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Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

Mission Statement A professional and highly motivated staff providing efficient, effective, quality services to the agricultural community (farming, fishing, forestry) to stimulate maximum production for local consumption, export and increased incomes through the sustainable use of natural resources.

Vision Statement An agricultural sector that is globally competitive, ensures food security and sustainable livelihoods for the Nation and the conservation of our natural environment.

Guiding Principles To Facilitate Agricultural Development through the following values: Efficiency, Impartiality, Transparency, Responsiveness, Professionalism.

Key Activities •

Provide technical advice (support) to key stakeholders - farmers, fisherfolks and forestry, agro-processors

Provide policy advice for the further development of the sector

Provide training for all those involved in the sector (including youth and existing agriculturalists)

Data & Information (marketing, technical GIS) to stakeholders

Published November 2009

Develop and maintain public infrastructure (access roads, drains, fishing centers, maritime monitoring)

Provide support services, such as plants (propagation), pest and disease control, irrigation advice

Editor/Information Specialist/ Planning Officer: Kimberly M. Thomas

Represent the sector locally and internationally

Undertake research and development

Provide technology support for the sector –crops; livestock; fisheries; forestry

Manage Government estates, forest reserves and protected areas , fishing assets and resources

Develop and maintain linkages with stakeholders

Fax: 473-440-4191

Promote marketing and investment opportunities, including seeking financing for sector development


Public awareness

Administrative support for the work of the Ministry

Co-Editor/Senior Planning Officer: Daniel Lewis Ministry of Agriculture Botanical Gardens, Tanteen, St. George’s, Grenada W.I. Tel: 473-440-2708

Website: agriculture.html

This Review has been produced by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries with assistance from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) with financing from the European Union’s (EU’s) Special Framework of Assistance (GCP/RLA/167/EC SFA2006).


Table of Contents

Foreword Permanent Secretary Remarks Introduction Ministry of Agriculture’s Impact on Grenada’s Agriculture Industry Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crop Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions Fruit Subsector Vegetable Subsector Tubers and Root Crop Subsector Agronomy Division Biotechnology Division Extension Division Pest Management Unit Engineering Division Performance of the Livestock Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division Livestock Subsectors Poultry Sub-Sector Veterinary and Livestock Division Performance of the Fisheries Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division Fisheries Subsector Fisheries Division Performance of the Forestry Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division Forestry Subsector Forestry Division


4 6 7 9 11

Performance of the AgroProcessing Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division

36 Produce Chemist Laboratory 36 Performance of the Spice Subsector 39 Agro-Processing Subsector

and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association Spice Subsector

11 12 12 13 15 17 19 21 25

Minor Spice Cooperative Marketing Society Performance of the Cocoa Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association


33 33



Grenada Cocoa Association


Performance of the Nutmeg Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association


Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association

44 44

Ministry of Agriculture’s 4H Movement


Ministry of Agriculture’s Projects and Programmes to Support Agriculture Development


Projects & Finance Division

29 29 33

39 39

Cocoa Subsector

Nutmeg Subsector

25 26 26


Support Received From Collaborating Institutions and /or Donor Community


Caribbean Agriculture Research and Development Institute


Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture


Articles Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of AgroTourism - By Shadel Nyack Compton, Proprietor, Belmont Estate

49 51


Agricultural Production Data – Pivotal for Promoting the Commercialization of Agriculture in Grenada - By Jude Houston, Consultant, FAO


Meteorological Observation for 2008


List of Tables

68 68 69 70 71 72 72 72

List of Figures Contacts Notes Websites Annex


The European Union

51 52

55 56

Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy Can No Longer Be Left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada? - By Daniel Lewis, Senior Planning Officer, Ministry of Agriculture


Food and Agriculture Organization The Chinese Agricultural Mission

The University of the West Indies

Annex 1: Food and Live Animals Imports 01/2008 – 06/2008 Annex 2: Food and Live Animals Exports 01/2008 – 06/2008




Agricultural Health and Food Security


Grenada Bureau of Standards


National Medium Term Priority Framework


Caribbean Agri Business Association


Gross Domestic Product



Grenada Fish Friday Festival

Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States


Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States/ Environmental and Sustainable Development Unit


Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures


Technical Cooperation Programme


The Nature Conservancy


United Nations Development Programme


United Nations Forum on Forest


United States Agency for International Development


International Organization for Standardization

University of the West Indies


Very High Frequency/ Single Side Band


Windward Islands Banana Development and Exporting Company


World Trade Organization/Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary


Caribbean Natural Resource Institute


Conservation Action Plan


Caribbean Agriculture Research and Development Institute


Caribbean Water Initiative


Canadian International Development Agency


Canadian Food Inspection Agency


Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (ACP-EU)


Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association


Grenada Food and Nutrition Council



Grenada Network of Rural Women Producers Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point International Commission of the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture


European Union


Food and Agriculture Organization


Grenada Association of Beekeepers


Grenada Agriculture Forum for Youths


Marketing and National Importing Board


Good Agricultural Practices


Ministry of Agriculture



Grenada Association of Small Agro Processors

National Disaster Management Authority


National Water and Sewage Authority


National Development Foundation of Grenada


Non-Governmental Organization


Grenada Cocoa Association Grenada Commercial Fisheries Limited


Irrigation Management Unit

NOTE: All prices/values are quoted in Eastern Caribbean Dollars. Exchange rate EC$1 = US$0.37



Hon. Michael Denis Lett The Minister for Agriculture

Our Government has a very clear and unambiguous vision for the agriculture sector in Grenada. The vision is for an agriculture sector that is globally competitive, ensuring food security and sustainable livelihoods for the entire nation and the maintenance of a quality natural environment. The Ministry of Agriculture has prioritized food security as a major thrust as it endeavors to revitalize the agriculture sector. What has transpired over the last year or so, in relation to the escalation of food prices and the scarcity that resulted as a consequence of the restrictions that have been placed on food exports by some countries, have made us more conscious of the need to place greater emphasis on enhancing the island’s capability to produce, in a more sustainable manner, food production.


As Minister of Agriculture and someone who has been intimately associated with the sector over many years, I am painfully aware of the problems that exist for many stakeholders who are interested in assessing up to date information on the sector and are not able to do so because of the absence of a comprehensive document where reliable and credible information can be obtained. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and The publication of the agriculture review, Fisheries attaches enormous importance no doubt, will address this anomaly. to the annual review of the sector which is intended to provide a summary of the I have always held the view that a prosperous achievements of this pivotal industry in and dynamic agriculture industry is 2008. This review will provide details on critically needed to ensure a buoyant and progress made thus far in the revitalization healthy economy in Grenada. In other efforts following the devastation of the words, the fortune of the island’s economy sector by Hurricanes Ivan and Emily is intrinsically intertwined with that of the in 2004 and 2005 respectively. It will agriculture industry. It is not by accident also address problems confronting the therefore that Government has placed such sector’s development, its impact on rural a high priority on the development of the communities and on the island’s food sector. security and its contribution to GDP. s Minister with responsibility for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, it gives me immense pleasure and an exceedingly profound sense of gratification to be associated with the first publication of this Annual Agriculture Review which, essentially, highlights the performance of the industry in 2008.


A food security programme is presently being implemented which has been supported, in an admirable way, by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), who has provided financial, material and technical support and by the Government of Grenada. Another area that will be given high priority is food quality and safety. Not only must food be made affordable and available to the population but the quality and safety of foods must meet the basic standards. Assistance in that area will be solicited from the FAO. Farmers will be encouraged to implement Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and a farmers’ certification programme will be implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture. While a lot of effort is placed currently in boosting agriculture production, Government will pursue vigorously efforts to protect the environment and to preserve the island’s natural resources. As a small island developing state, with very fragile ecosystems, we cannot afford to make the colossal blunder that others have made in the past where environmental degradation has been carried out in the name of progress. Several Departments in the Ministry such

Foreword ...continued

as Forestry, Land Use, Fisheries, etc. which are all charged with natural resources management, will be called upon to strengthen their surveillance and capability to deal with the environmental challenges that lay ahead. One area that enormous attention will be given to is that of disaster management. Given the fact that the farming community is always at risk of natural calamities and mindful of the fact that the industry was decimated in recent times by hurricanes, steps will be taken to mitigate the risks in agriculture against all forms of these natural phenomena. The Ministry will put systems in place to work very closely with the National Disaster Management Authority (NADMA) and will endeavor to establish a disaster management unit. Serious agriculture development cannot take place in the absence of effective policy framework and therefore, Government will assess from time to time the prevailing objective conditions and will put in place policies that will have a positive impact on the development of the industry, the

natural environment and on the prosperity FAO and the staff of the Ministry of of all stakeholders who are associated with Agriculture who, collaboratively, have made the production of this Annual Agriculture the agri- food sector. Review possible. It is my sincerest hope On behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, I that persons reading this review will am obliged to acknowledge and recognize find it informative, interesting and very the tremendous support the Ministry has rewarding. received during 2008 from collaborating institutions such as FAO, IICA, CARDI, the University of the West Indies, the Chinese Agricultural Mission, the European Union, the Caribbean Development Bank, the International Trade Centre, the UNDP, the CTA and other Local, Regional and International organizations. The Ministry wishes to place on record its immense appreciation to all those institutions and I sincerely hope that such support and collaboration will be enhanced during the upcoming years. Finally, let me take this opportunity to express a special gratitude to the EU,


Permanent Secretary Remarks

Mrs. Gemma Bain-Thomas Permanent Secretary 2008


griculture has long been regarded as the mainstay of Grenada’s economy. Our traditional crops of cocoa, nutmeg and banana have played significant and meaningful roles in the development of the country economically, socially, politically and culturally. However, over the past two decades, the economy has shifted from one being agriculture dominated into a services


dominated economy with Tourism being of supporting policies and legislation, the leading foreign exchange earner. development of human resource capacity and the ability to attract young persons The agriculture sector now accounts for into the sector. There must be a focus on approximately 6% of GDP and employs value added and a radical transformation of about 8% of the total labour force. the agricultural industry. Agriculture exports in 2008 amounted to approximately EC $20M. The principal This annual agricultural review must export crops being cocoa, nutmeg and therefore be seen in the above context. It is a mace, spices, citrus and other fruits and welcomed move that should be seen as a rare opportunity being provided to undertake vegetables. a careful analysis of where we are in the The agriculture sector suffered significant stream of time and to enable policy makers losses during the passage of Hurricanes Ivan to arrive at the most timely interventions and Emily in 2004 and 2005 respectively. that would result in a transformation of the Whilst the sector has enjoyed a notable sector. measure of recovery; the conditions in the My hope as Permanent Secretary in the sector still remain difficult. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and The global economic meltdown has Fisheries is that the compilation and provided an opportunity for the agriculture publication of this annual agricultural sector to once again regain its’ prominence review will serve as the catalyst for the and play a defining role in nation building. total resuscitation of the agri – business For this to happen though, certain pre- sector, the improvement of the standard of requisites must take place such as a careful living of the farming community and the analysis of the state of the sector, careful revitalization of the rural economy. planning to drive capital injection into the sector, development and implementation



griculture remains one of the most critical sectors of Grenada’s economy. The sector continues to play a significant role in the livelihoods of rural communities often as their lone source of income. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) heralds the agriculture industry as one that provides the prospect for progress towards food security, trade subsequently sustainable development (Bruinsma 2003). Agriculture development has the potential to provide an opportunity for wealth distribution and economic growth necessary for poverty eradication and rural development. The exigency for agriculture development and diversification has intensified in recent years considering the negative social and economic impacts inherited from trade liberalization and globalization. The loss of preferential treatment of once lucrative exported commodities has resulted in direct and significant reduction in rural economic activities. Notwithstanding these impediments, the industry is laden with tremendous potential. Despite the agriculture industry’s inherent potential for national economic progress in Grenada, economic development rather, a myriad of challenges associated with the sector has forestalled it’s preeminence over other economic sectors. Some of these underlining challenges are: industry wide devastation caused by natural disasters (two hurricanes within less than one year), insufficient existence and enforcement of agriculture policies, obsolete farming systems, limited or more often total deficiency in the use of technology, paucity in agricultural research and development, inadequate farm labourers or labour systems, aging farming community (average age of farmers as high as 54) which, inevitably, has affected productivity in the industry, thereby threatening future sustenance of the sector. The problem of an aging farming community hinges on the inability of the sector to attract the youths, possibly because of failure of stakeholders to change face of the agriculture from an industry of ‘last resort’ and disdain to one that is

extremely scientific and utilizes modernized technologies with the outcome of viable business ventures. Many other intractable problems exist, including inadequate credit facilities, unattractive prices for agriculture produce, disorganized markets, lack of production planning and limited agroprocessing. As the global economies continue in instability and emit adverse impacts to

vulnerable developing countries such as exorbitant food prices, the urgency to focus on local agriculture development has become even more essential. The Ministry of Agriculture continues to advocate the sustainable development of the sector. Previous successes from many of its strategies and programmes employed have been generally short-lived, a consequence of the devastation of Hurricane Ivan in 2004. The

Grenada’s Agriculture Sector Contribution to GDP by Economic Activity 10.00% 9.00%



8.00% 7.00%



Percentage Contribution 5.00% to GDP

6.25% Figure 1

4.50% 4.60%

4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00%








Grenada’s Agriculture Sector Contribution to National Export Earnings $35 $30 $25 Export Earnings in Millions

Figure 2

$20 $15 $10 $5 $0







Introduction ...continued

agriculture sector suffered losses amounting to EC$118.9 million inclusive of tree crops, livestock, bees, fisheries, forestry, farm roads and other agricultural infrastructure (FAO, IICA, OECS Secretariat 2004). Subsequent years reflected the rehabilitation and revitalization efforts of the Ministry to resuscitate the sector. Even though the sector is yet to be completely restored (especially as it relates to traditional crops such as nutmeg and cocoa with longer gestation periods) it may be contended that the sector has made significant strides. In 2008, as projected by the Central Statistics Office, Agriculture contributed 6.25% to Gross Domestic Product by economic activity whilst preliminary and actual figures for the previous years indicated marginal increases signaling restoration of the sector post Hurricanes Ivan and Emily. An estimate from Central Statistics Office on agricultural exports earnings, exclusive of agro-processing exports in 2008, amounted to EC$22.5 million, 30.4% of total export. Agricultural exports earnings represents a 29.1% (EC$9.3 million) decrease in 2008 when compared with activities in 2005. Central Statistics Office’s estimates for 2008, food importation inclusive of meats, amounted to EC$175.1 million. Statistics for Agriculture’s contribution to employment in Grenada for the year 2008 is unavailable since Grenada’s Central Statistics Office conducted its latest Labour Force Survey since 2005, however, in that year, the agriculture industry provided employment for 8.8% of the rural communities, 8.3% represented as the rural poor. Ministry of Agriculture statistics from the extension division records a total of approximately 10,000 part-time and full time farmers that is a significant 10% of Grenada’s national population. Whilst the actual economic and social impacts on rural development and rural economic diversification are difficult to assess due to the lack of impact studies for decades, the evidence of rural economies dependence are often visible when various sub-sectors collapse. For instance, the


decline of the banana industry which accelerated in the mid nineties resulted in increase unemployment and poverty in the rural banana community of Clozier, St. John. Similarly, the devastation of the nutmeg industry during Hurricanes Ivan and Emily continues to have detrimental impacts on rural communities especially more vulnerable agrarian communities such as those in St. Mark and St. Andrew.

These indicators provide fundamental insights on the national dependence of the Agriculture Industry for the transformation of rural economies, poverty alleviation, food security and sustainable economic development. The 2008 annual review is mandated to formally assess the overall performance of the agriculture sector from both an institutional and production perspective. Departments and sub-sectors performance are evaluated with cognizance of the expectations of the sector’s stakeholders. The review is expected to highlight achievements, identify constraints and inform problems solving and strategies formulation for future development and agriculture diversification. Grenada’s 2008 annual review would also seek to enquire of the extent to which the sector began to adhere to the National Policy and Strategy for Agriculture which promotes the modernization of Agriculture in Grenada and also the Ministry of Agriculture’s success in aligning its strategies to the strategic objectives of its allied and international donor agencies. Over the years, Grenada’s agriculture sector has been the recipient of numerous assistance; financial, technical and other wise from prominent international and regional allied agriculture and pro-development organizations. It is anticipated that the review would provide donor agencies with required statistics, information and analysis to allow the formulation of appropriate assistance, facilitate assistance to be effectively monitored, support the Ministry of Agriculture in its impact assessment and also to plan future activities. The review would also allow national planners and decision makers to assess the contribution of agriculture within the overall economy and allocate the necessary resources for its development and also permitting researchers, students and potential investors to use the information emanating from the review for further development of Grenada’s Agriculture Subsectors.

Ministry of Agriculture’s Impact on Grenada’s Agriculture Industry


he Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) endeavors to be the premiere agricultural service provider in Grenada with a summary of objectives which promote the facilitation of food security in Grenada, agriculture development, agriculture diversification, the sustainable use of natural resources, agriculture production that enables increase economic returns for all stakeholders of the sector and the national economy on a whole. The Ministry operates extensively within a legislative and regulatory framework. Planning and budgetary activities are directed by eleven (11) governing and

In the year 2008, the Ministry of Agriculture identified its main priority areas as creating an environment for enhancing growth in the agricultural sector, evaluating and strategizing to improve the management and delivery of all its functions, translating and implementing national policies relating to its portfolio, developing and implementing programmes that are economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound and seeking to support programmes that would contribute to the economic and social well being of stakeholders. The MOA identified essential areas for extensive focus as: creating and maintaining an environment for enhancing productivity

The agriculture sector in Grenada is moderately diversified indicative by the specialized agricultural service departments. The Ministry of Agriculture comprises of ten (10) agricultural service divisions; the Administration, Planning, Agronomy, Research and Development, Extension Services, Land Use and Agriculture Engineering, Fisheries, Veterinary and Livestock, Forestry, Pest Management and the Produce Chemist Laboratory. All divisions were expected to aspire to attain the Ministry’s vision of providing superior services to all stakeholders to facilitate agriculture development. The service activities of the Ministry of Agriculture

Laura Estate, St. David

enabling legislative framework including the Medium Term Framework for Collaboration with the FAO and the Agriculture Policy, coined by the Agency for Rural Development. The activities of the Ministry of Agriculture in 2008 were also aligned to the Jagdeo Initiative, a framework developed towards the common goal of a regional agricultural repositioning strategy and the Agro 2003-2015 Plan for Agriculture and Rural Life in the Americas. The Agro 2003-2015 Plan is the shared long-term agenda for promoting the sustainable development of agriculture and the rural milieu, for the improvement of Agriculture and Rural Life in the Americas (IICA 2007:14).

remain extremely diverse and dynamic, and competitiveness, facilitating the employing a total of 139 agricultural production of safe foods, education and professionals and technical service staff. training in order to develop and implement public awareness programmes and training Additionally, as was the case in previous sessions for its stakeholders. years, the Ministry remained intimately associated with six statutory bodies, the September 9th – 11th 2008 marked a new dispensation for the agriculture Grenada Cocoa Association (GCA), the industry in Grenada as over one hundred Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association (100) stakeholders from the agriculture (GCNA), Minor Spice Cooperative community, professionals and lecturers Marketing Society, Grenada Commercial at the University of the West Indies Fisheries Limited (GCFL), the Grenada participated in a Strategic Planning Food and Nutrition Council (GFNC) Retreat. The retreat which took the format and National Water and Sewage Authority of a national stakeholders consultation (NAWASA). The operations of the GCA, documented a framework which would GCNA and Minor Spice Cooperative guide intervention strategies to revitalizing Marketing Society would be highlighted in the agriculture sector. this annual review.



Pest Management Services


Extension Services


Root Crop



Livestock & Veterinary Services

Grenada’s Agriculture Sector

Fruit & Vegetable

Engineering Services


Produce Chemist Laboratory


Forestry Services


Fisheries Services

Agricultural Services


Biotechnology Research & Development

Planning/ Marketing & Communication

The Dynamics of Grenada’s Agriculture Sector Administration Subsectors

Figure 3

Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions


ince the abrogation of the Agriculture Statistical Department in the 1990’s, there was no structured data collection system to capture actual production data for fruits, vegetables, tubers and root crops production. Despite this shortcoming, production data for the past four years including the year under review was estimated based on purchases data collected from the Marketing National and Importing Board (MNIB). The assumption is that Marketing and National Importing Board purchases 15% of the overall fruits, vegetables and root crop production. The national production was therefore estimated as 100%. Consideration was given to the fact that drastic declines in purchases of produce from the MNIB would not necessary indicate proportional decline in the overall production. Some producers (with the exception of contracted farmers) often consider MNIB to be a market of last resort, a consequence of

unattractive price structures compared to more lucrative markets such as the hotel industry. This limitation would therefore hinder generalizablity of findings. Evidently, Grenada has a sizeable fruit subsector compared with that of vegetables and tubers and root crops. Post Ivan, the fruit subsector fluctuated after a significant increase in production in 2006. In 2008, there was decrease in production by less than 1%. Leading fruits for 2008 and previous years in descending order of performance were banana (ripen), golden apple, Julie mango, watermelon and orange with ripe bananas representing 50% of total fruit production. Soursop recorded an astounding 113% increased compared to production in 2007 whilst cantaloupes decreased by 28%. The overall performance of the fruit subsector in Grenada demonstrates significant potential for agro-processing of fruits.

