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MAY, 2012

Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations’ Governance Final Report- Treaty Related Measure


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T able of Contents

1.0 Purpose of Report 2.0 Report Organization 3.0 Overview of Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations 4.0 Definition of Governance and Governance Models 4.1 Rationale for Governance Model Review 5.0 Governance Model Options 6.0 Summary & Conclusion Appendix A: Inventory of Governance Materials Appendix B: Summary of Community Sessions; includes excerpts of Draft Constitutional language

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1.0 Purpose of Report This report is a final submission for Phase 3 of Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations (G-N) Treaty

Related Measure. Activities and deliverables for Phase 3 include the following: Phase 3:  Developing the Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Governance Model: 2011/12 i. ii. iii. iv.

Materials produced through other Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw governance initiatives will be  compiled and relevant materials will be utilized in the development of governance model options; A paper for community discussion on Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw governance options will be prepared; A series of community consultations will build on the feedback from work conducted on governance options to ensure community support for the selected governance option; A Final Report on Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Governance including governance options,  recommendations and draft language for a Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Constitution will be submitted.

The report highlights three Governance Model options for G-N, and concludes with a recommendation. 2.0 Report O rganization: The G-N community is introduced, including their unique historical circumstances. Following

the community background, the report presents the definitions for governance and governance models. The rationale for undertaking a governance model review is discussed along with highlights of a governance self-assessment. Three governance model options are reviewed. Discussion includes advantages and disadvantages to each of the three options and the most effective option is highlighted. The Governance Material Inventory is attached as Appendix A. The summary of Community Sessions and draft language recommendations for a Constitution are attached as Appendix B. 3.0 Overview of Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations: Prior to 1964, the G-N lived as two separate tribes. The Gwa'sala people mostly lived and traveled around Smith Inlet and the surrounding islands. The 'Nakwaxda'xw people were in Seymour Inlet, the Deserter's Group, Blunden Harbour, and surrounding islands. While many practices were similar, the two tribes spoke different dialects and each had a distinct culture (http://www.gwanak.info/about-us). In 1964 the tribes were amalgamated with each other (and the Kwakiutl, temporarily) and relocated to the Tsulquate Reserve, on North Vancouver Island. The total membership is approximately 850 with an on-reserve population of about 500 people. The amalgamation and relocation of the G-N peoples is an overarching factor that adds many dimensions to any discussion of governance and governance models as detailed in this report.

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4.0 Definition of Governance: The BC Assembly of First Nations (http://bcafn.ca/toolkit/documents/Part1-Foreword.pdf), states that governance has been defined as “establishing rules to coordinate our actions and achieve our goals”. Further, as societies, the institutions created to make rules and enforce them are what are called “government”.  Similarly, the BC Treaty Commission (BCTC) explains that governance for First Nations is a complex concept and may have different meanings across communities. In its Human Resource Toolkit, BCTC uses the concept of governance to refer to the institutional structures and arrangements by which the community exercises its law-making authority, develops policies and makes decisions affecting the community, its members or others.  http://www.bctreaty.net/files/pdf_documents/BCTC-HRToolBook.pdf In reviewing a governance model option, this report is addressing the way in which government is organized, and in particular, the governing body.

H istoric Governance: The historic hereditary governance system is well summarized in various reports including Governance TRM Report (March, 2006); Exploring History for Foundations for Governance (Frank: March, 2006); and the Gwa’sala-Nakwaxda’xw Nation: Governance & Lands/Resource  Management Cultural Values (2010). The reports and the historical documents, anthropological writings and oral history sources consistently confirm a rich and complex traditional governance structure and the role of hereditary chiefs. For the G-N, traditionally, there appears to be no single word equivalent to the English word ‘governance’. Governance, including the interactions that determine how power and  responsibilities are exercised, how decisions are taken, and how citizens have their say, traditionally represented a ‘way of life’.  (Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda`xw First Nation Governance  Treaty Related Measure Final Report, 2006:5). As outlined in a research report by Frank (2006), historically the numayms, or extended families, were the basic units of Southern Kwakiutl society. At the head of the numayma is the head chief. Inheritance of positions within a namima (nuymaym) was based on primogeniture and rank.  The head chief was considered to the direct descendant of the group’s mythic  ancestor. Lesser chiefs, usually brothers of the head chief, their families, and attached commoners completed the namima. The head chief made all the decisions, economic and ceremonial… (2006:21) “…the head of the clan, along with a council of advisors, would be responsible for three major administrative functions: administering the economic system of the group, managing the group’s resources, and ensuring that the group’s ceremonial functions were  fulfilled” (2006:34). Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations’ Governance Final Report- Treaty Related Measure


