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Chronicle Pepperpot March 16, 2014


Chronicle Pepperpot March 16, 2014

BRITISH POLICY TOWARDS THE AMERINDIANS IN BRITISH GUIANA 1803-1873 By Mary Noel Menezes R.S.M

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INTRODUCTION By Dimitar Angelov University of Warwick

he origins of the present book can be traced back to 1969 when the author, Mary Noel Menezes, R.S.M., was conducting research on the Guyana-Venezuela Boundary Dispute. Briefly jotted down in the margins of her notes, the idea for a study on the British-Amerindian relations grew and developed over the following few years to reach its successful completion in 1977, when the first edition of British Policy towards the Amerindians in British Guiana, 1803-1873 was published. When first released, Menezes’s work addressed a significant gap in the historiography of the young South American country, whose scholars had hitherto focused mostly on the history of the sugar industry, slavery and post-abolition immigration. It covered a period of seventy years of British rule commencing with the Dutch handover in 1803 and ending with the administrative reform of 1873 whereby the office of Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks, which had special prerogatives over the Amerindians, was abolished. Menezes’s account of the relationship between the British and the indigenous population of Guyana opens with a brief historical overview of the years prior to 1803. After Raleigh’s dream of El Dorado failed to materialise, the European explorers, especially the Dutch, began to grasp the real potential of the land between the Corentyne and the Orinoco rivers. Unlike their European rivals the Spaniards - the Dutch were not interested in imposing the Christian faith, with all its social and cultural corollaries. Instead, their relations with the Amerindians were based on mutually beneficial trade in products such as annatto dye, oil of maaran, indigo, raisins,balsams and letterwood. By the end of the seventeenth century, Dutch merSister Noel Menezes chants had established settlements along the Essequibo, Pomeroon and Moruka rivers, which thrived on the strength of their commercial ties with the native people. However, with the growth of plantation slavery in the colony, the alliance between the Dutch and the Amerindians acquired a new dimension and urgency. With an increasingly disproportionate number of African slaves and hostile Spanish neighbours, west of the Orinoco, the position of the Dutch settlers was growing ever

more precarious. Their continuous hold on power could only be maintained through a strategically who could help them suppress any resistance on the part of the plantation workforce whilst keeping the Spanish at bay. The Amerindians were perfectly suited for both these roles. With their detailed knowledge of the local terrain and superb orientation skills they proved indispensable in tracking down and capturing runaway slaves. Deeply resentful against the Spanish policy of religious and cultural assimilation, they were naturally drawn to the far more noninterventionist approach of the Dutch. It was out of these two preconditions that the Dutch-Amerindian alliance was born, an alliance which the Dutch would make every effort to strengthen and prolong. They would sign official treaties of friendship with the Amerindian

Dimitar Angelov chiefs; bestow gifts such as small objects and foodstuffs to all members of the tribes; and appoint especially designated officials known as uitleggers, or “postholders,” who were stationed at different places in the Interior and were entrusted to maintain close contact with the aboriginals. The postholders were the key players in the implementation of the Dutch policy towards the Amerindian population. Their efforts to attach the Indians to their respective “posts” i.e the places to which they were designated, created obvious advantages for further development and expansion of trade. Furthermore, the presence of a sedentary Amerindian population close at hand, served Dutch interests in a sphere very different from commerce. Living in close proximity to the posts, the Indians could be easily summoned and deployed as reinforcement in slave-catching expeditions. They proved themselves

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trusted allies during the 1763 Berbice Slave Rebellion as well as during the 1772 Black revolt. For their loyal service in 1772, the Amerindians were granted presents by the colonial authorities and in 1774 the Court of Policy proposed that special staves of office should be presented to the chiefs as tokens of respect. As the eighteenth century was drawing to a close, the Dutch found themselves increasingly reliant on Amerindian support for capturing runaway slaves, which gave rise to a policy of regular gift distribution among the tribes. When the British took over the colony, in 1803, the Indians were quick to accept their authority and demand the same preferential treatment they had received under the Dutch. The new European rulers deemed it wise to comply. Since they also required Amerindian assistance in policing the borders of plantation society, the British continued their predecessors’ strategy of cajoling and bribery. In 1806, the Court of Policy decreed that “a premium of Two [sic] hundred guilders” be divided among the Indians participating in a slave-hunting expedition “[f]or every Bush Negro who [was to be] taken and secured alive and who [would] have been less than two years in the Bush”( qtd. in Menezes 53). Alternatively, the sum of one hundred guilders was to be paid “for the right hand of every runaway Negro that [was to be] killed during the Expedition [sic]” (qtd. in Menezes 53). However, although the British took frequent recourse to Amerindian slave hunters, the latter did not always receive the remuneration they had been promised. The Court of Policy agreed in principle that native allegiance should be rewarded, but it was often tardy and inconsistent in delivering on its word. This in turn bred resentment and mistrust amongst the affected tribes who felt betrayed and withdrew into the Interior. Apart from these early signs of strain, the Brit-

