u dsoy viuk vf/kdkj ekurh gSa] cfYd mls dfFkr izxfr’khyrk dk Ik;kZ; Hkh ekurh gSaA ;|fi ;g lgh gS fd nfyr L=h ys[ku us Hkkjrh; lekt ds mu izfrdksa dks udkj fn;k gS tks vizR;{k :Ik ls fir`lŸkkRed O;oLFkk ds fgrksa dk iks”k.k djrh gSA veh”kk Lo;a izxfr’khy fopkjksa dh efgyk gS] mlus ngst] exaylw=] flanjw vkfn dks udkj fn;k Fkk] ysfdu tc mlus fookg LkaLFkk dks udkj dj vius ^lkFkh^ ds lkFk jguk ‘kq: fd;k rc mlds ^lgthou lkFkh^ vFkkZr~ Jqfr ds firk us veh”kk dks NksM+dj nwljh L=h ls fookg dj fy;kA veh”kk ds ‘kCnksa esa ^^nks&rhu lky ds ckn NksV&eksVs >xM+ksa esa rqEgkjs ikik us dgk fd rqe pkgks rks vyx gks ldrh gksA eSaus mudh gkL; psrkofu;ksa dks dHkh xaHkhjrk ls ugha fy;kA mlh vankt esa eSa Hkh tokc ns nsrh Fkh fd ^,sls dSls vyx gks tk,¡ ;s Hkh dksbZ cPpksa dk [ksy gS ‘kknh&fookg\ vkt vyx gks x,] dy fQj lkFk jgus yxsA^ eqLdqjk dj dgrs& ^geus ‘kknh dc dh gSA lgthou dh ?kks”k.kk esa ;gh rks Qk;nk gS] tc pkgks vyx gks tkvksAa ^ lquus esa ;g ckr cM+h gh izxfr’khy yx ldrh gSA D;k Hkkjrh; L=h ds fy, ;g lc vklku gS \^^10 ,d fnu veh”kk dk lgthou&lkFkh mls NksM+ dj pyk x;kA ysf[kdk ds ‘kCnksa esa ^^Bhd 6 ekg ckn os okil vk,A esjs ikl ugha] cfYd viuk lkeku ysus] nLrkost vkfn ysuAs bl ckj os ,dne cnys gq, Fks] D;kafs d mUgksua s esjh ,d ugha lquhA os fdlh vU; L=h ls dksVZ eSfjt dj pqds FksA ml L=h ls ,d cPPkk Hkh iSnk gks x;k FkkA ;g jkt eq>ls fNik j[kk x;k FkkA mlds ckn vkt rd os okil ugha vk,A------eSaus yk[k dksf’k’k dh mUgsa jksdus dhA dksVZ esa tkus dh /kedh Hkh nhA tokc feykA dksVZ gekjh ‘kknh dks ‘kknh ugha ekusxa hA eSa Hkh pqi ugha cSBh dksVZ esa vius gd dh vihy dhA dsl yM+kA reke lcwrksa vkSj izek.kksa ds vk/kkj ij mUgsa gh U;k; feykA fganw fookg vf/kfu;e ds rgr gekjh ‘kknh voS/k FkhA blfy, xqtkjk HkŸkk dh ckr NksM+ksa rykd dk iz’u gh ugha mBkA^^11 veh”kk dk thou ^fyfoax fjys’uf’ki^ dh Hk;kog ifj.kke dks mtkxj djrk gSA veh”kk vius thou dk mnkgj.k nsdj Jqfr dks le>kus dk iz;kl djrh gSA ;g lc lqu dj Jqfr dh vka[ksa [kqy tkrh gSA og le> tkrh gS fd L=h ds fy, ^fyfoax fjys’uf’ki^ L=h eqfDr dk Ik;kZ; u gksdj L=h ‘kks”k.k dk i;kZ; gSA nhxj ckr ;g gS fd jtr jkuh us bl dgkuh ds fy, ftl dFkkoLrq dk p;u fd;k gS] og orZeku le; dk Toyar fo”k; gSA ftl ij cgqr gh de efgyk dFkkdkjksa dk /;ku x;k gSA nfyr L=hoknh ys[ku L=h&eqfDr lgthou laca/kksa esa ugha ns[krk gSA lgthou dk feFkd iq#”k&ekufldrk ls mith gS vkSj og mUgha dh bPNkvksa dh iwfrZ djrh gSA nhxj ckr ;g gS fd nfyr efgyk dgkuhdkjksa us nfyr dgkuh esa u dsoy uohu vk;keksa dk lekos’k fd;k gS cfYd mu u;s vk;keksa dks iwjh bZekunkjh ds lkFk O;Dr Hkh fd;k gS] ;g u;s vk;ke nfyr dgkuh ds dFkk&Qyd dk foLrkj djrs gSa bl lanHkZ esa vfurk Hkkjrh dh dgkfu;ksa dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ^lh/kk izlkj.k^] ^ubZ /kkj^] ^cht cSad^ vkSj ^lqtkrk :d er tkuk^ tSlh dgkfu;ka xgjs lkekftd] lkaLd`frd vkSj jktuhfrd cks/k ls mith gSaA ;gka ;g ckr fo’ks”k :Ik ls js[kkafdr djus ;ksX; gS fd vfurk Hkkjrh dh dgkfu;ksa esa fofo/krk gS vkSj bl fofo/krk ds chp og nfyr L=h i{k dks ugha Hkwyrh gSa] cfYd og nfyr efgykvksa dh leL;kvksa dks O;kid Lrj ij eglwl djrs gq, vfHkO;Dr djrh gSaA pawfd dgkuhdkj Lo;a ,d lkekftd dk;ZdRkkZ gSa] mUgksua s nfyr efgykvksa dh fLFkfr dks tehuh Lrj ij ns[kk gS blfy, og nfyr efgyk ds thou ls tqM+h vusd leL;kvksa ij fopkj djrh gSaA tehuh tqM+ko mudh dgkfu;ksa esa Li”V ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ^lh/kk izlkj.k^ dgkuh dfFkr eq[;/kkjk ds ehfM;k ra= ds tkfr; pfj= dks mtkxj djrh gSA ehfM;k yksdra= dk pkSFkk LraHk ekuk tkrk gS vxj og [kqn tkfr ds fxjQ~r esa vk tk, tks D;k yksdra= dh j{kk laHko gks ldsxh \ yksdra= dk fuekZ.k ftl tu ds fy, fd;k x;k Fkk muds fgrks dh j{kk gks ik,xh\ vfurk Hkkjrh dh dgkuh ^lh/kk izlkj.k^ bl izdkj ds vR;ar Toyar eqn~nksa dks mBkdj lekt ds cqf)thoh dgs tkus okys oxZ ij dVk{k djrh gSA tc ehfM;k vius lkekftd nkf;Ro cks/k ls eqDr gksdj dsoy ^gkbZ izksQkbZy^ eqn~nksa dks gh izkFkfedrk nsuk ‘kq: Page 153

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

djrk gS rc yksdra= dk egy HkjHkjk dj fxjuk vkjaHk gks tkrk gSA ^lh/kk izlkj.k^ dgkuh esa ysf[kdk us ehfM;k dks dV?kjs esa [kM+k fd;k gSA og ehfM;k ftlds fy, ^cykRdkj^ tSlk laxhu vijk/k fcdkÅ dh oLrq gSA dgkuh esa nfyr efgyk vkSj xSj&nfyr efgyk ds lkFk gq, cYkkRdkj dh ?kVuk rFkk mlds ckn bu ?kVukvksa ds dojst dk o.kZu gSA mek’kadj nwcs dk Hkrhtk HkkLdj vius pkpk dh gh rjg fnYyh ds nSfud v[kckj ^meax VkbZEl^ esa laoknnkrk ds :Ik esa dk;Zjr gSA og [kksth i=dkj dh Hkkafr viuh izR;sd LVksjh ij [kwc esgur djds ?kVuk dh rg esa tkrk gS ;gh dkj.k gS fd v[kckj ds laiknd mls ^xaHkhj dsl^ nsrs gSaA ns’k esa nks ?kVuk,a ,d lkFk ?kVrh gSaA igyh ?kVuk lekpkj i= ds laiknd ds fy, ^gkbZ izksQkbZy^ gS ftlesa ^^fdlh fd’kksjh fiz;d a k dh vkRegR;k dh [kcj Nih FkhA mldks vkRegR;k ds fy, mdlkus ds ihNs fdlh cM+s ukSdj’kkg dk gkFk crk;k x;k FkkA [kcj ;g Fkh fd ukSdj’kkg ml fd’kksjh ls viuh gol iwjh djuk pkgrk Fkk vkSj fd’kksjh ds euk djus ij mlus thuk gjke dj nsus ds fy, viuh iwjh rkdr yxk nh FkhA yxkrkj rax fd, tkus ls csgn ijs’kku ml fd’kksjh us vkf[kjdkj [kqn dks Qk¡lh ij yVdk ysuk T;knk mfpr le>kA---¼og fd’kksjh½ fdlh f’kf{kr vkSj Å¡ps [kkuk dh yM+dh Fkh] ;g [kcj ds lkFk Nis QksVks ls irk py jgk FkkA cM+h&cM+h vk¡[ks]a cky vPNs ls l¡ojs gq,] Ldwy w dh onhZ esa Nis mlds QksVks dks ns[k dj gh yx jgk Fkk fd og fdlh vPNs Ldwy esa i<+rh gksxhA^^12 nwljh ?kVuk esa ^^,d nfyr fd’kksjh lquhrk dh xk¡o ds ncaxksa us cykRdkj djus ds ckn ftank tyk dj gR;k dj nhA--- lquhrk ds--- ?kj ds uke ij v/kcuh dPph >ksiM+h] Qwl dh Nr vkSj feV~Vh ls yhik gqvk Q’kZA nks VwVh [kkV vkSj mu ij rg djds nks eSyh jtkb;k¡ j[kh FkhA dksus esa jLlh dh vjxuh ij ,d lkM+h vkSj ,d eSyh&dqpsyh iScan yxh iSaV Vaxh gqbZ FkhA feV~Vh dh nhokj ds chpksachp ,d QksVks Vaxk FkkA QksVks lquhrk dk gh FkkA^^13 nksuksa ?kVukvkas dks i<+dj HkkLdj ds eu esa vyx&vyx izfrfØ;k mRiUu gksrh gSA ^gkbZ izkQ s kbZy^ gR;k dh [kcj i<+dj HkkLdj ds eu esa ukSdj’kkg ds izfr xqLlk vkrk gSA og vkos’k esa vk tkrk gSA vfurk Hkkjrh ds ‘kCnksa esas ^^xqLls esa mldh ulsa QM+d mBhA mls yxk fd vxj dgha og dehuk ukSdj’kkg fey tk, rks og mldk [kwu ih tk,A mlds eu esa jks”k Hkj x;kA^^14 vkSj nwljh ^yks izksQkbZy^ [kcj i<+dj ^^mlds ¼HkkLdj ds½ eqag ls mQ~Q fudykA mldk eu v[kckj ls mdrk pqdk FkkA mlus v[kckj eksM+ ds j[k fn;k vkSj fdpu esa pk; cukus pyk x;kA^^15 lekpkj i= ds laoknnkrk HkkLdj nwcs dh ;g ekufld cukoV okLro esa lekpkj m|ksx dh ekufld cukoV gSA ;g lp gS fd nksuksa gh ?kVuk,a fuanuh; gSA ;s ?kVuk,a ekuo tkfr dks ‘kEkZlkj djrh gSa] ysfdu lcls T;knk ‘kEkZlkj laiknd vkSj laoknnkrk dk ?kVuk ds izfr O;ogkj djrh gSA nfyr gksus ds dkj.k xk¡o dh fd’kksjh lquhrk dh [kcj dks lekpkj i=ksa esa T;knk ^Lisl^ ugha fn;k tkrk gSA ;g ?kVuk ek= xk¡o rd gh lhfer gksdj jg tkrh gSA tc ,d LFkkuh; lekpkj i= dh laoknnkrk jatuk bl [kcj dh Nkuchu djus ds fy, xk¡o ds iz/kku dks Qksu djrh gS rc xk¡o dk iz/kku lquhrk ds lkFk gqbZ ?kVuk dks jkstejkZ dh ?kVuk crkdj lkjk nks”k lquhrk ij Mky nsrk gSA iz/kku ds vuqlkj ^^vjs eSMe ;gk¡ rks ,slh ?kVuk,¡ vk, fnu ?kVrh jgrh gSaA vki D;ksa ijs’kku gksrh gSaA oSls ?kVuk dksbZ [kkl ugha gS th! oSlh gh gSa tSls xk¡o esa gksrh gSaA vjs lp rks ;g gS fd bu llqjksa ls viuh yM+fd;k¡ laHkkyh ugha tkrhA tc Å¡p&uhp ?kV tkrh gS rks iqfyl esa nkSM+s&nkSMs+ fQjrs gSaA gekjs xk¡o ds ikl dqN fngkM+h etnwjksa dh >qXxh gSA mlh >qXxh esa calh dh csVh jkr dks ‘kk;n ‘kkSp&okSp djus xbZ FkhA ogha dqN yM+dksa us mlds lkFk ckrphr djuh pkgh rks mlus tqcku yM+kuh ‘kq: dj nhA cl yM+dksa dks rko vk x;k vkSj ;s ?kVuk ?kV xbZA vjs D;k t:jr Fkh mls mu yM+dksa ls tcku yM+kus dh!^^16 ;g lc lqu dj jatuk lkjh fLFkfr le> tkrh gS vkSj mls yxrk gS fd bl ?kVuk dks i;kZIr dojst nsdj lquhrk dks U;k; fnykuk pkfg,] D;ksfa d ;gka ,d nfyr yM+dh ds lkFk gqbZ ?kVuk dks xk¡o dk eqf[k;k lkekU; ?kVuk eku jgk gS blls ;g tkghj gksrk gS fd nfyr yM+fd;ksa ds lkFk ,slh ?kVuk ges’kk gksrh jgrh gaS ftldh tkudkjh iqfyl iz’kklu rd ugha igapq ikrh gS vkSj ;fn fdlh rjg bl izdkj ds ?kVuk dh tkudkjh iqfyl rd igaqp Hkh tkrh gS rks iz’kklu esa O;kIr czkã.kokn bls jQknQk dj nsrk gSA HkkLdj nwcs dks nksuksa ?kVukvksa dh tkudkjh ,d lkFk feyrh gSA nfyr yM+dh ds lkFk gq, vekuoh; O;ogkj dh tkudkjh og [kqn ysus ugha tkrk og jatuk ls bl ^yks izksQkbZy^ ?kVuk dks dojst djus ds fy, dgrk gSA Bhd nwljh rjQ www.dalitsahitya.com

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

^gkbZ izkQ s kbZy^ ?kVuk dh rgdhdkr djus ds fy, og mldh tM+ rd igqap tkrk gSA og ‘kgj ds tkus ekus dfFkr efgyk lkekftd dk;ZdrkZvksa ls bl fo”k; ij lk{kkRdkj ysrk gSA fiz;d a k ds Ldwy ls mldh ikap lky dh fjiksVZ dkMZ fudyokrk gS vkSj mldh f’kf{kdkvkas rFkk iM+ksfl;ksa ls ckr djds viuh eqdEey LVksjh rS;kj dj v[kkckj esa ÝaV ist ij ^ges’kk QLVZ vkus dh ltk^ ‘kh”kZd ds lkFk izdkf’kr djrk gSA bl [kcj dk vlj gksrk gS vkSj dbZ efgyk laxBu bl ?kVuk ds fojks/k esa dSaMy ekpZ djus dk fu’p; djrs gSaA ogha nwljh rjQ jatuk ^yks izksQkbZy dh rgdhdkr djrs gq, lquhrk ds ?kj tkrh gSA lquhrk dh ek¡ lquhrk ds ckjs esa jks&jksdj crkrh gS fd ^^vjs esjh csVh lquhrkA---vjs nloha ds isij nsus okyh FkhA [kwc i<+kdw jgh gekjh fcfV;kA ge rks lqcg gh mlds ckiw ds lkFk dke ij pys tkrs FksA ysfdu og Ldwy ls vkus ds ckn vius vki i<+rh Fkh vkSj ?kj dk lkjk dke Hkh djrh FkhA---dHkh&dHkh xyh&xk¡o ds cPPkksa dks Hkh i<+krh FkhA^ bruk dgus ds ckn jecfr;k fQj lquhrk dk uke ys tksj ls jksus yxhA^^17 jatuk ekeys dh xaHkhjrk dks ns[krs gq, bl ?kVuk ij LVksjh cuk dj HkkLdj ds ikl Hkst nsrh gS ysfdu HkkLdj vkSj lekpkj i= ds laiknd ml LVksjh dks osVst u nsrs gq, mls ek= lkS&lok ‘kCnksa dh laf{kIr [kcj cukdj izdkf’kr djrs gSaA lp rks ;g gS fd ehfM;k u rks nfyr L=h ds lkFk gq, cykRdkj dks egŸo nsrk gS vkSj u gh xSj nfyr L=h ds lkFk gqbZ ?kVuk dksA lquhrk ds lkFk gqbZ ?kVuk dks v[kckj esa Nkius ;ksX; blfy, ugha ekuk tkrk D;kasfd og nfyr Fkh vkSj nfyr efgykvksa ds lkFk ,slh ?kVuk,a czkã.koknh lekt esa vke gSA vfurk Hkkjrh us eq[;/kkjk ds ehfM;k dh uCt+ dks fcydqy lgh txg ls idM+k gSA lkFk gh og dfFkr efgyk laxBuksa ij dVk{k djrh gSa tks cykRdkj tSlh vekuoh; ?kVuk dks o.kZokn ds ?ksjs esa ns[krh gSaA pwfa d lquhrk nfyr Fkh blfy, efgyk laxBu mlesa :fPk ugha fn[krk gS tcdh fiz;d a k ^gkbZ izksQkbZy^ Å¡ps [kkunku ls laca/k j[krh gS blfy, og mlds fy, /kjuk izn’kZu ls ysdj dSaMy ekpZ rd dk vk;kstu djrh gaSA nhxj ckr ;g gS fd vfurk Hkkjrh Lo;a dk;ZdrkZ jgh gS og nfyr efgykvksa ds eqn~nksa dks mBkrh jgh gaSA mUgsa xSj nfyr efgyk laxBu dh dfFkr HksnHkko dh izo`fŸk iwjk Kku gSA vfurk Hkkjrh ;g Hkfy&Hkkafr tkurh gSa fd Hkkjrh; ehfM;k dk pkfj= tkfroknh rks gSa gh] ysfdu mldh ewy izof` Ÿk ek= tkfr rd gh lhfer gks dj ugha jgrh gS vfirq og ewyr% fir`lŸkkRed ekufldrk ls Hkh lapkfyr gksrk gSA og ftu dkj.kksa ls fiz;d a k ds lkFk ?kVh ?kVuk izeq[krk ns jgk gS mldk ,d dkj.k ;g Hkh gS fd og ^LVksjh ,d eky dh rjg fcdkÅ^ gSA HkkLdj fiz;d a k dh LVksjh ij blfy, vf/kd esgur djrk gS D;ksfa d og mls ,d mRIkkn ds :Ik rCnhy dj ldsA HkkLdj nwcs og lHkh dke djrk gS ftlls dh ikBd dk /;ku viuh vksj vkdf”kZr dj lds] og ^efgyk laxBu^ ls lkaBxkaB djds dSaMy ekpZ djokrk gSA vius lkfFk;ksa dks ,l,e,l Hkst dj mlesa vkus dk fuea=.k Hkh nsrk gSA efgykvksa ds eqn~ns ij dke djus okyh Jqfr tks fd ,d Lo;alsoh laxBu pykrh gS] HkkLdj mUgsa vius i{k esa dj ysrk gS ^^Jqfr th] D;k vki ^fiz;d a k dsl^ dks ysdj dksbZ fojks/k trkus tk jgh gSa \ Jqfr us dgk&^fQygky ,slk dksbZ bjknk rks ugha] ysfdu vki dgsa rks fojks/k dj ldrs gSaA HkkLdj us Jqfr dks vkbZfM;k nsrs gq, dgk&^D;k vki dqN efgyk laxBuksa dh vkSjrksa dks lkFk ysdj fiz;adk ds ekeys ij dSaMy ekpZ dj ldrh gaS\ vxj ,slk dj lds rks eSa Hkh vius lHkh i=dkj nksLrksa dks bUQkEkZ dj nw¡xkA ge lc Hkh ‘kkfey gks tk,axAs vxys fnu HkkLdj ds ckbykbu ls igys iUus ij cM+h [kcj Nih Fkh&^fiz;d a k ekeys ij HkM+dk vkoke] 18 dy dSaMy ekpZ^A^^ vfurk Hkkjrh us fjiksVZj HkkLdj ds ek/;e ls lekpkj ra= ds mu van:uh fgLlksa dks fn[kkus dk iz;kl fd;k gS ftuls lkekU;r% turk ifjfpr ugha gksrh gSA lekpkj i= ds fy, gR;k] cykRdkj tSlh ?kVuk,a v[kckj dh fcØh c<+kus dk ek/;e Hkj gSA ^LVsVl^ ds vk/kkj ij [kcjksa dk p;u ehfM;k dk van:uh ;FkkFkZ gSA vfurk Hkkjrh ;g tkurh gS fd vxj nfyr lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ tc nfyrksa ds vf/kdkj ds fy, vkokt mBkrs gaS rc mls tkfroknh dgk tkrk gS] ysfdu tc xSj nfyr lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ nfyrksa ls lacaf/kr eqn~nksa dks mBkrs gaS rks eq[;/kkjk dk ehfM;k mls ^izxfr’khy^ dgrs gq, i;kZIr dojst nsrk gS ^ubZ /kkj^ dgkuh esa ysf[kdk us blh iz’u dks mBk;k gSA egkjk”Vª ds [kSjykath xk¡o esa nfyr efgyk ds lkFk ?kVh ?kVuk dks vk/kkj cukdj ;g dgkuh fy[kh xbZ gSA vfurk Hkkjrh dk iz’u bl dgkuh esas Hkh ogh gS fd xSj nfyr efgyk laXkBu nfyr efgykvksa ds lkFk gq, cykRdkj vkSj fQj gR;k ds eqn~ns dks bruh xaHkhjrk ls D;kas ugha ysrs tcfd Page 155

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

nfyr fopkjd@ys[kd L=h&L=h esa Hksn ugha ekursA Qqys&vEcsMdj ds L=h fo”k;d fopkj tkfr ij vk/kkfjr ugha FksA og gj izdkj dh vlekurk ds f[kykQ FksA ;gh dkj.k gS fd MkW- vEcsMdj us fgUnw ^dksM fcy^ esa lHkh o.kZ dh fL=;ksa ds fy, leku vf/kdkj dk izko/kku fd;k FkkA fgUnh nfyr lkfgR; Qqys&vEcsMdj dh fopkj/kkjk ls izsj.kk ysdj fodflr gqvk gSA vr% nfyr fpardksa ij Qqys&vEcsMdj dh fopkj/kkjk dk xgjk izHkko gS] vfurk Hkkjrh dh dgkfu;ka bldk izek.k gSaA vfurk Hkkjrh lekt dh lHkh L=h dks L=h ds :Ik esa ns[kus dk vkxzg djrh gS D;kafs d tc rd tkfr ds vk/kkj ij L=h&L=h esa foHksn fd;k tkrk jgsxk rc rd L=h&eqfDRk dk ladYi iwjk ugha gksxkA pwfa d nfyr fL=;ksa us bl foHksn dks lkekftd] lkaLd`fr ,oa vkfFkZd Lrj ij Lo;a eglwl fd;k gS blfy, nfyr ysf[kdk,a L=h&eqfDr ds iz’u ij ,d tqV gksdj vf/kdkjksa ds fy, yM+uk pkgrh gSaA vfurk Hkkjrh Lo;a lkekftd dk;ZdRkkZ gSa vr% mudh vf/kdrj dgkfu;ka nfyr vFkok xSj&nfyr efgyk laXkBu ;k fQj HksnHkko ds eqn~nksa ij vk/kkfjr gS] os bu laxBukssa dk dgkfu;ksa ds ek/;e ls fo’ys”k.k djrh gaS vkSj tgka dgha vuqfpr dk;Z ns[krh gSa] mldk fojks/k djrh gSaA ^ubZ /kkj^ dgkuh esa ,slh gh ,d laLFkk gS ^nfyr HksnHkko fojks/kh lfefr^ tks nfyrkas ij gq, vR;kpkjksa dk u dsoy fojks/k djrh gS] cfYd lkekftd ,drk ds fy, lekt ds lHkh o.kkZsa dks feykdj pyus dk iz;kl Hkh djrh gSA dgkuh dh fo”k;oLrq lR; ?kVuk ij vk/kkfjr gSA egkjk”Vª ds [kSjykath xk¡o esa ?kVh bl ?kVuk us ns’k dks grizHk dj fn;k FkkA vfurk Hkkjrh fy[krh gSa ^^egkjk”Vª ds [kSjykath xk¡o esa nfyr Hkksxek¡xs ifjokj ds pkj lnL;ksa dh u`’kal gR;k dj nh xbZA bl t?kU; dkaM esa Hkksxek¡xs dh iRuh lqj[s kk vkSj csVh fiz;d a k dh gR;k ls igys xk¡o ds ncaxksa us muds lkFk ljsvke cykRdkj Hkh fd;k FkkA bl dkaM dks ysdj nfyrksa esa [kklk vkØks’k QwV iM+k FkkA bl dkaM dh izfrfØ;k ns’k&Hkj esa cM+s tksj&’kksj ls gqbZA nfyr yksx lM+dksa ij mrj vk,A D;kafs d ;g ek= cYkkRdkj gh u Fkk cfYd mudh vfLEkrk ij Øwj izgkj FkkA^^19 ^nfyr HksnHkko fojks/kh lfefr^ bl dkaM dk fojks/k djrh gS] txg&txg izn’kZUk djds bl lfefr us viuk izfrjks/k ntZ fd;k rFkk bl dkaM ij ns’k&nqfu;k dk /;ku f[kapus ds fy,] lfefr bl fo”k; ij ,d lHkk cqykus dh ;kstuk cukrh gS ftlesa nfyr vkSj xSj nfyr cqf)thfo;ksa dks cqykus dk fu’p; fd;k tkrk gSA ;g fopkj lfefr dh yksdrkaf=d Hkkouk dks O;Dr djrh gSA lekurk] Lora=rk ,oa ca/kqRo dk Hkko lHkh ds ijLij lg;ksx ls gh mRiUu gksxk] vfurk Hkkjrh dh ,slh ekU;rk gSA lfefr dh nfyr dk;ZdrkZ jek dk Li”V ekuuk gS fd ^^gekjk mís’; nfyr vR;kpkj ds f[kykQ yM+uk rks gS gh] lkFk&lkFk gesa nwljs lektksa dks Hkh vius lkFk ykuk gSA^^20 fulangs u dsoy L=h eqfDr cfYd ekuo&eqfDRk ds fy, ;g vko’;d gS] dkQh lksp&fopkj dj lfefr vfHkO;fDRk th dks cqykus dk fu.kZ; djrh gSA vfHkO;fDRk th fopkjksa ls izxfr’khy gSa vkSj cpiu ls gh tq>k: jgh gSaA le;&le; ij nfyr fo”k;d eqíksa ij viuh csckd fopkj O;Dr djrh jgh gSaA ^^og ¼vfHkO;fDRk½--- xjhc ek¡ dh csVh FkhA mudk Hkh cgqr raxgkyh esa cpiu chrk FkkA dbZ ckj rks ikuh ihdj [kkyh isV lksuk iM+kA ‘kk;n blh otg ls mlds eu esa xjhc] nfyr] vkfnokfl;ksa ds fy, vikj nnZ fNik Fkk vkSj ‘kk;n blhfy, og nfyr] vkfnokfl;ks]a vYila[;dksa ds vf/kdkjksa dh yM+kbZ esa f’kjdr dj jgh FkhaA fiNys fnuksa nfyrksa] vkfnokfl;ksa ij fy[kh mudh iqLrd ^vulqyxs ‘kksy^s dh ns’kHkj esa [kwc ljkguk gqbZ vkSj mlh iqLrd ij tc jkT; ljdkj us mUgsa ,d yk[k :Ik, dk iqjLdkj fn;k rks mUgksua s ml jkf’k dks ,d ,u-th-vksdks nku dj fn;kA vkSj rc ls vfHkO;fDRk th ;qok oxZ dh vkn’kZ ds :Ik esa mHkj dj vkbaAZ vkSj vc rks mudh fxurh Hkkjr ds fof’k”V ekuokf/kdkjokfn;ksa esa gksrh gSA^^21 vfHkO;fDRk th dk ;g O;fDRkRo jek dks vkdf”kZr djrk gS og ;g tkurh gS fd ;fn ^nfyr HksnHkko fojks/kh lfefr^ ds eap ls vfHkO;fDRk th bl dkaM ij vius fopkj O;Dr djsxa h rks mldk vlj nwj rd gksxkA blfy, og mUgsa cqykus dk fu’p; djrh gSaA lfefr dk dk;ZdrkZ t;Ur vkWDLkQksMZ ;wfuoflZVh izsl ls vfHkO;fDr th ds ?kj dk irk rFkk bZ&esy dh tkudjh ysdj mUgas bfUoVs’ku ySVj vkSj dk;ZØe dk C;kSjk yxHkXk chl fnu igys Hkst nsrk gS] ijUrq vfHkO;fDRk th bldk dksbZ mŸkj ugha nsrh gSaA jek ds lg;ksxh fe= ;g vPNh rjg tkurs gSa fd vfHkO;fDRk th ugha vk,axh D;ksfa d os eap ls pkgs ftruk Hkh nfyrksa ds fgrksa dh ckrsa djsa] ysfdu okLro esa mUgsa nfyrksa dh leL;k ls dqN ysuk&nsuk ugha gSA og nfyr eqísa dsoy izxfr’khyrk dk ycknk vks<+us ds fy, gh mBkrh gSa og Hkh dfFkr xSj&nfyr izxfr’khy www.dalitsahitya.com

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

laxBuksa ds eap lsA jek dk lg;ksxh e/kqj’s k Li”V ‘kCnksa esa dgrk gS fd ^^ns[kks jek ckr Li”V gS] rqEgkjs xzqi dk uke gS nfyr HksnHkko fojks/kh lfefr vkSj mlds n’kZd vkSj Jksrk dkSu gS \ ogh xjhc] fiNM+]s ncs dqPkys] nfyrA lkspks] ,sls yksxksa ds fy, dkSu cksyxs k \ fQj izsl doj djsxh D;k \ vkSj izxfr’khy MseksØSfVd jkbVfFkafdax Qksje esa yksxksa dks rks ns[kks] izksQls j ls ysdj bfrgkldkj vkSj cMs&+ cM+s odhy vkSj ehfM;kdehZ tqMs+ gSa] ogk¡ tkus ls mldh best esa btkQk gksxk vkSj gekjs ;gk¡ vkus ls vfHkO;fDRk th dks D;k feysxk \^^22 e/kqj’s k dh ckr lp lkfcr gksrh gS vfHkO;fDr th ugha vkrh gSa vkSj ftl fnu ^nfyr HksnHkko fojks/kh lfefr^ [kSjykath dkaM ds fojks/k esa ntZ djus ds fy, lHkk cqykrh gS ml fnu vfHkO;fDRk th izxfr’khy MseksØSfVd jkbVfFkafdax Qksje esa [kSjykath esa ?kVh ?kVuk ij viuk fojks/k trkrs gq, vkst iw.kZ ok.kh esa OkDrO; nsrh gq, dg jgh Fkh fd ^^nfyr efgykvksa dh fLFkfr ij efgyk vkanksyu ‘keZlkj gS] gesa yxrk gS fd vxj ge lc fey tk,¡ rks gekjh ‘kfDr nqxuq h gks tk,xh vkSj ge efgyk vf/kdkjksa ds fy, csgrj rjhds ls yM+ ik,¡xAs eSa ,sls lekt dh dYiuk djrh gw¡ ftlesa L=h cl L=h gS og u nfyr gS] u fiNM+hA og enkZas ds leku gh lekt dh ,d laiw.kZ bdkbZ gSA-----eq>s [kq’kh gS fd vkius eq>s egkjk”Vª dkaM ij vius fopkj j[kus ds fy, vkeaf=r fd;k] eSa vkidk vkHkkjh gwaA eq>s blls igys ,d nfyr xqzi us Hkh cqyk;k Fkk -----ij eq>s yxrk gS] gesa vxj viuh ckr nwj rd igq¡pkuh gS rks tkrh; HksnHkko [kRe dj ,d cM+s eap ij ,d lkFk vkuk gksxk rHkh gekjh vkokt T;kn cqyan gksxhA^^23 ;g lc lqu dj jek ds fnekx esa gFkkSMs+ ctus yxrs gSAa vkt izxfr’khyrk vius okLrfod :Ik esa FkhA dgkuh ^ubZ /kkj^ vusd iz’uksa dks mBkrh gS] ftldh yksdrkaf=d lekt esa mis{kk ugha tk ldrh gSA bl dgkuh dks ek/;e ls ysf[kdk us cqf)thoh oxksaZ dh dk;Z’kSyh rFkk tckonsgh ds iz’u dks l’kDr <ax ls mBkus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA ysf[kdk bl iz’u dk mŸkj Lo;a ugha nsrh gSa] og dsoy ;FkkfLFkfr dks vfHkO;Dr djrh gSa vkSj bl ;FkkfLFkfr esa gh iz’u dk mRrj fNik gqvk gS] ;g jpuk ds ifjiDo gksus dh igpku gSA nfyr efgyk dFkkdkjksa dh jpuk,a dFkkoLrq ,oa f’kYIk dh n`f”V ls derj ugha gS vkSj u gh os ,dLkqjh gSa dFkkoLrq ,oa f’kYi dh n`f”V ls mlesa Ik;kZIr fHkUurk,a gSaA os thou ds fofo/k i{k dks vR;ar ekfeZd <ax ls vfHkO;Dr djrh gSa blhfy, laosnuk ds Lrj ij bu jpukvksa dks ^eq[;/kkjk dh nfyr fo”k;d jpuk^ ls vf/kd l’kDriw.kZ ekuk tk ldrk gSA lanHkZ 1234567891011121314151617-

lzksr& nfyr dgkuh lap;u] la- jef.kdk xqIr] lkfgR; vdkneh] 2009] fnYyh] i`- 135 ogh] i`- 145 ogh] i`- 29&39 ogh] i`- 116 ogh] i`- 117 vis{kk ¼if=dk½] la- rst flag] vad&19] i`- 47 ogh] i`- 48 nfyr dgkuh lap;u] la- jef.kdk xqIr] lkfgR; vdkneh] 2009] fnYyh] i`- 64&65 vk/kqfudrk ds vkbus esa nfyr] la- vHk; dqekj nqc]s ok.kh izdk’ku] 2002] fnYYkh] i`- 239 ledkyhu Hkkjrh; nfyr efgyk ys[ku] [kaM&1] la- jtuh fryd] Lojkt izdk’ku] 2011] fnYyh] i`- 99 ogh] i`- 100&101 vuhrk Hkkjrh] ,d Fkh dksVs okyh rFkk vU; dgkfu;ka] yksdfe= izdk’ku] 2012] fnYYkh] i`- 55 ogh] i`- 56&58 ogh] i`- 56 ogh] i`- 56 ogh] i`- 58 ogh] i`- 59

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62 8 9 10 13 14

सॊघषष आऩका स्वागत करता है

सॊघषष से आऩ अऩना रचनात्मक सहयोग दे कर और बेहतर से बेहतर बनाएॉ

अऩने आस-ऩास बनती घटनाएॉ ऩर सोचे-ववचारें और लऱख भेजें हमें

साहहत्त्यक, शैऺणिक एवॊ समाज से जुड़ीॊ हर खबर हम तक ऩहुॊचाएॊ हम यथायोग्य स्थान सॊघषष एवॊ दलऱतसाहहत्य.कॉम ऩर दे गे कऱम उठायें ऩररवतषन के लऱये -हरे श ऩरमार-

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Ekhjka ckbZ dk Hkfä&lkfgR; vkSj mldh izklafxdrk MkW0 fnokdj xjok1 jktLFkku esa Hkfä ijd Hkkouk dks lq„<+ djus esa efgykvksa dk fo’ks”k ;ksxnku jgk gS] ftUgksaUks lkekftd cU/kuksa dks ihNs NksM+dj lekt dks ije Hkfä dk lUns”k fn;kA Hkkjr dh ukjh tkfr dks /kU; djus okyh Hkfä&ijk;.k ehjakckbZ dk tUe ekjokM+ ds dqM+yh xzke eas fo- la1555 ds vkl&ikl jktifjokj esa gqvk FkkA bdykSrh lUrku gksus ds dkj.k ân; dh leLr Hkkoukvksa ij okRlY; dk fo”ks’k izHkko iM+k] fdUrq fpŸk dh o`fŸk;kWa¡ cpiu ls gh Hkxoku d`’.k dh vksj >qdh gqbZ FkhA ifj.kker% vius ân; dh leLr Hkkoukvksa dks Hkfä ds lw= esa cak/kdj d`’.k dh vkjk/kuk djus yxhA muds dksey ân; ij ifjfLFkfr;ksa ,oa okrkoj.k dk bruk izHkko iM+k fd bUgksua s ek/kq;Z Hkko ls viuh Hkfä&Hkkouk dk Lo:Ik Lo;a fu/kkZfjr fd;kA Loa; fojfg.kh cudj vius vkjk/; Jh d`’.k ls iz.k; fHk{kk eakxhA ;gh dkj.k gS fd ehjak ds dkO; esa xhfr&dkO; dh mRd`’V vfHkO;fä gSA lwjnkl }kjk jfpr&ß tks fo/kuk fut o”k dfj ikÅWAa rks lc dgks gks; lf[k esjks] viuh lk/k iqdk:aAÞ in us ehjka dh dksey Hkkoukvksa dks >ad`r dj fn;k ftls og d`’.k dh ewfŸkZ ds lkeus fuR; izfr xk;k djrh FkhA blh in dh izsj.kk ls og Loa; in&jpuk djus yxhA fgUnh dh loksZPp efgyk dof;=h ehjkackbZ ds uke ls lEcfU/kr vusd jpuk,a miyC/k gksrh gS fdUrq buesa lokZf/kd egRoiw.kZ ,oa izkekf.kd jpuk ^ehjkackbZ dh inkoyh* gh gS ftls Mkdksj dh izfr dgrs gSaA vU; jpukvksa esa xhr xksfoUn dh Vhdk] ujlh th dk ek;jk] QqVdj in] jkx lksjB in laxzg] lR; Hkkek th dks :l.kks] jkx xksfoUn vkfn gSaA ehjka ckbZ dh jpukvksa dks tks fo}ku lafnX/k ekurs gSa os ;g Hkwy tkrs gSa fd ml ;qx dh vU; jpukvksa ds lkFk Hkh ;gh fLFkfr jgh gSA ehjkackbZ ds ledkyhu rFkk ijorhZ lUrksa us muds uke ls in&jpuk dj ehjkckbZ ds Hkfä&fo”k;d Ekwy Loj dks fod`r fd;k gS ftldh Hkk’kk&”kSyh ,oa O;kdj.k dh n`f’V ls leh{kk visf{kr gSA jktiwrkuk esa fgUnh iqLrdksas dh tks [kkst gqbZ gS muessa ehjkackbZ dh bu jpukvksa dk mYys[k vo”; gqvk gSA dof;=h ds inksa dk Hkh vusd fon~okuksas us laxzg ,oa laiknu fd;k gSa fdUrq muesa ikB fod`fr;kWa¡ gSA inkoyh eas Hkh ;g nks’k ik;k tkrk gS ftldk ewy dkj.k ;g gS fd Loa; ehjka us vius inksa dks laxzghr djus dk iz;kl ugha fd;kA mUgksuas s jpuk&”kSyh ds :Ik esa iwoZ ijEijk ls tks dqN xzg.k fd;k mls viuh vuqHkwfr ds ek/;e ls u, rRokssa }kjk ifj’d`r fd;kA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muds in~ vkt Hkh tu&tu dh ok.kh esa lqjf{kr gSaA HkfDr vkUnksyu dh Hkwfedk esa ehjka us ;qx&cks/k dk cjkcj /;ku j[kkA lkeUr oxZ dh jktdqekjh gksrs gq, Hkh lR; dh izkfIr gsrq jSnkl vkSj vU; lUrksa dh dqfV;k rd tkus esa dksbZ ladksp ugha fd;kA ukjh gksrs gq, Hkh ehjka us lkekftd otZukvksa dk lkgl vkSj /kS;Z ds lkFk lkeuk fd;kA bl n`f’V ls og iwoZoÙkhZ ,oa ijoÙkhZ larksa eas lcls vkxs gSaA muds O;fäRo esa ,d vksj tgkWa¡ “kfä”kkfyuh fonzksfg.kh dk Hkko gS rks nwljh vksj vkjk/kuk ds {ks= esa vkRe&fuosnu] dkseyrk ,oa leiZ.k dk Hkko gSA ehjka ds inksa esa fofHkUu /kkfeZd lEiznk;ksa ds fl)kUrksa dk izHkko fefJr :Ik ls n`f’Vxkspj gksrk gS fdUrq mUgsa fdlh ,d leiznk; ls lEc) ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ckY;dky ls og d`’.k 1

MkW- fnokdj xjok QSdsYVh ,lksfl,V] fgUnh foHkkx] xkSre cq) fo”ofo|ky;] xzsVj uks,Mk] xkSre cq) uxj] ¼;w-ih-½ fiu&201312 Page 159

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dh mikfldk jgh fdUrq d`’.k&Hkä eku ysus ij gh mUgsa oYyHk lEiznk; ls tksM+k ugha tk ldrkA dgk tkrk gS fd pSrU; lEiznk; ds lar tho Lokeh ls mUgksua s nh{kk yh Fkh fdUrq bl rF; dk dksbZ n`<+ izek.k ugha gSA pSrU; er dh fopkj/kkjk esa ek/kq;Z Hkko vo”; gS fdUrq dof;=h us rks bl Hkko dks izFke pj.k esa gh Lohdkj dj fy;k FkkA ^ehjka dh inkoyh* esa ehjka us lar jSnkl dk Lej.k ckj&ckj fd;k gS] ;Fkk& ^^xq: fefy;k jSnkl th] nhUgha X;ku dh xqVdhA pksV yxh fut uke gfj dh] Egkjs fgcMs+ [kVdhAA** ehjka dks vk/;kfRed Kku dh izkfIr xq: jSnkl ls gh gqbZ Fkh ftlds dkj.k muds dkO; ij lar er dk izHkko Li’V ifjyf{kr gksrk gS] ;Fkk& ^^gs jh eSa rks izse fnokuh] esjks njn u tk.ks dks;A lwyh Åij lst gekjh] fdl fo/k Lkks.kk gks;A xxu eaMy ij lst fi;k dh] fdl fc/k fey.kk gks;A ?kk;y dh xfr ?kk;y tk.ks fd ftu ?kk;y gks;AA** ehjka us bZ”oj ds fuxqZ.k :Ik dh ekU;rk dks Hkh Lohdkj fd;k gS ftlesa vkRek vkSj ijekRek dh ,drk dk Hkko ifjyf{kr gksrk gS] ;Fkk& tk dks uke fujatu dfg,] rk dks /;ku /k:axhA rqe fcp ge fcp varj ukagh] tSls lwjTk ?kkek ^^jke uke jl ihtS euok jke uke jl ihtS rt dqlax lRlax cSB fur] gfj ppkZ lqu yhtS ^^nhid tksÅa X;ku dk] p<aw vxe vVkjh gksA ehjka nklh jke dh] bejr cfygkjh gksAA** jke ds uke dk Lej.k ehjka lar er dh ekU;rkvksa ds izHkko ds dkj.k gh djrh gSaA mUgkasus lR;] Kku vkSj izse dks fuxqZ.k ijEijk ds fl}kUrksa ds ek/;e ls gh [kkst k gSA fuxZq.k dh Hkkouk dks Lohdkj djrh gqbZ Hkh vius cpiu ds vkjk/; d`’.k dks dHkh ugha Hkwy ikbZA dof;=h dh vuqHkwfr esa lxq.k vkSj fuxqZ.k dk Hksn frjksfgr gks tkrk gSA fuxq.kZ dh Hkko/kkjk esa Hkh lxq.k dk iz.k;] J}k vkSj ek/kq;Z Hkko ds izzfr lefiZr gSaA vius vkjk/; d`’.k dks izseh gh ugha vfirq ifr ds :Ik esa Hkh Lohdkj djrh gSaA ;Fkk& ßeSa rks fxj/kj ds ?kj tkÅaA fxj/kj Egkjks lkapks izhre] ns[kr :Ik yqHkkÅaAAÞ * * * * * * * * * * * ^fi;k fcu esjh lst vywuh] tkxr jS.k cgkoSA* Ekhjka vius vkjk/; dks iwoZ tUe dk lkFkh ekurh gqbZ vius lEcU/k dks LFkk;h ekurh gSa] tSls & ^iwjc tue dh izhr gekjh lks D;aw NksM+h tk;A*