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Governance transactions occurred in ceremonies that have come to be referred to as ‘Potlatches’. Through the ceremonies, names/titles were given or transferred, property was transferred or title renewed, and disputes were settled (Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda`xw First Nation Governance Treaty  Related Measure Final Report, 2006). It was through feasts and potlatches that the Kwakwaka’wakw exercised self-government. Gwa’sala-Nakwaxda’xw is still very close to the time when the members lived in the Homelands  and followed traditional laws and governance with minimal interference from the outside world. The forced relocation to Tsulquate is very much within living memory for many members and Elders. The imposition of the Indian Act is very recent in many ways. 4.1 Rationale for Governance Model Review The investigation undertaken in this TRM is the make-up of the ‘governing body’, a key  institution of governance. Presently the legal governing body of G-N is an elected Chief and seven councillors pursuant to a custom election code under the Indian Act. G-N recently participated in a pilot initiative with the BC Assembly of First Nations (BCAFN). G-N was invited to pilot the governance self-assessment tools the BCAFN created for its Governance Toolkit. Some highlights of this assessment underlie the initial motivation to develop governance model options; specifically, the relationship between hereditary and elected leaders. The self-assessment notes that: 

G-N follows rules to determine the members of their governing body that may have been developed by their Nation but these rules are not always clear and are not culturally appropriate.

Leaders and senior staff note that there is a need for a clear definition of the roles of hereditary chiefs. Further, there is some reluctance for members of Gwa’sala to speak on behalf of ‘Nakwaxda’xw, and vice versa. There is a desire to look into election procedures that reflect the two communities. The investigation into governance model options is motivated by wanting to combine cultural traditions of leadership within the modern system and the need to be sensitive to, and reflect, the two communities. 5.0 Governance Model O ptions

E xecutive Summary G-N has completed a substantial amount of work over the past few years to identify governance

issues. G-N has begun to move forward to a workable system to get to a solid governance system and to complete and implement a Treaty. There are many challenges due to the forced relocation and all of the negative impacts on the system of hereditary Chiefs and traditional Gwa’salaNakwaxda’xw governance. Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations’ Governance Final Report- Treaty Related Measure


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Currently, there exists a Council of Chiefs. This Council is an informal structure that combines the Chief and Council elected under the Indian Act with two key hereditary Chiefs. The Council of Chiefs works well in combining aspects of traditional governance with present-day administration. Although there is work to be done in formalizing this approach, this type of hybrid structure is likely the best way forward for G-N.

Current Governance: The current Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw governance structure is a hybrid. There are elements of Indian Act governance and elements of traditional hereditary governance. There are ongoing community discussions about identifying and restoring all of the hereditary Chiefs. Currently, two prominent hereditary Chiefs, who are well-known and respected, operate along-side the elected Chief and Council. The Council of Chiefs is a structure which brings together the elected Chief and several hereditary Chiefs. The Council functions in a somewhat informal manner but has been quite effective in Treaty and other areas in terms of coordinating and combining the strength and knowledge of the elected Chief and key hereditary Chiefs. However, because the structure is informal, there are potentially gaps and communication issues in terms of determining who is responsible for what.

Governance Options: There are three governance options: 1. Completely Elected System Under this option, Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw would build on the Indian Act system and run their government using only elected leaders. There would be an elected Chief and Council who would take care of all decision-making and administration. The terms of Council members could be extended or staggered to try and address ongoing problems caused by the Indian Act system of elections every two years. The hereditary Chiefs would likely still have a role in cultural matters. The advantages of this option are that it meets government requirements to have a majority of elected leaders for post-Treaty governance1. It is also easier to coordinate decisionmaking and communications if there is only one Chief and Council.