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BRITISH POLICY TOWARDS THE AMERINDIANS... Please turn to page IV

ish-Amerindian relations pretty much eased into the pattern established prior to 1803. As during the Dutch rule, these relations were based upon a regular distribution of presents for services rendered which was carried out by the postholders. The office of the postholder had survived the transition of power between the European metropoles and continued to play a pivotal role in the colonial administration of Guyana. Although the postholders operated under a categorical ban against any form of mistreatment of the Amerindians, it seems the reality of their day-to-day work proved far removed from the official guidelines. In fact, the postholders had an unenviable reputation for mismanagement and abuse. The opinion of a certain Captain J. E. Alexander of the 42nd Highlanders, who visited British Guiana not long before the abolition of slavery, can be seen as representative of the criticism they received. Capt. Alexander describes the postholders as “altogether unprincipled and worthless, shamelessly neglecting or abusing the charge committed to them. Their sole aim seemed to be to enrich themselves, or to find the means of living a debauched life by inducing the Indians to cut wood for them by presents of rum, therefore demoralising the people they were intended to protect”(qtd. Menezes 82-83). Menezes’s book gives full consideration to the numerous detractors of the postholder’s position and yet, it attempts tokeep a comprehensive and dispassionate account of the overall role which those officials played in the British colonial establishment. The author dwells on the hardships which the postholder’s occupation entailed, namely, the isolated life; the extreme, often unhealthy, climate; and the paltry financial reward. She also points out instances where the postholders’ actions did indeed benefit the Amerindian population –mostly to protect them against other ethnic groups or to prevent inter-tribal violence (83-84). Yet, despite these concessions, Menezes delivers a negative verdict on the overall impact which the postholders had on the indigenous population of British Guiana. The systematic exploitation and demoralisation to which they subjected the Amerindians ensured that, in her own words, “[t]he balance sheet of their record was not at all in their favour” (Menezes 91). However, the postholders were not the only officials to blame for the failures of the British policy towards the Amerindians in the first half of the nineteenth century; Menezes believes the responsibility should be shared equally by their superiors, the Protectors of Indians. The Protector of Indians was an unsalaried post of high prestige, held by certain members of the Court of Policy, within whose remit fell the care for the Amerindian population of a particular district as well as the supervision and control of the local postholder’s activities. Since the Protectors were designated by law as official mediators between the Amerindians and the Government, they were uniquely positioned to influence the official policy towards the indigenous population of the colony. It was they who provided information to the Government on the current situation of the Amerindians of a particular region and suggested measures aimed at resolving outstanding problems. As regards their routine obligations of ensuring friendly relations with the Indians, the Protectors succeeded admirably. They oversaw the construction of accommodation for those of them who congregated at the posts and towns; arranged for the provision of medical care at the posts; addressed their complaints to the legal authorities; and nominated tribal captains and other individuals for

special commendation and presents. However, all these activities required a rather superficial engagement with the Amerindian population and were aimed, as Menezes perceptively concludes, at preserving the status quo of inter-ethnic colonial relations. Like their subordinates, the postholders, the Protectors remained above all distributors of gifts whose interest in the Amerindians did not go beyond what was considered expedient at the time. It is hardly surprising, then, that they too received accusations of incompetence, indifference and corruption – accusations which, as Menezes asserts, played a role in the 1838 decision of the Court of Policy to replace the Protector’s office with that of the Superintendent of Rivers and Creeks. The postholders, who had shared in the failures of the Protectors, remained unaffected by the 1838 Ordinance, but were merged into the Superintendent’s office in 1843. Ostensibly, the appointment of Superintendents of Rivers and Creeks opened a new page in the relationship between the colonial authorities and the Amerindians. And yet, as Menezes puts it, the “new office did not create, in turn, new and model men” (109). There were indeed some improvements on the old Protectorship system. For example, the Superintendents could no longer distribute gratuities to the Amerindians at public expense, nor could they enter into business transactions with them, which closed off many an avenue for abuse. Also, some of the good practices of the old establishment were carried on further: the Superintendents settled disputes amongst Amerindians as well as between Amerindians and others, provided medical assistance when necessary, and put forth tribal chiefs for special recognition by the Governor. However, the primary focus of their activity was moving away from the indigenous population and towards the natural assets of the Guyanese Interior. Ordinance No. 14 of 1861 brought Crown Lands under the jurisdiction of the Superintendents to ensure the Government’s control over the growing timber industry. In accordance with this new legislation, Superintendents were expected to oversee that all woodcutters in their area were in possession of official licenses, which were an increasingly important source of revenue for the colony. These essentially law-enforcing powers were further expanded in 1869 and 1871. Eventually, the Government’s ambition to manage efficiently its timber and land resources led to the replacement of the Superintendents with Crown Surveyors, Commissaries of Taxation and Stipendiary Magistrates in 1873. Menezes describes the 1873 decision as a pivotal moment in the British policy towards the Amerindians of Guiana as it “stripped away the last mask of the pretext of Indian protection” (126). Although the Ordinance abolishing the Superintendent’s post did uphold the previous legislation pertaining to the indigenous population, this was above all a default action that could not obscure the Government’s lack of interest in Indian affairs. After the Government had absolved itself from any actual responsibility towards the Amerindians, it was only the different Christian denominations in the colony that remained in close contact with them. Menezes’s book includes a detailed and engaging analysis of the history of Christian proselytising in British Guiana, the beginnings of which can be traced back to the work of Rev. John Armstrong of the Church Missionary Society. In 1831 Rev. Armstrong requested a permission of Governor D’Urban, to set up a mission at the confluence of the Cuyuni, Mazaruni and Essequibo

