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Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

Short story…

The Christmas ‘Miracle Baby’

By Maureen Rampersad

‘OH little Christmas tree…’ A beautiful Christmas song, in this wondrous season of joy and goodwill. Melinda lit a candle and whispered softly a little prayer as she looked at Mary and baby Jesus. A child was such a wonderful gift; a blessing from Heaven. There was sadness in her eyes as she walked slowly down the church’s steps. She stood there for a little while, then she hailed a cab for home. She did not drive anymore since the accident two years ago. Memories of that cold December day stayed as clear as the rain in her mind. She had been driving home after some last-minute Christmas shopping, glowing with happiness, for her husband was coming home from the Navy for the holidays. She was six months pregnant, and to spend that season together was something special, for her heart was singing more than the songs on the radio. ‘Joy to the world, the Lord has come…’ But in the next split second, tragedy stormed into her life when a truck made a turn too wide, and careened into her path. Melinda screamed and swung the steering wheel hard, avoiding a horrific head-on collision. But she had lost control of the vehicle and the car flipped three times, trapping her inside. The

last thing she heard before slipping into unconsciousness was, ‘Oh Holy Child…’ The church, family and friends prayed fervently for her, as doctors battled to save her and the baby’s lives. David, her husband, though still in shock, stayed closely by her side, because that was the time he was needed more than ever. Her head injury was severe, and her baby, born prematurely, was in such a critical state, survival was not guaranteed. A joyful Christmas that became sad. The concussion in her head left Melinda in a coma for almost two weeks, and coming back from the darkness to life with such heartache was not what she ever wanted in life. She had sat for days, looking at her baby’s frail body, singing lullabies for her; the little one, named Sarah, holding on dearly to life. The doctors regretfully told her that her baby would not be able to breathe on her own. It was a terrible moment that day for Melinda to let go; she could not say ‘goodbye’, and for weeks, she lapsed into darkness. David had taken her away from their hometown to be away from the memories; to try and begin a new life. Often, she would pray for her little one in Heaven, and when the sky was filled with stars, she would ask, “Where are you, my little star?” That was years ago; now it w a s C hris tmas again. Always, since she lost her baby, at this time a strong feeling would come over her. She did not know what, but now it felt stronger than ever. On Christmas Eve Day, she sat alone by the

Christmas tree Maureen Rampertab until David came home. They had a little dinner, and as they sat together in cozy comfort, he asked, “What would you like for Christmas?” “Something most beautiful.” “That you would have,” he said. That night in her dreams, a beautiful little girl appeared and held out her arms, and called in a tiny voice, “Mommy.” Melinda awoke with a start, perplexed by such a dream. She stood at the window, and, looking out into the cold night, she sighed deeply. On Christmas morning, the doorbell rang. It was Dr. West, David’s old friend from his hometown. “This is a surprise!” Melinda said. “What are you doing this for?” “Delivering your Christmas present.” Dr West said, with a pleasant smile. “Something most beautiful,” David said. “What are you two up to?” Melinda asked, suspiciously, given the surprises she had had over the years. The doorbell rang again, and Dr. West’s wife came in with a little girl in her arms. “Oh my God!” Melinda gasped. It was the little girl in her dreams. The child looked at her and smiled, and in the sweetest voice, she said, “Mommy.” Melinda stared in disbelief. “What is going on?” “She’s your baby, Melinda.” Dr. West said. “The miracle baby who held onto life.” “I don’t understand,” Melinda said, perplexed, holding tightly to David’s arm. “You did not let go; you have been praying all the time,” David said. “God answered your prayers.” Dr. West explained that when the machine was turned off and everyone had left, he had gone back in to have one last look before the baby was taken to the morgue, and saw her eyelids flutter. Life hadn’t left, but was there, flickering on, but so low, it seemed gone. It was like she was fighting to stay. In all his medical career, he had never seen anything like that, and he had felt in his heart it was his call to give this baby a chance to live. So, with David’s permission, a new medical procedure was started on the baby, that, once successful, would guarantee a healthy life. It was a long-term procedure, and Melinda was not told because of her fragile state of mind, for further failures would have pushed her over the edge. Today, after two years, on Christmas Day, her baby was now in her arms. “Oh God, I can’t believe this!” she cried, hugging her little girl for the first time, something most beautiful. A Christmas Miracle indeed!


Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

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By Petamber Persaud

In tribute to Cecile Nobrega

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(1919 – 2013)

N November 19, 2013, Guyana lost another literary luminary: Cécile Nobrega. She died at age ninety-four, five years after the ‘Bronze Woman Statue’ was unveiled in Stockwell Memorial Gardens, South London, and four decades after the poem that inspired the statue was written by Nobrega in Guyana. The poem titled, ‘Bronze Woman’, was published in Nobrega’s first book of verses, ‘Soliloquies’. ‘Bronze Woman’, the first poem in the book, was about the “stalwart woman-man/strength in your heart/and love in your limbs” who prevailed and continues to achieve against great odds. The Bronze Woman Monument, a seven-foot statue of a woman holding a young child aloft, is the physical manifestation of that poem, paying tribute to women of Guyana and the Caribbean who suffered ‘massa-day’. The effects of ‘massa-day’ was still wreaking havoc when Cécile Nobrega was born in 1919 in Georgetown, British Guiana. Born to Imelda and Canon W. G. Burgan, they managed on a ‘limited stipend’. Her father used to write articles on life in the countryside for the Argosy newspaper under the pseudonym, ‘Rusticious’. Her mother, who learnt music while attending St. Rose’s High, was a popular singer of her day, and a hit at music festivals. The influence of music on the life of young Cécile goes a generation back to her maternal grandmother, Husbands, who used to import classical gramophone records through Pradasco Bros. on Hinck Street, Georgetown. Cécile used talk about one of the records her grandmother brought for her because she was named after the singer: It was ‘Autumn’, by Cécile Chaminade. Cécile went on to write and compose songs, winning a few awards along the way. Her most popular song was ‘Twilight’, which opens in the following manner: ‘I dance upon the brink of day/And try to keep the night away’. She has covered much ground leading to her twilight years, making a name for herself as a poet, playwright, composer, potter, social worker, textbook writer and educator. She has covered much ground leading to her twilight years, having been formally educated at The Bishops’ High School, British Guiana; Hockerill College of Education, UK; the Institute of Education, London University; and informally through one of her hobbies, which is travelling. As a past member of the Women’s League of Social Service, Cécile represented this country at the Conference of Caribbean Women’s Association held in Trinidad. Incidentally, she was married in Trinidad (1943) to Romeo Anthony Nobrega, a born Guyanese who was attached to the Caribbean Forces during the Second World War. She was also a member of the International Alliance of Women, UK, and was a member the Guyana Women Artists Association, UK as well. As a writer, Cécile Nobrega falls within that first wave of Guyanese women writers which included Sheila King; Syble Douglas; Rajkumari Singh; Celeste Dolphin; B. Zorina Ishmael; Jacqueline DeWeever; Joy Allsopp; Margaret E. Bayley; Edwina Melville; Evadne D’Oliveira; and Doris Harper-Wills. Some of those women were active in the very robust Guyana Writers’ Group. Many of them were talented in more than one genre of writing, but, importantly, most of them produced children’s literature, and quite a few were playwrights. The Guyana Writers’ Group produced ‘Voices of Guyana’, a collection of poems edited by Donald Trotman, in commemoration of International Human Rights Year, 1968. Cécile was also featured in the first Guyanese anthology of stories, ‘Stories From Guyana’. While she was a member of the Guyana Chapter of International PEN, Cécile represented this country at the PEN Congress in Oslo, Norway. She was also a good ambassador of Guyana on other occasions, including representing the country at the International

Cécile Nobrega standing next to the ‘Bronze Woman’ statue at the Stockwell Memorial Gardens in south London

Children’s Theatre Conference held in London in 1964. As one of the few women playwrights at the time, her play, ‘Stabroek Fantasy’, was quite an achievement. It would be useful to bear in mind that theatre was always struggling, despite the exploits of the British Guiana Dramatic Society, the Georgetown Dramatic Club, and the feats of Norman E. Cameron. As an educator, Cécile was President of the Kindergarten Section of the Guyana Teachers’ Union, and editor of ‘You’ magazine for the Parish of St. Sidwell’s in Lodge. She also taught Music and Language. Apart from her first collection published in Guyana, Cécile had published other books of poetry including, ‘Japan, The Butterfly’, an ode to that country with which she fell in love through one of her hobbies, which was studying the history of Japan. She revealed that that was another of her visions, “...in the light of what we know today of Japan, the Ode can be regarded as a prophesy, written, as it was, over 25 years ago!” Cécile was a member of the Japan Society, London. When she migrated to London in 1969, she took with her a solid foundation in various fields of endeavour on which to build. But it wasn’t easy; not that she ever had it easy. Her philosophy could be found in her poem, ‘Right to Life’, where she points out, ‘however great the hurricane/the smiling grass/bobs up its head again’. The poem, ‘Bronze Woman’, contributed to the shaping of our literature, and ‘Bronze Woman Statue’ is a monumental way of preserving our literary heritage.

Rest in Peace, Cécile. (To respond to this author, either call him on (592) 2260065 or send him an email: oraltradition2002@yahoo.com)

WHAT’S HAPPENING * ‘An Introduction to Guyanese Literature’ is now available at the National Library. This book is an up-to-date guide, featuring significant literary landmarks, from the 16th Century to the new millennium. This 150-page book, including over 100 photographs, is an attempt at bringing to the fore little known facts about lesser known aspects of our literature. The big books, the big authors and the big success stories in Guyanese Literature are also featured.