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blls ;g fl) gksrk gS] fd ehjka dh mikluk dk mÌs”; u rks LoxZ gS vkSj u eks{kA os ek= vius fiz;re dk lkfu/; tUe&TkUekUrjksa rd pkgrh gSA bl izdkj os os iqUktZUe dh ekU;rk esa fo”okl djrh gSaA ehjka dh Hkfä&Hkkouk dh ;g lcls cM+h fo”ks’krk gS fd vius leiZ.k vkSj R;kx ds cnys dqN ugha pkgrhA viuh Hkkouk dks vfHkO;ä djrs le; ehjka ykssd yTtk dh fpUrk ugha djrhA lkjs cU/ku O;FkZ gks tkrs gSa] ;Fkk& ßHkyh dgksa dksbZ Ckqjh dgkSa eSa lc lbZ lhl p<kbA ehjka dgs izHkq fxj/kj ds fcfu] iy Hkj jg~;ks u tkbZAÞ * * * * * * * * * * * * ßjk.kk th! eSa lakojs jax jkphA lt fl.kxkj in ckWa/k ?kw?a k: yksd ykt rft ukphAAÞ ehjkackbZ viuh iz.k;&osnuk dh ckr vuqHkwfr dh rhozrk ds dkj.k dgrh gSa fdUrq os “khy vkSj larks’k esa fo”okl j[krh gqbZ lerk ds lgkjs thuk pkgrh gSa] ;Fkk& ßckyk eSa cSjkx.k gwaxh ftu Hks”kka Egkjks lkfgc jh>S] lks gh Hks”k /ka:xh lhy larks’k /k:a ?kV Hkhrj lerk IkdM+ jgwx a hAÞ ehjka us vius inksa es f=dqVh] “kwU;] lwjr] lq’kqEuk] ?kV vkfn ;ksfxd “kCnksa dk iz;ksx fd;k gS fdUrq mudk vFkZ ;ksx ijd u gksdj izse ijd gh gSA ewyr% mudh Hkkouk esa :iklfä&tU; ek/kq;Z gS ftldh vfHkO;fä f”k’V vkSj “kkyhu <ax ls dh gSA jktLFkkuh ijEijk ds vuq:Ik mUgksaus fojfg.kh ukf;dk dh rjg viuh Hkkouk dks vfHkO;ä fd;k gS] tSls& ßjs iib;k I;kjs dc dks cSj fprkj;kSA eSa lwrh Nh vius Hkou es fi;&fi; djr iqdkj~;kSA nk>~;k Åij yw.k yxk;ks] fgcM+s djor lkj~;kSAAÞ dof;=h ds xhfrijd inksa esa lgt izse dh HkkokuqHkwfr] oS;fädrk] laxhrkRedrk vkSj laf{kIrrk gS ,oa “kSyh es dkseyrk dk xq.k gSA muds inksa es xhrkRedrk ds lHkh xq.k fo|eku gaSA lekt dks ehjkackbZ dh nsu vkSj muds lkfgR; dh izklafxdrk ehjkackbZ us viuh Hkfä Hkkouk ls rRdkyhu lekt dks fuosZn Hkko ls izHkkfor fd;kA lkalkfjd /ku&oSHko ls nwj jgus dk lUns’k fn;kA jktHkouksa dh vV~Vkfydkvksa esa jgus okyh jktdqekjh }kjk fuEu oxZ ds larks ds lkFk fuLladksp :Ik ls lEidZ djuk uwru fodkl ,oa laxe dk lwpd gSA mUgksaus viuh ok.kh vkSj O;ogkj ds cy ij lkekftd lejlrk dk Hkko iSnk fd;kA ikfjokfjd fojks/k ,oa lkekftd otZukvkas dh mUgksaus fpUrk ugha dh vfirq vn~Hkqr lkgl vkSj /kS;Z dk ifjp; nsrs gq, Hkfä ds {ks= eas ukjh tkfr ds vkSfpR; vkSj lEeku dks iw.kZ izfr’Bk ds lkFk LFkkfir fd;kA os ,d ,slh ukjh dk vkn”kZ izLrqr djrh gaS tks lkekftd :f<;ksa dk [kaMu djrs gq, vkjk/kuk ds {ks= esa “kfä”kkfyuh fonzksfg.kh dk :Ik /kkj.kk dj ysrh gSaA lekt dks pqukSrh nsrs dgrh gSa& ßekbZ jh eSa rks yh;ks xksfoUnks eksyA dksbZ dgs Nkus dksbZ dgs pkSM+s fy;ks jh ctark <ksyAAÞ

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blh dze es Li’V :Ik ls ;g ?kksf”kr djrh gSa& ^esjs rks fxj/kj xksiky nwljk u dksbZA* ehjka dh dkO;kuqHkqfr ijEijk] ;qx] O;fäRo vkSj Hkfo’; ds fy, izsjd gS ftlds ek/;e ls lekt lejlrk LFkkfir dh tk ldrh gSA ehjka us fl) dj fn;k fd lk/kuk vkSj dkO;&dyk ds {ks= esa ukjh iq#’k ls de ughaA mUgksaus vius O;fDäRo vkSj ek/kq;Z Hkko ls ukjh dqy dks /kU; dj fn;k ftudh izsj.kk ls jktLFkku esa lgtksCkkbZ] n;kckbZ] djeSrh CkkbZ ,oa rkt chch tSlh dof;f=;ksa us dkO;&lk/kuk dhA Qrsgiqj ds uokc Qnu [kkWa dh iq=h rkt chch ij ehjka dh Hkfä ijd jpukvksa dk bruk IkzHkko iM+k fd vdcj ds egyksa es jgdj mlds d`’.k dks vkjk/; ekudj dkO; fy[kkA ehjkackbZ dk yksd dY;k.kdkjh lUns’k vkt Hkh izklafxd gSA mUgksua s “kkL=h;&”kSyh] “kSyh ds LFkku ij yksd&”kSyh dk iz;ksx fd;k rFkk jktLFkkuh] xqtjkrh o oztHkk’kk dks viuh jpukvksa ds ek/;e ls ,d lkFk tksM+us dk lQy iz;kl fd;kA muds inksa es jktLFkkuh laxhr dh jkx&jkxfu;kWa lqjf{kr gaSA mudk dkO; vkt Hkh ifo= vkSj fnO; izse dh vuqHkwfr djkrk gaSA u dsoy dky dh n`f’V ls vfirq ckSf)drk vkSj fdz;k dykiksa dh n`f’V ls ehjka dh Hkko/kkjk izklafxd gSA vUr esa eankfduh ehjka ds lEcU/k esa ;gh dgk tk ldrk gS fd& ßuke R;kx fcu uk jgs] lquks l;kus yksx ehjka lqr tk;ks ugha] vj f”k’; u ewM a ~;ks dks;AÞ

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

महत्वकाांक्षी नारी की जजदगी : एक सफरनामा ( ‘मुझे चााँद चाहहए’ ाईपन्यास के हवशेष सांदभभ में ) डॉ. भरत कु मार. वी. भेडा1 चर्चचत ाईपन्यास ‘मुझे चााँद चाहहए’ सुरेन्र वमाभ का नारी प्रधान ाईपन्यास है | ख्वाहहशों के ाअसमान पर सफर करने वाली नारी के हनजी जीवन पर ररक्तता ाईजागर करता है | हवशेषताः स्त्री स्वतांत्रता (ाअर्चथक, सामाहजक, पाररवाररक एवां मानहसक) स्त्री – ाऄहस्तत्व को प्रस्तुत कताभ ाईपन्यास है| सबसे ज्यादा महत्वकाांक्षी नारी एक ओर स्त्री पराधीनता में है, तो दूसरी और स्वातांत्रय के मध्य जदोजहद्द में फां सी रहती है | खासतौर पर सामाहजक सांरचना को तोड़ने का ाअह्वान भी ाईक्त ाईपन्यास में ददखाया गया है | ाईपन्यास की नाहयका वषाभ वहशष्ठ ाईफ़भ हसलहबल जो सामाहजक और ाअर्चथक रूपसे हपतृ सत्ता के ाअधीन है, दकन्तु पुरुषप्रधान समाज व्यवस्था को हवध्वांश करने की शुरुाअत ाऄपने घर से ही करती है | पाांच भााइ-बहनों वाले पररवार में वह तीसरे नम्बर पर है | ाईनके माता-हपता पुणभताः परां परावादी रवैये ाऄपनाने वाले थे | घर का सदस्य ‘तोता’(पांक्षी) -हमेशा परां परा की धुन रटता रहता है | हवशेषताः ाऄनुष्टुप(तोता) मूल परां परा का प्रतीक माना जा सकता है | लेदकन पररवतभन की हततली ‘वषाभ वहशष्ठ’ को यह पारम्पररकता रास नहीं ाअती | वह हचन्तनशील, ाऄध्ययनशील युवती है | जो पढााइ के माध्यम से भावों का ाऄवगाहन करती है | वह ाअधुहनक हवचारो को ाऄपनाकर सामाहजक स्तर स्त्री-पुरुष भेद को ख़त्म करने का मांशुबा भी रखती है | फलस्वरूप युवावस्था में ाऄपने ाऄहस्तत्व को पहचानकर, ाईनके ाऄहहमयता को भली-भाांहत महसूस करके खुद से सवाल करती है | एक नारी के रूप में पृथ्वी पर ाऄवतररत होने का का क्या कोाइ फलसफा है ? जैस-े “वह क्यों पैदा हुाइ ? ाईसके जीवन का ाईद्देश्य दकया है ? क्या ाईसे भी वैसा ही जीवन जीना होगा, जैसा ाऄम्मा, दद्दा और हजज्जी का है?” (१) रूदढगत मान्यताओं को तोड़नेवाली, हचन्तनशील, हवचारो एवांम सोच के क्षेत्र में ाऄग्रसर ाअदद पररवतभन खैयें को घर सदस्य कदाहप ाऄपनायेंगे | दफर भी वह ाईक्त हवचारधारा को ाऄपनाकर ाऄपने ाऄहस्तत्व को खोजती है | लेदकन पररवार प्राचीन ररवाजो मे बाांधना चाहता है | ाईपन्यास की नाहयका वषाभ वहशष्ठ मूलताः पररवतभन का सैलाब है | ाईनका पहला हवरोध खुद का पुराना नाम जो सभ्यता का मुखाहतब है| हााइस्कू ल के फॉमभ मे हसलहबल ाऄपना नाम यशोदा शमाभ न हलखकर वषाभ वहशष्ठ हलखती है | काहलदास की रचना ‘ाऊतुसांहार’ के ाअधार पर ाऄपना नाम वषाभ वहशष्ठ हलखती है | हपता एवां पररवार के लोगो के हवरोध करने पर प्रहतवाद के रूप में कहती है दक – “यशोदा, हघसा-हपटा ददकयानुसी नाम, ाईन्होंने दकया क्या था ? हसवा कृ ष्ण को पालने के | यशोदा शमाभ नाम में कोाइ सुन्दरता नहीं|”(२) ाईसकी हवरोहहणी प्रकृ हत का दोबारा पररहचय ाईसके रां गमांच पर नाटक खेलने हमलता है | वषाभ को प्रोत्साहन हसफभ एक व्यहक्त से हमलता है, और वह है ाईसके कोलेज की

1

डॉ. भरत कु मार वी. भेडा

डी. के . वी कोलेज, जामनगर Email : bharatbheda11@gmail.com Page 163

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ाऄांग्रेजी प्राध्याहपका ददव्या कात्याल जो स्वयां प्रेमरोहगनी है | ददव्या कात्याल जो वषाभ के रूहच और जज्बा को पहचानकर रां गमांच के क्षेत्र में ाअगे जाने के हलए प्रोत्साहहत करती है एवां पथपदशभक भी बनती है | पररवार के लोगो हवरोध के बावजूद वषाभ ाऄपने रुहचकर क्षेत्र में लगी रहती है | हपता को दुहनयादारी एवां ाआज्जत की सताती रहती है | क्यूांदक पुरुष चाहे दकतने गलत कायभ करे कभी बदनाम नहीं होते | लेदकन नारी का एक गलत कदम ाईठाने से ाईनको वेश्या, रखेल ाअदद की ाईपाहध प्राप्त हो जाती है | दकन्तु वषाभ के ाउपर दकसी बात का प्रभाव नहीं होता | ाईसके ददनोंददन बढ़ते स्वच्छन्द व्यवहार से हपता दुहखत होकर, खुदको कोसते है दक मैंने ाआस लड़की को दकयों जन्म ददया? “ ाइश्वर मुझे दकस जन्म के पाप का दांड दे रहे हैं | मुझे ाआस लड़की के लहच्छन ठीक नहीं ददखायी देते | करौंदे की झाड़ी दोहद के बाद का हखला ाऄशोक बनाना चाहती है |” (३) पररवार की ाऄवहेलना को सहते हुए हवकास के पथ पर ाऄग्रसर रहने का करठन प्रयास करती है | जोर-जबदभस्ती के बावजूद भी ाऄपने सांकल्प से पीछे हटती नहीं है | घरवालो को कहती है दक – “ाऄगर तुम लोगों ने जबदभस्ती की तो में कु ए में कू द जााईां गी |”(४) ाआस प्रकार पाररवाररक-मूल्यों, सभ्यता, स्त्री-पुरुष भेद से ाईसका करठन सांघषभ होता है, ाअहखर तक हवरोध बरकरार रहता है | नाहयका के माध्यम से एक तरह से नारी सशहक्तकरण का पताका लहराता हैं | हवशेष कस्बो, छोटे शहरो और वहाां के मध्यवगीय नारी-चररत्रों में बदलाव को ाईपन्यासकार ने वषाभ वहशष्ठ के माध्यम से रे खाांदकत दकया गया है | ाऄब युवहतयाां जागरूक है | ाईनमे ाऄहस्तत्व-बोध-की सजगता ाअयी है| हववाह ाईनके जीवन की ाईपाहध नहीं है | वषाभ वहशष्ठ ाऄपने व्यहक्तत्व को पुणभताः हवकहसत करने के हलए हवस्तृत पररवेश की कामना करती है | ाआसीहलए शाहजहााँपुर जैसी जगह ाऄब ाईसकी चररत्र के हलए छोटी लगने लगी है | वह ददव्या के हनदेश पर लखनाउ में नाटक करने जाती है | पररवार में हाय-तौबा मचती है | वहाां ाईसके पररहचतों का दायरा बढ़ता है | सह ाऄहभनेता का पहला चुम्बन ाऄपनी वयस्कता की पहचान कराता है | लखनाउ का पररवेश ाईसे मुक्तता साांस लेने देता है | एक महीने के बाद लौटना, मानो पाररवाररक जलजला के समान होता है | लेदकन वषाभ के ाउपर कोाइ भी डाांट-फटकार या हपटााइ भी बेाऄसर ही होती है | ाईसकी हर एक प्रवृहत गहतशीलता को न्यौता देती है, और ाऄांत में वह राष्ट्रीय नाट्ड हवद्यालय, ददल्ली में दाहखला लेना, मानो महत्वकाांक्षाओ को दस्तक देने जैसा है | नेशनल स्कु ल ऑफ़ ड्रामा में ाऄहभनय का पाठ पढ़ती है | कला की सफलता और ाऄसफलता का कारण समझती है | कलात्मक प्रयासों में ाऄसफलता का ाऄांश भी ाऄांतहनर्चहत होता है | कलाकार को जीवन की वास्तहवकता से हमेशा पररहचत रहना चाहहए| वषाभ घर के सांत्रास, घुटन, दमन से छु टकारा पाने की कोहशश में घर से बाहर हनकलती है | यहााँ भी ाऄके लापन घुटन और सांत्रास का ाऄजगर मुह ां फाड़कर सदैव खड़ा है | वषाभ की मन:हस्थहत के ाऄनुसार –“वषाभ ाऄके लापन, हताशा, टूटन ाअदद से लहूलुहान होती रही परन्तु कलाकु ण्ड में ाऄपने तन-मन को पूरी एकाग्रता में ही झोंका |” (५) ाऄथक प्रयास एवां कड़ी मेहनत के कारण सफलता तथा पुरस्कार भी हमलता है | हजसकी बदौलत वह कला को जीवन मानने लगती है | ाऄहधकाांशत: कला जगत से जुड़े व्यहक्तयों की तमन्ना रहती है की व्यावसाहयक तौर पर हसनेजगत में प्रवेश हो | ाईन्हें वहीं कलाजगत की ाऄसांगहतयो, सफलता – ाऄसफलता, मुल्यपरकता-समझोतावाद, चुनौती, सांघषभशीलता ाअदद का कडवा ाऄनुभव होता है | महेनत और लगन की बदौलत वषाभ वहशष्ठ छोटे शहर एवां मध्यमवगीय रुदढ़वादी पररवार की लड़की सफलता के ाईच्चतम चोटी छू ती है | हवहभन्न

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Page 164


Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

करठनााइयों के बावजूद भी ाऄपने क्षेत्र मे ाऄव्वल रहती है | समयानुसार बदलती पररहस्थहतयााँ ाईन्हें साहसी एवां हजज्ञासु ाऄवश्य बनाती है | लेदकन सफलता ाईनके द्वार ाऄहधक समय ठहरती नहीं है | बोलीवुड की सफल ाऄहभनेत्री नहीं बनती, हॉलीवुड में भी ाईसे काम करने का ाऄवसर हमलता है | ाईसे पद्मश्री पुरस्कार से सम्माहनत दकया जाता है | यानी यूाँ कहे तो गलत नहीं होगा की वषाभ कला के चााँद को छू लेती है | वषाभ की सफलता-ाऄसफलता ाईनके जीवन का लेखा-झोखा है | ाईपन्यासकार श्री सुरेन्र वमाभ ने नाहयका वषाभ वहशष्ठ की महत्वकाांक्षाओ के भीतर ाईनके हद्दय के सुकोमल भावों को दबाया है | ाईनके हद्दय के दो पडावो को ाऄनछु ाअ रखता है | एक तरह से कामयाबी की ललक प्रेम के जबदुओ को ग्राहहत दकया है | लखनाउ में लमद्दु की ाअकभ षण, वषाभ का प्रेम ददल्ली में एन.एस.डी के ही छात्र हषभवधभन से होता है | हषभ वषाभ का ऐसा पुरुष बन जाता है हजसकी जरुरत ाईसे तन-मन दोनों से होती है | हषभ के कारण वषाभ को शरीर एवां मानहसक तौर पर ाऄनुभहू तयों का पररचय हुाअ था- “मेरे शरीर ऐसी ाईन्मत बयार बन्दी थी | हषभ ने ाऄपने स्पशभ से ये झरोखे खोले है |” शरुाअती दौर की ाईन्मता, बाद में हस्थर होती है और प्रेम ाईसके जीवन का ाऄहम् तत्व हो जाता है | लेदकन पररहस्थहतयों के कारण ाऄांतताः हषभ रूपी चााँद हमेशा के हलए बुझ जाता है | ाअधुहनक युग में नारी सशहक्तकरण के चलते ाअज पुरुष –प्रधान समाज व्यवस्था पर ाऄहधकाांशाः सवाल ाईठाये जाते है | पुरानी सड़ी-गली परां परा को हवध्वांश करने का सुर ज्यादा तीव्र होता है | हवशेषताः सामाहजक ढ़ाांच को बरकरार रखनेवाली सांस्था हववाह को ाऄहधकतर कोसा जाता है | लेदकन महत्वकाांक्षी वषाभ का हवरोध ाईक्त सवालों के हलए नहीं था | ाईसकी जद्दोजहद हसफभ प्रहतभा और व्यहक्तत्व-हवकास को लेकर होती है | खुद की हवशेष पहचान बनाने के हलए सदैव सांघषभरत रहती है | एक और जहाां वषाभ वहशष्ठ परां परा को तोड़ने में सदैव सांघषभशील रहती है | वहीं वो दफर से वही परां परा का हहस्सा बनने का प्रयास भी करती है | यानी लेखक सुरेन्र वमाभ की मानहसकता को ाईजागर दकया गया है | ाआसहलए तो ाईन्होंने मातृत्व जैसे शाश्वत मुद्दे को नवीनता के साथ प्रस्तुत दकया है | हषभ की ाअत्महत्या के ाईपराांत वषाभ हषभ के गभभ को नष्ट कर सकती थी | क्यूांदक कुाँ वारी ( हबन ब्याह ) लड़की का मााँ बनना दकसी भी समाज को स्वीकायभ नहीं है लेदकन वषाभ समाज की ाऄवहेलना की परवाह दकए हबना हषभ के गभभ को धारण करती है | और पृथ्वी के चक्र को बरकरार रखने में ाऄपना योगदान देना चाहती है | वह कहती है दक – “ प्रकृ हत में स्त्री ाआहसलए हवहशष्ट ही क्यूांदक वह जननी |” (६) वषाभ ाईन्ही परां पराओ को तोडती है, जो ाईसके चररत्र के हवकास बाध्य हो | बाकी ाईनके जहन में भी परां परा एवां सामाहजक व्यवस्था प्रणाली पर हवश्वास ाऄवश्य है| कहीं पर ाअधुनातन सांस्कारो को ाआस कद्दर ाऄपनाती है की वह शराब हपने से या हसगरे ट ाअदद का सेवन करने में हपछे हटती नहीं है | साथ-ही यौन सांभध ां को स्थाहपत करने में दकसी भी प्रकार का हनषेध नहीं मानती है | वषाभ को चररत्र लेखक ने पूणॅताः ाअधुहनक एवां महानगरीय पररवेश के ाअधार पर हचहत्रत दकया है | हजनके ाऄनुसार ाईनकी जीवनशैली में स्पष्टताः फदकरापन या बेदफकरााइ युक्त रवैया द्दष््व्य होता है | दफ़ल्मी-जगत की हनष्फलता या जीवन के ाऄधूरेपन को भरने, हमटाने के हलए हवहभन्न तरकीबो को ाऄहख्तयार करती है | जो नाररयाां सददयों से चूल्हे-चौके में सडती थी, वही नाररयाां ाऄब पुरुष-प्रधान समाज की बागडौर के सांभालने में तत्पर एवां सावधान हो गाइ है | महानगरीय जीवन-शैली को ाऄपनानेवाली वषाभ को ाईनके हपताजी शराब सेवन को लेकर हहदायते देते हैं | तब वह हपताजी को कहती है दक- “ पररवार की सात पीदढयों में दकसी स्त्री ने काम नहीं दकया, पर में कर रही हूाँ |” (७)

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

तात्पयभ यह होगा की वषाभ व्यवसाहयक – सांस्कृ हत में जी रही है | वह कुाँ वारी होकर भी ाऄपने बच्चे को जन्म देती है | मातृसत्तात्मक पररवार की कल्पना को साकार करते हुए भी वषाभ हषभ के ाईच्चकु लीन परां परा का ही सांरक्षण करती है | साथ ही वषाभ का स्वच्छांद रूप भी मुखररत होता है | ‘मुझे चााँद चाहहए’ ाईपन्यास के शीषभक की साथकभ ता को रहष्टपात करे तो, वषाभ को दफ़ल्मी-जीवन की सफल ाऄहभनेत्री बनना था | दकन्तु जब ाऄसफल ाऄहभनेता हषभ (वषाभ का प्रेमी ) की ाअत्महत्या का प्रसांग, ाईनके हनजी जीवन के चााँद को हमेशा के हलए बुझाता है | याहन जीवन साथी रूपी चााँद की पररकल्पना पररपूणभ नहीं होती है | ाऄधूरेपन की हस्थहत कायम हो जाती है | वषाभ के ाआदभ-हगदभ स्त्री-पुरुष के मैला है सभी हववाहहत है | महत्वकाांक्षी की दौड़ लगानेवाले ाअहखरक ाऄके ले ही होते है | शायद ाऄके लापन महत्वकाांक्षा का ही एक पहलु है | ाआसीहलए लेखक ‘चााँद’ शब्द को ाईच्चहशखर का प्रहतक माना है | लेदकन वास्तहवक जीवन में महत्वकाांक्षा के चााँद को प्राप्त करनेवाले ाअहखर में ाऄके लेपन का हशकार होते है | याहन सफलता के बावजूद भी मनुष्य हनजी जीवन में ाऄके लेपन एवां ाऄधूरेपन के सांत्रास मुहक्त नहीं हो पाते है ाऄांतताः ाऄधूरेपन रूपी ददमक मनुष्य को कु रे दकर नष्ट कर देता है | ाईसमे कोाइ तारतम्य या एकसूत्रता नहीं बन पाती | शायद ाऄके लापन महत्वकाांक्षा का ही एक त्रासद पहलु है | चााँद शब्द महत्वाकाांक्षा के ाईच्चहशखर का प्रहतक है | ाईपसांहार के रूप में कहना हो तो, ‘मुझे चााँद चाहहए’ ाईपन्यास की नाहयका वषाभ वहशष्ठ, जो महत्वकाांक्षी दौड़ में सफलता के चााँद को छू ने की कोहशश में ाऄसफल रहती है | हालााँदक नारी के हलए स्वतांत्रता एवां ाऄपनी ाआच्छाओं के ाऄनुसार कायभ करने के प्रोत्साहहत ाऄवश्य करती है | दकन्तु सफलता की चाहना ाईसे जीवन के गह्न रहस्य ाईलझा देती है | हजसमें ाऄांत तक ाऄके ला एवां ाऄधूरापन ाअये-ददन प्रताहड़त करता है | चाह कर भी जीवन की खुहशयों को समेट नहीं पा सकती है | साथ-ही महत्वाकाांक्षा की ाअड़ में जीवन के हवहभन्न पहलुओ पर ाऄपने-ाअप को ाऄसफल पाती है | ाईपन्यास कथा महानगरी - पररवेश को ाईजागर करती है | हवशेषताः ददल्ली और मुांबाइ के दफल्मजगत के ाऄांतमॅन की परतो को खोलता है | जन हवद्धा नाटक और दफल्म को मुख्य कथावस्तु बनाकर रचनाकर वास्तव में समाज, साहहत्य और हसनेमा-जगत के द्वन्द को ही व्याख्याहपत करता है | वषाभवहशष्ठ और हषभवधभन के माध्यम से लेखक ने कला-जगत की हवसांगहतयों और परे शाहनयों एवां कला के ाईपासको के ाऄांतसांघषभ तथा मन:हस्थहतयों को मुखररत दकया है | सांदभभ सूहच १)

‘मुझे चााँद चाहहए’ (ाईपन्यास), सुरेन्र वमाभ, नाइ ददल्ली, शब्दकमल प्रकाशन-वषभ १९९३, पृ. १४

२)

वही, पृ. १७

३)

वही, पृ. ३४

४)

वही, पृ. ४१

५)

वही, पृ. २७६

६)

वही, पृ. ५५६

७)

वही, पृ. ५२६

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Page 166


Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

‘दोहरा ाऄहभशाप’ ाअत्मकथा में ाऄहभव्यक्त दहलत स्त्री जीवन का सांघषभ जयराम कु मार पासवन1 ‘कौसल्या नांदश्व े र बैसांत्री’ की ाअत्मकथा ‘दोहरा ाऄहभशाप’

सन 1999 में प्रकाहशत दहलत

समाज में महहला जीवन के तमाम सांघषों का हचट्ठा खोलती है। चूांदक ाआनकी ाअत्मकथा, ाऄन्य ाअत्मकथाओं की तरह ाऄत्यहधक पीड़ा, घृणा और जुगुप्सा के भावों का सांचालन नहीं करती बहल्क लेहखका के सांघषों को व ाईनके माां बाप के सांघषो से भरे जीवन का भी हचत्रण करती है। लेहखका ने दहलत समाज की ाऄच्छााइ बुरााइ सभी का हववरण ाऄपनी ाअत्मकथा में ददया है। जहाां सवणों में हवधवा हववाह को मान्यता नहीं दी जाती है। वहीं दहलत समाज में हवधवा ाऄगर दुबारा शादी करना चाहे तो कोाइ रोक टोक नहीं है लेदकन ाआस दूसरी शादी की हवहध ाऄलग थी और ाआसे हववाह न कहकर ‘पाट’ कहा जाता है। समाज में हस्त्रयों की क्या दशा है यह दकसी से भी नहीं छु पी है और ाईस पर भी दहलत महहलाओं की हस्थहत का दुखद यथाथभ स्पष्टताः यहाां देखने को हमलता है। लेहखका की ाअजी (नानी) का भी पाट हुाअ था, जहाां ाईनका हववाह हुाअ था वह घर ठीक ठाक था| ाअजोबा (नाना) एक साहूकार थे और पहले से शादी-शुदा थे और पहली पत्नी से ाईन्हें एक बेटा और एक बेटी थीं। कौसल्या बैसांत्री की नानी बहुत खूबसूरत और साहसी महहला थी। ाअजी घर का सारा काम करती थीं। ाईसकी पहली पत्नी ाईस पर ाऄपना रोब झाड़ती थी और सारे ददन बीड़ी बनाने वालों से गप्पे हाांकती रहती थी। ाअजोबा बड़े गुस्सैल थे और हबना दकसी कारण के ाअजी से झगड़ा करते और कभी कभी हाथ भी ाईठा ददया करते थे। हबना दकसी कारण के ाआस सब बातों से ाअजी बहुत तांग ाअकर घर छोड़ने का हनश्चय कर लेती है और एक ददन चुपचाप ाऄपने तीनों बच्चे के साथ घर छोड़ देती है। लेदकन बीच वाली बच्ची को रास्ते में ही बुखार हो जाता है और रास्ते में ही दम तोड़ देती है। ‘‘ाअजी ने ाऄपने ददल पर पत्थर रखा मन को काबू दकया। पास में ही एक गड्ढे में दफना ददया। ाअजी के मन पर क्या बीती होगी?’’1 ाआतना हो जाने पर भी वह हहम्मत नहीं हारती है और ाअजोबा के घर ना जाने का ही हनश्चय करती है। नागपुर दकसी तरह से पहुांच जाती हे और वहाां ाइट पत्थर ढोने का काम करती है। दहलत लोगों को रोजाना काम पर जाने से ही रोजाना के खाने का ाआांतजाम हो पाता था। यही वजह है दक दहलत पररवार के बच्चे नहीं पढ़ पाते हैं। या तो वे बच्चों की देख रे ख करते है या दफर घर के कामों में लग जाते है और स्कू ल नहीं जा पाते हैं। लेहखका की माां चाहती थी दक बच्चे पढ़े हलखे क्योंदक ाईस पर ाऄम्बेड़कर जी के भाषण का प्रभाव पड़ चुका था। लेहखका हलखती है - ‘पढ़ो-हलखो, हशहक्षत बनो और ाअगे बढ़ो।’ स्वयां पहत के साथ काम में खटती रहती थी लेदकन बच्चों की पढ़ााइ में दकसी प्रकार की बाधा ाईत्पन्न नहीं होने देते थी। दहलत महहलाओं के पास ाआतना काम करने को रहता है दक वे ाऄपने बच्चे को समय ही नहीं दे पाती है। ाआसहलए छोटे बच्चे को सुलाने के हलए ाऄफीम हखला देती हैं तादक वह लम्बें 1

जयराम कु मार पासवान

पाांहडचेरी हवश्वहवधालय, पुदच ु ेरी- 605014 Page 167

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

समय तक सोये रहे और वह सारा काम कर सके । लेहखका की माां भी ऐसा ही करती थी। लेहखका हलखती है- ‘‘ाऄफीम हखलाने से ाऄहहल्या (लेहखका के माां की ग्यारहवीं सांतान) बहुत हचड़हचड़ी हो गाइ थी और बहुत रोती थी। ाईसका हजगर बढ़ गया था। एक ददन ाईसको तेज बुखार हुाअ। माां ने ाईस ददन हमल से छु ट्टी ली। मूर मेमोररयल ाऄस्पताल हमारे स्कू ल के रास्ते से हटकर था। माां ने कहा, ाआसे ाऄस्पताल ले जाकर लााआन में खड़े रहना, क्योंदक बाद में बहुत बड़ी लााआन लग जाएगी। मैंने ाऄहहल्या को पीठ पर हलया और छोटी बहन मधु ने दोनों बस्ते पकड़े। माां ने कहा दक वह घर का काम खत्म करके ाऄस्पताल पहुांच जाएगी। तब हम स्कू ल चली जाएांगी।’’2 लेदकन माां के वहाां पहुांचने से पहले ही ाऄहहल्या की मृत्यु हो जाती है। ाआतना ाऄहधक काम रहने के कारण वह स्वयां ाऄपने बच्चे को ाआलाज के हलये भी नहीं ले जा पाती है। नहीं तो कौन सी ऐसी माां होगी दक ाऄपने बीमार बच्चे को दकसी और के भरोसे छोड़ दे? यहाां एक माां की मजबूरी और लाचारी नज़र ाअती है। लेहखका के माता-हपता का जीवन सांघषभ भरा जरूर था लेदकन ाईनमें एक जुझारूपन था दक वे ाऄपने बच्चों को पूणभ हशक्षा दे सके और ाआस प्रकार माता हपता के ाअपसी तालमेल के कारण ही लेहखका के सभी भााइ बहन ाऄच्छे पढ़ हलख गए हैं। वरना ऐसा सांयोग तो बहुत कम ही बन पाता था। लेहखका ने ाऄपने समाज की औरतों पर हो रहे ाऄत्याचारों का भी ाईल्लेख दकया है जहाां हस्त्रयाां काम में जाती हैं और मदभ ाईनके पैसों से ाऄय्याशी करते हैं। ाईनके साथ मार पीट करते हैं। ‘रामकु वॅंर’ और ‘जयराम’ का जीवन भी ऐसा ही था। रामकु वॅंर हमल में काम करने जाती थी और जयराम जुाअ खेलने और पीने में सारे पैसे ाईड़ा देता था और पैसे को लेकर रामकु वर के साथ मार पीट करता और भद्दी-भद्दी गाहलयाां देता था। समाज में स्त्री का दजाभ मात्र एक दासी का है चाहे वह दहलत हो या दफर सवणभ स्त्री। लेदकन दफर भी समाज में दहलत हस्त्रयों का हतहरा शोषण होता है। एक तो दहलत महहलाएां ददन-रात मजूरी करती है बाहर खटती हैं। दहलत होने के कारण तो ाईसका शोषण होता ही है साथ ही स्त्री होने के कारण भी सवणभ पुरूषों के साथ-साथ पहत के शोषण का भी हशकार होना पड़ता है। ाआस सांबांध में लेहखका हलखती है- ‘‘सखाराम की औरत ददहाड़ी पर मजदूरी कर रही थी। वह सीमेंट-ाइट ढोकर हमस्तरी को देती थी वह देखने में सुांदर थी। हमस्तरी बदमाश था वह ाअते-जाते ाईसे छेड़ता था। एक ददन ाईसने हसमेंट का गोला बनाकर ाईसकी छाती पर मारा। ाईस औरत ने ाईसे गाहलयाां दी परां तु वह बेशमभ, हांसता रहा। साथ में खड़े मज़दूर भी यह देखकर हांस रहे थे। यह बात ाईस औरत ने ाऄपने पहत से कही। पहत का काम था जाकर ाईस बदमाश को डाांटे-फटकारे , परां तु ाईसने ाऄपनी औरत को ही डाांटना शुरू दकया मारा और कहने लगा दक और औरतें भी तो वहाां काम करती है, ाईन्हें वह कु छ नहीं कहता और तुम्हें ही क्यों छेड़ता है? तुम ही बदचलन हो, यह कहकर ाईसे रात भर घर के बाहर रखा। वह हबचारी घर के पीछे रात भर डर डर के रही और सवेरे ाईसे गधे पर बैठाया गया। बस्ती से बाहर हनकालने के बाद वह बेचारी झाड़ी में हछपी रही, क्योंदक ाईसके बदन पर पूरे कपड़े नहीं थे। रात में वह बस्ती के कु एां में कू द गाइ। सवेरे ाईसका शरीर पानी के ाउपर तैर रहा था। ाईसके माां बाप ाअए और कहने लगे दक ाआसने हमारी नाक कटवााइ, ाऄच्छा ही हुाअ दक यह कु लटा मर गाइ।’’3

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Page 168


Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

दहलत स्त्री ाअत्मकथाओं में ाऄहभव्यहक्त सांदभभ, पररवेश, समस्या और सांघषभ का स्वरूप मुख्य रूप से ाईजागर हुाअ है। दहलत स्त्री का जीवन में हशहक्षत होने के हलए सांघषभ, जाहतगत पहचान की वजह से प्रगहत के हर कदम पर ाअनेवाली करठनााइयों से जूझना, ाअर्चथक सबलता के हलए करठन प्रयास, भूख से लड़ााइ, स्त्री होने के कारण घर और बाहर होने वाली ाऄवहेलना, ाऄपमान और शोषण की हतहरी मार को झेलने पड़ते है, लेहखका ने ाऄपनी ाअत्मकथा में ाआन प्रसांगों, घटनाओं, सांघषों का हचत्रण प्रमुख्ता से दकया है। लेहखका ने स्वयां ाऄपने जीवन में भी एक स्त्री होने के कारण सारी पीड़ा को सहा है जो एक स्त्री सददयों से सहती ाअ रही है। ाईसका पहत एक बड़ा लेखक व स्वतांत्र सेनानी था लेदकन ाऄपनी पत्नी को मुहक्त नहीं दे सका। ाईसके हलए ाईसकी पत्नी मात्र भोग्य वस्तु थी। लेहखका ाऄपने पहत के बारे में हलखती है- “देवेन्र कु मार (मेरे पहत) को पत्नी हसफभ खाना बनाने और ाईसकी शारीररक भूख हमटाने के हलए चाहहए थी दफ्तर के काम और हलखना यही ाईसकी जचता थी। मुझे दकसी चीज की जरुरत है, ाआसका ाईस ने कभी ध्यान नहीं ददया।”4

ाईसे मात्र वह ाऄपनी नौकरानी की तरह बरताव करता था, बात बात

पर गाहलयाां देता, हाथ ाईठाता था और ाऄहधकतर बीस बााइस ददन के दौरे में रहता था। ाअपने पहत के बारे में वे भूहमका में हलखती हैं- “ मेरे ाईच्च हशहक्षत पहत, लेखक और भारत सरकार में ाईच्च पद पर सेवारत रहे। ाईन्हें ताम्रपत्र भी हमला है और स्वतन्त्रता सेनानी की पेंशन भी। पहत ने कभी मेरी क़दर ही नहीं की बहल्क रोज़-रोज़ के झगड़े, गाहलयों से मुझे मजबूरन घर छोड़ना पड़ा और कोटभ के स करना पड़ा।”5 लेहखका हशहक्षत होने के वाबजूद भी जीवन भर सांघषभ करती रही। लेहखका का पहत ाआतना पढ़ा-हलखा होने वाबजूद भी वह ाअपनी की मानहसकता को समझ नहीं पाया। वे पढ़े-हलखे होने पर भी ाऄसांवेदनशील एवां ाऄसहहष्णु थे। देवेन्र कु मार ाऄपनी पत्नी के प्रसव के ददन समीप है जानते हुए भी वह दौरे में चला जाता है। बड़ी मुहश्कल से वह ाईस पीड़ा को सहते हुए स्वयां के प्रसव के हलए तैयारी करती हुाइ पहले ही भती के हलए ाऄस्पताल में नाम दजभ करवाती है और बड़े से दााइ को बुलवा लाने के हलए भेजती है और जाने के हलए गाड़ी का बांदोबस्त भी स्वांय करती है और एक बेटे को जन्म देती है लेहखका का पहत जो ाऄगले ददन सवेरे सवेरे दौरे से ाअता है और जब ाईसे पता चलता है दक वह ाऄस्पताल में है तो वह ाऄस्पताल ाअया ाआस सांबांध में लेहखका हलखती है- ‘‘मुझे जनरल वाडभ के पलांग पर हलटा ददया गया था। ाऄब मुझे थोड़ा होश ाअने लगा था हसर भारी हो गया था। ाअांखे भी नहीं खुल रही थीं। तब देवेन्र कु मार की थोड़ी ाअवाज सुनााइ दी। वह डाक्टर से कह रहा था दक ाआसे प्रााआवेट वाटभ में रखों। मैं बड़ा ऑदफसर हूां, ाआसकी शान ाईसे ददखानी थी।..........देवेन्र कु मार जैसे ाअया वैसे ही चला गया मुझे हमला ही नहीं। न मेरी हालत के बारे मे पूछा। और जाते वक्त मात्र तीस रूपये देकर गया था।’’6 तीन रूपये रोजाना के हहसाब से दस ददन का कमरे का दकराया। स्वयां तो लेने भी न ाअए और ये नहीं सोचा दक कै सी ाअएगी, कु छ और भी जरूरते हो सकती है। लेहखका कहती है दक - ‘‘ क्या ऐसे पहत से प्यार, श्रद्धा हो सकती है? ाआस प्रसांग की याद ाअते ही मेरा खून खौलने लगता है।’’7 हजारों सालों से ाअदमी के नज़ररए में औरत मात्र भोग की वस्तु ही बनी रही है। Page 169

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लेहखका को वैसे तो ाऄन्य दहलत ाअत्मकथाकारों की तरह हशक्षकों से कोाइ कटु बचन सुनने और हबने वजह मार खाने को नहीं हमला था। लेदकन ाईसकी हशहक्षका ाईससे काम लेती थी जबदक ाऄन्य हवद्यार्चथयों से कु छ नहीं कहती थी। कु छ भी करना होता तो लेहखका से ही करने को कहती। लेहखका को हमेशा ाआस बात का डर लगा रहता था दक कहीं ाईसकी जाहत का भेद न खुलकर सामने ाअ जाए। और समय के साथ साथ जैसे ही ाईनके हवचार खुलते गये ाईनका सारा डर भी लुप्त होता गया और जहाां ाईसे लगता है भेदभाव दकया जा रहा है तो वह ाआसका हवरोध भी करती है। ाआसके साथ ही वह ाईन तमाम रूहऺढयों वा ाऄांधहवश्वासों का भी हवरोध करती है हजसने समाज को खोखला बना ददया है। और साथ ही ाईन राजनेताओं की ओर भी सांकेत दकया गया है जो दहलतों की समस्याओं को देखकर भी ाऄनदेखा कर देते है तथा ाआनके हवषय में बात तक नहीं करते हैं। लेहखका ने स्वयां के ाऄनुभव पर दहलतों में ाअांदोलन को लेकर कम होते ाईत्साह को भापा है तथा ाआस पर जचता भी व्यक्त की है। ाआसके हलए दहलतों को एक जुट होना भी जरूरी है। लेहखका ने एक जगह दहलतों में भी ाउांच नीच बरते जाने का सांकेत दकया है। और ाऄगर कोाइ दहलत व्यहक्त पढ़ हलख कर ाअगे बढ़ना चाहता है तो ाऄपने ही समाज के लोग ाईन्हें नीचे हगराने का भरसक प्रयास भी करते हैं। लेहखका का ाऄनुभव ाआस तथ्य की पुहष्ट करता है। जब लेहखका के माां बाप ाऄपने बच्चो को स्कू ल भेजने लगे तो ाआन्हें पढ़ता देख ाआनके ाऄपने ही लागों के साथ साथ सवणों के द्वारा ाआन्हें ताने सुनने तथा हभन्न-हभन्न तरीकों से सताने का प्रयास दकया जाता था क्योंदक ये सारे लोग ाईनसे जलते थे ाआसहलए ये नहीं चाहते थे ाआनका पररवार पढ़े हलखे। ाआस वजह से सताने के नए नए हत्थकां डे ाऄपनायें जाने लगे थे। दफर भी ाआन्होंने हहम्मत नहीं हारी और ाअगे बढ़ते गए। सवणभ क्या, दहलत समाज भी ाऄपने ही लोगों को ाअगे बढ़ता नहीं देख सकता था। ाआस प्रकार लगभग सभी ाअत्मकथाओं में पुरूषात्मक समाज में स्त्री का हनरां तर शोषण, ाईसके ाऄहस्तत्व और ाऄहस्मता को कु चला जाना और ाआनके हवरोध में स्त्री का सांघषभ ाअदद महत्वपूणभ पहलू गढ़े हैं। दहलत स्त्री मध्यवगीय हो ाऄथवा हनम्नवगीय, मज़दूर हो ाऄथवा सामाहजक कायभकताभ या कॉलेज में ाऄध्याहपका, ाईसे दहलत और स्त्री होने की पीड़ा साथ-साथ झेलनी पड़ती है। यह बात लगभग सभी दहलत स्त्री लेहखकाओं के यहाां देखने को हमलती है। ‘कौसल्या बैसांत्री’ की ाअत्मकथा ‘दोहरा ाऄहभशाप’ समाज में व्याप्त सभी रूहऺढवाददयों का, ाऄांधहवश्वासों का तथा दहलत समाज पर दकए जा रहे शोषण का तथा हवशेषकर हस्त्रयों पर हो रहे ाऄत्याचारों पर प्रश्न खड़ा करती हुाइ ाअलोचात्मक रूप को प्रस्तुत करती है। ाआस ाअत्मकथा में लेहखका ने पररवार तथा ाऄपने जीवन के सांघषों का बखान दकया है, जो मात्र लेहखका की ही नहीं है ककतु सम्पूणभ दहलत पररवारों और महहला की हो सकती है हजसने ाआस प्रकार के दांश को झेला है। कौसल्या बैसांत्री ने न हसफभ सवणभ पुरूष बहल्क दहलत स्त्री-पुरूष का दोहरा चररत्र भी ाआस ाअत्मकथा के माध्यम से प्रस्तुत दकया है। सांदभभ सूची 1.

दोहरा ाऄहभशाप, कौसल्या बैसन्त्री, परमेश्वरी प्रकाशन, बी-109, प्रीत हवहार, ददल्ली-

110092, प्रथम सांस्करण,1999,पृ-20 2.

वही, पृ-56

3.

वही, पृ-56

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4.

हांस पहत्रका, दहलत हवशेषाांक, ाऄांक-1, ाऄगस्त-2004, सांपादक- राजेंर यादव, ददल्ली, पृ.-70

5.

दोहरा ाऄहभशाप, कौसल्या बैसन्त्री, परमेश्वरी प्रकाशन, बी-109, प्रीत हवहार, ददल्ली-

110092, प्रथम सांस्करण,1999,पृ-7 6.

वही, पृ-118

7.