Vegetable production increased by 9% in 2008. Leading vegetable production performance in descending order were tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbages, callaloo, lettuce and okras. Even though tomato led as highest vegetable production by 18%, it experienced a 18% decrease in production when compared to production level in 2007. Carrot production increased by an astounding 264% compared to 2007 whilst exotic vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower which are not indigenous or traditional to Grenada recorded low production levels. In 2008, the tuber and root crop subsector recorded a 23% increase in total production when compared to production levels in 2007. Leading production performance for tubers and root crops for the period under review were sweet potatoes, yams, dasheen, ginger, and tannia. Sweet potato production increased by 36%, ginger increased by 67%

Fruit Subsector

Table 1: Estimated National Production of Fruits in Pounds (lbs) for 2005 -2008 2005 Fruits Bananas (ripened)

MNIB Stats.


NP Estimates



MNIB Stats.

NP Estimates

MNIB Stats.

NP Estimates

MNIB Stats.

NP Estimates


















Golden Apples









Mangoes - Julie




















































Pineapples (hybred) Pineapples (local)



















Other Fruits









Total Itemized



1,665,002 11,100,013

1,552,839 10,352,259

1,511,145 10,074,298

Total Production



2,133,645 14,224,300

2,017,262 13,448,413

2,010,135 13,400,900

* Assumption: MNIB Purchases Represent 15% of National Production


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

Vegetable Subsector

Table 2: Estimated National Production of Vegetables in Pounds (lbs) for 2005 -2008 2005 Vegetables Beets

MNIB Stats.


NP Estimates

MNIB Stats.


NP Estimates

MNIB Stats.


NP Estimates

MNIB Stats.

NP Estimates

























































































Pak choi












300,480 75,476













Total Itemized









Total Production









Other Vegetables


* Assumption: MNIB Purchases Represents 15% of National Production

Tubers and Root Crops Subsector

Table 3: Estimated National Production of Tubers and Root Crops in Pounds (lbs) for 2005 - 2008 Tuber & Root Crop Cassava Sweets

2005 MNIB Stats.


NP Estimates

MNIB Stats.


NP Estimates


NP Estimates

MNIB Stats.

NP Estimates




























































Total Production










Sweet Potatoes Tannias

* Assumption: MNIB Purchases Represents 15% of National Production


MNIB Stats.

Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

whilst dasheen production decreased by produce adequate quantities of high quality products in an economically viable and 25% in 2008. environmentally sustainable manner pliant The fruit, vegetable, and tuber and root to changing market trends. crop sub-sectors have been supported by six main divisions of the Ministry of In alignment with the mission, vision and Agriculture: Agronomy, Biotechnology, priority areas of the Ministry of Agriculture, Extension, Pest and Disease Management the Division seeks to provide adequate and the Engineering Division. The following support services not only to the farming assessments of these Divisions provide a community but to the general public as performance and an impact analysis on the well. Support was given to the Ministry’s various sub-sectors and also an insight on Food Security Programme through the development of germplasm in Mirabeau operations within divisions. with targeted crops such as cassava, sweet potatoes and corn. Cassava and sweet potatoes were distributed to farmers and Strategic Focus rural community members at no cost.

on the island. This trend of high demand for planting materials persisted in 2008. A total of 23,826 plants were distributed. Whilst the system to monitor the quantity of plant production is adequate and accurate, the actual yield of plants distributed in 2008 was uncertain. This has been the case due to inefficient monitoring systems. It has been observed, however, that the survival rate of plants propagated was extremely poor. Onsite visits to selected farms by Agronomists detected that the failure of plants can be partially attributed to inadequate plant care possibly due to the highly subsidized prices that farmers benefits from. Subsidies incorporated in the prices of planting materials results in prices of EC$5 or less.

The Agronomy Division is liable for two major services; the provision of planting materials for farmers and the provision of technical information to clienteles including the extension services. The division is also responsible for research and validation of new technologies in crop production, for instance, the introduction of new varieties and selection of outstanding indigenous plant types. The Division endeavours to support production activities in order to increase yield and economic returns and nutrition of consumers, by providing planting material in varieties and the appropriate production technologies that are easily adaptable to the farming community. It is envisioned that the Division would enhance farmers’ ability to

Based on historical data, the general perception on demand can be derived, however, the information system installed to inform production targets was flawed. Farmers request forms were submitted long after planning periods which misinformed the propagation system since allotted gestation periods were necessary for many fruit plants. The Division resorted to guestimates in lieu of the inadequate information system. Also, there was a need for unwavering working relationships with farmers since critical information such as the readiness of the farms for planting must be known prior to distribution. The survivability of propagated planting materials was dependent on this kind of critical information.

Agronomy Division

Operations The plant propagation activities of the Agronomy Division are conducted at four propagation stations; Ashenden, Boulogne, Maran and Mirabeau, all rural communities. Ashenden Propagation Station mainly supplies ornamentals and some specific fruit plants whilst Mirabeau Propagation Station supplies mainly fruits, and staples such as corn, yam, cassava and sweet potatoes. In recent years, the demand for planting materials has increased drastically, as a result of the enormous demand created following the widespread destruction caused by Hurricanes Ivan and Emily on plant crops

Table 4: Plantlet Production & Distribution Figures 2004 - 2008 Plants Citrus Mangoes Minor Fruits & Spices Ornamentals Totals

2004 Prod.

2005 Dist.


2006 Dist.


2007 Dist.


2008 Dist.






















































Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

As it relates to operational activities, the Division’s main problems were rooted in insufficient research activities. Although applied research was undertaken, scientific research which encourages innovation and problem solving cannot be readily engaged due to the absence of necessary facilities. Over the years, the Division became overly dependent on the resources of CARDI for research especially in the areas of fruit production, dwarf golden apples, and selection work with selected local fruits. Unfortunately, the limited resources of CARDI have proven to be an impediment. While preIvan periods reflected a number of applied research, post Ivan periods revealed a deliberation on rehabilitation efforts. Another major problem which restricted research activities was the inadequate cadre of functioning agronomists. Though qualified agronomists were available in the Ministry, some were not functioning in the capacity. Nonetheless, the situation was considered and rectified.

management of pests, event planning and a seminar on climate change and biofuel. Propagation Attendants and Agronomist also attended training in the use of irrigation technology. Most Agronomists have a foundational background in research, however, additional training is needed in research and design analysis.

Human Resource Capacity

attributed to numerous other challenges including, inadequate transportation facilities, limited avenues for soil sourcing, insufficient supply of organic (pen) manure and semi-recuperated germplasm from which a greater demand of plants was imposed. Another setback is the annual high demand for citrus plants which was not based on market potential rather farmers instincts. Farmers with established orchards have been indicating that there were inadequate markets for citrus products. However, the demand for Inter-Ministry Activity citrus continues to be soaring. There was an Integration apparent need for market information to inform propagation, and the dissemination The Agronomy Division works very closely of market sensitive information to farmers with the Extension Division. The Division conveyed information to the Extension to encourage sound decision making. Division such as new technologies and a Despite the many challenges and limited list of recipients of planting materials with resources, the human resource capacity the expectation that the information would

The Agronomy Division employed fifty-six (56) staff members inclusive of three (3) agronomists and thirty-six (36) agriculture workers. Propagation and Technical Specialists require academic training in plant science and years of practical exposure in the field and research/propagation stations. Propagation subdivision consists of extremely skilled technicians; however, the prerequisite qualifications necessary for further capacity building were not achieved. This has become a major impediment to productivity at the stations since technicians were poorly rewarded and became exceedingly unmotivated. In 2008, training was available to Agronomists and Agriculture Instructors in the area of project preparation, use of colour traps in the


facilitated the division in achieving numerous successes for the year 2008. Performance indicators which were tied into production revealed that the Division was successful in attaining its targeted production for the year 2008. Some measurable achievements includes: the distribution of 2 ½ acres of sweet potatoes were planted and 18,125 pieces of sweet potato cuttings were given Any deficiency in production, not based to farmers, 2869 1bs of yam plants and 786 on targets but demand, can be directly lbs of dry peas were sold, 1 Ÿ acres of cassava were planted and 500 pieces of cuttings were distributed.

Agriculture Knowledge Impartation The provision of technical information to farmers as one of the primary functions of the Agronomy Division can be realized through hands on training sessions with farmers. However, no such training occurred in 2008. Nonetheless, the Division continued to disseminate information through fact sheets (tech packs) to clients and as a back up to extension services, participated in farm visits to selected farmers (predominantly commercial farmers) to provide one-onone guidance on plant care. The Division acknowledged gaps in some of the tech packs distributed, an indication of the effects of climate changes on agriculture in Grenada. Tech packs are being modified to reflect the changes in plant growth and development cycles.

Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

be transferred to farmers. The support from the Extension services as it relates to monitoring and follow up on issues such as plant survivability in the past year was unsatisfactory. Inadequate support services from the extensionists may have been due to the limited manpower in that Division. The absence of a Chief Technical Officer to coordinate such collaborative activities may also be part of the problem. The Agronomy Division also collaborates extensively with the Pest Management Unit whenever pest and diseases were encountered on farm visits.

Projects for Future Development

Biotechnology Division

in the form of personnel and InterAmerican Institute for Cooperation in Strategic Focus Agriculture (IICA) in the form of exchange programmes which facilitated knowledge The strategic goal of the Biotechnology and technology transfer. Division is to develop the capability of the Ministry of Agriculture to implement its policy of diversifying the agriculture Operations sector through the provision of high quality planting materials to farming enterprises. The tissue culture plant propagation The Division propagates plants using bio- activities were conducted mainly in the technology methods and techniques. These Biotechnology Laboratory located in urban scientific techniques improve the quality, St. George’s area. Plantlets were transported quantity and variety range of germplasmic to acclimatizing stations in Ashenden materials. It is expected that these activities and Maran pending distribution. The would promote an economically and Biotechnology Division exerted efforts to environmentally sustainable agriculture further diversify the varieties of planting sector. The Biotechnology Unit’s main materials and also attempted to optimize function is to propagate and distribute plants propagation to effectively and tissue culture plantlets and commodity efficiently satisfy the increase demands by stakeholders. Taking into consideration the crops devoid of pest and diseases. limited space and resource capacity of the In 2008, the Unit supported five of the Biotechnology Laboratory, a significant Ministry’s programmes and key stakeholders; number of tissue culture plants were Banana and Plantain Programme, the Food imported. It was estimated that, in 2008 Security Programme, Commercial Food ninety-five per cent (95%) of the farmers Crop Farmers, Commodity Crop Farmers used tissue cultured plants. Nonetheless, and the Agro-forestry Development. Under there was a substantial increase in plant the Food Security Programme, tissue culture production in response to increase demand. plants were provided for bananas, plantains, The production super exceeded pre-Ivan pineapples, tannias and the once prominent periods twofold.

The Division anticipates development in the future specifically for research. In order to support the Ministry’s attempts to diversify Grenada’s agriculture, there is a need for improvement in germplasm to meet new demands. Priority must also be given to training especially in research and development. Additionally, a strategy for improving the knowledge of Agriculture workers that can be recognized by pay systems should be considered. Flexibility in assessment for these workers must also be explored. The Division should be upgraded with information systems that support rural commodity, nutmegs. The activities of informed and accurate decision making the Biotechnology Unit has been subsidized and planning. and supported by the French Mission in the sum of €5,000,000, Caribbean Agriculture Research Development Institute (CARDI)

Increase in production can be attributed to the introduction of a new laboratory technology which allowed fifty (50) plants to be cultured in one flask where as in the past, the technology permitted only six (6)

Table 5: Purchase of Tissue Culture Plantlets 2005-2008 Plantlets Purchased Bananas



























Total Bananas

* Under the Free Trade initiative to revitalize the Banana Industry in Grenada plantlets were distributed on a complimentary basis to farmers.


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

Agriculture Knowledge Impartation

Table 6: Tissue Culture Plantlets Production 2005-2008 Tissue Culture Plants























plants at once. This system has allowed the laboratory to increase production from 10,000 plants per annum to a minimum of 30,000 plants per annum. Tissue culture plant survival rate was estimated at ninety percent (90%). Despite this seemingly success in production, the potential to further increase production was seriously hindered because of the limited space capacity at the laboratory. Levels of contamination in lab activities were extremely high since the laboratory has been accommodated in the downstairs of a building. Additionally, the laboratory space was designed to occupy only five (5) employees, however, there are ten (10) technicians. The facility was also considered a health hazard by the Public Service Union and a request was made for the facility to be abandoned. The Ministry anticipates the construction of a new facility by the Chinese Agricultural Mission. In addition to limitations with the laboratory, another major limitation to productivity is the lack of research activities in 2008. Research and Development especially for this Division is necessary for the creation of varieties and innovation in propagation activities. The wherewithal for research activities such as information and technology was also unavailable. Distribution of plants also had its limitation over the years. Whilst the system would have facilitated island-wide distribution, its efficiency can be questioned since access to plants was not devoid of problems. In



2008 farmers from St. David (Eastern District) were faced with the inconvenience of traveling to Maran (Western District) for planting materials.

Human Resource Capacity Senior Technicians in the Biotechnology Division are expected to possess competence in biology and chemistry as it relates to plant science whilst laboratory technician propagation attendants should possess at least basic academic knowledge in plant science. Unfortunately, many technicians do not possess such skills. There is therefore a need to strengthen human resource capacity to meet the changing demands of the agriculture service environment. Whilst some staff would have mastered the skills in plant proliferation, there was need for the application of scientific knowledge in propagation and research activities. Greater competency in cloning (plant breeding), and propagation ought to be pursued. The main challenge as it relates to human capacity lies in the need for staff to understand the technology and certain basic principles and techniques such as adaptation which should be applied in the given line of work. In the year 2008, a few technicians were trained in general biotechnology in Beijing, China. Much more extensive training would be required to improve efficiencies in plant production, quality and also versatility. In spite of the shortcomings with human resource capacity, production targets for 2008 were accomplished.

The biotechnology unit utilized the Communication Department at the Ministry to transfer information to clients. During the periods of distribution, instruction brochures were provided to clients together with other communication strategies such as media releases. Training for farmers was considered responsibility of the Agronomy Division. However, together with the Extension Services, the Senior Biotechnologist visited commercial farmers to facilitate monitoring. Prescribed practices for survivability of plants were generally adhered to by farmers. The rate of compliance to practices prescribed was estimated at five out of ten (5/10). It was observed that farmers were of the opinion that plants provided by the Division were resistant to disease. While the tissue culture plantlets were cultured freed from pest and diseases, plants distributed were not resistant to pest and diseases.

Inter-Ministry Activity Integration Collaborative work during the year 2008 existed between the Extension Division and the Pest Management Unit. The Extension Division was provided with a list of commercial farmers to ensure that technical services can be easily accessible to these farmers. The Biotechnology Unit in cooperation with the Pest Management Unit conducted two experimental trials in three water sheds with imported banana plants that are resistant to the black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) disease. Both divisions monitored the progress of those plants to inform future decisions and planning. Greater emphasis on activity integration would be needed in future, particularly, in the area of convening workshops that would facilitate agricultural knowledge and techniques to producers. Attendance to workshops should become a precondition for receiving subsidized plants and should occur prior to plant

Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued


Projects for Future Development Future progress for the Biotechnology Division is highly dependent on speedy redress to many of the challenges faced. In order for the division to significantly support agriculture diversification in Grenada, there is a need for the construction of a new and modernized laboratory and improved facilities at Maran and Boulongue. Training and research and development should be a priority. It should be noted that a research desk was launched in the latter months of the reviewed year.

Extension Division Strategic Focus

The Extension Division seeks to disseminate technical advice and guidance to the farming community enabling high quality food production which would increase competitiveness and profitability for farmers. Ultimately, the main goal is to enable farmers to make informed decisions and eventually increase the output with a consequential increase in stakeholders’ standard of living. Although the key functions of the Division are to provide technical support, marketing and production information to farmers, the activities of the Division are multifaceted. The Division has been spearheading various activities at the Ministry including World Food Day Celebrations and the Food Security Programme. In collaboration with the Food Security Coordinator, the Division implemented supporting activities including the procurement and distribution of seeds and other planting materials and agriculture implements both to home gardeners and resource poor commercials farmers. Under the Ministry’s Food Security Programme, planting materials and seeds for specific produce were distributed: corn, pigeon peas, beans, beets, carrots, sorrel, okras, yams and ginger.

The implementation of the Food Security Programme in 2008 stimulated production of staples mainly corn, yams and pigeon peas. The programme and other activities at the Ministry resulted in marginal contribution to rural employment, increase wealth of farmers who were able to improve their dwelling houses while some purchased farm vehicles.

some produce, also estimated figures on quantities of production based on sample figures from selected farmers visited was also conducted. However, the actual production figures of specific crops for the year 2008 were unavailable. It is therefore a necessity to implement an enhanced information system which would capture real output data. In addition to the foregoing shortcomings, statistics captured by the The Extension Division also implemented Extension Division for the year was by no two externally funded projects by the FAO; means analyzed to provide stakeholders the Disaster Mitigation Project conducted with critical market sensitive data. with farmers at Mirabeau and the Integrated Pest Management in Vegetables Project. Human Resource Capacity

Operations The implementation of extension service activities for the year 2008 was driven by governments’ policies to rehabilitate the agriculture sector. Agriculture production in 2008 far exceeded that of previous years possibly because of the impact of the Food Security Programme, the Agriculture Enterprise Development Programme; which provided assistance in the form of loans to three hundred and eighty-nine (389) farmers in the sum of $7.2 million and the increase access and use of irrigation technology which served vegetable and food crop production nearly year round. Evidently, in 2008, Grenada’s Agriculture faced many challenges including higher than normal temperatures, excessive precipitation, and economic hardship as a result of high cost of inputs as a result reduced income of farmers. Many farmers battled with intractable problems such as insufficient markets, unproductive labour resources, astronomical cost of inputs and praedial larceny. A number commercial farmers have exited the industry to pursue more lucrative business ventures. Information on production was captured mostly from commercial and semicommercial farmers. Consequently, the Extension Division was able to provide some guidance on periods of shortage of

Extension Officers are expected to be extremely knowledgeable of crop production practices, new technologies, new produce varieties, pest and diseases and also equipped with general sectorrelated knowledge including marketing information. The Division operates with ten (10) frontline officers with responsibility for the four agriculture districts, (Northern, Southern, Western and Eastern District). Recent census by the department identified 10,000 farmers island wide, therefore the ratio of an Extension Officers to farmers 1:1000. This justifies the officers’ approach in recent years to monitor and evaluate production of only selected, mostly commercial farmers. However, in recent years, the Extension Division received assistance from seventy-eight (78) Extension Trainees; twenty-two (22) in the Northern District, fifteen (15) in the Southern District, seventeen (17) in the Eastern District and fourteen (14) in the Western District. Trainees performed data collection and seed and plant material distribution and monitoring services to farmers since full competence in provided technical support were inadequate. The Chinese Agricultural Mission in collaboration with the Livestock Division conducted training sessions aimed at improving the technical support competency of extension trainees. The training areas covered were;


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

Hot Pepper Production

Sheep, Goat and Pig Production and Management

Farm Record Keeping

Bee Production and Management

Soil-less Culture

Composting and Organic Farming

• Budding, Grafting and Pruning • Floral Arrangements • Papaya Production Besides the impracticable ratio of competent Extension Officers available to farmers, numerous other problems affected the efficient performance of the Extension Division in the year 2008. Some of these problems include: limited access to transportation and the insufficient travel allowance for extension officers and an inapt mileage claim system, together with inflexible working hours of officers 8a.m. to 4p.m. contrary to that of most farmers. Another limitation to the performance of the Extension Division over the years as it relates to building human resource capacity was the predisposition of Extension Service Officers not to exploit long-term opportunity for training. While several officers received training in China on relevant subject matters, opportunities for long-term training abroad were forfeited because of commitments such as families and mortgages of Officers. Nonetheless, in 2008, several training sessions were organized to increase staff capacity in the areas of;


Agri-business Management

Shade House Management

Integrated Pest Management

New and Improved Varieties, Nutrient

Growers, CABA, GRENROP, Northern Cassava Growers Group, GAFY, St. John’s Farmers Association and La Digue Farmers • Animal Health and Production Association. Other approaches used to impart • Vegetable Production knowledge to farmers were the distribution of brochures, flyers and media presentation. • Project Appraisal The compliance rate to agriculture practices prescribed by Division was rated 4/10. It • Agriculture Credit was observed that farmers’ age has become a major barrier to the successful adoption • New and Invasive Pest and Diseases of new technologies. Younger farmers were the pioneers of new technologies taught. • Cocoa Production However, in order to encourage compliance in the future more methods and results • Floriculture demonstration plots should be prepared. Training needed for further capacity Additionally, the successes and impact of improvement are GPS, new technologies farmers using new technologies should be for all crops, irrigation technology and highlighted. information technology. The Division’s capacity to provide adequate technical Inter-Ministry Activity support to farmers was fatally hindered due Integration to the increased activities in the distribution of agriculture inputs for the year. The Extension Division collaborated Hormones and Technologies,

Agriculture Knowledge Impartation Over the years the Extension Division employed a number of different strategies and approaches to convey agricultural knowledge to key stakeholders. The most common approach used was the one-toone demonstration to farmers. Another key strategy used was training. Farmers received training in the past year in: rodent control, new techniques in vegetable production, integrated pest management, field training on new plant nutrients, home gardening, irrigation and drainage, record keeping, treffolon technology in carrot production, developing farm plans, soil observation, field sanitation and management, use of appropriate pesticides and bamboo shadehouse technology. The Division has been strategically reaching out to farmers groups to optimize on quantity and quality of information transfer and shared among farmers. The Division worked in close collaboration with the North East Farmers Group, Mt. Rich/Mt.Reuil Carrot

closely with the Planning Unit, Veterinary and Livestock Division, Grenada Cocoa Association, Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association, and the Marketing and National Importing Board to facilitate the collection of production information. Routinely, the Division joined forces with the Agronomy Division, Pest Management Unit and Livestock Division. In addition to the Ministry’s Management Team meetings, the Division convened weekly meetings with its senior Extension Officers and other collaborating institutions to facilitate efficient planning.

