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Soyini Fraser, Miss Guyana 2016 debuts her National Costume on stage at the Mall of Asia Arena on Thursday, January 26, 2017. The contestants have been touring, filming, rehearsing and preparing to compete for the Miss Universe crown in the Philippines. Tune in to the FOX telecast at 7:00 PM ET live/PT tape-delayed on Sunday, January 29, live from the Philippines to see who will become Miss Universe. HO/The Miss Universe Organization

Soyini Fraser Hopes high for

See inside:

From a bakery to a bank ► Page III

Guyana - perfect for weddings Centre ►

Bare Root - struggling for bare necessities XXII ► Page


II

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

Training hits exciting curve By Shirley Thomas CAROL Webster, a remigrant Guyanese, is teaming up with the New Guyana School Inc. to deliver a range of lucrative International Certification Professional programmes, to be conducted at the New Guyana School and online. Webster, a Director of O Squared Consulting, is also authorized training partner of VM Edu, one of the largest global online learning platforms, and an organization that offers certification programmes in Sales and Marketing, as well as in Project Management. Also on the card, will be some International Certification Programmes on the Basics of Petroleum and Gas Technology, to be facilitated by the University of Trinidad and Tobago, but conducted in Guyana, according to Managing Director of the New Guyana School Inc., Mr. Alfonso De Armas. De Armas made this disclosure in a recent interview with the Sunday Chronicle. That programme is scheduled to begin on March 28, 2017, he said. Webster and De Armas, excited about the collaboration and the benefits it will bring to the students, said at Thursday’s launch that the public will be briefed on more International Certification and Professional programmes to be offered. Some of the programames identified by Webster were: Project Management Professional Certification (PMP); Professional Booth Camp; the Certified Access Management Professional (CAMP) Certification; as well as Digital Marketing Certification and introduction of a Project Management framework called

Managing Director of New Guyana School Inc., Mr. Alfonso De Armas and Director of Osquared Consulting, Ms. Carol Webster at the Guyana on a visit to the Guyana Chronicle.cc

SCRUM, including the SCRUM Master Professional; the Agile Expert Certification and the Project Owner Certification. More details on the International Certification Programmes to be facilitated by Ms. Webster will be given to the public at a launch to be held on February 2, 2017, at the Cara Lodge. The launch runs from 17:30 hrs to 19:30 hrs. Interested persons are invited to attend. Meanwhile, the officials said their pricing is very competitive and all programmes

are internationally certified. Tuition will be conducted at the New Guyana School, or alternatively can be done online. “What we are doing is offering flexible packages …to make sure that those persons who have challenges can also benefit from the programmes. They are the same quality and level of certification received internationally. It is just packaged differently to address the needs of the client, Webster said. Outlining some of the features that go with online access, she pointed to: a range

of videos, reinforcing all of the subject areas; flash cards ; simulation exams aps which allow you to do studying wherever you want to, as well as several other online pod casts that will assist the student, among other things. Touching on the main areas of focus for Osquared Consulting, Webster said: “We optimize operations and by that is meant, we improve processes; we establish Best Practices; we assist the management with improving their capacity through training and we coach them to ensure they get the desired results.” In this regard, the collaboration with the New Guyana School is really focused on the training aspect of the team’s professional work, she said. O Square Consulting has been in operation since November 2006. It was registered in the state of Georgia in the United States of America and has been providing a lot of optimization work, Webster said. These include: Improving processes; making sure companies have documented processes; looking at removing barriers; making sure it is streamlined; making sure that the management and staff have basic training- not only to execute efficiently but also to excel. Programmes offered range from intense three and five-days intense learning programmes to 10 and 12-weeks CAPM Programme. The PMP Certification is the leading global Project Management Qualification; the CAPM (Certified Associate in Project Management) is more of the entry level. It prepares persons to get into project Management and be certified. It makes great team leaders and team members. And as they continue to get the experience of managing projects, they are then able to apply for the PMP Certification. It is especially designed to benefit engineers in the IT sector; persons in natural resources; construction people and people who do a lot of events. Extending a welcome to both university graduates and non-graduates, De Armas observed that very often, even though persons would have graduated from universities and have a lot of knowledge, they don’t necessarily have the skills they need to drive performance in the workplace – be it in the private or public sector. Emphasizing that progress is skills-driven and not necessarily knowledge- driven, De Armas concluded: “And it is those skills that are so crucial in really transforming Guyana as a whole.” Interested persons can register early. Contact: Ms. Welch on 225-1807 (New Guyana School) or carolwebster@ osqsuaredconsulting.com or 697-2656 of log on to: newguyanaschoolinc.com


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

DEVELOPMENT from a By Francis Quamina Farrier

On Friday, January 20, 2017 at 4.00 p.m. a new page in the history of the north-eastern corner of Camp Street and South Road in Georgetown, was written. It was the official opening ceremony of the Corporate Head Offices of the Citizens Bank, Guyana Inc.; a multi-billion dollar monetary indigenous enterprise. This brand new structure is the latest in Georgetown's changing skyline and was referred to by some of the speakers at that ceremony, including President David Granger, as an edifice, as indeed it is. That made my thoughts race back in time and thought of what were the buildings and businesses occupying that junction of the city of Georgetown, over the past century and longer. In my research, I discovered that as far back as I was able to investigate, there used to be a wooden residence at that double junction; and I'm referring to the latter part of the 1800s and into the early decades of the 20th century. The first commercial business which was established there was a store which sold mainly haberdashery goods. It was established there about 100 years ago. That did not last for very long, and the premises were occupied as a residence again. But as if the commercial sector was calling, it was again utilized as a Dry Goods store. As the years went by, the Harlequin Family closed that business and established what turned out to be a very thriving and popular bakery - Harlequin's. To my mind, that in a way, signaled that a bank would one day be established at that location. While here in Guyana "cheese" is now the current slang word for money, the older citizens would recall that for many decades "bread" was the slang word for money in the colony of British Guiana. To put bread on the family table, was to have money to buy that food for the members of the household and so money was referred to as "bread." There we have it. The Harlequin Bakery which produced some of the best bread ('bread') and pastries during those waning years of that colonial era was in fact the fore-runner of the Citizens Bank which now dominates that Camp Street and South Road junction and is the custodian of lots of "bread" or "cheese" if you prefer either term. But there is more 'romance' if you will to this story. During his adolescent years, Clifford Barrington Reis, spent many hours at the Harlequin Bakery, which was owned and managed by a close relative of his. He happily recalls even sleeping there at times. Could it be that during those sleep-overs young Clifford experienced what the Holy Bible, Acts 2:17 relates? "Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old

III

BAKERY to a BANK

men will dream dreams."? Was there ever a vision by young Reis that one day he would be, not sleeping at that city location, but wide awake on the evening of Friday, January 20, 2017, and as the Chairman and Managing Director of a spanking new commercial bank, be delivering the Chairman's Address in the presence of the President of

the nation, the Minister of Finance, members of the Diplomatic Corps and other dignitaries and scores of others, at the official opening ceremony of that bank? Years from now, will the Hon. Clifford Barrington Reis, CCH, be not an old man, but an elderly gentleman, who will be dreaming dreams of Citizens Banks in every town in Guyana with thriving branches and tens of thousands of valued and loyal customers? Will he dream dreams of Citizens Bank with trillions of dollars in its vaults. Will Clifford Barrington Reis dream dreams of the day when the Guyana dollar will once again be Two Guyana dollars to One United States dollar, as it was when, as a youngster he enjoyed sleep-overs at the popular Harlequin Bakery of the day? But let's go forward to the past, if you will. In colonial times, the popular Harlequin Bakery dominated that location for decades. Their bread and pastries sought after by many citizens. After a lengthy period, it was replaced by the Universal Bookstore which sold a variety of publications including Cook Books - both local and foreign. That bookstore was operated by Guyanese-born Ovid Holder, who had re-migrated from the United Kingdom, where he had resided for many years, and established what turned out to be a very thriving bookstore. Like the bakery before it, the Universal Bookstore was very successful; so successful that the proprietor Ovid Holder needed a larger space for his operation and moved to a suitable location on Water Street in the

downtown commercial district of the city. Thereafter, that Camp Street and South Road location was acquired by Banks DIH Limited and developed into one of their popular Demico Qik Serve out-lets. Bread was once again made at that Camp and South Road location. The actual building

of that renovated structure was enhanced and embellished with clay bricks, which was the construction building material of choice during those early Republican years of Guyana.

Many citizens who preferred the service and cuisine provided by Banks DIH Qik Serve, flocked there. Sundays were special for Family eat-outs; from the mornings when even the popular Guyanese Pepperpot was available as part of the breakfast if so desired. It was as the businesses before it at that location, very successful. And like the Harlequin Bakery before it, quality bread and pastries were produced there. There was also an unusual element to that establishment; there was a dry cleaning section on the upper floor, which also did pretty good business. At the recent annual Shareholders Meeting held on Tuesday, January 24, 2017, Chairman and Managing Director of Citizens Bank, Clifford Barrington Reis, CCH, related the strides which the bank had made over the past year. He expressed regret that the Charity Branch on the Pomeroon river in Region Number two, had to be closed due to failing financial fortunes in that area of the country. Reis, however, informed the shareholders that all but one of the staffers from that location, were now employed at the Georgetown branch. There are Citizens Bank branches at New Amsterdam, Berbice; Parika, Essequibo; Linden, Upper Demerara River; Bartica, Essequibo River and at Thirst Park in South Georgetown.


IV

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

Using farm waste for biogas as alternative source of energy By Rabindra Rooplall BIOGAS is a gas produced by the breakdown or decomposition of organic waste in the absence of oxygen and comprises a mixture of gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane; this can be used as an alternative energy source instead of firewood and fossil fuels, according to the Guyana Energy Agency (GEA). Public Communications Officer, Taiwo Williams, disclosed that the agency has been monitoring and supporting the installation of bio-digesters. At present there are approximately thirty (30) bio-digesters installed in Guyana that use organic materials to produce biogas. GEA encourages livestock farmers (cattle, pig, etc) to take advantage of this technology and cash in on potential savings. The production of methane gas will help to conserve on imported energy sources (fossil fuels) thereby allowing for savings on energy bills and a positive contribution to

rials (organic materials) from which biogas can be extracted: human and animal manure, leaves, twigs, grasses, garbage, agricultural and industrial wastes with organic content greater than 2%. The biogas produced can be used for cooking, heating, lighting (using gas lamps), electricity generation, operation of farm machinery and other energy needs. The effluent produced from the process can be used as a fertilizer for crops.

the environment. “There are many raw materials (organic materials) from which biogas can be extracted, for example, animal manure, leaves, twigs, grasses and garbage, among others. Biogas production from animal

waste provides a unique opportunity to mitigate the effects of waste produced on farms while providing a cheap and sustainable source of energy,” the GEA underscored. “To facilitate the production of biogas a structure referred to as a bio-digester unit (BDU) is used. A bio- digester aids in the decomposition of organic materials, such as those listed above, to produce methane gas (biogas) that can be used for cooking, heating, lighting (using gas lamps), electricity generation, operation of farm machinery and other energy needs. “A bio-digester unit is a clean, healthy and economic alternative since it not only provides fuel for domestic household use but also provides liquid and solid fertilizers that can be used in farming. This in turn aids in reducing the amount of chemical contaminants (in organic fertilizer) that affects human health and the environment.” The decomposition of waste material during anaerobic digestion is caused by bacterial action rather than high temperatures. It takes place in almost any biological environment, but is favoured by warm, wet and low oxygen conditions. Anaerobic digestion also occurs in two major situations created by human activities: Sewage (human waste) or animal manure. Landfill gas produced by domestic refuse buried at landfill sites. In nature, there are also many raw mate-

COST The cost to set up a bio-digester including parts and labour should be approximately $120,000 and would replace the need for at least one 20-lb LPG gas cylinder per month. The simple payback for the installation based on an average cost $3,600 per 20-lb LPG gas, is just under three years. After year three except for basic maintenance and labour, all gas produced will be free. Biogas is primarily used as a fuel for cooking purposes and electricity generation. Scientific advances have significantly enhanced biogas yield production, leading to the development of commercial or large/ medium scale biogas plants in recent years. In terms of both consumption and production of biogas, Europe leads the other nations mainly due to increased government regulation for renewable energy initiatives. The German experience is particularly impressive. Since the introduction of feed-in-tariffs for biogas in Germany, over 7000 biogas plants have been developed, and are on target to develop 17% of power from biogas. However, although Europe dominates biogas production, the technology application is fast increasing in Japan, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. The Asia-Pacific biogas plants market is displaying strong appetite for growth, especially in the emerging markets such as China and India. Global Analysts, Inc reports that the global biogas plants markets will reach $8.98 billion by the year 2017. The desire to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, heightened attention to eco-friendliness, and government incentive programs will continue to grow investment in biogas facilities.