वही, पृ-119

लघुकथा

भूत पूरन जसह बाबा बहुत मेहनत करते थे लेदकन जमींदार बेगार तो करवाता था, पैसे नहीं देता था। कभी-कभार दे ददए तो ठीक, नहीं तो नहीं। ाईन्हीं पैसों से दकसी तरह गुज़र होती थी। एक ददन दोपहर को मैंने मााँ से कहा, ‘‘बहुत भूख लगी है।’’ मााँ कु छ नहीं बोली ाईसने हमट्टी के बरतन ाईलट कर ददखा ददए थे। मेरी भूख और तेज हो गाइ थी। भूख के तेज़ होते ही महस्तष्क भी तेज़ हो गया था। पास ही श्मशान घाट था जहााँ बड़े-बडे लोग ाऄपने बच्चों को भूत-प्रेत से बचाने के हलए नाररयल, सूखा गोला पूरी-खीर काइ बार हमष्ठान भी रख ाअते थे। यह सब काम दोपहर में होता था या दफर ाअधी रात को। मैं श्मशान घाट चल ददया था। सांयोग से वहााँ खीर पूरी और सूखा गोला रखा था। गोले पर जसदूर और रोली लगी थी। मैंने ाआधर-ाईधर देखा। कोाइ नहीं था। मैंने जल्दी-जल्दी ाअधी खीर पूरी खा ली थी और गोला झाड़ पोंछकर ाऄपनी जेब में रख हलया। ाअधी खीर पूरी लेकर मैं घर ाअया था। मेरा चेहरा चमक रहा था। चमकते चेहरे को देखकर मााँ ने पूछा, ‘भूख से भी चेहरा चमकता है क्या। तू ाआतना खुश क्यों हैं? मैंने बची हुाइ ाअधी खीर-पूरी मााँ के ाअगे कर दी थी। मााँ सब कु छ समझ गाइ थी। मााँ की ाअाँखें छलक गाइ थी और ाईसने मुझे ाऄपने ाअाँचल में हछपा हलया था मानो भूत से बचा रही हो दक ाईसके होंठ फड़फड़ाने लगे थे, ‘भूत, भूख से बड़ा थोड़े ही होता है।’ मैं कु छ नहीं समझा था। मैं मााँ के ाअाँचल में और हछपता चला गया था।

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

L=h l'kDrhdj.k% laHkkouk,¡ ,oa y{; “khyk vk;kZ1 ^^,d vkSjr ds ikl iq#"k dks vfHkHkwr dj nsus okyh rkdr gS og eqlhcrksa ls tw> ldrh gS vkSj >kM+ >a[kkM+kas ls mcjus dks dwor j[krh gS og I;kj vkSj [kqf'k;k¡ ck¡Vrh gS] tc ph[kus dk eu gksrk gS rks xkrh gS Mj yxus ij galrh gS fcuk fdlh 'krZ ds I;kj djrh gSA vxj mlesa dksbZ deh gS rks cl ;gh] fd [kqn mls viuh rkdr dk vglkl gh ugha gksrk---Þ mijksDr iafDr;k¡ fL=;ksa ds ml 'kfDr'kkyh :i dks izLrqr djrh gSa tks viuk lEiw.kZ thou izfrdwy ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh thfor jgus dhs thftfo"kk o thoVrk ds fy, la?k"kksZa ls yxkrkj Vdjkrh gSA L=h ,d izsj.kk gS] uofuekZ.k dh 'kfDr gS og eka gS] cgu gS] l`f"V dh jpukdkj gSA Hkfo"; fuekZ=h gS mldh e;kZnk mldh xfjek dk lEeku jk"Vª /keZ gSA izkphu lH;rk ,oa laLÑfr us lekt esa fL=;ksa dh tks nqjkoLFkk dh gS mlds fy, izkphu /keZ] 'kkL= ,oa :f<+oknh fopkj/kkjk dk iks"kd lekt mÙkjnk;h jgk gSA bldk nq"ifj.kke gh gS fd vkt rd fL=;ksa ds lkFk fnu izfr fnu cykRdkj] gR;k] mRihM+u tSlh ?kVuk,¡ ?kV jgh gSA vkf[kj D;ksa gekjk lekt ,oa tuekul bruk laons u'kwU; gksrk tk jgk gSA nqfu;k dh dqy vkcknh dh vk/kh tula[;k fL=;ksa dh gksrs gq, Hkh ;fn og vius vf/kdkjksa dks izkIr djus esa lQy ugha gks ik;h gS] vkSj ;fn lfn;ksa ls yxkrkj mldk 'kks"k.k gksrk vk jgk gS rks blds fy, dkSu ftEesnkj gSS\ D;k flQZ gekjs /keZ'kkL= o opZLooknh 'kfDr;k¡\ ;g loky vge gS vkSj tokc gS fL=;k¡ Hkh mruh gh ftEesnkj gSa ftrus ftEesnkj /keZ'kkL= ,oa L=h dks iq#"k ls derj vkadus okyh iq#"k ekufldrkA L=h viuh bl v/kksxfr ds fy;s blfy, ftEesnkj gS fd og vkt Hkh iwokZxzgksa ij vklDr gSSA mlus mu ekU;rkvksa ds izfr va/kfo'okl dks dk;e j[kk gS ftlds rgr mls ;g crk;k tkrk jgk gS fd ifr mldk ijes'oj gSA mldh lsok&pkdjh mldk ijyksd lq/kkjus ds fy, vfrvko';d gSA reke lqgkxfpg~uksa ls L=h dks ykn nsuk blh dqafBr ekufldrk dk nq"ifj.kke gSA vkt Hkh fL=;k¡ vius ifr;ksa dh yEch mez ds fy, ozzr&miokl j[kdj ttZj gksrh izkphu :f<+;ksa ds izfr va/kfo'okl dks iq[rk djrh gSaA L=h oxZ esa vHkh psruk dk cM+k vHkko gSA ;g Li"V djrk gS fd] f'kf{kr gksuk ;k i<+uk&fy[kuk ,d vyx pht gS psruk dk 1

'khyk vk;kZ ih-,p-Mh] Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk dsUnz] ts,u;w] okMZu ¶ySV 1] czãiq=k Nk=kokl] ts,u;w] ubZ fnYyh&110067 www.dalitsahitya.com

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

blls dksbZ ysuk&nsuk ughaA t:jh ugha fd f'kf{kr gksus ls vkidh ekufldrk cny tk,] psruk vkSj f'k{kk dk ijLij dksbZ laca/k ugha gSA ;fn gksrk rks Hkkjr vkt ,d tkfrfoghu jk"V~z ds :i esa igpku cuk pqdk gksrkA f'k{kk ,d L=h dks ukSdjh ns ldrh gS] vkfFkZd :i ls etcwr cuk ldrh gSA vkidk lkekftd Lrj Å¡pk gks ldrk gSA ijUrq] blls ;g drbZ Hkh fl) ugha gksrk fd blls L=h psruk 'khy Hkh gks ldrh gSA viuh rFkkxr fLFkfr ds izfr psruk'khy gksuk oSpkfjd Lrj ij etcwr gksuk gSA ,d vui<+ L=h Hkh viuh fLFkfr ds fy, ftEesnkj /keZ'kkL=ksa o opZLookn ds f[kykQ la?k"kZ dj ldrh gSA reke nfyr vkRedFkkvksa esa vfHkO;Dr lkekftd psruk ds rRo bldh iqf"V djrs gSaA bldk lcls csgrj mnkgj.k nfyr lkfgR;dkj vkseizdk'k okYehfd dh eka gSa ftUgksaus vui<+ gksrs gq, Hkh ^twBu* mBkus tSlh ?k`f.kr ijEijk dk fojks/k fd;kA nwljk mnkgj.k Lo;a muds firk Fks ftUgksaus vui<+ gksrs gq, Hkh ^lyke izFkk* dk ?kksj fojks/k dj vius lekt esa psruk QSykbZA blfy, psruk f'k{kk dh eksgrkt ugha gksrhA fL=;ksa dh nqnZ'kk ds fy, /keZ Hkh mÙkjnk;h gS ,d mnkgj.k ;g Hkh] ,slk drbZ ugha fd gekjs ;gk¡ iz[kj fonqf"k;ksa dh deh jgh gSA ;gk¡ ^xkxhZ* ^yksikeqnzk* ¼oSfnddkyhu½ tSlh dbZ iz[kj fonqf"k;k¡ jgh gSaA ftUgsa vius Lora= fpUru ds fy, la?k"kZ Hkh djuk iM+kA ckotwn blds L=h dks lfn;ksa ls c<+rh le; /kkjk ds lkFk iRFkj dh nsoh :ih izfrek cuk fn;kA mlds R;kx o cfynku dh dgkfu;ksa dks efgekef.Mr dj mlls vf/kd ls vf/kd cfynku dh vis{kk dh tkrh jghA blesa dksbZ nks jk; ugha fd L=h viuh izÑfr ls LoHkkoxr n;kyq] lfg".kq] 'kfDr ijk;.k] eerke;h] d#.kke;h jgh gS] ijUrq bldk drbZ Hkh ;g vfHkizk; ugha fd og ew[kZ gSA fgUnw /keZ ds fo/kk;d euq us vius fof/k xzaFk ^euqLe`fr* esa ftlesa lkekftd ,oa uhfr O;oLFkk dk fu;e gS] cM+h dBksjrk ls fL=;ksa ij blds dkuwu ykxw fd;ss gSaA bl xzaFk dks i<+us ls Kkr gksrk gS fd euq us fL=;ksa ds O;fDrRo dk fdruk guu fd;k gS] oks L=h dks LoHkko ls gh xyr ekurs gq, yxHkx ml ij vkjksi yxkrs gq, ¼v/;k; 2] 'yksd 213] i`- 42½ esa fy[krs gSa fd ßbl lalkj esa iq#"kksa dks nw"k.k yxkuk fL=;ksa dk LoHkko gksrk gS] blfy, iafMrtu fL=;ksa esa vlko/kkuh ls ugha jgrs gSaAÞ lalkj dh vk/kh vkcknh vkSjr dks euq }kjk misf{kr le>uk loZFkk fuUnuh; gSA ¼'yksd] 24 v/;k; nks ds i`-42½ esa os fy[krs gSa ßlalkj esa fL=;k¡ ew[kZ dks ;k dke Øks/k ds o'khHkwr iafMrksa dks cqjs ekxZ esa ys tkus esa leFkZ gksrh gSAÞ bl lc ds fy, L=h dks mÙkjnk;h le>rs gq, euq fy[krs gSa ßL=h oL=kHkw"k.k ls fcuk Ük`axkj fd, iq#"k dks izlUu ugha dj ldrh vkSj iq#"k dks izlUu u djus ls vPNh larku ugha gksrh gSAÞ ¼v/;k; 3] 'yksd 612] i` - 54½ esa ;g dgdj euq fL=;ksa dk ,dek= dke iq#"kksa dks fj>kuk gh le>rs gSaA os dgrs gSa fd tks L=h vius ckg~; rM+d&HkM+d] ukt&u[kjs vkSj lkt&flxkaj ls iq#"k dks ugha fj>k ldrh mldk leLr thou O;FkZ gS] dgdj larku mRiUu djuk gh mldk ,dek= drZO; crk nsrs gSaA gekjh lekt O;oLFkk esa ,d iq#"k dh rqyuk esa L=h dk LFkku ges'kk ls derj jgk gS rks mlds ihNs ;s /keZ'kkL= Hkh mÙkjnk;h jgs gaSA ijEijk] 'kks"k.k] jhfr] fjoktksa us mls ges'kk ls fodkl dh nkSM+ esa ihNs /kdsyus dh ijEijk dk fuokZg fd;k gSA ,d L=h dk viuk ,d Lora= O;fDrRo gS og Lora= vfLerk dh gdnkj gS] vf/kdkfj.kh gSA ijUrq euq ijk/khurk dks mldh fu;fr ekurs gq, ¼v/;k; 5] 'yksd 148] i`- 136a½ esa fy[krs gSa ßckY;koLFkk esa L=h firk ds o'k esa] ;kSoukoLFkk esa ifr ds o'k esa vkSj ifr dh e`R;q ds ckn iq=ksa ds o'k esa jgsA Lora= u jgsAÞ ßifrozrk L=h dks 'khyjfgr] ijL=hxkeh ;k xq.k ghu ifr dks Hkh lnk nsork ds leku iwtuk pkfg,AÞ ¼'yksd 15] v/;k; 5] i`- 137½ euq iq#"k dks L=h dk neu djus dks izsfjr djrs gSaA ,sls gaS gekjs /keZ'kkL= vkSj mudk iks"kd ;g lekt tks L=h dks ;k rks nsoh :ik f'kyk cuk nsrk

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

gS ;k lrh lkfo=hA ifr/keZ dh ,slh ifjHkk"kk fL=;ksa ij igjsnkjh dh lkS cafn'ksa yxk nsrk gSA tgk¡ L=h o 'kwnz ¼egk'kwnz½ dh cjkcjh lwvj dqÙks ls djus rd ls ijgst ugha fd;k tkrk gSA nqHkkZX; ;g gS fd ;gh euqLe`fr fgUnw /keZ dh vkpkj lafgrk ds :i esa vkt Hkh izfr"Bk izkIr gSA blls ;g vanktk yxk;k tk ldrk gS] fd ;g ogh vkpkjlafgrk gS ftl ij vkt Hkh fgUnw /keZ esa cs[kkSi csijokgh ls vey fd;k tkrk gSA ftldk lcls vf/kd f'kdkj efgyk,¡ gh gksrh vk jgh gSaA vkt dh f'k{kk Hkh efgykvksa esa ;g cnyko ugha yk ik jgh gSA dkSu cnysxk bl /keZ dkuwu dks \ L=h dks gh blds fy, vkokt mBkuh gksxhA vkt mldh fo'oluh;rk dks ;fn fdlh us pqukSrh nh gS rks nfyr lkfgR; fpardksa usA ckck lkgsc MkW- Hkhejko vEcsMdj }kjk euqLe`fr dks tyk, tkus ds ihNs ;gh dkj.k FksA lekt O;oLFkk esa lfn;ksa ls /keZ] n'kZu] fof/k O;oLFkk jLe&fjoktksa ij iq#"kksa dk opZLo jgk gS ,slk D;ksa \ lM+h&xyh ekU;rkvksa o laLdkjksa dk fojks/k djuk gksxkA dkSfVY; dk ^vFkZ'kkL=* gks] ^pk.kD; dk ^pk.kD;uhfr niZ.k* gks] HkrZgfj dk ^uhfr'krde* gks ;k rqylhnkl dk ^jkepfjrekul* lHkh L=h ds izfr ,d gh rjg dk n`f"Vdks.k j[krs gSaA [kklrkSj ij rqylhnkl rks ^jkepfjrekul* esa euq ls [kkls izHkkfor fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA uhfr fu;ked] dBksj naM fu/kkZj.k djus okys] vius le; ds iz[;kr fopkjd pk.kD; vius ^pk.kD; uhfr niZ.k* f}rh;] v/;k; 1] ds- i`- 12½ esa fL=;ksa ds LoHkko ds fo"k; esa viuk er nsrs gq, fy[krs gSa] ß>wB cksyuk] lkgl] Ny&diV] ew[kZrk] vfryksHk] vifo=rk rFkk funZ;rk fL=;ksa ds LokHkkfod nks"k gSAÞ bls D;k dgk tk, tc pk.kD; tSls fpUrd dh L=h fo"k;d lksp bruh ldh.kZ] laons u'kwU; gks ldrh gS fQj lkekU; iq#"k ls rks vis{kk gh fujFkZd gSA pk.kD; ls nks dne vkxs HkrZ`gfj dk ekuuk rks ;g gS fd L=h esa ;kSou ugha rks mldk thuk gh csdkj gSA L=h dks ek= miHkksx dh oLrq le>us okys Hkr`Zgfj vius xzaFk ¼uhfr'krde ds v/;k; 66] i`- 54½ esa fy[krs gSa & ß;fn L=h ds ikl ;kSou ugha gS] rks mls lalkj esa thfor jgus dk vf/kdkj ugha] fnu ds le; /kwfey iM+k pUnzek] ;kSou&<yh L=h] dey foghu ljksoj] lqUnj vkÑfrokys euq"; dk fuj{kj eq[k] /ku dk yksHkh Lokeh] fujUrj nqnZ'kkxzLr lTtu rFkk jktk ds njckj esa igq¡pk gqvk nqtZu ;s lc esjs eu esa dkaVs dhy dh rjg pqHkrs gSaAÞ blds ckn rqylhnkl tks yxHkx euq ds fopkjksa ls izHkkfor Fks] budk le; vkt ls yxHkx lkM+s pkj lkS o"kZ igys dk jgk gSA budk L=h ds izfr ?k`f.kr n`f"Vdks.k tks buds ^jkepfjrekul* esa >ydrk gSA mlds izHkko dk nq"ifj.kke lekt esa L=h dks vktrd Hkksxuk iM+ jgk gSA cfYd fL=;ksa ls vf/kd vYila[;d lekt dks Hkksxuk iM+ jgk gSA rqylh rks <ksy] xaokj] 'kwnz] i'kq ukjh dks ,d gh ik;nku ij j[krs gq, lcdks flQZ rkM+uk dk vf/kdkjh ekurs gSaA os L=h vfLerk o mldh Lora=rk dks iq#"k ds fy, [krjk crkrs gSaA rqylh L=h dks lS)kafrd :i ls ;fn 'kfDr dk Lo:i dgrs gSa rks blds ihNs Hkh mudh lkft'k mls [kq'k djds 'kkUr djus dh vf/kd gS ugha rks rqylh ;g ugha dgrs fd ßlR;dnkfN dfo ukjh lqHkkÅA lc fof/k vxe vxk/k nqjkÅ fut izfrfcEc cBd efg tkbZ tkfu u tkb ukjh xfr HkkbZAA** jkepfjr ekul] v;ks/;kdk.M & 4] i`- 416

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

vFkkZr L=h fo'okl ds ;ksX; ugha gksrhA lSno mldk pfj= lansgksa ds ?ksjs esa jgrk gSA ftlus Hkh L=h ij fo'okl fd;k gS mlds nksuksa yksd fcxM+ x,A bu /keZ xzaFkksa ij fVdh gS Hkkjrh; lekt dh vk/kkjf'kyk tgk¡ 'kkL=ksa us L=h vfLerk] mldh Lora=rk xfjek dks ges'kk daq/k fd;k gSA fleksu os cSvksokj ;fn dgrh gS fd ^L=h tUe ugha ysrh cuk;h tkrh gSAÞ rks D;k xyr dgrh gSaA mls cuk;k tkrk gS bu /keZ] 'kkL=] jhfr fjokt] fyax Hksn vkfn lkapksa esa rikdj] vkSj ;g 'kks"k.k ;kstukc) rjhds ls gksrk gSA fL=;ksa ds vkRelEeku vkSj vkRefo'okl dks ckj&ckj ?kkr&izfr?kkr ls dqafBr dj fn;k tkrk gSA ij loky mBrk gS fd bldk fojks/k dkSu djsxk \ Lo;a L=h dks vius vkReguu ds fojks/kLo:i vkokt mBkuh gksxhA vkt Hkh dbZ efgyk,¡ gSa tks L=h l'kDrhdj.k ij L=h ys[ku o L=h foe'kZ ds ek/;e ls tksjnkj n[ky ns jgh gS] ijUrq vius O;ogkj esa os iwokZxzgksa ls eqDr ugha gSaA vkt Hkh os iq= izkfIr dh dkeuk djrh gS] ifr;ksa ds fy, ozr miokl djrh gSA firk] HkkbZ ifr dh gh bPNkvksa dks gh egÙo nsrh gSaA tgk¡ rd vius LokfHkeku ;k vkRelEeku dh ckr gS ogk¡ ij Hkh os [kkeks'k jgrh gSaA /;ku jgs vioknksa ls lkekftd ifjorZu laHko ugha] tcrd L=h ;gk¡ detksj gksrh jgsxh og lekt esa L=h l'kDrhdj.k dks detksj djrh jgsxhA L=h l'kDrhdj.k ds ek;us le>us gksx a s & ,d L=h ds fy, l'kDrhdj.k dk vFkZ gS] ^L=hoxZ dk etcwr gksuk] iq#"kksa ds leku cjkcjh ds nkf;Ro ,oa vf/kdkjA vkRefoosd ls Lopkfyr ikfjokfjd ,oa lkekftd thou ifjos'k] mldk vkRelEekuA vkRefu.kZ; dh Lora=rk] f'k{kk] 'kknh rFkk vius dSfj;j tSls futh] O;fDrxr fu.kZ;ksa esa pquko dh Lora=rkA ifjokfjd lEifÙk;ksa esa cjkcj dh fgLlsnkjh ds lkFk lkekftd fu.kZ; izfØ;k esa mldh Lo;a dh HkkxhnkjhA jktuhfr rFkk vkfFkZd uhfr;ksa esa mldk gLr{ksi o fgLlsnkjh ,oa ;kSfud Lora=rk ds lkFk&lkFk jkstejkZ ds thou esa ;kSfud fgalk dh gSokfu;r ls eqfDrA vkSj ;g rc gks ldrk gS] tc Lo;a L=h viuh xqykeh dh tehuh gdhdr vkSj mlds lzkrs ksa dks le>dj mldk MVdj fojks/k djus yxsxhA ;g fuf'pr gS fd tc rd ge Lo;a dks nwljksa ij vkfJr le>rs jgsaxs O;oLFkk esa gekjk 'kks"k.k gksrk jgsxkA nfyr lekt bldk mnkgj.k gSA tc rd nfyr ;g le>us esa leFkZ ugha gq, fd mUgsa nfyr cukus ds ihNs dkSu lh lkft'k py jgh gS] ml fnu ls ;g le>us esa nsj ugha yxh fd mudk viuk Hkh otwn gS] Lora= vfLrRo gS] muds Hkh vf/kdkj gSa fQj xqykeh dk thou D;ksa \ vkt ;fn ifjfLFkfr;k¡ ifjofrZr gqbZ gSa rks blds ihNs nfyr dk psruk'khy gksuk o 'kks"k.k ds f[kykQ tksjnkj ns'kO;kih nfyr la?k"kZ gh jgk gSA ftldh uhao rks pkokZd] cq)] ukxktqZu rFkk dchj ,oa dchjiafFk;ksa us Mky nh Fkh ijUrq foLrkj fn;k T;ksfrckQqys] lkfo=h ckbZ Qqy]s MkW- Hkhejko vEcsMdj dh yEch tn~nkstgn usA vkt Hkh reke nfyr fpard bl la?k"kZ esa ;ksxnku nsrs gq, vkus okys dy dks vius uke djus ds fy, egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk jgs gSa L=h us vHkh iw.kZ:i ls laoS/kkfud vf/kdkjksa dk mi;ksx djuk Hkh Bhd ls ugha lh[kk gS rks vius iwokZxzgksa ls eqDr u gks ikuk bldk izeq[k dkj.k gSA fdlh Hkh izk.kh dks mldh bPNk ds foijhr rc rd bLrseky fd;k tk ldrk gS tcrd 'kksf"kr gksus okyk izk.kh mldk fojks/k ugha djrkA L=h ijk/khurk ds ihNs ;gh ,d dkj.k gS fd mlus fojks/k u djds ekSu LohÑfr nh gSA egku lektfpUrd Hkkjr jRu ckck lkgc MkW- vEcsMdj us L=h Lora=rk dk loky mBkrs gq, mldh cjkcj dh Hkkxsnkjh dk loky Hkh mBk;k FkkA iSr`d laifÙk esa Hkh mlds fgLls dh ckr mBkbZ Fkh] fgUnw dksM+ fcy ¼1948½ esa MkW- vEcsMdj us fy[kk Fkk ßfL=;ksa dh fLFkfr flQZ Åij ls mins'k nsdj ugha lq/kjus okyh] dkuwu esa mlds fy, O;oLFkk Hkh djuh gksxhAÞ fgUnw

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

L=h ds fy, brus fpafrr MkW- vEcsMdj dh Hkkouk dks D;k fgUnw lo.kZ L=h us lEeku fn;k\ og bl fo"k; ij vkt Hkh ekSu fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA vkt tc Hkkjrh; ukjh dqN gnrd viuk LFkku cukus esa lQy gqbZ gS rks] blds ihNs Øakfrdkjh dne mBkus dk Js; fuf'pr :i ls lPps jk"Vª fuekZrk MkW- Hkhejko vEcsMdj dks tkrk gSA D;ksafd mUgksaus fgUnw dksM fcy esa fL=;ksa ds leku vf/kdkj lqfuf'pr fd;sA mUgksaus u dsoy nfyrksa ds fy, la?k"kZ fd;k cfYd lewps jk"Vª dks lqn`<+] lqlaxfBr vkSj lH; jk"Vª cukus ds fy, vkthou la?k"kZ fd;kA ftlesa L=h dh Hkkxsnkjh o Lora=rk Hkh ,d vge loky FkkA ckotwn blds vkt ;g ij[kus dh vko';drk gS fd efgyk,¡ viuh lkekftd vkfFkZd :f<+;ksa ls fdruh Lora= gks ik;h gSaA bu iz'uksa ij fopkj djrs gq, efgykvksa dks viuh ,sfrgkfld ukfj;ksa dk Lej.k djuk pkfg, tSls ehjkckbZ] >ydkjhckbZ] y{ehckbZ] jekckbZ] egknsoh oekZ] lqHknzk dqekjh pkSgku] bR;kfnA ftUgksua s viuk lEiw.kZ thou ijEijkvksa ls la?k"kZ fd;k vkSj ukjh eqfDr ds fy, }kj [kksysA fleksu n cSmvkj dk dguk gS fd ^^eqfDr dh 'kq:vkr cVq, ls gksrh gSAÞ ;g ,d gn rd lgh gS] ijUrq vkfFkZd Lora=rk ls dgha vf/kd lkekftd eqfDr L=h dk y{; gSA ehjk dk y{; bUgha lkekftd csfM+;ksa ls eqfDr dk la?k"kZ FkkA fir` lÙkkRed O;oLFkk us ges'kk vius fgr ds fy, vkSjr dks bLrseky djus gsrq mls laLdkjksa esa tdM+kA ftl lekt ds fy, ;g dgk tkrk jgk gks fd og vkSjr ds fy, ugha cnyrk ehjk us viuh n`<+ izfrKk ls mls cnykA eqfDr dh pkg us gh ehjk dks Øakfrdkjh cuk;k vkSj cuuk Hkh iM+sxk rHkh laHkkoukvksa ds }kj [kqyrs gSaA orZeku esa L=h lqfo/kklEiUu gS] f'kf{kr gS] vkfFkZd :i ls etcwr Hkh gS ij psruk lEiUu ugha gSA vk/kqfudrk us mls igjs vf/kd fn;s gSa] dHkh ikfjokfjd izfr"Bk dh fpUrk] dHkh cnukeh dk Mj] rks dgha lkekftd izfr"Bk dk vadq'k] dgha fj'rksa dh csfM+;k] rks dgha [kkeks'kh dh foo'krkA O;fDrRo fuekZ.k ds fy, L=h dks n`<+ vkRefo'okl dh t:rj gksrh gSA Hkys gh vkt L=h dks fgUnw dksM fcy ds rgr e`rfirk dh lEifÙk esa fgLlk o e`r ifr dh lEifRr esa iq=&o&iqf=;ksa ds lkFk leku mÙkjkf/kdkj fey x;k gks ijUrq dksbZ Hkh lo.kZ L=h bls ncs eq¡g Hkys ftruk ljkgs ijUrq [kqydj dksbZ Hkh bldk Js; MkW- vEcsMdj dks nsus esa drjkrh gSA bldh ctg gS mldk czkã.koknh ekufldrk dks iwjk leFkZu vkSj vkRefo'okl dh dehA vkt Hkh e/;eoxhZ; i<+h fy[kh efgyk de mez esa gh fo/kok gksus ij Hkh lkjk thou csok dh rjg fcrkus esa viuh le>nkjh le>rh gSA blds ihNs dkj.k gS mudh ikfjokfjd o lkekftd izfr"Bk dh fpUrk ;s dqN ,sls egÙoiw.kZ loky gaS] tks Hkkjrh; L=h dks lkekftd vkSj vkfFkZd n`f"V ls lqn`<+ cuk ldrs gSa rFkk Hkfo"; esa ukjh vH;qRFkku dh etcwr i`"BHkwfe Hkh rS;kj dj ldrs gSaA blls Hkkjrh; ukjh vius y{; izkfIr dh laHkkoukvksa dks foLr`r vk;ke ns ldrh gSA t:jr gS rks mls psruk'khy gksdj leLr Hkkjrh; efgykvksa dks ,d lw= esa ysdj ¼vo.kZ&lo.kZ½ vius vf/kdkjksa dks le>s vkSj ekxsA ijUrq /;ku jgs mls lcls igys :<+ gksrh ijEijk o fir`lÙkkRed O;oLFkk ds rgr r; fd, x;s Qjekuksa dk fojks/k djuk gksxk]A vkt ;g dguk fd Hkkjrh; ukjh us iq#"kksa ds leku lekt esa izfrf"Br LFkku ik fy;k gS] og Hkh iq#"kksa dh Hkkafr lekt ds izR;sd {ks=ksa esa ;Fkk LFkku ikdj ,d l'kDr L=h ds :i esa vknj.kh; cu pqdh gS rks fuf'pr rkSj ij ;g ^vius eqag fe;k feV~Bw* vFkkZr ^viuh rkjhQ lqudj [kq'k gks ysuk* okyh dgkor dks gh pfjrkFkZ djrh gSA Hks"k&Hkk"kk] O;ogkj] f'k"Vkpkj] f'k{kk dk ek/;e] ekrk&firk o cPpksa ds chp laokn dk lyhdk cny tkuk] [kku&iku dk Lo:i cny tkuk ;k if'peh lH;rk ,oa laLd`fr dh x`g.k'khyrk bR;kfn dnkfi ;g Li"V ugha djrk fd fL=;ksa us viuk LFkku ik fy;k gS] ;k Lo;a dks oSf'od lksiku ij ns[kus dk

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

liuk lp gks x;k gSA ;|fi fL=;ksa ij geys nqfu;k ds lHkh ns'kksa esa ns[ks tkrs gSa ijUrq Hkkjrh; fgUnw ekU;rkvksa ds vkRe?kkrh ik[kaM ds nq"ifj.kkeksa us vkt iq= dh pkg esa csfV;ksa dh gR;k xHkZ esa gh djk nsus tSlh ?k`f.kr lksp ls tux.kuk vkadM+ksa esa csfV;ksa dh la[;k ftl rsth ds lkFk yxkrkj ?kVrh fn[kkbZ ns jgh gS] og xEHkhj fpUrk dk fo"k; gSA ijUrq ,slk ugha gS fd blesa iq#"k vdsyk ftEesnkj gS iq= ds eksg us L=h dks Hkh bl ?k`f.kr dk;Z esa fyIr fd;k gSA rc dSls dj ik,xh Hkkjrh; L=h vius y{; dh izkfIr] igys rks vius xHkZ esa iy jgh l`f"V dh fuekZ=h dks cpkuk gksxk] rc laHkkoukvksa ds u, ekxZ ryk'kus gksx a sA blds fy, lcls igyh vko';drk gS f'k{kk dh] ,slh f'k{kk dh tks vkfFkZd :i ls etcwr cukus ds lkFk&lkFk iwokZxzgksa ls eqfDr rFkk Lokf/kdkjksa ds izfr psruk'khy Hkh cuk,A ;s lc fcuk jktuSfrd Hkkxhnkjh ds gks ikuk dfBu gSA blfy, fL=;ksa dks vf/kd&ls&vf/kd la[;k esa f'k{kk rFkk jktuhfr ls Hkh tqM+uk gksxkA L=h l'kfDrdj.k ds fy, L=hoknh vkanksyuksa dks ns[kuk gksxk] vkSj bldk foLrkj dj lekt ds fofHkUu vk;keksa tSls jktuhfr] vFkkZr jktlÙkk] KkulÙkk ,oa vFkZlÙkk esa vius fgLlsnkjh ds iz'u mBkus gksx a ]s bl lcds fy, egÙoiw.kZ gksxk ihNs eqM+dj ns[kuk D;ksfa d dqN izfr'kr Hkkxhnkfjrk ls y{; izkIr ugha gksrsA vkt Hkh vf/kla[; efgyk,¡ xzkeh.k lekt esa f'k{kk ds }kj dks Nw rd ugha ikbZ gSaA vkt Hkh mudh f'k{kk dk Lo:i ikjEifjd gSA ftlds rgr mUgsa flQZ ?kj ds dke&dkt vkSj lcdks [kq'k j[kus dh ulhgr nh tkrh gSA vkt Hkh mUgsa ckY;kolLFkk esa fookg o vYik;q esa eka cuus tSlh rdyhQksa ls xqtjuk iM+rk gSA blds fy, vf/kd ls vf/kd xzkeh.k fL=;ksa dks f'k{kk ls tksM+dj y{; izkfIr dh laHkkoukvksa ds u, ekxZ [kkstus gksx a sA L=h l'kfDrdj.k dk vFkZ ;g dnkfi ugha fd iqq#"k ds f[kykQ gks tk, vkSj bldk ;g vFkZ Hkh ugha gS fd L=h dks iq#"k ds lg;ksx o fu.kZ; dh vko';drk ugha gSA cfYd lp rks ;g gS fd L=h&iq#"k dk thou leku lgHkkfxrk dk thou gS ftlesa nksuksa dh fuHkZjrk ,d nwljs ij gSA ijUrq bl ijLij fuHkZjrk dh vko';drk dks le>uk iq#"k ds fy, Hkh mruk gh vko';d gS ftruk ,d L=h ds fy, A lafo/kku iznÙk lekurk ds vf/kdkj dk vkt rd bekunkjh ls ikyu rd ugha gks ik;k gSA D;k dkj.k gS fd vkt rd X;kjg izfr'kr efgyk,¡ gh lakln cu ik;h gSaA tcfd jktuhfr esa efgyk dks leqfpr volj iznku djus gksaxs D;ksafd laln esa iq#"kksa o efgykvksa dh leku Hkkxhnkjh ls yksdra= gh etcwr gksxk] blh rjg ehfM;k esa vHkh fL=;ksa dh Hkkxhnkjh iq#"kksa ls de fn[kkbZ nsrh gS vkSj ;fn dqN efgyk,¡ lØh; Hkh gSa rks mUgsa iq#"k opZLo dk f'kdkj Hkh dbZ ckj gksuk iM+rk gSA mUgsa viuh lksp o fopkj/kkjk dks dq/ka djds opZLookn ls le>kSrk djuk iM+rk gS rks ;g L=h l'kDrhdj.k ds izfr mis{kkxzLr utfj;s dk nks"k gSA nwljh rjQ ftls eq[;/kkjk dh if=dk dgk tkrk jgk gS og cktkj ij bl dnj vkfJr gS fd mls vius mRikn dSls is'k fd, tk,¡ rkfd og fcd tk,A vius bl utfj;s ds rgr og fdlh dh Hkkoukvksa laons ukvksa] vkxzgksa] iwokZxzgkss]a ;gk¡ rd fd nqjkxzgksa dks Hkh cspuk pkgrk gSA bldk f'kdkj Hkh lcls vf/kd fL=;k¡ gh gksrh vk jgh gSaA fganh i=&if=dkvksa ds Qhpj iUus tks vkt rd L=h&lqcksf/kuh ds ;qx ls vkxs c<+ gh ugha ik, gSaA blds ckotwn ;fn bu i=&if=dkvksa esa L=h ds fgLls vkbZ bl NksVh lh dke;kch dks gh vf/kd le>k tkrk gS rks blds ihNs dkj.k gS vf/kdka'k i=&if=dkvksa esa vkt Hkh lEikndh; uhfr;ksa ds fo"k; esa QSlys ysus okys inksa ij fL=;ksa dh vuqifLFkfrA blds ihNs ,d Bksl dkj.k vkSj gS fd] bu i=&if=dkvksa ;k Vhoh dk;ZØeksa esa vf/kdka'kr% efgyk,¡ gksus ds ckotwn ;s ySafxd vkSj tkrh;

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

Lrj ij ;fn lkekftd ;FkkfLFkfrokn dks cuk, j[kus esa lcls cM+k dkj.k gS rks lekt ij fu;a=.k j[kus okyh rkdrksa ds }kjk viuh lÙkk dks cpk, j[kus ds fy, viuh t:jrksa ds fglkc ls efgykvksa dks ehfM;k esa txg nsukA D;ksafd fdlh Hkh {ks= esa efgykvksa dh mifLFkfr ds c<+us dk eryc gS dke&dkt ds rkSj&rjhdksa esa cnyko dh laHkkoukA vkt vf/kdka'k Vhoh pSuyksa esa Hkh vPNh [kklh efgyk mifLFkfr ds okctwn fL=h vfLerk ds lokyksa ij dksbZ tn~nkstgn ugha fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA reke Vhoh dk;Zdzeksa esa fL=;ksa dks misf{kr djus dk dksbZ ekSdk vkt Hkh NksM+k ugha tkrkA ;gk¡ vkdj vlyh loky psruk ds vHkko dk gS] tkx:drk dh deh dk gSA vR;k/kqfud fn[kkbZ nsuk vkSj gksuk nks vyx&vyx phtsa gSaA blfy, ;g lkspdj [kq'k gksus dh 'kk;n vko';drk ugha fd L=h dks dqN fey x;k gSA ;g feyuk flQZ mruk gS ftlls O;oLFkk dks cuk, j[kus ds fy, t:jh gSA vkt Hkh vf/kdka'k {ks=ksa esa gekjs lkekftd&lkaLd`frd] tkrh;] ,oa vkfFkZd iwokZxzg gkoh jgrs gSaA blfy, L=h vfLerk ds lokyksa ij ckr djus dh t:jr gh ugha le>h tkrhA D;ksafd ;g mlh fir`lÙkkRed O;oLFkk dk fuokZg ek= gS ftlesa ,d cM+s lkekftd oxZ ¼vYila[;d] nfyr½ ds lkFk&lkFk efgykvksa dks Hkh oafpr vkSj mudh ijfuHkZjrk dks vPNk le>k tkrk gSA bu oafpr tkfr;ksa vkSj fL=;ksa ds izfr yfpykiu rc fn[kkbZ nsrk gS tc bUgsa jktuhfrd xfy;kjksa esa oksV cSad dh n`f"V ls ns[kk tkrk gS ;k O;oLFkk ij fofHkUu n`f"Vdks.kksa ls loky mBk, tkrs gSaA ,sls esa O;oLFkk dks cuk, j[kus ds fy, i=dkfjrk esa efgykvksa dks bLrseky djuk] ;k efgykvksa vkSj efgyk eqn~nksa dks txg feyuk D;k larks"k dk fo"k; gS\ ;s ltx L=h ds loky gksus pkfg, ,sls loky L=h l'kDrhdj.k dks rkdr ns ldrs gSa vkSj laHkkoukvksa ds fofo/k }kj [kksy ldrs gSaA fdlh Hkh {ks= esa efgyk mifLFkr dk vFkZ gksuk pkfg, mldh etcwr fLFkfr ds lkFk mifLFkfrA blesa dksbZ nks jk; ugha fd vkt Hkkjrh; lekt esa Hkh iq#"k ls brj L=h dk Hkh ,d Lora= vfLrRo gSA mlus f'k{kk ds {ks= ls ysdj] esfMdy] bathfu;fjax] i=dkfjrk] fQYeksa rd esa ,d vkRefuHkZj l'kDr o fufHkZd Nfo cukbZ gSA izfrLi/kkZ ds bl ;qx esa L=h us izR;sd {ks= esa viuh vYi Hkkxhnkjh ls dqN gn rd lkeUrh ewY;ksa dh tM+rk dks /oLr fd;k gSA ijUrq t:jr gS ?kjsyw efgykvksa dks viuh ikjEifjd igpku ls ckgj fudkydj ikSjkf.kd feFkdksa dks rksM+us dhA tM+ gksrs jhfr&fjoktksa dks R;kxus dh vkSj viuh iqjkuh nSoh; Nfo ls ckgj vkus dh o vk/kqfudrk dks lPps vFkksZa esa igpkuus dhA MkW- Hkhejko vEcsMdj us dgk Fkk fd ßeSa fdlh lekt dh izxfr dk vuqeku bl ckr ls yxkrk gw¡ fd ml lekt dh efgykvksa dh fdruh izxfr gqbZ gSAÞ ;g ml lksp dk ifj.kke gS tgk¡ lekt dh izxfr esa iq#"kksa ds lkFk&lkFk efgykvksa dks leku :i ls egÙoiw.kZ le>k tkrk gSA vc loky ;g mBrk gS fd bl fopkj ds lkFk fdrus izfr'kr Hkkjrh; efgyk,¡ [kM+h fn[kkbZ nsrh gS \ t:jr gS vf/kd ls vf/kd efgykvksa dks bl fopkj ls tqM+us o blds ihNs fNih laHkkoukvksa dks ryk'kus dhA vU;Fkk ;fn vki pkan ij Hkh igq¡p tk,¡ vkSj fQj Hkh vki viuh tM+rk ls ckgj ugha vkrs rks lekt ds iq#"k opZLo o czkã.kokn ds lÙkklhuksa ls vius cpko dh lHkh laHkkoukvksa dks [kks nsus dh ubZs laHkkoukvksa dks tUe ns ldrs gSaA blfy, izR;sd {ks= esa viuh etcwr fLFkfr dks eglwl djus ds lkFk&lkFk L=h l'kDrhdj.k ds vFkksZa dks le>uk Hkh egÙoiw.kZ igyw gSA

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

Ekfgyk l'kfDdrdj.k esa MkW- vEcsMdj ,d izsj.kk lzkrs ds #Ik esa UkkudpUn xkSre1 Hkkjrh; lekt esa vlekurk ,d cM+h pqukSrh cuh gqbZ gSA fganqRokfn;ksa us vlekurk dks vk/kkj cukdj efgykvksa dks lkekftd] jktuSfrd vkSj lkaLd`frd #i ls gkf'k, ij j[kk] ftlds dkj.k efgyk,¡ iwokZxzg] HksnHkko] vR;kpkj] “kks’ku vkSj dqpyu dk f'kdkj gksrh jgh gSaA MkW- vECksMdj us efgykvksa dks muds ekuokf/kdkj fnykus esa vFkd iz;kl fd,] D;ksafd os efgykvksa dh mUufr ds i{k/kj FksA izR;sd ;qx vkSj le; bfrgkl ds RkF;ksa vkSj iz;ksxksa dk IkquZeYw ;kadu djrk gS] vkSj ;gh dkj.k gS fd le; cny x;k vkSj efgyk,¡ vius vf/kdkjksa dks ikus esa ltx gksrh xbZaA ;g dguk vfrf'k;ksfDr ugha gksxk fd MkW- vEcsMdj efgykvksa ds fy, izsj.kk lzkrs ds #i esa fn[kkbZ IkMrs gSA bl 'kks/k Ik= ds }kjk ;g izdk'k Mkyus dk iz;Ru fd;k tk;sxk fd efgykvksa ds fodkl esa MkW vEcsMdj dk D;k ;ksxnku gS\ vxj efgyk,a MkWvEcsMdj dks viuk izsj.kklzkrs eku ysa rks D;k lekt essa lekurk izkIr dj ldrh gS\ Hkkjr ds 75 izfr'kr yksx xkaoksa esa jgrs gaSA gekjk ns'k fofHkUu Ikzdkj dh tkfr;kas vkSj mitkfr;ksa esa fo[kf.Mr gSA Ekfgyk,¡ fdlh Hkh ns'k vkSj lekt ds fodkl dh eq[; /kqjh gksrh gSa] tks iRuh] eka] cgu ds #i esa Ikfjokj dh vax j{kd cudj egRroiw.kZ Hkwfedk,a vnk djrh gSa] ysfdu ;g nq%[kn Ikzrhr gksrk gS fd oS'ohdj.k vkSj HkweM a yhdj.k ds ;qx esa Hkh efgyk,¡ vius vf/kdkjkas dks ikus esa ukdke;kc izrhr gksrh gSa] ftldk dkj.k gS gtkjksa o"kksZa ls f'k{kk ij izHkqRo u gksukA lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn&14 esa ;g O;oLFkk dh xbZ Fkh fd 6&14 o"kZ rd ds lHkh ckyd&ckfydkvksa dks fdlh HksnHkko ds fcuk vfuok;Z fu%'kqYd f'k{kk nh tk;sxh] ysfdu 65 o"kksaZ ds i'pkr~ Hkh ge viuk fu/kkZfjr y{; izkIr ugha dj ik, gSaA ,sfrgkfld izek.kksa ds vk/kkj ij ;g izekf.kr gksrk gS fd izkphu dky esa ckfydk f'k{kk ij vR;f/kd è;ku fn;k tkrk FkkA oSfnd ;qx esa efgykvksa dk ,d ,slk oxZ Fkk] tks thou Hkj IkBu&IkkBu esa yhu jgrh FkhaA bUgsa czgeokfnuh dgk tkrk FkkA #Iiyk] fo'ookjk] xkxhZ vkSj v=ks;h bl le; dh fonq"kh nk'kZfud efgyk,¡ Fkh vkSj oSfnd ;qx esa vfookfgr dU;kvksa dks iw.kZ Lora=rk izkIr FkhA oSfnddky esa efgykvksa dh 'kSf{kd fLFkfr lqn`<+ Fkh vkSj fcuk HksnHkko ds f'k{kk dk volj izkIr FkkA ckS) /keZ vkSj tSu /keZ dh rqyuk esa fganw /keZ esa fL=;ksa dh fLFkfr fujarj fxjrh pyh xbZA eqfLye dky esa mPp ?kjkus dh yM+fd;ksa dks gh f'k{kk dk vf/kdkj Fkk tSls& gehnk ckuw csxe] tScqfUUklk vkfnA pkYlZ xzkaV ds 'kCnksa esa Hkkjr ds yksx fganw /keZ ds

dkj.k gh ifrr fLFkfr esa jg jgs gS D;ksafd fganw /keZ csbZekuh] LokFkhZiu] lkekftd fo[kaMu] >wBsiu] fL=;ksa ds iru vkSj eSFkqu lac/a kh O;kfHkpkjksa dh tM+ gSA ;g dguk xyr u gksxk fd fganw /keZ efgykvksa dk lcls cM+k nq'eu gSS ftlus gtkjksa o"kksZa ls efgykvksa dks muds ekuokf/kdkjksa ls misf{kr j[kk x;k gSA Ikzkphudky vkSj eè;dky esa mPp ?kjkus dh efgykvksa dks gh fo'ks"kkf/kdkj izkIr FksA tokgj yky usg# us dgk Fkk fd lekt esa fdlh Hkh iq#"k vkSj efgyk ds lkFk tkfr] Hkk"kk vkSj fyaxHksn ds vk/kkj Ikj HksnHkko dh leL;k dks lekIr djus dk oknk Hkh fd;k x;k Fkk 1

UkkudpUn xkSre 'kks/kkFkhZ] bfrgkl vkSj lH;rk foHkkx] Ekkufodh vkSj lkekftd foKku ladk;] XkkSre cq) fo'ofo|ky; Page 179

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ysfdu baVjusV ds ;qx esa efgykvksa ds lkFk [kqysvke nq"deZ dh ?kVukvksa dks vatke fn;k tkrk gSA ;g dguk vfrf'k;ksfDr ugha gksxk fd fganw lekt dh ekufldrk esa IkfjorZu vo'; gqvk gSA ysfdu ;g dguk lR; izrhr gksrk gS fd ,d ckfydk dks f'kf{kr djus ls iwjs ifjokj dks f'kf{kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA efgykvksa ds fiNM+usiu dk dkj.k gS f'k{kk dk vHkkoA ns'k ds fodkl vkSj tu dY;k.k ds dk;ksZa esa efgykvksa dk izfrfuf/kRo vfuok;Z gSA MkW- vEcsMdj us dgk Fkk fd Hkkjr dk fiNM+us dk dkj.k gS efgykvksa ds izfrfuf/kRo dk vHkko vkSj ns'k ds fodkl esa efgykvksa dh Hkkxhnkjh gksuk furkar vko';d gSaA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij ;g lR; gh izrhr gksrk gS fd MkW- vysDtsUMj tsuj us pspd vkSj thok.kqvksa dks tM+ ls lekIr djus ds fy, oSDlhu dk bLrseky fd;k] mlh rjg MkW- vEcsMdj us Hkkjrh; lekt esa vfHk'kIr tkfr O;oLFkk vkSj vLi`';rk dh chekjh dks lekIr djus ds fy, oSDlhu ds :i esa f'k{kk dks c<+kok fn;k vkSj viuk;kA orZeku ;qx esa efgyk,¡ MkW- vEcsMdj ds f'kf{kr cuksa ds fl)kar dke;kc fn[kkbZ IkM+rs gaSA dqN f'k{kkfonksa vkSj cqf)thfo;ksa dk ,slk ekuuk gS fd Kku efgykvksa ds lokZaxh.k fodkl] lkekftd vkSj jk"Vªh; izxfr] lH;rk ,oa laLd`fr ds fy, vR;ar vko';d gSA fdlh Hkh ns'k dk fodkl rHkh laHko gS] tc ogk¡ dh lai.w kZ vkcknh esa ls efgykvksa dk ;ksxnku Hkh “kkfey gksA ns'k dh izFke efgyk jk"Vªifr izfrHkk nsoh flag ikfVy us Hkh MkW- vEcsMdj dks efgykvksa ds fy, Ikzsj.kklzksr crk;k vkSj vius oDrO; esa dgk laoS/kkfud vf/kdkjksa dk efgyk l'kfDrdj.k esa vewY; ;ksxnku gSA1 Lok/khurk ds i'pkr~ Hkkjr ljdkj us loZf'k{kk ds fy, fujarj iz;kl fd;s gSa ysfdu iw.kZ #i ls lQyrk izkIr ugha gqbZA efgykvksa dks f'kf{kr djus ds fy, ekf/ed f'k{kk vk;ksx vkSj nqxkZckbZ ns'keq[k lfefr] Jherh galk esgrk lfefr] L=h f'k{kk lfefr vkSj jk"Vªh; vk;ksx dk xBu fd;k x;kA galk esgrk dh lfefr esa bl ckr Ikj fo'ks"k #i ls /;ku fn;k x;k fd f'k{kk dh O;oLFkk ,slh gksuh pkfg, fd os ?kj vkSj O;oLFkk nksuksa dks laHkky ldsAa ysfdu Ikw.kZ lk{kjrk dk vuqeku dkslkas nwj gSaA ;g dsoy ljdkj dh gh ftEesnkjh ugha gSa cfYd ge lHkh dks ckfydk f'k{kk ij fo'ks"k #Ik ls è;ku nsuk gksxk] ftlls efgykvksa f'kf{kr gksdj ifjokj vkSj ns'k ds dY;k.k ds fy, viuh Hkwfedk vnk dj ldsAa Hkkjrh; lekt ds gj ifjokj dks efgykvksa ds fo#) viuh lksp esa ifjorZu djuk gksxk ftlls efgyk,¡ ns'k ds fodkl esa viuh Hkkxhnkjh fuHkk ldsaA lkoZHkkSfed cqfu;knh f'k{kk ds y{; dks IkzkIr djus ds fy, Hkkjr ljdkj us lu~ 1986 bZ esa jk"Vªh; f'k{kk uhfr dh ?kks"k.kk dhA blesa dgk x;k gS fd efgykvksa ds fodkl esa f'k{kk ,d gfFk;kj ds #Ik esa djsxhA efgyk l'kfDrdj.k ds fy, ds mn~ns'; dks ckfydk f'k{kk ds }kjk izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA jk"Vªh; f'k{kk uhfr dh leh{kk ds fy, lu~ 1990 bZ- esa jkeewfrZ lfefr esa dgk x;k fd efgykvksa dks f'k{kk dk vf/kdkj fn;s fcuk ns'k dk fodkl ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA orZeku esa t#jr bl ckr dh gS fd Hkkjr ljdkj bu izko/kkuksa dks xaHkhjrk ls ykxw djus esa viuh ftEesnkjh fuHkk;s vkSj lekt Hkh ckfydk f'k{kk ds y{; dks izkIr djus ds fy, viuk 'kr izfr'kr ;ksxnku nsAa lu~ 1990&2000 ds chp Ldwy tkus esa yM+dkas dk izfr'kr vf/kd vkSj yM+fd;ksa dk de FkkA blhfy, lu~ 2001 dh tux.kuk ls irk pyrk gS fd tgka iq#"k lk{kjrk nj 76 izfr'kr Fkh ogha L=h lk{kjrk nj ek=k 54 izfr'kr gh FkhA blls Ikrk pyrk gS fd Hkkjr esa ckfydk f'k{kk dh fLFkfr ckyd f”k{kk dh rqyuk esa vR;ar de gSA efgykvksa dh bl n'kk vkSj fn'kk ds fy, Hkkjrh; lekt nks"kh gS] u fd Hkkjr ljdkjA lekt dk ;g nkf;Ro gS fd efgykvksa dks Ikq#"kksa ds leku vf/kdkj fn, tk,aA bl lanHkZ esa lu~ www.dalitsahitya.com