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Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

Bodhi Day: An Insight

On Bodhi Day, some Buddhists celebrate Gautama’s attainment of enlightenment under the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya, India. This event is usually observed on December 8 every year. The following is an INSIGHT INTO THE NATURE OF THE BUDDHA, COURTESY OF THE GUYANA HINDUSTANI BUDDHA SANGHA, and compiled BY BUDDHA ACHARYA PANDIT CHRISHNA PERSAUD FILS, SAC (DIP. LAW) ONE of the greatest, epoch-making events in the spiritual history of Mankind occurred when the ‘Light of the World’ was set out bright in Kapil Vastu at the foot of the Himalayas in Central India. The spring of wisdom and compassion gushed up there, and in the course of time, it has enriched the human mind for over 2000 years. Siddhartha, who later came to be known as Gautama Buddha, abandoned his royal home and became a mendicant, eager to find the solution to the suffering of the world. The teachings of Gautama Buddha was exported to other countries by Emperor Asoka (268-232 B.C.) Buddhism, as this teaching is known, then spread from Burma to China, Korea to Afghanistan, Syria to Japan. With great compassion and incomparable skill, the enlightened master Buddha taught in any way that would lead people on the correct path to liberation and, finally, to Buddha-hood. Sometimes the Buddha taught in a way that led his disciples gradually to an understanding of the absolute nature of reality, and in these situations, he taught about relative reality first. At other times, he taught of the ultimate nature directly and explicitly. Over the course of his forty-five years of teaching, the Buddha turned the wheel of dharma three times, initiating new cycles of teaching for the benefit of sentient beings. These three turnings are commonly known as the dharma chakras ( or ‘dharma wheels’). The first turning of the wheel of dharma took place not long after the Buddha’s enlightenment. At this time, Buddha presented teachings on the four noble truths, karma, and the selflessness of the person. These teachings form the basis of what is called the “common vehicle” (Hinayana), or the vehicle of the “listeners” or “hearers.” The second and third turnings form the basis of the vehicle known as the Mahayana. In this phase, the Buddha taught the Prajna-paramita Sutras, or the Sutras of Transcendent Knowledge. Now, the Buddha emphasized the emptiness or lack of true existence of both self ed from a beloved one is suffering. To struggle to satisfy (tathagata-garbha), or Buddha-nature. These focus on the lumiw basic needs is suffering. In fact a life that is not free from nous nature of emptiness, and reveal that the potential , no e desire , passion, greed and ignorance is always involved e k for Buddha-hood has always been present within with distress and suffering. awa a k e t h m our hearts. At the same time, in the final turning a w ‘I a l l of the wheel of dharma, Buddha clearly distinCause of Suffering sh guished between the indicative and definitive I rld’ he cause of human suffering is undoubtly found wo meanings of his various teachings. in the thirsts of the physical body in the illusion for worldly possessions. If these thirsts and illusions are traced The four Noble Truths to their sources, they are found to be deeply rooted in desires. he Buddha taught the four noble truths: (1) The truth of Thus desire has a strong will to live and give continuity to suffering. (2) The truth of the origin of suffering. (3) The suffering. People of the world are prone to be selfish and untruth of the cessation of suffering and (4) The truth of the path sympathetic. They do not know how to love and respect one that leads to cessation. Buddha presented these four truths in another. They argue and quarrel over small issues only to their sets of two: The cause and result of samsara and the cause and own harm and suffering. Life then becomes a cycle of dissatisresult of nirvana. Samsara refers to a state of existence that is faction and unhappiness. characterized by a predominance of suffering, and nirvana refers The poor suffers from insuffiency and this serves to awaken to the state of liberation from suffering as well as to the cessation endless desires for wealth. The life is then controlled by greed of its causes. and determination of struggle for more to the point where there is weakening of both body and mind. Suffering A wealthy man worries about his estate and inheritance. he Buddha saw that the world was full of suffering. Birth He worries of disaster and disposition of his wealth. He worries and old age is Suffering, sickness and death is suffering. about death and loneliness To meet a person whom someone hates is suffering. To be separat-

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Cessation of suffering f desires which lie at the root of all human passion, greed and hatred can be removed, then the passion will die out and all human suffering will end. In order to enter the state where there is no suffering one must follow a certain path. The stages of this Noble Path are: Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Behaviour, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration.

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Nirvava irvana is an ancient word which means enlightenment. However, in later Mahayana as it developed in India, enlightenment is a more advanced experience than nirvana. It’s developed after nirvana - it follows on from nirvana. (So you can see that “nirvana” doesn’t refer to an experience that happens only at death! Like salvation. There is life after the experience of nirvana, but now the person is not an “ordinary” person; he or she is a (Jeewa Mukhta) liberated soul, a (Bodhisattva) on the path to full enlightenment.) Awakened is the translation of Bodhi. The Buddha - any Buddha - is “an awakened being”. Depending on whether you follow Theravada or Mahayana, “awakened” will refer to nirvana or to full enlightenment. In the meditation traditions (like Zen) you also find the words “awakened” and even “enlightened” used for the deep experiences that arise in meditation as you’re following the path. So in these traditions you can talk about a series of “enlightenments” or “awakenings” which eventually culminate in full and complete enlightenment or God realisation and Self realisation. Once we have realized the truth of suffering, then the question is, “What are the causes of this suffering?” In the second noble truth, Buddha taught that our suffering originates in our false belief, Ego and selfishness. This fixation is the basis for the arising of certain mental afflictions, or destructive emotions, called the “three root poisons”: passion, aggression, and ignorance. From these three poisons, we experience the development of further negative emotions and all aspects of suffering. Since these poisons result from ego-clinging, the root of all our suffering is our ego-clinging.

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Relationship of our actions to our suffering hen we examine our experience of suffering further, we also see that it is connected to our actions. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationship of our actions to our suffering. In Buddhist terminology, when we speak of “actions,” we are speaking of karma, the natural relationship of cause and effect. Simply speaking, karma, which means “action,” refers to action within our mind; it refers to the movement of thoughts, intentions, and motivations. This mental action leads us to or results in physical action—either the physical action of speech or the physical action of body. Thus, in a genuine understanding of karma, actions take place in our mind rather than on the physical level.

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Karma e are constantly involved in accumulation of karma, and in Buddhism, this accumulation is divided into three basic categories: negative actions, positive actions, and neutral actions. From this perspective, whatever thoughts we might entertain and whatever actions we might be engaged in, these will all leave a karmic impression in our mind that is either positive or negative. A negative impression is left by any action that harms either the one who commits the action or the one who is the object of the action, or both. These are generally actions arising out of hatred, jealousy, aggression, and passion—the negative aspects of our emotions. The moment when any thought is involved in aggression has tremendous energy and power, and the resultant negative seed that is planted in the mind will manifest as aggression again. This is as certain as the fact that planting the seed of a pepper will lead to the result of a pepper plant.

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Karmic impressions hen we are under the influence of mental afflictions, we are incessantly planting the seeds of confusion and restlessness in our

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See page IX


Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

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Bodywork‌

Diabetes

By Sally Habeeb

DIABETES mellitus, more commonly referred to simply as diabetes, is a chronic degenerative disease caused by a lack of resistance to the hormone insulin, which is essential for the proper metabolism of blood sugar (glucose). Normally, blood sugar rises after a meal, as glucose is absorbed in the bloodstream, causing the pancreas to produce enough insulin to return the blood sugar level to its normal range. Diabetic individuals are either unable to produce insulin, or their cells have become resistant to insulin and they are unable to move glucose from the bloodstream to the cells, and thus cannot maintain a normal blood glucoses level. Excess glucose in the bloodstream is toxic; it can diminish the biological effectiveness of various proteins in the body. Types of diabetes There are two major forms of diabetes mellitus: insulin dependent juvenile diabetes (Type 1) and non-insulin dependent adult onset diabetes (type 2). In Type 1 diabetes, the body is unable to produce insulin. As a result, glucose builds up in the bloodstream and spills over into the urine, while the body literally starves to death because the cells cannot get the nourishment which is provided by glucose to produce energy to carry out their normal functions. Insulin injections are currently the only known method to control Type 1 diabetes, but those injections are not considered a cure. The injection must be taken daily (sometimes several times a day, usually before meals) and must be timed so that the peak action of the insulin will occur when the sugar from a meal elevates the blood glucose to its highest level. Complications of diabetes Complications with Type 1 and 2 diabetes can occur when blood sugar levels are not properly controlled. When blood sugar levels are not controlled over long periods of time, circulatory problems can occur, causing damage to small nerves, resulting in retinopathy (damage to the retina), neuropathy (nerves damages), nephropathy (kidney disease) and food ulcers. Ketoacidosis: When insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetics do not take sufficient insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. The body must then breakdown fat for energy, but this process produces ketones, which are toxic to the body and induce a state of acidosis (excessive acidity in the body). Large does of insulin are needed to overcome the insulin resistance in this state, and hospitalisation is often necessary. Diabetes retinopathy: Damage to the retina of the eyes in diabetes is one of the leading causes of blindness. In poorly controlled diabetes, fragile new blood vessels are formed in the retina in an attempt to bring more oxygen to the eye. However, these vessels often break, hemorrhaging in the eyes. Diabetic neuropathy: Damage to the peripheral nervous system is characterised by pain and numbness, most frequently occurring in the feet and legs. It is usually due to severe damage to the capillaries supplying the peripheral nervous systems. Diabetic nephropathy: Damage to the kidneys is a leading cause of death in diabetics. It is primarily due to damage to the kidneys. Diabetic foot ulcer: The lack of oxygen supply and peripheral nerve damage due to destruction of capillaries are the main causes of foot ulcers in diabetics. Without proper treatment, gangrenes can form,

necessitating amputation. To prevent this, the feet should be kept clean, dry and warm. The goal for any patient in treating diabetes is to bring high blood sugar under control, and as much as possible to stablilise blood sugar, achieved by a treatment approach that encourages diabetics to become actively responsible for their own health. (The author is a qualified massage therapist, and can be reached @ 649-4227)