Chronicle Pepperpot March 16, 2014 Rivers. The mission, Bartica Grove, was to become the first of a number of Christian outposts on the territory of British Guiana, all of which were established by organisations such as the London Missionary Society, the Church Missionary Society, and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts,among others. The missionaries saw their task not simply as converting “heathen souls” to the Christian faith but also as introducing “native minds” to the habits of Western thought. They set out to educate the Indians following the Chapel-School tradition of Day and Sunday schools, whose subjects and timetables were modelled after the established practices in the metropole. Since adult Indians proved far less susceptible to Christian lore than their offspring, the missionaries focused their efforts on the latter. At Bartica, Amerindian children received tuition in Psalmody, Church history, English history, Writing, Arithmetic, Composition, as well as in Manual labour – more specifically, cleaning, weeding, planting and carpentry. Yet even with regard to the Amerindian children, the “civi-lising” endeavour of the missionaries met with many, often insurmountable, difficulties. Native parents were often reluctant to part with their young ones for long which precluded any possibility for continuous and systematic education. There were also significant cultural differences as to what constituted good parenting: Reverend J. H. Bernau at Bartica thought the Amerindian children were “hopelessly pampered and spoiled”(Menezes 215). But perhaps the most serious problem of the missionary enterprise seems to have been the lack of support and funding on the part of the colonial administration. The attitude of most Governors towards “civilising” the Indians was lukewarm, at best, whereas the Combined Court considered it unjustifiable profligacy. A notable exception to the general disposition was Governor Henry Light, but even he could not induce the Court to consider Amerindian education a worthwhile investment. After discussing in depth the social and political climate which determined the progress of Christianisation of the Amerindians in British Guiana, Menezes presents the reader with a balanced appraisal of the missionary endeavour as a whole. Instructing the indigenous people in literacy, numeracy and practical skills were certainly positive steps towards their integration into the colonial society, and yet the framework under which this instruction was carried out was highly problematic. As Menezes puts it “the missionary, from the height of his religious, cultural superiority, looked down on the inferior Indian whom he felt obliged to uplift, Christianize, and civilize”(212) – an attitude which the concept of the White Man’s Burden has rendered indistinguishable from imperial conquest. Menezes’s book concludes with a brief summary chapter of the British policy towards the Amerindians during the first seventy years of their rule over Guyana. The author’s recapitulation elicits one key principle which seems to have dominated all aspects of the British intervention in indigenous affairs – the principle of “expediency” . For there was no other purpose but the purpose at hand that motivated the disparate, inconclusive and outright contradictory actions which the British adopted towards the native population of their South American colony. Menezes describes their policy as “a conglomerate of the policy of liberal and conservative, pro- and anti-humanitarian members of the Colonial Office, of sugarminded and money-grubbing members of the Combined Court, of strong- and weak-willed Governors, of interested and uninterested officials, and of zealous missionaries”(255). Thus, it can be concluded, there was no one British policy towards the Amerindians that characterised the period between 1803 and 1873. Instead, there was a multitude of policies, each reflecting the ethics and politics of its agent. Works Cited: Menezes, Mary Noel. British Policy towards the Amerindians in British Guiana, 1803-1873. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977


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The right to speak

I have a little problem that has been going on for a long time. I have no feelings whatsoever for anyone or anything.  I feel so numb it isn't funny.  Or rather I should say this is the face I show the world. I can't even say I love you to my mom though I love her dearly.  I can't express my emotions to others at all.  If I express my feelings, I'll be hurt.  A lot happened in my life to cause me to choose not to be emotionally involved. My dad and I were close when I was younger, but after my parents' divorce I never had a relationship with him.  I was exposed to many physical encounters that were not appropriate for a child, but no one else knows about that and my family doesn't understand me. This affects my relationship with men and people in general.  I am wounded at 21.  I only seem to attract people who use and hurt me.  I'm tired of holding in the pain, but I don't know what to do anymore. CHRISTY Christy, you know where you got lost.  It was when you were molested.  That needs to be dealt with now.  None of us can live with a discrepancy between our interior world and the exterior world. Numbness, emotional withholding, and the inability to say "I love you" are textbook signs of sexual abuse.  Right now you think your problem is unique.  If you knew others with your background, you would see how much you have in common.  The first step, and the most difficult, is finding a support group or individual working with people who have had your experience.  When it occurred, you were too young and vulnerable to do anything about it.  You tried to close the door on your pain.  But closing the door on pain also closed the door on truth and happiness. You have a right to breathe fully, to speak freely, and to live completely.  You have a right to connect with others in an open and honest way.  But harsh experience took those rights away from you.  Finding your voice again will explain a lot to those close to you.  Finding your voice will free you. Someone once said: "If you weren't scared, then you weren't brave."  It is time to be brave and reclaim your birthright as a human being. Wayne & Tamara

Coming Of Age ****************************************

I got married to a girl two years ago. My parents found the girl, we met three times and I went back to the country where I work. I said yes because I didn't have anything to say no to because she is a nice girl, well-cultured, well-behaved and everything my family wanted. A few months after our engagement I realized I am not at all connected to her and don't have the feelings for her I am supposed to have. I didn't have any kind of attraction, so I wanted to call off the wedding. I spoke to the girl and told her the issue and told the same to my parents, but since we are from a conservative society, it was too late to back out and I went ahead with the marriage. After the wedding, like every couple, we had lots of fights and quarrels over all kinds of issues. At the same time we did everything to build the relationship. She always did things out of love for me, and I did things because as a husband, I am supposed to do them. I have been a very caring husband, and she has been equally or more caring towards me. From a third person's point of view, our marriage looks perfect, but I don't have any attraction towards my wife. I don't feel like getting physical with her; most of the time we have sex only because I have avoided it for many days. Two months ago I told my wife I don't feel connected even after two years of marriage. Since then life has been very difficult for us. We've been living apart for ten days. My parents and family members are trying to convince us everything will be fine, you have to give it time, and so forth. My wife still can't believe what I told her, because if there was no love, I wouldn't be so caring. I am supposed to give my final answer about the marriage in a few days so she can tell her parents and family. I am so confused. SANJAY Sanjay, a popular song after World War I asked the question, "How 'ya gonna keep 'em down on the farm after they've seen Paree?" These days everyone has seen Paris, or at least they could. The world is a small place, as small as the nearest smart phone. For people who believe in arranged marriage the question is, how are you going to keep them in an arranged marriage when they see people their own age around the world free to marry whomever they choose? Arranged marriage depended on two things. People had no access to another way, and social pressure could be used to bring young people into line. But both those things are collapsing. Many young people in conservative cultures see arranged marriage as no more than putting a stallion and a mare together, and hoping for the best. But people are not livestock and times are changing. We have access to more and more things. People are less dependent on those around them, and they are not so easily threatened into doing what someone else wants them to do. You know your experience, and you know members of your family don't have to live within your marriage. They don't know you better than you know yourself. Where is their proof that you will ever like this? You are a man who works for a living, yet you don't have a right to say, "I don't want to share a bed with this woman." Why is that right? Why don't you have a right to choose a wife? Those are the questions. There is no reason to think your feelings about this marriage will ever change. Though your family wants to keep you down on the farm, it is already too late. Wayne & Tamara