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1995 esa phu ds chaftx 'kgj esa gq, pkSFks fo'o efgyk lEesyu esa foLrkj ls ppkZ dh xbZ gSaA blh rjg ckfydk f'k{kk ls lacaf/kr f'k[kj lEesyu lu~ 1993 esa fnYyh esa Hkh vk;ksftr fd;k x;k FkkA ckfydk f'k{kk orZeku dh ekax gS vkSj blds fy, ge lHkh dks vkxs vkdj vius&vius fgLlksa dh ftEesnkfj;ksa dk fuoZgu djuk gksxkA ckfydk f'k{kk dh rjiQ /;ku vR;ar gh vko';d gS ftlesa lekt dks iwjh ftEesnkjh mBkuh pkfg, vkSj lekt dks efgykvksa dks iw.kZ #i ls izksRlkfgr djrs jguk pkfg,A jkT;ksa] uxjks]a ftyks]a 'kgjksa] xkaoksa vkSj dLcksa esa efgykvksa dks f'k{kk ds izfr tkx#d djus ds fy, jSyh fudkyuh pkfg, vkSj fo'ofo|ky;ksa] dkystksa esa ckfydk f'k{kk ij lsfeukj vk;ksftr djkuh pkfg, vkSj Ldwyksa esa ckfydk f'k{kk ls lacaf/r eghus esa fo'ks"k #Ik ls ysDpj gksus pkfg, ftlls efgyk,¡ lekt esa lekurk izkIr dj ldsa vkSj tudY;k.k ds dk;kasZ esa viuk izfrfuf/kRo dj ldsAa lanHkZ xzaFk lwph      

Hkkjrh] daoy] ek;korh vkSj nfyr vkUnksyu] ubZ fnYyh % jef.kdk iQkmaMs'ku] 2004 XkqIrk] jef.kdk] nfyr psruk&lksp] fcgkj% uoys[ku Ikzdk'ku] 1998] Ik`"B&35 XkqIrk] jef.kdk] nfyr psruk&lksp] fcgkj% uoys[ku Ikzdk'ku] 1998] Ik`"B&110 fyackys] 'kj.k dqekj] nfyr lkfgR; dk lkSan;Z'kkL=k] ubZ fnYyh % ok.kh Ikzdk'ku] 1997] Ik`"B&70 vk;Z] yky] nfyr lekt % vkt dh pqukSfr;kW] ubZ fnYyh % izdk'ku laLFkku] i`"B& 21 dhj] /uat;] MkW- vEcsMdj dk thou vkSj mn~n's ;] izFke laLdj.k] fnYyh % iksiqyj Ikzdk'ku] 1990

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‘पचपन खांभे लाल दीवारे ' ाईपन्यास में नारी समस्या जयांतीलाल बाररश1 ाईषा हप्रयांवदा की गणना हहन्दी के ाईन कथाकारों में होती है, हजन्होंने ाअधुहनक जीवन की ाईब, छटपटाहट, सांत्रास और ाऄके लेपन की हस्थहत को ाऄनुभूहत के स्तर पर पहचाना और व्यक्त दकया है| यही कारण है दक ाईनकी रचनाओं में एक ओर ाअधुहनकता का प्रबल स्वर हमलता है, तो दूसरी ओर ाईनमें हचहत्रत प्रसांगों तथा सांवेदनाओं के साथ हर वगभ का पाठक तादात्म्य का ाऄनुभव करता है| ाईषा हप्रयांवदा के कथासाहहत्य में वैयहक्तक एवां सामाहजक दोनों प्रकार के मूल्यों का ाऄांकन दकया गया है| ाईन्होंने नारी की सूक्ष्म ाऄनुभूहतयााँ, भावों तथा सांवेदनाओं का ाऄत्यांत सूक्ष्मतापूवभक हचत्रण दकया है| ‘पचपन खांभे लाल दीवारे ' ाईपन्यास में हचहत्रत नारी समस्या : १. बदलते पाररवाररक सम्बन्ध की समस्या २. ाऄके लेपन से जीवन में ाअनेवाली ाईब-घुटन की समस्या ३. कामकाजी महहला की समस्या ४. सांघषभरत नारी की समस्या ५. शोहषत एवां कुां रठत नारी की समस्या १.बदलते पाररवाररक सम्बन्ध की समस्या : जीवन के प्रहत बदलते दृष्टीकोण के साथ पाररवाररक सम्बन्धों में भी बदलाव देखने को हमलता है| हजसका सीधा प्रभाव साहहत्य जगत पर पड़ता है, कारण साहहत्य ाआसी समाज से ही ाईद्धृत होता है| ाअज जीवन मूल्यों के साथ ररश्तों में भी बदलाव ाअ रहा है| लेहखका ने ाऄपने कथा-साहहत्य में ाआस तरह से बदलते पाररवाररक सम्बन्धों को ाईजागर करने का प्रयास दकया है| ाअलोच्य ाईपन्यास की नाहयका सुषमा शमाभ एक सुहशहक्षत, बुहद्धजीवी तथा ाअकषभक व्यहक्तत्व की धनी है| ाऄपने माता-हपता की जेष्ठ पुत्री है और पररवार की सारी हजमेदाररयााँ ाईस पर है| सुषमा के माता-हपता ाऄपनी सुसांस्कारी पुत्री के बारे में कु छ नहीं सोचते, सुषमा चाहती है दक ाईसके माता-हपता ाईसकी मन:हस्थहत तथा जीवन में ाअनेवाले हबखराव के बारे में सोचे, परन्तु यहााँ पर ाईसके माता-हपता घर की ाऄथभव्यवस्था डगमगाने के भय से चुप रहते हैं| सुषमा ाऄपने पररवार के हलए ाऄथोपाजभन का एक मात्र साधन बन जाती है, तभी नील कहता है दक- "मुझे लगता है सुषमा की तुम्हारा पररवार तुम्हारा एडवाांटेज (तुम्हारा लाभ ाईठाते 1

जयांती लाल बाररस शोधाथी गुजरात के न्रीय हवश्वहवद्यालय, गााँधी नगर

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हैं) लेता है, तुम्हारे भााइ-बहन तुम्हारे माता-हपता की हजम्मेदारी है, तुम्हारी नहीं|"१ ाआस प्रकार लेहखका ने बदलते पाररवाररक सम्बन्धों में हबखराव के कारण नारी की समस्या को ाईजागर करने का प्रयास दकया है, क्योदक सुषमा चाहकर भी ाऄपनी हजम्मेदाररयों से मुहाँ नहीं मोड़ सकती और हववश मजबूर होकर ाऄपनी हजन्दगी न्योछावर कर देती है|

२. ाऄके लेपन से जीवन में ाअनेवाली ाईब, घुटन की समस्या : ाऄके लेपन से जीवन में ाअनेवाली ाईब, घुटन और ररक्तता को स्पष्ट करने का भी लेहखका का प्रयास रहा है| सुषमाजी ददल्ली में रहती है| महानगरीय जीवन जीती नाररयााँ ाऄके लेपन के कारण खालीपन का करने लगती है| नाहयका सुषमाजी ाआसी भावना को ाईजागर करती है, जो ाऄपने जीवन में ाअनेवाली ररक्तता ाउब, घुटन से त्रस्त रहते थें| सुषमाजी के पास भौहतक सुख-सुहवधाओं की कमी नहीं, दफर भी कुाँ वारी रह जाने की कडवाहट वह भूल नहीं पाती और ाऄपनी ाअशा, ाअकाक्षाओं की ाअपूर्चत से ाईत्पन्न मानहसक द्वन्द के कारण ाईसकी हस्थहत करुणामय हो जाती है और सुषमाजी नील को चले जाने के हलए कहती है दक- "यह कालेज ये खांभे मेरी डेहस्टनी है, मुझे यही छोड़ दो|"२ नील तब कहता है दक -"तो मेरे हलए क्या चाहती हो ? तुम चाहती हो दक मैं जीवनभर ाऄाँधेरे में भटकता रहूाँ?”३ सुषमा मन ही मन सोचती है दक मैं एक साधन हूाँ, मेरी भावनाओं का स्थान नहीं है| मैंने ाऄपने ाअपको ाआसी जजदगी में ढाल ददया है | तुम चले जाओगें तो दफर ाऄपने को ाईन्हीं प्राचीरों में बांदी कर लूाँगी| मजबूर सुषमा समाज जीवन पररवार के सामने ाऄपनी हजम्मेदाररयों के कारण ाऄपने प्रेम का त्याग कर देती है| नील के चले जाने के बाद वह ाऄपने जीवन में ाऄके लेपन को स्वीकार कर लेती है| ाआस प्रकार सुषमा के त्यागभावना को व्यक्त करना भी लेहखका का ाईदेश्य रहा है|

३. कामकाजी महहला की समस्या : कामकाजी महहलाओं की समस्या लेहखका ने सुषमा के चररत्र द्वारा ाईजागर दकया है| सुषमा ाऄपने पररवार से दूर ददल्ली में नौकरी करती है| घर की सारी हजम्मेदाररयााँ ाईस पर है, ाआसी कारण वह नौकरी करने के हलए मजबूर है| ाईनकी हस्थहत बड़ी दयनीय हो जाती है| वह ाअत्महनभभर बनने के हलए नौकरी करती है परन्तु ाईस पर पूरा पररवार ाअहश्रत है| वह ाआस ाईतरदाहयत्व से कभी मुक्त नहीं हो पाती | नील से चाहकर भी शादी नहीं कर पाती, यदद शादी कर ली तो छोटे भााइ-बहन का क्या होगा, माता-हपता का क्या होगा? वह सोच कर नील को कहती है दक- "तुम जाओ नील तुम पास होते हो तो मैं कु छ भी सोच नही पाती! तुम हनकट ाअ जाते हो तो मेरे सारे हनश्चय कााँपने लगते हैं........तुम जाओ! जाओ!"|४ सुषमा के पात्र द्वारा एक नौकरी करती युवती के भावात्मक सांघषभ को मार्चमक ढांग से हचत्रण दकया है|

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४. सांघषभरत नारी की समस्या : लेहखका ने ाअधुहनक नारी को सांघषभरत रूप में हचहत्रत दकया है| ाअधुहनक नारी की छटपटाहट ाअधुहनक कथा साहहत्य में पूरी तरह प्रहतहबहम्बत हुाअ है| पहश्चमी हशक्षा प्रणाली ने नारी में ाअत्महवश्वास जगाकर ाअर्चथक सुरक्षा और ाअर्चथक सूक्ष्मता प्रदान कर ाईसे यह ाऄनुभव करवाया है दक वह दकसी पुरुष से कम नहीं है| ाआसकी प्रतीहत सुषमा के चररत्र द्वारा लेहखका ने हमें करवाया है| सुषमा ाऄपने ाअप में एक ाअत्म हनभभर नारी है, जो ाऄपने ाऄहस्तत्व के प्रहत जाग्रत है| वह साथ-साथ पररवार का भी भरणपोषण करती है| ाऄब वह ाऄपनी हर समस्याओं का सामना कर सकती है| वह पुरुष प्रधान समाज को ददखा देना चाहती है दक पाररवाररक हजम्मेदारी मात्र पुरुष ही नहीं ाईठा सकता, एक नारी भी ाआस हजम्मेदारी को बखूबी हनभा सकती है|

५. शोहषत एवां कुां रठत नारी की समस्या : हमारे परां परागत भारतीय पररवेश में सददयों से महहलाएाँ शोहषत होती ाअ रही हैं| ाऄहधकारों से वांहचत नारी के हहस्से में हमेशा ही कतभव्य प्रमुख रहा है| कभी बेटी के रूप में, कभी मााँ के रूप में, तो कभी पत्नी के रूप में, ाआसी कतभव्यों के नाम पर ाईसे मजबूर दकया जाता है| ाअज हर क्षेत्रों में नारी का शोषण हो रहा है| हजसकी शरुाअत ाईसके ाऄपने पररवार से होती है| ऐसी नाररओं का प्रहतहनहधत्व कर लेहखका ने सुषमा के द्वारा पररवार के प्रहत कतभव्यों को ददखाने का प्रयास दकया है| नाहयका शुरू से ाऄांत तक ाईसके पररवार द्वारा शोहषत है| वह पररवार की जेष्ठ पुत्री होने के नाते घर का सारा बोज ाईठाती है| ाऄपनी मौसी के सामने कहती है दक- "मैं तो एक कतभव्य समझकर ाईनके प्यार में सब कर रही हूाँ ाऄगर मैं सबसे बड़ा लड़का होती तो न करती? सबके हलए कु छ कर सकूाँ | ाआस योग्य भी तो हपताजी ने मुझे बनाया है|"५ ाईन्होंने ाऄपने मन को समझाकर दुहनया की ाअाँखों से हछपाकर सत्य को बहुत दबाकर रखा है और ाआस हद तक वह मजबूर है दक चाहते हुए भी ाऄपनी ाआच्छा के ाऄनुसार हजन्दगी नहीं जी पाती ाआस बोझ से वह कभी-कभी कााँपने भी लगती है| नील कश्यप को वह खुद से ज्यादा चाहती है दफर भी ाईसे ाऄपनेाअपसे ाऄलग करना पड़ता है| नील जब सुषमा से हववाह की बात करता है तब सुषमा ाईसे कहती है दक- "यह कालेज ये खांभे मेरी डेहस्टनी है, मुझे यही छोड़ दो|"६ बेटी होने के कतभव्य को हनभाने के हलए सुषमा ाऄपने जीवन को ाऄांधकार में ढके ल देती है| प्रस्तुत ाईपन्यास में लेहखका ने नारी की सामाहजक समस्याओं का हचत्रण दकया है| सुषमा के माध्यम से ाअधुहनक नारी की हववशता, ाईब और घुटन को ददखाने का प्रयास दकया है| जो पाररवाररक समस्याओं से सांघषभ करती हैं वह चाहकर भी ाऄपना हनजी जीवन नहीं जी पाती| ाऄके लेपन के कारण जीवन में खालीपन का ाऄनुभव करती है| ाआसी रूप में सामाहजक समस्याओं की और ाअज की भाग-दौड

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भरी हजन्दगी में पाररवाररक सम्बन्धों में हबखराव ाअ गया है| ाआसी ाईपन्यास में ाईषा हप्रयम्वदा ने ाअज की ाअधुहनक हस्थहत को ददखाने का प्रयास दकया है, जो मध्यवगीय समाज की नारी ाअज भी शोहषत जीवन जी रही है| नारी समस्या को समाज के सामने लाने का लेहखका का दृष्टीकोण रहा है और ाईनका मूल ाईदेश्य भी यही रहा है| ाआस प्रकार ाईपन्यास सामाहजक समस्याप्रधान है| हजसमें काइ समस्या हमें देखने को हमलती है| ाअज के ाअधुहनक जीवन की हवडबांना जो हम नहीं चाहते वही करने के हलए हववश होना पड़ता है| लेहखका ने ाआस हस्थहत को कलात्मक और रचनात्मक ढ़ग से ाआस ाईपन्यास में प्रस्तुत दकया है|

सांदभभ : १.

पचपन खांभे लाल दीवारे , ाईषा हप्रयांवदा, राजकमल प्रकाशन नाइ ददल्ली,२००९, पृ. १३

२.

वही, पृ. १३

३.

वही, पृ. १३ ४. वही, पृ. १५ ५. वही, पृ. १५ ६. वही, पृ. ३६

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

efgykvksa ij ,flM vVSd ds :i esa gks jgh fgalk % ,d vè;;u eukst dqekj xqIrk1 nqfu;k Hkj esa efgyk,¡ fgalk dk f'kdkj gks jgha gSaA fir`lÙkkRed lekt esa vkSjrksa ij fu;a=.k j[kus vkSj mUgsa nckus ds fy, fgalk ds vusd :iksa dk bLrseky fd;k tkrk jgk gSA orZeku esa rstkch geyk fgalk ds ,d gfFk;kj ds :i esa ç;qä gksus yxk gSA tks gR;k vkSj gR;k ds ç;kl esa ç;qä gksus okys lHkh vkStkjksa esa lcls lLrk] ?kkrd vkSj vklkuh ls miyCèk gfFk;kj gSA fofHkUu fjiksVksZa vkSj ys[kksa ds ekè;e ls Kkr gksrk gS fd rstkch geys dk y{; fdlh O;fDr ds psgjs vkSj mldh lqanjrk dks u"V dj nsuk gksrk gSA ihfM+r dks 'kkjhfjd] ekufld] rFkk lkekftd lHkh Lrjksa ij bl fgalk dk ifj.kke Hkqxruk iM+rk gSA Hkkjr lfgr nqfu;k ds reke ns'kksa esa efgyk,¡ fgalk dk f'kdkj gks jgh gSaA efgykvksa ij fgalk lHkh oxksZa ,oa lektksa esa O;kIr gSA fir`lÙkk ds varxZr vkSjrksa ij fu;a=.k j[kus vkSj mUgsa nckus ds fy, vusd çdkj dh fgalk dk bLrseky fd;k tkrk gSA vDlj thou esa ,sls varfoZjksèk lkeus vkrs gSa] fd ;g le> ikuk eqf'dy gksrk gS] fd bl nqfu;k dks fdl utfj, ls ns[kk tk,A ;s varfoZjksèk nks nqfu;kvksa ds QdZ dks cM+h lathnxh ls gekjs lkeus ys vkrs gSa vkSj u, fljs ls lkspus ij etcwj djrs gSa] fd D;k lkjh fL=;k¡ iq#"k lÙkk ;k opZLo dh f'kdkj gSa ;k mudk ,d [kkl fgLlk gh blls ihfM+r gS\ dgha fL=;k¡ iq#"k mRihM+u dh lhèks f'kdkj gSa] rks dgha og fir`lÙkkRed ekufldrk ds vuq:i foe'kZ rS;kj djrh gqbZ iq#"koknh ,tsM a s dks gh etcwr cukus ds dk;Z esa yxh gSaA vkt lgf'k{kk c<+us vkSj thou 'kSyh esa vkèkqfudrk dk cksyckyk gksus ds lkFk gh ge ns[k ldrs gSa fd] vke yM+fd;ksa esa tgk¡ vius thou vkSj mlds fu.kZ;ksa ds çfr tkx:drk c<+h gS] mlds Bhd lekukarj yM+dksa esa muds otwn dks ysdj ,d udkj dh Hkkouk iui jgh gSA vkt tc yM+fd;k¡ dSfj;j] çse] vkSj 'kknh tSls elys ij Lo;a fu.kZ; ysus vkSj ukilanxh dks tkfgj djus esa viuh f>>d ls cgkj vk jgha gSa] tks yM+dksa dks ukxokj xqtj jgk gS vkSj os rstkch geys tSls dBksj vkSj lcls ohHkRl rjhds viukus yxs gSa] pkgs og ckaæk VfeZuy ij çhrh jkBh ij rstkch geyk gks ;k xkft;kckn dh fu'kk] ;k fQj fnYyh fd y{eh ftl ij rstkc blfy, Qsad fn;k x;k] D;ksafd mlus 32 o"kÊ; ,d iq#"k ds fookg çLrko dks Bqdjk fn;k FkkA rstkc efgykvksa ds çfr fgalk dk lcls fo‟r :i gSA y deh'ku vQ+ bafM;k dh fjiksVZ ua- 226 ds vuqlkj T;knkrj rstkch geys esa gSMªkDs yksfjd ,flM vkSj lY¶;wfjd ,flM dk ç;ksx fd;k tkrk gS rFkk eq[;r% ;qok efgyk,a gh bldk f'kdkj gksrh gSaA ,slh ?kVuk,a lkoZtfud LFkkuksa ;k ?kj esa gksrh gSa] rFkk bldk Lo:i ,slk gksrk gS] tks fd ihfM+r O;fä ds psgjs vkSj 'kjhj dks Øwjrkiwod Z u"V dj nsrk gS vkSj lkFk gh muds vkRefoÜokl] thou 'kfä] lkekftd lgHkkfxrk vkfn dks cM+h xgjkbZ ls çHkkfor djrk gSA efgykvksa ij fgalk ds ,sls vR;fèkd mxz çdkj lekt esa lkearh lacèa kksa ds QSyko vkSj fir`lÙkk dks n'kkZrs gSaA rstkch geys dh T;knkrj ?kVuk,a 'kgjksa ;k mlls lVs gq;s bykdksa esa gh ?kVh gSaA HkweM a yhdj.k ds ;qx esa vpkud miHkksäkoknh vkSj HkkSfrdoknh ^mi;ksx djks vkSj Qsad 1

eukst dqekj xqIrk 'kksèkkFkÊ& ,e-fQy- L=h vè;;u L=h vè;;u foHkkx] e-xka-va-fg-fo-fo-]oèkkZ ¼egkjk"Vª½ www.dalitsahitya.com

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nks* laL‟fr dk vfoHkkZo gqvk- Hkkjr ds iM+kl s h jk"Vªkas esa Hkh ,flM vVSd dh ?kVuk,¡ c<+ jgh gSa ysfdu ÞckaXykns'k esa o"kZ 2002 esa Acid Control Act 2002 vkSj Acid Crime Prevention Act 2002Þ1 ds rgr ,flM dh fcØh ij çfrcaèk yxkus ds ckn rstkch geyksa dk çfr'kr ,d pkSFkkbZ jg x;k gSA Þjk"Vªh; vijkèk fjdkMZ C;wjks ds vkadM+ksa ds vuqlkj Hkkjr esa lu~ 2010] 2011 vkSj 2012 esa Øe'k% rstkc ihfM+r efgykvksa dh la[;k 65] 98] 101 gSAß2 tks ;g n'kkZrh gS fd fdl çdkj ;g fgalk rsth ls c<+ jgh gSA ckotwn blds ljdkj vkSj dkuwu O;oLFkk blesa T;knk è;ku ugha ns jghA vk;s fnu rstkch geys dh ?kVuk,¡ çdk'k esa vk jgh gSaA bl fgalk ds fo#) u, dkuwu cukus vkSj mls çHkkoh <ax ls ykxw djus fd t:jr gSA rstkch geys dh vfèkdrj ?kVuk,¡ 'kgjh {ks=ksa esa ns[kus dks feyrh gSa] vkSj bu ?kVukvksa ds ihNs çse ,d cqfu;knh dkj.k gksrk gS] ij blds vkSj Hkh dkj.k gSaA efgykvksa ds fy, yxkrkj Hk;kog gksrh tk jgh bl nqfu;k ds ckjs esa xaHkhjrk ls lkspus dh t:jr gSA ,slh ?kVukvksa dks ckj&ckj nksgjk;k D;ksa tk jgk gS] vijkèkh csyxke D;ksa gq;s tk jgs gSa\ D;k dkj.k gS fd cykRdkj] gR;k vkSj vc rstkch geyksa ds ns'kO;kih fojksèk ds ckn Hkh ,slh ?kVuk,¡ çdk'k esa vk jgha gSaA bu lanHkksZa dks „f"Vxr j[krs gq, rFkk efgykvksa ds fo#) fgalk ds dkjdksa o dkj.kksa ds vè;;u gsrq fo"k; ^efgykvksa ij ,flM vVSd ds :i esa gks jgh fgalk* dk p;u fd;k x;k gSA rstkch geys fd orZeku ifjfLFkfr;k¡ Þtsu osYl ds 'kksèk ds vuqlkj rstkch geyk ,d Øwjrkiw.kZ ,oa ijihM+ukRed fgalk gS rFkk ;kstukc) rjhds ls fdlh O;fä ds psgjs ;k vaxksa dks iwjh rjg ls u"V dj nsus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSAß3 oSfÜod vkadM+ksa ds eqrkfcd ,flM vVSd iq#"kksa }kjk vius lEeku rFkk opZLo dks cuk;s j[kus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ;g foÜoO;kih fgalk dk Lo:i gS tks fdlh fo'ks"k tkfr] èkeZ ;k fdlh HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr ds nk;js rd lhfer ugha gSA ;g fodflr rFkk fodkl'khy lHkh ns'kksa esa gks jgh gSA Þ,flM lokZbolZ VªLV baVjus'kuy ds vuqlkj nqfu;k ds djhc 23 ns'kksa esa gky ds o"kksZa esa ,flM geyksa dh ?kVuk,¡ gqbZaA buesa vejhdk] fczVsu] ;wŒdsŒ rFkk vLVªsfy;k tSls fodflr ns'kksa ds Hkh uke gSaA ysfdu bu ns'kksa esa nwljh txgksa dh vis{kk geyksa dh la[;k csgn de gSA efgykvksa ij ,flM geyksa dh lcls vfèkd ?kVuk,¡ Hkkjr] ikfdLrku] vQ+xk+ fuLrku] ckaXykns'k ds vykok dacksfM;k esa ntZ dh xbZ gSaAß4 dSlh foMEcuk gS fd L=h tkfr ds çfr ifjokj vkSj lekt esa yxkrkj vijkèk c<+rs gh tk jgs gSaA nq"deZ] vuj fdfyax] NsM+NkM+] ekjihV] efgykvksa dh rLdjh] dU;k f'k'kq gR;k tSlk fgalk dk Lo:i o"kksZa ls pyk vk jgk Fkk rFkk vkt Hkh fo|eku gSA bu lcds vykok fiNys dqN o"kksaZ ls efgykvksa ij rstkc Qsadus tSlh ?kVuk,a lkeus vkus yxha tks fnu çfrfnu c<+rh tk jgha gSA bldk çHkko bruk Hk;kud gksrk gS fd ;g ftl vax ij iM+rk gS mls iwjh rjg xyk nsrk gSA bldk bykt bruk egaxk gksrk gS fd lkekU; ifjokj ds fy, vlaHko gh gksrk gSA Þefgykvksa ij rstkch geys dks jksdus ds mís'; ls o"kZ 2008 esa dsUæ ljdkj us igy dhA ml le; lHkh jkT; ljdkjsa rstkc Qsd a us dh ?kVukvksa ij dM+h ltk ds fy, lgerh FkhaA bl vijkèk ds rgr vijkèkh dks U;wure ltk lkr lky djus dks dgk x;kAß5 gkykafd efgyk vk;ksx o vU; laxBuksa dh ekax Fkh fd] U;wure ltk nl lky vkSj vfèkdre ltk mez dSn gksA jkT; ljdkjsa ihfM+rk dks eqvkotk lqfuf'pr djus ds Hkh i{k esa FkhaA blds ckn o"kZ 2010 esa x`g ea=ky; dh ,d mPp Lrjh; lfefr us rstkch geyk djus okyksa dks nl lky dh dSn vkSj nl yk[k #i;s Page 187

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

tqekZus dh flQkfj'k dh FkhA rstkch geyksa dks ysdj l[r dkuwu cukus dh ekax dkQh le; ls dh tkrh jgh gSA ysfdu bl fn'kk esa vkt Hkh dM+s dkuwuksa dk vHkko gSA vHkh gky gh esa ukSlsuk ds dksykck vLirky esa crkSj ulZ ds :i p;fur fnYyh dh çhfr jkBh ij eqacbZ esa ,d ;qod us rstkc Qsd a fn;k vkSj thou&e`R;q ds chp tw>rh çhfr vkf[kj ftanxh dh tax gkj x;hA blds dqN le; iwoZ gh mÙkj çns'k ds 'kkeyh ftys esa pkj cguksa ij rstkc Qsd a fn;k x;k FkkA rstkch geys tSls ccZj ‟R;ksa ij vadq'k ugha yx ik jgk gSA ,d rjQk çse esa grk'k ;qod yM+fd;ksa dks thfor e`r djus ds fy, ,slk ?k`f.kr ‟R; djus esa ladksp ugha dj jgsA njvly] ;g ek= ;qok ih<+h dh laons ughurk ;k dqaBk gh ugha cfYd bu vijkèkksa ds f[kykQ yach yphyh dkuwu O;oLFkk Hkh gS] tks vijkèkh dks c<+kok nsrh gSA Þ2006 esa y{eh }kjk nk;j fd x;h tufgr ;kfpdk ij yxHkx lkr o"kZ ckn lqçhe dksVZ us 18 tqykbZ 2013 dks ,sfrgkfld QSlyk lqukrs gq, vkbZŒihŒlhŒ esa la'kksèku dj èkkjk 326 d rFkk 326 [k dk çkoèkku fd;kA ftlds rgr igys esa bls vatke nsus okys dks nl o"kZ ;k tt ds foosd ds vuqlkj thoui;Zar dSn vkSj nwljs esa bldh dksf'k'k djus okys dks ik¡p ls lkr o"kZ fd ltk fd ckr dgh gSA lkFk gh rstkch geys ls ihfM+r dks rhu yk[k dk eqvkotk nsus vkSj QksVks igpku i= ns[kdj gh rstkc nsus dk vkns'k fn;kA**6 ckotwn blds u ;g ?kVuk,¡ ugha #d jgha gSa vkSj u gh ,flM fcØh ij fu;a=.k gks ik;k gSA y{eh tks fd [kqn ihfM+r gSa rFkk LVi ,flM vVSd dSEisu ls tqM+ha gSa ds vuqlkj ;g jkf'k cgqr de gSA blh ls tqM+h ekaMoh vkSj vk'kh"k th us crk;k fd ;g jkf'k Hkh vHkh rd cgqr lh ihfM+rksa dks ugha fey ik;h gSA D;ksafd blds fy, dkuwu vkSj ç'kklu us bl ckr dks Li"V ugha fd;k gS] fd ihfM+r fdl vfèkdkjh ds ikl vkfFkZd lgk;rk ds fy;s tk;A fu"d"kZ ,oa lq>ko ;g fgalk dk ,slk :i gSA ftlesa ihfM+r 'kkjhfjd :i ls çHkkfor gksus ds lkFk gh ekufld lnes esa gks tkrk gSA ftlls og iwjh ftanxh ckgj ugha fudy ikrk D;ksafd dkuwu vkSj ljdkj nksuksa gh bl fgalk ds çfr laons u'khy ugha gSA y{eh] vuq eq[ktÊ] vpZuk] papy vkSj lksue tks nksuksa cgus gSaA ,slh dbZ ihfM+r gSa] ftUgsa rstkch geys ds ckn lekt] nksLrksa vkSj t+~;knkrj ifjokj ds yksxksa dh vksj ls Hkh iwjk lEeku ugha fey ikrkA ,uŒ MhŒ VhŒ ohŒ ds ,d 'kks ds nkSjku ;g Hkh irk pyk fd ihfM+rksa dks dgha ukSdjh Hkh ugha fey ikrhA ,slh fLFkfr esa rstkc ihfM+r dk thou cM+k gh d"Vdkjh gks tkrk gSA lqçhe dksVZ dh ofj"B vfèkoäk deys'k tSu ds vuqlkj QkLV VªSd dksVZ esa Hkh ,sls ekeyksa esa dbZ o"kZ yx tkrs gSa A bl çdkj dh fgalk dh c<+rh ?kVukvksa dks jksdus ds fy, dM+s dkuwu vkSj mudks çHkkoh :i ls ykxw djus dh ek¡x ds lkFk gh ges lkekftd&lkaL‟frd Lrjksa ij xaHkhjrk ls fopkj djus dh t:jr gSA ges bl fgalk dh rg rd tkdj blds dkj.kksa dk ikrk yxkuk gksxkA lanHkZ lwph 1 Welsh,Jane; “It was like burning in Hell”:A Comparative Exploration of Acid Attack Violence; Chapel Hill 2009;UNC GLOBAL 2 ,lVhVh¼200½@ vkjŒVhŒvkbZŒ@293@13@,uŒlhŒvkjŒchŒ 3 Welsh,Jane; “It was like burning in Hell”:A Comparative Exploration of Acid Attack Violence; Chapel Hill 2009;UNC GLOBAL 4 chchlh fgUnh U;wt+( 'kqØokj 8 ekpZ] 2013 dks 09:17 IST rd ds lekpkj

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http://jamanadekhega.blogspot.in/2013/06/blog-post_8605.html dainik bhaskar 8 sep 2013 (Nagpur ) Law Commission of India; Report no 226: july 2009 http://www.acidviolence.org

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dkfynkl ds :idksa esa ukjh leL;k tgk¡ vkjk1 laons u”khy ukjh] lekt vkSj lkekftd fØ;k dk vVwV va”k gSA lH;rk vkSj laLÑfr ds fodkl esa mlus lnSo ;ksxnku fn;k gS] ns jgh gS vkSj nsrh jgsxhA lq”khyrk] frfr{kk] leiZ.k] mRlxZ O;oLFkk] yTtk vkSj izse dh lk{kkr izfrek ukjh dU;k] x`fg.kh] lgpjh vkSj ekrk ds deZB :iksa esa ifjokj] lekt vkSj jk’Vª dh eaxy fo/kk=h gSA ukjh oxZ ds izfr vukLFkk lekt dh ghurk dk |ksrd gSA ukjh ds pfj= dh j{kk djuk lqO;ofLFkr lekt dh igyh “krZ gksuh pkfg,] fdUrq bl izdkj dh vkn”kZ O;oLFkk dk ikyu ukfj;ksa ds fy, rc rd lEHko ugha gks ldrk tc rd iq#’k oxZ dh vksj ls Hkh mUgsa bl dk;Z esa lg;ksx ugha feyrkA iq#’k vkSj ukjh ds lUrqfyr iz;kl esa lkekftd O;oLFkk e;kZfnr j[kh tkrh gSA izkphudky ls vkt rd bl iq.;Hkwfe Hkkjr o’kZ esa ukjh dh foHkRl ?k’kZ.kk gksrh jgh gS] ftlds Lej.kek= ls jkse&jkse mB [kM+s gksrs gSaA ijUrq blesa cspkjh ukjh dk D;k nks’k\ ukjh loZnk ls gh iq#’k dh N=Nk;k esa viuh xq.k&xfjek dk foLrkj djrh vk;h gSA bldh N=Nk;k] j{kk dk mÙkjnkf;Ro iq#’k ds gh Åij gS ijUrq bu uke/kkjh iq#’kksa dh nqcZyrk rFkk vieku lfg’.kqrk ds dkj.k gh ukjh dh Hk;kog fLFkfr ns[kh tkrh gSA dkfynkl ds :idksa ij ;fn vkyksP; n`f’V ls n`f’Vikr djsa rks ;g Kkr gksrk gS fd buds le; rd vkrs&vkrs Hkkjro’kZ esa jgs lgs x.kra= lekIr gks x;s FksA lkjs vf/kdkj ,d jktk esa dsfUnzr gksus yxs vkSj jktk dk iq= gh jktk gksus yxkA jkT;Ro dh izkfIr deZ ds LFkku ij tUe ij fuHkZj gksus ds dkj.k jktk vkSj mlds lkFk mPpoxZ dk Hkksx foykl esa fyIr gksuk LoHkkfod FkkA cgqiRuhRo izFkk ds vkjEHk ds lkFk L=h ds lkekftd egRo dk ál gksuk vkjEHk gks x;kA rRdkyhu le; esa ukjh dh Lora=rk uke ek= dh jg x;h Fkh] ml ij xq#tu] firk1] ifr2 dk dBksj fu;a=.k jgrk FkkA buds rhuksa gh :idksa esa iq#’kksa dh foyklh izo`fÙk ds dkj.k fL=;ksa dk thou vkrafdr fn[kkbZ iM+rk gSA buds :idksa esa “kkld pkgs vfXufe= gks] iq#jok gks ;k nq’;Ur lHkh dh dbZ ifRu;k¡ FkhaA buesa ls vfXufe= rks izk<S + gS vkSj ,d iq= dk firk Hkh] fQj Hkh og ekyfodk ls izse djrk gSA ekyfodk dks ns[kdj jfuokl ds lHkh jkfu;ksa ls mldk eu mpV tkrk gSA3 blds fuR; uwru dyg ls ifjokj esa dyg gksuk LokHkkfod FkkA ekyfodk vfXufe= ukVd esa iRuh /kkfj.kh vfXufe= vkSj ekyfodk dh iz.k;yhyk dks ns[kdj ekyfodk dks canhxzg esa Myok nsrh gSA4 ogh nwljh iRuh bjkorh viuh dj/kuh ls jktk dks ihVus ds fy, m|r gks tkrh gSA5 ifRu;ksa dk bl izdkj ls Øks/k ukjh dh euksosnuk vkSj v”kkar thou dh O;kdqyrk dks izdV djrk gSA blh ukVd ds r`rh;esa jkuh bjkorh vius ifr dh dkeqd o`fÙk ls rax vkdj dgrh gS&^^lpeqp iq#’kksa dk dksbZ fo”okl ughaA eSa D;k tkurh Fkh fd tSls O;k/kksa ds xhr lqudj gfj.kh lc lq/k&cq/k [kksdj tky esa Q¡l tkrh gS] oSls gh eSa budh fpduh&pqiM+h ckrksa ij fo”okl djds buds QUns esa Q¡l tkÅ¡xhA**6 foØeksoZ”kh;e~ ukVd esa Hkh iq#jok moZ”kh ds izse esa viuh iRuh vkS”khujh dh mis{kk djrk gSA ijUrq iRuh vkS”khujh dks vius izse ds dkj.k nwljh iRuh Hkh Lohdk;Z FkhA og fonw’kd ls dgrh gS ^^eaS vius lq[k dk cfynku djds Hkh vk;Ziq= dks lq[kh ns[kuk pkgrh gw¡A**7 og jksfg.kh 1

tgk¡ vkjk “kks/k Nk=k vyhx<+ eqfLye fo”ofo|ky;] vyhx<+ www.dalitsahitya.com

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vkSj pUnzek ds nSoh tksM+h dks lk{kh cukdj vk;Ziq= dks izlUu djrh gS vkSj dgrh gS& ^^vkt ls ftl L=h dks Hkh vk;Ziq= pkgasxs vkSj tks Hkh L=h vk;Ziq= dh iRuh cuuk pkgsxh mlds lkFk cM+s izse ls jgk d:¡xhA**8 okLro esa fdruh foo”krktU; lkfg’.kqrk gS ;fn jkuh bl O;ogkj dks u Hkh izdV djrha rks Hkh jktk ds vkpj.k esa dksbZ ifjorZu iM+us okyk ugha FkkA blfy, tks vfuok;Z Fkk jkuh us mlh ls le>kSrk dj fy;kA ogha iq#jok tks moZ”kh ds izse esa ikxy Fkk mls og lkFk ysdj xU/keknu ou esa fogkj djus tkrk gSA og fo|k/kj dh iq=h mn;orh dks ns[kdj moZ”kh dks rks D;k Lo;a viuh gh lq/kcq/k [kks cSBrk gSA mlds bl LoHkko ls moZ”kh Øksf/kr gks tkrh gSA izse dh vf/kdrk ds dkj.k moZ”kh dk bl izdkj Øksf/kr gksuk LokHkkfod FkkA9 viuh dkeqd izo`fÙk ds dkj.k gh mls moZ”kh ds fo;ksx esa cgqr le; rd foykl djuk iM+rk gSA vfHkKku”kkdqUrye~ ukVd esa nq’;Ur Hkh viuh iRuh galifndk rFkk vU; fL=;ksa dh mis{kk dj “kdqUryk ls xkU/koZ fookg djrk gSA galifndk dk fojg O;fFkr xku10 tc mls lqukbZ nsrk gS rc galikfndk dh euksO;Fkk dks lqudj mldk eu rd ugha ilhtrkA fonw’kd }kjk xhr ds cksy ij /;ku vkdf’kZr djk;s tkus ij og dgrk gS&^^eSaus blls dsoy ,dckj izse fd;k Fkk] vr% vktdy tks olqefr ls izse djus yxk gw¡] mlh ij ;g eq>s mikyEHk ns jgh gSA 11 mlds }kjk dfFkr bu opuksa ls ukjh ds LokfHkeku dks Bsl gh ugha igq¡prh vfirq mudh nqnZ”kk dks O;Dr djrh gSA lkFk esa ;g Hkh Li’V gksrk gS fd jkt ifjokj esa ukjh dsoy vLFkk;h euksjatu dk lk/ku cu x;h FkhA vkSj rks vkSj jktk nq’;Ur “kdqUryk ds lkFk izse fookg djds mls vius lkFk jkt/kkuh ugha ys x;kA vkSj tc “kdqUryk mlds ikl igq¡prh gS rc og ;g ugha tkurk fd lkeus [kM+h efgyk mldh iRuh gSA og mls iRuh ekuus ls budkj dj nsrk gS]12 rFkk iqjksfgr ls ekxZn”kZu pkgrk gSA lÙkk ds en esa mlus Qwyksa dh rjg dksey ân; okyh “kdqUryk dk ifjR;kx dj ukjh tkfr dks viekfur fd;k gSA dkfynkl us jktk ds pfj= ds fy, ;gk¡ “kki dh dYiuk dk lgkjk fy;k gSA ij tks Hkh gks mUgksaus :idksa esa jktkvksa ds pfj= dks fpf=r dj rRdkyhu le; ds iq#’kksa dh izo`fÙk;ksa dks gekjs le{k izLrqr djus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA ml le; lekt esa ifrozrk L=h dk ifr ds ?kj jguk gh mfpr le>k tkrk FkkA ifr ds }kjk Bqdjk;s tkus ij Hkh “kdqUryk dks nklh cudj ifr ds ?kj jguk Lohdk;Z Fkk rHkh rks nq’;Ur ds }kjk “kdqUryk dks Bqqdjk;s tkus ij “kk

jo dgrk gS& ^^;fn jktk dh ckr lR; gS

rks rq> tSlh dqy dyafduh dk firk ds ?kj dksbZ dke ugha gS vkSj ;fn rw vius dks ifo= le>rh gS rks rq>s nklh cudj gh ifr ds ?kj esa jguk pkfg,A**13 lEiw.kZ fo”ys’k.k ls ;g Kkr gksrk gS fd rRdkyhu lekt esa iq#’k iz/kku O;oLFkk esa ekuks fL=;k¡ Hkksx foykl rFkk mRihM+u ds fy, gh tUe ysrh FkhaA uwru fL=;ksa ds iz.k; lEcU/k ls budk thou dyqf’kr ,oa dygiw.kZ fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA cgqfookg rFkk Hkk;kZifjR;kx ls ukjh ds vkRelEeku dks xgjh Bsl igq¡ph gSA ogha ifr dk ,d L=h ds izfr vf/kd >qdko ls nwljh fL=;ksa dh mis{kk gq;h gSA fL=;k¡ iq#’kksa dh dkeqd izo`fÙk ls rax vkdj vius HkkX; dks dkslrs gq,] viuh fLFkfr ds lkFk le>kSrk djrh gq;h ut+j vkrh gSaA iRuh pkgs ifr dh fiz; gks vFkok vfiz; mldks vius ifr ds ?kj esa nklh cudj jgus ds fy, ckf/kr fd;k tkrk FkkA lUnHkZ

12-

vk;Z! /kekZpj.ks·fi ijo”kks·;a tu%A xqjks% iqujL;k vuq:iojiznkus ladYi%A v0”kk0 1@i`0 21 miiUUkk fg nkjs’kq izHkqrk loZrkseq[khA ogh 5@26

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lokZUr% iqjofurkO;kikjizfrfuo`Ùkân;L;A ek0fo0 2@14 lk [kyq rifLouh r;k fiyk{;k lkjHkk.MHkwx`gs xqgk;kfeo fuf{kIrkA ogh 4@i`0 315 5- ogh 3@i`0 312 6- vfo”oluh;k% iq#’k%A vkREkuks opukopua izek.khÑR;kf{kIr;k O;k/ktu& xhrx`ghrfpÙk;So gfj.k;SrUu foKkra e;kA ek0fo0 3@i`0 310 7- vga [kyq vkReu% lq[kkolkusuk;Ziq=a fuo`Zr”kjhja drqZfePNkfeA foØeks 3@i`0 206 8- v| izHk`fr ;ka fL=;ek;Ziq=% izkFkZ;rs ;k pk;Ziq=L; lekxeiz.kf;uh r;k lg e;kizhfrcU/ksu ofrZrO;e~ bfrA ogh] 3@i`0 205 9- ogh] 4@i`0 213 10- vfHkuoe/kqyksyqiks Hkok¡LrFkk ifjpqEC; pwretjhe~A deyolfrek=fuo`Zrks e/kqdj foLe`rks·L;suka dFke~AA vk0”kk0 5@1 11- rnL;k nsoholqerheUrjs.k enqikyEHkeoxrks·fLe----A ogh 5@i`0 80 12- v0”kk0 5@i`0 87&88 13- ;fn rFkk onfr f{kfriLrFkk Roefl fda firq#Rdqy;kA vFk rq osfRl “kqfpozrekReu% ifrdqys ro nkL;efi {kee~AA v0”kk0 5@27