Film

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

By Subraj Singh

Barry Jenkins’

Moonlight

THE truth is that Damien Chazelle’s modern musical, made with more money, starring more famous people, and offering the perfect means of escaping Trump’s America through the fantasy created by movie magic, will probably take home this year’s Oscar for Best Picture. But what about Barry Jenkins’ film, Moonlight? If it loses to La La Land, what will the future have to say about such a loss? Ten years from such a scenario, will it be possible to hear people say that La La Land actually deserved the award or will the second most popular choice, Moonlight, join the long list of films (Brokeback Mountain, Raging Bull, The Wizard of Oz, etc.) that have failed to win Best Pic-

ture and yet have emerged as classics and, in most cases, have later been recognized as better than the films they lost to. Compelling cases can be made for Hollywood’s highest honour to be given to both films this year, but Moonlight is the focus of this week’s review if only because it feels as though some of the film’s mysteries are still yet to be uncovered, while La La Land wears its themes and ideologies on its proverbial sleeve. The plot of Moonlight focuses on a young boy named Chiron, living with his crack-addict mother. Chiron eventually befriends a crack-dealer named Juan and his girlfriend, Teresa. The film focuses on three stages of Chiron’s life: as a child, as a teen-

(A24, Plan B Entertainment, 2016)

ager, and as an adult, highlighting not only his growth to manhood, but also the ways in which he copes with the society from which he comes and the ways in which he handles his burgeoning homosexuality. Chiron as a child is meek and quiet and it is one of the reasons why the other boys bully him. His relationship with Juan (Mahershala Ali) and Teresa (Janelle Monaé) is probably the best thing in his life at this point in the film and it becomes more obvious when his relationship with them is contrasted with the relationship he has with his neglectful and abusive mother, Paula (Naomie Harris). Mahershala destroys stereotypes by presenting a dealer who has a paternal and caring side. It is a performance that cannot be carried by all actors, as there are sure to be some who are unable to balance the two opposing personas that are represented by Juan. Ali’s major feat is the way he is able to humanize Juan, making movie audiences from all walks of life place their trust in a drug dealer. Monaé is a good actress and although she is mostly known for her music, her performance in Moonlight and another outstanding film this year, Hidden Figures, are sure to make people take note of her acting abilities. Hopefully she gets good roles and continues to be in film. Naomie Harris, as Paula, in my opinion, gives the best performance in this film. The range of accents she has had to perform for her diverse film roles in her acting career is beyond exemplary. She is a stunning and commanding actress and her Academy Award nomination, though late (she should have been nominated in the same category for playing Winnie Mandela in Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom), is definitely well deserved. Harris’ portrayal of Paula is raw and compelling to watch. Her depiction of

V a drug-addict mother is unnerving and she nails arguably the best scene in the film, when Juan and Paula have a confrontation, managing to sum up the character’s rage and inner emotional turmoil and it is truly a piece of acting that everyone needs to see. Sure, I love Viola Davis and I want her to win the Supporting Actress Oscar this year, and yet, there is still a part of me that knows Harris deserves to win as well. As our protagonist grows into a surly, soft-spoken teenager (played by the remarkable Ashton Sanders), we follow him as he meanders through the tough halls of high school and we see when he kisses his best friend, Kevin, in the early morning hours on the beach. This scene (probably one of the purest, most beautiful, kisses I have ever seen in a film) is stunningly shot and it is a reminder of how stark and pretty the cinematography manages to be even as the film reveals dark and troubling aspects of Chiron’s life. A death and a violent attack intersperse with the film’s beautiful moments, reminding us that Moonlight is about real life. Barry Jenkins, the director and screenwriter, does not give us a truly happy ending. Chiron grows up to be a drug dealer. He has moved away from home and is successful in his business. However, he is alone and he is affected by it until Kevin (now played by the capable André Holland), from whom he has become estranged, calls him and invites him to come back home. The film’s last series of scenes are only able to infuse so much emotion into the audience because of everything that has come before. Moonlight is a hopeful, stereotype-defining, earth-shaking, soul-soothing movie, and although the ending is not an exactly happy one, it is certainly, thankfully, not sorrowful.


VI

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

Under 2 hours deliberation:

Majority verdict a nullity Court Case Files in non-capital offence IN 1995, the Guyana Court of Appeal ordered a retrial for appellant John

Lawrence who was found not guilty of murder but guilty of the lesser count of

manslaughter on a majority 10 to 2 verdict arrived in one hour & 25 minutes deliberation, instead of 2 hours as required by statute. The Court allowed the appeal and the accused was ordered to face a retrial for manslaughter. The facts of the case disclosed that the appellant was indicted for murder of a 10-year-old girl in August, 1995. There was no direct evidence linking the appellant to the death. The prosecution tendered a statement allegedly made voluntarily and freely by the appellant to the Police at a voir dire in which the appellant admitted holding the girl around her neck and leaving her when she no longer kicked. The jury returned a unanimous verdict of not guilty of murder, but by a majorty of 11 to 1 found the Appellant guilty of the lesser offence of manslaughter. On appeal, the question was whether the verdict of guilty of manslaughter was properly received by the judge in as much as the jury had not deliberated for the minimum period of two hours required by the Criminal Law (Procedure) Act Cap. 10:01. That Court held: The jury was directed by the judge to consider both murder and manslaughter and they did so. They properly returned a verdict of not guilty of murder and the appellant could not be retried for that offence. In relation to the manslaughter verdict, the jury was entitled to find the appellant guilty of this lesser offence under s.102 of the Criminal Law (Procedure) Act. Cap. 10:01. However, they had only deliberated for one` hour and 25 minutes instead of the minimum two hours required for a majority verdict. Therefore, the verdict was a nullity. In the circumstances, the appeal would be allowed and the conviction and sentence for manslaughter quashed. Mr. Compton Richardson for the Appellant. Miss Yonette Cummings for the State. The Guyana Court of Appeal was constituted by Chancellor C. Kennard, Justice of Appeal Lennox Perrry and Justice of Appeal Guya Persaud. Delivering the judgment of the Court Chancellor Kennard said: The appellant was indicted for the offence of murder allegedly committed between the 25th and 26th days of August, 1995. The allegation of the State was that he had murdered one Tonesha Henry, who was then 10 years old at Vergenoegen,East Bank, Essequibo. The State’s contention was that the deceased had died as a result of being forcibly sexually assaulted by the appellant. There was no direct evidence linking the

By George Barclay appellant with the death of the deceased but the prosecution had tendered at the trial a statement allegedly made by the appellant conducted a voir dire and ruled that it was freely and voluntarily made by the Appellant. That statement read inter alia: (…) Me run up to she and me scramble she around she neck and all two ah wee fell down on the ground but me still hold she neck. The next thing me know like she na get no power to fight then me loose she neck and she foot still kicking up. Me then feel up she patacake but when she foot nah kick up more me left and say boy me ah go home.” Among the injuries found on the deceased by Dr. Leslie Mootoo, who had performed the post mortem examination on the body was a fracture of the left hyoid bone. There were also: (1) Rupture of the hymen (2) Rupture of tissues between anus & vagina; (3) Contusion of anus and rectum; (4) Rupture of pouch of Douglas (separation from abdomen). Cause of death according to Dr. Mooto was: (1) Asphxiation due to fracture of Hyoid Bone; (2) Shock following – rupture of hymen, rupture of pouch of Douglas & rupture of tissues between the anus and vagina. In this case the jury had properly returned a verdict of not guilty of murder so that the Appellant cannot be retried for that offence. [See Article 144 (5) of the Constitution which has words similar to Section 20 (8) of the Jamaica Constitution. However, in relation to manslaughter the verdict of the jury was not a proper one and amounted to a nullity. Applying the ratio decidendi in Nasralla’s case it means that the appellant can properly be retried for the offence of manslaughter. In the circumstances we are forced to allow the appeal and quash the conviction and sentence for manslaughter and we would order that the appellant be retried on an indictment for manslaughter.


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

VII

Prevention is cheaper than cure FOR MOST of the 21th century the major emphasis in dentistry has been on the avoidance of dental caries. Now dental professionals are realizing they need to focus on preventative maintenance of gum disease as well. The techniques exist to eliminate virtually all local factors (plaque and calculus) responsible for gum disease. So it is not only prudent but crucial for countries like Guyana, whose foreign exchange earning is inherently linked to national development, to emphasize on prevention of oral diseases because prevention is cheaper than cure. Good oral health requires a team effort between yourself, your dentist and his staff. In order for it to be successful you must realize that only you can make the effort a success. The outcome will depend on how well you clean your teeth and gingiva (gums) each day. A healthy diet is also important. Home care involves the use of a toothbrush, toothpaste, mouthwash and floss . Good home care is the backbone of preventing dental disease. One should never forget this statement because it is an important tenet. Brushing and flossing are the two primary methods of providing good home care for you and your children. If there are any weak points in your home care, your dentist can intervene and correct the situation before it gets to a point of urgency. His intervention involves recognising and treating problems that you are not trained to see. The dental practitioner provides a thorough cleaning of your teeth on a regular basis to prevent periodontal disease. Many times pit-and-fissue sealants are placed on children’s teeth to help prevent decay. In conjunction with this care, the dentist will provide you with instructions on how to foster your home care. Once you begin active home care, the clinic staff will serve as a resource for you if you have questions or problems. Studies show there are two myths that commonly lead to a lapse in home care. Patients who have been successful in reversing a periodontal problem with a preventative care program sometimes believe that some permanent immunity has been created. In addition, some patients who have completed periodontal therapy may feel they have been ‘cured’ with no possibility for recurrence. Both of these beliefs are false. When dental professionals focus on prevention it allows periodontal disease to be intercepted with relatively simple procedures. This reduces the need for complicated treatment

a balanced diet their teeth may not develop properly. In order for them to develop strong, decay – resistant teeth, they need a balanced diet with emphasis on calcium, phosphorus, and proper levels of fluoride. Your eating patterns and food choices are important factors in helping to reduce caries (decay) in your teeth. The reason is that everything you eat passes through your mouth. When you eat foods that contain carbohydrates (sugars and starches) the bacteria in plaque produce acids that can destroy tooth enamel. After repeated attacks, the tooth enamel begins to break down, forming a cavity. It is important to remember that the acids in foods that contain carbs attack your teeth for 20 minutes or more after you eat. The more often you eat foods such as hard candies, breath mints, or cough drops, all of which stay in the mouth for extended periods of time. Foods that contains carbs are less harmful if they are eaten with a meal because the saliva production is increased at this time. Saliva helps to rinse food from the mouth. In the final analysis, oral health depends on the effective control of dental plaque. options caused by delayed diagnosis. Today, preventative dentistry is considered a standard of dental practice. It is the primary way to ensure that good dental health and quality care are maintained over a lifetime. If preventative education is minimized or omitted, most dental professionals would consider this substandard care. A healthy mouth projects an attractive smile that is noticed by all. A person who takes care of his teeth and gums reflects a person who values himself or herself. In addition to daily brushing, flossing, and using a mouth rinse, it is important to eat a balanced diet so that your body can get the nutrients needed for good health. If your diet is low in the nutrients you need it will be hard for you to resist infection in the tissue of your mouth, which can contribute to periodontal (gum) disease. If children do not have