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Chronicle Pepperpot March 16, 2014

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Move to have cop charged with murder failed Inquest says no one criminally concerned

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ECAUSE the jury from a Coroner’s Inquest returned a verdict that no one was criminally concerned with the death of Oswald Tappin in 1972, dissatisfied mother Gladys Tappin was engaged in a legal battle for a murder charge against policeman Francis Lucas. She lost the battle. She instituted a private murder charge against Lucas which was discontinued by the Director of Public Prosecutions. And her appeals to the court for Nisi Mandamus Order for a murder charge against the policeman who allegedly shot her son in the back, was refused on appeal to the Full Court and the Guyana Court of Appeal. The appellant’s son was shot by the respondent, a police officer. A Coroner’s Inquest was held in which the jury returned a verdict that nobody was criminally responsible for the son’s death. The appellant next filed private information in which she charged the respondent with murdering her son. Upon the information coming before a magistrate , the latter read out a letter in open court purporting to be signed by the Director of Public Prosecution and discontinuing the information under Article 47 (1) ( c ) of the Constitution of Guyana. Thereupon the magistrate ordered the discontinuing of the private criminal proceedings and discharged the respondent. The appellant, represented by Attorney-at-Law Mr. Samuel Brotherson, applied to the Full Court for an Order of Nisi for a mandamus against the magistrate’s order. The Full Court held: (i) the question of the respondent’s criminal responsibility was decided at the inquest. The Coroner’s jury having absolved the respondent from criminal blame by finding he was not responsible; it was not legally competent for the magistrate to enquire into a charge of murder based on the same facts. (ii) The Director of Public Prosecution exercised his power in person and in compliance with Article 47 (2) (c), having signed the letter of discontinuance and directed it to the adjudicating magistrate. Further, there was no necessity as contend, to admit the letter in evidence in the proceedings before the magistrate. (iii) Article 47 (3) does not make it incumbent on the Director of Public Prosecution or any officer or agent of his to appear in court. The cases referred to by the Full Court are: (1) Harold Beresford 36 Cr. App.R2 (2) Connelly vs DPP 48 Cr. App.R183 (Editor’s Note: The decision of the Full Court was affirmed on appeal to the Guyana Court of Appeal. See (1973) 20 W. I. R. 229) According to the judgment of the court, this was an application by Gladys Tappin for an Order of mandamus under Section 37 (1) of the Summary Jurisdiction (Appeals) Ordinance, Chapter 17. The application requested an Order of Mandamus commanding Rudolph H. Harper, Senior Magistrate of the Georgetown Magistrate’s Court forthwith to discontinue hearing and determining a charge for murder instituted against the respondent Police (PC) Constable Francis Lucas. This application at one and the same time requested an Order of Mandamus against the said PC 8255 Francis Lucas that he should show cause why he should not stand trial for murder under the said charge. The application, in addition to the orders above requested, further requested that Mr. E. A. Romao, the Director of Public Prosecution should show cause, how and when the proceedings in respect of the said murder were discontinued. The judgment added: “We are of the view that the two latter requests for orders in this application were misconceived.” The application also stated that on December 13, 1972 the said Magistrate Mr. Rudolph Harper ordered a discontinuance of the trial of the said murder charge on the erroneous legal ground that the Director of Public Prosecution had discontinued the said proceedings under paragraph 1 ( c ) of Article 47 of the Constitution of Guyana by virtue of a letter and ever since that day had refused to adjudicate on the said murder charge. The facts on which the applicant relied were set out in her affidavit in support of the motion and in paragraph 11 of her affidavit she stated that an inquest was held into the circumstances surrounding the

death of Oswald Tappin and that the Coroner’s jury returned a verdict that no one was criminally concerned in the cause of his death. In her affidavit she also expressed the opinion as distinct from any assertion of fact which may support or justify such an opinion that she did not feel that she had justice at the Coroner’s Court at the inquest. An Order of Mandamus is not granted merely to assuage By George Barclay the feelings of any particular person. She expressed the opinion also that she felt that it was a clear case of murder. She was not in a position to determine the legality and sufficiency of and evaluate the evidence and degree of proof in relation to any offence, moreso that of murder. That was a matter for a competent jury. When the motion came up for hearing before this court the counsel for the appellant reiterated what was substantially set out in the affidavit in support of the motion. He said also that he was not questioning the right of the Director of Public Prosecution to discontinue the proceedings, but rather was saying that the letter by which the Director of Public Prosecution purported to have discontinued the proceedings could not have been acted upon by the magistrate because it was not part of the proceedings before the said magistrate. The letter in question was produced for the benefit of this court by His Worship Mr. Rudolph Harper who was in court at the hearing of the motion. The power of the Director of Public Prosecution to discontinue criminal proceedings is a supervening power on the magistrate or any court and is not a factor which the magistrate can question or take into account in the consideration and determination of proceedings before him. The magistrate or court has only the corresponding obligation to comply with the exercise of that power. According to the judgment of the Full Court it, therefore, follows that in terms of Section 39 of the Coroner’s Ordinance Chapter 13, the Director of Public Prosecution must be presumed to have had all the records and minutes of the proceedings at the inquest transmitted to him and to have addressed and exercised his mind on them before taking the decision to discontinue the proceedings initiated by the applicant before the magistrate as he did and to have acted in good faith at all times when he did so “ omnia praesumuntur rite …….esse actu.” The Full Court was constituted by Justices Akbar Khan, Charles Fung-A-Fat and Horace Mitchell. That court refused the Order of Nisi applied for.