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L=h l'kDrhdj.k % laHkkouk,a vkSj pqukSfr;ka nsfouk vN;oj1 ^L=h l'kDrhdj.k* vkSj L=h dks lekt ds gkf'k;s ls eq[;/kkjk rd igqapkus dk eqfge vuojr py jgk gSA Hkkjr esa Lora=rk vkanksyu ds le; ls gh L=h dks l'kDr djus ds fy, vusdkusd fopkjdksa us viuh fpark,a O;Dr dh FkhaA if'pe ds ukjhoknh vkanksyu] ftu eqn~nksa dks ysdj cgl ds v[kkM+s esa mrjk Fkk] pkgs og erkf/kdkj dk eqn~nk gks] pkgs og L=h&iq#"k ds lekukf/kdkj dk eqn~nk gks ;k pkgs leku osru vkSj laifRr dk ekeyk] ogka ds gj ,d vf/kdkj ds fy, fL=;ksa us jkT;] iz'kklu vkSj vius fir`lRrk&vk/kkfjr lekt ls yksgk fy;kA blfy, if'peh ukjhoknh vkanksyu 'kq:vkr ls gh ^jSfMdy* jgkA ;g le; dh ekax FkhA ftl lekt esa] L=h vius lekukf/kdkj] lkekftd :f<+;ksa vkSj tM+rkvksa ls eqfDr ds fy, NViVk, vkSj Hkksx dh oLrq cuus ls budkj dj fir`lRrk dks yydkjs] ogka L=h dks ikxy djkj nsus dh lkft'ksa mldks ^jSfMdy* cuk gh nsx a hA ysfdu x+kSjryc gS fd Hkkjrh; lanHkZ esa if'pe tSlk jSfMdy ukjhoknh vkanksyu ugha py ik;kA bldk ,d dkj.k ;g gS fd ftu ekaxksa ds fy, if'peh ukjhoknh vkanksyu [kM+k gqvk Fkk] Hkkjrh; fL=;ksa ds fy, mudk izko/kku ns'k ds lafo/kku esa igys ls ekStwn gSaA bl fygkt+ ls rks Hkkjrh; fL=;ksa dk lkekftd fodkl vkt+knh ds ckn rks vkSj rhoz xfr ls gksuk pkfg, FkkA ysfdu ,slk gksrs gq, ugha fn[krkA f'k{kk] ukSdjh vkSj ,dy ifjokj dh vo/kkj.kk ds vkus ls L=h vc igys ls fuLlansg eqDr gqbZ gS] mlesa vkRefo'okl txk gS] iq#"k dh cjkcjh djus dh mldh mRdV bPNk vkSj rst+ gqbZ gS ysfdu dne&dne ij mls jksdus&Vksdus vkSj ihNs /kdsyus ds fy, dHkh ifjokj okys] dHkh lekt] dHkh jkT; rks dHkh iz'kklu] tks /kkfeZd :f<+oknh ekU;rkvksa ls lapkfyr gksrs gSa] igys ls rS;kj jgrs gSaA MkW- vacsMdj us jk"Vª ds fodkl ds ckjs esa dgk Fkk fd fdlh jk"Vª ds fodkl dks vkadus ds fy, igys ml jk"Vª dh fL=;ksa dh izxfr dks vkaduk t+:jh gSA ysfdu Hkkjr tSls ^fo'o ds lcls cM+s yksdra=* esa L=h dh D;k fLFkfr gS\ ;g fdlh ls fNik ughaA lekt esa fL=;ksa ds izfr HksnHkko] mRihM+u] vU;k;] lkewfgd cykRdkj] ngst ds uke ij mls tykuk] ml ij ,sflM ,VSd] mldk 'kkjhfjd vkSj ;kSu 'kks"k.k tSls d`R;ksa dh yach Q+sgfjLr vk, fnu v[k+ckjksa dh eq[;i`"Bksa ij fey tk,axhA lkekftd laxBuksa vkSj ,uthvkst+ }kjk blds fojks/k esa vkanksyu py jgs gSaA fojks/k dk cqyan Loj ys[ku ds ek/;e ls Hkh lqukbZ iM+ jgk gSA chloha 'krkCnh esa ekuokf/kdkj] ekuo ds vfLrRo vkSj vfLerk ij 'kq: fd, x, foe'kksZa dk gh Q+y gS fd bDdhloha 'krkCnh dh ukjh vc vius gdksa ds fy, viuh vkokt+ ?kj dh pkjnhokjh ls ckgj] lekt] /keZ ds iSjksdkjksa] dkuwu&O;oLFkk vkSj ikfyZ;kesaV rd cqyan dj ik jgh gSA vc rqylh dh ukjh ^rkju dh vf/kdkjh* ugha] f'k{kk] jkst+xkj] oksV Mkyus] laifRr ikus vkSj iq#"kksa ds lEeku dh vf/kdkjh gSA fleksu dks Hkh ;g tkudj [kq'kh gksxh fd vkt dh rkjh[k esa foKku us fL=;ksa ds gd esa bruh izxfr dj yh gS fd og [kqn r; dj lds fd og eka cuuk pkgrh gS ;k ughaA othZfu;k oqYQ+ dh L=h dks Hkh viuk dejk gkfly gksus yxk gSA dgka og le; Fkk tc izHkk [ksrku us viuh 1

nsfouk vN;oj “kks/k Nk=k] ih,p-Mh-] ts-,u-;w] ubZ fnYyh Page 193

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fd'kksjkoLFkk esa gksus okys jDr lzko dks ng'kr Hkjk] nnZukd vkSj vius vNwriu dk vglkl fnykus okyk crk;k Fkk] vkSj dgka vkt dk fnu gS tgka vkSjr dks izd`fr&iznRr] ;g ekfld pdz ,d lkekftd VScw u jgdj ,d O;kogkfjd vkSj oSKkfud rF; curk tk jgk gSA vktdy Vh-oh- ij fdlh [k+kl daiuh }kjk izLrqr ^lSfuVªh iSM* dk ,d foKkiu vkrk gS] ftlesa ,d fd'kksjh dks ijh{kk ds fnu ekfld lzko gksus ij fpark gksrh gS vkSj mldh eka mls ^iSM* Fkekdj fuf'par djrh gSA ,sM ds var esa yM+dh dks NYykax ekjrs gq, Vhpj dks ^,alj 'khr* nsrs gq, fn[kk;k x;k gSA njvly og NYykax fd'kksjh dh piyrk gh ugha] cfYd mlds vanj tkxk vkRefo'okl] ghurkHkko ls eqfDr dk |ksrd gS] ;g NYykax mu ikfjokfjd vkSj lkekftd opZukvksa dks Qk¡nus dk ifjpk;d gS ftlesa L=h dks tdM+dj gt+kjksa lkyksa ls izrkfM+r fd;k x;kA vkt ds nkSj esa Hkwe.Myhdj.k dh vkM+ esa iwt wa hokn vkSj ehfM;k ds lkaB&xkaB us L=h dks mldh dkyh&va/ksjh dksBjh ls ckgj fudkydj ckt+kj dh pdkpkSa/k esa yk [kM+k fd;k gSA dguk u gksxk fd ;fn rduhfd fodkl brus cM+s iSekus ij u gqvk gksrk rks L=h dks izsl] fdrkcks]a v[k+ckjksa] lekpkj&pSuyks]a lks'ky usVodksZa vkSj ?kjsyw dke&dkt dks vklku cukus okys okf'kax&e'khu] xzkbaMj tSls oSKkfud mRiknksa ls :&c&: djkuk eqefdu u gksrkA xHkkZoLFkk vkSj izlo ds le; vkSjr ds LokLF; ds fy, fpfdRlk&lqfo/kkvksa ds izko/kkuksa dk vkxeu Hkh Hkwe.Myhdj.k ds nkSj esa gh bruk eqefdu gks ik;k gSA ysfdu lkFk gh Hkwe.Myhdj.k ds reke ldkjkRed rRoksa ls vkSjr dk thou ftruk vklku gqvk gS] mrus gh cM+s iSekus ij mldk vfLrRo [krjs esa ut+j vkrk gSA ;wa rks ;g dguk ljklj x+yr gksxk fd iwt a hoknh ckt+kj&O;oLFkk] ehfM;k vkSj vkSjr dks izkIr [kqys ekgkSy ds dkj.k vkSjr miHkksx dh oLrq ;k fQj ^dkWekWfMQ+kbM* gks pyh gSA cfYd loky rks ;g iSnk gksrk gS fd vkSjr fdl t+ekus esa ^dkWekWfMVh* ugha jgh\ ml t+ekus esa] tc vkSjr Hknz dSFkfyd ifjokjksa ds 'kks dsl dh xqfM+;k gqvk djrh Fkha\ ml vkSifuosf'kd dky esa tgka nkl&izFkk ds rgr vkSjr dk 'kkjhfjd vkSj ;kSu 'kks"k.k djds 'osr ekfyd vkSjr ds iwjs leqnk; dks t+yhy djrk Fkk\ ml lkearh jkt&O;oLFkk esa] tgka ohjksa dh ohjrk blh ckr ls vkadh tkrh Fkh fd mUgksaus fdrus nq'euksa dh fdruh jkfu;ksa dk gj.k fd;k\ ;k fQj vkt ds t+ekus esa tgka iwohZ ns'kksa ls yk[kksa dh rknkr esa cscl fL=;ksa dks [kkM+h ns'kksa esa os';ko`fRr ds fy, /kdsyk tk jgk gS vkSj ns'k dk dks"k bl xksj[k/ka/ks dh dekbZ ls Hkjk tk jgk gS\ njvly Q+dZ cl bruk gh gS fd vkt dh rkjh[k esa jktnjckjksa ds gjeksa ls fudydj vukjdfy;ka vc fMLdks tkus yxh gSa! vaxzst+h esa glhu yM+fd;ksa dks ^fpDl* ¼pwt+s½ dgk tkrk jgk gS] vc os [kqn dks ^ranwjh eqxhZ* uke ns jgh gSaA vk/kqfud lanHkZ esa ,d ckj fQj L=h ckt+kj esa vkSj ckt+kj ds chp gSA ysfdu mls ckt+kj dh oLrqvksa dk [kjhnnkj cuuk gS ;k fQj fcdkÅ oLrq] ;g [kqn L=h dks r; djuk gksxkA ikjaifjd] :<+ laLdkjksa dh tdM+cna h ls vpkud eqDr gksdj vxj L=h ckt+kj dh bl ped&ned dks ns[ksxh rks dqN nsj ds fy, ckS[kyk,xh gh ysfdu orZeku le; esa vkSjr ds vfLrRo vkSj mldh vfLerk ij foe'kZ djrs gq, mls ;g fl[kkuk Hkh furkar t+:jh gS fd og fdl fn'kk esa viuh eqfDr <w<a ]+s vkSj og Hkh lksps fd dsoy mldh nsg gh mldh igpku ugha gSA mls fdlh daiuh dk fM;ksMjsUV ugha cfYd iq#"k dh vkReh;rk] vkSjr ds izfr lEeku vkSj lekurk dk Hkko vkSj mls le>us dh rkdr viuh vkSj vkd`"V djrh gSA cgjgky] L=h&thou dh leL;k,a vufxur gSa] blfy, ;g ekudj pyuk fd lkfgR; ds pan :iksa esa dqN fopkjksa dks dyec) dj nsus ;k fQj dqN 'kks/k dk;Z dj ysus ls L=h thou dh reke igyqvksa dks ,d

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lkFk mtkxj fd;k tk ldrk gS] Hkzked gSA ukjh vkanksyu ds ,ot+ esa dqN fL=;ka vius euilan diM+s iguus esa gh viuh vkt+knh <w<a + jgh gSaA dqN viuh nsg&eqfDr esaA ysfdu egkuxjksa ds ¶+ykbZ&vksoj ds uhps cPpk iSnk djus okyh et+nwj L=h ds fy,] fey vkSj dks;yk&[knkuksa esa [kVus okyh dkfeuksa ds fy,] ikuh vkSj ydM+h ds fy, dkslksa nwj pyus okyh xzkeh.k fL=;ksa ds fy,] u'kk[kksj ifr;ksa dh ekj&ihV] xkyh&xykSt vkSj cykRdkj ¼ftldks dkuwu vijk/k dk nt+kZ ugha nsrk!½ lgus okyh vkSjrksa ds fy,] [ksr&[kfygkuksa esa t+ehunkjksa ds gol dh f'kdkj gksrh esgurd'k fL=;ksa ds fy,] cky&os';ko`fRr esa /kdsyh tkus okyh cfPp;ksa ds fy, vkJeksa esa dSn] lar&egkRekvksa dh yaiVrk dh f'kdkj ;qofr;ksa ds fy, ;k fQj eSyk <ksus ds fy, foo'k nfyr efgykvksa ds fy,] eqfDr ds ek;us ,d tSlh ugha gks ldrhA ;gh dkj.k gS fd Hkkjr tSls tkfr vkSj oxZ&cgqy lekt okys ns'k esa L=h vkanksyu dk ,dLrjhdj.k djuk eqf'dy fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA fQj Hkh ukjh vkanksyu dsoy L=h oxZ dks jktuhfrd fgrksa ;k fQj vkj{k.k fnykus dk C;ksjk gh ugha mBkrkA ;g mlls Hkh dgha vkxs] ekuork ds lPps ewY;ksa dks LFkkfir djrs gq,] L=h&iq#"k lekt dks lekukf/kdkjksa ds vk/kkj ij [kM+k gqvk ns[kuk pkgrk gSA blfy, dsoy fir`lRrk dh [kkfe;ksa dks bafxr dj mls u"V djus dh ps"Vk djuk mldk y{; ugha ekuk tkuk pkfg,A ;g rks bl eqfge dk ek= ,d iM+ko gSA vly esa lerkewyd lekt dh uhao Mkyus ds fy, lerkewyd fopkjksa dk lkeus vkuk csgn t+:jh gS vkSj ;s fopkj gekjs ?kjksa] ifjokjksa ds chp ls gh iuidj fodflr gks ldrs gSaA orZeku le; esa cgqpfpZr ^tsM a j lsfa lVkbt+'s ku* dsoy fL=;ksa ds vf/kdkjks]a mudh lqj{kk vkSj mudh lqIr psruk dks txkus dk uke ugha] cfYd L=h ds izfr iq#"k dk LoLFk n`f"Vdks.k fodflr djuk mldk y{; gksuk pkfg,A vukfn dky ls ?kj&ifjokjksa esa yM+dh dks gh lkjs pky&pyu] O;ogkj&dq'kyrk] 'kkyhurk dk ikB i<+k;k tkrk jgk gSA firk] HkkbZ] ifr vkSj llqjky okyksa ds chp fdl rjg crkZo djuk pkfg,] ;g fL=;ksa dks cpiu ls gh fl[kk;k tkrk gSA ysfdu D;k dHkh yM+dksa dks cpiu ls ;g fl[kk;k tkrk gS fd fL=;ksa ds izfr lEeku vkSj lekurk dk Hkko j[kuk pkfg,\ eka&cgu dh xkyh nsrs gq, mUgsa D;k dHkh jksdk&Vksdk x;k gksxk\ ^lsDl ,T;qds'ku* ds uke ij dsoy fd'kksjkoLFkk esa vk, 'kkjhfjd cnykoksa vkSj ;kSusPNkvksa ij ckr dh tkrh gSA D;k gekjh f'k{kk iz.kkyh esa ;g eqn~nk Lisl ?ksj ik;k gS fd L=h&iq#"k esa tho&oSKkfud rkSj ij varj gS ysfdu bldk eryc ;g drbZ ugha gksrk fd L=h iq#"k ls det+kjs ;k fQj ghu gS\ ;s dqN ,sls loky gSa tks L=h&foe'kZ ds varxZr mBk, rks tkus gh pkfg, ysfdu lkFk gh lkFk ,d ,sls gh iq#"k&foe'kZ dks Hkh mHkjdj lkeus vkus dh t+:jr gS tks bu eqn~nksa ls iwjh bZekunkjh ls eq[kkfrc gksA iqaloknh lekt ds laLdkjksa dh f'kdkj dsoy L=h gh ugha cfYd iq#"k Hkh gksrs gSaA tgka L=h dks lj >qdk dj pyuk fl[kk;k tkrk gS] ogha iq#"k dks lhuk rkudj pyuk fl[kk;k tkrk gSA L=h l'kDrhdj.k ds fy, vkanksyu ,dkaxh vkSj ek= L=h oxZ dk la?k"kZ cudj u jg tk,] blfy, ;g t+:jh gS fd iq#"k oxZ Hkh bu lokyksa ls Vdjkrs gq, L=h oxZ ds lkFk dne&rky feykdj pysA vU; vfLerk foe'kksZa dh rjg gh L=h foe'kZ ds rgr] L=h jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh vkSj ¼pkgs vkj{k.k ds ek/;e ls gh lgh½ mu reke {ks=ksa esa izos'k pkgrh gS tgka vHkh rd nqfu;k dh vk/kh vkcknh] iq#"kksa dk gh opZLo jgk gSA pkgs og f'k{kk dk {ks= gks pkgs laLd`fr dk] dyk] O;olk;] jktuhfr] /keZ] ernku ;k fQj fu.kZ; ysus dh Lora=rk dk {ks=A ysfdu loky ;g mBrk gS fd Page 195

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

dkuwuh ;k laoS/kkfud :i ls bu {ks=ksa esa Hkkxhnkjh ik ysus ds ckn fir`lRrkRed lekt esa L=h&eqfDr dk ipZe ygjkus yx tk,xk \ tks iqaloknh lekt gt+kjksa lkyksa ls L=h dks gs; vkSj nks;e ntsZ+ dh le>rk vk;k gS] fL=;ksa dks fn, gq, vkj{k.k ;k fQj jktuhfrd {ks=ksa esa izos'k ls D;k mldk n`f"Vdks.k ,dk,d cny ldrk gS\ jktuhfrd Hkkxhnkjh vkSj vkj{k.k fuLlansg L=h lekt dks Åij mBus ds fy, lgk;d rRo gks ldrs gSa ysfdu lekt dh eq[;/kkjk esa viuh igpku vkSj LFkku dk;e djus dh yM+kbZ blls Hkh vkxs dh yM+kbZ gSA vukfedk ds 'kCnksa esa dgwa rks ßL=h eqfDr dk vk'k; ekuo eqfDr ls gSA ,d L=h dks f'kf{kr djus dk vFkZ gS & iwjs ifjokj dk oSpkfjd] ekufld rFkk ckSf)d ifj"dkj djukA L=h ds ekufld] ckSf)d] vkfFkZd rFkk lkaLd`frd fodkl ds lkFk&lkFk mls ;kSu&'kks"k.k] vkfFkZd nksgu vkSj nSfgd & ekufld izrkM+ukvksa ls eqDr djus esa gh ekuo&ek= dh eqfDr ds lw= gSaAÞ1 fygkt+k L=h eqfDr vkSj mldk l'kDrhdj.k ek= L=h lekt dh eqfDr vkSj mls lcy cukus dh yM+kbZ ugha cfYd ,d HksnHkko jfgr] lerkewyd vkSj vR;kpkj jfgr lekt dh LFkkiuk djus dh yM+kbZ gSA L=h dh bPNkvks]a mldh ;ksX;rkvksa] mldh izfrHkkvksa dks dSn djus okyh dkjkvksa dks rksM+us esa gh lekt vlyh vkt+kn ekgkSy esa lkal ys ik,xkA lanHkZ 1-

vukfedk] ^fleksu n cksmokj dh ckr esa vkaf'kd lPpkbZ gS* orZeku lanHkZ] vxLr 2009] i` - 52

lgk;d xzaFk 1lk/kuk vk;Z] fuosfnrk esuu] ftuh yksduhrk ¼la-½] ukjhoknh jktuhfr % la?k"kZ ,oa eqn~n]s 2006] fganh ek/;e dk;kZUo; funs'kky;] fnYyh fo'ofo|ky;] fnYyh 2-

vjfoan tSu] L=h gksus dh lt+k] 2011] jktdey izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh

3-

nsosUnz bLlj] L=h eqfDr ds iz'u] 2009] laokn izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh

4-

deyk izlkn] jktsUnz 'kekZ ¼la-½ L=h % eqfDr dk liuk] 2009] ok.kh izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh

5-

eS=; s h iq"ik] [kqyh f[kM+fd;ka] 2009] lkef;d izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh

6-

aV. Geetha, Patriarchy, 2009, Stree, Calcutta

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

o.kZO;oLFkk ds la=kl dks vfHkO;Dr djrh ^bfr”ks’k* vaf”krk “kqDyk1 orZeku le; esa o.kZO;oLFkk ,d xaHkhj lkekftd leL;k dk :Ik /kkj.k dj pqdh gSA tkfr izFkk ,oa NqvkNwr ds dkj.k lekt esa vusd izdkj dh vlekurk rFkk foHksn dh fLFkfr mRiUu gks xbZ gSA bu lcds ifj.kkeLo:Ik o.kZ O;oLFkk ds vUrxZr nfyr oxZ lcls T;knk “kksf’kr gSA nfyrksa }kjk o.kZ O;oLFkk dk fojks/k vkt gj txg fn[kkbZ ns jgk gSA lkfgR; Hkh blls vNwrk ugha gSA orZeku le; esa nfyr ys[kdksa ds }kjk fy[kh xbZ ,slh vusd fo/kk,¡ tSls vkRedFkk] miU;kl] ukVd] rFkk dgkuh vkfn izdk”k esa vkbZ gSa tks nfyr thou ds reke d’Vksa] ;krukvksa ,oa izrkM+ukvksa ds bfrgkl dks c;ku djrh gSaSA vkt tc vusd nfyr vkRedFkk,¡ gekjs lkeus vk jgh gSa] ogha uhydaBu uaifw rjh dh vkRedFkk ^bfr”ks’k* ,d nf{k.k Hkkjrh; czkg~e.k }kjk fy[kh xbZ ,slh vkRedFkk gS ftlesa czkg~e.k lekt dh fof”k’Vrkvksa ,oa dfe;ksa nksuksa dk mYys[k fd;k x;k gSA mUgksaus tkfr izFkk dh cqjkbZ;ksa dks fcuk fdlh ykxyisV ds gekjs le{k izLrqr fd;k gSA eLrjke diwj us vius ys[k ^tkfr na”k ds vk;ke* esa ^bfr”ks’k* dh fo”ks’krk crkrs gq, dgk gS fd& ^^uhydaBu uaifw rjh dh vkRedFkk bfr”ks’k nfyr vkRedFkkvksa ls bl ekeys esa vyx gS fd ;g czkg~e.kokn vkSj o.kZO;oLFkk dh :fZ<+;ksa dk fojks/k djrs gq, Hkh fdlh ij udkjkRed izHkko ugha NksM+rhA-----------czkg~e.kRo dk >wBk naHk] tks mUgsa cM+h voLFkk rd vkSipkfjd f”k{kk ls oafpr j[krk gS vkSj ftldk na”k mUgsa vius iwjs vkthfodk dky esa mis{kkvksa ;k inkoufr;ksa ds :Ik esa lguk iM+rk gS] ml ij fot; izkIr djuk gh bl iqLrd dk mn~ns”; yxrk gSA**1 uhydaBu ;|fi ,d nf{k.k Hkkjrh; mPp czkg~e.k gSa fdUrq czkg~e.k lekt esa O;kIr cqjkbZ;ksa rFkk va/kfo”oklksa dks rVLFk gksdj ikBdksa ds lkeus j[kk gSA ewy :Ik ls lo.kZ rFkk nfyr ds vkfFkZd] lkekftd] rFkk jktuSfrd vf/kdkjksa esa cgqr T;knk varj gksrk gSA lo.kksZa dh vis{kk nfyrksa dks u rks vkSipkfjd f“k{kk izkIr djus dk vf/kdkj gksrk gS vkSj u gh iwtk djus vkSj eafnj esa izos”k djus dkA ;gk¡ rd fd mudh cfLr;k¡ Hkh lo.kksZa ds eksgYyksa ls nwj gksrh gSa vkSj muds eqgYyksa esa vkus dh mUgsa bZtk+ tr Hkh ugha gksrh gSA ;g fHkUurk vkt Hkh iwjh rjg ls lekIr ugha gqbZ gSA ckck lkgc vEcsMdj us vius iz;klksa ds }kjk nfyrksa dh fLFkfr esa lq/kkj ds fy, vusd vkUnksyu pyk,A mUgksaus lh/kh dk;Zokgh ds }kjk 1927 bZ0 esa lkoZtfud rkykc ls ikuh ds vf/kdkj dks ysdj egkM+ esa yM+kbZ yM+h vkSj 20 fnlacj 1927 bZ0 dks ^egkM+ lEesyu* esa ^euqLe`fr* tykdj o 2 ekpZ 1930 bZ0 esa ukfld ds ^dkykjke jke eafnj* esa izos”k ds vf/kdkj dh yM+kbZ yM+dj nfyrksa dks vU;k; ,oa “kks’k.k ds f[kykQ la?k’kZ djus ds fy, iszfjr fd;kA2 blds vfrfjDr nfyrksa dks fgUnqvksa ls i`Fkd ekurs gq, muds jktuSfrd vf/kdkjksa dh ekax dhA ckck lkgc vEcsMdj ds lkFk&lkFk nfyr ys[kdksa dh vkRedFkk,¡ tSls&^eksgu nkl uSfe”kjk;* dh ^vius&vius fiatjs*] ^vkseizdk”k okYehfd* dh ^twBu*] ^dkS”kY;k oSla=h* dh ^nksgjk vfHk”kki*] ^lwjtiky pkSgku* dh ^frjLd`r* rFkk ^larIr*] ^”;ksjkt flag cspSu* dh ^esjk cpiu esjs da/kksa ij*] ^lq”khyk VkdHkkSjs* dh ^f”kdats dk nnZ* ,oa fofHkUu i=&if=dkvksa ^lkfjdk*] ^gal*] 1

vaf”krk “kqDyk Tkokgj yky usg: fo”ofo|ky; ubZ fnYyh Page 197

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

^dFkkns”k*] ^vis{kk*] ^nfyr vfLerk* vkfn us nfyr psruk dks tkx`r djus esa egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku fn;kA ^Ckkck lkgc vEcsMdj* ds }kjk pyk, x, vkUnksyuksa ,oa f”k{kk ds izlkj ds QyLo:Ik vkt nfyr vius vf/kdkjksa dks ysdj tkx:d gks x, gSaA bldk lcls vPNk mnkgj.k gky gh esa ^rfeyukMq* ds ^enqjS* ftys ds ^mRFkiqje* uked xkao esa nfyrksa }kjk eafnj izos”k ds fy, yM+h xbZ yach yM+kbZ ds ek/;e ls fn;k tk ldrk gSA lafo/kku ykxw gksus ds cklB o’kZ ckn Hkh ^enqjS* ds bl eafnj esa nfyrksa dk izos”k oftZr FkkA dbZ lky rd pys la?k’kZ ds Ik”pkr~ iqfyl cy dh ekStwnxh esa ^mRFkiqje* ds nfyrksa us eafnj esa izos”k fd;kA foMEcuk ;g gS fd ftl le; ;g ?kVuk ?kfVr gks jgh Fkh] ml le; ogk¡ vkl&ikl dh xfy;ksa esa mPp tkfr dh efgyk,¡ tksj&tksj ls jksdj fojks/k trk jgh FkhA blds vfrfjDr ,d vkSj ?kVuk tks ^mRFkiqje* xkao esa ?kfVr gqbZ Fkh] o.kZO;oLFkk dh cqjkbZ;ksa vkSj tkfr izFkk ds na”k dks lkeus ykrh gSA bl xkao esa mPp tkfr;ksa dh cfLr;ksa ds Nksj ij ,d ^vNwr nhokj* [kM+h dj nh xbZ Fkh] rkfd nfyrksa ds ?kjksa dks ckdh ?kjksa ls vyx fd;k tk ldsA o’kZ 2008 esa ^rfeyukMq NqvkNwr mUewyu ekspkZ* vkSj ^ekDlZoknh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ* ds usr`Ro esa yEcs la?k’kZ ds ckn ;g nhokj fxjkbZ tk ldhA oS”ohdj.k ds nkSj esa tgk¡ eky laLd`fr dk pyu O;kid :Ik ls c<+ jgk gS vkSj ubZ f”k{kk uhfr o vkfFkZd fodkl ds ifj.kkeLo:Ik fofHkUu rduhdksa dks fodflr djds vkt tc ns”k lrr fodkl dh vksj c<+ jgk gSA*3 ,sls le; esa ;s ?kVuk,¡ gekjs ml feFkd dks rksM+rh lh izrhr gksrh gSa fd lekt esa ifjorZu gks pqdk gS vkSj o.kZO;oLFkk ,oa NqvkNwr dh izFkk iw.kZ :Ik ls lekIr gks pqdh gSaA tcfd fLFkfr ;g gS fd vkt Hkh nfyr vius ewy vf/kdkjksa dks izkIr djus ds fy, lekt ls yxkrkj la?k’kZ dj jgk gS vkSj ns”k ds vf/kdka”k dksuksa esas f”k{kk dk izlkj gksuk vHkh Hkh “ks’k gSA uhydaBu viuh vkRedFkk esa nfyrksa dh n;uh; n”kk dk fp=.k djrs gq, iwjh tkfr O;oLFkk ij iz”u mBkrs gSaA mPp czkg~e.k dqy esa mRiUu gksus ds dkj.k mUgsa cgqr le; rd Ldwyh f”k{kk ls oafpr jguk iM+rk gS D;ksafd uaifw rjh tkfr ds yksxksa ds fy, Ldwy&dkWyst dh vkSipkfjd vkSj vaxzsth Hkk’kk okyh f”k{kk fuf’k) FkhA blds lkFk&lkFk uaifw rfj;ksa dk ;g Hkh ekuuk Fkk fd&^^ uhp tkfr ds yksxksa ds lkFk ,d gh csp a ij cSBdj f”k{kk ikus ds fy, cPpksa dks ugha 4 Hkstk tk ldrk FkkA** blds vfrfjDr izkjaHk esa dsjy dh vf/kdka”k Hkw lEifÙk ij uaifw rfj;ksa dk gh vf/kdkj FkkA os jkT; Hkj dh Hkw&lEifÙk ds tehankj ;k tUeha FksA tUeha dHkh Hkh [ksrh ugha djrs FksA Hkw&fu;e ds vuqlkj dk”rdkjksa ls mUgsa yxku ds :Ik esa uxnh rFkk /kku] ukfj;y] vUu vkfn yxku ds :Ik esa izkIr djrs FksA blds vfrfjDr muds ikl eafnjksa dh Hkh fo”kky Hkw&lEifÙk Fkh ftudk fu;a=.k uaifw rfj;ksa ds gkFk esa FkkA uaifw rjh yksx iqjksfgr dk;Z ds vykok dksbZ ukSdjh ;k vU; /ka/kk djds /ku ugha dekrs FksA ,slk /kuksiktZu izfr’Bk ds f[kykQ FkkA vFkkZr~ dqN dke djds thfodk dekuk izfr’Bk ds vuqdwy FkkA ckn esa u;s Hkw fu;eksa vkSj dk”rdkjh ds fu;eksa ds vuqlkj d`f’k Hkwfe dk LokfeRo iV~Vsnkjksa dks fey x;k ftlds dkj.k uaifw rjh oxZ ds yksxksa dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr vR;Ur n;uh; gks xbZA vr% uaifw rfj;ksa us /kuksiktZu ds fy, vU; lk/kuksa dks viukuk izkjaHk fd;kA bl izdkj dbZ o’kksZa ds Ik”pkr~ ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds cnyus ,oa jktjkt oekZ ds mikyEHk ls ckjg o’kZ dh vk;q esa mUgsa Ldwy esa izo”s k fnyk;k x;kA Ldwy esa izos”k ysus ds Ik”pkr~ Hkh mUgsa vusd dfBukbZ;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA Ldwy esa mUgsa vius ls de mez ds cPpksa ds lkFk cSBdj f”k{kk xzg.k djuh iM+rh gSA mUgsa ogk¡ vU; tkfr ds cPpksa ds lkFk cSBdj

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[kkuk [kkus dh Hkh vuqefr ugha feyrh gSA ?kj ls Ldwy cgqr nwj gksus ds dkj.k os nksigj esa vius ?kj vk Hkh ugha ldrs FksA bl dkj.k iwjs fnu mUgsa Hkw[kk jguk iM+rk FkkA tkfr izFkk dk gh ;g nq’ifj.kke gS fd tgk¡ ,d vksj mPp dqy esa mRiUu gksus ij Hkh ys[kd dks ckjg o’kksZa rd Ldwyh f“k{kk ls nwj jguk iM+rk gS rkfd og nfyrksa ds laidZ esa u vk,] rks nwljh vksj nfyrksa dks f”k{kk izkIr djus ds vf/kdkj ls gh oafpr j[kk tkrk gSA bl dkj.k ys[kd tkfr izFkk ij iz”u mBkrs gq, dgrs gSa fd&^^ D;k czkg~e.k dqy esa tUe ysus ek= ls fdlh dks dksbZ fo”ks’kkf/kdkj izkIr gks tkrk gS\**5 os vkxs dgrs gSa fd czkg~e.kksa dks Hkwnso vFkkZr~ i`Foh ij fuokl djus okyk l”kjhj nsork ekuk tkrk gSA bldh mRifÙk fojkV iq#’k ds eq[k ls ekuh tkrh gS] fdUrq mlh l”kjhj nsork ds dqy esa iSnk gksus ds dkj.k Hkh mUgsa fdlh Hkh izdkj dk fo”ks’kkf/kdkj izkIr ugha gksrk gSA ys[kd ds bl iz”u ds mÙkj esa ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd ;|fi ;g lR; gS fd mPp dqy esa tUe ysus ij Hkh ys[kd dks vius “kSf{kd rFkk Lkkekftd Lrj ij vusd la?k’kZ djus iM+rs gSa] ysfdu muds ikl og lkekftd vf/kdkj gSa tks nfyrksa ds ikl ugha gSaA vf/kd mez esa Ldwy esa izos”k ysus ij Hkh mudh vk;q rFkk tkfr dks ysdj ,slk nqO;Zogkj ugha gksrk gS] tSlk nfyrksa ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gSA nfyr cPps ls Ldwy esa i<+us ds ctk; >kM+w yxokbZ tkrh gS] fcuk fdlh otg ds ekjk tkrk gS vkSj muds fy, tkfrlwpd “kCnksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA tSlk fd nfyr ys[kd ^vkseizdk”k okYehfd* us viuh vkRedFkk ^twBu* esa Lo;a ds lkFk Ldwy esa gksus okys nqO;Zogkj dk o.kZu djrs gq, dgk gS fd& ^^,d jkst gsMekLVj dyhjke us vius dejs esa cqykdj iwNk] ^^D;k uke gS cs rsjk\** ^^vkseizdk”k**] ^^eSaus Mjrs Mjrs /khes Loj esa viuk uke crk;kA** ^^pwgM+s dk gS\** gsMekLVj dk nwljk loky mNykA ^^th** ^^Bhd gS--------og tks lkeus “kh”ke dk isM+ [kM+k gS] ml ij p<+ tk vkSj Vgfu;k¡ rksM+ds >kM+w c.kkukA vkSj iwjs Ldwy dw ,slk pedk ns tSlk lhlkA rsjk rks [kkunkuh dke gSA tk------QVkQV yx tk dke isA** tc ys[kd ^vkseizdk”k okYehfd* ds firk bldk fojks/k djrs gSa rc mUgsa ;g mÙkj feyrk gS& gsMekLVj us rst vkokt esa dgk Fkk] ^^ys tk bls ;gk¡ ls---------pwgM+k gksds i<+us pyk gS-------tk pyk tk---------ugha rks gkM+ xksM+ rqM+ok nw¡wxkA**6 mi;qZDr mnkgj.k ls ;g Li’V gks tkrk gS fd nksuksa fLFkfr;k¡ ,d nwljs ls iw.kZr;k fHkUu gSaA ^bfr”ks’k* ds ys[kd dks ;gk¡ ij ml ifjfLFkfr rFkk ekufldrk ls gksdj ugha xqtjuk iM+rk gS tgk¡ ls ^vkseizdk”k okYehfd* ;k vU; nfyrksa dks xqtjuk iM+kA vkt Hkh os ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls yxkrkj la?k’kZ dj jgs gSaA ;g ckr iz”kalk ds ;ksX; gS fd ys[kd us tkfr izFkk dh cqjkbZ;ksa dks le>k vkSj iwjh rVLFkrk ds lkFk mldk o.kZu Hkh fd;kA ijUrq o.kZu djus ls T;knk t:jh ml O;oLFkk dk fojks/k djuk vkSj mldks tM+ ls lekIr djuk gSA ys[kd ds tUe ds le; dsjy esa oSlh lkearh O;oLFkk fo|eku Fkh tSlh ns”k ds vU; Hkkxksa esa FkhA ys[kd dks cpiu ls gh ;g fl[kk;k x;k Fkk fd mUgsa fuEu tkfr ds yksxksa ls ,d fuf”pr nwjh cukdj j[kuh pkfg, vkSj vxj oks yksx lehi vk,¡ rks ?kj ds iks[kj esa Mqcdh yxkdj Luku djds “kjhj dks “kq) djuk pkfg,A7 /khjs&/khjs vkxs pydj ;gh tkfr O;oLFkk bruh tfVy gks xbZ Fkh fd Lokeh foosdkuan dks dsjy dks ^tkfr;ksa dk ikxy[kkuk* dguk iM+kA dsjy esa o.kksZa dk foHkktu dqN vyx <ax + ls ns[kus dks feyrk gSA mÙkj Hkkjr esa tgk¡ prqoZ.kZ Page 199

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ds vUrxZr czkg~e.k] {kf=;] oS”;] “kwnz vkrs gSa tcfd dsjy esa czkg~e.k rFkk “kwnz nks o.kZ fo|eku gSaA blds vfrfjDr jkt ifjokjksa rFkk muds fudV lacaf/k;ksa dks {kf=; dh Js.kh esa LFkku fn;k x;k gS] fdUrq czkg~e.k rFkk “kwnz nks gh o.kZ izeq[k gSa vkSj “kwnz dks nks Hkkxksa esa ck¡Vk x;k gS&igyk ^lo.kZ* rFkk nwljk ^vo.kZ*A ey;kye esa mUgsa ^rhaVy* uke ls iqdkjk tkrk gSA ;gk¡ Hkh nfyrksa ij mlh izdkj ds izfrca/k Fks tSls Hkkjr ds vU; Hkkxksa esAa mUgsa eafnj esa izos”k djus rFkk eq[; lM+d ij pyus dk vf/kdkj ugha FkkA tSlk fd ys[kd Lo;a crkrs gSa fd&^^ chloha lnh ds izFke ikn ds var rd fLFkfr ;g Fkh fd vo.kZ “kwnz tkfr ds yksxksa dks jktekxZ ij pyus dk vf/kdkj ugha FkkA muds pyus dh dqN fuf”pr xfy;k¡ gksrh Fkha ;k fQj os [ksrksa ls gksdj tkrs FksA tc Hkh mudks eq[; lM+d ikj djuk gksrk Fkk rks os ,d fo”ks’k izdkj dh vkokt+ fudkyrs Fks rkfd czkg~e.k muls cps jgsaA**8 dqN le; ds Ik”pkr~ 1924 bZ0 esa ^dsjy* esa ^oSde lR;kxzg* vkjaHk gqvk ftlesa nfyr vkSj fiNMs+ o.kZ ds lkFk&lkFk dsjy ds mPp tkfr;ksa ds usrkvksa us bldk usr`Ro fd;kA oSde ds eafnj ds ckgjh izkphj ls 100 eh0 dh nwjh ij eq[; lM+d ij iRFkj dk ,d Qyd yxk gqvk Fkk] ftlds dkj.k ^rhaVy tkfr* ds yksxksa vFkkZr~ ^vLi`”;ksa* dks blds vkxs vkus dk vf/kdkj ugha FkkA ^fr:forkadwj* jkT; ds vo.kZ rFkk lo.kZ lewgksa ds laxBu us bl lhek dk mYya?ku djds fxjQ~rkjh nsus dk fu.kZ; fd;kA blds lkFk eafnj ds xksiqj }kj ls eq[; jktekxZ ij pyus ds vf/kdkj dks ysdj lR;kxzg “kq: gqvkA ^rfeyukMq* esa ^jkekLokeh uk;dj* vkSj ^fouksck Hkkos* us vkdj bl vkUnksyu esa Hkkx fy;k] fdUrq uaifw rfj;ksa us bl lR;kxzg dk ?kksj fojks/k djrs gq, bls lekIr ds fy, ljdkj ij ncko MkykA varr% lR;kxzfg;ksa dh ekax ij dsjy ds egkjktk us uocaj 1936 bZ0 esa ljdkjh fu;a=.k okys lHkh eafnjksa esa izR;sd fgUnw dks izo”s kkf/kdkj iznku djus dh ?kks’k.kk dhA bl ?kVuk dk ys[kd ds firk ij dSlk izHkko iM+k bldk o.kZ u djrs gq, ys[kd crkrs gSa fd& ^^ vNwrksa ds fy, eafnj izos”k dh ?kks’k.kk firk th ds fy, dqN vk?kkr tSlk FkkA iqjkuh ijaijkvksa dks rksM+uk muds fy, dfBu Fkk vkSj firk th bl fLFkfr ls le>kSrk ugha dj ik,A blds fojks/k esa vius gh vgkrs esa ,d f”ko eafnj dk fuekZ.k fd;k vkSj var rd os oSde ds f”ko eafnj esa ugha x,A**9 ;|fi 1936 bZ0 esa dsjy esa lHkh o.kksZa dks eafnj izos”k dk vf/kdkj rks fey x;k Fkk fdUrq eafnj esa izos”k dk vf/kdkj Hkj fey tkus ls D;k nfyrksa ds izfr yksxksa dh ekufldrk cny xbZ gS\ ^ckck lkgc vEcsMdj* dk mn~ns”; dsoy eafnj esa izos”k djus ds vf/kdkj rd gh lhfer ugha Fkk cfYd og nfyrksa ds eafnj ds izos”k ds vf/kdkj ds ek/;e ls lo.kksZa dh czkg~e.koknh ekufldrk ij izgkj djuk pkgrs FksA vkt Hkh ns”k ds vf/kdka”k txgksa ij nfyr dks lo.kksZa ds }kjk cuk, x, fu;eksa dk ikyu djuk iM+rk gSA bldk lcls vPNk mnkgj.k ^LVkfyu* dh MkD;wesUVªh fQYe ^bafM;k vuVPM* gS] ftlesa ys[kd us Hkkjr ds vyx&vyx izn”s kksa esa nfyrksa dh fLFkfr ,oa muds fy, cuk, x, fu;eksa dks fn[kk;k x;k gSA blesa ;g fn[kk;k x;k gS fd fdl izdkj vkt Hkh nf{k.k esa nfyr pyus ds fy, vxj lo.kksZa ds bykds ls xqtjrs gSa rks mUgsa viuh pIiy mrkjuh iM+rh gS vkSj lkbfdy ls Hkh mrjuk iM+rk gS rkfd og v”kq) u gks tk,¡A**10 bl izdkj ys[kd ds tUe ls igys gh nfyrksa }kjk vius vf/kdkjksa dh ek¡x dks ysdj vusd vkUnksyu pyk, tk jgs Fks] ftldk ys[kd us iwjh fuHkhZdrk ds lkFk o.kZu fd;k gSA uhydaBu ^egkRek xka/kh* ds fopkjksa ls vf/kd izHkkfor gSa] tSlk fd mUgksaus dgk gS fd& ^^ fgUnh dh igyh ikB~;iqLrd ls gh eSa le>us yxk Fkk fd xka/kh th fdrus egku gSa vkSj NqvkNwr fdruk cM+k vU;k; gSA**11 www.dalitsahitya.com

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ys[kd us viuh vkRedFkk esa flQZ xka/kh th }kjk pyk, x, ^gfjtu vkanksyu* dk mYys[k fd;k gS tcfd ml le; ^egkjk’Vª* esa ^ckck lkgc vEcsMdj*] ^T;ksfrck Qqy*s }kjk tkfr O;oLFkk dks lekIr djus ,oa nfyrksa ds m)kj ds fy, vusd vkanksyu pyk, tk jgs FksA ys[kd us budk dgha Hkh mYys[k ugha fd;k gSA bl dkj.k uhydaBu dh vkRedFkk esa nfyr vkRedFkkvksa esa ifjyf{kr gksus okyh psruk ugha feyrh gS D;ksafd ;g o.kZ O;oLFkk dk fonzkgs djus ds ctk; dsoy ml ij iz”u [kM+k djrh gSA tcfd nfyr vkRedFkkvksa esa iwjh O;oLFkk ds izfr fonzkgs ,oa udkj dk Hkko fo|eku gSA nfyr ys[kdksa dh jpuk,¡ ^ckck lkgc vEcsMdj* ,oa ^T;ksfrck Qqy*s dh fopkj/kkjk dk vuqlj.k djrh gSa D;ksfa d nfyrksa dks mudh vfLerk dk vglkl lgh ek;us esa ^ckck lkgc vEcsMdj* us djk;k FkkA mUgksaus nfyrksa ds vUnj vkRelEeku dh Hkkouk tkx`r djrs gq, mUgsa ;g fo”okl fnyk;k fd os fdlh ls de ugha gSaA ^ckck lkgc vEcsMdj* us fgUnw lekt esa tkfr O;oLFkk dks gekjs ns”k esa lkekftd lkSgknZ dk lcls cM+k “k=q ekuk gSA blfy, mUgksaus tkfr izFkk ,oa NqvkNwr dh Hkkouk ls jfgr ,sls vkn”kZ lekt dh ifjdYiuk dh gS tks lerk] Lora=rk vkSj cU/kqRo ij vk/kkfjr gksA blds foijhr ^egkRek xka/kh* o.kZ O;oLFkk dks fgUnw lekt ds fy, vko”;d ekurs gSaA muds vuqlkj&^^o.kZO;oLFkk dk fu;e fl[kkrk gS fd iSr`d /ka/kk viukdj ge jksth&jksVh dek ldrs gSaA ;g gekjs vf/kdkj dks gh ugha] cfYd drZO; dks ifjHkkf’kr djrk gSA o.kZO;oLFkk vo”; gh O;olk; ds lanHkZ esa cuh gS] tks dsoy ekuork ds dY;k.k ds fy, gS vkSj vU; fdlh ds fy, ughaA bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd dksbZ Hkh O;olk; u rks vR;f/kd uhpk gS] u gh vR;f/kd Å¡pkA**12 ^egkRek xka/kh* ;g pkgrs Fks fd fgUnw /keZ dh dfe;ksa dks nwj dj mlds vkn”kZ Lo:i dh iqu% izfr’Bk dh tk,A ^egkRek xka/kh* us ftl o.kZO;oLFkk dks O;oLkk; ds lanHkZ esa ns[kk gS] mlh o.kZO;oLFkk dks vk/kkj cukdj u tkus fdrus vNwrksa ds lkFk vekuqf’kd O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gSA vkt vko”;drk bl ckr dh gS fd yksx vf/kd ls vf/kd tkfr izFkk dh cqjkbZ;ksa dks le>s vkSj bldk fojks/k djs] ugha rks vkxs pydj fLFkfr vkSj [kjkc gks tk,xhA vius ekrk ds xHkZ esa jgrs gq, tc dksbZ ;g ugha tkurk gS fd og fdl tkfr dk gS] og lo.kZ gS ;k vo.kZA lHkh euq’; ds tUe dh izfØ;k tc ,d gh leku gS rks tUe ds vk/kkj ij tkfr dk fu/kkZj.k dgk¡ rd lgh ekuk tk ldrk gS\13 ^eLrjke diwj* Hkh vius ys[k ^tkfr na”k ds vk;ke* esa bl ckr dk leFkZu djrs gq, dgk gS fd&^^;g iqLrd gesa MkW0 yksfg;k dh bl mfDr dh ;kn fnykrh gS fd tkfr dh pDdh lcdks ihl Mkyrh gS] lcdk {k; djrh gSSA blls u vo.kZ cprk gS u lo.kZA**14 uhydaBu uaifw rjh us viuh vkRedFkk ^bfr”ks’k* ds ek/;e ls tkfr O;oLFkk ij iz”u [kM+k djrs gq, bldh dfe;ksa dks mtkxj djrs gSaA lo.kZ gksdj Hkh mUgksaus tkfr izFkk fd cqjkbZ;ksa dks le>k] ;g iz”kalk ds ;ksX; gSA ^bfr”ks’k* vU; lo.kZ ys[kdksa dks tkfr izFkk ij lkspus rFkk fy[kus ds fy, etcwj djrh gSA fdUrq blds lkFk gh ;g iz”u ;g mBrk gS fd nfyr vkRedFkkvksa ds izdk”k esa vkus ds ianzg o’kZ Ik”pkr~ ys[kd us vc viuh vkRedFkk ds ek/;e ls tkfr izFkk ,oa NqvkNwr iz”u D;ksa mBk;k\ ys[kd us ;g iz”u rc mBk;s tc Lo;a mudks mu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ,oa ihM+k ls gksdj xqtjuk iM+k tgk¡ ls izfrfnu&izfr{k.k nfyr xqtjrs gSaA vkt Hkh muds ?kj tyk;s tkrs gSa] mUgsa muds tkfr lwpd “kCnksa ls cqykdj viekfur fd;k tkrk gS] nfyr fL=;ksa ds lkFk ckykRdkj dj muds vaxksa dks {kr&fo{kr dj muds izfr lo.kZ viuh ?k`.kk dks iznf”kZr djrs gSaA nfyr vkRedFkkvksa us ,slk ifjos”k fufeZr fd;k gS ftlls Hkkjrh; fgUnw O;oLFkk dk iquewZY;kadu gks vkSj lekt esa O;kIr vlekurk] fo’kerk] vieku] NqvkNwr] Å¡p&uhp] mRihM+u Page 201