VIII

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

years

in the fashion industry I AM celebrating 20 years in the fashion industry and it is a blessing being able to reach this juncture which was no smooth sailing. It took a combination of navigational skills to out- manoeuvre hurdles and a resilience to literally row my own boat when the waters got rough. I believe God guided my path and helped me find my true purpose. Small town girl with a big dream who believed it was possible. That dream started in my hometown Bartica up the Essequibo River. My Home Economics teacher in secondary school, Mynra Quamina Lee, told me years later that when I stood up in her class and told her I wanted to be a designer, she thought that I could only be dreaming coming from a mining town. She also confessed that she thought I was brave because it was her secret desire to be a designer but did not think it was possible. She actually uses my story to inspire her students today. We did not have a lot of material things growing up in Bartica but we had so much love for each other and mom taught us to be proud

of ourselves because we had value. I can remember one December standing under my grandma's house in Third Avenue, admiring the kids going to the school Christmas party. I wanted to go but could not because I did not have a suitable dress. I always tried to be positive and told myself that one day I would have many dresses to choose from. I am a dreamer and it is okay to dream but you need to have a plan to make those dreams realities. WHAT ARE YOU DREAMING OF TODAY? Imagine this little red girl in a primary school teaching the kids how to make their dolls' clothing out of newspaper and enjoying it. My mom was a seamstress and she always gave me pieces of scraps to do my own thing. It was unfortunate when mom and dad separated and we decided to go back to grandma in Bartica so he sold her machine. What kind of man would do such an awful thing to his

family? She could not replace it because cash was scarce. I enjoyed visiting my fashionista aunt Corin who lived on Mongrippa Hill. Her wardrobe had so much cool stuff and she would give me outfits she did not want and I would alter them for myself. My aunt Corin certainly influenced my sense of style. We all have stories of people who would have impacted our lives. Another very sophisticated lady who influenced my life journey was Aunt Dandy. This woman was sooooooooooo classy. Her seamstress, Gladys Ramoutar, was our neighbour and every time she visited, she always looked fashionable with her broad rimmed hats and flowing skirts. Later in life she became a second mom to me. She taught me to make pastries and cakes to sell so that I could have helped my mom financially to take care of my brothers and sister. I will never forget her kindness to me and my family. Decades later she is still a part my life and I love her dearly. Growing up in a small village, now a town, taught me many valuable lessons that contributed to the woman I am today. That woman was the first Caribbean Designer to be invited to the prestigious Brown University in Rhode Island to present on Caribbean Fashion. When I received the invitation by email I was so surprised and elated at the same time. I was even more thrilled when I found out that the university was taking care of all my expenses. I was curious to know why they selected me because I didn't know anyone there. They said they researched many Caribbean designers and I impressed them the most. I accepted their offer and that trip is one I'll remember for the rest of my life. Just driving

around the campus felt awesome and I even got lost a couple of times because that campus is huge lol. The room was so still as I nervously walked up to the stage. As I began my presentation I knew I had their attention. It was an honor to stand proudly at this Ivy League that the Kennedys attended. I got flashes of that little girl that had a dream to be someone who will make a difference in society. That young girl who put pride aside daily and walked the streets and avenues of Bartica selling pastries, buns and cakes. That young girl who knew she had to be there for her mom and other siblings. That young girl realized at an early age that life was not a walk in the park and you had to do whatever it took to become what you want. That young girl who knew she had to be creative and always looking for a way to make life better not only for her but the people close to her. At the end of my presentation, a gorgeous young lady came up to me with an American accent and was evidently excited by the presentation. She said "I am so proud to be Guyanese". I asked her what part of Guyana she was from and she responded "i have never visited Guyana but my parents are Guyanese but listening to you up there this evening, I am proud to say I am Guyanese". That right there made my trip worthwhile. Please share with us something or someone who impacted your life. Send us your feedback @ beyondtherunway1 @gmail.com. Also join us on Monday to Friday on Radio Guyana 89.5 @ 6:45 Weekly.For previous episodes visit our FB page BEYOND THE RUNWAY as we continue this beautiful Journey call life Beyond The Runway.


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

IX

Greening your Home

GUYANA has taken the path to a green economy. With this in mind, our two previous articles aimed to nudge you along this green path by encouraging you to become involved in creating green spaces and in making the choice for green infrastructure. While communities can play a big role in creating green spaces, inroads into green infrastructure are best made at the national level. This week, our focus is on opportunities that exist for households to travel along the green path. Taking the green path is important now more than ever. The impacts of climate change, and soaring energy costs are frequently making front-page news. As such, it is no longer possible to turn a blind eye to the changes taking place in the environment since, what happens there, determines the quality of our lives. As households, we have the power to make the choice for eco-friendly living. Each of us, in our homes, can choose to make lifestyle changes which can add up and lead to a slowdown the negative environmental changes occurring on Earth. Eco-friendly living is about conserving our natural resources - water, land, forests, wildlife etc. and reducing the wastes we put into the environment. GREENING HOMES There are many benefits to making your home green, from getting a better return on your investment to having a positive impact on the environment. Here are some ways in which greening your home is beneficial: ► Improves indoor air quality.

► Saves energy and lowers maintenance costs. ► Reduces the incidence of stress and disease. ► Makes you more productive and gives you a sense of accomplishment. ► Has a positive impact on the environment. ► Reduces our demand on natural resources. HOW TO MAKE YOUR HOME GREEN There are many steps you can take to make your home green. Here are some ideas: ► Swap household chemicals Switch from the cleaning products you normally use, such as, soaps, wipes, air fresheners and other detergents and aerosols to greener line of cleaners. This is one way you to make your home ecofriendly and your family safe. Eco-friendly household

cleaning products are widely available on the market and help to reduce air pollution both indoors and outdoors. Changing to these options can minimize you and your family’s exposure to asthma and allergy triggers. Look for plant-based products from companies that have a complete list of ingredients on their labels. Green products are generally milder and gentler on your hands and eyes. USE ENERGY EFFICIENT EQUIPMENT When purchasing electrical appliances, it is advisable

put into practice these great ideas. Going green does not mean expensive investments, simple things such as turning off lights and taps when not in use, unplugging appliances when not in use, utilizing natural lighting and air, buying locally grown food, and having plants indoor to act as natural air filters are easy low-cost ways to start to make your home green.

to look for the energy star label. This label indicates that a product has been deemed energy efficient. Energy star appliances offer significant cost and energy savings without compromising performance. They have built-in mechanisms to shut off after a certain time of inactivity and maximize energy efficiency when in use. REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE Using the 3Rs approach is a way to support the cause of going green in your home. Practice reducing the amount of waste you produce, reuse items a few times before you get rid of them and encourage and support products that are recyclable. One way you can reduce the amount of waste you produce is by choosing to buy reusable instead of disposable items. Composting is another simple way to recycle organic waste into a useful product for plants. INSTALL SOLAR PANELS Solar energy is a clean and renewable source of energy. The abundant sunshine we experience here in the tropics is ideal for this type of technology. Solar panels may be expensive at first, but the long-term savings you can put into your pocket, is a stunning example of the benefits of turning your life along the green path. You may not be able to make the transition immediately, but with small steps, you can do it. For those who are now building houses, businesses or other institutions, do your cost benefit analysis and choose wisely in favour of green. RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEMS Install a rainwater collecting (harvesting) system in your home to store collected water in a tank. This water can be used for other

purposes, such as, toilets, laundry and sprinkler systems. Rain barrels are one of the most common methods of rainwater harvesting you can employ. Instead of using water from the mains, collect and use rainwater for chores around the house and yard. Ensure you follow the guidelines for proper collection and storage of rainwater to avoid any health issues. WATER CONSERVING FIXTURES Installing low-flow faucets, toilets, showerheads etc. are a few water-conserving fittings that you use when building a green home. Such fittings can cut down on your water bill and make your home much more

environment friendly. Apart from this, consider buying a washing machine and dishwasher that give you the same kind of cleaning but saves on water and energy. Now that you are aware of steps that you take to green your home, do you

Sources h t t p s : / / w w w . proudgreenhome.com/articles/ask-the-expert-5-benefits-of-living-in-a-greenhome/ As always, feel free to reach out to us at the Environmental Protection Agency by giving us a call on 2255471-2 or 2255467 or on our facebook page @ epaguyana for more ideas and tips.


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Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

The Walter Rodney Awards and the Rise of New Authors (Part 2)

Return to the Lantern-lit Scene LAST week, the stories of the three winners of the 2016 Walter Rodney Awards for Creative Writing began to unravel themselves. Our main tale began when the writers and I met to discuss their works and their lives, but then, three stories emerged from that main story and now, as you prepare to read more about Andrew Huston, winner in the Non-Fiction category and Nicholas Peters, winner of the Fiction category, we must also remember Gabrielle Mohamed, who won for her poem and was featured in Part 1 of this two-part series on the Awardees. Hutson and Peters are two young men, as different from each other as the sun and the moon, difference reflected most blatantly in their respective styles of writing. As I go back to that night and see myself sitting at the table and talking to them, certain things come back to the mind more strongly than others: the colourful lanterns hanging above our heads, of course, the inspiration and the inner feeling of wanting to create that comes whenever several artists come together to discuss artistic matters, and the way Hutson and Peters, though on apparently divergent paths, seemed to cross at the intersection of their lives related to Guyanese literature and the Guyanese experience. To learn about this, we must go back to that very night when they met each other. Do you remember it? Think of a cool January night, in a dimly

Nicholas Peters, winner of the Fiction category

L-R: Gabrielle Mohamed, Nicholas Peters, Andrew Hutson

lit café, just on the edge of the Atlantic. All around there are foreigners, experiencing what they might believe to be “local culture.” But in the middle of the café, are a group of young writers, eager and excited to talk about their own contributions to actual local culture. Can you see it now? Very well then; let us proceed. THE WEIGHT OF MIDNIGHT BLUE Andrew Hutson is a doctor. He walks in on the night of the interview wearing deep blue medical scrubs, having just come off of work. There’s a layer of confidence about him as well. It is rich, palpable and shrouds him in an air of nonchalance that befits someone who somehow managed to make it through the rigorous days of medical school and still found time to embark on a literary career, managing to produce prize-winning work. He is deserving of this gift of confidence, something most writers tend to lack, and one imagines that it only became wearable after many years of hard work. His answers to questions are sharp and precise, exact and unwavering, as well defined as a line carved by a scalpel. This exactness, perhaps one of the ways in which his science-oriented background influences his writing and the literary aspects of his personality, is shown in the precision and exactness of his values, and his thoughts and hopes for the country and its future, as seen when he sums up the reasons for writing his Non-Fiction piece, entitled “Guyana’s Evolution: Ebb and Flow”, as him wanting to highlight the fact that “Guyana needs a clear vision for where it is heading.” It is a simple-sounding fact, and yet it when compared with the piece of work written,

that same statement blossoms into something quite grander, something that reaches back into the past and wraps it up with our present to shape our future. “Guyana’s Evolution” is a multi-faceted piece – layers upon layers like rows upon rows of petals in a single flower. And perhaps that image reminds us of Hutson himself – Science and History and Literature and a wide Imagination all coming together to offer us a blossom of an essay, pink and pretty and laced with thorns

Andrew Hutson, winner of the Non-Fiction category

that prick, injecting a steady dose of reality even as we read the essay and see his vision for Guyana 50 years from now unfold in front of us. “Guyana’s Evolution: Ebb and Flow” reminds one of a particular shade of midnight blue, a colour that appears to be shifting from blue to black or, alternatively, is both blue and black. The essay is a hybrid, offering us glimpses of the past in order to explain Turn to page XI ►►►


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017 ◄◄◄ From page X

the future and examining why our history, everything starting from before the split into the Burnhamite and Jaganite factions to the floods in 2005, was offered as an explanation of, as well as a contributor to, our present and our future. It is a stark reminder of all we have endured over the years. Reading the work creates an interesting sensation: as if, blue/black wave after blue/black wave rises, like a tsunami, and crashes over the reader as you experience once more everything that the country has gone through and endured. And yet, rising up out of the midnight blue floodwaters that are left behind is what can only be considered a beacon of hope that the writer manages to find and include in his essay. Hutson describes Guyana, because of its sordid history coupled with the contemporary thinkers and events, as being on the cusp of greatness and on the path of a great intellectual rebirth. It is an optimistic outlook, and yet a burden that this generation might think too heavy to bear. Nevertheless, it is one that is welcomed, one that rises out of the water and the mud, like a lotus urging us to swim towards it. Hutson’s essay, in some ways, reads as a brief survey of Guyanese history – it highlights some of the most poignant moments in our country’s history and the way it builds up until it comes down to its final point is a clear indicator of the skill at work, and a further

indicator that Hutson is more than worthy of his award. FIRE’S RED “The Centuries Old Flame”, by Nicholas Peters came out as the winner in the Fiction category of the Competition. It is a story that is set in Guyana 50 years into the future and it shows a land that is made up of the cumulative mistakes that we make in this present time. The story is one of those that come alive as you read it, rippling and squirming with a slow, burning zeal that runs through the entire tale, aching about both the need for the fire of revolution and about why such a flame would be more necessary in the future and yet, extremely difficult to light if we do not plan ahead or start trying to change things from now. The same fire emanates from the writer of the story. His t-shirt is red, which only enhances the effect. He seems fiercely intelligent, with the kind of fiery brightness that you know will come to illuminate the world one day if he chooses to stay on the path of being a writer. He wears glasses, which are a bit nerdy and he is so slim, and yet that fire still remains – strong and shimmering as he speaks about the story and revolution. As you read “The Centuries Old Flame,” certain images leap out at you, like tendrils of fire curling out and binding itself to you, pulling you to feel the heat of the story.