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Chronicle Pepperpot March 16, 2014


Chronicle Pepperpot March 16, 2014

A significant portion of our population is supported in their habit of chronic dental neglect by unaffordable care despite the valiant effort by the government to provide almost free service. Notwithstanding, perhaps an equally portion of our dentists’ population is now also suffering due to the elimination of rampant tooth decay by widespread education, such as this column. The future and financial success of the profession as that supply of senior patients slowly decreases and disappears, will depend on delivery of cosmetic treatments. While the demand for restorative procedures may decrease, the supply of dental graduates is increasing. I believe that substantial decreases in fees will soon reach out to the enormous number of individuals who cannot now afford desired care. The profession is now focusing on completion of cosmetic treatments. Artistic talent will always be required when the dentist takes out his high-speed drill. Combined efficiency of that instrument plus the options and permanence of new cosmetic products will hopefully ensure availability of affordable attractive smiles. Those considering smile improvement will find that most, if not all, offices free cosmetic consultation. This is the case in the Unites States where, for example, only a few days ago I visited a colleague Dr. Cook in Coral Gables, Florida, in which he confirmed it. Patients considering cosmetic improvements should prepare by studying the characteristic features that contribute to design of an attractive smile, features that vary only slightly. I refer to such a smile as a “classic smile”. Accept that perfectly aligned and shaped anterior teeth may appear quite monotonous, uninteresting, without the all-important characteristic incisal-edge design. That biting edge of front teeth is critical to the character of an attractive smile. Proper tooth shape, size, and alignment are important, but the incisal edge that those teeth reveal is as cosmetically important as the smile’s other features. Shape and incisal edges of centrals and laterals furnish more character than do any other teeth. Features of the upper centrals, the two teeth at the middle of the dental arch, form a long contact as they meet, which contributes to their squarissh shape. The adjacent teeth, the laterals, must also be a bit squarish. Only the canines (eye teeth) are roundish; it reveals a bolder look from its larger size and length. It extremely important how much longer centrals are than the laterals. The incisal edge of both must be flattish, not curved. The canine, a touch longer than the laterals, has an angled incisal edge that should be a touch rounded. A bit too long will furnish an undesirable Dracula-like look. It might be best to request that your dentist who is being paid to do your smile makeover provides you with a few photos of before and after work he or she has done on previous patients and then compare their work with the tips I have given.

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YVONNE De CARLO:

One of Hollywood’s elite

Chronicle Pepperpot March 16, 2014

Yvonne De Carlo was born Margaret Yvonne Middleton on September 1, 1922 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. She was three when her father abandoned the family. Her mother turned to waitressing in a restaurant to make ends meet--a rough beginning for an actress who would, one day, be one of Hollywood's elite. Yvonne's mother wanted her to be in the entertainment field and enrolled her in a local dance school and also saw that she studied dramatics. Yvonne was not shy in the least. She was somewhat akin to Colleen Moore who, like herself, entertained the neighborhood with impromptu productions. In 1937, when Yvonne was 15, her mother took her to Hollywood to try for fame and fortune, but nothing came of it and they returned to Canada. They came back to Hollywood in 1940, where Yvonne would dance in chorus lines at night while she checked in at the studios by day in search of film work.

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YVONNE De CARLO ... From page X

After appearing in unbilled parts in three short films, she finally got a part in a feature. Although the film Harvard, Here I Come! (1941) was quite lame, Yvonne shone in her brief appearance as a bathing beauty. The rest of 1942 and 1943 saw her in more uncredited roles in films that did not quite set Hollywood on fire. In The Deerslayer (1943), she played Wah-Tah. The role did not amount to much, but it was much better than the ones she had been handed previously. The next year was about the same as the previous two years. She played small parts as either secretaries, someone's girlfriend, native girls or office clerks. Most aspiring young actresses would have given up and gone home in defeat, but not Yvonne. She trudged on. The next year, started out the same, with mostly bit parts, but later that year, she landed the title role in Salome Where She Danced (1945) for Universal Pictures. While critics were less than thrilled with the film, it was at long last her big break, and the film was a success for Universal. Now she was rolling. Her next film was the western comedy Frontier Gal (1945) as Lorena Dumont. After a year off the screen in 1946, she returned in 1947 as Cara de Talavera in Song of Scheherazade (1947), and many agreed that the only thing worth watching in the film was Yvonne. Her next film was the highly regarded Burt Lancaster prison film Brute Force (1947). Time after time, Yvonne continued to pick up leading roles, in such pictures as Slave Girl (1947), Black Bart (1948), Casbah (1948) and River Lady (1948). She had a meaty role in Criss Cross (1949), a gangster movie, as the ex-wife of a hoodlum. At the start of the 1950s, Yvonne enjoyed continued success in lead roles. Her talents were again showcased in movies such as The Desert Hawk (1950), Silver City (1951) and Scarlet Angel (1952). Her last film in 1952 was