Projects for Future Development The major impeding factors necessary to stimulating agriculture production in Grenada are attractive prices for commodities and market accessibility. As it relates to the mandate of Extension Division, projects that are needed to support agriculture development are soil and water management, further technical support training for Extension Service Officers and Trainees, demonstration plots showcasing

Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crop Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

the use of new technologies and support have made farming almost impossible. Most from the research divisions. pest management programmes during the year under review focused on the cultivation of economic crops cultivated in the rural areas.

Pest Management Unit Strategic Focus

The Pest Management Unit positioned itself to be the leading institution that executes integrated management of crop pests in Grenada. The Unit is constantly applying all pest (and disease) management methods to prevent or mitigate the introduction of exotic pests to the island. Precautionary attempts are also made to facilitate the implementation of economically viable, technically sound and environmentally friendly courses of action for the management of indigenous pests in Grenada. In 2008, the strategic objectives of the Unit proposed to achieve the following: suppress the spread of Moko (Ralstonia solanacearum) and Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) diseases in the Musa species (banana family) whilst maintaining Yellow Banana Leaf Spot disease below the economic threshold level, reduce the population and damage caused by the Red Palm Mite, reduce economic losses caused by rodents, significantly reduce the adult population of the West Indian Fruit Fly pest in order to resume fresh fruit export to the United States market and improve the quality of plant protection and quarantine services offered. The Pest Management Unit has been extremely instrumental in preserving the livelihoods of many people in rural farming communities because of its efficacious management of noxious pests and diseases which, if otherwise left unattended, would

Over the years, some farmers (especially those cultivating bananas) incurred substantial crop losses because of the rapid spread of Moko, Yellow and Black Sigatoka diseases. In some cases there were almost complete crop failure while in more drastic situations some farmers had to abandon their farms. It is instructive to note, that Moko disease was first observed on the island in 1978 and has been cited as one of the principal contributing factors in the decline of the banana sub sector in Grenada. The disease is extremely virulent and affected areas have to be left abandoned for a

period of two years prior to replanting of the crop. The disease is exceedingly expensive to control as it is spread by insects, contaminated planting materials, tools and drainage water. One of the strategies adapted by the Ministry of Agriculture to control this dreadful disease is to make available to farmers clean and healthy tissue cultured planting materials. Additionally, the Pest Management Unit employs a Moko Eradication Team that provides technical support to farmers in identifying and destroying diseased mats as well as providing some prophylactic measures to prevent the

spread of the disease. The year 2008 marked the implementation of proactive strategies to prevent further economic losses to farmers. The production of banana is critical to Food Security in Grenada since the crop continues to be a major staple in the Grenadian food basket. The last time bananas were exported to the UK, i.e. through the Windward Islands Banana Development and Exporting Company (WIBDECO) was, September 6, the day before the passage of Hurricane Ivan in 2004. Since then, the focus in Grenada as far as banana production is concerned is for local consumption and for regional export (especially the Trinidad Market). Since the dismantling of the European Banana regime, small exporting states as those in the Windward Islands have had enormous difficulties in maintaining their market share in the UK because of stiff competition from efficient producers especially the dollar producers in Latin American. The Pest Management Unit upholds its mandate to prevent the introduction of pest through quarantine surveillance at ports of entry and throughout the island. In addition, the Pest Management Unit facilitates the integrated management of crop pests to ensure that their population and damage remain below economic threshold levels. As the contact point for the International Plant Protection Convention, strict actions are enforced to prevent entry and dissemination of exotic and local pests and diseases to neighboring states.

Operations The operations of the Pest Management Unit for the year under review were conducted island wide. Services were solicited from all agricultural districts including Carriacou and Petite Martinique. The Unit basically undertakes eight (8) principal functions which are: execution of risk analysis on imports, inspection of


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

plants and animal imports, certification of exports, supervision of treatments of plant products for plant pests, island wide surveillance for pests, inspection of agricultural products and carriers entering Grenada and the identification of pests at the Unit’s diagnostic laboratory. In 2008, the Unit employed proactive and offensive strategies (rather than reactive strategies used in previous years) to combat and prevent economic losses caused by pests in Grenada. Five projects were implemented: Banana Pest Control, Rodent Control, Fruit Fly Eradication, Red Palm Mite Control and the Strengthening of Quarantine Services. All the projects were implemented simultaneously within the Unit with core staff designated to specific tasks. The explicit goal of the Banana Pest Control Project is to reduce the incidence and severity of the Black Sigatoka disease below the economic threshold and curtails the spread of the Moko disease especially to areas that have not been affected in the past. Operating activities for the year included weekly collection and analysis of data relating to the dynamics of the Black Sigatoka Disease, spraying and field inspections. Black Sigatoka was first identified in Windsor, St. Andrew in 2005 and later it spreaded to adjacent banana producing areas such as Belvidere, Florida and Clozier. The measurable success of the Banana Pest Control Project implemented in 2008 was an overall decline in the spread of Banana diseases throughout the length and breadth of the island. The Rodent Control Project was geared towards the implementation of a participatory approach intended to achieve drastic reduction in the rodent population in Grenada. The main implementation activities included: an assessment of the rodent population and the installation of baits and baiting stations island-wide including Carriacou. This project resulted in a 40% reduction of the rodent population.


Although the export trade of locally produced fruits to the US market was not achieved, a significant decline in the Fruit Fly population which was approximated to be 10 times lower than the population in 2003. Since the discovery of the West Indian Fruit Fly in 2002, Grenada’s export trade of fresh fruits suffered drastic decline in the export of June Plum, Golden Apple and Yellow and Red Plums resulted in significant foreign exchange losses approximately EC$2.5 million per annum.

procured from suppliers, inappropriate government bureaucracy to acquire supplies, difficulties in expanding workforce, inadequate transportation access for officers to carry out day to day duties, insufficient storage space for equipment and field supplies, ineffective systems to capture crop production and accurate import data and analysis and limited training opportunities for staff. Despite these shortcomings, the Unit acknowledged its impact which resulted in an increase in agriculture produce for the period (eggs, poultry, meat, vegetables, staples and fruits), improvement in the quality of products (less incidence of sooty mold disease for example), increase in farmers disposable income and a notable improvement in some stakeholders’ confidence in the Ministry of Agriculture as far as the delivery of effective services are concerned.

The Golden Apple market once earned export income of approximately EC$ 2 million per annum. The implementation of the Fruit fly Eradication Project received very strong commendations from the Food and Agriculture Organization. The Project involved the placement of bait stations at all sites known to be affected by fruit flies, the release of parasitoids, distribution of protein baits on a tri-weekly basis and the Human Resource Capacity rearing and release of fruit fly parasitoids, all in effort to eliminate this noxious pest. The Unit deploys Plant Quarantine/ The last phase (parasitoids) has not yet been Protection Officers in all Agriculture implemented. Districts thereby providing services to approximately 3000 farmers island-wide. In an attempt to improve the quality of Plant Two officers are assigned to the Eastern Protection and Quarantine services offered District which contains some of the largest in the Tri Island State and to minimize the farming communities on the island and entry of prohibited agricultural products and which is nicknamed the `breadbasket’ of pests, the Unit embarked upon a strategy Grenada. of Strengthening Quarantine Services in Grenada and Carriacou. This project Field officers are expected to possess required a number of training activities for competencies in the operations of plant and members of staff. Unfortunately, the level quarantine systems, diagnostic capabilities of training needs for the absolute success of crops, pests and diseases, etc. It is also of this project was not executed. Despite expected that these officers should possess the shortcomings, standard operating some basic knowledge of the legal aspects procedures prevailed which resulted in the of plant quarantine. Unfortunately, most confiscation of over 300 lbs of fruits and officers possess a diploma in Agriculture vegetables imported from neighboring and few opportunities have been made islands, specifically, Trinidad and Tobago available for them to upgrade their skills and Guyana. A number of pests were also and training. intercepted. Core actions that are necessary to improve The Pest Management Unit encountered and strengthen staff capacity include numerous challenges which significantly recruitment and training of existing staff. impeded the execution of effective services. There has been no structured or specialized Some of those challenges identified were: training for staff during the past ten (10) the slow processing of claims for products

Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

years. The critical areas where training has become a necessity for staff are: Plant Protection and Quarantine, Pest and Disease Diagnosis, Quarantine Treatment Methods, World Trade Organisation’s Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary Measures, the International Plant Protection Convention and other legal instruments to which Grenada is signatory. The Unit anticipates facilitating more direct contact with producers and rapid response to the complaints of farmers, however, the limited quantity of staff capacity has prevented the fulfillment of these objectives. Recruitment has been a difficult process as a consequence of financial constraints. Pest Management services provided by Field Officers have also been adversely affected by some factors including low morale and limited traveling (mileage) allowance.

Agriculture Knowledge Impartation Integrated Pest Management was promoted by the Unit instead of heavy reliance on the use of chemical pesticides. The Unit conveyed pest management knowledge to farmers and key stakeholders mainly through the facilitation of field sessions and the use of private and electronic media. To ensure that farmers complied with practices prescribed, procedures were demonstrated to them in the fields and in some cases, officers worked along with farmers on their farms. The Unit also did important monitoring and loaning of equipment in a few cases. Overall compliance rate was about 50 %.

Inter-Ministry Activity Integration The Pest Management Unit collaborates extensively with the Extension and Agronomy Divisions in all districts and has been actively involved in the supervision of nurseries. The Unit also integrates many of its operations relating to rodent control with the Ministry of Health. It was anticipated that enhanced collaboration with local

Engineering Division

agencies, for instance, other departments within the Ministry (Extension, Agronomy, Strategic Focus and Forestry), Customs and Port Authority would permit the Division to better exploit The Engineering Division is sub-divided opportunities necessary to thoroughly fulfill into the Land Use, Soil Lab, Irrigation Unit the mandate of the Unit. and the Farm Machinery Pool and Garage Unit. Both units ensure the efficient use The Unit can also improve its operations and management of technology that by conducting research activities in would contribute to sustainable agriculture collaboration with regional and international development. agencies and soliciting funding from donor agencies through the preparation and Essentially, the Farm Machinery Pool and submission of pivotal projects. Garage Units work toward the provision of services in land preparation to farmers Projects for Future Development at a highly subsidized cost. Conversely, the Land Use, Soil Lab and Irrigation Unit The fulfillment of the strategic objective have a broader work scope which seek to of the Pest Management Unit needs to be provide reliable information and services expedited in order to re-establish export on natural resources, agro-meteorology trade of many agricultural products. Effective and irrigation management practices. operations of this Unit undoubtedly impacts This Unit envisions being the principal on sustainable livelihoods of rural people provider of land information services that and by extension, rural development and the can be used to manage the environment improvement of the national economy on sustainably. Ultimately, the Land Use, Soil a whole. The intervention of international Lab and Irrigation Unit, attempt to provide donors and allied organizations is imperative information and services that would to enhance Grenada’s export capabilities encourage the sustainable use of land. and perhaps, repositioning the island to capitalize on many potential opportunities The work plan activities in 2008 reflected in the lucrative export market. the urgent need to revitalize and increase In addition to urgent training needs of officers and the considerable investment in human resource capacity building that needs to be prioritized, the implementation of some essential Pest and Disease Management Projects that would radically benefit agriculture production in Grenada are: Fruit Fly eradication projects which should be incorporated with biological and Sterile Insect Technique, National Fruit Tree Projects to facilitate the improved quality and quantity of fruits, National Rodent and Mongoose Pest Management, and in light of the high priority given to the National Food Security Programme, implementation of National Banana Pest Control Projects would be crucially needed.

agriculture production in Grenada. Land clearance and the installation of irrigation systems took preeminence in the Division. Irrigation agriculture in Grenada in the pass has been grossly underdeveloped. Considering the classification of Grenada’s climate, semi-tropical nature, which is officially marked by a dry season from January to May and wet season from June to December (though often fluctuates), the need for irrigation technology to combat inconsistencies in agriculture production became an imperative.

Following a thorough feasibility study in 2002, under the European Union SFA99 and 2000, the Irrigation Management Unit (IMU) was set up. In 2008 the Division received financial support in excess of EC$1 million. In expedition towards stimulating agriculture development, agriculture


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

diversification and achieving national food security, the GREP received support from IMU to conduct irrigation assessment and design for twenty (20) farms for the La Portrie Farmers Cooperative and also for five (5) acres of farm lands in La Fortune St. Patrick. The Land Use Division also received benefits by coordinating the Grenada Chapter of the CARIWIN which advocated the installation of a Water Level Recorded and Automatic Rain Gauge on the Great River at Birch Grove to monitor river flow. The Irrigation Project increased agriculture production significantly in 2008. The overwhelming evidence was in the year’s vegetable production, as fresh vegetables were consistently available on the local market. The introduction of irrigation technology in rural areas did not only promote agriculture development in terms of production but it also impacted on the livelihoods of the farming communities with farmers moving from a state of poverty to income earning. The magnitude of benefits can be attributed to the business concept which was designed as a revolving fund and loan scheme for farmers. Farmers were allowed to make a down payment of only 20% of the total cost of irrigation system inclusive of installation cost. As the systems were consigned, the outstanding cost was then converted to a soft loan with a low interest rate. Monies from loan payment were reimbursed into the fund to provide some assistance to other farmers. Access to this type of credit facility has lured farmers’ interest in the much needed irrigation

Operations The Farm Machinery Pool and Garage Unit have been operating from the rural area of Mirabeau with eight (8) tractors (including four 4 rotovators and three (3) ridgers). The Unit has provided services for over 160 farmers in 2008 specifically in the area of plowing, rotovating and ridging. The Machinery Pool and Garage Unit was not able to meet the demands of the farming community of the services already provided and also additional services especially land clearing. The inability of the Unit to provide services demanded can be attributed to inadequate machinery also inapt machinery which would be ideal for the topography in Grenada. Escalating cost of labour resulted in an increase in the demand for land preparation services together with the heightened demand for farmers to recover inaccessible agricultural lands since the devastating impacts of Hurricanes Ivan and Emily. The operations of the Land Use, Soil Lab and Irrigation Unit should be guided by four key functions which are: •

Irrigation Management; to supply equipment and technical information for the establishment and management of irrigation systems.

Land Suitability Assessment: to

Table 7: Number of Farmers Receiving Assistance under the Irrigation Programme by Agriculture District for the Year 2008 Agriculture Districts


No. of Farmers

Northern District ( St. Patrick)


Southern District ( St. George & St. David)


Eastern District ( St. Andrew)


Western District ( St. John & St. Mark)

determine best areas for agriculture production through the use of geophysical information.

technology which would otherwise be extremely expensive and laden with a high installation cost.


Land Use Planning: to provide guidance through land use mapping and survey for the suitable use of lands by all stakeholders, to provide some level of soil conservation management which would inform best practices in cultivation methods that would prevent soil erosion and land and soil degradation.

Performance of Analytical Testing for Soil Fertility: to determine the soil nutrient levels as a guide to fertilizer application.

The Unit successfully functioned in all capacities in 2008 except in the capacity of analytical soil testing due to the destruction of the Soil Laboratory in 2004 by Hurricane Ivan. The Irrigation Management Unit has worked fervently to enhance farm productivity and the overall competitiveness of the agriculture sector through the supply of improved irrigation infrastructure. Using funding from donor agencies, the Unit procured high quality irrigation equipment in bulk at a cheaper price than that offered by local retailers. Polyethylene pipes which have a longer lifespan were used rather than PBC pipes. Irrigation systems were not only installed for vegetable production but also under tree crops such as citrus, cherries, carambola, sour soup and sapodilla. The Unit installed irrigation systems on fiftyone (51) farms in 2008, completed system designs for sixteen (16) farmers, and had sixteen (9) farmers waiting for installation. While the use of irrigation technology has been escalating, evidence of disparity with the use of other critical technologies such as soil and water management existed. It was apparent that farmers perceived that the introduction of irrigation systems would solve all agriculture production problems. However, the reality is with

Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

World Food Day Exhibition, Carriacou

irrigation, added technologies such as soil management, ploughing, land terracing, temperature data analysis and assessment of rain fall data has become even more critical in order for farmers to attain compensating production. It has become even more essential to transfer more agronomical information to farmers. Deficiency in this area would continuously result in negative impacts to the environment especially as it relates to vegetable production. In 2008, there was an indication of increased siltation in rivers and dams which is indicative of the breakdown in farm planning systems. Basic cultivation techniques were seemingly abandoned possibly due to the cost of implementation verses price received for produce or market availability.

as impediments to farmers’ adherence to proper land use practices. Some of these were identified as inadequate marketing of produce, lack of availability of land resources, especially for the young farmers, and small volume production.

Limited marketing has resulted in reluctance of farmers to adhere to proper land use and management practices since it is unlikely that farmers recover these operational costs with the current prices received for their produce. Often citizens who possess land are not farmers. Farmers are then forced to lease land resources. In many cases, the Ministry assisted such farmers in the installation of irrigation systems. Landlords then request higher rent which more often than not became unaffordable to the farmers who was then forced to evacuate the farm. In turn, both the farm and the Ministry The Division acknowledges other daunting incurred losses. challenges which have worked together

Another crucial problem is associated with the size of farming plots. Farmers attempt to maximize the land space whilst ignoring some of the detrimental impacts of extensive tree cutting. Also, small size plots are economically inviable for irrigation systems. Generally, in order for a farm to be economically viable it should be at least one (1) acre. Based on visual field observation, there is a growing trend that some ideal farm lands conducive for mechanized farming, which also have access to water and labour resources are located in the rural areas of Pearls and Conference, St. Andrew. However, the farming community runs the risk of losing these lands to housing and other developments. The Land Use Division attained many commendable achievements in 2008. The Division digitized and geo-referenced land parcels for the south western part of Grenada. It was also involved in the cartographic


Performance of Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops Subsectors and Assessment of the Impact by Supporting Ministerial Divisions ...continued

four (4) field officers to provide irrigation and services island wide. Field Officers provided service for over 130 farmers which includes assessment and design, installation and maintenance. The officers were unable to meet the total demands for services The IMU coordinated the preparation requested by farmers. of Grenada National Water Policy and the drafting of the relevant Legislation to It was also apparent that there was a accompany that Policy. The Division also deficiency in general knowledge of the coordinated and convened a National irrigation technology within the general Stakeholders’ Consultation on the Draft public. Additionally, a lack of private Water Policy Legislation to review and repairs and maintenance support services discuss the Legislation. Despite the many impacted negatively on the quality of achievements, the major shortcoming of services provided to farmers. Consequently, the Division was its inability to evaluate much of the limited resource capacity in and monitor the impacts of technologies the Division was involved in the repairs implementation on real agricultural and maintenance duties for farmers. This output. However, in collaboration with the problem was compounded by the Division’s Extension Division, a farm data collection limited access to transportation. form was designed to capture this data in the future. Agriculture Knowledge map design and sale of hard copy maps and digital data. A land suitability assessment and appraisal for farmers who benefitted under the irrigation and draining project was conducted.

Human Resource Capacity


The Division conducted training sessions for farmers prior to installation of irrigation systems. Other critical training needs such as proper land use technologies should be imparted to farmers by the Extension Division. Farm demonstration was also used to impart knowledge to farmers. As it relates to irrigation technology, it was compulsory for farmers to work along with officers during installation. Farmers were also taught how to dismantle the system and also how to perform minor repairs and maintenance. Farmers were extremely compliant with the technique recommended for irrigation systems. The Division rated compliance as high as seventy percent (70%). However, In 2008, the Specialists in the Division other land use technologies were rated received short term training in Hydrology, extremely low. Irrigation Management, Geographic Information Systems and Land Use In order to promote good land use practices Management, nonetheless, more long the Division endeavors to foster good term training is required. The Division relationship with farmers and to highlight, endeavors to conduct research in the area through economic persuasion, the savings of soil fertility, fertilizer use and irrigation that can be made by employing proper land management, however, the complementary use practices. Some successful cases were staff necessary for research and monitoring also highlighted to farmers. is not available. In 2008, there were only

Knowledge of soil science, Meteorology, Hydrology, Agro-Meteorology, Irrigation Management and Geographic Information Systems are the types of attributes and competencies that are expected within the Land Use Division. The Division employs specialists with knowledge in these areas, however, the human resource capacity, especially for the provision of irrigation services, was insufficient. Refreshers training in these various areas are also essential in order to increase competencies and also necessary to keep specialist abreast with new and improved technologies.


Inter-Ministry Activity


The Division endeavors to facilitate the needs of other collaborative institutions. This was the fundamental strategy used to ensure activity integration within the Ministry and with other key stakeholders. Additionally, information on special projects was shared with all key stakeholders in a timely manner. The Division worked extensively with the Extension Division especially in the area of training and technology knowledge transfer. In many cases, based on the recommendations of the Extension Division, services were provided to farmers. Occasionally, the Land Use and Irrigation Officers visited farms with Extension Officers.

Projects for the Future Agriculture production was significantly improved as a result of the implementation of the irrigation project. The major concern is the survivability of the project which might be threatened by defaulting on loans by farmers. Appropriate measures should be taken to ensure the sustainability of this project. Other projects that are critical to future operation of the Land Use and Soil Lab and Irrigation Unit are a feasibility study to determine the cost effectiveness and impacts of fertilizer use on the integrity of soils. The Farm Machinery Pool and Garage Unit, envisages increasing its clientele and types of services offered especially land clearing. Increase resource capacity specifically D4 bulldozers, bobcats, disc plows and a JCB backhoe would be essential in order to achieve this objective. Other important priority areas as envisaged by the Division include: a project in rain water harvesting, training in environmental efficiency for fertilizers usage, project in water quality sampling and analysis, and training in irrigation efficiency and repairs and maintenance.