When the story paints before our very eyes the festive, material decorations that the people are using to celebrate Guyana’s centennial anniversary of Independence – being buildings plastered with the colours of the flag – you are being steeped into a setting, into one that modern Guyanese are used to; one that we know has been used to blind us to the things that really matter while using national unity as a skin-deep front. “It’s a distraction”, one character says to the other, of the many attractions that the government has put up, while the stories of activists and governmental critics go unnoticed and unreported. Oil has been found and it is already started, like some wild dragon, to gobble up the environment. And most interestingly, there seems to be a hierarchy in the society where people whose backgrounds are of certain (racial) mixes are superior to people of other mixes. Peters gives us a society that is so different from the Guyana we know and yet, such a society can only exist because of the Guyana we know. At various points, the blur between the real Guyana and the fictional Guyana becomes so strong that the reader swims in out and out of the flames that exist now and the flames that are sure to exist 50 years from now. We fly through the fiction, our bodies burning from the knowledge, explosive and uncontrollable, that if we are unable to solve the issues in our present state then the fire

XI that has been started in the past will continue to spread, like wildfire, consuming everything in its path, consuming the intelligent and the beautiful, consuming our hopes and dreams, consuming our entire future. The story is speculative fiction, of course, but barely so and that is the most terrifying thing about it at all. It is so close to reality, to what we know, that you can almost feel the heat and smell the smoke, you can almost see the dancing, spinning figure of self-combustion that appears in the end of the story – both as an image of the horrifying and literal damage that will come our way, and also a warning for us to not go down a path that leads us to destroying ourselves, a path where this country and all of us can be reduced to nothing put spirals of smoke and heaps of ashes if we are not careful. Together, Gabrielle Mohamed, Stefan Hutson and Nicholas Peters form a trio of young, upcoming writers that are joining a movement that is slowly, but surely, gaining pace – the Guyanese New Wave, if you will. It is already evident in the field of drama that a rebirth of Guyanese literature, if pruned and tended, can develop and help to make the country one with a respected literary base. The Walter Rodney Awards for Creative Writing is an important part of such a mission and its continued discovery of new and talented writers is more than enough proof of that.


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Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

Ecological requirements of coconut palms COCONUT palms can grow in various environments, although certain ecologi-

cal conditions limit their growth. Several agro-climatic factors affect productivity,

including altitude, rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, wind, solar radiation, day-length and, soil type including its physical and chemical properties. Altitude affects coconut production and oil content: the higher the elevation, the lower the temperature. Optimum altitudes are below 400m at latitudes between 30° N and 30° S but coconut plants can grow well up to an elevation of 900m at this same range of latitudes. Trees that grow at elevations above 500m produce a thin endosperm and low oil content. Coconut palms thrive well under an evenly distributed annual rainfall ranging from 1,000 mm to 3,000 mm. A suitable annual rainfall ranges from 1200 to 2500 mm per year. Rainfall distribution also plays a key role in determining coconut growth and production and should be at least 130mm per month. As the tree stores little moisture and has no tap roots, it is not suited for regions with long and pronounced dry spells during, which reduces the water table considerably. A water table that is too high and remains stagnant over long periods is also harmful to the palm. When rainfall drops below 1,000mm per year (or uneven) coconuts could grow successfully only when irrigated. For optimum growth and maximum yield, the mean annual temperature should be approximately 27°C with a diurnal variation of 6°C to 7°C and a relative humidity at 80 - 90%. An average ambient temperature of 27°C is good (less than 20°C and more

than 34°C is not suitable). When the average monthly minimum temperature is less than 18°C, growth is reduced and female flowers abort. However, some varieties may produce satisfactorily at temperatures less than 18°C. Optimum sunlight is 2000 - 2200 hours per annum with the minimum being 1500 hours/ annum or 125 hours per month. Regions that are subject to frequent stormy conditions and hurricanes are not suitable for growing the coconut palm. Dwarf palms are generally less resistant than the Talls to strong winds because of the former’s shallower root system. Trees are most at risk from uprooting at 3 – 5 years old since the root system is less well-developed than the above-ground biomass. Coconut is grown under different soil types such as loamy, lateritic, coastal sandy, alluvial, clayey and reclaimed soils of marshy lowlands. The ideal soil conditions for better growth and performance of the palm are loose well-drained soils about 50 - 100 cm deep with good water holding capacity, a pH ranging of 5.2 - 8.0, presence of water table within 3m and, absence of rock or any hard substratum within 2 m of the surface. Production is limited by shallow and compacted soils, heavy clays, waterlogging and drought. Every aspect in the production cycle for coconuts should have associated with it a set of protocols to ensure the use of good agricultural practices.


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

By PAT DIAL LAST Tuesday, the University of Guyana led by its visionary and creative Vice-Chancellor Professor Ivelaw Griffith and his hard-working team of academics like Dr Paloma Mohamed launched the

fifth of its public lectures cum discussion series. The theme of the evening's offering was Health: Non-communicable Diseases Matter and the large audience was very receptive and lively, responding to the very able and thought-provoking presentations by the specialist panel. The theme is one in which consumers and the general public have an abiding interest since it concerned their welfare as well as their children's in a very real way. The presentations and discussion cov-

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UG'S EXTENSION OFFERING AGAIN IMPACTS

ered the whole gamut of non-communicable diseases and would be far too extensive to be covered in this article. Among the non-communicable diseases discussed were Heart Disease, Diabetes, Kidney ailments, dementia and other mental problems such as stress and suicides, and even traffic accidents which are responsible every year for several hundred deaths and

permanent physical and mental disabilities. In an article of limited size, we could not deal with the details of the discussion and will mention only some of the main general conclusions. The University has been able to place permanently on line the proceedings. Among the main points which came out of the proceedings were that parents Turn to page XIV ►►►


XIV â—„â—„â—„ From page XIII

must be conscious and alert that their young children could be affected by these non-communicable diseases and that if they are not discovered and treated early, they could become even worse as the child grows into adulthood. Many of these diseases could be cured or eliminated during childhood but become chronic in adults. When these diseases afflict adults for the first time, they need to seek medical help to know precisely what is afflicting them and begin treatment as early as possible. Very often such diseases could be cured with early treatment. A good example of this dilatory attitude is tooth decay or gum damage which is almost always treated when it is too late.

Diet is important in avoiding and controlling these diseases. A large proportion of the urban population eat "fast foods" commonly known as "junk food." Children in particular are fond of these "junk foods." These foods consist of a surfeit of sugar, salt and cheap oils which help to break down health. Even if people do not eat "junk foods" their diet very often is not balanced with enough proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and so on. It is comparatively easy and affordable to have balanced diets and there are numerous programs and leaflets propagated by the Ministries of Health and Education giving recipes as to what a balanced diet could be. One of the foods to avoid is red meat. Good wholesome food always turn out to be far less expensive than food bought

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

from restaurants. It has become a culture for sufferers to attempt to treat their ailments with drugs of which they have little real knowledge. One such drug is antibiotics whose reckless and uninformed use could be dangerous and even disastrous. Though there are laws compelling pharmacists to sell certain drugs, including antibiotics, only on a doctor's prescription, such drugs are usually treated as "over the counter." Some ailments could be treated or controlled by less expensive older drugs, as for example sulphur drugs, or even remedies from alternative medicine as against antibiotics. These older drugs and alternative medicines have far less side-effects. In all treatments, discipline in following the

doctor's prescription is a necessity for success. Also, regular and methodical physical exercise helps successful treatment. There was a strong body of opinion in the proceedings which felt that disproportionate time and funds were devoted to communicable diseases as for example, AIDS and there was a call for equal or more focus be put on non-communicable diseases The Public Health System with its hospitals and health centres should be made more use of by persons afflicted with these diseases. Many people fail to use this free System because they underestimate the quality of the service offered. They often wait until there is a crisis and then they have to go to expensive private hospitals or return to the Public Health System.


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XV

Notes from the Vermont Studio Center Residency

Moving past comfort zones

THE thing about going into a new situation/environment without a plan is that, as a creative practitioner, you have to be hyper aware of even the tiniest shifts around you that could possibly inspire the next great idea. You’re actively pushing your senses into overdrive in the hopes of catching faint signals in the air. In doing so, you’re forced to let go of yesterday and tomorrow, and be present always. Although this was a philosophy I often acknowledged, I never fully embraced it in my practice until last July while on residency in Aruba. I didn’t have a plan per se, but I was most definitely prepared for anything that could be thrown my way. My suitcase was filled to capacity with every kind of art material imaginable and what couldn’t fit there was shoved into my carryon and handbag. My level of preparedness was supreme. I had everything I could’ve ever needed but, in the end, used none of it in my work. That was the turning point in the way I understood residencies. Had I tried to force the narrative of the work around the materials I brought, then the outcome of that residency would’ve been incredibly different. With help from the Cuban visiting artist Humberto Diaz, I learned (sometimes reluctantly) to let go and trust my intuition. In many ways there was a great deal of unlearning involved in the process. Art school training begs the question “why?” over and over again, grinding us further down to nothing each time. Sometimes I try to imagine how many great works I lost because I asked or was asked “why” too soon. Perhaps it isn’t that the question is irrelevant, but merely ill timed. Timing is something I’ve contemplated Quite a number of VSC residents came out to join in solidarity with the thousands of women who marched that day

A section of the crowd at the Women’s March in Montpelier, the day after Trump’s inauguration

The Gihon River that flows beneath the Pearl Street Bridge

quite a bit since I’ve been here in Vermont. After the absolutely horrendous start I’ve had, I’ve been training myself to look past the glaringly obvious disasters to find what matters most, that ever evasive kernel of truth. It’s easy to get distracted by the enormity of the challenges we experience and lose sight of the bigger pic-

ture. Sometimes the bigger picture comes disguised as a few small windows of opportunity where everything works in tandem. This is where the real magic happens. But if you’re too focused on everything that’s wrong you could miss the signs that point to those escape routes. After I had spent an extra day trying to get here and the airline lost my luggage, I was determined not to be disillusioned. Naturally, my first day in studio was not very productive but I persisted in spite of everyTurn to page XVI ►►►


XVI ◄◄◄ From page XV

thing. The physical studio itself was enormous. The angled ceiling was maybe 15 feet at the highest end. Six windows (three with a view of the Gihon River flowing beneath the Pearl Street bridge; one on the side of the building facing the passageway to the Barn; and two overhead on the angled ceiling)

allowed for a more than generous amount of light to fill the room. It was intimidating, the idea that this space would be mine for a month. I knew almost immediately that whatever I made had to be sculptural; the room demanded that of me. This time around was different. As a challenge to myself (as if I really needed another one) I packed just one material I