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Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

(A look at some of the stories that made the news ‘back-in-the-day’ with CLIFFORD STANLEY)

‘My brother shot me in the chest’

(Guiana Graphic: March 19, 1964)

JAMES Melville Harte, testifying in the Rupununi shooting case yesterday, told Mr. Justice Arthur Chung and a mixed jury that he was shot in the chest by his brother, Elmo, while they were preparing to sign an agreement for shares in the business at Pirara Ranch, Rupununi, on December 15, 1962. James resumed giving evidence after the judge had ruled that ev-

idence of previous threats by Elmo Harte were admissible. In the dock was Elmo Harte on a four-count indictment, charging him with wounding James Harte with intent to murder him, and also with discharging a loaded firearm at another brother, Benjamin Harte, with intent to do him grievous bodily harm. Wounding with intent, and being in possession of a firearm with intent to endanger life, were the other two charges.

‘Barney’ does well at Kneller Hall (Guiana Graphic: January 9, 1964) SERGEANT “Barney” Small of the B.G Police Force Band, who is undergoing a student Bandmaster’s Course at the Royal Military School of Music, Kneller Hall, England, was recently awarded three prizes for outstanding performances. Sergeant Small has qualified as an Associate of the Royal College of Music, and at Prize Day, held recently, he was presented with the following awards: A Bronze Medal, and a cheque for $25.20 for obtaining Second Place in the Somerville Prize for Military Band Arranging. A Silver Plaque and cheque for $24 for obtaining First Place in the Fred Mortimer Memorial Competition for the best arrangement for Brass Band, and a cheque for $28.20 for winning the Professor’s Prize award went to the student gaining the most marks on secondary instruments. Sergeant Small is expected back in Guiana sometime in April this year.

A man’s challenge puzzles magistrate (Guiana Graphic: February 14, 1964) A CITY man walked into the Drysdale Street home of a woman with whom he was friendly at 1:30 o’clock one morning in October last year, and met a man whose hand he shook and said: ”Come downstairs, and the better man wins.” But the man, 28-year-old city labourer, Neville Stoute, did not accept the challenge. Instead, the Court heard, a row and a scuffle began between Edgar Smith and the woman, Norma, over an attempt to eject Stoute. Smith alleged that Stoute, who was defended by Mr. W. MacWilliams, wounded him with a knife. But Mr. MacWilliams pointed out to the Magistrate that the woman, Norma, was the mother of Stoute’s two children, and that Smith was injured by a windowpane during the scuffle. Magistrate Dhan Jhappan dismissed the case, after remarking that he was puzzled why Smith had challenged Stoute by saying: “Come downstairs, and the better man wins.”

B.G. ranch among biggest in the world

(Guiana Graphic: February 7, 1964) B.G’s Dadanawa Ranch is the subject of an 11-page article in the February issue of the Geographical Magazine, the leading magazine of its kind in Britain. The article is accompanied by maps and photographs. The Magazine’s coloured cover shows cowboys rounding up longhorns on the ranch. The author of the article, Mr. Stanley E. Brock, Manager of the Dadanawa Ranch, points out that more than half the cattle population of B.G. grazes on the ranch. With a current herd of 27,000, spread out over 3,000 square miles, the ranch is among the largest single-unit area ranches in the world.

SALTAIRELENE

(Guiana Graphic: January 26, 1964)

This is the stamp of the well-dressed man: 55% Terylene; 45% wool worsted. A Saltaire suiting; Made in England. The first and most important step in good dressing is to look for this stamp on the cloth. Found only on ‘Saltairlene’, the finest ‘Terylene’ suitings, it promises you clothes that will keep their good looks… And flatter yours. Ask to see the full ‘Saltairlene’ range; it includes something for every taste, ‘Saltairlene’, pure worsted, with Terylene.

SMITH CORONA

(Guiana Graphic: February 16, 1964)

It’s here! Get your hands on the new Smith Corona ‘CORONA’ portable typewriter! Look at these features: Graduated Paper Bail; Rapidly Adjusted Margin Shutters; Weighs less than 9 lbs! Touch Selector Device; ‘End of Page’ Indicator; Collapsible paper supports!” $10.00 down; $10 monthly Correspondence is easier; business is brisker; studying is simpler! FOGARTY’s, Your Friendly Store.

Another attempt at Roraima

(Guiana Graphic: February 23, 1964) ONE of Guiana’s most ardent adventurers is again planning to make a trip into the interior. Mr. Ram Ramlakhan, of Half Mile, Wismar, Wismar Hill is finalizing plans to make another attempt at climbing Mount Roraima. This, he says, is the supreme attempt, since he and his companion were forced to abandon the previous trip after reaching the height of 6 000 feet. His equipment will consist of the bare necessities -- hunting knife, cutlass and hammock -– but he will also walk with a camera, with which he intends to take pictures of wildlife to show to members of the Wild Life Club he intends to form on his return. If his trip is successful, Ramlakhan plans to explore the upper reaches of the Corentyne, a region of which he knows very little. (Clifford Stanley can be reached to discuss any of the foregoing articles at cliffantony@ gmail.com or by cell-phone # 657 2043)


Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

Amendment after prosecution closes case leads to conviction

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HIEF Justice J.A Luckhoo, in a Full Court ruling in 1961, dismissed an appeal against a larceny conviction on the grounds that the magistrate was entitled to grant an amendment to the charge, although the prosecution had closed its case.

The magistrate granted an amendment of the charge, by substituting the words, “Property of Murley Kirpalani and Shamdas Kirpalani” for the words, “Property of Kirpalani Bros,” and offered the appellant and Goberdhan an opportunity of leading a defence to the charge, as

nance, Chapter 14 (B.G.). The ownership of the shirts was laid in the charge as that of “Kirpalani Bros”. “At the close of the case for the prosecution, the two defendants also closed their case without leading evidence. Thereupon, counsel for the defendants submit-

charge in that the property had not been laid in a legal persona and was therefore originally bad and that it was not competent for him to amend the charge. “It was also contended that the magistrate erred when he did not call upon the appellant to plead to the amended

charge. “Section 7 (4) of the Summary Jurisdiction (Offences) Ordinance, Chapter 15 [B.G], provides that the description of any offence to the words of the statute creating the offence, or in similar words, with a specification as far as practicable of the time and place when and where the offence was committed , shall be sufficient in law. “Section 64 of the Summary Jurisdiction (Offences) ,Ordinance , Chapter 15 [B.G.] provides as follows: ‘64 Statement of ownership of property – (1) Where in any document in any proceeding under this Ordinance , it is necessary to state the ownership of any prope r t y w h a t s o e v e r, whether movable or immovable , which belongs to or is in the possession of more than one person , it shall be sufficient to name one of those per sons , and to state the property to belong to the person so named and another or others as the case may be. (2) Where, in the document, it is necessary to mention for any purpose whatsoever any partners or other joint owners or possessors, it shall be sufficient to describe them in manner aforesaid. (3) The provisions of this section shall be construed to extend all joint stock companies and associations, societies and trustees.” In conclusion, Justice

The appellant, Singh, had complained that by the Magistrate’s action, he and a co-defendant, who had turned down the opportunity to plead to the amended charge, were found guilty. But, on appeal, he was told by the Full Court of two judges that the magistrate was entitled to grant the amendment sought, and to proceed with the hearing without a pleading being taken to the amended charge. The facts of the case disclosed that Singh and one Dennis Goberdhan were charged jointly before a magistrate with the larceny of eleven shirts in 1960. The ownership of the shirts was laid in the charge as that of Murley and Shamdas Kirpalini, who traded under the name, ‘Kirpalani Bros’. At the close of the case for the prosecution, the appellant and Goberdhan also closed their case without leading evidence, and their counsel, Mr. B. O. Adams, S.C, submitted that it had not been proved that ‘Kirpalani Bros’ was a registered company, or a corporate body.

amended, and of recalling for cross-examination the witnesses who had testified. Both offers were declined. On appeal, it was contended that the magistrate erred in granting the amendment, and in not calling upon the appellant to plead to the amended charge. The Full Court, constituted by Justices Luckhoo and Jailal, held that: (i) Where the ownership is incorrectly described in the particulars of a charge, the Court should amend the charge and not dismiss it. The case of Ralph v Hurrell was applied. (ii) The magistrate was entitled to grant the amendment sought, and to proceed with the hearing, without a pleading being taken to the amended charge. Justice Luckhoo, who delivered the judgment of the Court at the hearing of the appeal, noted that “Singh was with one Dennis Goberdhan, charged jointly with the larceny of eleven shirts, contrary to Section 66 (b) of the Summary Jurisdiction (Offences) Ordi-

ted that it has not been proved that “Kirpalani Bros” is a registered company or a corporate body. “Apparently, the prosecuting officer applied for an amendment of the charge by the substitution of the words “Property of Kirpalani Bros” for the words “Property of Murley Kirpalani and Shamdas Kirpalani”. “The amendment sought was granted by the magistrate and the magistrate thereupon offered the defendants an opportunity of leading a defence to the charge as amended. “They were also offered an opportunity of recalling for cross-examination the witnesses who had testified. The defendants declined both offers. “The defendants were both convicted on the charge as amended. Both defendants appealed against the decision of the magistrate but the defendant Goberdhan subsequently filed a notice of withdrawal of his appeal. “On behalf of the appellant, it was submitted that the magistrate erred in point of law when he amended the