The government requirement for a majority of elected Councillors post-Treaty is not necessarily reasonable or legally supportable. There are many aspects of traditional First Nation governance that are more accountable and more representative that elected systems which, in small inter-related First Nation communities tend to create unbalanced representation and family conflict. However, this is the current federal and provincial mandate. Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations’ Governance Final Report- Treaty Related Measure


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The disadvantages of this system are that it does not in any way reflect traditional Gwa'sala'Nakwaxda'xw heritage and culture. It fails to address the reality of having two First Nations sharing the governance and fails to address trust issues. In addition, many First Nations have experienced significant problems with the Indian Act elected system of governance because it tends to place the family who has the largest number of members in a controlling position and to create ongoing conflicts between different families. 2. Hereditary System Under this option, Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw would return to a purely hereditary system. The Nations would identify the hereditary Chiefs who carry hereditary names and rights and these Chiefs would form a Hereditary Council to make decisions. They could draw upon the traditional systems of nanokwala or gatherings of Chiefs and Elders, and could try to bring forward traditional laws and processes and apply them to modern decision-making. The advantages of this system are that it is specific to Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw and would draw on their history and culture rather than imposing a foreign system on them. In theory, this would also balance representation and could ensure representation from both First Nations and each major family. The disadvantages of this option include the fact that the hereditary governance system has been seriously undermined by the anti-potlatch laws, the Indian Act and the forced relocation from the Homelands. The traditional system is fundamentally connected to the language and the lands and relies on use and occupation of the lands and resources in each part of the Territory by specific Chiefs and families and on the structure of the Potlatch system. It may be difficult to restore this system at a long distance across the water from Tsulquate and after so many impacts on the system. In addition, there are challenges to dealing with all the time pressures and complexities of modern governance using an unwritten system of traditional governance. Finally, returning completely to a hereditary system would require extensive work to identify all of the Chiefs and their relationships to parts of the Territory and specific issues and to determine how to coordinate decision-making and resolve disputes. It could be done but would take a lot of time and effort by the Nations. 3. Hybrid System Under this option, Gwa'sala-’Nakwaxda’xw Nations would continue to build upon a hybrid option. There would be an elected Chief and Council but also a Council of Chiefs including hereditary Chiefs. The electoral system would likely be revised from the Indian Act system to have longer and possibly staggered, terms. The Council of Chiefs would likely need to be formalized with this and other elements of the hybrid system written into the G-N Constitution and governance and financial administration laws.

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The advantages of this option are that it could potentially combine the best elements of traditional governance and an elected system. It would meet government requirements to have a majority of elected Councillors. It would also retain and build on hereditary and traditional governance. The community could decide on the selection and roles of hereditary Chiefs. The roles and authorities of the elected Chief and Council and of the hereditary Chiefs could be set out in the Constitution and governance laws and policies to promote clarity and coordination. The main disadvantages of this option are the time and effort required to identify the hereditary Chiefs and their roles and authorities and to coordinate all of this with the elected system. A significant degree of community consensus will be required and it will take time to get there. If the roles and authorities of the elected leaders and hereditary leaders are not set out in writing, there could be significant conflict in the future over whom the Chiefs are and who has the authority to make specific decisions.

Conclusion: The hybrid option, utilizing Chief and Council pursuant to a custom election code with a Council of Chiefs, including hereditary Chiefs, appears to hold the best promise of meeting the needs of G-N for future governance models. Not only will hereditary leaders have a defined role, but there is an opportunity to represent the two communities. Case studies of three First Nations utilizing traditional approaches to governance conclude: …there is evidence that community traditions and values are recognized as having a meaningful role in charting the way forward, in challenging or sidestepping the structural confines, and procedural and accountability limitations of the Indian Act system of governance. It is both the past (tradition) and contemporary community demands and political challenges that provide all three of these First Nations with the inspiration to create political systems which ultimately enhance good governance. http://nwlc.ca/files/NWLC/resources/Carleton_Vol2.pdf