Performance of the Livestock Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division Livestock Subsectors


he abrogation of the Agriculture Statistical Department and the absence of an appropriate system to monitor slaughtering have resulted in a deficiency of livestock production data for pigs, cattle and small ruminants (goats and sheep). Production data for these animals for 2008 were therefore unattainable. Since 2007, the poultry subsector employed an efficient production system which accommodated comparative performance analysis of the sub-sector.

Comparison of Local Poultry Meat Production vs. Imported Poultry Meat

10,943,568 lbs 88%

Although production statistics is also difficult to ascertain, apiculture was one of the fastest growing livestock subsectors in Grenada for the year 2008. Beekeepers have been exporting honey regionally and internationally. A number of gold medals have been won by the subsector at the London Show, indicative of the quality of honey produced in Grenada. Rabbit production also has significant potential, however, a number of initiatives of the past

1431,565 lbs 12%

Figure 4

Local Poultry Meat Production in Pounds (lbs) Imported Poultry Meat in Pounds (lbs)

Table 8: Poultry Production in 2008 (comparison percentage and value increase/decrease with Production in 2007) Poultry Production 2008 Day Old Chicks Local Broilers Eggs ASL Hatchery (local) Imported 704 Cases (253440 eggs) Turkey 20% Imported Stock



%Increase (decrease) & Increase (decrease) Value in EC$


351,684 broilers 38,832 layers 1675 turkeys

3.21% $14, 319

1,395,385 lbs

Total value $ 6,628,078.70

(0.86%) ($57,565.25)


Total value $4,436,874.20

8.33% 601,818 eggs $341,030.20

177,181 Chicks

162, 424 broilers 14,727 Layers

36,180 lbs

High mortality rate due to sudden increase in environmental temperature resulting in the death of appox.20% of stock

(32.07%) (17,080 lbs) ($136,640.00)


Performance of the Livestock Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

used to support rabbit production have the year 2008. The Extension Division also generate significant income to rural people, declined. Nonetheless, rabbit meat can be provided support services to the Livestock yet, some measure of income security purchased at some local supermarket. Subsector. was attained. Small poultry projects implemented by the Ministry, undoubtedly, made a valuable contribution to the incomes of rural people. Under the Food Security Programme, numerous vulnerable In 2008, Grenada’s poultry industry households also benefited. Assistance to accounted for only 12% of the market share Strategic Focus the Livestock Industry through a livestock of total poultry consumption in Grenada. component of the AEDP Programme There was an increase of 3.31% in ‘day old The Veterinary and Livestock Division is provided credit facilities in the form of chicks’ production and 8.33% increase in subdivided into two departments; Animal loans which encouraged the production egg production. Grenada remained self- Health Emergencies and First Aid and of poultry, pigs, small ruminants, rabbits sufficient in egg production, however, there Animal Production (Livestock Extension). and honey. A number of livestock farmers was an overall decrease in poultry compared The Division seeks to provide technical and benefited from this programme. to 2007. Corresponding to the decrease non-technical support required for national in local poultry production is a 19.97% livestock development, the maintenance The Division is cognizant of the need to increase in importation (2,185,626 lbs), of a healthy animal population and the significantly expand the capacity of the valued at EC$ 6,556,878.00. Total poultry prevention of the spread of diseases within Livestock Industry in Grenada since local meat importation for 2008 amounted the animal population and between the production has not been able to significantly to 10,943,546.07 1bs which includes animal and human populations. The reduce decades of high meat importation. In (1,539,544.55 lbs of Chicken back & Division attempts to provide all services 2008, FAO, G-REP and European Union neck, 3,320,228.79 lbs of Chicken wings, in a timely and efficient manner in order provided assistance to some activities of the 4,193,943.74 lbs of Chicken other parts, to support Grenada’s growing Livestock Division. 90.6 lbs of Chicken whole, 41,598.40 lbs Industry. Key functions of the Division are of other poultry whole and 1,848,161.99 to ensure that disease problems in animals are treated, prevented and wherever possible Operations lbs of other poultry parts). eradicated. It also seeks to provide technical The poultry, cattle, pigs and small information to livestock farmers including In 2008, The Veterinary Sub-division ruminants’ livestock subsectors have been guidance on infrastructural designs and experienced no outbreaks or incidences of supported over the years by the Ministry plan development, equipment installation, any major diseases. The Division preformed of Agriculture’s Veterinary and Livestock nutritional information and direction for routine animal health treatments; both internal and external parasite (lice and Division. The following assessment of the feed production and storage. worms) which had devastating effects on Division provides a performance and an impact analysis on the Livestock Subsector Livestock continued to be a main agricultural imported goats. Annual rabies vaccination and also operation within the division in activity in rural areas. The Industry did not program was also conducted. The subdivision activities also included reactivation of the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory with project completion date carded Table 9: Distribution of Dairy Goats by Parish for March 2009. Equipment for the Laboratory was funded by the FAO valuing Number of Parish Goats Owned EC $202,500.00. Farmers

Poultry Subsector

St. Andrew



St. Mark



St. John



St. Patrick



St. George



St. David TOTAL


Veterinary and Livestock Division





Extension Sub-divisions embarked on several activities including the establishment of recording system in the piggery enterprises and initiation of Small Scale Dairy Goats Farmers Associations. Pig record cards were designed and 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to pig farmers. A sample of approximately 240 farmers is being guided on the usage of these forms.

Performance of the Livestock Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

Dairy Goats, Belmont Estate, St. Patrick

Through field visits to all parishes, farmers were identified to rear goats for either milk or meat. The farmers were encouraged to form an association of dairy goats which has since been materialized. Animal production for the entire Livestock Industry in 2008 was unavailable since there was no organized production system for cattle, pigs and small ruminants. Animal slaughter was conducted in an ad hoc manner by stakeholders in numerous places island wide rather than at local Abattoirs where it would be much easier to accumulate production data. The poultry industry used a more organized system since Livestock Extension engaged Extension Trainees to visit poultry farms to collect data. In the case of apiculture, an estimate of producing hives must be attained in order to calculate gallons of honey produced.

The most recent animal census was conducted in 1996 or 1995 (in 1995 when the last agriculture census was done) which indicated then that there was an overall decrease in livestock production in Grenada. A significant number of the animal population expired during Hurricanes Ivan and Emily. However, the recovery period for poultry production was much faster than other animals especially cattle which has a gestation period of nine (9) months. A comparison of pre-Ivan animal population with 2008 was not determined. However, livestock farmers were faced with innumerable challenges such as primitive farming systems which are incapable of producing the market demands, poor quality replacement stock since high quality genetic stock would require substantial investments, high cost of production which makes it difficult to

achieve cost leadership which is necessary to eliminate competition from import oriented suppliers, inconsistency in supplies due to limited investments in the industry, stock thief, dog predation and high cost of supplements among many others.

Human Resource Capacity The Livestock and Veterinary Division attempted to designate at least one Animal Health Officer in each agriculture district together with one Extension Officer per livestock type; poultry, swine, small ruminants, and apiculture, which was the fastest growing sector. All officers worked with cattle whilst under the artificial insemination programme, an individual officer was assigned. Livestock and Veterinary Officers are expected to be trained in the discipline of veterinary,


Performance of the Livestock Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

livestock animal science or livestock production. Unfortunately, throughout the Caribbean it is difficult to find academically trained persons in these areas.

Caribbean Agro (supplement producer) and also television interviews and programmes were engaged to provide information on diseases and also demonstrations on new technologies. Workshops and seminars Capacity deficiencies by many field workers were also used to teach livestock farmers were supplemented by numerous training best practices for numerous issues. sessions. In 2008, training was conducted in areas of; rodent control, poultry Inter-Ministry Activity husbandry, brooding and slaughtering Integration management, honey production, record keeping, animal husbandry, pig production Enforcement of laws was an apparent and ear tagging techniques. Additionally, weakness of the Division owing to inadequate in house training was provided to ensure inter-ministry collaboration between the that officers are abreast with the changing Ministry of Health and the Livestock dynamics of the industry including training Division. There have been some unclear in artificial insemination, management arrangements over the years which should systems, updated information on diseases be addressed using a structured approach. and diagnostic techniques and prescribed Operative collaboration was obligatory in treatments, together with knowledge base the area of anti-mortem and post-mortem building on worldwide animal health inspection. Whilst the Ministry of Health diseases. was compliant with the post-mortem The efficiency of the Division was considerable impeded by several problems including limited access to transportation and inadequate transport allowance, leverage necessary to meet the demands of stakeholders, deficiency in communication (no communication systems to facilitate information transfer from the office to and from the field visits), ad hoc farming systems as clients are located in many scattered remote areas which reduces the number of visits per day, flexible working hours of livestock farmers which makes it difficult to plan daily schedules accurately.

Agriculture Knowledge Impartation The Division spent the past year reaching out to farmers’ organizations specifically the Grenada Poultry Association. Officer in charge of poultry development was intimately involved in the affairs of the association thereby providing training and knowledge exchange on poultry husbandry and other related areas. Likewise, information for livestock was disseminated through radio programmes sponsored by


inspections, this was not the case for the Livestock Division even though anti-mortem inspection should be a prerequisite for post-mortem inspection. Another area of concern was the livestock stakeholders’ compliance to sanitary and phyto Sanitary measures which are mostly required for trade as mandated by the World Trade Organization of which Grenada is a signatory. However, consideration must be given to the internal trade of local livestock products to the local Tourism Industry.

Projects for Future Development The success and development of Grenada’s Livestock Industry requires expansion of production

capacity. Extensive strategic planning would be necessary to develop the sector. Already, a demonstration model was erected for small ruminants in Laura Lands, St. David with facilities that would inspire farmers to become involved in commercial production. More of these types of investments are needed. The Livestock Industry would significantly impact rural development only if substantial investments are made in the sector. Investments in dairy goat production, dairy breed cattle and expansion of the poultry industry are necessary for import substitution and significant contribution to national food security.

Performance of the Fisheries Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division Fisheries Subsector


renada’s Fishing Industry was one of the top performing subsectors in the Agriculture Industry in 2008. Production level in 2008 was only six percent (6%) less than pre-existing levels prior to Hurricanes Ivan and Emily. Overall fish production in 2008 was valued at EC$31.7 million and in quantity, 5,260,145 lbs that was a sixteen percent (16.7%) increase in production compared to 2004. Crustacean fish production (lobsters, conch, turtles, squid) in 2008 recorded 31, 276 1bs. Fish exported to international markets in 2008 amounted to 1,174,810 lbs, valued at EC$10.6 million. Eighty-five percent (85%) of total fish export goes to the North American Market, ten percent (10%) to the EU via French Martinique, and the remaining five percent (5%) to other Caribbean Islands. Fish export represented 46.9% of the total Agriculture Export in 2008, with a contribution of 1.4% to Gross Domestic Product.

condition. The Division is therefore cognizant of the importance to enact appropriate legislation and enforcement complemented by a co-management and community-based management approach to achieve its professed mission of effective fisheries management and development. Conservation and management of threatened and endangered species such as conch, lobster, turtle and the inshore

pelagic stock remains a main concern of the Division. The fishing industry in Grenada remains a critical enterprise for the livelihoods of both rural and urban communities. A number of coastal communities obtain their livelihoods and daily protein from fish. The industry is generally community focused at a number of focal points on the islands of Grenada,

Fish Production 2003-2008



5 Production in Million Pounds (lbs)

4,505,478 4,512,945

4,773,502 4,874,950



Figure 5

3 2 1

The Fisheries Subsector has been supported over the years by the Ministry of Agriculture’s Fisheries Division. The following assessment of the Division provides a performance and an impact analysis on the subsectors and also operation within the Division in the year 2008.









Fish Exports in Value 2003-2008

Fisheries Division Strategic Focus


The Fisheries Division promotes sustainable $12 $11,718,835 $11,088,428 utilization of the living marine resources $10,587,147 $10 within the Fishery waters of Grenada for $9,494,601 $9,414,413 Figure Export current and future generations. The Division 6 $8,193,909 value in $8 intends to effectively manage and develop dollars the Fisheries sub sector, functioning as (Million) $6 the lead agency for purpose of governance and with vested interest in the sector that $4 ensures the unremitting benefits to all stakeholders. $2 Fishing in Grenada is conducted under open access and common property










Performance of the Fisheries Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

Fishing Community in St. John

Š FAO / Giuseppe Bizzarri


Carriacou and Petite Martinique consisting of over 2800 fishermen. Although the industry is small scale, the fishing fleet is rapidly transforming from subsistence operations into commercial operations.

Ministry of Agriculture also concluded negotiations with the Government of Japan on the Project for Improvement of the Traditional Fishing Community Infrastructure at Gouyave.

Subsequent to the devastation caused to the industry by Hurricanes Ivan and Emily in 2004 and 2005 respectively, financial assistance from the Government of Grenada and donor agencies specifically; FAO, USAID and CIDA contributed significantly to the tremendous recovery and development of this subsector. Fishermen were provided with vessels, a communication network, fishing items and safety items. The Grenada Rural Enterprise Project also funded a storage facility at Waltham, St. Mark (a very underprivileged community in Grenada) which resulted in great benefits for the community. The

Though the actual impact on rural development is difficult to decipher, observations of increase wealth of some grassroots fishermen is evident in their access to credit from financial institutions to purchase boats and personal property in recent years. The marginal increase in wealth of some fishermen may be attributed to the expansion of export markets that have been attained in North America since the mid 80’s.

income for rural community which permits access to food, there is a need to focus on fish processing and preservation to ensure long-term food security.


The fisheries industry was one of the few industries to recover in a short period of time post Ivan and Emily. Fish production has been increasing progressively, however, one of the major concern is the management of the fisheries resources in order to ensure sustainability. The work scope of the Fisheries Division includes; the monitoring of the range of fish stocks and habitat utilized by stakeholders, regulation to the operations of users of fisheries resources, surveillance Food Security also takes precedence in of activities of fishing units, actions to the development of the sector. Whilst the initiate and facilitate development within fishing industry may have been a source of the sector, collaboration with regional

Performance of the Fisheries Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

and international institutions on matters of fisheries development, the promotion of co-management and community based management among stakeholders and provision of services, including technical support to enhance the efficiency within the sector. In 2008, the Division identified its priority areas for 2008 as; infrastructural development, training, establishment of a fishery communication network, support strategies for marine protected areas, focus on fisheries biology, the welfare of fishermen, adherence to ICCAT Convention, focus on building and strengthening fisher organisations, collaboration with the Regional Corporation in Fisheries, enhancement of quality assurance, review of legislation and support to investment in the industry. Accomplishment in some of the priority areas resulted in a gradual increase in fish production for the year. Infrastructural projects implemented, specifically, the communication network and the installation of the Waltham Fish Centre had a significant impact on production in 2008. The installment of communication network permitted fishermen to conduct fishing activities up to 100 or 120 miles out at sea. This major improvement created confidence among fishermen since any problems encountered or information required ashore can be easily communicated. Fishermen were able to work further at sea spending longer periods. The installation of a new cold room facility at Waltham made possible for the community to move from the one or two boats to the most number of boats in the Parish of St. Mark. Seventy-five (75%) of the fish from the parish comes from the Waltham community. There are opportunities to further increase the total fish production from the pelagic fishery to a maximum sustainable yield through expansion of the pelagic fleet that utilizes the appropriate technology. However, the management of demersal and crustacean fisheries is critical since they are

more susceptible to depletion than large pelagic. More management measures should be employed to ensure the sustenance of these residential stocks.

training opportunities. The Division was not assigned a vehicle which is a necessity when dealing with regulations enforcements. Often there were reports of illegal activities, however, no transportation In 2008, the Division employed technology was available to facilitate officers in visiting such as close seasons, biological and such eventualities. physiological restrictions in terms of size, of spawning, molting or other growth Human Resource Capacity signals. Fishermen were prohibited by law to catch lobsters that were premature The Fisheries Division is subdivided into or lobsters with eggs in order to facilitate Fisheries Biology, Fisheries Quality and stock replenishment. The Division has Fisheries Extension or Communication. been working persistently to develop The Division operates in the four agriculture more management strategies to protect districts in Grenada and one in Carriacou. crustacean species. In collaboration with Sixteen (16) specialized staff and twentythe Organisation of Eastern Caribbean seven (27) operational staff were employed States-Environmental and Sustainable at the various districts. Development Unit (OECS-ESDU) and other local stakeholders, the Fisheries The Division has experienced and trained Division has been preparing for the staff, however, the complement of staff implementation of the Management Plan was inadequate to satisfy the demands of for Sandy Island and Oyster Bed Marine the work programme. Human Resource Protected Area Project. Development, specifically recruitment and training of staff to provide continuity The main challenge in the fisheries industry with the work programme became a major is marketing. Some cold storage facilities, concern. There has been an urgent need for over the period under review, were filled to a Data Management Officer since 2003 capacity. However, the marketing is also and to date that vacant post has not been reliant on another critical challenge, that filled, which resulted in severe constraint in is, quality control and quality assurance; a providing data and information to facilitate post harvesting technology. It is imperative planning and management. There are only that quality is considered through all stages four (4) Extension Officers, three (3) in of production, including at the point of Grenada and one for Carriacou and Petit harvesting since it would be useless to Martinique which negatively affected the enforce quality at the latter stages. Training productivity and efficiency of officers. The in this area is therefore critical. It was found ratio of Extension Officers to fishermen that the younger generation of fishermen is therefore extremely high; 4 to 2800 generally fails to adhere to quality fishermen. standards. In order for the industry to be more economically viable to stakeholders, Within the past ten years, no officer has quality control must be taken seriously. attended any structured short-term or Commitment on the part of all stakeholders long-term training. There is an apparent is needed to ensure and maintain quality lack of such opportunities available, not assurance. only in Grenada, but throughout the OECS. Few officers participated in an Operational problems that existed in exchange programme on Fish Culture and the provision of fishery services for the Fish Development in China. There has also past year includes: inadequate access to been a lack of a continuous system for staff transportation; budgetary constraints, assessment and upgrading which may also inadequate information system to provide influence productivity negatively. biological data on fisheries and lack of


Performance of the Fisheries Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

Fish Market. Melville Street, St. George’s

Š FAO / Giuseppe Bizzarri

However, the most critical issue as it relates assurance, assistance was also provided to to human resource capacity was the need five fish trading vessels that are engaged for training. in fish trade between Grenada Grenadines and French Martinique to prepare their Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures Agriculture Knowledge (SSOP) and Hazard Analysis Critical Impartation Control Point (HACCP). Consultation and training were the major strategies used for knowledge impartation to fishermen. Two major consultations were held with fishermen island-wide; the first addressed critical issues such as marketing, escalating fuel prices, opportunities for increase fish production, fisheries conservation and formation of a National Fisherfolk Organization.

Health was also extremely beneficial to the affairs of Fisheries. The Ministry of Health has been ensuring quality assurance and has been providing certification for fish vendors and fish cleaners. A good relationship persists with the Department of Forestry in the quest to protect marine areas, for instance, the mangroves which provide an extremely important habitant for fish breeding and feeding. This relationship between the Fisheries and Forestry Divisions existed for over twenty (20) years.

Generally there were various levels of compliance to prescribed practices by the Division. Nonetheless, on average, the compliance rate was five out of ten (5/10). In the past fishermen blatantly contravene the regulations and prescribed practices of Projects for Future Development the fisheries management and conservation system, however, in recent years the There are tremendous opportunities for evidence of their destructive actions may expansion of the fishing industry in Grenada. However, further expansion is dependent on The second consultation dealt with have contributed to greater compliance. the necessary infrastructural development enhancing communication among and Inter-Ministry Activity to create the environment for proper fish between fisherfolks. This programme handling systems and to ensure safety and was jointly organized with the Centre for Integration security of fishermen. In the past, a number Resource Management and Environmental Studies at the University of the West Indies. Within the Ministry of Agriculture there was of fishermen were lost at sea. The expansion Training was also provided to fishermen in constant and effective collaboration between of export markets relies extensively on the the areas of: Fishing Vessel Captaincy, use of the Fisheries Division and other ministerial effective implementation of quality and VHF/SSB Radio to enhance ship-to-shore divisions. Working collaboration with the food standards. Projects relating to fish communication, Saftey-at-Sea and Global Department of Forestry, the Coast Guard, processing are also a necessity. Positioning System. To enhance quality Custom Department and the Ministry of


Performance of the Forestry Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division Forestry Subsector


renada’s forestry subsector is of critical importance to the country especially as it regards to protecting the island water sources, conserving our biodiversity, providing recreational and livelihood opportunities. Field observations bear witness to the drying up of ravine and some rivers. Hurricanes Ivan and Emily also had a devastating impact on the destruction of Forest resources. The Forestry Division remains the sole manager of forest resources in Grenada and has the mandate to manage the forest resources in collaboration with all stakeholders. In 2008, the Division continued its forest rehabilitation efforts with a target of 15 acres. Six (6) acres were successfully rehabilitated in a manner devoid of adverse effects to biodiversity. Rehabilitation for the year recorded a significant 43% increase in quantity of production compared to 2007. The following assessment of the Division provides a performance and an impact analysis on the subsector and also operation within the Division in the year 2008.