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By George Barclay Luckhoo, who presided at the Full Court, said: “Having regard to the provisions set out above, we were of the opinion that the magistrate was entitled to grant the amendment sought and to proceed with the hearing without a plea being taken to the amended charge . “He offered the appellant an opportunity of recalling for cross-examination the witnesses who had already testified and offered the appellant an opportunity of leading a defence to the charge as amended. No question of an adjournment arose as the appellant rejected the offers made by the magistrate. “In any event, it could hardly be said that the appellant had been deceived or misled by reasons of the defect in the particulars of the charge. The appellant never sought to suggest that the shirts were owned by anyone else. Where the ownership is incorrectly described in the particulars of a charge the court should amend the charge and not dismiss it. We found the appeal without merit and have dismissed same.”


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Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

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Bodhi Day... From page IV

mindstream, which, fundamentally, is pure and without any confusion. Thus, engaging in harmful actions that leave negative impressions in our mind is like walking with dirty shoes into a beautiful, clean room. We leave our tracks all over the clean floor wherever we walk. In this analogy, our mind is the spotless floor, our karmic action is our mindless walking with dirty shoes, and the negative impressions left in our mindstream are the footprints we track across the clean floor. In this way, we perpetuate the cycle of samsara and increase our own unhappiness and suffering. Of course, it is not an actual physical location that we are trying to escape but a mental state—the convoluted and tortuous quality that is inherent in our individual experience of samsara. It is the wish to be free of such suffering that is the basis of earnestly seeking liberation.

hayana expression of bodhicitta, which is not just emptiness, but forgiveness, letting go of bad experiences, a sense of justice, love, kindness, compassion and selflessness must be unified into one experience. True nature of the mind he Buddha went further into his teachings on the ultimate nature of mind. At this time, he taught that the true nature of mind is not merely emptiness, a state of nonexistence. Rather, our fundamental nature of mind is a luminous expanse of awareness that is beyond all conceptual fabrication and completely free from the movement of thoughts. It is the union of emptiness and clarity, of space and radiant awareness that is endowed with supreme and immeasurable qualities. From this basic nature of emptiness everything is expressed; from this everything arises and manifests. With these teachings on the absolute nature of mind, Buddha introduced the notion of tathagata-garbha, or the Buddha nature theory. This declares that the fundamental nature of mind is utterly pure and primordially in the state of Buddha hood. It is the absolute Buddha. It has never changed from beginning less time. Its essence is wisdom and compassion that is inconceivably profound and vast. The term tathagata is an epithet for the Buddha and refers to one who has “gone beyond” the ordinary world to the state of perfect enlightenment. Garbha is sometimes translated as “womb” or “seed.” Thus, tathagatagarbha points to the enlightened potential that is inherent within all sentient beings, whether they exist as humans, animals, gods, or even demons.

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Emptiness n the first turning of the wheel of dharma, the Buddha began to teach the view of emptiness. When he taught the four noble truths, he said, “Suffering is impermanent, impermanence is emptiness, and emptiness is selflessness.” This can also be stated as, “Impermanence is suffering, suffering is emptiness, and emptiness is selflessness.” In this way, Buddha taught emptiness in a way that was very accessible. While it is generally difficult to experience emptiness directly, right away, it is not so difficult to recognize our own suffering, which is a very vivid experience. Once we have seen the truth of suffering, then it is also not so difficult to see its momentary, impermanent nature. This leads to a deeper understanding of the impermanent nature of all phenomena, which is the basis for realizing emptiness. Emptiness means “lack of inherent existence”. It’s the way everything - ourselves and all phenomena - actually exist. Nothing has a permanent unchanging nature. Everything we experience arises because of causes and conditions, and is thus constantly changing. Emptiness is a very interesting and subtle subject, Avidya well worth studying in depth. WE need to study it, to understand owever, this potential is veiled by certain temporary intellectually what emptiness really is, before we can achieve a ignorance (avidya), in the same way that the sun may be realization of emptiness. temporarily concealed by clouds. Therefore we do not apprehend it directly. Instead, we see only what is perceptible by means of our Impermanence dualistic consciousness: a stream of sense perceptions, mental conn Intellectual understanding of emptiness brings enquiry structs, thoughts, and emotions that arise and dissolve ceaselessly. into the rationality of impermanence. That nothing is It is these appearances of relative phenomena that obscure the direct permanent and everything is constantly changing. In instances on recognition of the open, brilliant, and dynamic reality of genuine poverty , pain, suffering, rejection, emotional disorders etc that mind. Nevertheless, our Buddha nature itself has never been diminaffects someone, there is always the longing and desire for chang- ished by the presence of such adventitious phenomena, just as the es in circumstances. Changes can and will occur since the very sun itself is never diminished by the presence of clouds. situations are not permanent. What the rational mind seek is to change the situations by replacing one imparmence with another. Indicative and definitive meanings However change will not occur by artificially transposition he third turning is called the dharma-chakra of thorough of environment and circumstance. There will always be the need distinction because, at this time, Buddha made clear disfor letting go of emotions tinctions between statements relating to relative truth and absoWealth can bring an end to poverty, Relationship can end loneliness, but how sustainable is wealth and relationship. In the world today people see life as existence or non existence, but the enlightened person sees life as being beyond existence or non existence. He recognises the transcendental in both of them. All things appear and disappear because of cause and condition. Nothing ever exist alone; everything is related to everything else. Wherever there is light, there is shadow, wherever there is length there is shortness. As the self-nature of things cannot exist alone, they are called non-substantial. By the same reasoning enlightenment cannot exist independent of ignorance, nor can ignorance exist alone. Since things do not differ in their essential nature, there can be no duality. Suppose a Log is floating in a river. If the log does not become grounded or sink, or is not taken out by someone or does not decay. Ultimately it will reach the sea. Life is like this log caught in a great current of attachment and delusion through desires, fear, hatred, enmity, false pride etc. If someone is to avoid being in a great current of attachment and delusion they must first seek to understand the two basic human defilements. The first is ignorance and the second is desire.

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Cessation of all suffering irvava brings cessation of all pain and sorrow flowing from negative thoughts and unbalanced mind. Cessation generally means the complete stopping of mental defilements. This can only happen when we have a true realization of emptiness. However someone can experience the partial ceasing of defilements before that, and if he/she keep practising steadily, then the defilements will become weaker and weaker so that when you do realize emptiness, you’ll be able to follow the rest of the path quite easily. However, in order to possess such a pure motivation and such vast compassion and love for others, we must have some understanding or realization of selflessness. If we have compassion or love with an egocentric view, then that compassion and love will not be genuine. When the experience of selflessness is combined with compassion and love, it becomes the perfect Ma-

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lute truth. Statements with “indicative meaning” are those that indirectly indicate the path to awakening without being a direct or definitive statement of the final nature of awakening. These statements are not misleading; they lead you in the right direction in a manner that is appropriate to our particular concerns at a specific time. These teachings were not direct statements of or about absolute truth; they were concerned with relative truth or relative reality. By contrast, statements with “definitive meaning” are those that pertain directly to the absolute truth and do not require interpretation. They are final and, to some extent, literal. They do not indirectly lead to the meaning but are direct statements of it. Included in this category are the teachings on the causes of final awakening, and Buddha nature. Three Turnings, One Path he Buddha taught only one dharma, but people heard it in different ways. The Buddha’s teachings have been heard and repeated for many hundreds of years; different understandings have developed, and with them, more and more schools. The teachings of the three yanas (vehicles) and turnings, however, all play a vital role on the path. In terms of practice of Buddhism, however, we need a certain amount of structure and a clear view of this path; otherwise, we will become confused and lost. In each of the different ways Buddha taught the “right view” of emptiness for each stage of the path. It is necessary to understand this at the beginning because, without having the right view, we cannot find the right path. Without discovering the right path, we will not meet with the right experiences and realizations. Without realizing the nature of mind correctly, we have no way to free ourselves from samsara. This is why the correct view is so important: to go beyond conceptual understanding to the direct realization of the absolute, awakened state.

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POOF, THE LIGHT GOES OFF! A 72-year-old man goes for a physical. All of his tests came back normal, so the doctor says: “Harry, everything looks great. How are you doing mentally and emotionally? Are you at peace with God?” Harry replies, “God and I are tight. He knows I have poor eyesight, so he’s fixed it when I get up in the middle of the night to go to the bathroom. Poof! The light goes on. When I’m done, poof! The light goes off.” “Wow! That’s incredible!” the doctor says. A little later in the day, the doctor calls Harry’s wife. “Mrs. White,” he says, “Harry is doing fine, but I had to call you because I’m in awe of his relationship with God. Is it true that he gets up during the night and poof! The light goes on in the bathroom, and when he’s done, poof! The light goes off?” “OH GOOD GRIEF!” Mrs. White exclaims. “He’s pissing in the fridge again!”