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

had been collecting for years. I had no idea what I’d do with it but that was the point of residencies, to figure stuff out. Although my body was exhausted, my brain seemed to have missed that memo. I was extremely wired and could only think about making at least one disruption to this perfect space I The installation I started on my first day in studio. A response to the 1927 flood in Vermont

was given. Since I didn’t have the one material I packed I started to assess the furniture placed in the studio for me: Four tables (two long, one small, one small and wheeled), one chair and one stool. Just moments before, I had done the tour for the late arrivals with VSC’s receptionist

Kate Westcott. In her talk one thing resonated with me above all else, the devastating 1927 flood. There it was, my first window. Prior to this I was already thinking about the duality of water and how, in as much as it’s known for having meditative qualities, it’s also the perfect metaphor for shared/collective trauma. That was where the last residency left me. So it worked out perfectly that I finally had time to continue along the same train of thought. I was so struck by the flood story that I knew I had to make something in response to it. Instinctively, I started moving things around, away from the walls and more towards the center of the room. I was pleasantly surprised when I realized the tables were, in fact, simply inch and a half repurposed wooden doors sitting atop two saw horses and could be easily dismantled. Even better was the crossbar someone before me most likely installed, which dropped about two feet from the ceiling. This allowed me to push the installation even further by playing with elevation and tension between each piece of furniture. Everything was working together beautifully. Time, it seemed, was on my side. I would soon find out, however, that I wasn’t quite ready for such a regimented daily programme. The next few days whizzed by before I even noticed. We’ve had readings by a few of the resident writers and poets; slide presentations by the artists; presentations and studio visits by artists David Hess, Lynn Umlauf, B. Wurtz and Emily Cheng; open studios; bon fires; movie screenings; going away parties; banner-making sessions for the Women’s March; road trip to Montpelier to join in solidarity with the thousands of women who came out to march; and readings by Howard Norman and Afaa Michael Weaver. It’s a wonder that we were able to produce as much as we did for open studios but we found ways to work around our busy schedules. In September of last year I was nominated for a Vermont Studio Center residency fellowship and sponsored by the Reed Foundation. Notes from the Vermont Studio Center Residency is intended to be a series of articles chronicling my experiences at the U.S. residency starting from the issuance of the fellowship award until the conclusion of the month-long programme in February, 2017.


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HELLO Everyone, I hope this week has treated you well. Today I am continuing to answer the emails that I received on habits to quit. So far I have covered cigarettes and cigars. This week, I am able to join 3 requests in one. I have been asked to talk about nail biting, tapping/ shaking feet and cracking knuckles. These may seem like three completely different topics but they all have something vital in common- they are all considered nervous habits. Therefore, I will talk about nervous habits in general, what may cause them, what they subsequently cause and how to overcome them. Nervous habits are simply things that we do when we feel anxious or scared. Sometimes, we do not even know that we are doing it as it becomes so common, repetitive and involuntary. Other than the aforementioned, nervous habits also include hair twirling or pulling, grinding/clenching teeth, speaking fast, chewing on things such as pen covers etc. They mostly happen when we are not comfortable in the current situation or worse, if we are not comfortable in our own skins. These and other nervous habits are typically caused by fear, stress, anxiety or a lack of self-confidence and are basically unhealthy ways of coping. Why are they unhealthy? Because they cause additional problems that tend to worsen the overall anxiety which caused the habits in the first place. It’s a cycle not unlike drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco. Fingernail biting is one of the most common nervous habits. It’s caused mostly by discomfort and anxiety. It may seem harmless but actually poses threats such as grinding down of teeth, inflammation and paronychia, which is a skin infection surrounding the nail. A common method people use to decrease this is coating the nails with substances that are unpleasant to taste. For example, aloe vera or limacol. Constantly put these substances on your nails to deter you from biting them. Getting a manicure often helps as well. If you have a severe case, severe measures such as latex gloves or band aids on the nails have been known to be effective. Shaking of the leg is something I often do- every time I’m irritated and running out of patience or just simply feeling out of place. It’s not even something that I notice anymore- I only do when someone asks “why is the desk shaking?” or when my friends observe and

actually put their hand on my leg to stop it from shaking. I never considered it a problem but when a reader asked me to help her stop, I started to pay more attention to my own shaking. I don’t necessarily think that the action itself causes any harm but I am confident that it doesn’t decrease the current state of anxiousness- it most likely exacerbates it. I have been trying all week to decrease it and a few things have worked for me. The most effective was crossing my legs- this made me physically unable to shake. If you do not like crossing your legs and feel like more of a challenge, deep breathing also helped me. I breathed in through the nose for 4 seconds and out through the mouth for 8 seconds. This helped calm my entire body and therefore stopped the shaking. Cracking knuckles is also a very common nervous habit to relieve stress. However, this too comes with harms. It is controversial but many studies do show that over cracking of the knuckles makes you more susceptible to impaired hand function and arthritis. Keeping your hands busy has been known as an effective way to decrease this. For example, try to always keep a pen in your hand at work etc. Make it fun by learning how to twirl the pen between your fingers. The rubber band method has also been successful with this. Keep a rubber band around your wrist at all times while attempting to quit. When you feel like cracking your knuckles, snap the rubber band on your hand. It stings but that’s the point. This allows for an association between a stinging pain and knuckle cracking. Come to think about it, I believe this method can also be used to quit nail biting. If you have attempted and been successful at decreasing these nervous habits, please reward yourself accordingly. The truth is, learning how to quit these habits are secondary. Your primary focus should be what causes these nervous habits in the first place. Again, more often than not, they are caused by stress, nervousness, fear and anxiety. There are a few things we can do. We can adapt healthier coping strategies, we can practise better time management and we can work daily to improve our self-confidence. COPING SKILLS As covered before in a few

articles, coping skills refer to how we deal with the stress in our lives. For example, if we had a bad day at work, the unhealthy way of coping would be to do any of the above while a healthy one would be to find a replacement such as reading or going to the gym. It’s simple in

have your cell phone near you, the television on, Facebook open etc. – setting aside proper, uninterrupted time will ensure the highest level of productivity. Which one will work for you? Add your own techniques in! Remember that being busy isn’t the

words- we stop practising the ones that we do and start practising new ones. However, it is not so difficult in action- it requires a lot of work and repetition to form a new habit. Think of new and healthy habits that were recommended and decide which one is right for you.

same as being productive.

TIME MANAGEMENT It must be known that most stress may come from a lack of time management. We feel very stressed/ anxious when we have a lot of things to do and not enough time to do them. This can include anything from homework to taking care of the family. Everyone has the same 24 hours in a day but some people get a lot more done than we do. Sometimes, it’s not that we have too much to do but rather we are not managing our time properly. The basics of time management is to properly plan what you have to do and suitably organize the time to do it. What happens when we fail to practise time management or use our time productively? We are not able to complete our work on time, we produce poor quality of work or miss deadlines all together- all of which lead to trouble and feeling stressed. Here are a few ways to better manage your time. Write everything down. Keep an appointment/scheduling book. This helps to plan ahead and therefore is a great preventative measure of minimizing stress. When working, put all technology aside. These gadgets are a huge distraction to our current and future generation. Don’t

SELF-CONFIDENCE I believe building your self-confidence is a lot like wanting and trying to lose weight. It seems like it’s not in your control because you’ve tried and failed many times. However, it is actually in your control- it’s just that the motivation to do what is necessary is low- because of how you already feel. It’s almost like a cycle of misery. I, myself, have suffered with low self-confidence and below are some strategies that helped me to overcome that. None of them are revolutionary- they are quite simple but also effective if practised often. There is the obvious one of making ourselves look good on the outside. This is not as superficial as it seems. When we do things that make us feel and look good on the outside, we internalise that feeling. We start to feel good on the inside which automatically improves our mood, thinking processes and productivity. Replace your negative self-talk with positive ones. I write about the importance of this all the time. We are much harder on ourselves than we are on other people. I get that this can make us stronger but it can also damage our self-esteem. ‘Be careful what you are saying to yourself because you are listening.’ Be charitable- being generous with your resources and time will allow you to build your self-image and feelings of self-worth. It al-

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ways feels good to help someone. Recognize (not obsess over) your faults and the small daily things that need improving. I have two of these- I have really bad posture and I speak really fast. People I really care about and respect have commented on these things, which of course affect my self-esteem. Therefore, I make it an effort to improve them every day. I stand tall and speak as slowly and clearly as possible. Set small goals every day, especially if you have big ones to attain. As an example, if losing weight or quitting cigarettes are on your list of goals, those are hard places to start. It takes time and multiple attempts which lower feelings of self-worth. Start by setting small goals every week. For example, drinking a certain amount of water or waking up 20 minutes earlier. Once you achieve these weekly, your self-confidence will build to achieve higher goals. Finally, empower yourself with knowledge and be prepared for everything you need to do. Increasing feelings of competency goes hand in hand with self-confidence. My take-away message is to remember that we will always deal with some level of stress/nervousness at one point or another, which is good. If we never experience any stress, it simply means we are not challenging ourselves enough or living up to our potential. So, appreciate stress but at the same time, know your limit and how to subsequently minimize it. Does anyone have any other nervous habits they would like to speak about? Write in and let me know! Thanking you for reading. Please keep sending any topics you’d like to talk about to caitlinvieira@gmail.com Or come in to see me at: Georgetown Public Hospital: Psychiatric Department: Monday- Friday – 8am- 12pm Woodlands Hospital: Outpatient Department Drug and Alcohol group meetings - Mondays 4:15 Good mental health group meetings- Wednesdays 4:15 Suicide Prevention Helpline numbers: 223-0001, 223-0009, 623-4444, 600-7896 Say Yes to Life and No to Drugs! Always


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Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

Additive vs. Addictive In my almost 10 years as a makeup artist, beauty consultant, daring dancer and creative doyenne in Guyana. I've discovered a mystical, yet reoccurring and unfortunate truth: some of us are just too unwillingly lazy. Is it the heat? I always wondered why the higher temperatures didn't ignite a fire within us to do more. Maybe it's the Caucasian influence telling us Caribes that the Caribbean tropics is for fun and relaxing only. Is the sun soaking up our energy? Impossible, according to those science oriented and obsessed, it is a fact according to their research that the sun gives energy. I became a victim last week, and was susceptible to the demands of success. I became ill. Dehydrated for the lack of not focusing and gearing my energy towards my diet and nutrition. I was more focused on work and makeup....only to realize like many women makeup can't fix our flaws. We become so consumed by earning a living, that we forget to live. It's worth the getting up an extra hour to take care of yourself first, before helping others. It's not selfish to put yourself first. When travelling on a plane the flight crew always warns "during an emergency please put your oxygen mask on first before attending to the person or child next to you." It's for our own good,

I once felt to satisfy my insatiable desire to look cute, is slowly fading off into the sunset. 'Tis time to embrace my greatness and allow inner beauty to radiate on the outside. No more lounging around like an addict, as long as wearing makeup doesn't affect my productivity, all's well that ends well. I'm back and ready to rumble, there is no stopping or slowing down. I'm not a victim of makeup, I'm makeup domineering and daring dilettante and I will wear the lipstick of my heart’s desire. Repeat after me! Transitioning from downer to doyenne had its trials. It wasn't easy, after a while it felt like and addiction, and the voice and screams of the haters grew louder "you're an addict!" As if it beauty and fashion is

What creatives do isn't science, it is not logic, it cannot be simply explained‌it's Art! Art is a combination of talent, style, grace, hope, patience, creativity, technique, and mastery. Though the pseudos and dilettantes will argue Picasso's genius and try to explain the though process of Da Vinci, the connoisseurs and creative geniuses have better things to do with their time. Perhaps, continue world dominance, provoking change for the better, and keep creating. Being altruistic inundated and passive about the world, the crown and anything worth living for, maybe love. There is no cracking the Da Vinci code. One does not simply decipher art, this isn't paint by

some sort of drug connoisseurs use. Art isn't mechanics, there isn't one set manual alone. It adjusts and depends on the look an individual is trying to achieve. The toughest task as an artist is explaining the essence of true art and how it functions and adds value to everyday life. How do I teach people who think I'm addicted? How do I teach those who lack personality and won't hone into their true identity. How do I assist in guiding a nation stifled by their conscience? There's no way to tell a woman she is gorgeous, if she's afraid of expressing herself.