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Hurricane Smith (1952), a picture most fans and critics agree is best forgotten. In 1956, she appeared in the film that would immortalize her best, The Ten Commandments (1956). She played Sephora, the wife of Moses (Charlton Heston). The film was, unquestionably, a super smash, and is still shown on television today. Her performance served as a springboard to another fine role, this time as Amantha Starr in Band of Angels (1957). In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Yvonne appeared on such television series as Bonanza (1959) and The Virginian (1962). However, with film roles drying up, she took what turned out to be the role for which she will be best remembered--that of Lily Munster in the smash series The Munsters (1964). However, she still was not completely through with the big screen. Appearances in such films as McLintock! (1963), The Power (1968), The Seven Minutes (1971) and La casa de las sombras (1976) kept her before the eyes of the moviegoing public. Yvonne De Carlo died at age 84 of natural causes on January 8, 2007 in Woodland Hills, California.


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Chronicle Pepperpot March 16, 2014

VISHNU BANDHU: A passionate social and community worker By Michelle Gonsalves

Very few persons are as committed to serving their fellowman as businessman Vishnu Bandhu, who believes that charity begins at home. A social and community worker all his life, he continues to put in his time and money to promote culture, peace, health and goodwill. Bandhu currently owns a construction company by the name of V.B. New Approach General Construction Inc. in Guyana, but due to his earnest desire to serve others he is the President of the United Federation of Arts and Culture (U.F.A.C), the West Demerara Arya Samaj, the International President of Interstate Sigfa Health Organisation (ISHO) New York and has been recently appointed international co-coordinator of SIGFA Solutions India, Faridabad, (NCR Delhi). Bandhu was born on December 4, 1951, at Windsor Forest a rice farming village on the West Coast Demerara. He attended the St. Anthony Anglican School. After school he worked as a counter clerk in Georgetown and was an Organising Secretary in the Windsor Forest Arya Samaj (Religious Movement). He got married in 1971 and joined the Guyana Transport Services Ltd on the West Coast Demerara as a bus driver in the year 1974. In 1975 he organised the first Centenary Foundation Celebration of the Arya Samaj of the West Demerara Region which has grown today to be one of the largest celebrations of the Arya Samaj not only in Guyana but also in the United States of America and Canada. That same year he migrated to Toronto, Canada. He joined Oscar’s Surplus Company in Toronto as a salesman, and his boss gave him the nick name “JOHN”. After one year of hard work he was promoted as General Manager for Oscar’s Carpet Company in Toronto. Two years later he started his own carpet business called JOHN’S CARPET on Queens Street West, Toronto. The following year he opened JOHNS INTERNATIONAL IMPORT EXPORT and JOHN’S INTERNATIONAL RECORDS COMPANY. He was the President for all these businesses. By this time he had helped to found the Toronto Arya Samaj and in the year 1978 he produced the first long playing Arya Samaj Record (LP) in the world name ATMA SHANTI, meaning “Peace for the Soul” with eight devotional songs. In 1980 he returned to Guyana and was a member of the central Demerara Lions’ Club. In 1981 he migrated to the United States of America and became a founding member and the first president of the ARYA SAMAJ U.S.A which was for many years the nucleus of Arya Samaj activities in the U.S. He then later joined a Manufacturing Picture Company in Long Island City, Queens, New York and became one of the first wholesale outdoor salesmen. Six months later he bought over one of the huge furniture stores he used to supply pictures to in Broadway, Brooklyn, N.Y. He then renamed the store EXPO DISTRUBUTOR where he sold furniture, carpet, and pictures and organised shipping to Guyana. Then in the year 1983 he started the first West Indian Cultural News Paper called CARRIBBEAN AWAKE. After a few months the newspaper turned into a political mouth piece for Guyana. The same year he opened one of the first West Indian Night clubs on Hillside, Queens, New York called CARRIBBEAN CONNECTION. He then started a half hour radio programme and later opened a second furniture store in Jamaica, Queens, N.Y. In 1985, after continuing to hear the cries of the Guyanese people in the then Burnham (PNC) days, Vishnu Bandhu led a team of people to form a Political Party in March, 1985 called UNITED REPUBLICAN PARTY OF GUYANA (in New York) . In May 1986, in the name of the UNITED REPUBLICAN PARTY OF GUYANA

he organised the first Guyana Beauty Pageant Cultural Evening at Brooklyn College in New York and also took the party to the first India Day Parade in 1987 in Manhattan, N.Y. where the party had its own UNITED REPUBLICAN PARTY OF GUYANA float, and was the first West Indian organisation to ever take part. From 1985 to 1987 he and his party executives organised many groups across the United States of America and Toronto, Canada to conduct tremendous ground work, travelling to Washington to meet with members of the US Congress to lobby for restoration of democracy in Guyana. Two years later, in November 1987, the UNITED REPUBLICAN PARTY OF GUYANA was formally launched at 43 Croal Street, Stabroek, and Georgetown, Guyana. Vishnu Bandhu sold his business allowed hi children to stay in the U.S.A. and Canada and went to Guyana to take up residence at Vreed-en-Hoop on the West Coast Demerara, Guyana. There he lived for another nine years working tirelessly and doing work in the political field. It was not easy – he was locked up many times for political reasons and on one occasion was even shot at, when he was at his residence. In 1989, a soldier vehicle crashed into his vehicle on the West Bank Demerara causing severe injuries to his body, which left him crippled for several months. In 1990 he opened a business call EXPO MARKETING in Georgetown, Guyana, where he started importing MOLSON BEERS from the United States, sneakers from China and mattresses and food items from Trinidad. In 1993 he opened a Wholesale Retail business called “PEOPLE’S GENERAL STORE” at Vreed-en-Hoop on the West Coast Demerara. The business became very popular. At Christmas time he sponsored Santa Claus and other fun things for kids. During this time he also campaigned in the 1992 General Elections for free and fair elections. In 1994 for Guyana Independence Day, he organised at the Vreed-en-Hoop Ferry Stelling one of the largest Cultural Evenings ever seen on that side, featuring fireworks by the Army. In the same year he started the construction of the Vreed-en-Hoop Arya Samaj Mandir which took him about 10 years to complete because of finance. He later returned to the United States of America and continued to be an independent individual who financed the completion of the project. Today the Mandir is a masterpiece on the West Coast Demerara. In 1994 he also started the National day of Prayer at the Joe Vera Park on the West Bank Demerara in Guyana. It was led by himself, Dr. Satish Prakash and Prime Minister Samuel Hinds with the help of the police, the army band and thousands of people who