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Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

Heavy musical ‘rockings’ for Guyana

By Alex Wayne HE is maybe one of the most reticent Guyanese artistes around, and is more known for his perpetually quiet and reserved demeanour. If you manage to engage him in a twenty-minute conversation, it would be quite an accomplishment for you. But Wilbur Levans, who goes by the stage name ‘B52’, turns up the heat enough to scare a thermometer when he takes to the stage to perform. One might want to say he has a split personality, or that he is unpredictable, but what he has maintained over the years is the admirable art of pleasuring and controlling his audience on every appearance. For sure the ladies adore him, and many have mused that, for such a short and almost petite man, he certainly ‘packs a wallop’ when he makes his musical appearances. His naturally raunchy and captivating presence has also been hallmarks that continue to grow as he develops as a singer. Knowing the man B52 was given his name by his manager. It means “Bomber 52”, and his true potential is yet to be realised. Guyanese by birth, B52,

formerly known as ‘Lil Man’, hails from Anna Catherina on the West Coast of Demerara, and was born on November 15. He began a career in music at a very young age, starting as a songwriter during his teenage years, and later grooving into singing, winning the first ever Junior Calypso competition held in Guyana. His success in the competition motivated him to stay in the music field, and it was during that time that he slowly started to gain his spot in the entertainment industry in Guyana. He continued in this competition, winning it for three consecutive years, (20022004), and setting a trend that has since not been equalled. B52 won the ‘In Search of a Star’ national contest in 2004, and became a member of the now defunct group Impulse. It was during that time that a competition was launched, the Western Union R&B Flava competition, which was hosted by an artiste of Kross Kolor Records, and the group entered to show what talents its members possessed. They came out quite successful, placing fourth; but all was not lost. B52 was recognised as one of the most promising artistes in the group, and after conversations

Wilbur ‘B 52’ Levans tops the charts musically

and agreements, he was later signed to the Kross Kolor Label. He has grown tremendously over the years; and later, under his manager’s advice, he took a decisive turn to singing Soca. I n 2 0 0 5 , h e re l e a s e d his first single, “Wine and Touch Yuh Toes,” on the ‘Wine Til Yuh Drop’ album, which was the first of its kind produced by Kross Kolor Records. This song became a national hit, and recommended him to the attention of international audiences. He found his true potential in performing, and decided to See page XV

B52 is a small man with astonishing vocal power

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Mocha/Arcadia

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--A village in welcome transition

By Alex Wayne

Bank Public Road. A vehicle ride a considerable distance along its access road would take visitors first into the section called Arcadia, then into Mocha, which has not lost its historic aura, although showing signs of evolving from its Old World charm.

Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

piercing the air. In open yards, little girls were chasing each other playing customary girlish games, while all around residents just seemed to be rushing here and there, the spirit of love and intense harmony mirrored in their smiles. Already, families were making preparation for the Christmas season.

ONE should not listen to sordid stories or tales of folly told about villages without one making one’s own investigation. Because, if Mocha/Arcadia today you do, you may certainly walk away with the wrong impression Joie de vivre of a location which is otherwise remarkable, homely and quite Today, this location is rapidly taking on the appearance that interesting. comes with modern transformation. And that is because the access Many villages are popular for their high levels of camaraderie Mocha/Arcadia is a community I had always wanted to visit, but road to Mocha/Arcadia is now a feature quite fitting for peaceful amongst residents, but I have got to admit that Mocha/Arcadia seems tales of ethnic division with its concomitant animosity told to me by and comfortable travel. my colleagues always deterred me from that enterprise. However, to be topping the others by far. And with arrival of the New Mocha/Arcadia Housing Scheme, There was just a certain ‘hustle and bustle’ to the village, as I recently decided to throw caution to the wind and visit the area the location has already entered a phase of ready sophistication. to feature life in that community. I was pleasantly surprised to find residents hurried to attend daily chores and/or get the groceries. In bygone years, the tales of Mocha/Arcadia detailed a picture Many persons have already begun their frenzied shopping for jovial, contented people and a village that was showing fair signs of the holidays, and housewives seemed to be on fire as they ganged of the fused village laced with muddy dams, impassable roads, poor infrastructural development. drainage, and other negative issues. Residents at one time took to I received my first positive surprise the minute my party turned up at several small stalls getting goodies for the kitchen. The topics Food not-so-impressive vendor Patsy blocking roads in protest of the village’s infraSmith peels cassava off the East Bank Highway and onto the Mocha/Arcadia Access they discussed ranged from Christmas shopping to grocery prices, structure and lack of a steady supply of potable water. to the latest fashion; and some were bold enough to be discussing to make ready her Road. While I expected to find potholes in accordance with the Today, however, things are improving, andegg residents are more delicious balls sordid tales I had been told, we were just cruising luxuriously on the ‘bedroom inadequacies’ of their husbands, their shrill laughter than grateful for the interventions of a brand new asphalt covered road that certainly satisfied my desire the powers that be in the affairs of for travelling. Mocha/Arcadia. At that instant, I silently applauded Government and the relevant Mocha/Arcadia continues to authorities for taking time out to ensure that residents travelled in visibly evolve in its development, style and comfort in accessing Mocha/Arcadia. and today has its own police outpost, Our ride was very relaxing, especially because of the ready National Library and several areas of availability of fresh ‘country breeze’ which cannot be found in the worship. There are also Digicel and Garden City of Georgetown…. Wide, lush pastures and thick green GT&T signal stations in the area, so foliage rolled by as my driver stepped up his pace a little. However, telephone communication, especially I instructed him to slow down to cruising speed, because I wanted cellular, is at its best. to enjoy the beauty and simplicity of this community. Here and there were a few donkeys and horses enjoying the healthy grass in open Keeping with tradition fields, or just grazing lazily by the roadside. Then we arrived at our destination, and were met by a very polite One can be amazed at the unique and smiling young man, who was going to give us the grand tour of manner in which residents of Mocha/ Mocha/Arcadia. Arcadia continue to keep abreast This location certainly appealed to me with its intriguing Old with their culture and traditions. World charm, and that certain aura of harmony permeating the atmoThe African drums are still a sphere somehow gripped me with its intensity. The rich laughter of very vibrant feature in this village, youths chasing each other in and out of small streets and alleyways and some promoter has indicated added to that mesmerizing ambience of the community and indicated his/her willingness and intention to that the community’s people were just living life to the fullest and resuscitate and continue the custom having fun. of the annual May Fairs, which are Mocha/Arcadia was occupied primarily by people of African quite a hit among villagers. ancestry during the days of slavery. The community derived its That aside, the village comes name from the principal activity that used to be engaged in there: See page XIII coffee production. Located some six miles from ‘The Garden City’ The school compound at Mocha certainly needs a little sprucing up (as the capital of Georgetown is sometimes called), this village presents quite a comforting spectacle when viewed from the East

A minibus driver navigates a stretch of bad road in Mocha The Mocha Methodist Church is indeed an historical landmark that is the pride and joy of villagers. Today, a new concrete structure is being built to replace the old facility


Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

Mocha/Arcadia...

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Self help efforts are popular among villagers

From page XII

alive whenever a resident is getting married. Everyone gets excited because they know for sure that it’s ‘bacchanal time’ as they congregate for the ‘queh-queh’ and other celebrations that precede such events. One can only imagine what goes on at the ‘big shove-down’, as they would call it when the ‘queh-queh’ time comes around. As night falls, robust women, their firm, curvaceous hips striding proudly, make their way to the wedding house. The teenage girls would have already been there, attired in their best outfits; and the men by this time are almost already drunk from Eldorado brown rum and other beverages that are available. And in the back yard, the huge pots bubble as the metem-gee, cook-up rice, and curried beef are cooked to perfection. The coal pots are red hot from all the coal that has been dumped into the them, and feisty older women take turns at stirring the pots with what looks like large wooden paddles. The delicious aroma wafts into the air from the boiling pots, causing stomachs to growl in anticipation of the meals to come later. Then the arresting sound of African drums rents the air, and everyone seems to come alive that very instant. The men stop their drinking and the young girls begin to fix their attire with mischief gleaming in their eyes. Then the ‘buxom mamas’ (sturdy and very curvy women) came forward and they all form a line. In no time, they are going around in a circle, gyrating or performing African dance techniques to the pulsating tempo of the drums. Peals of laughter and squeals of delight fill the air as the senses of the revellers are set on fire, further infused with alcohol and good

Keeping their lands free of bush and foliage

Government intervention Mocha/Arcadia residents certainly welcome Government’s attention, which they currently enjoy. From several interviews, it was quite obvious that the majority of residents were elated that the village, over time, has benefited from Government’s initiatives. The new road has, no doubt, made life much easier for villagers, removing the rigours they faced before. This road will facilitate access to the Remigrants’ Housing Scheme, the Providence Moderate Housing Scheme, and the existing Mocha/ Arcadia Housing Scheme. Sad reminiscences

food. This fiesta continues into the wee hours of the morning, before residents trudge to their homes, dying to get into bed. Entertainment It is quite evident that residents of Mocha/Arcadia are not allowing themselves to be starved of entertainment opportunities, as in times gone by. Years ago, residents were forced to travel great distances to ensure they had a good time, on pay weekends especially. While this was a treat for villagers, they were still faced with the problem of getting road transport back to the village after their nights of bliss, since drivers were scared to travel the Mocha/Arcadia road, which was in deplorable condition at that time. Some drivers were also scared to traverse the area late at nights because of a few criminal elements that would lie in wait on the lonely strip of road in their attempt to rob drivers and commuters alike. On enquiring, some residents noted that the ‘criminal factors’ were actually persons from outside villages who were plying their ‘horrid trade’ on the then dark and unlit road. No longer are residents forced to travel long distances in search of entertainment. The relatively new ‘Apple’ nightclub and few other smaller nightspots offer karaoke and various concept parties, but mostly at weekends.