numbers. Respect professional artists, stop referring to them as hobbyists, it's not fun, and it's more than just passion. The world would be a dead boring uninteresting dreary and sad place to live in if Artists didn't take the time effort and energy to create something riveting and beautiful. Makeup is art, it's an additive, it inspires people to be better, and gives its wearer that extra push in the right direction. It encourages us to live a full and productive life, embrace the magic of makeup and as the Spanish say "live mas!"

safety and sanity that we take care of ourselves first. It's not selfish, it's selfless and considerate. I've noticed that I can't teach, preach, and reach anyone if I'm between life and death. The extra time I add to my daily routine is for me, and that guilt that


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folklore RITA BABY XX

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

By Neil Primus

By Neil Primus

RITA WAS THE ‘beauty and star’ of the small community of Corn Acre. Even though it was a rural and somewhat backward village, Rita refused to let this define her. She always dressed to kill. Glamorous and beautiful, she forced every

man to take another look at her as she glided by. Some could not stop staring. This did not bother her in the least. In fact she enjoyed it immensely. Then she got married. With typical flare, she hooked a rich middle-aged man who had been married twice. Both wives had died and he was the prize

of the village spinsters because he was very rich. The courtship was brief but public. The wedding followed. It was a grand expensive event with one person starring; Rita. After the wedding, things changed. Instead of wearing costume jewellery, she wore real jewellery. Instead of second hand clothes from family in the city, she wore the latest fashion. She was even more visible now than before. But Mr. Lucas did not care. He showered her with all sorts of expensive gifts. Rita was living a dream. Then she died suddenly. The small community was thrown into mourning especially the men. At the wake, all the men of the village attended speaking in hushed respect of the woman so many of them admired and secretly lusted. Lucas was inconsolable. His love had been snatched from him again. Their marriage had lasted a mere 18 months after he had resorted to drinks. Every night at the wake he ensured there were lots to eat and drink. Funeral arrangements were made and family members were contacted. The day of the funeral was even more of a spectacle than the wedding. A fleet of shiny cars was hired. The hearse was new, modern and grand. The casket was the best that money could buy. And Rita as usual stole the show. She was dressed in an elegant white dress and adorned with her finest jewelry. It was quite an occasion for the small quiet community. Car after car crawled through the narrow dirt road leading to and from the church then to the cemetery. All those not attending lined the street not out of respect but out of curiosity. This small village had never witnessed anything on this scale except Rita’s wedding of course. The night after the funeral Mr. Lucas invited the villagers to his home for a final farewell to Rita. He had all sorts of dishes and alcohol available. The villagers accepted the invite with zest. They were all there. Food and drinks were in abundance. Before an hour had gone by Mr. Lucas was so drunk that he could not remember which day of the week it was. No one minded. They had seen him like this ever since his third wife had succumbed. They just kept on enjoying themselves. Everyone knew that this might be the last time they would get so much free booze and food. Pretty soon a number of the men found Lucas’ liquor was too tempting to refuse so one by one they got drunker and drunker. The women on the other hand were a little more reserved. They ensured that everyone had enough to eat and drink then they helped themselves with quite a few of them packing a bag to take away. In the middle of all this a crisis arose. One of the highly intoxicated men pointed to an unsteady figure at the door and shouted: “Look! Is Rita coming!” Everyone froze. Basil, the shouter, fell over and passed out on the floor. Everyone burst out laughing at his silly antics. Then Rita stepped through the open doorway and into the house. Time stood still. Then pandemonium broke out. With screams of terror and horror written all over their faces, the people of Corn Acre made valiant bids to escape. Windows and doors were crammed with a mass of frightening, pushing and screaming humans. Miraculously they all made it out of there without too many serious injuries. People were seen fleeing the scene limping, hopping and sprinting minus a few of their belongings like jerseys, phones, slippers and false teeth. Back at the house Basil began to revive. He shook his head which only made things worse. When the room stopped moving he looked around him in surprise. Everyone was gone, except one woman in white. Wait. Oh No! Even in his drunken state he recognized the woman standing in the doorway. With a bellow of pure terror he plunged through an already shattered window and exited the premises in an ungainly zig zag fashion. Mr. Lucas sat holding his drink. His fuzzy brain was sending him signals rather late. Something was taking place. People had departed. Loud screams had pierced his foggy mind. Then a sound like a werewolf shattered his eardrums and someone plunged through a window. It was then he saw the woman in white. “Rita baby is dat you?” “Yes boy.” “Wa happen to you girl?” “Boy I can’t remember everything. All I know is I feel someone biting me fingers and I hollow out ‘Oh God.’ And den run away screaming. So I come home.” Then Lucas’ brain sent him that late signal. He passed out on the floor leaving a very puzzled Rita.


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

Angel on the outside Devil on the inside

By Abdool A. Aziz

HE always wears a smile. He walks softly and speaks politely. But inside a monster lurks. His right name is Bhola Persaud, but the Village calls him Bodo, short for brother. One day he saw an old man struggling to get into a boat that would take him to his work as a koker attendant far in the backlands. THE LURE As he helped this decrepit senior, the man’s waist band came loose and something dropped. Bodo picked it up and saw what it was. It was a gold sovereign. “You always walk with this ting?’’ asked Bodo softly. ‘’Eh heh, dis ah me saving, son’ ’you must keep it safety’’ advised Bodo. As the boat sailed away so too did the twisted mind

of Bodo. That sovereign would be his that very night. MURDER Under the cover of darkness, he hiked his way into the backlands. Hidden under his thick shirt was a tomahawk and a pack of cigarettes. At the koker he offered the old man a smoke and they began chatting. The

attendant had no inkling his doom was near. Bodo got up and split the old man’s skull with the axe. He then tore off the waist band and pocketed it. The victim, still alive, stammered

XXI ‘Ah know man why…?’’ INSULT TO INJURY Bodo took a piece of wire and mercilessly sewed the victim’s mouth. Then he dumped him overboard. With his booty, the gold coin, he hurried out of the backdam. The estate ranger on his routine rounds found the watchman missing and pools of blood. Horrified he raced to report the matter to management. The police were called in. No trace of the victim. FLOATING CORPSE Then on the third day a body was found Turn to page XXIII ►►►


Bare Root XXII

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017 Scared and in tears, this nursery school child turns back for fear of being attacked by cows which graze along the damaged roadway

– struggling for bare necessities By Shauna Jemmott CRIMINALS have capitalized on the darkness, hiding themselves among bushes that line parts of the roadways and launching attacks on residents – including children some of whom have become silent victims of rape. This tale of Bare Root was related to the Guyana Chronicle as we stood with some of the unfortunate ones way down Grant Road on atrociously rough grounds and roadways.

Grant Road was named after Guyana’s internationally acclaimed superstar Eddy Grant, who once lived at the head of the street in Bachelors’ Adventure, East Coast Demerara.. But contrary to what the name suggests experiences on that particular lane are far from those expected on a superstar’s street. Residents pray for a visit from President David Granger and Minister of Public Infrastructure David Patterson, so they can understand exactly what they (residents) are experiencing. Experiences in Bare Root are worse than can be related or implied. Lack of functional street lights coupled with roads in disrepair which drivers refuse to traverse “We are asking if some additional help can be given where street lights are concerned because being in the dark it’s not nice and it’s not safe,” Odama Siland told the Guyana Chronicle. Her daughter, 10-year-old Esther, was thankful that their plight would finally be highlighted with the hope of action being taken. The child said it was difficult and scary at nights. Residents of the village, particularly those on Grant Road, told the Chronicle that some of the perpetrators are strangers to the village, who would visit and wait in the dark to attack. Bare Root Resident Odama Siland

“I remember early last year, there were persons who used to come and actually secure themselves in the dark to attack people who normally come in late at nights. Some persons have loads, they have children and it is very dangerous especially at nights. It’s very dangerous… persons have been raped, some persons would have gotten robbed…all because of the poor lighting facility that they have,” the woman related. While a few residents install their own street lights, others cannot afford and the lighting is not sufficient to cover the entire area. When the newspaper visited the area, lamp poles were observed leaning dangerously in the direction of several residences. Another resident Linsay Siland pointed out that the poles were eaten by wood ants and posed a dangerous threat to people’s homes as well as those traversing the roadways. “The posts are almost falling, most of them… those persons lives are in danger because if there is a storm or a heavy wind at any time that post can fall,” she said. Residents fear electrocution, electrical fires, damage to their appliances and destruction of their homes and are crying for swift help. “A few (lights) along the road – that will help to eliminate a certain amount of fear from villagers, and even eliminate these attackers who will come and seclude themselves in the dark. So we’re asking if anything can be done about it to help enhance the community,” Odama Siland pleaded. With frequent torrential rain, managing the bushes along Turn to page XXIV ►►►


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017 ◄◄◄ From page XXI

floating by the roadside koker. When fished out it was the dead watchman. GREAT DECEPTION I was 10 years of age and I was on that scene. A huge crowd gathered. The murderer was there too. “Ow me gad who could do dis to dis old man? Only de odder day meh help he to go in a boat to go to work. IF me ketch da man wha do dis, meh strangle he with me bare hands. Ow me Gad! Dey had to sew up he mouth too? Pity!’’ We all shared these sentiments not knowing he was the killer. That gruesome crime went unsolved for a long time. GOLD LADY Estate life was boring. One routine - rise in the morning, go to work, arrive back in the afternoon, do your cooking and sleep. So the churches, wedding and funerals attract lots of people. A popular man passed on. The entire village turned out to bid him farewell. And among them is the ‘’gold lady.’’ So called because of the splendid gold jewellery she wore. And she graced all occasion. She lived alone…a widow. EVIL EYES At this funeral while all were sad and viewing the dead, she was the focus of an evil eye. Those pieces captivated him. He must have them. She was sending off her villager-the next time it would be she getting an obituary. At afternoon Bodo followed her. He saw where she lived. That night at 12:30, He broke into her house and demanded the gold .He stripped off all she had on her ears and fingers. But he wanted the bangles and gallihair. She refused to reveal where she hid them. OFF WITH THE HEAD And in passion Bodo swiped off her head. I was on that scene. I still recall that head with eyes wide open and blood soaked hair. And the body left in a crumpled form. Blood everywhere. It was frightening. So cruel! The police was quick to respond. Some folks saw Bodo following the victim. And the police labelled him No 1 suspect. MONEY AT LAST They went to his house. No one was at home. He and his wife had gone to the city to pawn the gold. But his daughter was at school. They contacted her. She said when she came downstairs that morning she saw clothes in a tub and the water was red. She said she asked her mother why her father played Phagwah, when Phagwah had already passed. She was told to shut up. TANGIBLE EVIDENCE The police broke into the yard and retrieved the bloodsoaked clothes. They nabbed Bodo that night. Tests reveal that he was their man. All were shocked. How could this ‘’angel’’ do this? It didn’t take long for a jury to find Bodo guilty. He was sentenced to death by hanging. Knowing that he would die, he confessed to the murder of the watchman. This admission sent further shock waves in the estate. While all were stricken with disbelief, one man danced. He was a villager named Fisher, the country’s hangman. As he passed through the village that morning he hollered: “A gone tek he neck today, and ah gon spring he two times. That bastard!’’ Some shouted ‘’get he Fisher, get he!’’ HANG’S MAN DELIGHT That afternoon as the hangman returned a bit intoxicated he rambled on and on. ‘’Boy see him dance when I drop de trap door. I clapped. Ah give he another two for two lives gone from dis village. Son of a bitch ah de want to axe he head and sew up he mouth’’. FISHER THE HERO Fisher was a hated man in the area. He lived alone on a lonely dam. All avoided him. His past time was to hang cats and dogs. As a boy I was deathly afraid to pass by his house. But that day Bodo met his end on the gallows, Fisher was our hero. The dam he lived on is named after him. Today the sound of ‘’Fisher Dam “still generates fear of a man who enjoys ‘’breaking the neck’’ of criminals. Upon his death, no one took this job and eventually capital punishment by hanging has abolished. Bodo, the “angel’’ did reveal the monster in him. This frail man snuffed two lives out in such a horrible way. All for gold. That precious metal still produces monsters who worship it.