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marched from the Park to the Vreed-en-Hoop Arya Samaj Mandir which is about three miles away. After that, in 1994, he contested the Best/Klien Pouderoyen Local Government elections where he won a seat. He has promoted various religious and cultural shows in Guyana such as stage shows, cultural fairs, signing competitions, Diwali Beauty Pageants, etc. With the help of his wife Amelia, Bandhu has also been known to do other activities for the benefit of senior citizens and children. The couple organised government and private vehicles to transport senior citizens from their homes as far as Parika, East Bank Essequibo and Wales, Canal Polder on the West Bank Demerara to Vreeden-Hoop Ferry Stelling for Christmas Parties and arranged with the army and private companies to prepare meals , entertainment and sharing of gifts. They also furnished and provided an educational programme which includes computers for a Computer School for the Community. In 1996, before returning to United States of America, he coordinated and promoted the Guyana Mashramani celebrations for the government throughout Guyana. Life is not without setbacks and sometime around this period he returned to the United States of America penniless and he had to start his life all over again. Depressed and frustrated, he had no idea what to do and stayed out of public life. He took a security job, and then he started studies for different types of license – bus, CDL and yellow cab driver’s license. Soon he started driving a yellow cab for a period until he started a construction company called V.N.R. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION COOPERATION. After a few months into the construction company he started an Investment company called GUY AMERICA DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISES CORP, through which he started borrow money to purchase lands and construct houses. He became the first major developer in the East New York, Brooklyn area and in August 2005 he was featured in the New York Times special article for developing poor neighbourhoods in the Brooklyn Area. In 2006 he invested in building condominiums in Dominican Republic. After that he became a licensed Realtor and he opened a Real Estate Mortgage Company in Brooklyn. He became the President of the UNITED ARYA SAMAJ FEDERATION which is the mother body of all the ARYA SAMAJ branches in the Tri state Area - New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. In 2008 he formed a company in Guyana call Guy America Investment Inc, Also I.T.S. Energy Services (Guyana) Inc which he is the President, he also has many other Investments in Guyana and at present he controls about 20 Million Dollars in Real Estate Investment. Currently he is nurturing the principle of Sigfa healing Mantra in his own life and has started Sigfa health education classes. These classes tap into the healing current of God to heal and cure any kind of disease in the body, such as heart disease, blood pressure, Cholesterol, diabetes, Hepatitis-c. Cancer, etc., take place free of cost at a number of locations in Guyana, the principal one being the Vreed-en-hoop Arya Samaj Mandir every Sunday at 3.45 PM.  


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FOLKLORE

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Pork Knocker Saga By Neil Primus

Five drunken men disagreed about how Pork Knockers get their name. A drunken bush man said that after finding gold or diamond in the backdam, the man would come out, go to the store and call for his ration of pork. The second man was not as drunk as his friend and this was his contribution: “A man who knock about from pot to pot is a Pork Knocker.” “No way!” The third drinker got into the fray: “I hear that when a man searching for gold and he poking and nocking to find gold, that is how they get

that name” “N…..N…..N……Nonsense.” The third fellow was more drunk than the previous two, but he still gave his bit. “Pork Knocker is anybody who go bush fo look fo gold.” The oldest man among them

true it is. She say that once, deep in Guyana’s rainforest there was a small Amerindian settlement of about thirty people. They all lived happily, farming, hunting and fishing for their sustenance. With no school nearby, the children would help with work at home

had been taking quick shots of rum while they were arguing and he decided to intervene. “All a yo shut up and listen, a Pork Knocker is somebody who does knock (eat) pork.” Everybody started laughing and drinks started flowing again. At the next table another group of bush men were drinking. One of them decided to tell his friends a story. His name is Lieburt, so I am not sure if you could believe everything he said. This is how he told it: “Me great granny hear this from she auntie who get it from she uncle cousin. Now I can’t track them down to find out how

or in the farm. When they were not working, they would be swimming or playing. One day two brothers got bored playing and decided to go for a walk in the jungle. This was nothing strange to them because they had done this many times before.” “Reuben was ten and Basil was seven. They knew the nearby jungle well and had played there many times. The two boys headed away from the village looking for fruits. As they walked, they picked fruits and ate. After a few hours, they headed for a small Please turn to page XXX