Forestry Division Strategic Focus

The Forestry Division is conceived as the leading natural resource management institution that ensures the sustainable management of the island’s forest resources. The Division works diligently to manage in a sustainable manner, Grenada’s forest resources and cultural landmarks in order to optimise on the potential contribution that could be made environmentally, socially and also to the country’s economic development. In past decades, the Division narrowly focused on the planting of trees to support economic activities such as local craft production. However, from 1997, with the introduction of the National Forest Policy, its mandate has evolved to reflect the strategic direction which highlights the importance

of the forestry system to the environment, institutions and communities. The Forestry Division is committed to facilitating: the sustainable management of wild life and maintenance of biodiversity, watershed management, timber production, tree planting, protection of mangroves, and enhancement of recreational and ecotourism products. The strategic objectives of the Division were grafted from the National Forestry Policy which is consistent with both regional and international conservation organization such as The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Forum on Forest (UNFF). The Strategic objectives for 2008 were: reforestation of about fifteen (15) acres of forest, consistent liaison with stakeholders and the provision of technical support to all stakeholders, implementation of activities geared towards conservation of the forest and collaboration with conservation institutions including the United Nations Convention to Combat Diversification and local Non-Governmental Organisations.

addition to achieving some form of sustainable management of forested areas which was done in collaboration with G-REP, the Division also embarked upon the development of an eco-tourism product in the community of Après Tout, St. David. This livelihood project has the potential to benefit the community tremendously through the provision of employment and other income opportunities. Members from this community were equipped with the necessary tolls such as effective communication and other entrepreneurial skills. Community members will establish their own tourism service business such as tour guides and the merchants of medicinal herbs and exotic spices. The Division also worked with the Convention on Climate Change, CANARI and TNC for the implementation of other forestry related activities that are consistent with international conventions and agreements and ensures that Grenada’s commitments with such conventions and agreements are honored.


The operations of the Division during The Forestry Division is sub-divided into the year under review have significantly the Upland Watershed Management, contributed to rural development. In Trees Establishment and Management, Forest Trees Production 2003-2008 10,000

10,000 8,000

Number of Forest Trees Produced

8,000 7,000



Figure 7


4,000 3,000 2,000 0









Performance of the Forestry Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

Maintenance and Management, Forest Recreation, Heritage, Forestry Conversation and Environmental Education, Wildlife Conservation and Mangrove Conservation. All the Departments performed assiduously various activities to ensure the success in achieving the strategic objectives of the Division. As a result of Hurricane Ivan, ninety percent (90%) of the forest lands and watershed became uncovered as canopying trees had fallen. Estimated damage to the Forestry Industry was around EC$ 20.8 million. Regeneration and growth of vegetation became a matter of urgency not only because of the exposure of watershed areas but to prevent the destruction of the wildlife habitat and feeding grounds of the faunal species. Wildlife habitat started to diminish which may have resulted in possible decline of these species. Though the market demand for trees had decreased, the need to stimulate production was eminent. The Forestry Division has been phasing out excessive forestry harvesting since most trees are located in critical watershed areas, however, harvesters were permitted to extract fallen trees. Major extracting activities were related to the six (6) sawmills operating in Grenada. These sawmills produce small volumes of lumber, mainly for furniture and craft production. To sustain this market, the Forestry Division replanted economical trees such as Mahogany and Blue Mahoe. Other species were also purchased by farmers for windbreaks. The Caribbean

Pine, an exotic species, was severely damaged during Hurricane Ivan. Even standing pine tree has been dying. In attempts to salvage some benefits from these trees, the Division permitted harvesters to cut for economical purposes. Other achievements of the Division for the period under review were: production of fence post to satisfy needs of local builders and other local stakeholders, the establishment of boundary lines maintenance to avoid forest rangers from patrolling on private lands, successes in anti-squatting and early detection activities, establishment of a management plan for the Levera Diversity and the Conservation Action Plan (CAP) in Brizian St. George. Another major success was the survey and demarcation of six (6) Forest Reserves; Mt. Moritz, Grand Etang, Annadale, Richman Hill, Mt. Gazo, Grand Bras and Perseverance which were also gazetted. In collaboration with G-REP, the Division commenced the process of maintaining facilities and establishing new ones in order to satisfy the needs of locals and tourists in the areas of Grand Etang and Après Tout. The main challenges experienced by the Forestry Division were identified as: budgetary constraints, insufficient research, inadequate resource capacity including office equipment and inflexibility of service operations particularly for forest policing activities. Financial allocation for the Division was insufficient to bear the cost of replanting and extraction operations.

Table 10: Size of Grenada’s Forest Reserves Grenada’s Gazetted Forest Reserves Mt. Moritz


Mt. Gazo


Grand Etang Annandale Perseverance (Dove Sanctuary) Grand Bras Richmond Hill


Size in Acres

3,816 590 45 10.4 21

Planting materials procured from Holland were especially high-priced. The physiological and demographics status of many wildlife species were unascertained in the absence of research. This limitation may have deluded or reduce the effectiveness of management strategies for hunting of wild animals. Additionally, funding anticipated from donor agencies was not realized. Other intractable problems such as the challenges posed by the topography and problems caused by fragility of soil and water facilities in the uplands were contingently managed. The Division restrained extraction in the middle belt of forestry areas and also prohibited clear felling (the mass clearing of forest areas) operations in order to prevent vulnerable upper lands from eroding during heavy rain falls. Selecting felling was therefore practiced.

Human Resource Capacity The Forestry Division operations are conducted in each agriculture district including Carriacou and Petite Martinique. Basic services provided in all districts include: the maintenance of plantations, planting activities and the provision of labour service and technical assistance to stakeholders. Forestry Officers are expected to be conversant in their specialized line of work as it relates to mandate of their Unit. However, for the effective operation of the Division special competency is needed in biodiversity management, collaborative management and communication skills since the Division takes a participatory approaching in meeting the needs of stakeholders. While the overall structure of the Division can be described as competent, there were inadequacies in its effectiveness in 2008 because of insufficient human resource capacity. Critical positions in the Forest Conservation Unit, Tree Establishment and Management Unit and the Forest Recreation Unit remained vacant for the year. This significantly affected the efficiency of service operations provided

Performance of the Forestry Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

by the Division. The Division was also concerned about the continuity of the Forestry Division since experienced staff are approaching retirement age. There is the need for a succession plan and strategies to transfer of knowledge to younger recruits.

destroyed. The compliance rate of harvester is as high as nine out of ten (9/10). It is suspected that management strategies employed for hunting were not always adhered to by hunters, especially after the working hours of Forest Rangers. Great attempts to liaise with farming stakeholders The Division also suffered from major above the catchment area should also be deficiencies due to the lack of training. pursued. Forest Rangers in all districts were by no means trained in the area. Operations Inter-Ministry Activity of the Rangers are sustained solely Integration from the knowledge imparted by senior professionals. These Rangers were expected Forestry Division works in close partnership to execute conservation practices which with other Ministerial Divisions especially include: monitoring and evaluating of the Fisheries Division and many other nonpest and diseases, identifying exotic species governmental organisations. The National and policing activities, however, they lack Water and Sewerage Authority which is a structured training in these areas. statutory body works very closely also with Forest Rangers should be knowledgeable the Division. The Division attempts to in Pathology, Entomology, Hydrology work in partnership with all stakeholders and Forestry Management, unfortunately, within the various communities to facilitate opportunities to acquire such competencies the provision of effective services. were unavailable. Another critical problem as it relates to the Forest Rangers was the Though the planning activities within inflexible working hours, (8am - 4pm) the Ministry of Agriculture take a holistic which failed to allow efficient policing of approach, there is a need to formalize interillegal activities in the forest. The lack of departmental relationships. Departmental transportation after working hours has been liaison officers must be clearly identified cited also as a major difficulty. The hours and should engage in the sharing of of operations for Grenada’s Forest Rangers are different to that which occurs in other OECS countries.

information on inter-related activities. The Forestry Division also acknowledges the efforts of other Ministries responsible for the Environment. However, the mandates should be made clear in order to avoid duplication of efforts.

Projects for Future Development The continuous success of the Forest Division will be dependent on many factors such as the human resource development, constant liaison with regional and international allied organisation, investment in training, forestry research and constructive collaborative efforts with key stakeholders. Sustainability plans should be developed for projects already implemented such as the livelihood projects in Grand Etang and Après Tout. It is imperative that the Ministry of Tourism and the Board of Tourism provide substantial support to these projects. Other projects which are critical to the future success of the Division are projects associated with Watershed Management and the implementation of strategies which would ensure reforestation especially the establishment of a nursery.

Agriculture Knowledge Impartation The Division works closely with the harvesters and the hunters association. Forestry tree harvesting is extremely procedural in order to prevent adverse effects to the environment. Officers provide guidance to harvesters on designated harvesting areas. The Forestry Officer visits the site prior to harvesting and they also provide specifications on the tree that should be cut, the direction it should fall and hauled. Only chain saws are used for cutting since no mechanized harvesting is allowed. These practices also ensure that the under-story regenerating plants are not

Š FAO / Giuseppe Bizzarri


Performance of the Agro-Processing Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division Agro-Processing Subsector


he agro-processing subsector in many cases has been indigenous to Grenada. However, the commercialization of locally produced agro-processed products may be considered to be bordering the introduction stage for many products and the growth stage of the Product Life Cycle for some which have been accessing regional and international markets. Some prominent successes in the agro-subsector can be attributed to the key players, namely, the La Grenade Industry leading producers of jams and jellies, Noelville Ltd with its most distinguished product – the Nutmed spray for pain relief, Grenada Chocolate Company; producer of organic dark chocolate, Caribbean Agro Industries Ltd and local rum distillers. Grenada Central Statistics Office recorded exports of agro-processed products in 2008 EC $2,760,000. The Beekeepers Association also exported honey in the quantity of 701 litres to Trinidad, Martinique and St. Vincent valuing over EC $20,000. Other smaller groups and small agro-processors throughout the island processed products such as jams and jellies, tamarind balls, guava cheese, plantain and banana chips, fresh fruit juices, nectars, pepper sauces, cassava bread, farine, rum, ice creams, nutmeg and coconut oil among many other products. Actual production figures during the year 2008 were unavailable. Although it is not mandatory, the Ministry of Agriculture’s Produce Chemist Laboratory has provided support to some commercial and small agro-processors over the years. The following assessment of the Laboratory provides a performance and an impact analysis on the subsector and also operation within the Laboratory in the year 2008.


Produce Chemist Laboratory Strategic Focus

Sector’ which was geared towards improving food safety and enhancement of consumers confidence and the ‘Heritage Documentation and Enhancement Project’ which was aimed towards nurturing the economic potential of Grenada’s traditional confectionary and snack foods. The FAO also funded another livelihood project geared towards enhancing agro-processing in Grenada.

The Produce Chemist Laboratory seeks to provide quality analytical services, relevant research, product development and pilot processing, training, consultancies and project development in support of the AgroProcessing and Trade Industries in Grenada. The Laboratory intends to become a leading Operations accredited laboratory with a qualified resource centre that would adequately meet The Produce Chemist Laboratory is the needs of its stakeholders locally and sub-divided into three main functional regionally. departments: Food Technology, Chemistry and Micro Biology. The Food Technology Over the years, the Produce Chemist sub-division provides services to agroLaboratory has benefited many food processors which include pilot processing processing efforts locally: community and training. The Chemistry and Micro groups, the manufacturing sector in Grenada Biology sub-division provides support and government and non-governmental to trade through the provision of quasi departments and other organizations. certification for example, analysis for cocoa and quality testing for fish exported. Since the establishment of the laboratory, Quality testing for potable water and also hundreds of analyses have been performed island-wide supply is also a mandate of which resulted in the development of over these sub-divisions since Grenada has fifty (50) formulas, the commercialization of compulsory standards for water. several products formulated and training in excess of five hundred (500) rural persons in The Laboratory conducted routine agro-processing techniques which provided operations for the year 2008 which the necessary skills and knowledge base included the provision of analytical to foster self-reliance and entrepreneurial services to stakeholders, training for agrodevelopment. processors, modifications or improvement of formulas upon processors request, In 2008, the Laboratory provided services forensic testing in cases where criminal to both the private and public sectors. activities were suspected and other Capacity building in rural personnel and collaborative work with other institutions. women’s groups in rural areas was promoted However, the effectiveness and efficiency in an attempt to improve the livelihoods of of the Laboratory was severely hindered by rural people. Assistance provided by the numerous problems including, a dilapidated Laboratory was aimed to equip stakeholders building which houses the laboratory, for the delivery of high quality and safe insufficient infrastructure and poor sanitary products to consumer markets. conditions for food preparation, inadequate equipment (computers, microscopes) During the period under review, the and a pilot processing area which was Laboratory implemented two livelihood considered to be in a deplorable state. The projects which were expected to boost pilot processing area once facilitated all agro-processing in Grenada. These projects, training and provided facilities for agrofunded by the OAS, were the ‘Individualized processors with limited resources to conduct Technical Assistance to the Agro-Processing production activities at their private homes.

Performance of the Agro-Processing Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

that seasonality and inadequate storage negatively impacted on consistent availability of raw materials. Agro-processors encountered problems when purchasing raw materials since farmers do not always provide consistent quality and quantities at In the past years, no system was instituted to a reasonable price. This significantly affects collect agro-processing data. This problem the final product weighing on the principle has been difficult to surmount since it was of ‘garbage in garbage out’. by no means mandatory for agro-processors to consult with the Laboratory. The Additionally, many agro processors have Laboratory was therefore unable to provide been providing the laboratory with parts any production data as it relates to agro- of formulation because of an apparent lack processing, neither was it able to compare of trust or defense mechanism to protect their secret recipes. This practice limits the production levels over the years. credibility of analysis conducted for agroSome of the agro-processors main challenges processors. It was also suspected that the have been identified as inconsistency in the businesses of many small agro-processors availability of raw material supplies, limited have been unprofitable since they produce competencies in business management, small quantities and unable to achieve social interaction and overall entrepreneurial economies of scale and proper product skills, inadequate observance of food costing. and packaging standards and lack of credit facilities available with reasonable Agro-Processing in Grenada can be interest rates. Affordable packaging was intrinsically linked to national food also an impeding limitation to many security, especially in the area of food agro-processors. It was also emphasized preservation. Collaborators should focus The current facility is a poor example and demonstration for agro-processors. Two (2) years ago, a project was submitted for the renovation of the pilot area, however, it was not approved.

on the production of sweeteners and preservatives on a community level which would be especially critical in the aftermath of national catastrophes. There is also enormous potential for the development of spice products. The Laboratory developed eighteen (18) formulas for the Minor Spices Cooperative, however, none of these formulas were developed or commercialized. The maximum potential of the agro-processing industry in Grenada requires the support of a comprehensive plan for the sub sector which would provide appropriate development strategies.

Human Resource Capacity Laboratory Technicians are expected to possess core competencies in their specialized area of work, (food technology, chemistry or micro-biology) in addition to analytical, research and reporting skills. There is an urgent need for refresher and specialized training. The Laboratory’s Food Technologist and Chemist are certified, however, the Microbiologist possesses


Performance of the Agro-Processing Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Ministerial Division ...continued

mostly practical skills. There is also an urgent need for the development of a successor to the head of Division since the present head is approaching retirement. An ideal technician would be an individual with multi-faceted abilities rather than the mere specialized competencies. Capacity strengthening at the Produce Chemist Laboratory would be necessary in order to upgrade Laboratory services and also the provision of official certification in areas of competencies within the facility. Training in the development of analytical techniques, new laboratory methodologies, documentation, calculation of uncertainties and expertise in the implementation and support services for quality systems would be imperative for the future success of the laboratory.

Agriculture Knowledge Impartation Laboratory Technicians have been actively involved in the provision of technical assistance for agro-processors on an individual basis. Under the OAS livelihood projects, training was also provided to agroprocessors specifically in the areas quality auditing, risk management and general hygiene. The Laboratory also provided other supplementary services such as site visits, consultations, provision of information as requested, tech packs and ingredient measuring facilities. Processing services were not available for the year under review due to deplorable lab conditions. Despite guidance provided by the Laboratory, many agro-processors sell products of mediocre labeling and packaging standards. Overall compliance rate to practices prescribed by the Laboratory was rated at fifty percent (50%). Legislation to enact such standards also to ensure compulsory analysis by the Laboratory would assist in rectifying these problems. Supermarkets and other sales outlets should only purchase products on the premise that the proper auxiliary analysis was conducted


and quality standards were adhered to prior to retail purchasing. Inter-Ministry Activity


The Produce Chemist Laboratory worked very closely with the Extension Division of the Ministry of Agriculture and also with the Grenada Bureau of Standard, especially in the areas of training, water testing, etc. Close collaboration has been developed also with the 4H movement (young agriculturists at primary school level). Occasionally, consultations with the Ministry of Health was facilitated also and with the Department of Consumer Affairs whenever there were consumer complaints. Relationships were also fostered with agroprocessors cluster groups such as CABA and non-profit organizations.

Projects for Future Development Immediate attention must be given to the renovation of the Produce Chemist Laboratory and an upgrade of laboratory infrastructure. A repositioning strategy is an essential step towards the accreditation of the Produce Chemist Laboratory and also a necessity to meet the current demands of the agro-processing industry. As agriculture production increases there is a heighten demand for agro-processing which is equally critical to the country’s attempts to realize national food security and a measure of import substitution. Projects which embark upon the development of this industry should be welcomed. Certification programs and the development of a quality manual which recognizes laboratory standards ISO 17025 should also be encouraged.

Waterwheel at River Antoine Rum Distillery, St. Patrick

Performance of the Spice Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association Spice Subsector


he real production output of spices produced in Grenada in 2008 was difficult to ascertain since processing is frequently conducted by locals for various purposes which is not captured, for instance, a significant amount of spices are harvested and processed annually by members of the rural communities for trafficking and vending to cruise and stayover visitors. Nonetheless, the Minor Spice Cooperative and Marketing Society is the renowned spice processor on island. Records from the cooperative indicates that it produced 4846 pounds of spices of which 3800 was processed and 3300 was exported to its main market, Barbados and other regional markets. Total income raised from sales of spices for 2008 was EC$ 52,053.29.

with monopolistic authorization for the trading of spices to external markets. The Cooperative has been the nucleus of the spice industry in Grenada through the purchasing of spices from farmers for processing. The processed spices are then supplied to customers locally, regionally and internationally. The Cooperative has been established with the intent of creating livelihood and a source of income for farmers in rural areas.

of the Caribbean’. The Cooperative is committed to the development of the Spice Industry in Grenada to ensure sustainable livelihoods of rural people. Purchases are made from sixty (60) farmers mostly from rural areas of Mal Mount and Après Tout in St. David. The Cooperative developed the concept of the Laura Spice and Herb Garden which serves as a spice production plant and a spice and herb garden which showcases herbs and economic spices. The Laura Spice and Herb Garden is also used A continuous production of spices in as an Agro/Eco-Tourism product. Grenada is necessary for maintaining the world renowned image as the ‘Spice Isle Spice Exported in 2003-2008




The following assessment of the Minor Spice Cooperative Marketing Society provides a performance and an impact analysis on the subsectors and also insight on the operation of the statutory body in the year 2008.



Total Quantities of Export Spices 3,000 in Pounds (lbs)

Minor Spice Cooperative Marketing Society





Strategic Focus


Minor Spice Cooperative Marketing Society (Minor Spices) is a farmers’ organisation

Figure 8









Table 11: Quantities of Individual Spices Exported from 2003-2008 in Pounds (lbs) Products Exported







Cinnamon Bark







Cinnamon Ground







Clove Ground







Clove Whole







Nutmeg Ground







Nutmeg Whole




















Total in Pounds (lbs)


Performance of the Spice Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association ...continued


materials for nutmeg replacement were in the critical area of proper harvesting replanted in the spice garden four (4) years methods. Nonetheless, the Minor Spices will continue to encourage farmers to The premium spices processed by the spice after Hurricane Ivan. replant spices by providing planting factory in 2008 were cinnamon, cloves, turmeric, nutmegs, pimento, ginger and The Cooperative contests with many materials in the future. bay leaf. High demand for spices drove challenges and limitations, including the activities of Minor Spices in 2008. detrimental financial constraints, lack of Inter-Ministry Activities Processing sequence includes; cutting, technical support from the Ministry of Integration picking, drying, sorting, grinding and Agriculture’s Extension Service Division, subsequently packaging and labeling of high transportation cost (since the The Ministry of Agriculture was finished products. Some products such as cooperative does not own a vehicle which is represented on the board of the Minor cinnamon, cloves and pimento were also a necessity for procuring raw materials from Spice Cooperative Marketing Society. The traded unprocessed. As a facility for the farmers), limited machinery and no security Cooperative participated in many meetings tourism attraction, the plant contains a presence on the premise of the spice factory and workshops convened by the Ministry of spice shop where visitors purchase spice which resulted in vandalism of the building Agriculture, however, there was a measure on a number of occasions. products. of dissatisfaction with the general support The operations of the spice factory faced tremendous challenges during the year under review. Procurement of raw materials was the most obstinate problem with two prevailing factors; exorbitant prices for raw materials and scarcity due to the devastation of the spice industry caused by the 2004 hurricane amplified by intense competition for raw materials from traffickers. Prices of unprocessed cinnamon, harvested directly from farmers fields inflated from $3 to $5 per pound. Prices escalated further when farmers resorted to the purchasing of raw materials from non-farmers to for resale to Minor Spices.

Human Resource Capacity

The Minor Spices was significantly understaffed in 2008. Production after Hurricane Ivan was considerable reduced, consequently staff level was reduced due to many uncertainties in the industry including unavailability of raw materials. Minor Spices operated with six (6) employees including the Manager. All members of staff were able to perform in the various capacities of spice production including the manager, in a desperate attempt to substitute for deficiency in manpower. Processing of spices was carried out in a traditional manner which is characterized Minor Spices was able to deliver only 50 % of by highly intensive manual methods. its demand for spices within the year because of the scarcity in raw materials especially Irrespective of the fact that the staff possesses cinnamon which is the Cooperative’s most proficiency in spice processing, capacity lucrative product. The Cooperative was in customer services is needed because of unable to supply customers in the Barbados the agri-tourism aspects of the business market with spices demanded especially operations. Competencies in tour guiding cinnamon bark. As a result, there was a loss and communications skills are also needed. of potential income. In the past, spices were not given high priority as other commodities. There was no emphasis on replanting of spices over the years. The Cooperative made progress in developing a concept strategy to rejuvenate the overall Spice Industry in Grenada which involved the introduction of a spice nursery. Unfortunately, planting materials were not readily available. As a result, replanting


Agriculture Knowledge Impartation The quality of some products of Minor Spices has been considerable compromised because of poor harvesting methods used by farmers. However, by reason of financial constraints, the Cooperative has not been able to provide any training for its farmers

provided by the Ministry. Technical support to herb and spice garden was especially needed from the Ministry of Agriculture in the aftermath of Hurricane Ivan. The Cooperative has been considering CARDI as a strategic partner together with other research oriented institutions to support and facilitate the sustainable practice of spice propagation and replanting in the near future.