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XXIV ◄◄◄ From page XXII

the roadways is a monumental task as they quickly grow again after being cut down. Floodwaters are quick to creep onto home compounds and just last month had risen knee height in Middle Street. Alligators and snakes are often spotted and drive fear into the hearts of residents there. “For quite some time we haven’t received much help… but we would normally try to do our own little cleaning. There are alligators that would normally come out in the nights and it’s not safe for the children neither adults.” A distance away, a few adults gathered some downs (a small fruit) scattered in a yard and nearby trench, and further along the miserable thoroughfare a man grazed cows and the absence of vehicles travelling there couldn’t go unnoticed. A nursery school child appeared afraid and was in tears walking home while cows grazed on Grant Road. Samantha, another resident expressed concern about animals grazing in residential compounds and along the streets even as individuals traverse those very streets to go about their daily routines. “People have a lot of animals and no fixed place for them to graze,” the woman said.

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

A few cows, with no fixed pasture to graze, take advantage of the bushes along the Grant Road, Bare Root

As she pointed to a narrow bridge linking Bare Root and Dazzell Housing Scheme, the woman explained that though the bridge was lately constructed it was being damaged due to the animals’ constant crossings. There was a man doing construction work in the area. He stopped to tell the Chronicle of the need for a grazing field or pasture for animals. “Long ago it was so developed they used to use up the lots to feed but as people take up the house lots their space becomes smaller.” Two families not far away from where he worked each had some 30 to 40 cows but no proper grazing ground. The animals mostly go into empty lots in Bare Root and in Dazzell Housing Scheme, and many times would be the center of heated conflicts. Farmlands are hardly available and while some residents are able to maintain a productive kitchen garden, no one can benefit from medium to large scale farming. Already construction of homes has been a challenge to many in the low-income community and quite few empty lots remain jammed with bushes while some houses remain halfway built – testimony to the fact that funds are hard to access, as one resident confessed. “This is a low-income area, so it’s strenuous on persons to actually occupy these house lots and complete the buildings. We have space over there, there are persons who occupy these lands but they’re not doing anything,” one resident expressed. She called for a playground for children and expressed concern about occasional conflicts experienced by Bare Root children who have to venture across to neighbouring Enterprise for schooling. “I would really appreciate that the relevant authorities look into this and do something about it so we can be a comfortable people,” the Bare Root woman said. Bare Root resident Samantha

Leaning Dangerously! Lamp poles along Grant Road pose a threat of death residents said


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

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NO WATER! NO LIFE! By Neil Primus

WATER is the most valuable thing to life on this planet. Plants and animals need it to live. It is a clear, tasteless and odorless liquid. More than two thirds of the human body weight is water. It is the only thing

that has three natural forms - solid, liquid and gas. Seventy percent of the earth’s surface is covered by this liquid. Yet, 97 percent of this water is unfit for human consumption because of its salt content. The remaining three percent is fresh water. Of this tiny amount,

77 percent is solid (Ice). Only 0.3 % of all freshwater can be found in rivers, lakes and the atmosphere. This precious liquid with no calories or organic nutrients is critical to

human existence. Man quickly realized its importance. Turn to page XXXI ►►►


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Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

Guyana

perfect for weddings GUYANA has the potential to be a choice international destination for weddings, and with unforgettable natural attractions, inclusive of the majestic Kaieteur Falls, is now advertised as the perfect wedding tourism destination for lovers from all over the world. At the launch of the 9th edition of a related exhibition - Wedding Expo 2017 – Minister of Business and Tourism Dominik Gaskin signals his trust that the sentimental showcase presented by Roraima Airways has potential to cover a broad spectrum. Wedding Expo 2017 was launched in brilliant sunshine Wednesday at Duke Lodge Hotel in the Garden City, and was applauded by tourism and business leaders as an economic basket. “Weddings as you all know are big business all over the world and present many economic opportunities for enterprising people. Weddings are also special occasions for the people actually getting married, and those who are looking to make a dollar on weddings should appreciate this.” Minister Gaskin listed quality and reliability as key elements in services delivery and said with the expansion of wedding tourism here those in the industry focus and deliver accordingly. He was speaking to those whose businesses serve the wedding arena asking them to lift standards even as Guyana pushes to attract the world in making that step of love here. “Different societies have different approaches to weddings. Some place a higher value on the religious aspects of weddings, some place greater value on the bells and whistles of the event itself, while for some it’s a straight business deal - for every dollar that is invested in the wedding it is expected to produce returns in gifts.” Wedding Expo is indeed a one stop show of available services and products for wedding events, and while planning can have several committees, all will be available in one place from March 24 to 26. There will also be created, the perfect opportunity for businesses to meet their target audience and benefit from opportunities to network with other agencies. “They get to witness firsthand the glitz and glamour of fashion shows that will feature top notch designer fashions, wedding gowns and suits and other formal wears.” The Minister said while it is typical of weddings to attract overseas relatives for a return visit, tourism opportunities can be seized amidst the familial celebration. Weddings also provide other opportunities and Guyana with its rich natural attraction being the perfect wedding destination. At the launch a fashion display was also presented displaying some available wedding apparel as a sneak peek of some of what will be presented during the exhibition at Duke Lodge in March.


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017 Minister of Business Dominic Gaskin speaking at the launch of wedding expo

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Some of the cultural bridal fashions on display at the launch of wedding expo


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Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017 ◄◄◄ From page XXV

Throughout history, civilization was centered around large bodies of water. It was used for agriculture, drinking, bathing, cooking, food production and processing, transportation, power generation, waste treatment and recreation. Water became central to religion, fire-fighting and a number of other vital things. Hydro Generation is one of its most important uses. In some parts of the world water is a very scarce commodity while in others water is wasted. In the USA the following stats show the general trend in water usage. SHOWER…………………16.8% TOILET…………………...26.7% FAUCET(TAP)…………...15.7% LEAKS…………………….13.7% LAUNDRY………………..21.7% OTHER……………………5.3% The average American household uses about 300 gallons of water daily. Seventy percent is used indoors and 30% outdoors. Normally 5-7 gallons is used to flush the toilet. When you take a shower 5 gallons per minute goes down the drain and 3-5 gallons when you use the tap. In Guyana, we have a healthy supply of fresh water. Our surface water yield is approximately 300,000 cubic feet per second via the Essequibo, Berbice and Demerara rivers. Shockingly, only two percent of this is used, mainly in agriculture. Our population is small compared to the size of our country. Our water demands are also small in contrast to the enormous water resources we possess. The population’s need of water is ever increasing. Soon the international demand for water will equal or even surpass the available water resources on this planet. We are truly blessed. Every morning before you are fully awake there is the persistent honking of horns. The Water Truck has arrived. Then the second wave hits you and now you are fully awake. “Wata! Wata! Buy yu wata!” Many communities are subjected to this exact scenario - the sale of ‘drinking water.’ Of the numerous water businesses in this country, only Turn to page XXXII ►►►

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Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017 ◄◄◄ From page XXXI

some of them have been legally registered and certified by the Government Analyst Food and Drug Department (GAFDD). Situated in the compound of the University of Guyana, this agency is responsible for certifying any business that deals with food, medicine, cosmetics and medical devices. The process to become a legally operating entity is often ignored by those intent on making a quick buck. In order to become compliant, the intended business must first show ‘Land Use Clearance.’ That is, permission from the Central Housing and Planning Authority to operate said business on that location. The second step is to register with the Deeds Registry. Only then should the application for license be made to the GAFDD. A plan/sketch, detailing the exact layout of the premises, equipment, process flow, diagram of each product to be manufactured, should be submitted with the application. If a label is to be used this too must be submitted for approval. The GAFDD then inspects the business place to ensure that they are in compliance with all regulations. The final step is an examination of the finished product. Only after

all the above have been fulfilled should the business begin operations. Some entities which sell processed water are not fully compliant. This gives their employees plenty of scope to be dishonest risking the health of consumers. Imagine this. A company fills large water bottles to be sold door to door. Because these bottles are not sealed, the smart worker decides to cash in. He/she quickly sells their product in a specific area. The bottles are then refilled, often at questionable sources. This water is then sold in another district. All the latter proceedings go into the pocket of the worker(s). The purity of the water is of little importance to such a callous person. Even though the GAFDD has the power to seize such products and halt illegal operators, they can only do so if such operations are reported. Once this is done checks will be carried out and appropriate action taken. There is one Cardinal Rule of the GAFDD that should serve as a warning Turn to page XXXIII ►►►


Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017 ◄◄◄ From page XXXII

to customers. All bottles should be sealed before leaving the company. Guyanese should never purchase water from unsealed containers. The mandate of the GAFDD is to protect consumers and to facilitate trade. All exporters depend on the ‘Free Sale Certificate’ from this agency in order to meet the criterion for export.

The department currently suffers from a drought of qualified staff. It presently has seven Food Inspectors and three Drug Inspectors. In order to function efficiently this agency needs 10 Food and 10 Drug Inspectors. Unfortunately, the salary being offered in not attractive enough to get these positions filled. The salary of these officers is approximately $76,000. This heavy demand for drinking water in Guyana reflects directly on the Guyana Water Inc. This body came into being on the 30th of May, 2002 when the Guyana Water Authority

and the Georgetown Sewerage and Water Commission was merged. The role of this organization is to provide all Guyanese with safe, potable water. Every human being regardless of race, religion or political affiliation, has this basic right. Guyanese are no exceptions. With numerous Water Treatment Plants and Wells all over our country, there still remains this huge demand for bottled, drinking water. Unfortunately this water is less regulated than our tap water. There seems to be very little oversight over this industry. People in the United States purchase more than half a billion bottles of water every week. Guyana is following this same trend. This is encouraged by a litany of water woes. Far too frequently there is some ‘crisis’ with the water supply. Contaminated wells, mechanical problems, leakage, water loss, low pressure, tampering with the mains, water shortage, broken mains, vandalism and drought, feed this growing demand and dependency on bottled water. Are you a bottled water user? Do you usually purchase water from roving ‘Water trucks?’ Have you bought bottled water lately?

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FBI request for Twitter account data may have overstepped legal guidelines THE FBI appeared to go beyond the scope of existing legal guidance in seeking certain kinds of internet records from Twitter as recently as last year, legal experts said, citing two warrantless surveillance orders the social media company published on Friday. Twitter said its disclosures were the first time the company had been allowed to publicly reveal the secretive orders, which were delivered with gag orders when they were issued in 2015 and 2016. Their publication follows similar disclosures in recent months by other major internet companies, including Alphabet's Google and Yahoo. Each of the two new orders, known as national security letters (NSLs), specifically request a type of data known as electronic communication transaction records, which can include some email header data and browsing history, among other information. In doing so, the orders bolster the belief among privacy advocates that the FBI has routinely used NSLs to seek internet records beyond the limitations set down in a 2008 Justice Department legal memo, which concluded such orders should be constrained to phone billing records. The FBI did not immediately respond to a request for comment. An FBI inspector general report from 2014 indicated that it disagreed with the memo's guidance. In a blog post announcing the two NSL disclosures, Twitter said it did not hand over all the information the FBI requested. "While the actual NSLs request a large amount of data, Twitter provides a very limited set of data in response to NSLs consistent with federal law and interpretive guidance from the U.S. Department of Justice," Elizabeth Banker, associate general counsel at Twitter, wrote. The identity of the accounts sought by the FBI are redacted in both of the NSLs. Aaron Crocker, a staff attorney at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, said the orders disclosed Friday were among a small handful of those publicly released that show the FBI continues to ask for internet records despite the 2008 guidance. "This is an ongoing practice and it is significantly beyond the scope of what is intended," said Crocker, whose organization is challenging the constitutionality of NSLs in the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. Twitter has also sued the government to more freely discuss NSLs. National security letters are a type of government order for communications data sent to service providers. They are usually issued with a gag order, meaning the target is often unaware that records are being accessed, and they do not require a warrant. They have been available as a law enforcement tool since the 1970s, but their frequency and breadth expanded dramatically under the USA Patriot Act, which was passed shortly after the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks. Tens of thousands of NSLs are issued annually. In June of last year the U.S. Senate narrowly rejected a Republican-backed proposal to expand the kinds of telephone and internet records the FBI could request under an NSL to include senders and recipients of emails, some information about websites a person visits and social media log-in data. The legislation failed amid opposition from some major technology companies and civil liberties advocates, but lawmakers have said they intend to pursue the expansion again.