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A PP E N D I X A :

Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations’ Inventory of Governance M aterials Governance T reaty Related M easure

May 2012

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G wa`sala-`Nakwaxda`xw Nations – Inventory of Governance M aterials 1.0 Introduction This report provides an inventory of materials developed by/for the Gwa`sala-`Nakwaxda`xw Nations (G-N) to achieve and support their present governance. The purpose of the inventory is to assist with Phase 2 and 3 of the Capacity Assessment for this TRM. The objectives of these two Phases are as follows:

Phase 2: Capacity Assessment: 2011/12 

Working with the Governance Work Team, the G-N will conduct a capacity assessment, including a review of the current organizational structure, program and service delivery mechanisms, and management capacity. An analysis of future governance requirements Post Effective Date will also be undertaken, and recommendations made to guide organizational and staff development; A Governance Capacity Development Plan will be prepared that details how gaps will be addressed in the transition to self-government and Post Effective Date.

Phase 3:  Developing the Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Governance Model: 2011/12 Materials produced through other Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw governance initiatives will be  compiled and relevant materials will be utilized in the development of governance model options. 1.1 Definition of T er ms

Modern Governance Concepts: According to a report by the BC Assembly of First Nations, governance has been defined as establishing rules to coordinate our actions and achieve our goals. (http://bcafn.ca/toolkit/documents/Part1-Foreword.pdf). The National Governance Centre for First Nations Governance (NGCFN) details the concept of governance as: Governance is the traditions (norms, values, culture, and language) and institutions (formal structures, organization, practices) that a community uses to make decisions and accomplish its goals. At the heart of the concept of governance is the creation of effective, accountable and legitimate systems and processes where citizens articulate their interests, exercise their rights & responsibilities and reconcile their differences (2009: vii Governance Best Practices Report).

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Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) identifies 10 functions of governments, arguing that all governments, regardless of structure or type, undertake them on a regular basis (http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1314982906753#chp1.) These functions involve activities that are performed by both the community leadership and administrators. According to AANDC, the core functions of government are the foundation upon which all other activities and functions are built: 1. Leadership 2. Membership 3. Planning and Risk Management 4. Community Involvement 5. Law-Making 6. Financial Management 7. Human Resources Management 8. Information Management and Information Technology 9. External Relations 10. Basic Administration The following governance material inventory checklist was created by AANDC with the above ten core functions in mind. This inventory format will be adopted to highlight the governance materials of the G-N. Additional sections have been added to reflect the activities and past research initiatives of G-N.

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Governance M aterial Inventory

Document Leadership / Election Codes and / or Policies Roles and Responsibilities– Chief and Council (Indian Act and Agreements, Protocols) Organizational Chart Comprehensive Community Plan -CCP (AANDC) 5-Year Capital Plan Membership Registry- AANDC Strategic Plan(s) --- see CPP Human Resources Database Community Vision Statement -- see CPP Human Resources Policy Job Descriptions – Administration Positions Land Use Plans Community Principles Document - see CPP Document By-law Ratification Procedures- Indian Act Community Consultation/Participation Procedures:  GN Trust Committee  Treaty Advisory Committee (TAC)  Fisheries Steering Committee  Housing Committee  Hiring Committees Financial Administration Policies - Draft form By-Laws – Other      

By-law No. 1994.01 - Respecting the establishment of a judicial council By-law No. 1994.02 - Respecting trespass By-law No. 1994.03 - Respecting curfew By-law No. 1994.04 - Respecting disorderly conduct and nuisances By-law No. 1994.05 - Respecting traffic By-law No. 1994.08 - Respecting the control of dogs

C reated 1996 n/a 2011 2010 Updated yearly n/a 2011 2010 1991 Various dates 2008 (draft) na Various dates


G-N Constitution- Draft – not adopted 2012

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Aboriginal Service Plan with the University of Victoria Memorandum of Understanding, Aboriginal Education Enhancement Agreement Service Agreement with the Board of Education of School District No. 85 for 6 positions at 3 educational organizations Collaborative Agreement for the Management of Protected Areas in First Nations Traditional Territories - BC Government