Amidst the joys shared by the people of Mocha/Arcadia, some residents are still haunted by the tale of a resident who went missing in August of this year, and was, several days later, discovered dead in the backdam areas about a mile

from the village. The body of Delon Melville, 26, of Lot 134 Nelson Street, Mocha Arcadia, was discovered by two boys who were going to catch birds in the backdam about a Confectionery vendors mile from the village. plying their trade in the Villagers related that Mocha school yard his body bore several stab wounds, while the back of his head was reportedly shaved and his two legs had been broken. He was naked, and a white vest had been wrapped around his neck, with a portion covering his face. His brother, Dennis Melville, said that ever since Delon had disappeared, the family had never stopped

looking for him. He said that prior to his disappearance, the now deceased young man had gone to borrow a DVD from a video shop and had returned home; but soon after watching the movie with his nephew, he had received a telephone call and had left the home. That was the last time he had been seen alive. Attempts to contact him on his mobile phone had proved futile. The brother stated that a missing person’s report had been lodged at the Mocha Police Outpost, and some time later, his sister had received a text message from Delon’s mobile phone and had decided to call the number. When she did, a male had answered the phone, saying his name was Junior, and had related to her the tragic news. Upon receiving that bit of information, Delon’s sister had enquired about the body, but was told by the caller that he would return a call to give directions, but he never did. She related that she had received the call after she had retired to bed. A few mornings after, when she answered the ring of her telephone, she recognised her cousin’s voice, and he told her that two boys had found Delon’s body as they were going through a tract to catch birds. They were alerted to the body by the almost intolerable stench, since decomposition had set in. Livelihood Most of the residents seek employment outside of the village. Few of them are pork-knockers in the interior regions. However, it seems like the roles of the housewives have changed these days, since a large number of houses showcase ‘small shops or stalls’ manned by mothers, who sit all day trading their groceries, black pudding, egg balls, polouri, or custard blocks for a quick dollar. Lots of residents depend on farming, not only for an income, but also to keep a steady supply of fresh vegetables, ground provisions and other items on the table. Others are more concerned with the income generated from cattle and poultry rearing. Great talent Vocal talent abounds in Mocha/Arcadia, and one home-grown youth is now chalking up notable points on the music chart with his remarkable talent. Born and raised in the historic village of Mocha, as a young child, ‘Problemz’, as he prefers See page XXII


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From page XI

stay in the Soca arena. In that same year, he entered the second annual Carib Soca Monarch competition held here in Guyana. He placed eighth, but did not give up. He continued appearing in the competition from 2006 right up to 2009, and placed third and second in 2006 and 2007 respectively, and second and third in 2008 and 2009 respectively. With his song, ‘Fireman’, which he performed in 2008, he was chosen to represent Guyana at the International Soca Monarch competition in St. Lucia. He came out successful, placing among the top ten, and proving that there is a lot of

talent in Guyana. Unfortunately, he did not place amongst the top three in the 2010 Carib Soca Monarch competition, but that did not stop him from ‘making waves’ in the Guyanese entertainment industry. To date, B52 is known as one of the most popular artistes signed to the Kross Kolor Label in Guyana, and is featured on all of the albums that have been released by the studio. He also has potential in the calypso and R&B genres, but has chosen Soca as his ‘major’. He surprised his fans in the 2013 Mashramani season when he teamed up with label mate Vanilla on the

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song ‘Tear De Roof’, which became a favourite amongst the Guyanese audience in the Carib Soca Monarch competition. B52 is also a former Guyana Fire Service rank, and is a very talented songwriter who contributed to the lyrics of the song that was produced by the Kross Kolor Family in appreciation of the former President of Guyana. He already has a few hit singles to his name, which includes the previously released “Put It On Me,” on the fifth edition of the “Wine Til Yuh Drop” album. He released his first album, ‘Atlantic Nights’, in May of 2013, and it featured ten original songs all written by him. The album was produced by Kross Kolor Records, and features collaborations with other artistes as well. Wilbur Levans, now called B52, is a great example of a very consistent, hard working individual. He has been proving over the years that he has what it takes to keep the standard of Guyanese entertainment high. Wilbur Levans is definitely a true Guyanese son, and he has a far way to go in the music industry.


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Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

All-black fans ‘party to the max’ to herald the holidays

By Alex Wayne

Satisfied revellers who attended ‘The Next World’ all-black party

REVELRY was painted in black recently when the Hits and Jams Entertainment group hosted the sixth edition of the all-black affair, themed ‘The Next World’. Patrons took their party spirits to the next level, partying through intermittent drizzles quite until day-clean. Having to move to a smaller venue due to the inclement weather, All Black fans proved that no bad weather can deter them from enjoying the biggest concept party to be hosted in Guyana. Despite having accessible

shelter provided at the Tower Poolside, party fanatics chose to dance in the light drizzles which descended now and then. Having to facilitate the thousands that attended the event, organizers opted to cover the pool which the Tower Hotel boasts, creating an excellent dance floor. The music selections did not disappoint, with Guyana’s finest DJ, Director of Hits and Jams Entertainment, Entertainer Kerwin, and Fusion Sound System’s DJ Gully Ras, Selector Diamond, Entertainer Shizzle and DJ Energy providing the best party mixes, inclusive of Dancehall, Soca, Chutney, Reggae, Hip Hop and Old School genres. The affair was a sellout, with patrons decked in black attire showing off the darker side of their entertainment fetishes.

Many were also rewarded with U.S. dollars when they partied with Mackeson, as ANSA McAL launched that brand’s Christmas promotion! All Black ‘The Next World’ continued through the morning, and the last of the ready-to-drop

patrons did not leave the venue until 5.30am. Notably, this event was incident-free. The All Black affair is an annual occasion, and is indisputably the most attended and most anticipated concept party of all time.

The HJTV All-Black organizers were certainly having fun


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Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

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Dress to impress yourself this holiday season

By Michelle Gonsalves T H E l o n g , g l a m o ro u s gowns hanging in shop windows or worn by mannequins were one of the season’s highlights for me as a little girl. I couldn’t wait for the time when I would be allowed to don a chic ankle-length number with a low-cut back and high slit, or something with a tight bodice and bare shoulders, and go to an “Old Years Night/New Year’s Eve” party. The newspapers on the second day of the New Year were filled with amusing photos of women lifting their dresses as they ‘wined’ down to the ground, which was slightly incongruous with the sophisticated glamour of the gowns. How things have changed! Who says you have to wear a gown? Who says you even have to wear a dress of any sort? Who says you even have to be formal? This is not intended to knock the frank sophistication of gowns before the last decade, but today’s Black and nude is a great trends offer a lot more combination in this plus f l e x i b i l i t y a n d v a r i e t y. sized dress Basically, there is no longer an “Old Year’s Night/ New Year ’s Eve” look. Just work your style and look good. So, today, we will look at some of the trends that are on the current market, and examine what looks good: 1. Minis: No longer do you need to wear a long outfit on the most glamorous night of the y e a r. L i g h t w e i g h t a n d skimpy is in. If you are conservative, opt for a heavier fabric and styles that cover your back, tummy and chest. Wear your “tights” if you feel more comfortable. But by all means, let’s see those legs! 2. Peplum Dresse s : Wa l k i n g a r o u n d Georgetown the other day with a relative, I noticed

Black dress with lace panels

that these dresses were everywhere. There were turtle-necked ones, long-sleeved ones, low-backed ones, armless ones, sheerfront ones in every conceivable colour, fabric and pattern. But they all have one thing in common: A fitted, body-conscious shape with a flare of fabric just above the hips. These dresses are versatile, and can be worn to a number of occasions. They also look great with dramatic jewellery. Try a statement necklace or a huge earring for a striking effect (Just don’t wear both at the same time). You have the option of wearing a small purse hung on a chain from your shoulders, or having a sophisticated clutch. Platform pumps look great with this style, but stiletto-heeled strappy slippers may substitute. 3. Colour: It is no longer necessary to wear black, white, metallic or solid colours. Colour is in! And the brighter the better! Try a rose pink, a floral, even a bright yellow dress. Colour blocking -- that trend where you creatively mix contrasting colours -- is even better. Keep materials, hair and accessories sophisticated, though. 4. Lace: Is there any fabric more feminine and alluring

than lace? Lace is no longer just for the bedroom or as a trimming on our clothes. In many of the dresses seen now, lace is the highlight. 5. Shiny: Sequins, rhinestones, glitter and metallic bring on the gaudy goodness. Bright is alright. Wear a sequined dress or a top, or even one of those sequined hot pants on the market. Don’t be afraid, you’ll stand out even in the dark. 6. Jumpsuit: Not your denim jumpsuit, of course. Try an elegant jumpsuit in a sophicated material like silk, satin or lace, in a neutral colour with glamorous accessories. This is the place for a statement necklace, bejewelled clutch and stiletto heels. So, with that said, get creative and express yourself this holiday. Just don’t dress merely for the attention, or because everyone is wearing something. Assess your figure; make sure your choice is comfortable and flattering; and stay true to yourself.