Projects for Future Development The Minor Spices Cooperative was unable to achieve business growth in the past year. Effective sales and marketing strategies was stalled because of the inadequate supply of raw materials. A dynamic spice industry in Grenada would require investments in the propagation of indigenous spices and mechanized processing of spices. Rehabilitation of the Laura Spice and Herb Garden must also be treated as a matter of urgency.

Performance of the Cocoa Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association Cocoa Subsector


ocoa Production in 2008 was 48% less than pre-Ivan levels. However, there was a corresponding 62% increase in 2008 production compared with that of 2007. The subsector showed marginal signs of rehabilitation. The value of exports concurrently increased with production by an astounding 58%. The Grenada Cocoa Association provided support to the Cocoa Industry over the years. The following assessment of the statutory body provides a performance analysis of the industry and an impact analysis on the Association in the year 2008.

Grenada Cocoa Association Strategic Focus

EC$100,000 on a monthly basis. The Grenada Cocoa Association would have significantly contributed to national food security particularly for its 2500 cocoa bean farmers. The Association also contributed a significant 2.5% to Gross Domestic Product.

In 2008, the Grenada Cocoa Association collected and processed 783,000 pounds of cocoa beans mainly from St. Patrick and St. Andrew. Fifty-eighty percent (58%) of the cocoa beans processed was exported to Belgium, thirty-three percent (33%) to Switzerland, six percent (6%) to Japan and three percent (3%) to Italy. The

Cocoa Bean Production 2003-2008 $1,507,375 $111,859 $484,531 $1,829,987 $169,724 $783,989 2,000,000 Figure 9

Production in Pounds 1,500,000 (lbs)


The Grenada Cocoa Association has been working assiduously to manage the cocoa industry in a manner which ensures long term commercial viability of the Industry, guided by the principles of commercialization, efficiency and transparency. Emphasis is also placed on prudent management of the industry and the provision of a business model which makes the industry profitable to the cocoa farming community. The key functions of the Association are to purchase, semi process and export the locally produced cocoa bean. Technical support to cocoa bean producers is also provided. The Grenada Cocoa Association made significant contribution to rural development, employment and poverty over the years. The Association’s membership consists of ninety percent (90%) of small farmers with land areas bordering 2-3 acres. Members are exclusively from rural areas and in 2008, the GCA’s contribution to the rural economy was in the amount of EC$3.6 million, with rural communities of St. Patrick and St. Andrew receiving


500,000 0








Cocoa Bean Export Value 2003-2008 $3,933,682 $197,408 $2,346,770 $5,504,532 $748,180 $3,697,703 7 Export Value (Million)


Figure 10

5 4 3 2 1 0









Performance of the Cocoa Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association ...continued

GCA endeavored to achieve its strategic objectives for the period which included: unswerving negotiations with traders to ensure cocoa bean producers received the best prices possible, amalgamation with the other main commodity producer organization on the island i.e. the GCNA, the establishment of a chocolate plant, rehabilitation of abandoned cocoa fields, the implementation of a Farmer Incentive Credit Programme and activities that would stimulate increased production in cocoa bean. Unattractive prices in combination with the devastation of Hurricanes Ivan and Emily contributed to an apparent stagnation in the cocoa industry in recent years. Production declined by approximately 100,000 pounds for two successive years following the passage of Hurricane Ivan. The main challenges which affected productivity for cocoa farmers were the high cost of inputs and labour and low productivity. The industry also endured limited reinvestments, lack of research and development activities, dwindling cocoa acreage, advanced age of farmers and competition with other commodities for land space.

Figure Number 11 of Cocoa Producers

The implementation of some of the GCA’s strategic objectives, specifically, the initiation of the provisional credit programme, improvement in extension services and increase in prices paid to farmers (from $3.12 to $3.34/lbs) contributed significantly to a sixty-two percent (62%) increase in production in 2008. Production increased from 484,000 pounds in the previous year to 783,000 pounds during the year under review and the acreage remained 3200 acres. However, increase production is vital to meet the rising market demands. Further stimulation in production is dependent on the establishment of a Rehabilitation Programme, the strengthening of propagation activities, focus on pest and disease management, more input programmes and a strategic focus on achieving premium prices from international markets, that is the use of a market led strategy rather than production led strategy.

Twenty five (25) employees were engaged with the Grenada Cocoa Association. Generally, the human resource capacity can be considered limited even though capacity for cocoa Agronomy was adequate. It is anticipated that there would be a greater demand for recruitment and specialized training in the near future as the Association endeavours to expand its business operation to manufacturing chocolate. The increase in demand for the cocoa bean would also directly affect staff allocation. Few training opportunities were available in 2008, however, for efficient operations and high quality service, it is imperative that employees are trained. Training in marketing, chocolate making, the use of industrial equipment and international standards would be essential to support the chocolate manufacture component of the business in the near future.

Grenada Cocoa Association achieved most of its strategic objectives including success Agriculture Knowledge in its negotiations with international Impartation markets for higher prices. Unfortunately, the merger of the GCA and GCNA made Extension services and low cost inputs were limited progress whilst the establishment of provided to cocoa producers during the the Chocolate Plant has not materialized. year under review. Information on plant protection practices were disseminated Comparison of Cocoa Bean Producers 2003-2008 through the extension services. Soil conservation methods were encouraged including the use of organic manure to $8,000 $1,100 $2,200 improve soil structure and the planting $8,000 $1,100 $2,500 of shade trees to mimic natural cocoa environment. Additionally, the promotion of agronomical practices as a substitute for pesticides usage can be accredited for 900 the profitable increase in production. The 800 production of 0.17% in off-grade cocoa 700 was indicative of this effort. 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year


Human Resource Capacity

Projects for Future Development Grenada, as a high quality cocoa producing country, should exploit the numerous opportunities available. The cocoa bean has been recognized as a health food and a number of specialized cocoa products are beginning to emerge. In the past five years, the prices offered for cocoa has been generally higher than previous years. The demand for semi processed cocoa bean persists internationally and there are readily accessible markets. The historical importance of this product coupled with its environmental benefits has provided an avenue for lucrative agrotourism projects. The implementation of projects that would stimulate cocoa bean production must be treated with expedition and high priority in light of the tremendous demand for chocolate products on the international market.


Performance of the Nutmeg Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association Nutmeg Subsector

Association in the year 2008.


Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association

he devastating impacts of Hurricanes Ivan and Emily crippled the Nutmeg Industry in Grenada. Compared to pre-Ivan levels, specifically in 2003, nutmeg export in 2008 represents a 86% decrease. Additionally, exports in 2008 compared to that of 2007 represented a 61% decrease. Similarly, foreign income earnings from exports in pre-Ivan decreased by 83% whilst in 2008 earning further depleted by 34% compared to earnings in 2007. Export sales plummeted from EC$9.5 million to EC$6.5 million in 2008.

Strategic Focus

main nutmeg producing areas are in St. Andrew and St. Patrick which account for approximately 64% of production. The industry remains critical, not only for rural development, but national development as well. Export of nutmeg and mace once held preeminence as the highest export commodity and represented over 65% of all agricultural exports in 2003 which generated revenue of EC$39.5 million (Central Statistics Office 2008; Pannel Kerr Foster 2008). Income from nutmeg export decreased in 2008 to a meager EC$6.5 million (Pannel Kerr Foster 2008). In 2008, rural communities received advances in the amount of $3 million, while in previous years, these communities received as much as EC$2 million per parish.

The Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association (GCNA) is a statutory organisation entrusted with the development of the Nutmeg Industry on the island. The strategic goals of the organisation is to increase production, international market share and to attract more profitable markets whilst maintaining high quality of nutmeg and mace to ensure that its main stakeholders, i.e. nutmeg farmers, receive maximum social and economical gains. The association is committed to the sustainable livelihood of members of the rural nutmeg producing communities. The key operations The GCNA implemented three (3) main of the association involve the purchase and activities to revitalize the nutmeg industry following the passage of Hurricane Ivan in export of locally produced nutmegs. 2004. The main thrust were in the areas of:

Nonetheless, there was a marginal increase recorded in nutmeg production in 2008 over the previous year, 1,197,241 lbs in 2007 as compared to 1,392,666 lbs in 2008. This represents a 14.03% increase in collection from growers. The Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association, the statutory body responsible for the industry, also manufactured 1,484.37 kilos of Over the years, a significant percentage nutmeg oil at the Marli Distillation Plant of rural people has depended heavily on 1) Propagation of nutmeg plants which was done in collaboration with the using 206,979 lbs of processed nutmegs. the nutmeg industry as a main source of Ministry of Agriculture. Under that livelihood; unfortunately, the breadbasket programme, twenty-five thousand The following assessment of the GCNA of many was deprived by the passage of (25,000) plantlets were distributed to provides a performance analysis of the Hurricane Ivan in 2004 which destroyed farmers. industry and an impact analysis on the over 80 % of the industry. Presently, the 2) The Land Clearing and Harvesting Programme which was extended to six farms in which 5,888 lbs of nutmegs were collected.

Nutmeg Exports in Value 2003-2008



Export value in $30 dollars Figure (Million)


$31,564,730 $26,139,252

$20 $8,645,803 $9,825,667

$10 $0



2005 Year


3) The Nutmeg Tree Clearing Loan Programme which assisted ninetythree (93) farmers who received a total of EC $61,444 under the Ministry of Agriculture soft loan scheme (AEDP).



$6,528,414 2008

Other notable interventions that were intended to support the revitalization efforts of the nutmeg industry include a grant of EC $ 91, 000 provided by the Grenada Rural Enterprise Development Project (G-REP) to support the Epicotyl Grafting Project intended to significantly boost the production of planting material and the assistance received by the International

Performance of the Nutmeg Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association ...continued

Trade Centre in providing technical expertise and coordination in developing a comprehensive strategy for the resuscitation of that pivotal subsector.

Operations The Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association collects, processes, exports and also manufactures a significant amount of nutmegs to produce nutmeg oils. Processed nutmegs were exported to the following markets; 31.8% to Holland, 19% to Canada, 18.7% to the United States and 30.3% to other international and regional markets. Evidently, the GCNA was unable to meet demands on of the world’s market for nutmegs due to inadequate supply. The maintenance of the GCNA market share is a critical issue, however, the Association attempted and has been successful in maintaining its status as the leading supplier of high quality nutmegs. In future, emphasis must be placed on adherence to international quality standards in order to ensure consistent high quality production. Due diligence must be given to stimulating production. Approximately 2500 nutmeg farmers delivered 2008’s production. Nutmeg farmers were faced with some major challenges which have been impeding maximum production. These problems were; inadequate financing for land clearing which was compounded with high labour cost (farmers were not getting the quantum of work to compensate for wages paid). There are many nutmeg farms which are still inaccessible (due largely to the effects of Hurricane Ivan). There was also a scarcity of planting materials available to farmers. A notable increase in the incidence of the nutmeg wilt (or root rot disease) affected many farms during the year under review. It was reported that, on average, losses of trees attributed to the disease was as high as 30 % and this development, no doubt, has significantly affected production.

Another critical problem was the price offered to nutmeg farmers. The GCNA was unable to pay the price anticipated by farmers based on the economical constraints caused by the low volume of nutmegs processed. However, in order for farmers to be able to maximize harvesting, it was necessary that they receive prices of $3 per lbs or more, in order to fund high expenditures for land clearing and nutmeg harvesting. For this and other reasons, a

significant amount of uncollected nutmegs remained in the fields. Increase nutmeg harvesting would improve production level and increase the capacity to respond to international market demands which could influence better prices. The GCNA took responsibility for insufficient production for the period, however, the Association was unable to increase its assistance to nutmeg producers

Nutmeg Exported in Quantity 2003-2008 6 5

5,208,924 4,169,382 4,232,615

4 Quantity in Million Pounds (lbs)

Figure 13

3 2



1 0

707,029 2003







Mace Exported in Quantity 2003-2008 500

470,907 391,815


Figure 14

Export in 300 Thousand Pounds (lbs) 200


100 0












Performance of the Nutmeg Subsector and Assessment and Impact of Supporting Statutory Association ...continued

because of its limited financial resources. Some of the programmes introduced such as the farm rehabilitation, land clearing, and harvesting of nutmegs in abandoned fields together with the government’s rehabilitation programme and farmers own initiatives, contributed to the slight increase in nutmeg collection recorded in the year under review. In the land clearing programmes, 30% of nutmeg sales from fields cleared were retrieved for loan repayments, whilst the Association also held 30% of the revenue from sales of nutmegs on abandoned fields.

The potential competition from other nutmeg producing countries specifically, Jamaica, Brazil, India and Papa New Guinea must also be taken into consideration.

Human Resource Capacity

Generally, human resources available for the operation at the GCNA in 2008 were inadequate. This was the case especially in the capacity of quality assessment. It is imperative that the organization adhere to international standards such as the necessary product testing, documentations of results, recording, monitoring of stations, and Limited research activities were conducted compliance to HACCP regulations. in 2008, however, emphasis was placed on propagation. Selected seeds with desirable An Officer functioned provisionally in traits such as high quality mace, large fruit the capacity for the past year with basic size and tree conservation were identified understanding of the processes, however, and used for propagation. Seeds laboratory a qualified professional with accreditation tested for saffrole by an international in Biology, Chemistry and exposure to pharmaceutical company were also international standards such as HACCP, propagated. Farmers with this specific Codex and ISO, should have been employed. type of nutmegs received a premium price Much of the work in the department, of $3.50 per pound from the company. including moisture testing was forwarded GCNA also fostered a relationship with the to the Produce Chemist Laboratory where University of the West Indies to identify a fee was paid for services provided. The areas where research would be needed. Grenada Bureau of Standards also provided assistance upon request. The GCNA has In addition to the inadequate research not been able to hire a Quality Officer due and development activities conducted by to its financial constraints in the past year. the GCNA, some critical problems which The Association also functioned with one impeded the profitability of the organization Field Officer to monitor field operations for in the past affected the Association again approximately 6000 farmers. in 2008. These were: inadequate market research, absence of a comprehensive Capacity building is a critical necessity for marketing strategy, deficiency in new the GCNA. Station Managers and Field product development, heightened trade Officers should be trained in HACCP freight cost, limited finances, inadequate to improve awareness and adherence to production and most recently, competition food standards and its importance when for substitutes to the nutmeg products. processing a food. Other employees especially those at collection stations need The Nutmeg Association is also cognizant to acquire computer skills so that the of many opportunities to increase the value computerization of the operations of the in returns to nutmeg producers, such as GCNA can be realized. opportunities for agro-processing to extract essential oils such as oleoresin, the increase Agriculture Knowledge in demand for low aflatoxin and also the demand for organic nutmegs. There is Impartation therefore a critical urgency to stimulate and enhance nutmeg production in Grenada. In collaboration with the Pest Management


Unit and the Grenada Cocoa Association, the GCNA established demonstration plots in St. Andrew Bellevue Estate, St. George Estate, Purcell’s Estate and some other selected farms. The GCNA has also distributed flyers with the prescribed procedures for planting and care for plantlets. No training was given to farmers for the period under review. The Epicotyl Grafting Project, partially funded by the G-REP, was implemented. The grafting technique was expected to improve the overall quality of planting materials made available to farmers.

Inter-Ministry Activity Integration The Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association benefited from harmonious relationship with the Ministry of Agriculture. The Association also fostered good relationship with the Pest Management Unit and requested assistance and advice from subject specialists at the Ministry of Agriculture. Additionally, the GCNA has been in discussion with the Grenada Cocoa Association in consideration of possible amalgamation. The merger of these two associations is expected to yield numerous benefits including cost effectiveness, improved organizational operations, an apt business model and structured markets. The progress of merger activities remains dependent on farmers’ request for capitalization of the GCNA prior to the amalgamation.

Projects for Future Development The development of the nutmeg industry in Grenada is essential for Economic Development. All stakeholders would be required to work forcefully and conscientiously to ensure the future progress and incessant development of this sub-sector. It is imperative that any strategic plan for future development of the industry must be inclusive of the following critical areas: programmes to stimulate production, research and development, development of germplasm bank, manufacturing facilities that would encourage the processing of value added products and most importantly, the modernization of all processing plants with ISO and HACCP certification which is critical since in the near future quality regulations and standards enforced by the European Market may prove to be a major barrier to nutmeg trade.


Ministry of Agriculture’s 4H Movement

4H’ers Harvesting Fruits


he Ministry of Agriculture continues to advocate practical involvement of young people in Agriculture. This role of the Ministry is essential considering the current situation of an unprecedented high age rate of the farming community. The involvement of youths in agriculture is critical for the sustainability of Grenada’s agriculture industry. In a collaborative effort with the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Agriculture’s 4H subdivision promotes agriculture at the primary school level. In 2008 Grenada’s 4H Movement consisted of two thousand six hundred young people (2600) from fifty-six (56) clubs. In the year under review, the 4H movement embarked on a number of agricultural projects in the areas of Livestock and Poultry Production and Management, Vegetable Production, Food Preparation, Agro-processing and Arts and Crafts. Training for 4H’ers was also provided in these areas. The Movement also participated in the 2008 World Food Day Celebrations where many of their products were placed on display. The 4H Movement


endeavours to cultivated dynamic youth leaders in agriculture. Activities such as leadership training and recognition of outstanding leaders were carried out to foster this extremely pertinent life skill. Outstanding junior 4H’ers for 2008 were therefore recognized at the Movement’s annual 4H Achievement Celebrations whilst senior leaders (inclusive of teachers with responsibility for the 4H Movement) received leadership training at the annual convention which was held at the National Stadium on May 20th 2008. The tremendous successes of the 4H Movement in 2008 can be measured by its contribution to agriculture production and development. Livestock production (poultry and rabbits) amounted to 16,046 pounds which was sold to community members, supermarkets and to a lesser extent the National School Feeding Programme. In the schools’ backyard gardens, 14,864 pounds of produce were harvested which includes beans, bananas, cucumbers, egg plants, okras, sweet and seasoning peppers, corn, pigeon peas, bluggoes, celery, chive and thyme, lettuce, pumpkins and

cauliflower. Over 2000 pounds of fruits and vegetables were sold at a cheaper rate than other suppliers to the School Feeding Programme. Funds received from the sale of agriculture produce were reinstated into project activities of the Movement. Generally, in 2008, 4H’ers exhibited great enthusiasm and commitment to Movement and Agriculture Development. Innovative strategies implemented by leaders and individual club initiatives were intrinsically responsible for spurring enthusiasm among 4H’ers. Some of those activities include debates, camping activities, hiking, community work (which includes feeding the elderly programmes), support services for schools and the 4H King and Queen Show. The momentum of the 4H Movement in 2008, after forty-nine (49) years of existence was extremely heartening. Perhaps the concrete establishment of the 4H Movement at the secondary education level would be even more rewarding to Grenada’s agriculture sector.

Ministry of Agriculture’s Projects and Programmes to Support Agriculture Development

Mr. Brendon James’ Farm, Pearls, St. Andrew


he Ministry of Agriculture engaged and supported financially a number of projects and programmes in order to support activities in the agriculture industry. The Projects and Finance Division assumes the responsibility for this undertaking projects in the Ministry. The following assessment of the Division provides insight on projects and programmes facilitated by the Ministry of Agriculture and also operations within the Division in the year 2008.

Projects & Finance Division Strategic Focus

The Projects and Finance Department is a sub-division of the Administration Department of the Ministry of Agriculture which manages all capital projects and programmes of the Ministry, both internal and externally funded. Projects and Programmes are undertaken to support the Ministry’s vision of achieving national food security, increase economic returns of stakeholders and contribute to the production of high quality food products. A number of programmes are implemented by the Ministry annually while new ones are geared towards building specific capacities in various divisions.


the projects on the agricultural sector and rural development was not determined One of the most important project also. implemented by the Ministry in 2008 was the Agriculture Recovery Project Human Resource Capacity which budgeted $2.5 million with actual spending of $1.8 million. This was funded The project and finance division carried by local revenue. This project focused on out routine financial transactions relative to the rehabilitation of government estates, projects, however, there are few occasions repairs to propagation stations namely, where project managers were appointed Ashenden, Mirabeau and Maran. This to manage projects. The responsibility for programme was expected to stimulate and project implementation was often passed to enhance agriculture production. Another divisional heads. There is therefore the need prominent programme implemented was for a structured project department which the Agriculture Enterprise Development may work in close collaboration with the Programme which budgeted the sum of Department of Planning. Additionally a $3.5 million with actual spending of $3.3 project team to facilitate the monitoring million. This programme was funded by the and evaluation of projects and programmes Government. The Agriculture Enterprise would be a necessity. Development Programme provided low interest loans to farmers inclusive of tree Projects for Future Development crops, livestock and poultry farmers. While there was evidence of some measure of recovery in the Agriculture Industry in 2008, there are no systems in place to evaluate the effectiveness of these projects. Projects were implemented by various divisional heads, however, monitoring and evaluation of projects and programmes rarely occurred. The degree of impact of the projects and programmes on the industry was never evaluated. The contribution of

External investments and funding for Grenada’s agriculture industry has been minimal. In 2008, many of the projects and programmes were funded locally. However, the economic meltdown has force government to reduce spending or redirect funds to national priority areas. Financial support for international donor is vital for further rehabilitation of the agriculture sector, sustainable agriculture development and agriculture diversification.