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English 2017-01-29

STUDY SUCCESS Dear Students, Many persons’ responses to study challenges lack clear thinking. Some eagerly await hints from instructors and study partners before crediting their own thoughts. Students, start to believe in yourself that you are a capable thinker. Clear thinking equates to tremendous achievements. Clear thinking is all about using clear, logical and appropriate thought patterns accompanied by a high sense of values and informed choices. Be confident in yourself with practice and great benefits. Love you COMPOSITION A) Using simple language In an examination room, it is better to use simple and direct language which is usually the clearest and most forceful for the occasion. Consider the examination markers also, who decide upon your efforts. What to Do Look at each of the following pairs of sentences, and decide which sentence communicates better what the writer is trying to say. Pick out extravagant or unfamiliar words as one of the means to help you decide. 1. a) Will the designated group leaders please indicate their identity by rising? b) Will the group leaders please rise and call out their names? 2. a) We can confidently say that our city owes its greatness to the wise and courageous leadership within our own self-help groups. b) I say to you, without fear of successful contradiction, that this great metropolis owes its pre-eminence to the foresight, the courage, and the integrity of illustrious leaders of our renowned self-help organisations. 3. a) By what criterion can the younger generation determine what is the desirable course to follow? b) How shall the young people direct their way?

Chronicle Pepperpot January 29, 2017

THOUGHT FOR THE DAY There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1564-1616), Hamlet, II. ii.

ground of “the flat coastlands of Region Two” or whatever the actual locale may be? Yes? Couldn’t you also treat the characters and the basic ideas in the same way, searching always for the best words to make your reader see in his own mind the things that you have seen on stage at the National Cultural Centre. The spoken word must also be treated with precision. Something to Do 1. Give more specific expressions for the following phrases. Use actual or figurative comparisons if you wish. a) A confident child b) A fine performance c) An interesting concert d) Studying hard e) Feeling unhappy f) A laughable incident g) A poor state of affair h) A pleasant sleep 2. Complete the following exercises, and then compare words with a study partner. The lists may be filed in your notebook for later reference, as this exercise really targets opening up the range of words, ideas, levels under which you could function safely. A. Explain the difference between a view, a sight, a vision,

B) Using exact and concrete language When you write an essay always choose words that represent most clearly and accurately the ideas you have in mind. In most instances of writing, specific words should outnumber abstract words. Let’s look at the word interesting being given as the response to the question: “What are your thoughts about the new locally written play now featuring at the National Cultural centre?” i) Couldn’t you have used any of these terms? Let’s see: exciting, suspenseful, thrilling, moving, unique, original, absorbing, imaginative, rich in new ideas, diverting, amusing, stimulating, thought-provoking, or soothing. Yes? ii) Couldn’t you instead of saying, “The new play has a rural setting,” explain that the play is acted against the back-

a show, a spectacle. B. List as many kinds of medical specialists as you know. C. List as many kinds of outdoor games that you know. D. List words describing people whom you know about. E. List words describing sceneries that you know. F. List words describing moods and feelings. G. List words describing errors, weaknesses, offenses, crimes, and faults. H. List words describing houses that you know. 3. Write a composition on a harrowing experience one rainy day in a flooded area, with no one in sight to respond to your distress call. GRAMMAR Written composition Sometimes we find it necessary to show that two sentences are more closely related to each other than to the other sentences in the paragraph. This closeness in relationship can be achieved in a number of ways. Example It rained very heavily. The Ministry of Health’s graduation continued as scheduled. (a) It rained very heavily but the Ministry of Health’s graduation continued as scheduled. (Use of the coordination conjunction, but.) (b) Although it rained heavily, the Ministry of Health’s graduation continued as scheduled. (The first sentence is reduced to a subordinate clause by the use of ‘although’. Note the comma between clauses, and that the clauses can be removed.) (c ) In spite of the heavy rain, the Ministry of Health’s graduation continued as scheduled. (The first sentence is reduced to an introductory phrase.) What to Do Now work on the three pairs of sentences below. 1. The block makers worked hard at their task. The field assistant was not present. 2. The valuation officers were not punctual. The confident land buyers were treated to an interlude of Country and Western music. 3. New housing schemes were continued to be built upon the embankment. The law forbade any unauthorised erection of homes on State land. SKILLS of STUDY Why do we need to think clearly? We think clearly for the following reasons: 1. To effect great changes in our outlook; 2. As a duty to ourselves, for our very existence depends upon it; 3. To arrive at true conclusions; 4. To not reach the truth by accident; 5. As a show of determination never to give up looking for answers.

Amazing Facts


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Entertainment

Miss Universe beauty pageant kicks off in Manila MORE than 86 women from all over the world gathered in Manila on Thursday to compete in the Miss Universe beauty contest that will culminate in a coronation in the Philippines capital on Monday. Crowds packed the Mall of

Asia Arena as each candidate showcased her swimsuits, evening gowns and national costumes in front of the judges. The preliminary competition that started on Thursday will whittle down the crowded field to the top 12 candidates for the

pageant night, the Miss Universe website said. "The whole world is being united, and even though we don't know each other, we still enjoy the event," said Apple Natividad, one of the many spectators who attended the show.

Some even dressed like Miss Universe candidates to join the fanfare. "This is a venue for beauty, but also the beauty of the heart, especially for us Filipinos who are fanatics for pageants," said Rania Ziateh, who wore a Miss

Philippines sash. Over half a million people are expected to tune in to watch the coronation night next week, organizers said. (Reporting by Reuters TV in Manila; Editing by Sandra Maler)

Miss Universe candidates parade in their evening gowns during a preliminary competition in Pasay, Metro Manila, Philippines January 26, 2017. REUTERS/Erik De Castro

Soyini Fraser, Miss Universe Guyana 2016 debuts her National Costume on stage at the Mall of Asia Arena on Thursday, January 25, 2017

Actor Shia LaBeouf arrested in New York anti-Trump protest

David Bowie appears on British postage stamps, year after his death

ACTOR Shia LaBeouf was arrested early on Thursday after a scuffle outside a New York museum where he was chanting "He will not divide us" during a live-streamed protest against President Donald Trump, police said. The "Transformers" and "American Honey" star allegedly pulled a 25-year-old man's scarf, scratched his face and shoved him at about 12:30 a.m. EST outside the Museum of the Moving Image in the borough of Queens, a police spokesman said. The cause of the altercation was unknown. The 30-year-old actor was chanting "He will not divide us" into a live-stream camera mounted on a wall when the incident took place. LaBeouf and two other artists began the protest on Jan. 20, the day that Trump, a Republican, was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States. They have invited the public to repeat the words into the camera nonstop for the next four years in a "participatory performance," according to their website. LaBeouf was released after being charged with misdemeanor assault and harassment, the police spokesman said. He is scheduled to

appear in court on April 4. Representatives for LaBeouf did immediately respond to a request for comment. (Reporting by Ian Simpson in Washington; Editing by Daniel Wallis and Jeffrey Benkoe)

DAVID Bowie is to appear on a range of British postage stamps as a tribute to the musician who died last year, the postal service has announced. "This is the first time Royal Mail has dedicated an entire stamp issue to an individual music artist or cultural figure," the company said in a statement. The Beatles and Pink Floyd have previously been honored with a stamp issue, it said. The 10 stamps featuring album covers as well as Bowie performing live will go on sale from March 14, 50 years since the Londoner released his first album and in the year that he would have turned 70.

Six of the stamps bear images of album covers for "Hunky Dory", "Aladdin Sane", "Heroes", "Let's Dance", "Earthling" and "Blackstar", which was released just days before Bowie's death at the age of 69 from cancer in January 2016. The other four stamps show the pop chameleon on tour over the years, with pictures of him performing during the Ziggy Stardust tour in 1972, the Stage tour in 1978, the Serious Moonlight tour in 1983 and A Reality tour in 2004. (Reporting by Marie-Louise Gumuchian; Editing by Robin Pomeroy)


Entertainment

Mary Tyler Moore, Emmy-winning U.S. sitcom star, dead at 80

EMMY-winning actress Mary Tyler Moore, who brightened American television screens as the perky suburban housewife on "The Dick Van Dyke Show," and then as a fledgling feminist on "The Mary Tyler Moore Show," died on Wednesday at the age of 80, a representative said. Moore, who won seven Emmy Awards for her television work, died in the company of friends and her husband, Dr. S. Robert Levine, representative Mara Buxbaum said in a statement. She had been seriously ill over the past two years, when she was in and out of hospitals and suffered from heart and kidney problems, close friends said. She was a diabetic, and in 2011 she had a benign brain tumor removed. Moore also was nominated in 1981 for an Academy Award for the film "Ordinary People," playing a character very different from her TV roles - an icy woman coping with a suicide attempt by her 18-year-old son. Robert Redford, who directed the movie, said in a statement that her "energy, spirit and talent created a new bright spot in the television landscape and she will be very much missed. The courage she displayed in taking on a role darker than anything she had ever done was brave and enormously powerful." Moore's eponymous show and "The Dick Van Dyke Show" were both among the most popular sitcoms of their time, with the former ranking seventh and the latter No. 20 on TV Guide's 2013 list of best television shows. "There are no words. She was THE BEST!," actor Dick Van Dyke said on Twitter. "We always said that we changed each other's lives for the better." Moore, asked by Reuters in 2012 when she was given the SAG lifetime achievement award how she wanted to be remembered, said: "As a good chum. As somebody who was happy most of the time and took great pride in making people laugh when I was able to pull that off." Ed Asner, who acted alongside Moore in

and prim, 30-ish Mary Richards was, by 1970s television sitcom standards, a budding feminist. She lived on her own, was not hunting a husband and protested that

"The Mary Tyler Moore Show," mourned her death on Twitter, writing: "#marytylermoore my heart goes out to you and your family. Know that I love you and believe in your strength." Longtime TV interviewer Larry King on Twitter called Moore "a dear friend and a truly great person. A fighter." Moore had emerged on television in the early 1960s when many of the women in leading roles were traditional, apron-wearing stay-at-home moms like June Cleaver on "Leave It to Beaver." Moore's bright-eyed Laura Petrie character was prone to moaning "Oh, Rob!" at her husband in moments of exasperation on "The Dick Van Dyke Show," but she chipped away at that stereotype. For one thing, she wore stylish pants rather than house dresses and styled her hair like Jacqueline Kennedy's. Moore's Mary Richards character on "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" went even farther. Mary Richards focused on her career as an assistant producer for the news show at television station WJM in Minneapolis and was determined to fulfill the lyrics of the show's theme song - "You're going to make it after all" - as she joyously flung her beret into the air in the show's opening credits. While she may have had conservative Midwestern values and been a bit naive

she was not being paid as much as a male counterpart. (Reporting by Bill Trott; additional reporting by Jill Serjeant and David Ingram; editing by Leslie Adler)

Chocolate Chip Banana Muffins Don't throw away those bananas that are turning brown and soft. They're perfect for making these muffins moist with lots of banana flavor. Ingredients 1 cup mashed very ripe bananas (2 medium) ½ cup packed brown sugar 1/3 cup milk ¼ cup vegetable oil 1 egg 1 ½ cups white whole wheat flour 2 ½ teaspoons baking powder ½ teaspoon salt ½ cup miniature semisweet chocolate chips 2 tablespoons granulated sugar Directions • 1 Heat oven to 400ºF. Grease bot-

toms only of 12 regular-size muffin cups with shortening, or place paper baking cup in each muffin cup. • 2 In large bowl, beat bananas, brown sugar, milk, oil and egg with electric mixer on medium speed, or mix with spoon. Stir in flour, baking powder and salt just until flour is moistened. Fold miniature chocolate chips into batter. • 3 Divide batter evenly among muffin cups; sprinkle each with 1/2 teaspoon sugar. Bake 13 to 18 minutes or until toothpick inserted in center comes out clean. Immediately remove from pan.


Pepperpot 01 29 2017