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

rFkk “kks’k.k dks ;Fkk”kh?kz lekIr fd;k tk,A vkRedFkk ds {ks= esa uhydaBu uaifw rjh dh ^bfr”ks’k* ,d ljkguh; iz;kl gSA mPp dqy esa mRiUu gksrs gq, Hkh mUgksaus ml lekt dh cqjkbZ;ksa dks le>k vkSj mldk o.kZu fd;kA ^bfr”ks’k* vkRedFkk ;g ladsr djrh gS fd ifjfLFkfr;k¡ /khjs&/khjs cny jgh gSaA vius laLdkjxr [kksy ls iwjh rjg ls ckgj u vk ikus ds dkj.k “kk;n /khjs&/khjs mBus okyh ;g vkokt+ vHkh iz”u djus rd lhfer gSA lo.kZ ;k vo.kZ dk loky mBkus ds ctk; lHkh euq’; gSa] bl ij fopkj djuk pkfg,A bl vFkZ esa ;g vkRedFkk egRoiw.kZ gSA lanHkZ xzaFk lwph& 1- ys[k& ^tkfr na”k ds vk;ke*] ^eLrjke diwj*] tulÙkk esa izdkf”kr] 25 tqykbZ 2010A 2- ^nfyr foe”kZ dh Hkwfedk*] ^daoy Hkkjrh*] lkfgR; miØe 2007] i`0 la0 59&60A 3- ys[k& ^tkfrokn dk tgj*] ^tulRrk* esa izdkf”kr] la0& ^vkse Fkkuoh*] uoEcj 2011A 4- ^bfr”ks’k^] ^uhydaBu uaiwfrjh*] lkfgR; lgdkj izdk”ku] izFke laLdj.k] fnYyh 2010] i`0 la0 34A 5- ogh] i`0 la0 15A 6- 21- ^twBu*] ^vkseizdk”k okYehfd*] jk/kkd`’.k isijcSDl] fnYyh] nwljh vko`fRr 2006] i`0 la0 14A 7- ^bfr”ks’k*] ^uhydBu uaiwfrjh*] lkfgR; lgdkj izdk”ku] fnYyh] izFke laLdj.k 2010] i`0 la0 19A 8- ogh] i`0 la0 18A 9- ogh] i`0 la0 33A 10- MkD;wesUVªh fQYe& ^bafM;k vuVPM*] funsZ”kd& ^LVkfyu*] 2007A 11- ^bfr”ks’k*] ^uhydaBu uaiwfrjh*] lkfgR; lgdkj izdk”ku] fnYyh] izFke la0 2010] i`0 la0 57A 12- ^ckck lkgsc vEcsMdj laiw.kZ ok³e;*] ^tkfr izFkk&mUewyu* esa laxzghr ^ykgkSj tkrikar rksM+d eaMy 1936 ds okf’kZd lEesyu ds fy, rS;kj fd, x, Hkk’k.k ls m)`r] izdk”ku foHkkx] fnYyh 1993] i`0 la0 108A 13- In the Womb, no one knows caste. It is from the Lord’s seed that the whole creation came into being. O Pundit, how have you become Brahmin – born? Do not lose your human birth by calling yourself a high caste. If you are Brahmin, born of a Brahmin mother, why did not you choose to be a different way?How you are Brahmin and I have low caste? It is that I have blood in my veins and you have milk? (Kabir translated by Nabha 2010:55)^fl[k% oh vkj ukWV fgUnw*] ^dsu flag ukHkk*] flagl~ cznlZ] ve`rlj 2010] i`0 la0 55A 14- ys[k&^tkfr na”k ds vk;ke*] ^eLrjke diwj*] ^tulÙkk* esa izdkf”kr] tqykbZ 2010A

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osn dkyhu lekt esa fL=;ksa dh n'kk vuhl vCckl fjt+oh1 Hkkjrh; lkfgR; esa ukjh ds fofHkUu :iksa dk fu:i.k izkIr gksrk gS oSfnd ;qx esa ukjh dk ekuuh; LFkku jgk gSA ml ;qx esa ukjh lkekftd vk/;kfRed ,oa lkaLÑfrd lHkh izdkj ds dk;ksZa esa Hkkx ysus esa l{ke ,oa Lora= FkhA ukjh&tkfr ds izfr laLÑr lkfgR; txr esa fof”k’V lEeku jgk gSA euqLefr esa ;= uk;ZLrq iwT;Urs jeUrs r= nsork% ^^vFkkZr~ tgk¡ ukjh iwth tkrh gS ogk¡ nsork fuokl djrs gS ;g dgdj ukjh ds lEekuh; in dh iz”kalk dh xbZ gSA1 oSfnd ;qx esa L=h dk lekt esa mPp LFkku FkkA fo|k dk vkn”kZ ljLorh esa] /ku dk vkn”kZ y{eh esa] ijkØe dk vkn”kZ nqxkZ ea]s lkSUn;Z dk vkn”kZ jfr es]a ifo=rk dk vkn”kZ xaxk esa] Hkxoku dk vkn”kZ tx-tuuh esa ekuk tkrk FkkA ifjokj esa L=h dks nsoh dgk tkrk FkkA Hkjrh; lekt esa fL=;ksa dks izkjEHk ls gh xkSjoiw.kZ LFkku izkIr Fkk vkSj thou ds izR;sd {ks= esa mudh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk FkhA ekrk] iRuh vkSj iq=h lHkh :iksa esa L=h dks lekt esa mPp LFkku izkIr FkkA2 “kriFk czkã.k ds vuqlkj vdsyk iq#’k viw.kZ gS vkSj tc og fookg djds lUrku mRiUu djrk gS rHkh iw.kZ gksrk gSA3 izkphudkyhu ^lekt* esa iq#’kksa dh Hkk¡fr fL=;ksa dk Hkh miu;u laLdkj gksrk Fkk vkSj os czãp;kZJe esa izos”k dj mPpre vk/;kfRed rFkk lkaLÑfrd Kku izkIr djrh FkhA vFkoZosn esa dqyo/kw dks lEcksf/kr djds dgk x;k gS gs dqy o/kw rw ftl uohu ?kj esa tkusokyh gS rw ogk¡ dh lezkKh gSA ogk¡ rsjk jkt gksxkA rsjk “olqj] nsoj] uans vkSj lkl rq>s lezkKh le>sx a As 4 oSfnd lekt esa fL=;ksa dh f”k{kk fookg vkfn ij Hkh vR;f/kd /;ku fn;k tkrk FkkA 1-oSfnd ;qx esa L=h लश{kk&osndkyhu lekt esa fL=;ksa dks iq#’kksa ds leku f”k{kk izkIr djus dk iw.kZ vf/kdkj FkkA Kku vkSj f”k{kk ds {ks= esa os fdlh Hkh izdkj iq#’kksa ls de ugha FkhA _Xosn esa yxHkx chl ,slh fonq’kh fL=;ksa ds mYys[k gSa ftUgksaus vusdkusd lwDrksa dh jpuk dh FkhA buesa yksieqnzk] fo”o/kkjk] vkikyk] ?kks’kk] dk{khorh] jkse”kk] fldrk] bUnzk.kh vkfn fL=;ksa ds uke fo”ks’k mYys[kuh; gSA5 ;tqosZn ds vuqlkj dU;k dk fookg czãp;kZoLFkk lekIr dj ysus ds Ik”pkr~ gh djuh pkfg,A6 ;tqoZsn esa L=h dks ^Lrkse i`"Bk* dgk x;k gS ftldk vfHkizk; ;g gS fd og osn eU=ksa ds fo’k; esa iwNikN djrh FkhA7 izkphu dky esa ;Kksa ,oa /kkfeZd vuq’Bkuksa dk cgqr egRo Fkk vkSj O;fDr viuh iRuh ds lkFk gh ;K dj ldrk Fkk blfy, fL=;ksa dks fo”ks’k :Ik ls oSfnd lkfgR; dh f”k{kk iznku dh tkrh Fkh] rkfd og /kkfeZd fØ;kvksa esa vius ifr ds lkFk Hkkx ys ldsAa c`gnkj.;d mifu’kn~ esa fonsg jkt tud dh jktlHkk esa xkxhZ vkSj ;kKoYD; ds chp okn fookn dk o.kZu feyrk gS ftlesa xkxhZ us viuh vn~Hkqr izfrHkk foy{k.k] rdZ”kfDr es/kk vkSj lw{e fopkj rUrqvksa ls nq:g iz”uksa dh ckSNkj djds ;kKoYD; tSls fo}ku~ egkiq#’k dks ewd dj fn;k FkkA8

1

vuhl vCckl fjt+oh “kks/k Nk=k] laLd`r foHkkx] vyhx<+ eqfLye fo”ofo|ky; vyhx<]+ m-iz-]fiu dksM 202002 Page 203

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ISSN : 2278-3067

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2-oSfnd ;qx esa L=h dk lkEifÙkd vf/kdkj& izkphu Hkkjr esa L=h dh lkekftd fLFkfr vR;Ur mUur FkhA ifr vkSj iRuh nksuksa dks ifjokj dh lEifÙk dk la;qDr Lokeh le>k tkrk Fkk ;gk¡ rd fd fookg ds volj ij ifr dks ;g izfrKk djuh iM+rh Fkh fd og viuh iRuh ds foÙkh; vf/kdkjksa dh j{kk djsxkA rSfÙkjh; lafgrk esa iRuh dks ikfj.kká vFkkZr~ ?kj dh oLrqvksa dh Lokfeuh Lohdkj fd;k x;k gSA9 “kriFk czkã.k esa Li’V :Ik esa dgk x;k gS iRuh ifr ds nk; dh mÙkjkf/kdkfj.kh gksrh gSA 3-oSfnd ;qx esa dU;k fookg&oSfnd n`f’Vdks.k ls dU;k dk fookg ;qokoLFkk esa gksrk FkkA osnksa ds vuqlkj czãp;Z /kkj.k djus ds Ik”pkr~ dU;k ;qok ifr dks izkIr gksrh FkhA13 vFkoZosn ds vuqlkj fookgksijkUr ogh L=h lQy gks ldrh gS ftls czãp;Z dky esa f”kf{kr fd;k x;k gksA14 blls Li’V gS fd oSfnd dky esa ;qok fookg gksrk Fkk cky fookg ugha gksrk FkkA oSfnd dkyhu fookg Lo;aoj ds fl)kUr ij vkfJr FkkA Lo;aoj dk vFkZ gS&Lo;a ¼vius&vki½ oj.k djukA Lo;aoj dk vf/kdkj dU;k dks fn;k x;k FkkA oj dU;k dks ekyk ugha igukrk Fkk dU;k ftlds izfr viuh LohÑfr nsrh Fkh mlds xys esa og ekyk igukrh FkhA 4- oSfnd ;qx esa fo/kok fookg&oSfnd ;qx esa fo/kokvksa dks iqu% fookg dk vf/kdkj FkkA vFkoZosn ds vuqlkj ^^x`gk% la l`T;Urs fL=;k% ;fUez;rs ifr%A tc L=h dk ifr ej tkrk gS rc mls nwljk ?kj clkuk iM+rk gSA11 fo/kok fookg djus okyh L=h dks iquHkwZ% dh laKk nh xbZ gS] iquHkw%Z dk vFkZ gS ftldk nqckjk fookg gksA blh n`f’V ls laLÑr esa ifr ds HkkbZ dks nsoj dgk gS nsoj dh O;k[;k djrs gq, fu:Drdkj us dgk gS&nsoj% dLekr~ f}rh;ks oj% Hkofr^* nsoj dks nsoj blfy, dgrs gSa D;ksafd ifr ds ej tkus ds ckn og nwljk oj gks ldrk gSA _Xosn esa fo/kok “kCn dk mYys[k vusd ckj gqvk gSA12 fdUrq blls mudh n”kk ds ckjs esa dksbZ tkudkjh izkIr ugha gksrh ijUrq ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd oSfnd dky esa mudh fLFkfr n;uh; ugha FkhA ifr dh e`R;q ds mijkUr mudh lkekftd fLFkfr esa fdlh izdkj dk ifjorZu ugha gksrk Fkk vkSj og lEekfur thou O;rhr djrh FkhA 5- oSfnd ;qx esa ijnk izFkk&oSfnd dky esa ijnk izFkk ds izpyu dk dksbZ izek.k izkIr ugha gksrk bl dky esa fL=;k¡ iq#’kksa ds leku f”k{kk izkIr djrh Fkh vkSj lkekftd rFkk /kkfeZd lekjksgksa ,oa mRloksa rFkk lHkk ,oa xksf’B;ksa esa fcuk fdlh izfrcU/k ds Hkkx ysrh Fkh rFkk fopkjksa dk vknku iznku djrh FkhA _Xosn esa mYys[k gS fd lHkh vkxUrqdksa ls uo fookfgrk o/kw dks ns[kus rFkk mls vk”khokZn nsus ds fy, dgk x;k gsA15 Lo;aoj dk izpyu Hkh ;g Li’V djrk gS fd bl le; fL=;ksa ij ijns dk dksbZ cU/ku ugha FkkA16 bu mYys[kksa ls Li’V gS fd oSfnd dky esa ijns dk izpyu ugha Fkk fdUrq Hkkjrh; ukjh ls lq YkHk “kkyhurk vkSj la;fer vkpj.k dh vis{kk dh tkrh FkhA oSfnd dkyhu lekt ds voyksdu ls ;g fu’d’kZ izkIr gksrk gS fd ml le; ds lekt esa fL=;ksa dks vusd izdkj ds vf/kdkjksa dh iw.kZ Lora=rk izkIr Fkh mUgsa f”k{kk] fookg vkfn lHkh {ks= esa Lora=rk Fkh rRdkyhu lekt esa fL=;ksa dh n”kk n;uh; ugha Fkh oSfnd dky dk ;qx ukjh lekt dk mTToy :Ik izLrqr djrk gSA lUnHkZ 123foizk

euqLe`fr@ 3-35 x`g.kh x`geqP;rsA _Xosn 3-53-4 ,rkokuso iq#’kks ;kT;k··Rek iztkfra gA izkgqLr;k pkSÙk|ks HkrkZ lk Le`rkaxukA “kriFk czkã.k 5-2-1-10

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4lkezkKh ,fU/k “o”kqjs’kq lxzkKh mr nsc`’kqA uukUnq% lezkKh ,f/k lezkKh mr “oJok%AA vFkoZosn 14-1-44 5_Xosn@1-126-7 6mi;ke x`ghrks·L;kfnR;sH;LRokA fo’o·m#xk;S’k lkseLra j{kLo eka Rok nHku~AA ;tqosZn 8-1 7;tqosZn@ 14-4 8c`gnkj.;d mifu’kn~@ 3-6-8 9rSfÙkjh; lafgrk@ 6-2-11 10- “kriFk czkã.k@ 14-7-3-1 11- vFkoZosn@ 12-2-36 12- _Xosn@ 4-18-12 13- ;tqoZsn@ 8-1 14- czãp;sZ.k dU;k ;qokua foUnrs ifre~A vFkoZosn 9-5-18 15- lqex a yhfj;a o/kwfjeka lesr Ik”pr~A _Xosn 10-89-33 16- ,srjs; czkã.k 4-8

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दहलत-ाअन्दोलन और स्त्री-सांघषभ (कनाभटक के हवशेष सन्दभभ में ) सुनील कु मार यादव1 शाराांशस्त्रीवादी ाअांदोलन दक शुरुाअत हपछली सदी मे लगभग १९६०-७० ाइ. के दशक मे हुाइ | ाआस क्राहन्त की शुरुाअत करने वालो में प्रमुख नाम पाश्चात्य देशों के हैं, हजसमें क्रमशाः ‘हसमोन द बााउवार’ , ‘के ट

हमलेट’ का और ‘के टी रॉाइफ’ का नाम ाअता है हजनके द्वारा क्रमश: हलहखत पुस्तकें ‘द सेकेन्ड सेक्स’, ‘सेक्सुाऄल पाहलरटक्स’, और ‘द मॉर्ननग ाअफ्टर : सेक्स दफयर एांड फे हमहनज़्म’ से ही वास्तव में ाआस ददशा में एक साथभक बहस दक शुरुाअत होती है | सवभप्रथम ाआन्ही दकताबों में एक स्त्री और ाईसके ाअहस्तत्व के सम्बन्ध में तथा स्त्रीवाद के बीज तत्वों क्रमश: जलगभेद, ाऄवस्त्रीपरकता व हपतृसत्तात्मकता ाअदद पर बहुत कु छ हलखा और कहा गया परन्तु स्त्रीवाद ११-१२ वीं सदी में ही ाअहस्तत्व में था, हजसकी शुरुाअत् ‘ाऄक्क्महादेहव’ द्वारा कनाभटक मे हो चुकी थी, जो स्वयां एक महान कवहयत्री के रूप में प्रहसद्ध थी| सां 1960 ाइ. के बाद देश की राजनैहतक एवां सामाहजक वातावरण में ाऄहस्थरता देखने को हमलती है। स्वतांत्रता प्राहप्त का लक्ष्य भटकता सा ददखााइ देता है एवां मोहभांग का दौर शुरु होता है। भारतीय समाज की सांरचना में नारी-हवमशभ एवां दहलत-ाईत्पीड़न जैसे हवषय ाईभर कर ाअते है | पररणामस्वरूप स्त्री-हवमशभ पर साहहत्य सृजन की प्रवृहत्त व्यापक होने लगी। ाअधुहनक स्त्रीवादी हवमशभ की मुख्य ाअलोचना हमेशा से यही रही है दक ाआसके हसद्धाांत एवां दशभन मुख्य रूप से पहश्चमी मूल्यों एवां दशभन पर ाअधाररत रहे हैं | परां तु भारत में स्त्री की ाआस हद्वतीयक हस्थहत के प्रहतदक्रयात्मक पररणामों पर कु छ देर से ही ,स्वतन्त्रता के बाद हलखा गया I भारतीय साहहत्य के सांदभभ में कु छ प्रमुख महहला साहहत्यकारों ने प्रमुखता से महहलाओं से जुडी समस्याओं को ाईठाया, ाआनमे से प्रमुख थीं कमलादास (के रला), शहशदेशपाांडे (कनाभटक) और महाश्वेतादेवी (प. बन्गाल) ाअदद I स्वतन्त्रता के बाद दहलतसमस्याएां और दहलत-महहला समस्याएां जैसी ाऄवधारणाएां ाअहस्तत्व में ाअयीं I परन्तु महहला समस्यायें और दहलत-महहला समस्यायें, दोनो ही ाऄलग-ाऄलग ाऄवधारणाय़ॆ है I ाअगे चलकर ाअधुहनकता के नाम पर सवणीय महहला वगों की समस्यायें भी दहलत महहला वगो की समस्याओं से जुड़ गयी I ाआसी कारण से वतभमान काल में ाआसका क्षेत्र काफ़ी व्यापक हो चुका है | प्रस्तुत पत्र ाआन्ही दहलत-महहलाऒं दक वतभमान समस्याऒं पर प्रकाश डालता है I

1

सुनील कु मार यादव शोधछात्र व कहनष्ठ शोध-ाऄध्येता, यू.जी.सी. जहदी हवभाग, कनाभटक कें रीय हवश्वहवद्यालय, कडीगांची,

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

प्रस्तावनासामान्यतया भारत में महहलाएां सामाहजक जलगाधाररत सांरचना, ाअर्चथक-सांरचना, शैक्षहणक, धार्चमक, रां गभेद ाअदद क्षेत्रों में महहला के रूप में जन्म लेने और जीने के कारण ही ाऄहभशप्त है | परां तु समूचे स्त्रीजाहत में एक दहलत महहला ाऄपने जन्म, जाहत और सांप्रदाय के कारण ही दु:ख झेल रही है | भारत मे स्त्रीवादी ाअांदोलन दहलत महहलाओं को एक ाअहस्तत्व देने मे हवफल रहा है | क्योदक भारत में स्त्रीवादीाअांदोलन प्रमुख रूप से ाईच्च-वगीय सवणीय महहलाऒं को ही ध्यान मे रख कर ाअांदोलनरत रहा है | प्रहसद्ध लेहखका ाऄनाहमका भी यही प्रश्न करती है- “एक सवणभ-स्त्री और एक दहलत-स्त्री की समस्याओं में

क्या ाऄांतर है ?..सवणभ स्त्री भी दहलत-स्त्री का छु ाअ नही खाती | ाईसे ाईन्ही हहकारत भरी नजरों से देखती है | काइ स्त्रीयों के साथ होने पर वह खुद को स्त्री होने से ज्यादा ‘जाहत’ से ाअाइडेटीफााइ करती ददखती है | लेदकन वह भूल जाती है की हजस तरह से पूांजीवाद ने जाहत के नाम पर मजदूरों को बाांटकर ाईनका ाअन्दोलन क्षीण कर ददया था, ाईसी तरह से ‘ब्राह्मणवादी हपतृसत्ता’ ने भी औरतों को जाहत के नाम पर बाांटकर नारीवादी ाअन्दोलन में तेज धार नही ाअने दी |’ दहलत, स्त्री और दहलत-स्त्री भारत में दहलत महहला ाअांदोलन “ाऄफ्रीकन ब्लैक वुमेन” (स्त्रीवादी ाअन्दोलन की शुरुाअत द. ाऄफ्रीका में हुाइ थी | प्रमुख कारण था, श्वेतवगभ द्वारा ाऄश्वेत-वगभ का ाऄपेक्षाकृ त नागररक-ाऄहधकारों का हनन और ाईनके प्रहत जलगभेद, वगभ-शोषण और नस्लवाद जैसा दृहष्टकोण रखना हजसके हवरोध में ाआस ाअांदोलन (1960 ाइ.) ने ाअकार हलया था ) का भारतीय सांस्करण या प्रहतफल है | भारत में दहलत महहला ाऄपने सामाहजक रुढ़ीवाददता, धार्चमक ाऄांधहवस्वास के साथ ाईच्वगीय सवणीय जाहत में ाउपहस्थत धार्चमक ाअचरणों का भी ाऄनुसरण कर रही है | ाईदाहरण के तौर पर : के श-मुांडन , ाऄवैज्ञाहनक व्रत – ाईपवास , पूजा हवहध –हवधान ाअदद एवां सामाहजक ाअचरणों मे वस्त्र–त्याग ाअदद । स्वतांत्रता पूवभ और स्वतन्त्रता के बाद दहलत महहलाऒं की समस्यायें और भी गांभीर होने का प्रमुख कारण है – महहला लेहखकाऒं द्वारा साहहत्य में दहलत महहलाऒं के हवकास से सांबहन्धत समस्याऒं, ाईनके ाऄहधकारों से सांबांहधत मुद्दों को गांभीरता से न ाईठा पाना | “नारीवाद से जुड़ी सभी औरतों को ये सोचना होगा दक भारत में दहलत स्त्री की बात दकये बगैर नारीवाद का प्रश्न ाऄधूरा है और यही पहश्चमी नारीवाद से भारतीय नारीवाद की हभन्नता का ाअधार है। नारीवादी ाऄवधारणा में व्यापक बदलाव नारीवाद की तीसरी लहर के बाद ाअया | नारीवाद की तीसरी लहर मुख्यताः लैरटन ाऄमेररकी, एहशयााइ और ाऄश्वेत नाररयों से सांबांहधत थी, हजसपर ाईत्तर –ाअधुहनक हवचारधारा का प्रभाव था | हजसके कारण ही भारतीय दहलत महहलाएां सामाहजक, ाअर्चथक, शैक्षहणक, राजनीहतक ाअदद स्तर पर हपछड़ गयीं |” ाआस लहर ने भारतीय नारीवादी ाअांदोलन पर गहरा प्रभाव डाला | यहााँ भी दहलत स्त्री-वगभ ने नारीवादी ाअांदोलन पर ाअरोप लगाना शुरू दकया दक वह ाईच्चवगीय सवणभ नाररयों का प्रहतहनहधत्व करता है और दहलत, ग्रामीण और हनधभन महहलाओं को बाहर छोड़ देता है |” ऐसे में भारत में दहलत ाअांदोलन की शुरूाअत ज्योहतराव गोजवदराव फु ले के नेतृत्व में हुाइ। भारतीय ाआहतहास में ज्योहतबा ही वो पहले शख्स थे हजन्होंने दहलतों की हशक्षा के हलए न के वल हवद्यालय की वकालत की बहल्क सबसे पहले दहलत हवद्यालय की स्थापना भी की। दहलतों के ाऄहधकारों के साथ-साथ दहलतों की हशक्षा की भी पैरवी की। ज्योहतबा ने भारत में Page 207

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

दहलत ाअांदोलनों का सूत्रपात दकया था लेदकन ाआसे समाज की मुख्यधारा से जोड़ने का काम बाबा साहब डॉ.भीमराव ाऄम्बेडकर ने दकया। एक बात और हजसका हजक्र दकए हबना दहलत ाअांदोलन की बात बेमानी होगी वो है बौद्ध धमभ। ाइसा पूवभ 600 ाइ. में ही बौद्घ धमभ ने ही सवभप्रथम समाज के हनचले तबकों के ाऄहधकारों के हलए ाअवाज़ ाईठााइ। बुद्ध ने ाआसके साथ ही बौद्ध धमभ के जररए एक सामाहजक और राजनीहतक क्राांहत लाने की भी पहल की हजसके पररणामस्वरूप दहलत-चेतना का जागरण हुाअ | पर हवडांबना ये है की ाआतने वषों के बीतने के बाद भी दहलत-वगभ की सामाहजक हस्थहत में कोाइ खास पररवतभन नही ददखता | और दहलत-स्त्री तो ाऄब भी वही ाँ है जहाां दशकों पूवभ थी, ाऄके ली, ाऄहधकारहवहीन और पुरुष-धन बनकर | लेदकन ाऄब समय ाअ गया है की दहलत महहलाऒं को ाआन सभी क्षेत्रों में ाऄपना स्थान हनधाभररत करना चाहहए | घर का काम और रसोाइ घर की चाकरी भी जब सामाहजक ाईत्पादन का एक हहस्सा बनेंगे तभी हस्त्रयों की नौकरी-चाकरी का मूल्य होगा और जब तक ऐसा नहीं होगा, स्त्री रसोाइ घर की बााँदी ही रहेगी। चूाँदक हस्त्रयााँ सांतानोत्पहत्त द्वारा सामाहजक ाईत्पादन में भागीदारी कर रही हैं, ाआसहलए ाआस कायभ को समाज के ाईत्पादक श्रम के एक भाग के रूप में मान्यता हमलनी चाहहए | दहलत महहलाऒं को ाआन क्षेत्रों में ाईपहस्थत ाऄसमानता, जलगभेद ( यह यौन –भेद से ाऄलग शब्द है, जहााँ यौनभेद ‘प्रहणवैज्ञाहनकता‘ को प्रदर्चशत करता है वहीं जलगभेद ‘साांस्कृ हतक गुणात्मकता’

को | पुरुषों की

वचभहस्वता ाआसी जलगभेद पर ाअधाररत है ), ाऄवस्त्रीपरकता (यह नारी घृणा के व्यवहथत व्यवहारों को, नारी के सांस्थानीकृ त–ाऄधीनीकरण को, सभी प्रकार के नारी हवरोधी व्यवहारों को ाईद्घारटत करने वाला है ), और हपतृ-सत्तात्मकता (पुरुषों को ाऄहधमानता देने वाली साांस्कृ हतक व्यवस्था और पुरुषों के हाथो ताकत सौपने वाली राजनैहतक व्यवस्था को ाईजागर करती है ) का कड़ा हवरोध करना चाहहए परां तु ाआसके हलए ाईन्हे तार्ककक जचतन करना होगा | ाआस समस्या के मूल में जाकर ही ाआसका समाधान ढू ढ़ना होगा | और यह ाऄब तभी होगा जब वे ाअर्चथक रूप से सुदढ़ृ व ाअत्महनभभर हों | ज्यों –ज्यों वे ‘सेल्फाआम्पावर‘ (ाअत्मशहक्त-समपन्न) होती जाएांगी, वैस–े वैसे पुरुष-वगभ का ‘डॉहमनेसन’ ाऄथाभत ‘सामन्तवादी मानहसकता’ का दवाब कम होता जाएगा | ाआस स्त्रीवादी ाअांदोलन मे दहलत महहलाऒं को ाइरान की मानवाहधकार महहला कायभकताभ ‘नसरीन सौतदेव’ का मागभ ाऄपनाना चाहहए| “नारी शरीर के चांद वस्त्रों को जला डालने से नारी मुहक्त नहीं हो जाया करती, मुहक्त मन की

होती है। स्त्री को शव बनने से बचाने के हलए वैचाररक ाअन्दोलन की ाअवश्यकता है। ाईसे यह ख्याल रखना होगा दक ाईसकी लड़ााइ दकसी व्यहक्त हवशेष या वगभ हवशेष से नहीं है, थोपी गाइ, ाऄप्रासांहगक, ाऄप्राकृ हतक एवां ाऄवमूहल्यत हो चुकी ऐसी जड़ प्रथाओं से है जो नारी-ाऄहस्मता के साथ क्रूर मजाक करती ाअयी हैं। ाआस प्रकार के नारी-जागरण एवां नारी-मुहक्त के मागभ से स्वयां नाररयााँ भी बाधक बन सकती हैं ाऄथवा बनी हुाइ हैं। ाऄताः वैसी नाररयों की मनोवृहत्त को पररष्कृ त कर ाईनमें वैचाररक एवां ाईद्देश्यपूणभ ाईध्वभमुखी क्राांहतकारी चेतना भरने की ाअवश्यकता है”। स्त्रीवादी ाअन्दोलन का ाईद्देश्य स्त्री को

www.dalitsahitya.com

Page 208


Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

कमजोर बनाने वाले हरे क जीवाणु से लड़ने के हलए होना चाहहए, चाहे वह जीवाणु पुरुष प्रकृ हत की देन हो या स्त्री प्रकृ हत की। प्रहसद्ध नारीवादी लेहखका जमेन ग्रीयर हलखती हैं – “क्राांहत के हलए जरूरी है दक हस्त्रयााँ पूाँजीवादी राज्य में ाईपभोक्तावादी बनने से ाआांकार कर दें। ऐसा करके ही वह सांबद्ध ाईधोगों को करारा झटका दे सकती हैं।'' स्त्रीवादी ाअन्दोलन के ाईद्देश्य को ाऄहभव्यक्त करती हुाइ वी. वीरलक्ष्मी देवी कहती हैं – “पुरुषोहचत हवचार पद्धहत द्वारा जड़ीभूत चेतना पर ाअघात करना ही ाआसका मुख्य ाईद्देश्य है

|” वास्तव में स्त्री लेखन में हनम्न पॉच बातें प्रमुखता से ाअती हैं:- १- हस्त्रयों की पीड़ायें, २- हस्त्रयों की महत्वकाांक्षाएां, ३- पररवार तथा समाज का सांघषभ, ४- भहक्त रचनायें और ५- स्त्रीवादी रचनायें । दहलत लेखन की ाअवश्यकता ाआसहलए भी महसूस हुाइ, क्योंकक सामान्य लेखन ने दहलत लेखन की पूरीपूरी ाईपेक्षा की । ाईसी प्रकार दहलत स्त्री लेखन की भी ाईत्पहत्त होनी ाअवश्यक थी क्योंदक सामान्य स्त्री लेखन में दहलत स्त्री का हहत हवलोहपत था । सामान्य तौर पर ऐसा माना जाता है दक दहलत स्त्री-लेखन (हवमशभ भी) चौतरफा सांघषभ करता है – सवणभ-समाज, पररवार, दहलत पुरूष एवां सामान्य स्त्री हवमशभ ाअदद | लेहखका मृदल ु ा गगभ का कहना है- “स्त्री ाअन्दोलन धनी महहलाओं का कोरा वाहग्वलास और न्यूज

में बने रहने की ाईनकी साहजश नहीं है। ग्रासरूट स्तर तक ाआसका हवस्तार है”। दहलत महहला वगभ की एक दूसरी प्रमुख समस्या ‘दैहहक और लैंहगक शोषण’ की है जो ‘स्व-वगभ’ में भी है और ‘सवणीय-वगभ’ की तरफ से भी है ाऄथाभत ‘दोतरफ़ा शोषण’ | “ज़रूरत ाआस बात की है दक

यथाहस्थहत से जूझने वाला हर व्यहक्त ाअगे ाअये और ाआस बात पर हवचार करे दक दहलत स्त्री समाज की पदसोपानीय व्यवस्था में सबसे नीचे रही है। वह हतहरा शोषण झेलती रही है- 1.एक दहलत होने के नाते, 2.एक स्त्री होने के नाते और 3.एक मजदूर होने के नाते | दहलत नारी जाहत, वगभ और हपतृसत्ता, तीनों द्वारा शोषण का हशकार होती है | ाईसे औरत होने के कारण पुरुष शोहषत करता है तो गरीब मजदूर होने के कारण साहूकार, भूस्वामी, तथा एक दहलत होने के कारण ाईसे पग-पग पर सवणों द्वारा ाऄपमाहनत होना पड़ता है | “तत्काल समाधान हेतु ाआस देश में यदद ाअज सबसे बड़ी कोाइ समस्या है तो वो है, देश के पच्चीस फीसदी दहलतों और ाअददवाहसयों और ाऄड़तालीस फीसदी महहला ाअबादी को वास्तव में सम्मान, सांवैधाहनक समानता, सुरक्षा और हर क्षेत्र में पारदशी न्याय प्रदान करना और यदद सबसे बड़ा कोाइ ाऄपराध है तो वो दहलतों-ाअददवाहसयों और हस्त्रयों को धमभ के नाम पर हर ददन ाऄपमाहनत, शोहषत और ाईत्पीहड़त दकया जाना। यही नहीं ाआस देश में ाअज की तारीख में यदद सबसे सबसे बड़ी सजा का हकदार कोाइ ाऄपराधी हैं तो वे सभी हैं, जो दहलतों, ाअददवाहसयों और हस्त्रयों के साथ खुलेाअम भेदभाव, ाऄन्याय, शोषण, ाईत्पीड़न कर रहे हैं और हजन्हें धमभ और सांस्कृ हत के नाम पर जो लोग और सांगठन लगातार सहयोग प्रदान करते रहते हैं”। लेदकन ाआसके हलए दहलत स्त्रीत्ववादी लेखकों/लेहखकाओं का ‘साहहत्य-सृजन’, ‘मनुस्मृहत’ के हन्रत न होकर ‘शूर व रवीण साहहत्य’ के हन्रत होना चाहहए | जाहत सहहत हलग-ाऄसमानता भी एक ‘फू डल’ (सामांतवादी) सांरचना है | पाररवाररक

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मूल्यों को चुनौती देकर एवां जलग सम्बन्धी प्राकृ हतक देन एवां स्थाहपत बुहनयादी मान्यताओं के हखलाफ़ प्रहतदक्रयात्मक हवष-वमन कर क्राांहतकारी नहीं हुाअ जा सकता है। समाज में ऐसी ाऄनेक समस्याएाँ हैं हजनके ाईन्मूलन के हलए साथभक एवां न्याय-सांगत लड़ााइ लड़ने की ाअवश्यकता है पर ये सारी लड़ााआयााँ समाज की साथभक परम्पराओं के हवरुद्ध नहीं बहल्क हनरथभक परम्पराओं के हवरुद्ध होनी चाहहए। नारीवाद राजनैहतक ाअांदोलन का एक सामाहजक हसद्धाांत है जो हस्त्रयों के ाऄनुभवों से जहनत है। हालाांदक मूल रूप से यह सामाहजक सांबांधो से ाऄनुप्रेररत है लेदकन काइ स्त्रीवादी हवद्वान ‘लैंहगक

ाऄसमानता’ और ‘औरतों के ाऄहधकार’ ाआत्यादद पर ज्यादा बल देते हैं। नारीवादी हसद्धाांतो का ाईद्देश्य लैंहगक ाऄसमानता की प्रकृ हत एवां कारणों को समझना तथा ाआसके फलस्वरूप पैदा होने वाले लैंहगक भेदभाव की राजनीहत और शहक्त सांतुलन के हसद्धाांतो पर ाआसके ाऄसर की व्याख्या करना है। स्त्री हवमशभ सांबांधी राजनैहतक प्रचारों का जोर प्रजनन सांबांधी ाऄहधकार, घरे लू जहसा, मातृत्व ाऄवकाश, समान वेतन सांबांधी ाऄहधकार, यौन ाईत्पीड़न, भेदभाव एवां यौन जहसा पर रहता है। स्त्रीवादी हवमशभ सांबांधी ाअदशभ का मूल कथ्य यही रहता है दक कानूनी ाऄहधकारों का ाअधार जलग न बने। पहश्चम में नारीवादी ाअांदोलन की एक लांबी पांरपरा रही है, सैकड़ों वषभ की। मताहधकार ाअांदोलन 19 वीं सदी से चला ाअ रहा है। ाअज वहाां ाआतना जो कु छ भी हाहसल दकया गया है, लड़ कर दकया है, समाज लड़ााइ से बदलता है, ाअांदोलन से बदलता है, हसफभ कानून बनाने से नहीं बदलता है समाज। ाआसहलए पहश्चम में स्त्री के ाऄहधकार की चेतना हबल्कु ल नीचे तक ाअ गाइ है। “यदद ाअर्चथक

ाअत्महनभभरता ही स्वाधीनता की कुां जी है तो जब तक स्त्री के पास देह है और सांसार के पास पुरुष, तब तक स्त्री को जचता की क्या जरूरत? जरूरत है तो देह को पुरुष के स्वाहमत्व से मुक्त करके ाऄपने ाऄहधकार में लेने की, क्योंदक यौन शुहचता, पहतव्रत, सतीत्व जैसे मूल्य स्त्री के सम्मान का नहीं पुरुष के ाऄहांकार की दीनता और ाऄसुरक्षा का पैमाना है, हपतृ सत्ता के मूल्य हैं और स्त्री की बेहड़यााँ हैं। हजसने ये बेहड़यााँ ाईतार दी हैं वह स्त्री हवहशष्ट है” । लेखकगण नारी मुहक्त का सम्बन्ध स्त्रीकी देह- स्वतांत्रता से लगा रहे हैं। वे ‘ाअदमी की हनगाह में औरत' नामक ाऄपनी पुस्तक में स्त्री को वेश्यावृहत्त की हद तक छू ट देने के पक्ष में हैं। वे हलखते हैं –“हवडम्बना है दक नारी का ाऄगर स्वतांत्र होना है तो वेश्या बनने के

हसवा कोाइ रास्ता नहीं है, तभी वह जी सके गी। वनाभ ाईसकी लगाम हपता, पहत, पुत्र के ही हाथ में है।'' भारतीय समाज में तो हस्त्रयााँ दहलतों में भी दहलत है, शायद राजेंर यादव द्वारा व्यक्त हवचार ाआसी तथ्य को दशाभते है | स्वतांत्रता के बाद ‘शहशदेशपाांड’े , ‘महाश्वेता देवी’, ‘कमलादेवी’ ाअदद स्त्रीवाददयों ने भारत में ‘महहला ाऄहधकार’ के हलए ाअवाज ाईठााइ पर वास्तहवकता ये है की हपछली सदी के ाऄांहतम दशक तक, लगभग १९९० तक ‘दहलत-महहला हवमशभ’ पर साहहत्य, योजनायें, ाअलोचनायें ना के बराबर है | ाऄांहतम हनष्कषभ‘ब्लैक फे हमहनस्ट रााइटटग’ से ाईत्तेहजत होकर पूवोत्तर राष्ट्रों ने ‘दहमत-शोहषत’ वगों की महहलाओं के ‘सामाहजक-ाअर्चथक व राजनैहतक’ हस्थहतयों व समस्यायों पर जो ाअलोचना शुरू की ाईसका ही एक पररणाम रहा है – “भारतीय स्त्रीत्ववादी हवमशभ |” चूकक सामाहजक पररवतभन के हलए जरूरी है- समाज

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में ाईन शोहषत-दहमत लोगो के बारे में बताना; हजससे ाईनके बारे में भी योजनायें बनायी और ाऄमल में लायी जाये | और ाआसका एक सही और ाईहचत माध्यम है –‘साहहत्य |’ एक स्त्री जो दहलतों में भी दहलत मानी और कही गयी है, जो औरत और दहलत दोनों के ददभ को गहरे तक झेलती है लेदकन दहलत स्त्रीयों का यह दुाःख दहलत बौहद्धक जगत में प्रहवष्ट नही हो पाया है, वहााँ ाऄभी भी ाईनसे जुड़े सवाल और जवाब और ाईनका वजूद ाईपेहक्षत है | दहलत स्त्रीयों की पीड़ा ‘दहलत-ाअत्मकथाओ’ से भी गायब है | यहााँ पुरुषवादी हशकां जा दहलत स्त्रीयों पर वैसे ही कसा है जैसे सवणभ-स्त्रीयों पर | ाआसीहलए समकालीन पररप्रेक्ष्य में ये जरूरी है की वह ‘सेल्फ-एम्पावर’ हों और यह ‘ाअत्म-शहक्त सम्पन्नता’ रूट लेवल तक मजबूत हो | हजसके हलए जरूरी है हशक्षा के साथ-साथ ‘महहला-ाअरक्षण’ का प्रयोग ‘स्कू ल से लेकर पाररवाररक-सम्पहत्त तक’ और ‘ग्राम-पांचायत से लेकर सांसद तक’ हो | हजससे ाईनके हाथों में ाऄहधकार होगा क्योकक ाऄहधकार के ाऄहसास में ही शहक्त की ाईत्पहत्त है और तभी ाईनकी प्रत्येक समस्या का हल हनकला जा सकता है | यह ाअधुहनक ाऄवधारणा है | लेदकन हपछली शताब्दी में ही ‘ाऄक्कमहादेवी’, ‘वसवन्ना’ जैसे ‘समाज-प्रगहतशील क्राांहतकारी हुए हजन्होंने ‘जाती-व्यवस्था’ के हवरुद्ध ाअवाज ाईठााइ और साथ ही दहलत महहलाओं के साथ होने वाले ‘सामाहजक-ाअर्चथक भेदभाव’, जलगभेद, ाऄसमानता के हखलाफ भी लड़े परन्तु वतभमान पररहस्थहतयों में औरत जब तक खुद ‘शहक्त-सम्पन्न’ और ‘सामाहजक-

ाअर्चथक-राजनैहतक क्षेत्रों में हलए जाने वाले हनणभयों में’ एक ‘हनणाभयक’ की भूहमका में नही होगी, तब तक ाईसकी समस्याओं का कोाइ साथभक हल नही हनकला जा सकता | सांदभभ पुस्तकें 1.

जैन‘ ,ाऄरहवन्द ,औरत होने की सजा ,’नयी ददल्ली,प्रकाशन राजकमल , 2008.

2.

प्रसाद‘ ,कमला ,स्त्री,’सपना का मुहक्त- नयी ददल्ली ,प्रकाशन वाणीं ,2010.

3.

गगभ‘ ,मृदल ु ा ,कठगुलाब ,’नयी ददल्ली ,प्रकाशन राजकमल ,2008.

4.

देवी महाश्वेता‘ ,स्त्री पवभ,’ नयी ददल्ली ,प्रकाशन वाणीं ,2011.

5.

ाऄनाहमका,,’लोकपक्ष का हवमशभ स्त्री‘ नयी ददल्ली ,प्रकाशन वाणीं ,2010.

6.

बांदोपाध्याय शेखर‘ ,नेशनल मूवमेंट ,’नयी ददल्ली ,ओ ,पी.यू.2009.

7.

पाांहडयन एम,’ब्राहम्हन नॉन एांड ब्राहम्हन‘ ,.एस.एस.नयी ददल्ली लोंहगमान ओररएांट ,प्रा .

ली,.2007.

पत्र-पहत्रकायें 1. समकालीन भारतीय साहहत्य, ाऄांक 75, पृष्ठ 128. 2. ग्रीयर, जमभन, ाअजकल, माइ 2001. 3. राजेंर यादव, हांस, फरवरी 2000, वक्तव्य. 4. जनसत्ता, 31 माचभ 2013, ददल्ली सांस्करण. 5. वतभमान साहहत्य, जून 2001, ाअदमी की हनगाह में औरत’, ाअलेख, राजेन्र यादव, पृष्ठ 15-16.