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From page XXVIII creek to drink and swim.” “When they arrived there the two boys ran and plunged into the shallow water. Rollicking and playing, then headed for the shore. As they emerged from the water, they noticed a beautiful, fluffy kitten near the water’s edge. Basil ran forward and picked it up. He would take it home with him. He smiled with joy.” “Slowly, the boys make their way back towards their village. Reuben stopped twice to look around him. He had a funny feeling of being watched. Taking his smaller brother’s hand, he hastened their steps for home.” “From out of nowhere a mother jaguar pounced on the boys. She vented all her fury on Basil and slightly injured Reuben. Grabbing her cub, she sped back into the jungle. By the time it was all over Basil lay dead on the jungle floor.” “Reuben picked him up and even though he himself was bleeding badly, he carried his brother’s body back to the village. What a tragic sight for the quiet village. There was great moaning and anger. A hunting party was hastily put together and they departed the village with one intention only; ‘Kill the jaguar’. Unfortunately, three were killed without knowledge as to whether one of them was the killer jaguar.” Sugrim decided to share this with his buddies: “Hear na, I tellin it as I get it – One time some fellas decided to try they hand at pork knocking. They pool they money, buy ration and tools and gone backdam. They pitch camp, cook and eat. When they finish eating, one man gone down to de creek fo wash wares while de other five gaffing round de fire.” “Otis meet down at de creek and start fo wash de wares. Out of de corner of he eye he see a snake. Quick as a King Cobra, he kill it wid he cutlass. He finish washing and went back to the camp. When he tell de others, they all went down to see it. Is then they realize that is Bush Master he kill. They tell he how he lucky and then everybody gone an sleep.” “Next morning, everybody gone fo look fo gold. They spend all day an come back late afternoon, hungry and tired. Alfred had fo cook so he went at de creek fo full water. He see de snake laying they but he ignore it. While he fulling water, the snake rise up and bite he several times. He scream fo help and all de others came running. When they get there de man lay dying. Is then they remember bush folklore about Bushmaster.” “Yo see, Bushmaster does move in pairs. If yu kill one, de mate does move de dead snake and lie right there. Any man pass, is bite in dey tail.” Poor Alfred pay dare fo learn.” “Jus then a man stumble in de rum shop and shout at de top of he voice.” “I knock up me lady.” Then he fall down dead drunk. But dat is another story.

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ARIES - You've been dealing with all kinds of awesome and unusual people lately, and loving every minute of it. There's one more new acquaintance coming your way today, thanks to an influx of social energy that should keep that parade of people you need to meet up with going strong. Whether they turn out to be friends or enemies (or something else entirely) is up in the air, but who cares? It's like a social buffet. Treat yourself to a little taste of everything. TAURUS - That new persona you're working on is probably quite well outfitted at this point, since you're super-thorough. You're likely to need to deal with cash flow, though, so check the balance on your credit cards -- and balance your cheque book, if you can. You probably have nothing to fear, but even if you've done some serious damage, think of it as the price you pay for rebirth. GEMINI - It might not feel completely comfortable to you -- at least at first -- but you're on centre stage for at least a couple of days, and probably longer. It's far better to just accept it and try to get your loved ones used to the idea, because if they're staying close by, they may also find the spotlight trained on them. Of course, there are definitely worse things than being worshiped by a throng of admirers. Check out the bright side! CANCER - The universe is trying to push you into some sweet new social encounters, and there may be a touch of romance in the air too. This is a lovely combination on its own, but if there's someone you've been secretly thinking about, and you're wondering if they're doing the same -- the news is especially good. Don't be surprised if you receive a startlingly precise answer to that question via a seeming coincidence. LEO - You know exactly what you want, which is cause for admiration and envy among your peers. At the moment, though, you're torn between being good (taking care of chores, family needs and personal care) and being bad -- which basically means staying up as late as you like and forgetting about anything past tonight. The final decision rests with your conscience. If you're facing the right (or wrong) temptation, there won't be a contest. VIRGO - Everyone around you knows you have a way with words -- a gift for presenting logical, practical arguments that are hard to disagree with. That talent comes through for you beautifully today, more so than usual, especially if you add just a touch of charm to the mix. Of course, there's no need to manipulate anyone -- but when you're asking for such a big favour, it doesn't hurt to be nice. LIBRA - If you're thinking about travel, today's amazing mental energy should make it just about impossible for you to resist any longer. If not, why not? You don't even have to decide exactly where you're going -- not just yet, anyway. All you really have to do, is inform the powers that be that you need some time off soon. Once that's done, the situation becomes real and puts you in the mood to choose your destination. SCORPIO - You're thinking about letting a certain special person know just how much you care -- in fact, you've been thinking about doing that for some time now. You're right on the verge of having a sit-down, all-out heart-to-heart to tell them how you feel. There's no point in delay -- you know they feel the same, and you know they want to hear it from you. You've even got someone watching your back right now. Get busy. SAGITTARIUS - It's over -- for now, anyway. That recent work binge has finally come to an end, but that's not to say that you won't be putting in your time and maintaining your professional reputation. You just might also suddenly find that you have quite a bit more time for the people you love. Reintroduce yourself tonight, and rest assured that you'll receive an extremely warm reception. CAPRICORN - After all the good work you've done lately, asking for that raise, bonus or promotion should be trivial. You're confident that you've earned it, but, as usual, your humility is getting the best of you. If you're wondering why they haven't yet offered it to you, remember the old adage about the squeaky wheel getting the grease. Step right up and tell your superiors that you deserve this. AQUARIUS - You've always tended toward objectivity, and are far more prone to erring on the side of rationality than sentimentality. At the moment, though, you're feeling like a regular Hallmark special -- not even a little shy about spouting phrases you would have made fun of not too long ago. It's all thanks to a new burst of emotion that is taking everyone around you by surprise. Revel in it! PISCES - The universe has officially granted you a leave of absence from responsibilities. Your compassion may know no bounds, but you've done absolutely everything you can for the ones you love right now. It's time for them to take care of themselves -- and for you to stop feeling guilty about not being able to do more. Besides, there's someone a bit farther along out there who could do with a bit more of your time and attention.


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