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Mocha/ Arcadia...

Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013

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Despite the loose ends in its infrastructure, Mocha Village still exudes a certain Old-World charm

to be called, always had a calling to music. He was raised among his own people, who were rich in culture, and he could often be found in the village of Buxton with friends. Problemz was always near his close-knit family, who helped guide him from early childhood. Problemz and his family migrated to the United States of America where, as a youth in The Big Apple, Problemz was faced with adjusting to a new country, a new environment, a mixture of various cultures, people from all walks of life, and beliefs beyond his family upbringing. He often found himself dreaming of becoming an artist. He strongly believed it were possible for dreams to come true, and never gave up the hope of one day becoming a star. Problemz began performing in various talent shows around the New York area, and soon realized that this was the road he was to follow. He took upon himself to learn the multifaceted business of music, and his family saw him change from a boy into a man who was taking the path of reggae artistry and song writing. Problemz got his first taste of stardom when he performed at the world famous APOLLO Theater at the age of twelve and became an instant hit. He was soon performing all over town and in places such as the Pyramid and Joe’s Pubs in New York City. In 2008, Problemz travelled to Grenada and performed in Victoria at the St. Mark’s Day Celebration. Not forgetting where he originally came from, Problemz also made several stops in his homeland of Guyana, and showered his people with several outstanding shows. Problemz’s main goal is to expose the Guyanese essence of Reggae music into the industry. He has over 50 songs already recorded, and continues to work in the studio nonstop. He also released an underground album in 2008, entitled “Judgment”. He is having a meteoric rise on the reggae scene, and is said to be the next fast rising star with a whole lot of “Gt” (Guyanese) flavour. Problemz’s songs have been getting air play from many radio stations in the United States and abroad. D& I The National Drainage and Irrigation Authority (NDIA) has been very vibrant in the Mocha/ Arcadia area, working to strengthen drainage systems and maintain the cleanliness of the drains and canals. In times gone by, access to potable water was indeed an issue in the Mocha/Arcadia area, and residents had lamented the adverse effects it had placed on their well-being and existence. That was targeted in 2009 by the Guyana Citizens’ Initiative (GCI), an entity registered under the Friendly Societies Act, in association with the Mocha/Arcadia Barnwell Motivators and Action Committee, which implemented rainwater technology projects at four sites in the Mocha/Arcadia and Caneview communities on the East Bank of Demerara. The projects, which began in October 2006, were designed to bring clean water to these communities, and was centred on meeting seven of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). GCI provided G$1,847,835., while the Mocha/Arcadia Barnwell Motivators and Action Committee made in-kind contributions. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and Ecoclubs United, an NGO connected to provision of water, provided technical and monitoring support to the project. At that time, Guyana had many unregulated areas that were not provided with water, electricity and social services, because they were not incorporated within official local government boundaries. The key beneficiaries of the intervention were poor elderly people; single-parent families, some with more than five children; homes with large numbers of extended family members; and families with disabled individuals (shut-ins). Recreational and infrastructural needs There is still great scope for upgrading and implementing of recreational facilities in Mocha/Arcadia. Presently, the Mocha Playfield could well do with some refurbishing, and there are still smaller roads in the village that need repairing. Residents are desirous of having a playfield or fun park for children, since they have to journey to the city to enjoy such luxuries. Despite the little ‘ups’ and ‘downs’ that residents encounter from time to time, Mocha/Arcadia is truly a ‘must visit item’ you must tick off on your calendar as you plan your trekking and exploring.


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Rare material shortages could put gadgets at risk

MODERN technology is too reliant on rare materials whose scarcity could drastically set back innovation, a new report has warned. It suggested that as more and more devices are manufactured, supplies of key elements, particularly metals, will be strained. Potential substitute materials are either inadequate or non-existent, researchers said. One scientist called the findings “an important wake-up call”. Andrea Sella, of University College London - who was unconnected to the study - told website The Conversation that it was the first time the issue had been explored in such detail. Researchers at Yale University, led by Prof Thomas Graedel, analysed the use of 62 metals or metalloids commonly found in popular technology, such as smartphones. Troubling It found that none of the 62 had alternatives that performed equally well. Twelve had no alternative, Prof Graedal found. The scope for serious disruption because of material shortages is increasingly troubling technology companies. Rare materials are expensive to extract, and their processing comes with considerable environ-

mental concerns. Political factors also play a part: in 2010, China restricted the export of some materials, known as rare earth elements. It said this was because of environmental issues, but some observers noted that the restrictions had two distinct effects - the price of the elements increased fivefold, and Chinese companies were simultaneously given the upper hand in using the precious materials at lower cost. Disrupted Natural disasters bring another unpredictable risk. In 2011, serious flooding in Thailand disrupted global supply chains as the country is a hub for hardware manufacture. Shortages of storage devices extended well into 2012, according to research company IHS iSuppli, with hard-drive supplies the hardest hit. The Yale report concluded: “As wealth and population increase worldwide in the next few decades, scientists will be increasingly challenged to maintain and improve product utility by designing new and better materials, but doing so under potential constraints in resource availability.”


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Combatting the common cold

By Michelle Gonsalves MAYBE I shouldn’t speak too soon, but I haven’t had a cold in the last thirteen months. For someone who has always had an annual cold from ever since, I’m delighted to reach the month of December without one. We expose our bodies to the cold virus just by stepping out our front door. There is the public transportation, telephones at work, doorknobs, or maybe your job will put you in close contact with persons who have the cold. The common cold is one of the commonest illnesses in humans, and is also one of the commonest causes of work and school absenteeism. Over 200 different viruses can cause cold symptoms of varying severity. Viruses that cause colds are spread from person to person through tiny droplets of mucus that enter the air from the nasal passages of infected persons and are inhaled by others. Colds can also be spread by touching surfaces that have been contaminated by contact with infected persons and then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes. While it is impossible to completely prevent the spread of colds, there are steps you can take to reduce the chances of you or a family member becoming infected with a virus that causes colds: * Wash your hands often. This is probably the single best measure to prevent transmission of colds; especially after shopping, going to the gym, or spending time in public places. Hand washing

is critical. Frequent hand washing can destroy viruses that you have acquired from touching surfaces used by other people. You can also carry a small tube of hand sanitizer or sanitizing hand wipes when visiting public places. Teach your children the importance of hand washing too. * A v o i d touching your face, especially the area around the nose, mouth, and eyes, if you are around someone with a cold, or have been touching surfaces in a public area. * D o n o t smoke. Cigarette smoke can irritate the airways and increase susceptibility to colds and other infections. Even exposure to passive smoke can make you (or your children) more vulnerable to colds. Statistics show that heavy smokers get more severe colds more frequently. Even being around smoke profoundly zaps the immune system. Smoke dries out your nasal passages and paralyzes cilia. These are the delicate hairs that line the mucous membranes in your nose and lungs, and with their wavy movements sweep cold and flu viruses out of the nasal passages. Experts contend that one cigarette can paralyze cilia for as long as 30 to 40 minutes. * Use disposable items if someone in your family is infected. Disposable cups can be thrown away after each use, and prevent accidental spread of the virus from sharing of cups or glasses. This is particularly important if you have young children who may try to drink from the cups of others. * Keep household surfaces clean. Door knobs, drawer pulls, keyboards, light switches, telephones, remote controls, countertops,

and sinks can all harbour viruses for hours after their use by an infected person. Wipe these surfaces frequently with soap and water, or a disinfectant solution. * If your child has a cold, wash his or her toys as well when you are cleaning household surfaces and commonly-used items. * Use paper towels in the kitchen and bathroom for hand washing. Germs can live for several hours on cloth towels. Alternatively, have separate towels for each family member, and provide a clean one for guests. * Throw tissues away after use. Used tissues are sources of virus that can contaminate any surface where they are left. * Maintain a healthy lifestyle. While there isn’t direct evidence to show that eating well or exercising can prevent colds, maintenance of a healthy lifestyle -- with adequate sleep, good nutrition and physical exercise -- can help ensure that your immune system is in good condition and ready to fight infection if it occurs. * Control stress. Studies have shown that people experiencing emotional stress have weakened immune systems, and

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Lisa Punch to cover GEM Christmas edition By Alex Wayne LISA Punch may not be your typical young lady, as she admits she is still a virgin and is saving herself for when she gets married. This is one of many revelations she has made in the December 2013/January 2014 edition of the GEM magazine.

One may recall that Punch took the music scene by storm in 2006 when, at the tender age of 16, she became the youngest person to win the first and only Guyana Star contest. She later went on to sing the CARIFESTA X Theme Song in 2008. This budding diva has grown into a pleasant, beautiful, articulate and ambitious young lady with big plans for the future. Punch appears on the issue’s 60th cover elegantly

dressed in a two-piece outfit created by designer Paul Burnette. Her make-up for the shoot was done by artist Renee Chester-Thompson. Nanda’s Boutique also supplied one of the gowns for the feature. GEM, a bi-monthly glossy magazine that has been a credible source for lifestyle and entertainment information since 2004, is heading into its 10th year of production beginning January 30, 2014. In an invited comment, the magazine disclosed that putting Punch on the cover was inevitable. She is the most sought after singer, so selecting her was a no-brainer. The holiday edition of GEM is also loaded with content related to the Christmas season, including the popular Wish List, recipes, haute fashion styles, and much more. Pick up your copy of this most interesting magazine when it hits the newsstands in a few days’ time.