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वेबसााआट/ब्लॉग1. http://feminist-poems-articles.blogspot.in/2013/03/blog-post.html 2. http://www.tehelkahindi.com/mulakaat/shakhsiyat/1740.html 3. 4. 5.

http://npobaas.jagranjunction.com//4235123132 http://lekhakmanch.com/tag/ http://www.kcgjournal.org/huminities/issue1/amrut.html

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

Literature Corner Posted from the prison Jai Anbu1 You three, lowborn of my mother, read this and understand. The day I am paroled, I promise that you three will die. Write this down on the front page of Gita, our holy book. Not like Shuhani, our beautiful daughter, who we killed and threw in the green pond for the sake of our family honour. You three, I will slit your throats in your bedrooms, give you a wash and light an incense stick at your forehead, ready to be buried. Remember this, all of you. I will kill the head constable too. The man of our caste. What was it he said before writing the first information report? Oh yes. Why should all four of you go to the jail, just for one murder. You are all brothers, some one take the blame. The others can look after his family. I took the blame, and then you forgot me. I am coming to remind you, and our panjayat will be remembered for many years for what I am going to do. The oldest one, you will be the first to die, for worrying too much for the honour of our family when our lovely daughter fell in love with an untouchable boy. Squatting inside a cell I am writing your judgment, you will be surely dead, for the time when I see you first. Nothing to listen, nothing to ask. The second one. Legally speaking, as Shuhani was your daughter, you should be the one to be in jail, not me. But everyone knows that from the day Shuhani was born I carried her in my hands all the time, and at night she slept on my chest. I can still remember the smell of her forehead. She once told me that she loved me more than you, her dad. It was our little secret. What I can‘t forget is the way she looked at me with her big beautiful eyes when I tied her hands with her shawl. She looked at me with her beautiful eyes, and cried uncle, uncle, leave me uncle, while you stood behind her and stuck the knife into her flank. It‘s that look that really torments me, not being locked behind bars. And then you. The little one. You were born eleven years after me. I looked after you as if you were my son. If I got a banana I cut you a piece of it, a mithai or jelebi I shared that with you. But now I think, you shouldn‘t be alive. You think you are clever. You went to college and got a degree, put it in a frame and hung it in your front room. But your wife from the town has eaten your brain. What does she think? Is she the wife of Tata Birla Ambani? Where does she get 1

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

money for new lehengas and rickshaw rides to Jaunpur when my kids go to school in rags? At the jail, I have learnt my lesson. I eat and drink from the same plate of men from all castes. The harijans doing life in the next cell, last night caught a crow and cooked it for me. They are good guys. They promised to help me, help me take all your lives. But I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;t want you to be touched by those untouchables. You might not go to heaven. I will finish you off all by myself. Until then eat your favorite foods, dress in your best kurtas and live your life. This wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;t last long.

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

पुनाःस्थाहपत मूल मराठी लेहखका– मथु सावांत जहदी ाऄनुवाद- शेख ाऄांसारपाशा1 ाअसरे के हलए कु छ समय तक टीन के पत्रों के शेड खड़े दकए गए थे। औरते सर का ाअाँचल ठीक करती हुाइ चुला फूाँ क रही थी। रोरटयााँ डालने का ‘थपथप’ ाअवाज ाअ रहा था। हजन लोगों को घर नहीं है, ाईन लोगों को मुहखया, तहसीलदार के हाथ से ‘ाअवास योजना’ के तहत घर हमलने वाला था। पुरुष मांडली समूह बनाकर बैठे हुए थे। के रबा पारटल ने ाऄपने जेब में हाथ डाला। मजदूर छाप बीड़ी के कट्टे से धागे में हलपटी हुाइ एक लौती बीड़ी को बाहर हनकाला। के रबा पाटील ने ाअहहस्ते से धागे में हलपटे बीड़ी को ाअजाद दकया और सुलगाया। बीड़ी के दो कश लेकर वह बीड़ी रामराव की ओर बढााइ। एक की ाईां गली से दूसरी की ाईां गली और दूसरी के ाईां गली से तीसरे की ाईां गली में ऐसा बीड़ी का सफर एक हाथ से दूसरे हाथ चल रहा था। धुए के साथ ाअपसी बाते भी माहोल बना रहीं थी। रामराव ने कहा, “के रु पाटील, ाअज से मैं बीड़ी नहीं हपाउांगा।” “ाऄरे ...! ाऄभी तो बीड़ी का कश हलया ना तुमने !” के रबा पाटील ने बड़े ाअश्चयभ से कहा। “ाऄभी हलया तो हलया मगर ाअगे से नहीं लूाँगा, ाअप देख लेना। ाऄरे , मेरा बेटा, पत्नी बीड़ी मत हपयो। तबीयत के हलए ठीक नहीं होती। ऐसा कह-कह कर मर गए बेचारे और मैं जजदा रह गया। ाऄब ाईनके पीछे तो ाईनके ददल जैसा करू, बेचारों को थोड़ी शाांहत तो हमलेंगी।” “ाअपका भी सही है रामराव। ाऄरे , बीड़ी पीना सच में स्वास्थ के हलए हाहनकारक होता है मगर ाअदत बहुत ख़राब चीज है। लेदकन एक बात कहता हूाँ, ाऄगर ाआरादा पक्का हो तो कै सी भी ाअदत छू ट सकती है। सोच रहा हूाँ मैं भी बीड़ी पीना छोड़ ही दू!ाँ नाहक सीना छलनी-छलनी होता है धुए से।” के रबा पारटल हनश्चय के साथ बोले। म्हादबा ने कहा, “सुना है ाअज घर का नांबर बताने वाले हैं।” “हााँ मैंने भी सुना है।”

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मूल मराठी लेहखका– मथु सावांत

जहदी ाऄनुवाद- शेख ाऄांसारपाशा, शोधाथी, महात्मा गाांधी ाअांतरराष्ट्रीय जहदी हवश्वहवद्यालय, वधाभ

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रामराव ाऄपने खांडहर बने हवेली की ओर देखते हुए बोले, “कै सी हवराट हवेली थी मेरी! ाईसकी याद ददल से कै सी हमटेंगी? मर नहीं सकता ाआसहलए जी रहा हूाँ। मेरा बड़ा लड़का गोजवद चला गया। कै सा मोठा-ताजा था वह। मैं रह गया पीछे। ाईस शब्बीर ने खींच हनकाला मुझे पत्थरों के मलबे से। दो ददन बेहोश रहा दफर भी बच ही गया। के रबा पाटील ने गमछे से ाऄपने ाअाँख का कोना पोछा। म्हादबा ने कहा, “हजसकी रोजी खत्म वह चला गया। भगवान के घर से बुलावा ाअए बगैर कोाइ मर नहीं सकता के रबा पाटील।” ाआतने में तहसीलदार की जीप धूल ाईड़ाते हुए ाअ गाइ। गााँव से मुहखया भी ाअ गए। शेड में बैठी औरते ाऄपना चेहरा छु पाते हुाइ एक और खड़ी हो गाइ। पुरुष मांडली ाआकट्ठा हो गए। एक-एक का नाम पुकारा जाने लगा। हपछले एक साल से ठां ड, धूप, हवा और भूकांप के धक्कों के हनयहमत साथ ने कु छ समय तक टीन के छपरों में रहनेवाले गााँववालों को ाअज पक्का घर हमलेगा ाआस एहसास से मन ही मन खुशी महसूस हो रही थी । “के रबा ाआरबा पाटील, घर सांख्या एक” तहसीलदार के यह शब्द सुनकर के रबा पाटील के ाईदास ाअाँखों में चमक पैदा हुाइ। “रामराव गणपतराव काले, घर क्रमाांक दो” यह सुनकर रामराव ने के रबा पाटील के हाथ में हाथ ददया। दोनों को घर करीब-करीब हमला था ाआससे दोनों को बहुत खुशी महसूस हुाइ। ाऄब तीसरा घर म्हादबा का होगा ऐसी सब को ाअशा थी लेदकन तहसीलदार ने नाम हलया, “शेख शब्बीर मेहमूद खााँ, घर सांख्या तीन” यह सुनकर म्हादबा हनराश हो गया लेदकन शब्बीर चाबी खत्म हुए हखलौने की तरह हनरुत्साहहत सामने ाअया। ाईसने घर की चाबी हाथों में ली और धीरे धीरे घर ाअवाांटन का समारोह खत्म हो गया। एक-एक कदम बढ़ाकर शब्बीर ाऄपने मकान के पास ाअ गया। ाईसे नए मकान में कदम रखना मालूम नहीं हो रहा था। दफर भी वह मकान में चला गया। जमीन पर ही ाईसने ाऄपना शरीर डाल ददया। सीमेंट कॉदक्रट के नए मकान के छत की ओर देखते हुए सोचने लगा। यहााँ ाअस-पड़ोस में सभी जहदू हैं और मैं ाऄके ला। गााँव में मुसलमानों के दो ही मकान थे। ाईनमें से सभी भूकांप में मर गए। मैं ाऄके ला बच गया। घर बााँटते समय का म्हादबा का ाईदास चेहरा ाईसके नजरों से नहीं जा रहा था। म्हादबा को रामराव के करीब घर चाहहए था। वह मुझे हमल गया। ाआसहलए वह दुखी हो गया। ाईसको मेरा पड़ोस नहीं चाहहए। ाऄब मैं तो भी क्या करूांगा? शब्बीर म्हादबा के बताभव से बहुत दुखी हो गया था। वह ाऄस्वस्थ था, परे शान था। ाईसे लगा, दकतनी भी बड़ी ाअपत्ती ाअ जाए लेदकन ाअदमी के मन से जाहत क्यों नहीं चली जाती? भूकांप में मरने वाले जहदू औए मुसलमानों के खून का रां ग क्या ाऄलग था? मैंने मेरे मकान के छत के बाांबू हनकालकर मरनेवालों की चीता जलााइ। ाईसके बदले मुझे ाआस जाहतयता की चीता जलाना ाअया होता तो...? दकतना ाऄच्छा होता। ाआसी क्षण एक

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बहुत बड़ा भूकांप ाअना चाहहए और ाईसमें जीहवत बचनेवालों को ाऄपनी जाहत बतानी नहीं ाअनी चाहहए। जाहत धमभ न होनेवाले नए गााँव की रचना होनी चाहहए। क्यों...? क्यों ाअदमी ाऄपने जाहत को ाआतना हचपका हुाअ है? शब्बीर दुखी हो गया था। वह गुस्से से ाईठ खड़ा हुाअ और पास के पुराने ाआमहल के पेड़ तले जा बैठा। ाअज ाईसे बहुत ाऄके ला-ाऄके ला महसूस हो रहा था। भूकांप में मरनेवाले ाऄपने पररवार की याद ाईसे सता रही थी। ाईसका ददल भूतकाल की घटनाओं से त्रस्त हो ाईठा। 30 हसतांबर 1993 की वह काली रात। भीषण भूकांप। ाआस प्रलयकारी भूकांप ने सबकु छ नेस्तानाबूत कर ददया, तबाह कर ददया था। बड़े-बड़े कोठी, हवेली वाले भी रास्तों पर ाअ गए थे। सभी ओर चीखें..., ाअक्रोश..., कोलाहल...,तलाश..., कराहना..., तड़पना...। दकसी की मााँ मर गाइ, दकसी का बाप मर गया, दकसी की बहन, तो दकसी की पत्नी, दकसी का मन्नतों-मुरादों से हुाअ बच्चा….. सभी ओर त्राही-त्राही मच गाइ थी। हजस प्रकार खहलयान में भुट्टों का ढेर हबछा रहता है ठीक ाईसी प्रकार सभी ओर लाशों के ढेर हबछे हुए थे। ाआनमें जो बचे हुए थे वह ाऄपने ररश्तेदारों को ढू ांढ -ढू ांढ कर हनकाल रहे थे। ाईनके हचताओं को जला रहे थे। शब्बीर ने देखा ाईसका घर ढ़ह गया था। कु छ क्षणों के हलए ाईसके होश ाईड गए थे। दफर तुरांत होश में ाअ गया और खुद को सांभाल हलया। क्या करना है यह ाईसको समझ नहीं ाअ रहा था। प्रचांड कोलाहल वह ददभ भरा कराहना....दफर भी ाईसने ाऄपने ाअप को सांभाल हलया। हमट्टी और पत्थरों के मलबे में शब्बीर ढू ांढ रहा था। ाऄपनी प्यारी शबाना को। शबाना कहीं ददख नहीं रही थी। बहुत बड़ा पत्थर ाऄलग करते ही ाईसके मुह से दयनीय चीख बाहर ाअाइ। ‘ाऄब्बाजान’ लेदकन दूसरे ही क्षण में ाईसे समझा की ाऄब सबकु छ खत्म। ाईसके हाथ पााँव की ताकद खत्म हो गाइ थी। दुख के कारण ाईसका गला सुख पड़ा था लेदकन पानी हमलेंगा कहााँ? और कौन देगा? दकसको समय था जीहवत मनुष्य की ओर ध्यान देने के हलए। ाऄलीबाबा की गुफा से हीरे जवाहारात का खजाना ढु ढ़ने की तरह हर कोाइ मलबे के नीचे से ाऄपने खून के ररश्तों के मृत शरीर धुांड रहा था। ाआतने में दकसी ने मलबे के नीचे से झरीना को बाहर हनकाला। झरीना के करीब ही पानी पीने का लोटा चूर-चूर होकर पड़ा हुाअ था। शब्बीर देखता रह गया। बाहर से ाअते ही झरीना मुस्कु राते हुए ठां डा पानी का लोटा बड़ाती। नटखट शबाना की पूरे ददन की बाल क्रीड़ायें बताती। शब्बीर को सबकु छ ाऄभी हुाअ है ऐसा प्रतीत हो रहा था। गोदाम से ाऄनाज के थैले खींचकर हनकालते हैं ठीक ाईसी प्रकार से शब्बीर के घर के ग्यारह लोग मलबे से हनकालकर लााआन से रख ददये थे। शून्य नजरों से शब्बीर एक–एक मृत शरीर की ओर बारीबारी से देख रहा था। ाईसका जी भर ाअया और ज़ोर से चीखते हुए रोने लगा, “या ाऄल्ला, तूने मुझे ाऄके ले क्यों बचाया?” यह हादसा मुझसे बदाभशत नहीं होता। क्या हबगाड़ा था मैंने तुम्हारा? मेरी गुलाब जैसी शबाना ने कौनसा गुनाह दकया था? हाय मैं लूट गया...बबाभद हो गया।” शब्बीर ाऄपने दोनों हाथों से सीना पीठते हुए रो रहा था।

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

जनसांचार माध्यमों ने भूकांप का समाचार दुहनया के कौने-कौने में पहुांचाया था। देशबांधु, समाजसेवी सांघटना के समाज सेवक घटना स्थान पर पहुाँच रहे थे। शब्बीर ने गााँववालों की मदद से ाऄपने पररवार के ग्यारह लोगों को दफनाया था। दुख से ाईसका हृदय जम गया था। भावनाएाँ जम गाइ थी। वह चेतनाशून्य हो गया था। सभी ओर लाशों के ढेर..., खून ही खून..., धूल-हमट्टी, पत्थरों का ढेर, ममता का ाअक्रोश और बाद में चीखती हुाइ खामोशी। हचताओं को जलाया जा रहा था। हचताएाँ जलाने के हलए लकहड़यााँ कम पड रहीं थी। एक-एक की चीता जलाना भी करठन हो रहा था। हर दकसी के मकान के सामने चीता जल रही थी। चीता पर नया कफन डालेगा तो कौन? औरते ाऄपने जमीनदोस्त मकान से हमलेंगे वह पुराने कपड़े ला रहीं थी। शादी में समदन के सामने घड़ी डालके रखते हैं ठीक वैसे ही लााआन से रखे हुए मृत शरीर पर कपड़े डाल रहे थे। वही कफन जो नाइ दुल्हन ने शाददयों में शालू , पैठनी ाऄपना शौक पूरा करने के हलए हलया था लेदकन ाअज वह मृतों के ाउपर कफन बोलकर डाला जा रहा था। हृदय चीर देनेवाले वह सभी हचत्र। शब्बीर ाईठ खड़ा हुाअ। ाईसने ाऄपने मकान के बाांब,ू लकहड़यााँ हनकाली और लााआन से रखे हुए मृतों को हचताग्नी दी। चीता की लपटें ाअसमान को छू रही थी। जाहत का, कु ल का बांधन कब का तूट चुका था। ाऄपना दुख पीकर शब्बीर सभी के मदद के हलए जा रहा था। पड़ोस के गया काकु को धीरज बांधा रहा था, “चाची, ाऄरी ओ चाची, रो मत तेरा गोजवद है, चाची, तेरा गोहवद मरा नहीं...मैं तेरा गोजवद ही हूाँ चाची...।” गया काकु ने शब्बीर को प्यार से ाऄपने हनकट हलया और वह “गोजवदा रे ...” कहकर रोने लगी। तब शब्बीर तूफान में फां से हुए के ले की पेड़ की तरह गदगद हो ाईठा। छोटे बच्चे की तरह रोने लगा। सप्रयास ाईसने ाऄपने-ाअप को गया काकु के बांधन से मुक्त कराया और दकसी ओर की मदत के हलए चला गया। प्रकृ हत ने भयावह रूप धारण दकया हुाअ था। भूकांप होकर दो ददन बीत गए थे। मदद कायभ जोरों से शुरू था और ाऄचानक वातावरण में तब्दीली हुाइ। हबजली के ाअवाज के साथ जोरदार बरसात शुरू हुाइ। हवा ने भी ताांडव नृत्य शुरू दकया। चीता ाअधी जल रही थी तो ाअधी बुझ रही थी। ाऄनेक मृत शरीर बरसात के कारण फू ल गए थे, सड गए थे। ाईनकी बदबू ने माहोल को और भी भयावह बना ददया था। मदद कायभ करनेवाले और प्रेत ले जानेवाले सभी ने ाऄपने नाकों को रुमाल से बाांध ददया था। ाऄनेक स्वयां सेवी सांघटनाएाँ ज़ोरों से कायभ कर रही थी। ाआन सभी मानवता के सैलाब में स्वाथी लोग भी घूस गए थे जो ाऄपना हहत साधने वहााँ ाअए हुए थे। हजस मृत शरीर पर ज्यादा गहने हैं, ाईसको ाऄपने कब्जे में लेकर गहने लूट रहे थे। एक ओर ाआांसानों में का खुदा और दूसरी तरफ ाअदहमयों में का हैवान ऐसे दो रूप शब्बीर खामोशी के साथ ाऄपनी ाअखों से देख रहा था।

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

दो ददन से शब्बीर के पेट में ाऄनाज का एक दाना भी नहीं था। भूख के कारण ाईसे कु छ सूझ नहीं रहा था। मरे हुए जानवर हखचते हैं वैसे मृत शरीर खींच-खींच कर वह थक गया था। वह कु छ दूरी पर जाकर पावभाजी ले ाअया। ाईसने नादीदे की तरह पहला हनवाला तोड़ा। दफर ाईसके कानों पर ाअवाज सुनााइ दी, “दादी, ओ दादी, मुझे भूख लगी है। कु छ तो खाने के हलए दीहजए।” सोना दादी ाऄपने तीन साल के पोते को गोद में लेकर लड़के के चीता के पास रोते बैठी थी। शब्बीर ने यह दृश्य देखा। पावभाजी की प्लेट ाईसने ाईस बच्चे को दे दी। पांचपकवान हमलने की खुशी की तरह वह छोटा बच्चा ाईस पाव भाजी पर टूट पड़ा। सोना दादी ने भी पोते के हाथों में के पावभाजी का एक टुकड़ा ाऄपने सूखे गले में घुसेड़ ददया। ाऄपने पोते की ओर देखकर ाईसकी जीने की ाईम्मीद बरकरार थी। शब्बीर दकसी बच्चे को खामोश कर रहा था तो दकसी को खाने के हलए ला रहा था। दकसी को पानी दे रहा था तो दकसी को ददलासा दे रहा था। ाईसका दुख ाईससे कोाइ भी पूछ नहीं रहा था, वह ाऄपना पहाड जैसा दुख दकसको कहनेवाला था? ाआमली का पुराना पेड़ ाऄचानक हहलने लगा। शब्बीर घबरा गया। वह ाईठ खड़ा हुाअ। कहााँ कु छ...। ाईसको पेड़ हहलने का भ्रम हो गया था। शब्बीर ने हनश्चय दकया, “ नहीं, ाऄब यहााँ नहीं रहना है। मैं लातूर चला जााउांगा। हमलेगा वह काम कर पेट भरूाँगा। ाऄब यहााँ ाऄपना कोाइ भी नहीं है। गााँव में हर दकसी के ररश्तेदार हैं मगर मैं ाऄके ला हूाँ। ाऄपना यह मकान दे दूग ां ा म्हादबा को। ाईसको भी वही चाहहए था। नहीं तो वैसे भी मैं ाऄपना ाऄके ला ही भला। दकसहलए चाहहए मुझे मकान? ाआन दुखद यादों से कहीं दूर जाना है मुझे। दूर.....बहुत दूर।” म्हादबा को शब्बीर के हनकट ही मकान हमला था। म्हादबा के मकान में झााँकते हुए शब्बीर ने कहा, “म्हादबा दादा, बाहर ाअाआए ....।” “क्या रे शब्बीर ? “दादा मैं लातूर जा रहा हूाँ। मुझे यह मकान नहीं चाहहए, गााँव नहीं चाहहए। मेरा मकान ाअप लीहजए। वहीं रहहए। ाअपको, ाअपके ररश्तेदार का पड़ोस हमलेगा।” “ाअां...! क्या बोल रहा है तू यह? नहीं चाहहए मुझे तुम्हारा मकान। मैं यहीं सुखी हूाँ और हााँ तुम ऐसा क्यों सोच रहे हों? रुको जरा... मैं गया भाभी को बुलाता हूाँ... “गया भाभी देहखए शब्बीर क्या कहता है?” म्हादबा ने कहा। गया भाभी ाऄपने मकान से जल्दी बाहर ाअाइ। शब्बीर ने गया भाभी को झुककर ाअदाब करते हुए कहा, “चाची, ाअशीवाभद लेने ाअया हूाँ। मैं लातूर जा रहा हूाँ।” “जीते रहो बेटा” गया भाभी ने शब्बीर को ददल से ाअशीवाभद ददया। शब्बीर ने शाांत स्वर में कहा,

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

“चाची, तेरी बहुत याद ाअएगी। तू मेरी मााँ है चाची, मााँ...।” “हााँ बेटा, मैं तुम्हारी मााँ ही हूाँ लेदकन तुम कहा जा रहे हो ऐसा ाअचानक।” गया भाभी को म्हादबा ने कहा, “यह शब्बीर हमे ाऄके ला छोड़कर हमेशा के हलए जा रहा है। ाऄब ाअप ही समझााआए ाईसे।” यह सुनते ही गया भाभी ने ाअश्चयभ से कहा, “ाऄरे वारे वा मेरे बेटे! बहुर होहशयार हो गए हो ? हमें ाऄके ला छोड़ कर जा रहे हो। मैं तुम्हारी मााँ हूाँ की नहीं? हूाँ की नहीं...? बोलो ना...? हूाँ ना। दफर मााँ को यूां ाऄके ला छोड़कर जाना चाहहए क्या? ाऄरे तुम मेरे गोजवदा की तरह हो बेटा। कै सी जाहत-पाहत और कै सा खून का ररश्ता? मााँ के हलए सब बराबर होते हैं बेटा।” तुम मुहस्लम हो ाआसहलए तुम्हारे खून का रां ग हरा नहीं है और हम हहन्दू हैं ाआसहलए हमारे खून का रां ग भगवा नहीं है। हम सब एक ही भगवान की सांतान हैं, बेटा! पुन:स्थापना में गााँव बनते हैं। गााँव में ाअदमी होते हैं। शब्बीर घूम जाओ वापस। ाऄब यहााँ से कहीं जाने का नाम मत लो, तुम्हें तुम्हारी मााँ की कसम है। ऐसे सांकट के समय में तो ाआांसान की ाआांसाहनयत ददखती है बेटा। ाऄब हम सब हमलकर यहााँ ाआांसाहनयत को पुनाःस्थाहपत करें गे, यहााँ... ाआसी गााँव में।” शब्बीर का हाथ पकड़कर गया भाभी मकान की ओर जा रही थी। जैसे गाय ाऄपने बछड़े के साथ जा रही हो। म्हादबा, के रबा पाटील गमछे से ाऄपनी ाअाँख पोंछ रहे थे। सूयभ पहश्चम की ओर झुक गया था। ाईस रोशनी में शब्बीर के चेहरे पर हस्मथ हास्य ददखााइ दे रहा था।

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

हशखर हवजेंर प्रताप जसह1 हशखा का हांसता खेलता सांसार जहाां ाईसके पररवारजनों के हलए गौरव का हवषय था वहीं पासपड़ोस के हलए चचाभ एवां जलन का कारण था। ाअज के ाआस युग में भी भला कोाइ तनाव रहहत रह सकता है यही सोच-सोच कर पड़ोसी पररवारों की महहलाएां परे शान रहा करती थीं। ाइश्वर ने हजतना सुांदरता प्रदान की थी ाईससे भी ाऄच्छा था ाईसका स्वभाव और व्यवहार। प्रथम दृहष्ट में ही रूपवती होने के कारण लोगों के ाअकषभण का कें र बन जाती वहीं मधुर और ाऄपनत्वपूणभ व्यवहार के कारण वह प्रथम भेंट में ही लोगों के ह्रदय में घर कर जाती। ाईच्च हशहक्षत एवां सम्पन्न होने के बावजूद ाईसमें ाऄहांकार नाम मात्र को भी नहीं था। पहत शेखर भी ाईच्च हशहक्षत राज्य सरकार का प्रथम श्रेणी ाऄहधकारी एवां एक बहुत ही ाअकषभक व्यहक्तव का स्वामी था। ाईत्तम श्रेणी की कायभ क्षमता तथा सद्व्यवहार के वह भी ाऄपने हवभाग में चचाभ का कें र बना रहता था। कोाइ कहता-‘लगता नहीं है ररजवभ क्लास वाला है। तो कोाइ कहता एस.सी.भी बदल रहे हैं, दकसी भी दृहष्ट से लगता नहीं है दक यह एस.सी. हो सकता है। ऑदफस तो ऑदफस घर पररवार से भी दकसी ाईच्च वगभ से कम नहीं लगता बहल्क पहत्न, बच्चों तथा रहन सहन को देखकर भी नहीं ाऄांदाजा लगा सकता दक ये लोग भी ाआस तरह की जीवन शैली वाले हो सकते हैं। ाआसी प्रकार के न जाने दकतने वाक्य शेखर के बारे में सहकर्चमयों, ाऄहधकाररयों तथा व्यवहृतजनों द्वारा कहे जाते। बहुत सुचारू एवां सुव्यवहस्थत जीवन चल रहा था। दोनों को लोग क्या कहते हैं ाआससे कोाइ सरोकार था ही नहीं। वस्तुत: चूांदक दोनों हशहक्षत पररवार से थे और दोनों को लालन-पालन तथा पठनपाठन कॉस्मोपोलेटन सोसायटी में हुाअ था ाआसहलए जाहतवाद, ाउांच-नीच ाअदद का वातावरण दोनों ने ही कभी देखा नहीं था। ाईन्होंने तो बस ाऄपने काम से काम तथा गुणवत्तापूणभ जीवन जीना ाऄपने-ाऄपने पररवारों से सीखा था और ाईसी के ाऄनुरूप जी रहे थे। कें र सरकार के कायाभलयों और राज्य सरकार के कायाभलयों की न हसफभ कायभशैली में ाऄांतर होता है बहल्क साथी कर्चमयों की सोच में भी पयाभप्त ाऄांतर होता है। जहाां ाऄलग-ाऄलग जगहों, समुदायों से एकत्र हुए कें र सरकार के ाऄहधकारी एवां कमभचारी ाअपस में हमलते-हमलाते हुए ाऄपने-ाऄपने कायभ हनष्पादन पर ध्यान कें दरत रखते हैं वहीं ाऄहधकाांश राज्य सरकारों के ाऄहधकाररयों तथा कर्चमयों की कायभशैली के प्राांरभ में ही जाहतवाद ददखााइ देता है। यहाां तो सब कु छ जाहत से शुरू होता है और जाहत पर ही खत्म होता है। कारण बहुत से होते हैं परां तु सत्य यही है दक जाहतवाद हाबी रहता है। शेखर ाआस बात को काइ बार महसूस करता था परांतु यह सोच कर नज़राऄांदाज कर जाता दक ाईससे क्या करना है ाआन लोगों से ाईसे तो ाऄपना काम करना है और वह ाईसे

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हवजेंर प्रताप जसह

सहायक प्रोफे सर (जहदी), न्यू कालोनी दमदपुरा, हसकन्दरा रााउ रे लवे स्टेशन के पास, पो- हसकन्दरा रााउ, हजला - हाथरस हपन- 204215 Page 221

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ाऄच्छी तरह से कर रहा है। समग्र रूप से ये कहहए दक हशखा और शेखर का जीवन बहुत ाऄच्छा चल रहा था। पुरानी कहावत है दक वक्त और हालात कब बदल जाएां कोाइ नहीं जानता। हशखा पर भी बज्रपात ही हुाअ जब एक ददन ाऄचानक जब ाईसे शेखर की कार से दुघभटना का समाचार मोबााआल पर दकसी ाऄज्ञात व्यहक्त द्वारा प्राप्त हुाअ। यह सुन ाईसके तो पैरों तले से जमीन ही हखसक गाइ। वह बदहवास ाऄवस्था में जब नर्नसग होम पहुांची तो डॉक्टर ने ाईससे माफी माांगते हुए कहा दक ाऄहधक रक्तस्रााव हो जाने के कारण वे बहुत प्रयत्न के बावजूद ाईसके पहत शेखर को नहीं बचा सके । ये ददन था, जहाां से हशखा और ाईसके दोनों बच्चों सौम्या एवां शांतनु के हांसते खेलते जीवन में दुखों का ाऄनवतर हसलहसला शुरू हुाअ, हजसका ाऄांत हशखा की जीवन लीला समाप्त होने के ददन ही खत्म हुाअ। लेदकन हशखा ाऄपनी ाआज्ज़त ाअबरू बचाने में ाऄांतत: सफल हुाइ भले ही ाईसे ाऄपने दोनों मासूम बच्चों को ाआस सांसार में ाऄपने पररवारजनों के पास छोड़कर ाआस सांसार को ाऄलहवदा कहना पड़ा। ाऄपने ाआस ाऄदम्य साहस और बहलदान के कारण न हसफभ सम्पूणभ नारी जाहत बहल्क ाऄनुसूहचत जाहत की महहलाओं की दृहष्ट में सचमुच ाऄपने नाम ‘हशखा’ को चररताथभ करते हुए चोरट पर जा बैठी। ाईसे ाऄत्याचारी का ाऄांतकर महहलाओं में साहस की ाऄदम्य ज्योहत प्रज्जवहलत की, हजससे प्रेरणा ले नारी चाहे दकसी भी वगभ की हो, ाऄपनी रक्षा करने की ददशा में स्वयां ही पहले कर सके , वह दकसी पुरूष हवशेष पर ाअहश्रत न रहे। हुाअ कु छ यों दक शेखर के ददवांगत होने के बाद पररवारजनों के परामशभ एवां बच्चों का ख्याल रखते हुए हशखा ने ाऄपने पहत के हवभाग में ाऄनुकांपा हनयुहक्त के हलए ाअवेदन पत्र ददया। ाअवेदन पत्र ददए जाने के ददन से हसलहसला शुरू हुाअ ाऄनवरत चक्करों का। जीवन में पहली बार ाईसने जाना दक पहत के जाने के बाद दकस तरह ाईसके ाऄधीनस्थों का व्यवहार ाअहश्रतों के प्रहत बदल जाता है। हर तरफ यौवन को हबस का हशकार बनाने के हलए घूरती नजरें । हजसे देखो वही ाऄपनी रोटी सेकने के फे र में ददखााइ ददया। झूठी साांत्वना के पीछे यौवन प्राप्त करने की ललक हशखा भली भाांहत समझती थी परांतु हसफभ मन मसोस कर रह जाती। ाऄांदर ही ाऄांदर घुटन महसूस करती और सब कु छ छोड़ कहीं और जजदगी शुरू करने की सोचती परां तु बच्चों का ख्याल ाअते ही पुन: जुट जाती नौकरी प्राप्त करने की कोहशश में। छोटे-छोटे कामों के हलए हसफभ ाआसहलए दौड़ाया जाता तादक वह ाअकर लोगों के पास हमले और ाईन्हें ाईसके रूप सौंदयभ का बखान एवां चक्षुाअश्वादन का ाऄवसर प्राप्त हो सके । हजसका ाईसकी नौकरी से कोाइ सांबांध भी नहीं होता, वह भी झूठी साांत्वना ददखाकर ाईसके ाअस-पास मांडराने का ाऄवसर ढू ांढ ही लेता। कायाभलयीन दस्तावेजों की खानापूर्चत में महीनों गुजर गए। दफर दकसी तरह हनयुहक्त हेतु परीक्षा का ददन ाअया। हशहक्षत और होहशयार तो वह थी ही, ाऄत: ाईससे हवश्वास था दक ाईसे कम से कम तृतीय श्रेणी में तो हनयुहक्त हमल ही जाएगी। परां तु ाईसकी हशक्षा-दीक्षा पर भारी पड़ा ाईसका यौवन एवां सुांदरता। परीक्षा पररणाम ाअया । सूचना पट पर ाईसे परीक्षा में ाऄनुत्तीणभ घोहषत दकया जाना देखकर ाईसे हवश्वास ही नहीं हुाअ। क्योंदक प्रश्न पत्र के ाऄहधकाांश प्रश्न ाईसने सही हल दकए थे और ाईसके फे ल होने का प्रश्न ही नहीं ाईठता था। वह हताश भाव से वहीं बरामदे में पड़ी बैंच पर बैठी हुाइ थी तभी ाईसकी हालत देख कर एक बूढ़ा चपरासी ाईसके पास ाअया और सलाह दी दक वह एक

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Page 222


Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

बार साहब से हमल ले । ाईसने कहा –‘नए – नए ाअए हैं और ाऄच्छे ाआांसान लगते हैं । ाअपकी समस्या का कोाइ न कोाइ हल ाऄवश्य हनकालेंगे।’ हशखा ने चैम्बर में प्रवेश करने से पहले नाम पट्ट पढ़ा । हषभवधभन, हनदेशक (कार्चमक)। कक्ष में ाअने की ाऄनुमहत माांगी तो हनदेशक महोदय ने फााआल पर नज़र गडाए हुए ही कहा – ‘कम ाआन’। हशखा द्वारा ये कहते ही दक ‘सर मेरा नाम हशखा शेखर है। हषभवधभन की नज़र ाईठी और वह ाऄपलक हशखा को हनहारता रह गया। हशखा को याद ाअया ये तो वही हषभवधभन है जो मुांबाइ हवश्वहवद्यालय में ाईसका सहपाठी था। दोनों एक ही राज्य के थे, ाआस नाते कभी-कभार हाय हैलो हो जाया करती थी । हशखा ने कभी भी हषभ की ओर ध्यान नहीं ददया परांतु हषभ तो हशखा से हमत्रता की ही नहीं ाईससे भी ज्यादा ाईम्मीदें रखता था। हशखा को ाईसकी सहेहलयों से हषभ के बारे में कु छ बातें पता चली, हजनमें से सबसे ज्यादा खराब बात ाईसे लगी वह थी, ाईसकी लड़दकयों के साथ हखलवाड़ कर छोड़ देने की ाअदत। हशखा कोाइ नाता ररश्ता न होने पर भी ाईससे ाऄांदर ही ाऄांदर नफ़रत करने लगी। हषभ हशखा के रूप सौंदयभ पर ाआतना ज्यादा ाअश्क्त था दक कोाइ भी ाऄवसर नहीं छोड़ता ाईसके पास ाअने का। हशखा का दूर-दूर रहना और हषभ का ाईसके पास ाअने का प्रयास करते रहने की ‘चूहे हबल्ली की दौड़’ का ाऄांत ाईस ददन हुाअ जब हषभ ने हशखा को प्रणय हेतु ाऄपना हनमांत्रण ददया। हशखा ने साफ तौर पर मना करते हुए कहा दक वह ऐसा कभी भी सोचने की गलती न करें दक वह हषभ की कभी भी हो सकती है और ाईससे पीछा छु ड़ाने के हलए कह ददया दक ाईसकी शादी तय हो गाइ है ाऄत: दुबारा वह ऐसी हरकत न करे , नहीं तो ाईसकी हशकायत करनी पड़ेगी। हशखा ने सोचा चलो पीछा छू टा। हशखा का मन हषभ के प्रहत ाईस ददन और भी नफरत से भर गया, जब ाईसने हषभ को ाऄपने एक हमत्र से यह कहते हुए सुना दक ‘साली चमररया.....जाएगी कहाां बच के ......एक न एक ददन हो जरूर ाअएगी फां दे में। यार......है गजब की साली दकसी चमार की लगती नहीं है ......दकसी न दकसी ाउांचे का ही बीज होगा। ......ाआतनी सुांदर लौंहडयाां चमारों से कब पैदा हुाइ हैं, हम जैसे दकसी सवणभ के दान का फल होगी। ाआसके बाद तो हशखा ने कभी भी ाईसकी ओर नज़र करके देखा ही नहीं। वह भूल चुकी थी यह सब परां तु हाय री, नीयहत ाईसे कहाां पता था दक जीवन में दफर से ाईस गांदे ाआांसान का सामना करना पड़ेगा और वह भी ऐसे हालातों में। हशखा के हवचारों की तांरा हषभ की ाअवाज़ से भांग हुाइ । ाईसने ाईसे बैठने के हलए कहा और ाअने का कारण पूांछा । हालाांदक वह सब पहले से ही जानता था क्योंदक दक परीक्षा पररणाम ाईसी के हस्ताक्षर से जारी हुाअ था और वह पूरे मामले से ाऄच्छी तरह ाऄवगत था। हशखा ाऄनहभज्ञ थी दक हषभ, ाईसके हवरूद्ध पहले से ही की ाईसे फां साने का चक्रव्यूह रच चुका है। ाईसने हशखा की सारी बात बहुत ही ध्यान से सुनी और कहा दक वह दकसी तरह की जचता न करे । वह सब ठीक कर देगा और ाअश्वासन ददया दक फााआल मांगाकर देखने के बाद हस्थहत बताएगा क्योंदक वह तो ाऄभी कु छ ददन पहले ही ाअया है। हशखा को दो ददन बाद ाअने के हलए कहा। हशखा का व्यवहार कु छ जखचा-जखचा सा लगा और जब हशखा चलने लगी तो ाईसने कहा-‘हशखा मैं ाआतना भी बुरा नहीं हूां Page 223

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

हजतना तुमने मुझे समझा था......तुम हबल्कु ल जचता मत करों ाअहखर हम क्लास फै लो रहे हैं और मैं यदद तुम्हारी मदद कर पाया तो मेरा सौभाग्य होगा। हशखा दो ददन बाद जब हषभ के पास पहुांची तो ाईसने बहुत ज्यादा सम्मान के साथ ाईसे हबठाया तथा कहा दक ाऄरे हशखा तुम तो बहुत ाआांटहलजेंट हुाअ करती थी पर तुम्हारी ाईत्तर पुहस्तका में तुमने बहुत सारे प्रश्नों के ाईत्तर गलत ददए हैं । मुझे तो हवश्वास ही नहीं हुाअ दक तुम ाआतनी डल हो सकती हो। यही नीहत सवणभ दहलतों को दबाने के हलए ाऄपनाते हैं। दकसी भी बु्हद्धमान व्यहक्त को ाऄपने चांगल ु में फां साना हो तो सीधे ाईसके महस्तष्क पर प्रहार करों तादक वह हीन भावना से ग्रहसत हो जाए और स्वयां को ाऄपनी ही दृहष्ट में हेय समझने लगे। यही दकया हषभ ने। हशखा ाआससे पहले कु छ कहती ाईससे एहसान जताते हुए कहा दक ाअहखर तुम मेरी हमत्र हो और तुम्हें चतुथभ श्रेणी में तो नहीं जाने दूग ां ा। मैं ाऄपने हवशेषाहधकार का प्रयोग हसफभ तुम्हारे हलए करते हुए तुम्हें पसभनल सेक्रेटरी के ररक्त पर हनयुक्त करने की व्यवस्था करता हूां। करता क्या हूां कर ददया......ाअहखर तुम मेरी चाहत रही हो .....भले ही मेरी तरफ से ही सही .....चाहत तो रही है हमारे बीच।’ ाआतना कहते हुए ाईसके हाथ में हनयुहक्त पत्र थमाते हुए बधााइ देने के साथ-साथ वह हशखा के हाथ को छू ना नहीं भूला। हशखा को ाईसका स्पशभ हबल्कु ल ाऄच्छा नहीं लगा परांतु कु छ सोच कर वह चुप रह गाइ। ाऄब तो हषभ के पास हशखा के समक्ष ाऄपनी चाहत के ाआजहार के हलए रोजाना 8-10 घांटे का समय था, ाआसहलए प्रारां भ में ाईसने हशखा को कामकाज करने ददया तथा ददन ब ददन काम का बोझ ाईसके कां धों पर डालता गया। ाऄहधकारी द्वारा दकसी भी कमभचाररयों को ाऄपनी बात मनमाने का यह भी एक हथकां डा है । दकसी भी कमभचारी पर ाआतना ज्यादा वकभ लोड दे दो दक वह कह ाईठ दक बस । और बस कहते ही ाऄहधकारी ाईसके ाउपर एहसान जताते-जताते ाऄपनी मजी मनमाने के हलए मानहसक रूप से हववश कर सके । हवशेषकर महहला कमभचाररयों के हलए तो ाऄक्सर पुरूष ाऄहधकारी ाआसी तुरप की चाल का प्रयोग करते हैं। महहला कमभचारी के कायाभलय में देरी से पहुांचने पर बस एहसान जताकर छोड़ देना। शाम को जल्दी जाने की ाआजाजत दे देना ाअदद हचरपररहचत एहसान हैं जो हस्त्रयों के दैहहक शोषण्ाा का मागभ खोलते हैं। और ऐसी हस्त्रयाां कायाभलयों में होती है जो ाऄपने लाभ के हलए ाऄपने बॉस को खुश रखने के हलए ाऄपने ाअप को प्रस्तुत करने में कोाइ गुरेज नहीं करती हैं। पर हशखा के मामले में ऐसा कु छ नहीं हो पा रहा था, क्योंदक हशखा ाईसके हनयांत्रक ाऄहधकारी हषभ के ाअने से पहले ही कायाभलय में ाईपलब्ध होती और ाऄक्सर ाऄपने दत्त कायों के हनपटान में ही व्यस्त ददखााइ देती। शाम को भी कभी ाईसने हषभ से जल्दी जाने का ाअग्रह नहीं दकया। एक ददन हषभ ने हशखा को शाम के समय बुलाया और कायाभलयीन दौरे के हलए साथ चलने की पेशकश करते हुए ाईसके हाथ में हद्वतीय वातानुकूहलत कोच की ाअरहक्षत रटकट ाईसके हाथ में थमा दी। हशखा ने पूछा- ऑदफस से और कौन साथ जा रहा है। तो हषभ ने कहा ऑफीसर के साथ ाईसका पी.ए. जाता ाईसका पूरा ऑदफस नहीं। ये कहते हुए हषभ ने बहुत ही ाऄथभपूणभ दृहष्ट से हशखा की पूरी देहयहष्ट को हनहारा। हशखा को हषभ के मांसूबे समझते देर न लगी परां तु कायाभलयीन मयाभदा के ाऄनुकूल बोली – मैं ाऄके ली तो ाअपके साथ जा नहीं सकती। मेरी बच्चों की देखभाल करने वाला कोाइ नहीं है। ाऄत: ाअप

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Page 224


Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

दकसी और को साथ ले जााआए। हषभ के तेवर बदल गए और बोला- तुम्हें क्या लगता है तुम ही एकमात्र सुांदरी हो ाआस कायाभल्ााय में जो ाआतना भाव खा रही हो। ऐसी औरतें बहुत हैं ाआस ऑदफस में जो मेरे एक ाआशारे पर न हसफभ साथ चलने के तैयार हैं और वो सब कु छ खुशी – खुशी करने को तैयार हैं जो मैं चाहता हूां। ये तो बस मेरा मन है दक कॉलेज के जमाने से ही तुम्हें पाने की चाहत है वरना ाऄब तुम रह ही दकस लायक गाइ हो। हशखा स्त्रीत्व पर सीधे प्रहार से बहुत ाअहत हुाइ ....और ाईसने दृढ़ता से पुन: ाईसके साथ दौरे पर जाने से मना कर ददया। हषभ ने ाऄपना एक और पत्ता फें कते हुए कहा- तुम्हारी जैसी नाइ ररक्रूट पी.ए. जैसे महत्वपूणभ पद पर मेरी मेहरवानी से ही पोस्टेड है नहीं तो हसफभ क्लकभ से ज्यादा कु छ नहीं होती तुम। और ाऄभी भी जब चाहूां तुम्हें जूहनयर क्लकभ बनाकर सेक्शन में दकसी छोटे कायाभलय में भेज सकता हूां तब तुम्हारे बच्चों का ख्याल कौन रखेगा। वहाां न ाईन्हें पढ़ाने के हलए स्कू ल होगा न जीने के ाऄच्छे साधन ही.....क्या करोगी तुम। हशखा ने हषभ के सामने की सीट से ाईठते हुए ाऄांहमत बार कहा दक ाईसे जो ाऄच्छा लगता है करे ....पर वह ाईसके साथ नहीं जाएगी। कायाभलय में हसवाय चपरासी के ाऄहतररक्त्ा कोाइ और रह नहीं गया था। हषभ भी ाईसके साथ ाईठा और ाईसके नजदीक ाअकर हशखा को ाऄपनी बाहों में दबोच हलया और सवणों के हचरपररहचत डायलॉग दोहराते हुए बोला….साली चमररया …..ाऄभी तक तेरे कॉल्ाोज के जमाने के नखरे गए नहीं हैं…….ाअज तो मैं ाऄपनी वषों की ाआच्छा पूरी करके ही रहूांगा। ाऄपने ाअप को बचाने की कोहशश करती हशखा के हाथ में टेबल पर रखा हुाअ पेपर वेट हाथ में ाअ गया, दफर तो ाईसने ाअव देखा न ताब । पेपरवेट को हषभ के हसर पर दे मारा .....ाऄप्रत्याहशत प्रहार से हषभ बोखला गया और फशभ पर हगर पड़ा। हशखा शेरनी की भाांहत ाईस पर सवार हो गाइ और ाईसी पेपरवेट से हषभ पर न जाने दकतनी देर तक प्रहार करती रही। जब चेतना में ाअाइ तो …… हषभ पूरी तरह से लहूलुहान मृत पड़ा हुाअ था। पुहलस द्वारा हशखा को हगरफ्तार कर हलया गया। ाऄदालती कारभ वााइ हुाइ । सवणभ लॉबी ने हशखा के हवरूद्ध गवाही दी और काइ वषभ लांबी ाऄदालती प्रदक्रया के बाद हशखा को गैरसरकारी ाअचरण करने एवां एक ाऄहधकारी का खून करने के एवज में ाईमकै द की सजा हुाइ। ाऄांहतम बार जब ाईसके बड़े हो चुके बच्चे सौम्या एवां शांतनु जब ाईससे हमलने ाअए तो ाईसने सौम्या से ाआतना ही कहा- बेटा...हम नीच कु ल में पैदा हुए…..नीच जाहत के कहलाए.......पर ाआसमें हमारा तो कोाइ दोष नहीं था। दफर भी ाअज 21वीं सदी में हम सम्मान से नहीं जी पा रहे हैं.......हमें ाऄपने सम्मान, ाआज्जत के हलए भले ही हमटाना पड़े......कभी दकसी के सामने घुटने मत टेकना। तभी सम्पूणभ नारी जाहत को दकसी न दकसी ददन सम्माहनत स्थान हमल पाएगा और दहलत हस्त्रयाां भी सर ाईठा कर जी सके गी। दफर कोाइ नहीं कह पाएगा दक साली चमररयाां तो होती हैं ाउांची जाहत के मनोरां जन के हलए। ये थी ाऄपनी पुत्री को एक दहलत स्त्री की सीख… जो सम्पूणभ नारी जाहत के हलए भी ाईतनी ही लागू होती है हजतनी दकसी दहलत स्त्री के हलए। दूसरे ददन जेल से समाचार ाअया दक हशखा की ाऄचानक ही मौत हो गाइ है। हशखा चली गाइ दुहनयाां से, ाऄनहगनत हशखाओं को ाऄपनी रक्षा का सांदश े देकर।