2008 20102015 2011

2007 2012 *

Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy Agreement– Dept. of Fisheries & Oceans Forest Agreement – BC Government


Forest and Range Revenue Sharing Agreement- BC Government


Nanwakolas/BC Framework Agreement (land & natural resource management)

2009 2013

Nanwakolas Reconciliation Protocol


KNT and the Province of British Columbia Land and Resource Forum/Terms of Reference


Land Use Planning Agreement-In-Principle between B.C. and the KNT First Nations (of which G-N is member)


Memorandum of Understanding on Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area.(PNCIMA) Collaborative Oceans Governance – Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Addendum to MOU)Adding Nanwakolas as a Party


Marine Planning Partnership for the Pacific North Coast – Nanwakolas


*Denotes a fiscal year end date is inserted within the agreement ** In 2011 Nanwakolas temporarily withdrew from the leadership of the PNCIMA process. The Society is continuing to discuss the terms and conditions of returning to formal participation in PNCIMA with DFO. See Nanwakolas website. Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations’ Governance Final Report- Treaty Related Measure


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BC Treaty Commission process – Completion of Framework Agreement


Child, Youth & Family Wellness Outreach Worker Agreement- Ministry of Children and Family Development

2012 * 2012 *

Family Support Program Agreement – Ministry of Children and Family Development Community Health Services Agreement – Vancouver Island Health Authority

2012 *

Health Funding Contribution Agreement- Health Canada


Memorandum of Understanding – Sasamans Society (Partnership and working agreement for community-based collaborator in delivery model)


Memorandum of Friendship and Mutual Respect – Vancouver Island Health Authority Aboriginal Health Council (as represented by Kwakiutl District Council)


North Island Regional Protocol Agreement (municipalities and First Nation governments)


Utility Agreement – District of Port Hardy : Residential and Commercial Water, Sewer, Fire Protection Service Waste (Landfill) Agreement- Mt. Waddington Regional District

2012 * 2012 *

Animal Control Service Agreement – District of Port Hardy

2012 *

Emergency and Preparedness Plan

Updated 2010

*Denotes that there is a fiscal year end date inserted within the agreement.

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TRM- Research on Traditional Governance.  Frank, S.  “Exploring History for Foundations of Governance”


Winalagalis Treaty Group – Governance Treaty Related Measure Final Report


BC Capacity Initiative – Cultural Values for Governance and Lands/Resource Management


Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations Comprehensive Community Plan Summary 


Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Stories Volume 1. Edited. C. Vanderkamp


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Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations Governance T reaty Related M easure Summary of Community Sessions

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Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations- Gove rnance T reaty Related M easure Summary of Community Sessions Purpose of Summary The purpose of this report is to highlight the Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations (G-N) community sessions regarding draft language for the G-N Constitution, as per the requirement for Phase 3 of the G-N Governance Treaty Related Measure:  

Develop recommendations on draft language for Constitution; and Preliminary draft language to be developed at Community Sessions by Governance Consultant with community leaders/elders.

Bac kground The Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw Governance TRM has benefited from extensive community involvement. Chief Negotiator, Colleen Hemphill, and the Council of Chiefs established a community Treaty Advisory Committee (TAC) which has become a very effective forum for reviewing key Treaty and governance issues. TAC members include hereditary leaders, the elected Chief and many members and Elders from the community. M eetings The TAC typically holds a late afternoon or evening dinner meeting in the Elders’ Center every  month or two. The dinner meetings provide an excellent venue for Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw members and families to catch up on what’s happening in the community and in Treaty  negotiations and to talk about key issues. TAC meetings were held on the following dates: November 16-17, 2010 January 12-13, 2011 February 24, 2011 April 19, 2011 May 25-26, 2011 November 23, 2011 January 25, 2012 March 21, 2012 At each meeting there is typically a Treaty update and work on lands, constitution, governance and related issues.