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It will be an African fiesta of smashing costumes as patrons revel in wild abandon

‘Hits & Jams’ promises exhilarating ‘Journey to Africa’

THEY have been to New York, Miami, Las Vegas, and London with their party concepts; and now the Hits and Jams Entertainment Group are allowing you to savour the mysteries of Africa on Boxing Night (Dec 26, 2013), right here at the Hotel Tower Poolside in good old Gt. Promoters have indicated they even will offer an evening of rich culture and a dynamic party experience! The Hotel Tower Poolside boasts great space and a comfortable setting. The venue will be transformed into the Ancient Continent, which is said to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from “deep within its bowels”. Entertainment will be provided by Guyana’s finest DJs out of Fusion and Stereo Sonic sound systems. Tickets cost $1,000. You cannot afford to miss this event, so mark the date and prepare yourselves for yet another great concept party, compliments of Hits and Jams Entertainment. (Alex Wayne)

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Combatting the common... From page XXVII

are more likely to catch a cold than their calmer counterparts. * Don’t cover your sneezes and coughs with your hands. Because germs and viruses cling to your bare hands, muffling coughs and sneezes with your hands often results in passing along your germs to others. When you feel a sneeze or cough coming, use a tissue, then throw it away immediately. If you don’t have a tissue, cough or sneeze into the inside of your elbow. * Do aerobic exercise regularly. Aerobic exercise speeds up the heart to pump larger quantities of blood; makes you breathe faster to help transfer oxygen from your lungs to your

blood; and makes you sweat once your body heats up. These exercises help increase the body’s natural virus-killing cells. * Eat foods containing phyto-chemicals. “Phyto” means plants, and the natural chemicals in plants give the vitamins in food a supercharged boost. So put away the vitamin pill, and eat dark green, red, and yellow vegetables and fruits. * Cut alcohol consumption. Heavy alcohol use suppresses the immune system in a variety of ways. Heavier drinkers are more prone to initial infections as well as secondary complications. Alcohol also dehydrates the body -- it actually causes more

Chronicle Pepperpot December 8, 2013 fluid loss from your system than it puts in.


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A r i e s Real problems involving your nearest and dearest need most of your attention, so try to ignore frivolous situations as much as possible. You have enough projects to keep you busy for now -- avoid taking on any new business or personal tasks unless it’s absolutely necessary. The key word right now is ‘prioritise.’ Although it might be difficult to tear yourself away from your own dramas, your selflessness will be rewarded in extremely beneficial ways. Taurus You have a much better time viewing the world through someone else’s eyes. If you have something exciting planned, be sure to invite along a friend so you can share opinions. Group events are much more your style today than they usually are, so say yes to a big party at a friend’s house or the grand reopening of your favourite store. Remember, keeping an open mind is the key to having successful conversations with strangers. G e m i ni You should know by now that what you say and how you say it can directly affect what other people think of you. Yes, you have a lot on your mind, but talking without thinking first can be quite detrimental to your personal and professional reputation. Keep jokes and sarcasm to a minimum, and if you absolutely have to say what’s on your mind, be sure to keep your audience in mind. C a n c e r You have a superior sense of intuition right now, which makes it pretty easy to guess what your friends, coworkers and relatives are thinking about just by looking at the expression on their faces. This is a good time to tap into your own subconscious as well, especially if you’ve been trying to work through a personal problem. Listen to what that little voice is telling you -- it’s probably right.

L e o You may be bored, but it’s in your best interests to ignore the urge to stir up trouble just for the fun of it. If you insist on acting silly, you’ll have to do it alone. Your coworkers are too busy being adults to share your current mood. Besides, you have your professional reputation to think about. How would it look if the boss walked in and saw you behaving this way? Tonight there are no absolutes in a gray area. Try to appreciate subtlety. Virgo Why are you so determined that your way is the right way? The first thing on your to-do list should be to stop being critical of other people’s ideas and opinions. There is a definite gray area here, so don’t make your decision based strictly on your observations. Stop what you’re doing, let go of some of your control issues and open your mind to other possibilities. When all is said and done, you will look back at the results and wonder why you ever wanted to keep such a firm grip in the first place. Libra If you attempt to start too many new projects, you might just fall behind with both the old and the new. If delegating some of your workload to other people isn’t a possibility, then it’s time to prioritise. Admitting to yourself that you won’t be able to get it all done is a difficult but necessary task. If everything doesn’t get finished on time, it isn’t the end of the world.

Scorpio The longer you play the game, the harder it might be to maintain your grip on reality. Of course, maybe an escape is exactly what you need right now; in that case, go for it. Games are a fun way to pass the time, especially if you can get someone else to play along with you. Your dreams may be particularly vivid and exciting tonight, but don’t try to remember them. Sometimes it’s nice to sit back and enjoy what’s happening without worrying too much about symbols, metaphors or hidden meanings. Sagittarius Looking at your dilemma from a different perspective can have a favourable outcome as long as you don’t get too far off track. The challenges you face aren’t insurmountable, but they might seem that way in the beginning. Break your biggest problems down into smaller, more workable components so you don’t feel too overwhelmed as you begin to solve them.

C a p r i c o r n If you don’t have any creative or artistic friends, it’s time to get acquainted with some. Place an ad in the paper, join a creative group or sign up for an art class at your local college. At the moment, you do your best work when you have a collaborative partner and it would be a shame to let your talents go to waste. Ask your friends and relatives about their hobbies and artistic skills. Their answers may very well surprise you, but in a very good way. Aquarius Money is your main concern, so it’s a good idea to put off spending any more of it than you absolutely have to. Feel free to tend to your basic needs, such as food, shelter and clothing, but put off making major luxury purchases for now. You can’t really afford to be around people who want to spend your cash frivolously either, so try not to lend money to your friends or spend cash you don’t have. Generosity is a wonderful thing, but you need to tend to your own problems right now. Pieces No matter which road you choose to go down, there’s something at the end of it that was well worth the trip. Luck is on your side, and it feels great to have such positive energy surrounding you. People with negative attitudes aren’t welcome in your presence, and if they insist on telling you that what you want to do isn’t possible, you’re likely to show them the door. Now that you realise each and every moment is too precious to waste, you can’t wait to get started living the rest of your life. For maximum enjoyment, be sure you choose a partner who feels the same way.


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Do something drastic! Cut the plastic! By Clifford Stanley DO something drastic! Cut the Plastic! This was the recurring theme at a recent workshop on solid waste management hosted by the Georgetown Solid Waste Management Program (GSWMP), the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development and the Inter- American Development Bank (IDB). The focus on disposable plastic is timely because of the current poor state of solid waste management and disposal in Georgetown and its environs, and to some extent in outlying areas; negating any attempt to develop and sustain a clean and green environment. Guyenterprise Advertising Agency, which is responsible for the public relations aspect of the programme, disclosed that at least 10% of waste generated in Region 4 NDCs comprises disposable plastic bags and other plastic containers. Because of the durability and longevity of the material, plastics pile up. Plastics are devastating to the environment and are dangerous to human health. Over time they photodegrade, breaking down into smaller, more toxic petropolymers, which contaminate soils and waterways, and as microscopic, particles, they can enter the food chain. A ban placed Due to the recognition of the hazards of disposable plastic, at

least twenty-four countries have banned the use of such bags; but many other countries have chosen not to ban plastic bags, but to discourage them through financial means. There have been taxes on plastic bags since before 2008 in Italy, Belgium, and Ireland, where plastic bag use dropped by 94 percent within weeks of the 2002 ban. In Switzerland, Germany, and Holland, the bags come with a fee. In Guyana, the Government has warned that it will be moving to ban the use of Styrofoam with effect from June 2014. The Private Sector Commission (PSC) and the Tourism and Hospitality Association of Guyana (THAG) have endorsed the plan to significantly scale back the importation of Styrofoam. Experts have pointed out the extreme durability of Styrofoam, which appears to last forever because it is resistant to photolysis, or the breaking down of materials by protons originating from a light source. Guyenterprise, as part of the GSWMP, has mounted a campaign to encourage Guyanese to minimize on the use of plastic, particularly plastic bags. Plastic bags/bottles and containers may be convenient, the Agency said, but cause long-term harm to the environment. The agency is proposing the use of re-usable bags. A spokesperson recently disclosed that a reusable polypropylene bag needs to be reused 11 times to match the carbon footprint of one plastic bag. Carrying a reusable bag is easy and beneficial to you, your family and the environment. One reusable bag can save the use of six plastic bags a week, or 288 bags a year; and these bags

bio-degrade. The Agency advises that you take your reusable bag with you, and use it as much as you can. Your reusable bag differentiates you from those who do not care about the environment. Using the bag encourages other shoppers to do so, and increases awareness of the plastic bag problem. When you use the reusable bag, you should feel good about yourself, instead of feeling guilty for using plastic bags, which harm the environment. The agency advises shoppers: If you don’t have a re-usable bag, and have to take a plastic bag, reuse it as much as you can before dumping. Hand back plastic bags which are offered you as a container by the retailer. “Take the item out, and hand back the plastic bag to the retailer. Use One Less,” the agency advises. ‘Green Corner’ would like to encourage all City folks who are concerned with a clean and green environment to get a reusable bag and use it until it cannot be used anymore. Use less plastic bags, use plastic bags as long as they can be used before they have to be dumped. Make Georgetown, as far as you can, a plastic-free city.



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