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

jks”kuh ¼dgkuh½ xksfoUn cSjok1 vkt jks”kuh dqN ijs”kku FkhA ckj&ckj vius NksVs HkkbZ nhid dks ihV jgh FkhA ek¡ “kkjnk cktkj xbZ gqbZ FkhA nhid dh voLFkk 7&8 o’kZ ds vklikl gh utj vkrh gS D;ksafd mldh “kjkjr dqN ,slh gjdras djokrh Fkh] ftls le>nkj O;fDr ugha dj ldrkA vkt uk tkus ,slh D;k “kjkjr nhid us dj nh] ftlds dkj.k jks”kuh HkkbZ ij ukjkt utj vk jgh FkhA vius HkkbZ nhid dks M+k¡V yxkrh gqbZ dgrh gS& ^^rq>s bruh Å¡ph j[kh iqLrd dks ysus dh t:jr D;ksa iM+hA vxj fxj tkrk rks gkFk iSaj VwV tkrsA lkjk dk lkjk nks’k ek¡! eq>s gh nsrhA rq>s le>kus dk dksbZ Qk;nk ugha] n.M+ nsuk vkt t:jh gSA^^ ^^ugha d:¡xkA ugha d:¡xkA^^ nhid yxkrkj cgu jks”kuh ls dgs tk jgk FkkA ij vkt jks”kuh HkkbZ ls bruh ukjkt Fkh fd mldh ekQh dh Qfj;kn dks vuns[kk dj jLlh ls gkFk iSj ck¡/kus esa yxh gqbZ FkhA “kk;n ;g ,d cgu dk HkkbZ dks I;kj djus dk u;k rjhdk cgu jks”kuh ds }kjk O;Dr gks jgk FkkA vDlj jks”kuh o nhid dh “kjkjr ls ek¡! “kkjnk Hkh ijs”kku gksdj Hkyk cqjk flQZ jks”kuh dks lquk;k djrh Fkh&^^rw tSls&tSls cM+h gks jgh gSa] oSls&oSls rsjk cpdkukiu c<+ jgk gSA ;s rks cPpk gSA ij] rw rks bruh cM+h gks x;h gS fd vafre i<+kbZ gksrs gh rq>s fonk djuk gSA^^ ek¡! ds bl rjg ds O;ogkj ls jks”kuh dkQh nq%[kh gks tkrh FkhaA vDlj ?k.Vksa vdys cSBs& a cSBas lkspk djrh Fkh fd cl bruk gh vius ?kj esa mldk LFkku gSA ftl ?kj esa yM[kM+krs gq, thou esa pyuk fl[kk] ml ?kj dk clsjk fonkbZ ds lkFk lekIrA ;s dSlh lekt dh lajpuk gSa] ukjh ds izfrA ij vkt jks”kuh ds eu esa HkkbZ ds izfr Mk¡V ds lkFk Lusg cg jgk FkkA vkf[kj nhid ds eu esa vkt ds lekt esa cgrh nwf’kr lksp ugha FkhA nhid ds fy, rks flQZ ;g nqfu;k¡] ,d [ksy gS ftls og vius rjhds ls tc pkgs rc [ksy ldrk gSA blh dkj.k vkt nhid us bruk Åij p<+us dk lkgl fd;k vU;Fkk bl ?kj esa djus ls igys iw¡Nuk iM+rk gS] lcls T;knk jks”kuh dksA njokts dh ?k.Vh ckj&ckj ctusa yxrh gaSA jks”kuh vius HkkbZ ds lkFk bruh O;Lr cuh gqbZ Fkh fd ?k.Vh dh vkokt mlds dkuksa esa lqukbZ ugha nhA vpkud jks”kuh dk /;ku ctrh ?k.Vh dh rjQ pyk tkrk gSA og HkkbZ dks NksM+dj njoktk [kksyus nkSM+dj njokts dh rjQ pyh vkrh gSA njoktk [kksyrs gh “kkjnk xqLlsa esa jks”kuh dh rjQ ns[kdj dgus yxrh gS& ^^bruh nsj ls njokts

1

xksfoUn cSjok iq= Jh [ksekjke th cSjok vk;Z lekt Ldwy ds ikl] lqesjiqj, ftyk&ikyh] jktLFkku] fiu0 dksM&306902

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ij [kM+h g¡w] rw D;k cgjh gks xbZ gSA rq>s ?k.Vh dh vkokt lqukbZ ugha nhA rw ,sls ugha ekusxhA :d rq>s esa lcd fl[kkrh gw¡A^^ “kkjnk us lCth ls Hkjs FkSys dks tehu ij iVdrs gq,] jks”kuh ds xky ij tksj ls rekpk ekj nsrs gSA jks”kuh vius xky ij gkFk j[kdj jksrh gqbZ vius dejs dh rjQ c<+us yxrh gSA “kkjnk njokts ij gh [kM+h&[kM+h jks”kuh dks Hkyk&cqjk cksyas tk jgh FkhA bruk dqN lgu djus ds vykok jks”kuh ds ikl dksbZ jkLrk ugha FkkA vkf[kj oks bruk D;ksa lgu djrh gSA ;g loky ,d ubZ ?kVuk dks viuh rjQ [khaprh gqbZ utj vkrh gSA ftldh “kq:vkr vdys”k ls gksrk gSA vdys”k jks”kuh ds firk gSA jks”kuh dh ek¡! “kkjnk ugha] lfork FkhA nl o’kZ igys gh jks”kuh us viuh ek¡! dks chekjh ls ejrs ns[kk FkkA ifr vdys”k iRuh dh chekjh ls ijs”kku gksdj “kjkc ihus yx x;s FksA tc “kjkc T;knk ih ysrs] ml le; lfork ds lkFk jks”kuh dks Hkh Hkyk&cqjk cksyrs gq, dgus yxrs&^^rqe ek¡!] csVh us esjs thou dks dtZ ds rys nck fn;k gSA ,d chekjh ls mBus dk uke ugha ys jgh gS] rks nwljh viuh c<+rh mez ds lkFk fookg djus dk dtZ rS;kj dj jgh gSA^^ jks”kuh bl rjg firk dks chekj ek¡! ds ckjs esa cksyrk ns[kdj vUnj ls nq%[kh gksrh ij ek¡! ds lkeus ges”kk ;g eglwl djokrh dh bu ckrksa ls mls dksbZ QdZ ugha iM+rkA viuh ek¡! dh lsok esa jkr&fnu ,d djus yxhA ml le; Hkh jks”kuh ds ikl lgu djus ds vykok dksbZ jkLrk ugha FkkA ,d fnu jks”kuh dh ek¡! chekjh ls ges”kk&ges”kk ds fy, eqDr gks xbZA ân; ls fudyrh jks”kuh dh osnuk vkt Hkh dejs dh pkj fnokjh esa lqukbZ nsrh gS&^^ek¡! ,slk D;ksa fd;kA fcuk crk,¡ gh eq>ls bruh nwj pyh x;hA eSa] ;s thou rqEgkjs fcuk dSls r; d:¡xhA vkf[kj ek¡! rw gh rks Fkh] esjs thou dk ,d ek= lgkjk] ftlesa dqN jks”kuh FkhA ij rsjs pys tkus ls eSa] jks”kuh gksdj Hkh gw¡ flQZ va/ksjkA^^ jks”kuh dh fllfd;k¡ lwuh rks flQZ bl cUn dejs dh fnokjksa us lwuhA firk vdys”k vf/kdrj “kjkc ds u”ks esa Mqcs jgrsA uk rks jks”kuh dh fpUrk Fkh mudks vkSj uk gh viuh iRuh ds pys tkus dk nq%[kA tc dHkh jkr dks TkYnh ?kj vk tkrs] ml le; jks”kuh dks [kkeks”k ns[kdj dgus yxrs&^^D;ksa] jks”kuhA vHkh rd fdldk “kkSd cuk jgh gSA tkurh gSA rsjs firk ij fdruk dtZ p<+kdj x;h gS rsjh ek¡!] rw D;k tkusxhA vkf[kj rw Hkh rks dtZ p<+kus dks rS;kj gks jgh gSA^^ jks”kuh [kkeks”kh ls izR;sd “kCn xzg.k djrh gSA mls flQZ ;kn Fkh rks og ckr ftls ek¡! us ejus ds nks jkst igys jks”kuh dks vius ikl cSBkdj dgha Fkh&^^jks”kuh csVh! vius thou es dHkh detksj er gksukA esjs pys tkus ds ckn csVh] rsjs lkeus dgha eq”kfdysa [kM+h gksxhA mu lHkh dk lkeuk csVh rq>sa djuk gSA bl ukjh thou esa ogha vkxs c<+ ikrk gS] ftles vikj lgu”khyrk gSA Page 227

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

ij csVh viuh lgu”khyrk dks bruk Hkh detksj er cukuk fd rq>sa Hkh bl iq:’k iz/kku lekt u]s ukjh dks tks vcyk uke fn;k] mlesa rq>as Hkh lekfgr dj nsA ges”kk thou dks jks”kuh dh rjQ gh ys pyuk] blhfy, eSaus rsjk uke jks”kuh j[kk gSA eSa T;knk fnuksa rd rsjs lkFk ugha jgw¡xh] ij csVh rsjk gkFk f”k{kk us Fkkek gSA f”k{kk dk lkFk dHkh er NksM+uk] D;ksfa d csVh ;s rq>s jks”kuh dh rjQ ysdj rsjs thou esa izdk”k gh izdk”k QSyk;ax s hA jks”kuh csVh T;knk rks ugha ij eSaus rsjh i<+kbZ esa vkus okyh /ku dh deh dks igys ls gh cUnksoLr djds j[kk gSaA ml yksgs dh isaVh esa iksLV vkWfQl ds cpr [kkrs dh M+k;jh gS] ftlesa easus rsjs uke ls [kkrk [kqyok;k FkkA cqan&cqan /ku ,df=r rsjs “kknh ds fy;s fd;k djrh FkhA vPNh jde tek gks x;h gaS] og rsjs Hkfo’; esa lgk;rk djsxhA^^ ek¡! dh dgha ckrksa dks jks”kuh us vius thou esa xzg.k dj f”k{kk dks viuk thou lkFkh cukdj pyus yxhA dqN le; esa gh jks”kuh dks v/;;u esa og lHkh lEca/kksa dk vglkl gksus yxk] ftudksa bl nqfu;k¡ esa ugha ns[k ikbZA vius thou dks f”k{kk ds lgkjs vkxs c<+kus yxhA ,d fnu vpkud vdys”k us cM+s I;kj ls jks”kuh dks vkokt yxkbZ&^^csVh jks”kuh! csVh jks”kuh dgk¡ gksA ckgj vkdj ns[kksa rks dkSu vk;k gSA^^ jks”kuh dks firk ds O;ogkj ij vk”p;Z gqvkA bl chrs ,d o’kZ esa igyh ckj firk ds }kjk jks”kuh dk uke brus I;kj ls iqdkjus ijA firk ds ckj&ckj iqdkjus ds dkj.k dejs ls ckgj vkrh gSA firk ds lkFk ,d efgyk da/ks ij cSax yVdk;s gq, [kM+h FkhA jks”kuh dks ns[kdj firk vdys”k dgus yxs&^^igpku ;s dkSu gS\^^ jks”kuh dqN le> ugha ldhA efgyk dh rjQ ,dVd ns[kus yxrh gSA jks”kuh dks [kkeks”k ns[kdj vdys”k dgus yxrk gS&^^vjs csVh! viuh ubZ ek¡! dks ugha igpkukA ns[k csVh rsjh [kkeks”kh eq>ls ns[kh ugha tkrhA eSa rks dk;Z esa O;Lr jgrk gw¡] rw ?kj esa vdsys jgrh gSA vkf[kj eSa rsjk firk gw¡] rsjs fgr dk gh lkspdj eSus nwljh “kknh dh gSA vkt ls ;g rsjh ek¡! “kkjnkA^^ jks”kuh tku x;h fd firk us viuk vdsykiu nwj djus ds fy, “kknh dh gSA og lc dqN lqudj dejs dh rjQ c<+us yxrh gSA jks”kuh dks pyh tkrh ns[k firk vdys”k jks”kuh dks jksddj dgus yxrs gS&^^csVh viuh ubZ ek¡! dks ?kj dk dke djus er nsukA esa ugha pkgrk dh ;s Hkh rw>s o eq>s NksMdj pyh tk,A^^ firk dh ckr lqudj jks”kuh vius :e esa pyh tkrh gSA ?kj dk lkjk dke jks”kuh djus yxh ij lkFk gh viuh i<+kbZ dh rjQ /;ku nsus yxhA jks”kuh fnu ls T;knk jkr dks viuh i<+kbZ dks vPNh cuk ysrh FkhA vkf[kj fnup;kZ ?kj ds dk;Z esa gh O;rhr gks tkrh] ij jkr mldh viuh FkhA ,d lky ds ckn jks”kuh ds thou esa nhid vk;kA jks”kuh vius HkkbZ nhid ls T;knk izse djrh FkhA NksVs ls nhid dks vius gkFkksa ls Luku djkukA diM+s igukukA <+js ksa lkjh nhid ls ckrsa djukA nhid Hkh ek¡! “kkjnk ls T;knk jks”kuh ls viukiu j[kus yxkA jks”kuh ?kj ds dke ds lkFk viuh i<+kbZ iqjh djds izfr;ksfxrk ijh{kk dh rS;kjh djus yxh gqbZ FkhA www.dalitsahitya.com

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

jks”kuh o nhid ds vkilh izse dk lkeuk ek¡! “kkjnk ls lguk iM+kA vkt Hkh “kkjnk us njoktk [kksyus esa nsjh gks tkus ds dkj.k jks”kuh ds xky ij rekpk ekj fn;kA ek¡! dks rekpk ekjrk ns[kdj nhid viuh ek¡! ls dgus yxk&^^ek¡! vkius nhnh dks D;ksa ekjkA^^ csVs ds eq¡g ls ;s “kCn lqudj “kkjnk vkx ccwyk gks x;hA jks”kuh dks lqukrh gqbZ dgus yxh&^^vPNk! Rkks esjs csVs dks esjs f[kykQ HkM+dkus yxh gSA ij rw lqu ys] rsjs bl ?kj esa vc T;knk fnu ugha jgsaxsA rw>s fonk djus dk tYn gh rS;kjh d:¡xhA vkus ns rsjs firk dks dgw¡xh] ;k rw jgasxh bl ?kj esa ;k eSaA^^ “kkjnk tksj&tksj ls cksys tk jgh FkhA ftldh vkokt jks”kuh dks vius :e esa lqukbZ ns jgh FkhA bu fnuksa jks”kuh ds jkT; iz”kklfud ijh{kk] py jgh FkhA vafre isij vkt FkkA tkus ls igys bruk c[ksM+k ek¡! us [kM+k dj fn;k FkkA ij jks”kuh bl rjg dh izfrfdz;kvksa ls la?k’kZ djuk tkurh FkhA vkt Hkh jks”kuh us lkjk dgj vius eu esa nck,s tkus dh rS;kjh dj dejs ls fudyrh gSA jkLrk jksd [kM+h “kkjnk jks”kuh dks ns[kdj dgus yxrh gS&^^dgk¡ pyh egkjkuh] bruh vPNh rjg rS;kj gksdjA ns[k jgh gw¡] bl ekg esa nks&rhu fnu chp esa NksM+dj] jkst ckgj tkuk gks jgk gaS rsjk] dgha dksbZ [khapM+h rks ugha idk gS] ihB ihNsaA^^ “kkjnk ds “kCnksa esa tgj lekfgr FkkA ftldk izHkko jks”kuh ds eu dks nq%[k igq¡pk,¡ tk jgk FkkA “kkjnk ek¡! dh rjQ ns[kdj jks”kuh flQZ bruk gh dg ldh&^^ijh{kk dk vafre isij gS] vktA^^ “kkjnk dqN eq¡g dks fcxkM+dj dgus yxh&^^D;k djsxh bruk i<+dj\] D;k cM+h vQlj cuax s h\] cMs [okc ns[kuk NksM+ nsA rsjs thou esa flQZ nq%[k gh nq%[k gSA^^ ek¡! ds ;s “kCn jks”kuh ds eu esa nq%[k mRiu dj jgs FksA ij og /khjt cuk,¡ j[kuk tkurh FkhA ek¡! dh O;aX; Hkjh vkykspuk dks lqudj ?kj ls ckgj pyh tkrh gSA jks”kuh ds thou esa dksbZ viuk cudj lkFk jgk rks flQZ mldh f”k{kk] D;ksafd bl lekt dh ifjikVh dks og tkurh FkhaA mldk isze iqLrdksa ds izfr T;knk FkkA iqLrdksa esa lekfgr lkjs fj”rs& a ukrksa dk vglkl jks”kuh dks fey tkrk FkkA mldk izFke y{; thou dks l{ke cukus ds izfr Fkk] ftls izkIr djus dk ek/;e f”k{kk dks gh og viuk lPpk lkFkh le>rh FkhA vkt f”k{kk ds y{; dk vafre isij nsus jks”kuh ckgj pyh xbZ FkhA ^^lquksa th! ;s rqEgkjh csVh jks”kuh] vc ?kj esa j[kus yk;d ugha gSA jkst&jkst bldh “kjkjr c<+rh tk jgh gSA vkt eq>s ekywe pyk fd jks”kuh nhid dks esjs f[kykQ HkM+dk jgh gSA vkt esjk csVk esjs lkeus [kM+k gks x;kA^^ “kkjnk vius ifr vdys”k dks jks”kuh dh f”kdk;r fd;s tk jgh Fkh A var esa “kkjnk us vdys”k ls dg fn;k&^^ jks”kuh dks fonk djksa] ojuk esa ?kj NksM+dj pyh tkÅ¡xhA^^ vdys”k dks vkWfQl esa dk;Zjr eueksgu dh ckr ;kn vk tkrh gSA dqN fnuksa igys gh eueksgu us vdys”k ls dgk¡ Fkk&^^vjs vdys”k rwus jks”kuh ds fy, dksbZ yMdk ns[kk dh ughaA vxj ugha ns[kk rks ;kj esjs ekekth dk yMdk gS izeksnA rw dgs rks eSa ekekth ls ckr pykÅ¡A^^ Page 229

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^^D;k djrk gS izeksnA^^ vdys”k us eueksgu ls iqNkA ^^i<kbZ rks mlus dh ugha] ij gkFk dk gqauj dk;Z ds izfr vPNk gSA dkj[kkus esa dke djrk gSA ekfld osru Hkh vPNk gSA gk¡! rw>ls esa Li’V dguk pkgwaxk fd og dqN “kjkc dk “kkSd Hkh j[krk gSA igys dg nsrk gw¡ vU;Fkk rw lkjk nks’k eq>s gh nsxkA vc rw dgs rks eSa ekekth ls ckr d:¡A^^ eueksgu us izeksn ds lkjs xq.k vdys”k ds lkeus j[k fn;sA “kkjnk dks ;g ckr vkt crkbZ rks “kkjnk us ifr dks Lohd`fr nsus ds lkFk ;g Hkh dg fn;k& ^^;g fj”rk vPNk gSA geas nsj ugha djuh pkfg,A dy gh eueksgu th ls ckr djds yMdk jksd nksA^^ dqN fnuksa esa izeksn ls jks”kuh dk lEcU/k iDdk dj fn;kA jks”kuh dks [kcj gh ugha gqbZ fd mldh “kknh bl o’kZ gh fnikoyh ds ckn r; gks pqdh gSA ,d jkst njokts dh ?k.Vh losjs tksj&tksj ls ctus yxrh gSA njoktk “kkjnk [kksyus yxrh gSA tSls gh njoktk [kksyrh gS rks lkeus ,d [kqclwjr yMdh [kM+h utj vkrh gSA “kkjnk dh rjQ ns[kdj dgus yxrh gS&^^vk¡Vh ueLrs! D;k jks”kuh ?kj ij gSA^^ ^^gk¡! og vius dejs esa gh gksxhA^^ “kkjnk us yMdh dh rjQ ns[kdj dgk¡A [kqclwjr yMdh eqLdku gksBksa ij ykdj dgus yxh&^^vk¡Vh D;k eSa mlls fey ldrh gw¡A^^ dqN nsj lkspdj “kkjnk us jks”kuh ds dejs dh rjQ b”kkjk djrs gq,¡ dgus yxh&^^oks jgk jks”kuh dk dejk] tkdj fey yksA “kk;n egkjkuh vHkh tkxh ds ughaA^^ vk¡Vh dk rsoj fiz;k] jks”kuh ls lqu pqdh FkhA og jks”kuh ds dejs dh rjQ pyus yxhA dejs esa jks”kuh iqLrd i<+ jgh FkhA jks”kuh dks ns[krs gh fiz;k tksj ls cksyus yxh&^^vjs jks”kuhA rwus rks lcdksa ihNs NksM+ fn;kA^^ jks”kuh vpkud fiz;k dks vius ?kj ns[kdj vk”p;Z ls mls ns[kdj dgus yxh&^^fiz;k rw brus losjs&losjs ;gk¡ dSls\^^ ^^vjs fiz;k eSa rks rw>ls feyus jkr esa gh vkuk pkgrh FkhA ij ?kj okyksa us vkus gh ugha fn;kA^^ fiz;k ds psgjs ij [kq”kh >yd jgh FkhA ^^,slk D;k dke vk x;k ftlds fy, bruh vkrwj gks eq>s crkus ds fy, rw fiz;kA^^ jks”kuh us fIkz;k dk gkFk idMdj vius djhc [khaprs gqa, dgk¡A ^^vjs jks”kuh vkt tks eSa rw>s crkus ds fy, bruk vkrqj g¡w] mls lqudj rw ikxy gks tk,xhA tkurh gS] rwus iz”kklfud lsok esa izFke LFkku izkIr fd;kA^^ fIkz;k dh ckr lqudj jks”kuh ,dVd fiz;k dh rjQ ns[kdj dgus yxh&^^losjs&losjs ;s etkd djus dk cgkuk rwus ;s pwuk gSA^^ ^^eSa etkd ugha dj jgh gw¡ jks”kuhA eSaus Lo;a rsjk ifj.kke baVjusV }kjk ns[kk gSA ixyh rqus bl ijh{kk esa izFke LFkku izkIr fd;k gSA eSa tkurh Fkh rw fo”okl ugha djsx a h] blh fy, eSus ;s

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ifj.kke dh fyLV usV ls fizaV fudkydj ykbZ gw¡A^^ fiz;k us jks”kuh dh rjQ ifj.kke dkxt vkxs djrs gq,a dgk¡A jks”kuh ds “kjhj esa ?kcjkgV p<+h gqbZ FkhA gkFk esa bruk dEiu Fkk fd m¡xfy;k¡ dkxt dks idM+us esa vleFkZrk O;Dr dj jgh FkhA nq%[k ds lkxj esa lhapk ;s v/;;u vkt mlds thou ds lkjs f?kjs va/ksjsa dks nwj dj izdk”k QSykus ds izfr vkrqj gSA vkt dk fnu jks”kuh dks jks”ku izdk”k nsus ds fy, ifj.kke :Ik esa pyk vk;kA gkFk esa lQyrk dk ifj.kke idM+s jks”kuh dh vk¡[ksa vkalqvksa ls Hkjh gqbZ FkhA ifj.kke dks fny ls yxkdj tksj&tksj ls jksuk pkg jgh FkhaA brus lkyksa ls fny esa Nqih osnuk vkt lkjs fny ds jkLrsa [kksy dj cguk pkg jgs FksA jks”kuh ds eqag ls fudyus okyh fllfd;k¡ dejs esa lqukbZ ns jgh FkhA viuh lxh ek¡ dks ckj&ckj jksrs gq, dg jgh Fkh&^^ek¡!] vks ek¡!] ns[k ek¡! eSaus rsjs lius dks lkdkj dj fy;k gSA rw tks pkgrh Fkh] ogha esa vkt cu xbZ gw¡A ek¡!] rsjh jks”kuh vc va/ksjk NksM+dj mtkys esa vk xbZ gSA vkt eSa ek¡!] vcyk ughaA lcy] l{ke] ;qorh bl lekt esa cu xbZ gw¡A ek¡! eq>s vius xys ls yxkvksa ukA vksa ek¡!^^ jks”kuh vkt viuh ek¡! dks ;kn dj] lkjh osnuk vkalqvksa esa cgkj fudky jgh FkhA fiz;k mls ckj&ckj pqi djkuk dk iz;Ru dj jgh Fkh ij jks”kuh vkt [kqydj jks jgh FkhA jks”kuh ds jksus dh vkokt lqudj “kkjnk] jks”kuh ds dejs esa pyh vkrh gSA fcuk lksps le>s dgus yxrh gS&^^vjs! deZtyh] losjs&losjs D;ksa vkalw cgk jgh gaSA vHkh rd rsjk eu ugha Hkjk] tks brus tksj&tksj ls jksdj lcdks lquk jgh gSA^^ jks”kuh dHkh Hkh viuh ubZ ek¡! ds lkeus ugha cksyrh] vkt Hkh Ekk¡ ds lkeus pqi FkhA fiz;k dks ;s vPNk ugha yxkA og jks”kuh dks NksM+dj “kkjnk ds lkeus vkdj igys rks vkdzk”s k Hkjh utj ls ns[kdj cksyus yxrh gS&^^vk¡Vh! vki jks”kuh dks bl rjg D;ksa cksy jgh gksA vki tkurh gSA jks”kuh us oks fd;k gS ftldh mEehn gj ekrk&firk djrs gSA^^ fiz;k dh rjQ ns[kdj “kkjnk eqag fcxkM+ dj dgus yxh&^^,slk D;k fd;k bl eugw”k usA^^ fiz;k “kkjnk dh rjQ ns[kdj dgus yxh&^^eugwl ;s ugha vki gksA vki tSlh gj Ekk¡! Ekugwl gSA vki ftls eugw”k dg jgh gks] og vc jktLo iz”kklfud lsok esa lcls Å¡ps in dh vf/kdkjh gSA^^ “kkjnk dk “kjhj ;s lqudj lwu iM+ x;kA psgjs ij tks vkdzks”k Fkk] og vc [kkeks”kh esa cny x;k FkkA fiz;k dh rjQ ,dVd ns[ksa tk jgh FkhA ij vkt fiz;k] oks lc dguk pkg jgh Fkh] tks jks”kuh dg ugha ldhA ^^vk¡Vh! ftlds lkFk vki jks”kuh dk lEcU/k tksM+k gS] jks”kuh dks fcuk crk;s]a vki mls ugha tkurh ij eSa tkurh gw¡A og yMdk esjs nwj dk lEcU/kh yxrk gSA ,d uEcj dk yksQj o “kjkch gSA vc vki jks”kuh ds fookg dh fPkUrk er djukA D;ksafd jks”kuh dh jks”kuh esa dgha vPNs lEcU/k ykbZu esa [kM+s gSA^^

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fiz;k ds eq¡g ls fudyus okyh vkdzk”s ke;h cksyh dk izHkko “kkjnk ds ?ke.M+ dks tehu ij iVd jgk FkkA “kkjnk lksp jgh Fkh ftl jks”kuh dks dHkh vk¡[ksa mBkdj ugha ns[k ikbZ] og vkt bruh Åij igq¡p xbaZ dh vk¡[ksa feykus ds fy, vuqerh ysuh iM+sxhA fiz;k cksys tk jgh Fkh&^^tkurh gw¡ eSa vkidks vPNh rjg vk¡Vh th! vkius esjh lgsyh jks”kuh dks dHkh Hkh lq[k ds nks “kCn o ek¡! dh eerk dk izse fn;k gh ughaA ij jks”kuh vc va/ksjsa esa ughaA vkt mlus o’kksZa ls f?kjs va/ksjsa dks NksM+dj jks”kuh esa dne c<+k;k gSA vc vki fpUrk uk djs D;ksafd jks”kuh vc vks>y ugha gksxhA vkSj uk gh vc vkids lgkjs dh vko”;drk gS jks”kuh dksA jks”kuh viuh fn”kk Lo;a r; djsaxhA vk¡Vh th vki bruk :ds FkksM+k vkSj :d tk;s] D;ksafd jks”kuh vc jks”kuh ds lkFk bl ?kj ls fonk gksxhA Lo;a gh viuk thou lkFkh dk pquko djsx a hA^^ jks”kuh us fiz;k dks vkxs c<+dj dgus ls jksdkA fiz;k dh vk¡[ksa vk¡lqvksa ls Hkjh gqbZ FkhA jks”kuh ls fyiVdj og Hkh jksus yxhA jks”kuh ds Hkh vk¡[kksa esa vk¡lw cg jgs FksA

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ाइलू – ाइलू ाईदय प्रकाश हज़ारों साल पहले के कु छ मरे हुए ाअदमी हजनके बारे में यह ाऄभी तक सांदह े है दक क्या पैदा भी हुए थे वे कभी एक ददन ाऄचानक वही तय करने लगेंगे

हवद्वान गायेंगे मरे हुए ाअदमी का गान

कै सी रखनी चाहहए पुरुषों को ाऄपनी मूांछें

सांत करे गा कीतभन,

भले नागररकों को नहीं खानी चाहहए

हभखारी भीख माांगेगा

कौन-कौन सी सहब्जयाां हस्त्रयों को क्या पहनना चाहहए कहाां से बाांधनी चाहहए ाऄपनी साड़ी ाऄपनी देह और पहत की दौलत पर दकतना भर होना चाहहए ाईनका हक़ सैकड़ों साल पहले का कोाइ मरा हुाअ ाअदमी एक ददन बोट क्लब या रामलीला मैदान पर जन सभा में देगा भाषण दक लोकतांत्र में कौन-कौन-सी खाहमयाां हैं लोगों को खरीदनी चाहहए दकन-दकन कां पहनयों के शेयर ाऄख़बारों को हमलनी चाहहए दकतनी स्वतांत्रता

ाईसी मरे हुए ाअदमी के नाम पर पसीने और प्यार में भीगते, एक-दूसरे के हलए हवकल और काांपते दो ाईत्तप्त शरीरों के बीच की सांध में से झाांकेगा ाऄचानक मरे हुए ाअदमी का चेहरा यह बताता हुाअ दक कौन-कौन सी जड़ी-बूटी और कौन-सा ाअसन ाईपयुक्त है ाआस पहवत्र मानव सांबांध के हलए दकन-दकन हतहथयों में हनयमानुसार स्त्री को दकतना-दकतना जलाया जाना ाईहचत है मरे हुए ाअदमी की ाऄगुाअाइ में होंगे प्रदशभन मरे हुए ाअदमी की ाअांखों में से देखा जायेगा भहवष्य

मरे हुए ाअदमी का चेहरा ददखेगा हर कु लीन-भर ड्रााआांगरूम में,

चुनावों में जीतेंगे लगातार मरे हुए ाअदमी

पाकों में कट-ाअाईट, चौराहों पर मूर्चतयाां एक ददन यह भी होगा औरतें पहनेंगी ाईसी के लाके ट हखलौने हबकें गे बच्चों के हलए बाज़ार में हजनमें चाभी भरने पर सुनााइ देंगी मरे हुए ाअदमी की दांत्य-कथाएां

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वही समझा जायेगा जीहवत हजसने पहन रखे होंगे मरे हुए ाअदमी के कपड़े मरे हुए ाअदमी का चेहरा लगाये नौजवानों से ही लड़दकयाां कहेंगी www.dalitsahitya.com


Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

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Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

'ाइलू - ाइलू ...!'

मरे हुए शब्दों से हलखेंगे मरे हुए कहव ाअधुहनक कहवताएां

समाहनत होंगे वही कहव हजनकी कहवताओं में होंगे मरे हुए ाअदमी के

जो छू ट गये होंगे लोग,दकसी तरह जीहवत

सबसे सुांदर जबब ।

वे हसद्ध दकये जायेंगे कहवता और भाषा रोही

दफे र तो ाअयेगा ऐसा एक युग जब मरे हुए ाअदमी बनायेंगे एक मरी हुाइ भाषा को जातक के हलए ाऄहनवायभ भहवष्य में जन्म लेंगी मृतक सांतहतयाां

दकसी काले पानी के द्वीप में जन्मेंगी जज़दा सांतानें और दुहनया को बदलेंगी एक दकसी ददन ।

Sangharsh/Struggle e-Journal of dalit Literary Studies हमें आऩके सुझाव/सूचन मेइऱ में भेजें | सॊघषष में अऩना सहयोग प्रदान करें | हमें आऩके सहयोग से रचनात्मक प्रेरिा लमऱती है | सॊघषष का तीसरा साऱ आऩके सहयोग के साथ | धन्यवाद | Email : editorsangharsh@gmail.com

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ाऄपना ाअने वाला कल ... पूनम दहहया 1 चलो चुरा के कु छ पल ... चलें बैठें दफर ... तले गुलमोहर के ... दकनारे हनबाभध बहती .. नदी के दकनारे ... और झाांकें दफर .. ाअाँखों में सजाएां दफर .. सुनहरे से सपने ... दोहराएाँ चलो ...दफर .. स्मृहतयों में बसे ... ाईल्लाहसत से क्षणों को ... जमीं बफभ से हुए सांबांधों को ... भर दे चलो वही ाऄसीम ाईजाभ ... भर हमठास शब्दों में ... जलाएां लौं हनवाभहसत से ... ठन्डे पड़े भावों में समपभण की ... कु रे दें दफर हबसरी सी ाऄनुभूहतयों को .. सांजोयें ह्रदय में भावों की हवभूहतयों को .. जगाएां वही गमाभहट ,वही रूमाहनयत छोड़ ाअए थे हजन्हें ,भूले थे दाहयत्वों में ... चलो हजयें कु छ पल बस ाऄपने हलए ... हनकल फजों हजम्मेदाररयों से दूर .. सांजोयें करे सांवर लें चलों ाऄपना ाअने वाला कल ..

1

Poonam Dahiya Lecturer · Charki Dadri, Haryana, India Page 235

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

L=h js[kk dqjsZ L=h D;ksa gksrh gS L=h mldk Tkhou rjy vkSj ljy D;ksa gksrk gS D;ksa og fueZy ty lh cgrh gS Lkcdh ckrksa dks lqurh Lkcds eu dh djrh nq[k vkSj r[kyhQsa lgrhA cM+s ls cM+s yksxksa ls feyrh NksVs ls NksVs yksxksa ds lkFk dke djrhA Lkcdk I;kj ikrh L=h Lkkekftd vkSj uSfrd nqjkpkj ikrh L=hA nwljksa ds thou dks laHkky ikrh L=h thou esa QVdkj ikrh L=hA cM+s ls cM+s vkSj NksVs ls NksVs ?kj esa vke dk vkpkj cuh L=hA Ekkuo thou esa vkjaHk ls var rd Tkc jgrh gS L=h Rkks] curh gS l`f’V l`f’V vkSj l`f’V!!!

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ca/ku eqfDr js[kk dqjsZ mM+uk pkgrh gwW ml ia{kh dh rjg [kqys vkleku esa lkjs ca/kuksa dks rksM+uk pkgrh gwWA balku dks balku ls tksM+uk pkgrh gwWA vDlj mUeqDr xxu esa vktkn jgus dk ,d NksVk lk LoIu ikys jgrh gwWA ijUrq] vktkn jgus dksbZ nsrk gh ugha ifjokj] lekt vkSj ;s laLd`fr lc vius ca/kuksa esa tdM+ dj j[kuk pkgrs gSaA lcls eqDr gksuk pkgrh gwW mUeqDr gksuk pkgrh gwW vkSj balku dks balku ls tksM+uk pkgrh gwW “kk;n bl dfork dh vkokt mu ca/kuksa dks rksM+uk pkgrh gSA vkSj vius ne ij vius vfLrRo dks ikuk pkgrh gSA balku dks balku ls tksM+uk pkgrh gSA

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

कााँच की चूहड़यााँ ाऄनाहमका यादव1 रोटी बेलते चूड़ी की खनक ाईनको डराती नहीं ाईनको पता है ये टूटेंगी नहीं .... हाथ भरी चूहड़यााँ ाईनकी ाईस साध को पूरा करती है जो सददयों से ाईन्होंने कमााइ है ... तभी ाआत्ती सारी चूहड़यााँ साथ – साथ , हहलहमल गुनगुनाती हैं .. हाथ भरी चूहड़यों की ये साध ! सब ररश्तों को साथ सहेजने की साधना ही तो नहीं? ाअज हाथों की ये चार चूहड़यााँ शोर करती हैं रोटी बेलते ... कपड़े फटकने में एकदो टूट जाती हैं ... नहीं सहेज पाती थोड़े से ररश्तों को भी ाआन काांच की चूहड़यों की तरह डरती हूाँ खाली हाथों से .... पीड़ा मीरा तुम कहो .. कहााँ से ाअया ाआतना हवश्वास ाईस ाऄाँधेरे में डू ब जाने का .... क्या तुमने शाम को डू बते सूरज को देखा ....... या बीज से नए पौधे को ाईपजते देखा ........ क्या तुम्हें हवश्वास था ? सच कहो क्या तुम्हें हवश्वास था ............ चलो छोड़ो.. यह ना बता सको तो ाआतना ही कहो , कै सा था वो ाऄहवश्वास और ाईसकी पीड़ा दकतनी महान..... हजससे मुहक्त को लगा दी छलाांग ाईस ाऄज्ञात में ! 1

ाऄनाहमका यादव

धनबाद, (ाई.प्र.), ाइमेल- anamika2u@rediffmail.com Page 237

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

स्त्री तुम ऐसा ही रहो रम्या वी.1 हार कौनसी हार? हम हारने के हलए तैयार नहीं ‘स्त्री–मूखभ’ यह ाईसके हलए सददयों से पयाभय बनाया ाईसे बुहद्ध नहीं है ाईसे जचता की शहक्त नहीं है वह बेहड़यों में ही रहना है वह वहााँ गयी तो शांका ! वह यहााँ ाअयी तो शांका ! ाअहखर वह ाऄपने ाऄाँधेरे कमरे में ही बांध होकर रहें ? वह हांमेशा क्षमा के साथ रहना है वह मूक होकर ही रहना है वह हमेशा क्षमा के साथ रहना है एक शब्द भी ाईसके जुबान से हनकली तो ाईसका सहारा तलाक ! तलाक के बाद ाईसकी हस्थहत क्या है? समाज ऐसा बोलेगा ाआसका तलाक हुाअ यह स्त्री ऐसी ही है |

1

रम्या वी.

एम.दफल.जहदी, गुजरात के न्रीय हवश्वहवद्यालय, सेक्टर 30, गााँधीनगर www.dalitsahitya.com

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

Ekk¡ dfork HknkSfj;k1 Ekk¡ Ekk¡! Rksjs vkapy esa] Lkqugjh ftUnxh th gS geus] Rksjs v/kjksa dh eqLdku] Rksjk ri vkSj fn;k gqvk Kku] leiZ.k] viZ.k vkSj lHkh ls uezrk dk LoHkko] vnHkqr /kS;Z vkSj rsjk 'khy] gj eqf'dy ls mcj vkus dk vVw~V fo'okl] esjk thou ewY;] cgqewY; fuf/k gS] vkSj gS esjh le`fr;ksa dk vax] ioZrksa dh J`a[kyk ij ltx izgjh tSls djrk gS j{kk] oSlh dh gS rwus Hkh gekjh fnu jkr] lq?kM+ xzg.kh dh HkkWfr] rqeus] lnSo lHkh dks eku&lEeku fn;k] nsoh cudj lEiw.kZ ?kj dks rkj fn;k gs ek¡ rqEgs lr~&'kr~ ueu gS] jkf= LoIu esa Mwcs gq;s ge tkxrs rc] tc rqEgkjs e/kqj daB ls QwVrk eaXky vkjrh xku ubZ uosyh c/kq dh nsg lqxa/k dh Hkk¡fr] rqe lEiw.kZ ?kj esa cfRr;ksa dh lqxa/k QSykrh] gesa uhn ls txkus dks] gekjs dkuksa es]a e/kqj opu xuxqukrh rqe] gs ek¡ eSa rqEgkjh gh csVh gw¡ fQj Hkh rqe lh ugha gw¡A eq>s crykvksa ek¡ rqees bruk lkgl vkSj /kS;Z dgk¡ ls vk;k] dSls rqeus viuh thou yhyk dks bruk lkFkZd cuk;k] dgh Hkh eLrd uhpk u gksus fn;k] 1

dfork HknkSfj;k ¼’kks/k Nk=k½] fgUnh foHkkx, n;kyckx f’k{k.k laLFkku] vkxjk] irk& 25@243] ,Q&2] uRFkh dk [ksr] u;k ck¡l yksgke.Mh] vkxjk Page 239

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

Ikn] izfr"Bk] eku] lEeku] lHkh dks fn;k] Lkc dks dqN u dqN fn;k] ijUrq] Lo;a gsrw dHkh dqN D;ksa ugha ekaxk\ D;k rqEgkjs eu esa dksbZ pkg dksbZ Fkkg gh ugha] ;k fd :Ik gks nsoh loZeaxyk dk] Eksjh ek¡A cM+h lgtrk ls ehBk&ehBk] Kku nsrh Fkh rqe uezrk vkSj /kS;Z cuk;sj[kuk] de cksyks ;k vf/kd] QdZ dqN ugha ijarq ok.kh lnSo e/kqj j[kuk] ;gh og xq:ea= gS ftlls lHkh rqEgkjs]vius gks tk;sxasA lfUuV rqEgkjs lHkh 'kkfUrHkko gh ik;sxasA esjs eu&efUnj esa rsjh ;knksa ds nhid tyrs gSA rsjh ;knksa ds HkWoj tc Hkh vkrs gS] esjs psgjs ij dHkh nnZ rks dHkh mnklh dh fualk cukrs gSA ek¡ cuuk fdruk gS dfBu ek¡ cudj eSaus tkuk gS] rsjs lkFk chrs esjh ftanxh ds gj yEgs dh vPNh ;kn gS eq>s] rqus ges lcdqN fn;k gS] ijUrq ge rks vUr le; esa Hkh rq>s dqN u ns ik;s] rsjh VwVrh lkalksa] QM+drs u;u] ean gksrh ân; xfr] rsjh 'kjhj esa c<+rh f'kfFkyrk] vkSj &vkSj] vkSj cgqr dqN] dqN Hkh u jksd ik;s ge] gekjs u;u vaJqefa Mr gks x;s] vc rw ikl ugha gekjs] ek¡A rsjh cgqr ;kn vkrh gSA

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

नयी सदी की औरत ाऄनुपम मोंहगया ाऄब मैं वो पेड़ नहीं बन सकती दक तुम पत्थर मारो

तुम्हें छाया चाहहए

और मैं फल दूाँ तुमको

फल चाहहए तो मुझे भी खाद पानी देना होगा

मैं वो नाव नहीं बन सकती

तुम्हें पार लगाने का दाहयत्व मेरा सही

दक तुम हजधर को खेओ

पर मुझे लहरों की ददशा में तो खेना होगा

मैं हखचती चली जााउाँ मेरा रां ग, गांध, स्पशभ तुम ले लो मैं वो फू ल नहीं बन सकती

पर मुझे डाली के साथ तो लगे रहने देना होगा

दक तुम पत्ती-पत्ती करके मसलो और मैं बेशमी से महकती रहूाँ

स्वीकार सको तो स्वीकारो

नहीं मैं वो कााँटा भी नहीं हूाँ

मुझे मेरे तमाम गुणों-ाऄवगुणों

दक हबना तुम्हारे छेड़े

और तमाम शतों के साथ

चुभ जााउाँ हाथों में

पर वो बादल भी नहीं हूाँ

वरना मैं खुश हूाँ हसफभ मैं होने में ही.....

दक दकसी को प्यासा देख ाआतना बरसूाँ दक खुद खाली हो जााउाँ

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

A Commitment for…………………….Change

Short Story Competition Dalit Sahitya/Sangharsh E-Journal invites Short Stories within 4000 words for its first Short Story competition www.dalitsahitya.com Dalit Sahitya/ Sangharsh E-Journal, fundamentally, encourage young and budding writers in the field of Short Story writing. It also invites veteran writers to contribute to the upcoming issue of Dalit Short Stories in English. Since Dalit voices are coming up from every nook and corner of India, their experiences has to be narrated and explored in multiple literary forms. Autobiography has come and changed the entire landscape of creative writing. But short stories as a creative medium has become a very assertive tool these days.

Send your short stories at editorsangharsh@gmail.com, latest by 30th March 2015 For More information please contact editorsangharsh@gmail.com

Haresh Parmar, Mo. 09408110030 Email : hareshgujarati@gmail.com Website : http://dalitsahitya.com & http://eklavyapublication.in

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

www.dalitsahitya.com

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

New Issue Published

Please Visit : www.dalitsahitya.com વધુ માહિતી માટે સંપર્ક ર્રો : 09408110030 Page 245

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

Books Publication Sangharsh Publication # 191, Sector-19 B, Pocket B, Near OPG School, DDA MS Flats, Sanskriti Apartments Dwarka, New Delhi-110075

And

EKLAVYA PRAKASHAN Tirupati Nagar, 'MAHEK' Dist. Junagadh, Mangrol - 362225 Gujarat-India E-Mail : prakashaneklavya@gmail.com

हमारे पाठक और लेखक ाईपयुभक्त प्रकाशन के माध्यम से ाऄपनी दकताब प्रकाहशत करवा सकते है. पुस्तक प्रकाशन के हलए हमें सांपकभ करें

हरे श ऩरमार सहायक सॊऩादक : सॊघषष

E-Mail : editorsangharsh@gmail.com And prakashaneklavya@gmail.com Web. : www.dalitsahitya.com http://eklavyapublication.in

Mo. 09408110030 www.dalitsahitya.com

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Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies

Global Journal of Enterprise Information System में शोध ाअलेख प्रकाहशत करने हेतु सांपकभ करे : Haresh Parmar Mo. 09408110030 and mail : hareshgujarati@gmail.com

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ISSN : 2278-3067

Jan. to March., 2014 Vol. 03, Issue 01

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Sangharsh : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies vol 3 issue 1 2014  

Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies vol 3 issue 1 2014 Stri-Sangharsh Special Issue

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