Ministry of Agriculture’s Projects and Programmes to Support Agriculture Development ...continued

Table 12: Selected Capital Project for 2008 Funding Institution



Budgeted Spending EC$

Actual Spending EC$

Government of Grenada

Agriculture Recovery Project

$ 2.5 million

$1.8 million

Government of Grenada

Agriculture Enterprise Development Programme

$3.5 million

$3.3 million


United Nation Environmental Programme – Division of Technology Industry & Energy



Government of Grenada

Support for Technical Assistance Programme



Government of Grenada

Farm Road Project



Government of Grenada

Farm Road Rehabilitation Project

$4 million

$3.9 million

European Union SFA

Farm Road Rehabilitation Project



Government of Grenada

Food Security Programme



Government of Grenada

Re-organisation of MOA Extension Programme

$1 million


Government of Grenada

Building Capacity for Bio-Technology



Government of Grenada

Capacity Building for National Biosafety



Government of Grenada

Refurbishing of Propagation Stations



Government of Grenada

Support to Irrigation Programme



Government of Grenada

Forest Management Programme



Government of Grenada

Banana Pest Control Programme (Black Sigatoka Management)

$200, 000


Government of Grenada

Rodent Control Programme



Support Received From Collaborating Institutions and /or Donor Community


he agricultural sector in Grenada has always received tangible support from many collaborating institutions and members of the donor community and that was again the case in 2008, the year under review. •

Food and Agriculture Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been one of the most reliable supporting institutions over the years and its assistance to the development of the agriculture sector in Grenada has been significantly increased following the passage of Hurricane Ivan in 2004. During the year under review, the island benefited from technical, financial and material resources provided by this very noble institution. The following succinctly highlights some • of the assistance received from the FAO in 2008:

the Boulogne Farm road. That project was completed at the end of the year and is now widely used by many farmers in the area. It is also a critical assess road for one of the Government’s principal nursery facility The agriculture industry also benefited which is located in the area. from the National Medium Term Priority Framework (NMTPF) During the year under review, the EU also programme in which the FAO has provided financial assistance for continued provided leadership, financial resources expansion of irrigation development on and technical advice. Some of the priority the island. In excess of one million dollars areas under that programme include: (XCD) was provided under the SFA 1999 disaster management, infrastructural financial agreement for the procurement improvement development, natural of irrigation equipment. It is worth noting resource management, new and that similar support has been provided value added product development, by the EU in the recent past under the investment and credit, trade and market SFA2000 and 1999 financial agreements development and promotion, research which were implemented in 2004 and 2005 and development and technology respectively. development and transfer. Irrigation development has n prioritized as In 2008, the FAO approved a number a major thrust of the Ministry of Agriculture of Telefood projects intended to assist in its quest to develop the pivotal agricultural rural community groups in improving sector. Irrigation technology provides their production capacity and as a farmers with an opportunity to lessen their dependence on natural precipitation and to consequence, their income. significantly boost food production. Assistance to the development of the nutmeg industry was also a major In 2008, the European Union also provided intervention by the FAO in 2008 financial support for the commissioning of (laboratory facility development). an agricultural diversification study. This study is seen as a crucial undertaking as it A major role has been played by the will provide agriculture industry officials FAO in the livelihoods restoration project where four NGOs on the island will be involved in its implementation, working in rural communities to restore livelihoods that were enormously affected by Hurricanes Ivan and Emily. the island, Strengthening Agricultural Information Systems in the Ministry of Agriculture, improving livelihoods via Agro processing etc.

Support for improving the island’s critical Food Security Programme, financial, technical and material • resources were provided.

Initiation of a Land Bank Project. A workshop involving key stakeholders was held with technical expertise from • the FAO and modalities of the project are being worked on presently.

Under FAO’s national Technical Cooperation facility (national TCP facility) the agricultural sector benefited from a number of projects covering areas such as resource mobilization, policy advice and advocacy, capacity The European Union building for food, Agriculture, Forestry The financial support provided by the and Fisheries etc. European Union over the years to the Under the SFA 2006 Financing development of the agriculture sector in Agreement (EU), FAO has coordinated Grenada is second to none. and provided technical assistance for the implementation of a number of In 2008, under the SFA 1999 financial projects: Marketing and Promotion of Agreement, the European Union provided locally grown and processed projects on financial resources for the rehabilitation of

Minister with Representative of EU


Support Received From Collaborating Institutions and /or Donor Community ...continued

with reliable and credible information particularly as it relates to the potential that exist for the development of the fruit • sector in Grenada particularly in the area of marketing and agro processing.

horticulture, floral arrangement, fruit tree production, vegetable production. Provision of planting materials: vegetable seedlings, fruit trees, cut flowers.

The EU has also approved two very • important projects namely: the rural credit scheme and the spice development project which will be implemented during 2009. The Ministry of Agriculture attaches • enormous importance to these two projects as it is expected that an enormous impact will be made on the resuscitation of the • sector.

Demonstration on the use of local materials for the construction of shade houses. Provision of poultry equipment for some farmers. Provide support for training agriculture officers in China

of Passing of the Memorandum of Understanding with UWI

The Chinese Agricultural Mission • Supply of equipment for tissue Culture Laboratory

The University of the West Indies

During the year under review, the Chinese Agricultural Mission provided support to • the sector particularly in the areas of:

Provision of technical support to In recognition of the enormous pool farmers of human resources that resides in the University of the West Indies and bearing • Training in: pig production, ornamental in mind the critical need for improving human resource capability at all levels in the Table 13: CARDI’s Distribution of Crop Planting Material for 2008 sector, the Ministry of Agriculture began discussing potential areas of collaboration Quantities between the two institutions during the Crop Recipients Distributed year under review. It is expected that a Seed 150g Ministry of Agriculture Memorandum of Understanding will be Sapodilla signed between both entities in 2009. Scion 200 (MOA) Dwarf Golden Apple

Seed 4160 lbs (About 62, 000 plants)

Trinidad & Tobago Agribusiness Association

Cashew Nut




Mango - Julie



Private Entrepreneur





West Indian Cherry




Passion Fruit

Cuttings Seedlings

600 400




13.5 lbs 10 lbs

Farmers (10) MOA

Pigeon Pea


10 lbs

Farmers (8)



5 lbs

Farmers (8)




Farmer (1)

Sweet Potato



Gardeners (15)

Vegetable Seedlings



Numerous Farmers and Gardeners

The Ministry of Agriculture envisages immense benefit for the industry would accrue as a result of that initiative particularly in the areas of training, research and development.

Caribbean Agriculture Research and Development Institute The Caribbean Agriculture Research and Development Institute (CARDI) contributed significantly to Grenada’s agriculture sector in 2008 in the area of research. A research projects for the period and the results are as follows: •

New Way of Enhancing Hot Pepper Productivity Tested

Support Received From Collaborating Institutions and /or Donor Community ...continued

This trial consisted of testing a new review. This was done mainly through the chemical ‘GSR calcium’ for stem borer multiplication and distribution of planting control in hot peppers. material to farmers, gardeners and the • Agronomy Division, Ministry of Agriculture Results: as shown in the following table. The material supplied to farmers was estimated The application of ‘GSR Calcium’ did to have an estimated economic impact of not induce any significant change in EC$ 8.2 million on the agricultural sector. yield, nor did it reduce the incidence of stem borer. There was also no Other contribution to food security was in significant change in soil pH. The the form of technical advice to many farmers • experiment therefore needs to be in the areas of crop management. Direct repeated before firm recommendations financial contribution to the Grenadian can be made. economy was in the tune of EC$ 308, 000.00. Assistance in Developing a Sustainable Papaya Industry Inter-American Institute for in Grenada An experiment was Cooperation on Agriculture conducted to investigate the claim that Red Lady papaya is tolerant to Bunchy The Inter-American Institute for top disease and therefore make firm Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) recommendations to farmers. The continued to lend technical support to first part of the experiment, however, agriculture development in Grenada to was to verify the susceptibility of a foster the well-being of the rural people. local variety, Barbados yellow, to the During 2008, IICA conducted a number • disease. Later, the ‘tolerance’ of the of activities, mainly in the area of training, Red Lady variety will be compared to geared towards supporting efforts to develop the susceptibility of the local variety. Grenada’s agricultural and rural sector. Results:

Following is a brief summary of some of the actions carried out:

The local type was indeed susceptible • to bunchy top disease, Plate 5. The incidence of the disease became evident from as early as 52 days (1.7 months) after planting when 29% of the plants showed signs of the disease. The percentage of plants affected continued to rise slowly. The rate of infection became more rapid from 196 days (6.5 months) after planting. At 413 days after planting 70% of the plants became infected. The proven susceptibility of the local type has • effectively set the stage for the next phase of the experiment in which the suggested tolerance of the Red Lady papaya will be measured against the susceptibility of the local type. CARDI also supported food security and commercial production for the period under

Conducted a seminar on “Use of the Agro Matrix as a Planning tool”. • Facilitated jointly by IICA and the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), this seminar focused mainly on interpreting and applying the Agro Matrix relative to the Jagdeo Initiative, the Agro Plan 2003-2015, and other relevant Agreements to which Grenada is a • signatory. Participants included senior technicians of the MOA. Co-chaired meetings of major stakeholders in the agriculture and tourism sectors. The Agro Tourism Linkage Committee met for the purpose of finalizing the Committee’s Work Plan and assigning institutional responsibilities for implementing the Plan. This was an effort to strengthen

the inter-sectoral linkage. Conducted a Case Study of a rural agribusiness enterprise. Based on the case study, the entrepreneur was provided with a commercial blender, two stainless steel tables, product analysis and improved labeling, and entrepreneurial training. Organized a workshop on “Entrepreneurship and Business Planning”. The workshop was facilitated by the National Development Foundation of Grenada (NDFG). Participants included some members from Grenada Association of Beekeepers (GAB), Grenada Association of Small Agro Processors (GASAP), Grenada Network of Rural Women Producers (GRENROP), and the national chapter of Caribbean Agri Business Association (CABA). Conducted a “Business Management Training Course” for members of the national chapter of CABA. The course was facilitated by a University of the West Indies (UWI) postgraduate intern attached to the local IICA Office. Organized a workshop on “Product Formulation and Costing”. The workshop was facilitated by the Grenada Bureau of Standards (GDBS). Participants included members of GASAP and GRENROP. Carried out an assessment of Grenada’s Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary (SPS) System. This was done by IICA’s Agricultural Health and Food Safety (AHFS) Specialist from Guyana, with assistance from the MOA. It was followed up with a Common Vision Workshop which was conducted jointly by AHFS Specialists from IICA, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and MOA.


• Provided financial and technical support to MOA’s Pest Management Unit towards institutional strengthening of the Unit. Thus, the Pest Management Officer was able to participate in the WTO/SPS Committee meetings in Geneva. This ensured that Grenada had the overall capability to become more effectively involved in the multilateral trading system.



Dear Readers We hope that thus far the content of Grenada’s 2008 Annual Review has been informative and rewarding beyond your expectations. It is now our desire to further engage your psyche in critical thought of some contemporary subject areas specifically; Agro-Tourism, Developing a Food Security Strategy and Agriculture Production Statistics, which are worthy of your concerted attention and that of all stakeholders. These topical issues are necessary and vital for the further development of the agriculture industry, especially as they lend a significant contribution to increasing agriculture diversification. It is our intent that these articles presented will spur extensive efforts to promote new developments in the specific areas, raise innovative ideas and prescribe the ‘know how’ for projects and policy implementation and evaluation. Again, enjoy your reading!




Shadel Nyack Compton

Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of Agro-Tourism

Daniel Lewis

Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy can no longer be left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada?

Jude Houston

Agriculture Production Data – Pivotal for Promoting the Commercialization of Agriculture in Grenada


Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of AgroTourism - By Shadel Nyack Compton, Proprietor, Belmont Estate

Belmont Estate, St. Patrick


renada’s agrarian economy emanates out of the island’s historic past – from the days of its original settlers, the Arawaks and later the Caribs. Both operated a subsistence economy, that was directed towards the land and sea.1 Prolific farmers and fishermen, their success was assured not only because of their techniques and assiduousness, but because of the availability of arable land, the extreme fertility of the volcanic soil and the fruitfulness of the seas. With colonization came the further dependence on agriculture as the bedrock of the economy. Plantations were established for the production of agricultural produce for export, with guaranteed markets of the produce to Europe. With independence, and erosion


of the plantation system in favour of smaller grown, unfriendly environmental and farms came changes in production, trends climatic changes have negatively impacted and markets. agricultural production. Hurricanes Ivan and Emily of 2004 and 2005 respectively, Grenada was historically known for largely damaged and destroyed tree crop its sugar, and later banana, cocoa and production of nutmegs, cocoa and fruit, nutmeg production. The export-centered resulting in overall decreased production in agriculture has been challenged because these areas. of free trade restrictions and the removal of market protection privileges previously Correspondingly, agriculture’s contribution enjoyed by the region.2 The reduction in to GDP has decreased from 9.46% in some of the international markets, and 2002 to 6.25% in 2008. Cognizant of the stiffening of competition, have led the declining agricultural revenue, and the to decreased production for export and need to stimulate local food production the diversification into fruits and vegetables, government of Grenada over the last decade mostly for the domestic market. In addition, has instituted a national food security change in consumer preferences for program. With the trend towards domestic imported and processed foods over locally food security, satisfying the demands at

Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of Agro-Tourism ...continued

home, and satisfying the tourists discerning demands for local food products, agriculture in Grenada has refocused on diversification to contribute more products and services to the growing tourism market. “Economically, this would enhance employment, reduce the growing bill for food import and foreign exchange outflows, improve food security and increase the importance and visibility of agriculture in national development.”3 It is widely recognized that internationally tourism has become the popular option for economic growth in developing countries because of its ability to generate foreign exchange, provide employment, attract development finance and support economic independence.4 In small island states it is very important to ensure that there is the proper linkage between tourism and agriculture, to make certain that the foreign exchange earned from tourism is not lost on high costs for imported food.5 Further, proper linkages empower farmers, provides more employment for locals, promotes food security and local supply to the hospitality sector and affords locals the opportunity to organize into co-operatives and establish better business linkages. The region is blessed with an authentic tourism atmosphere. The natural environment, biodiversity, warm weather, sand, sea, sun, clean air, vegetation, and varied ecosystems are all benefits to be capitalized upon in the growing tourism tendencies.6 The natural physical attributes required for a fledging agricultural economy are supportive of a dynamic tourism environment, resulting in the perfect symbiotic relationship of the two industries.

Exploring the Dimensions of Agritourism This synthesis of the two industries, is what is known as Agro-tourism.7 Agrotourism is travel that combines agriculture, rural settings, agricultural products and experiences within the tourism experience.

It requires the strategic utilization the tourism system to reposition (a country) as a healthy lifestyle destination based on value-added products, strategic clustering of the supply chain and empowerment of the micro-enterprise sector in both agriculture and tourism.”9 Agro-tourism ventures provide recreation, leisure, rural exposure, entertainment and/or educational products and services to the visiting public. It is particularly attractive to discerning, sophisticated tourists that are eager to learn about the history, culture, social, environmental, community and political issues that affect their host country, while still enjoying the more conventional aspects like excellent weather, food and beaches. Initially promoted as the destination of sand, sea, sun, and fun; the Caribbean tourism strategists soon recognized the challenge to broaden and diversify its product to compete in the global marketplace, by offering a more tangible, meaningful, and wholesome vacation experience. The values of world travelers have changed, precipitating the re-focusing of Caribbean product development. Travelers have become more sophisticated, educated, culturally aware and sensitive to the social and physical environment, and politics of the host country. Agro-tourism is an expansive area that includes several activities, events and areas. The notable sub-sets of Agro-tourism are: Farm based & Agro-Eco Tourism; Community Tourism; Health & Wellness Tourism; Culinary Tourism; Agro-Heritage Tourism and Agro-Trade.10 Grenada’s agrotourism product has significant potential for exploring all dimensions of the agrotourism spectrum. Working farms of any size and nature can initiate farm based tourism activities that would invite guests to visit farms and participate in farm activities. The activities include farm tours, participating in farming activities, fruit, vegetable and product tastings, self-harvesting of produce, pony or horse rides, petting zoos and trails, accommodation and even dive or other marine ecology tours.11 Douglaston Estate, River Antoine Estate, Bon Accord tropical

Gardens, and Belmont Estate are all examples of farm-based tourism enterprises on the island. The scope of agro-ecotourism is significant and Grenada is bountiful in natural sites and regions with unique innate or ecological quality. Services and support systems must be incorporated to provide convenient access to and interpretation of the sites, and the linkage to our agrotourism sector should be established and emphasized. These involve marine ecology and dive tours. Ocean Spirits has been able to foster a strong sense of conservation of the turtles and have organized a popular turtle watch tour at Levera Beach in St. Patrick. Community tourism is a combination of tourism products that are offered at a community level to domestic or international visitors.12 It allows the visitor to interact with locals within their communities and participate in rural activities. It includes activities like community festivals, special events, farmers markets, village shop activities, staying with a host family in a local village.13 Grenada has been intensively developing its tourism product to include community tourism, and has as a result increased the quantity of supporting activities. Numerous community festivals have been developed to include Grenada Drum Festival, Fish Fridays, Rainbow City festival, among several other village festivals and competitions. Health and Wellness Tourism is described as combining travel, vacation, leisure and fun with healthy eating, and looking and feeling better. This includes spa activities, alternative medicines, herbal gardens, tours, teas, other herbal remedies, and specialty surgeries. This is also an area with notable potential, but a policy and framework must be put in place to introduce the concept to the private sector and communities. A few hotels on the island host therapeutic and beauty spas. Within the last year the boutique hotel La Luna added to its offerings a spa and wellness center, an organic garden and yoga pavilion, introducing new standards for residential health retreats and spa services. Grenada is well poised to maximize in this


Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of Agro-Tourism ...continued

niche. Branded “The Isle of Spice” the island is profuse with spices and herbs. Spice gardens, herbal gardens, organic gardens, coupled with the spa and therapy features can all be packaged appropriately for the health and wellness enthusiasts. Culinary Tourism focuses on the preparation, and enjoyment of food and drink. The emphasis is the creation of international dishes adapted using local ingredients and the preparation of traditional food and drink. This sub-set of agro-tourism includes dinner and theatre packages, culinary schools and workshops, food festivals, tasting/buying packaged local products, farmers markets and tour of a food or rum factory. The food festivals above mentioned as community tourism initiatives, World Food Day food festival, are all examples of Culinary Tourism. Grenada continues to excel in regional food competitions, with local chefs achieving the tops positions. There is a conscious effort within the local hotels and restaurants, driven by the Grenada Tourism Board to consistently improve food variety, standards and quality, with an emphasis on the use of local products in food preparation. Grenada’s rich culture of traditional ethnic foods enables extraordinary potential for development of this sub-sector. The area of Agro-Trade is involves creating trade relationships with the business sector, artisans and agro-processors. This is an area of exponential growth potential. Presently, de La Grenade Industries is the largest local agro-processor. However, there are several small scale enterprises that need growth and development direction and assistance.

focused on offering a wide assortment of fish cuisine to its guests, in a fun, safe environment where people also enjoy meeting friends, and listening to music and participating in cultural activities. The established goals of GFFF are to focus on the development and marketing of diverse fish products, to promote community development in Gouyave and the rest of the Parish of St. John, by promoting Gouyave as the fishing capital of our Spice Island; create linkages with other sectors of the local economy, including agriculture, craft production and the cultural arts; to promote Gouyave as a tourist town and provide diverse economic opportunities and generate income opportunities for the people of St. John. The festival is managed by a Board of Directors comprised of stakeholders and representatives of various interest groups. It is now a major community tourism attraction. In an effort to ensure the continued success of this venture, and bring the festival to capacity, plans are being made to improve the current operation and to introduce new activities like tours of Dougaldston Spice Factory, the town of Gouyave, the nutmeg factory, other landmark sites and to also offer accommodation. The festival is an outstanding example of a successful community tourism project with a strong agro-toursim linkage.