Key Themes and Points: Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations’ Governance Final Report- Treaty Related Measure


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During the course of the TAC meetings, we have had extensive discussions about governance and the draft Constitution. Key themes and points that impact work on the Constitution include:         

The forced relocation from the Homelands continues to weigh heavily on the community. The housing crisis spills over into everything. The overwhelming and ongoing impacts of the forced relocation and the housing crisis often make it difficult for G-N members to think about how their future might be different with a constitution, self-government and a Treaty. There is a high degree of distrust of the federal and provincial governments but also sometimes the G-N Chief and Council. There is a general distrust of laws. Members often seem to conceive of laws as something used by governments to take away First Nation lands, resources and rights instead of something used for positive purposes. The Elders are insistent that younger members need to learn where they come from so they can be proud of their history and culture and know their place in the world. There is strong consensus that the G-N Constitution should recognize G-N history and heritage and should focus on NusӘns sax, doing things “our way”, the G-N way. Members would like to know how enforceable a constitution will be and whether it will make a difference. There are a number other areas of strong consensus for what the members want in their constitution:

 The hereditary Chiefs must be part of the governance system.  There need to be principles of fairness so that all members are treated fairly and equally regardless of family or political issues.  The Chiefs and Council need to be accountable to the members.  The rights of the members should be protected but responsibilities of members should also be set out.  Certain major issues should be decided by a vote of the members. Recommendations on draft language for the Constitution: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The Constitution has to be community-driven and focus on recognizing, protecting and carrying forward G-N history and culture. Language has to promote inclusion and trust; use G-N words for concepts where applicable. Concepts must be clear and minimize jargon. The Constitution should build on traditional governance and the hereditary system while also dealing with the complexities of present-day governance. The Constitution should protect the rights of members but also promote responsibilities. The Constitution should include measures to promote accountability of leaders.

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The following are excerpts of draft language for the G-N Draft Constitution.

NusӘns sax    DRAFT CONSTITUTION – Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw Nations T A B L E O F C O N T E N TS 1. We are the Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw 2. Membership 3. G-N Governance and Leadership – Hereditary and Elected 3.1

Composition of the G-N Council






G-N Public Institutions

4. Expectations of our Leadership 5. General Accountability 6. Rules and Accountability for Financial and Administrative Responsibilities 7. Community Decision-Making 8. Lands and Resources 9. Dispute Resolution/Process to Challenge G-N Laws or Decisions 10. Conflict of Interest – Code of Conduct 11. Amendment Process 12. Other Potential Elements

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1. We are the Gwa’sala-‘Nakwaxda’xw (1)

We are the Gwa’sala and ‘Nakwaxda’xw people.  Our ancestors were placed in our Territory by the Creator, U’mas Gigame, and lived in our Territory since the beginning.


Although we were moved against our will to one Reserve at Tsulquate and the federal and provincial governments have tried to legislate us out of our Territory, our Territory and Homelands are from the mountains at _______ out into the ocean


We have ‘our way’, NusӘns sax that we were taught by our respected ancestors and  Elders.


Our chiefs, councillors and leaders gain their authority from the laws and traditions of our ancestors, from our place in our Territory, and from their commitment to take care of our Territory, our people, and our future generations.


Highest Law


This Constitution is the highest law of the G-N Nations, subject only to the G-N Final Agreement. In the event of an inconsistency between this Constitution and the provisions of any G-N Law, the G-N Law is, to the extent of the inconsistency, of no force or effect.


Declaration of Values


We honour and reclaim the strength of our coppers, our traditions and our unique identity as Gwa’sala and ‘Nakwaxda’xw people and we proudly pass our strength and identity on  to our children and grand-children so they can be strong and proud of who they are and who we are.


We honour and respect our Creator.


We respect the teachings of our Elders and ancestors and we follow the teaching of mayaxala, honour and respect.


We look after our families and take care of our people.


We are committed to respecting and protecting the fish, wildlife, plants and waters in our Territory and to ensuring a sustainable and healthy environment for them, for us and for future generations.

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Profile for Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw Nation

G-N Governance Final Report TRM 2012  

G-N Governance Final Report TRM 2012  

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