Belmont Estate

Belmont Estate is an authentic 17th century plantation, located at Belmont in St. Patrick. It is a fully functioning estate and employs about 80 persons from the surrounding communities. The concept is to offer visitors a unique perspective of Grenadian agricultural and food processing life in situ and help visitors to see the value-added initiatives that were being implemented at Belmont Estate. The decision was made Fish Friday14 for economic, socio-cultural and external factors. It became necessary to diversify Gouyave Fish Friday Festival (GFFF) is a the farm activities so as to generate other street festival that was established in June revenue streams for the business. 2005. Held every Friday evening, the event

Success Cases: Gouyave Fish Friday Festival & Belmont Estate


However, equally important was that the owners thought that Belmont Estate would be an excellent facility to educate visitors about agricultural production, plantation life, the cocoa to chocolate experience, and plantation history that is so intricately woven into the island’s history. Further, it was envisioned that an enterprise like Belmont Estate would increase the tourism product offerings of Grenada, and would also stimulate other entrepreneurs to reorganize their farm activities to include agro-tourism products. The uniqueness of Belmont Estate is that it is the most diverse agro-tourism enterprise on the island. The product offerings include visits to the organic farm, gardens, heritage museum, and cocoa processing facilities. There is also a restaurant featuring traditional Grenadian cuisine, a goat dairy farm, petting farm, conference room, gift shop, café, produce shop, cultural entertainment, a credit union and craft market. Belmont Estate presently embodies several of the sub-sectors of the agrotourism market. As a farm based and agroeco tourism facility it offers tours, petting farm, and donkey rides. The main feature of the tour is learning of the operations of the organic cocoa produced on the estate for making dark chocolate with the Grenada Chocolate Company. The new goat dairy project utilized the milk from the goat to make fresh goats cheese. A full tour of the goat houses and dairy will commence in November 2009. Harvesting of fruits and vegetables will be introduced as part of the visitor activities at that time. As part of its community tourism activities, culinary tourism, it has introduced four annual festivals – Indian Arrival Day, African Heritage Day, Rhythms & Flavours and Creole Day, featuring ethnic foods and cultural activities. A small farmers market is included as a part of these events and local farmers participate by selling their produce. In an effort to add greater variety to the typical Grenadian cuisine offered at the restaurant,

Grenada’s Agrarian Economy – Exploiting the Niche of Agro-Tourism ...continued

a new concept was introduced. On the first Sunday of every month, the restaurant offers different international cuisine to its guests. The concept is to use our local ingredients, herbs and spices to create international dishes. Community Tourism activities are also encouraged through its charity arm, Hearts and Hands. Guests have opportunities to contribute to and participate in assisting persons in need or to make contributions to community projects. The heritage museum and the cocoa-processing tour are Afro-Heritage Tourism components of the business. Belmont Estate’s future offerings include accommodations and a river spa featuring traditional herbal treatments.

penetration.15 The implementation plan must address strengthening of the matrix. Further value-added initiatives, manufacturing of secondary products for the Agro-Trade sub-sector need to be developed. Value added initiatives require considerable investments for producers. Thus the Government and private financial institutions must make viable financing options available to producers.16 Allocations must be made by Government for funding and other support of Agro-tourism ventures for the development of the sector. Financial incentives, tax holidays, sound government policies, enrich the rural environment and motivate agricultural producers to initiate Agro-tourism ventures.

Recommendations and Conclusion

In collaboration with the Ministry of Education, the Grenadian public and visitors must be sensitized and educated on the value of eating locally produced foods, with a strong emphasis on eating seasonal foods. This would encourage local production, and sales, and reduce the dependency on importing “out of season” foods during the off seasons. Also critical in this plan is the marketing of Grenada as a Culinary-Tourism destination. Tourists would thus visit Grenada with the appreciation for local foods, and would thus reduce the expectation that they would be mostly consuming foods that are already familiar to them during their stay here.

To successfully market Grenada as an agro-tourism destination, it is pivotal that the Government develop a national agricultural policy that would strengthen and expand Agro-tourism, spearheaded by the Ministries of Agriculture, and Tourism, in collaboration with the Ministries of Health, Education, Culture and Trade. Out of this policy, a taskforce, headed by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture or another top level personnel, and comprised of various stakeholders from the public and private sectors should be assigned the responsibility to formulate and implement a strategic development plan for Grenada, and to manage the function, growth and development of the sub-sector. Foundational work on the plan would require a comprehensive SWOT analysis and an economic impact study. According to research done by Ms. Kimberly M. Thomas, there is already an existing agro-tourism linkage network in Grenada linking the wholesaler to the hotels, and the farmer to hotels. However, the existing models need to be strengthened, and widened to ensure adequate production in quantity and quality and adequate distribution network to guarantee market

like Tourism. With the Government’s renewed position as the launch pad for Agro-Tourism, there is a renewed sense of optimism about the positive impacts for Grenada’s economy.

George Brizan, Grenada – Island of Conflict, p5. Helen Mc Bain, “Caribbean Tourism and Agriculture: linking to enhance development and competitiveness, p7. 3, (accessed April 29, 2008). 4 Kimberly M. Thomas, A Stakeholder Informed Approach to the Development of Formal Agri-tourism Backward Linkages in Grenada, p15. 5 Ibid. iii. 6 Ibid 7 Agri-toursim and Agro-tourism are used interchangeably throughout this paper. 8 Roxanna Waithe, Barbados Agro- Tourism Inventory Report” Ena C. Harvey, Presentation at the 7th Annual Caribbean Conference on Sustainable Tourism Development “Keeping the Right Balance – Sustainable Tourism Through Diversity” April 28, 2005, p3. 9 Caronlyn E. Hayle et el, Market Research on Agrotourism Products and Services, p7. 10 Roxanne Waithe, “Barbados Agro- Tourism Inventory Report”, p3. 11 Roanne Waithe, p5 12 Community Tourism in the Caribbean was pioneered by Diana McIntre-Pike, Chairman/CEO of Country Style Community Tourism in Jamaica in 2003 13 Ibid 14 The information for this section on Fish Friday was provided by Dr. George Vincent the founder of Fish Friday. 15 Kimberly M. Thomas, p58. 16 Vincent Amanor-Boadu, Options for Financing Agricultural Value-Adding Business, p1. 1 2

The opportunities in agro-tourism are enormous for Grenada. The country already has established linkages between the Agriculture and Tourism that need to be strengthened and bolstered by a strong policy initiative, and a dynamic matrix of stakeholders that would develop and manage the sub-sector. Key to success is a shared vision for the sub-sector, with a view to increase revenue, generate foreign exchange and create more jobs, with positive multiplier effect in the rural community. The Government has affirmed its commitment to revitalizing and re-structuring of Agriculture and its keen interest in structural and economic linkages to other complementary sectors


Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy Can No Longer Be Left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada? - By Daniel Lewis, Senior Planning Officer, Ministry of Agriculture


vivid memory of Hurricane Janet admitted of Hurricane Ivan. In other words, Grenada’s that compared to Ivan, Janet was a piece of vulnerability to food insecurity was exposed in the most amazing way following that ecent developments both nationally cake. very traumatic event. and globally have brought to the fore, the whole issue of the Hurricane Ivan left an unprecedented trail absolute necessity of developing in of destruction in the agriculture sector The passage of Hurricane Emily in 2005 Grenada, a national food security plan that that shattered the hearts of even the most dealt another blow to Grenada’s agriculture is scientifically sound, environmentally tenacious and resilient farmers. All the sub- industry and further exacerbated the sustainable and which must be enshrined sectors reported damages in excess of 80 % food security problems on the island. in the policy frame work of Government including food crops and the impact on Irrespective of the fact that hurricane was and implemented in the most vigorous and infrastructure including roads, bridges and not as destructive as Ivan, its impact on drainage systems was alarmingly high. the island’s fragile agriculture industry and committed manner. infrastructure was substantial. In September 2004, Grenada’s agriculture A deep analysis of the resulting food crisis industry was decimated by the passage of that emerged from the passage of Hurricane The global food crisis that affected many Hurricane Ivan. Prior to that colossal event, Ivan had revealed, in the most profound countries over the last 18 months or so the only recorded natural phenomena that way, the absence of a comprehensive disaster was another significant development which left Grenada as humbled and bruised was in management plan and a comprehensive impacted food access and availability by 1955 when Hurricane Janet created havoc food security strategy at the national level, many persons in Grenada, particularly the on the island. The older folks who had to mitigate against eventualities of the scale marginalized and vulnerable in society.



Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy Can No Longer Be Left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada? ...continued

This crisis was inextricably linked to the unprecedented high oil prices experienced during the aforementioned period where critical agriculture inputs of all types had increased exorbitantly which resulted in the eventual rise in food prices. While high oil prices have been cited as the main factor contributing to the recent food crisis, it must be emphasized that other factors such as climate change, population explosion and drought may have a more prominent effect on long term food crisis. It is estimated that half of the world’s population could face severe food shortages by the end of this century as rising temperatures shorten the growing season in the tropics and sub tropics, increasing the risk of drought, and reduce the harvests of dietary staples such as rice and maize by 20 percent to 40 percent, according to a study published in the Journal of Science. Global warming is expected to affect agriculture in every part of the world but it would have a greater impact in the tropics and sub tropics, where crops are less able to adapt to climate change and food shortages are already starting to occur due to rapid population growth. It is therefore incumbent on countries like Grenada to put systems in place to ensure the sustainable production of food to meet the demand of its population and to lessen on the reliance on food imports. With the expectation that the world population would double by the end of the century, the need for food would become increasingly urgent as rising temperatures force nations to retool their approach to agriculture, create new climate- resistant crops, and develop additional strategies to ensure an adequate food supply for their people. One of the major challenges for small island developing states like Grenada is to critically look at ways of boosting its food production capacity and to explore the possibility at the same time, to grow some crops intended for import substitution.

as a defining moment as far as it relates to the prioritization of food security programmes in developing and food vulnerable states like Grenada. One of the tangible lessons learnt from that experience, is that, no longer can countries like Grenada take comfort in the fact that food can be imported easily from exporting countries. In the midst of the recent crisis, many countries restricted the export of food as a means of protecting the food status of their own countries and this obviously left many importing countries in limbo. From the foregoing discussion, it is not very difficult to understand why the Government of Grenada and indeed the Ministry of Agriculture have intensified their efforts recently in order to strengthen the island’s food security status.

It is important to point out that such a decision by Cabinet to prioritize food security is highly commendable taking into account the fact that the decision came only two months after the Government assumed office. Prior to 2008, the Ministry of Agriculture had been implementing a food security programme (as early as 2002). In contrast to the new approach, the previous food security programme was not as comprehensive and it was not perpetuated by any crisis, thus there was less urgency to commit resources and develop policies to sustain the programme. The past Government, nevertheless, must be acknowledged for initiating such an initiative at a time when food security was not as fashionable and urgent as it is today.

It is worth noting that with Government’s unwavering support, it is expected that any food security plan developed would have In September 2008, Cabinet directed the some degree of sustenance as it is expected development of a comprehensive coherent that Government will provide the resources national response to the food security crisis necessary to ensure that the island achieve some degree of food security. facing the island.

Government’s Intervention

The Cabinet provided some guidance for the national food security plan that would be developed. Cabinet directed that the national response must: • •

• •

Address the areas of, inter alia, production, consumption and storage Provide coherence and coordination to the work of the many Ministries and State Agencies and the NGO’s and private sector that work in these areas. Not subvert the existing markets and the private sector and Ensure sustainability of the programmes and activities designed and effected.

Cabinet has also taken the conscious decision to appoint a Food Security Committee, with membership from a broad based multidisciplinary background. The Committee is mandated to coordinate and provide technical advice to the cabinet on all matters related to food security issues The recent food crisis can well be described on the island.

It is instructive to point out that the present food security programme implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture is funded by the Government of Grenada and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). So far about 2000 households have benefited from a wide array of material and technical services. The programme has been designed to benefit marginalized families, resource poor farmers, institutions such as schools. The current programme is intended to bring some relief to the poorer people in the community but for a longer term and more sustainable action, it is vitally important that a food security plan is developed and implemented. Strategies to Address Food Security Issues in Grenada According to the 1996 World Food Summit and the FAO, food security exists when “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and


Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy Can No Longer Be Left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada? ...continued

nutritious food to meet their dietary needs 3. Market support to farmers. and food preferences for an active and 4. Development of cost of production healthy life”. modules. This definition suggests four requirements 5. Train farmers to be more astute for a food secure people and country. business men /women. 1. Food Availability: Sufficient quantities of food of appropriate 6. Develop better storage facilities. quality must be available within the country. The food source can be a 7. Prioritize Research and Development activities. mixture of both domestic and local production. 8. Create the enabling environment to get the private sector more involved in 2. Food Accessibility: Households agriculture. and individuals must have access to adequate resources for acquiring appropriate food for a nutritious diet. 9. Promote value added (agro-processing) as a priority. 3. Food Utilization: Utilization of food through adequate diet, clean 10. Facilitate access to farm lands for young potential farmers. water, sanitation and health care to reach a state of nutritional well being where all physiological needs are met. • Introduce a marketing and publicity programme to optimize farmers’ sale and marketing of produce. This would 4. Stability: There should not be risks be a very good incentive for farmers and to households and individuals access will definitely instill a lot of confidence to food as a consequence of sudden in the agricultural sector. shocks (e.g. hurricane, economic crisis etc.) or cyclical events (e.g. seasonal • Development of a programme to food insecurity). ensure sustainable availability and affordable prices of agricultural inputs. Some of the strategies that can be used to The Government may contemplate address food security issues at the national the establishment of an input quasi level in Grenada are: business where inputs are sourced and sold to farmers at cost price. There are • Boosting Agriculture Production and good examples where such system has Productivity. been tried and proven successful e.g. St. Vincent Inputs Warehouse. This is a very important strategy and is intended to improve production efficiency • by decreasing cost and improving the income of farmers. This would also impact on consumer prices as they would pay less. This broad strategy can be achieved by the implementation of a number of interventions which include: 1. Training of farmers and technicians. 2. Promotion of the use of modern technology (irrigation, shade house usage etc.).


Implementation of a programme to significantly boost the utilization of domestic, fresh and processed products on the island. This could be done by an aggressive campaign in schools, restaurants, the hotels and the wider community at large. Already, the Ministry of Agriculture is implementing a project on the marketing and promotion of locally grown or processed produce which is intended to achieve the same objective.

From a strategic stand point, that programme must outlive any short term project and must be pursued with a high degree of aggressiveness and commitment.

Strategies to Address Food Security at the Household Level (Food Accessibility) Given the fact that poverty exist among a large number of households, a key concern of the food security strategy is develop programmes to ensure sustainable improvement of food access at the household level. Through the adoption of a number of policy interventions, Government can: 1. Develop social safety nets for the most vulnerable. 2. Implement some measures in support of trade liberalization such as reducing import tariffs on some of the most widely consumed commodities (intended to reduce prices of these items). 3. Develop mechanisms to improve the competitiveness of agricultural production and marketing systems to reduce prices of locally grown foods. 4. Market intervention to reduce food prices.

Some Strategies that can be used to Improve Food Security at the Household Level 1. Intensify training for farmers. 2. Strengthening market systems. 3. Conduct an in depth review of import policies and patterns. 4. Improve the access of farm lands for agriculture. 5. Intensify plant propagation.

Why the Development of a Scientifically Sound and Sustainable Food Security Strategy, Programme and Policy Can No Longer Be Left on the Fringes of Agricultural Priorities in Grenada? ...continued

the hurricane season that spans about 6 months of the year. This policy must also 7. Establishment of concessions for be cost effective, minimizing as much as value added activities that utilize local possible, wastage, pilferage, disruption and agricultural production. distortion to the domestic markets. 6. Enhancement of germplasm bank.

8. Ensure access to food baskets and other safety net provisions for the most vulnerable.

disciplines who are expected to work in a very coherent manner among themselves and with the Ministry’s personnel and other stakeholders to develop that plan. For example, the following experts would be recruited by the FAO:

Strategies that can be Employed to Achieve Stability of National and • A National Disaster Risk Management Advisor. Household Food Security

Household/Individual Nutritional 1. Promotion of roots and tubers • An International Food Security Consultant. Status cultivation that can withstand disasters

such as hurricanes especially those with It is generally accepted that education and long shelf life e.g. sweet potato, tannia, knowledge are the main tools for addressing yams etc. that component of food security. The active inputs of Ministries such as Health and 2. Enhancement of value added as a Education and the Grenada Food and strategy to avoid wastage especially Nutrition Council would be of fundamental during periods of high production importance in imparting knowledge as far of seasonal crops and as a means of as health and nutrition is concerned. safeguarding foods for emergency situations (e.g. production of cassava Key strategies that could be employed farine, drying of fish, production of to achieve that aspect of food security corn flower etc.). include: 3. Stockholding within the current 1. The implementation of a dynamic, market system operated by importers coherent and well focused education and supermarkets. programme. 4. Educate private households to maintain 2. Development of an improved school stocks of foods especially during feeding programme. periods of potential natural disasters (e.g. during the hurricane season). 3. More efficient social safety nets programme with emphasis on Development of a Food security improving the targeted beneficiary Plan for Grenada groups.

Stability of National and Household Food Security The implementation of a food storage policy can reduce the risks to an adequate food supply at the national level. This is very important as the absence of such a policy was a determinant factor in all the problems experienced after the passage of Hurricanes Ivan and Emily in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Such a policy would ensure that the island has adequate stocks of food in high risk periods especially during

The Ministry of Agriculture has prioritized the development of a comprehensive food security plan as a major goal and has solicited assistance from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for the development of that plan. The FAO would provide the assistance under the TCP facility (Technical Cooperation Programme).

A National Nutritional Advisor.

A Social Protection/Safety Consultant.

A Value Chain, Trade and Marketing consultant.


In addition to the aforementioned experts, the Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA) would provide technical advisory services in support of the implementation of the development of the food security plan.

Conclusion Grenada has been subjected to a preponderance of crisis situations over the last five years including the passage of two major hurricanes and the harsh food crisis experienced over the last 18 months. These crises have exposed the island’s vulnerability to food insecurity in the most vivid fashion. In light of the foregoing, the Government and indeed the Ministry of Agriculture have proactively responded in a manner that is mature and responsible and have been implementing a food security programme (with assistance from the FAO) on the island to assist the poor and vulnerable. In the meantime, the Ministry of Agriculture is working conscientiously and diligently in order to develop a comprehensive food security plan for the island.

In developing the food security plan, FAO would take into account the multidimensional problems associated with The development of a comprehensive food food security issues and has made the security plan for Grenada is not a choice commitment to provide expertise of various but an absolute imperative.


Agricultural Production Data – Pivotal for Promoting the Commercialization of Agriculture in Grenada - By Jude Houston, Consultant, FAO


t is widely accepted that commercialization of Grenada’s agriculture is the way forward. Unfortunately, the process has been terribly stymied by the lack of production data. Often some critical questions arise which cannot be answered. Is Grenada food secure? Which vegetables and fruits should be imported within a given period without tariff? Are we self-sufficient in the production of cantelopes and other exotic fruits? Can we support the idea of import substitution for root crops and tubers? Many of these questions can only be answered with the existence of an adequate production data system. The Agriculture Sector in Grenada makes an extremely vital contribution to social, economical, and rural development. Considering this fact, it is therefore essential to monitor the performance of sector. Up-to-date and accurate Agricultural Production Data is necessary in order to assess the impact of the resources expended by the Ministry of Agriculture and other donor agencies, to ensure informed decision making by national planners and the donor community and to permit an accurate assessment of the contribution of agriculture to the overall economy. As far as it relates to food security - the imperative of feeding ourselves, especially in light of the global food crisis of high prices and potential food shortages – whether or not can certainly be contended at this present juncture. Nonetheless, Agricultural Production Data helps in understanding the structure of the food production industry and the constraints faced by farmers in increasing agricultural production, as well as, suggesting strategies for increasing agricultural productivity. Cropping patterns can be studied along with information on the use of irrigation, farm machinery and improved varieties of seed to help develop programmes for increased food production. Agricultural censuses are also necessary for various reasons. The last agricultural census


in Grenada was done in 1995. Grenada has not been able to report in a comprehensive way on the situation of agriculture within the country since. Over the intervening period, the face of agriculture has changed considerably. The whole island was devastated by Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and was badly affected by the passage of Hurricane Emily in 2005, especially the agricultural sector. An agriculture census and accurate production data necessitate a comprehensive situational analysis especially as it relates to food access issues.

related to specific crops and or livestock at either production, processing or marketing levels. Often, for official documentations, data related to purchases of fresh produce from the MNIB is used to estimate national production (extrapolation technique).

Some persons use a general assumption which tend indicate that MNIB purchases 15% of local production. On the basis of this assumption, the national production is estimated. The extrapolation technique is often based on Raising Factors to represent production passing through other markets Data emanating from agricultural produce such as hotels, groceries and the public markets and other infrastructures on the market. community level can help in assessing the effectiveness of the food distribution Some agriculture subsectors are particularly system. Issues related to stability of food problematic where guesstimates are supplies, such as weather conditions and concerned. Very often, it’s almost impossible exposure to natural disasters, can also be to estimate production. A classical example studied from the community component of this problem is in the livestock sub of the agricultural census. The agricultural sector. census also provides broad economic, social and environmental indicators to show The livestock industry in Grenada revolves the background against which the food around cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, broilers, economy operates. It assists in the study layers and bees. The slaughtering of animals of environmental issues that may affect for households consumption is undertaken agricultural output, such as forest cover, at two public abattoirs in the island as well and the use of fertilizers and pesticides. as by itinerant butchers and farmers at the Household data from the agricultural community level. Animals slaughtered census may also highlight social issues at public abattoirs are certified by Public affecting food security, such as changes Health Inspectors; however, there is an in demographic patterns and household absence of records for number of animals structures. slaughtered by type and carcass weight. It is also felt that the majority of sheep, goats The present situation now as far as it relates and pig slaughtered are undertaken by to the generation of agricultural data is very butchers and farmers at the community limited, though some organizations may be level. It is unknown what percentage of able to provide actual production on certain domestic fresh meat production originates commodities, by and large, agricultural from this latter practice. production statistics in Grenada, especially in the area of vegetables, fruits, tubers and It is against this background that root crops are merely guesstimates. Statistical methodologies and technologies need to data is obtained on the sector often mostly be applied towards the provision of timely, from secondary sources which includes: reliable and comprehensive production the Grenada Port Authority, Marketing statistics within the Ministry of Agriculture. and National Importing Board (MNIB), Taking account of its resource limitations, Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association the Ministry of Agriculture should embrace (GCNA), Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), whole heartedly the assistance being offered Grenada Cocoa Association (GCA) as by the European Commission through well knowledgeable personnel involved or the Food and Agriculture Organization

Agricultural Production Data – Pivotal for Promoting the Commercialization of Agriculture in Grenada ...continued

with its Special Framework of Assistance (SFA 2006), which is providing resources for implementation of the project: “Strengthening Agriculture Information System in the Ministry of Agriculture for Grenada”. This project is intended to build government’s capacity to regularly collect and analyse data to facilitate informed decision making, particularly, for effective assessment of agricultural project assistance in general , and to prepare ground for undertaking an agricultural census in 2011. The project would therefore provide staff and financial resources to allow the Ministry of Agriculture to provide data on the agricultural sector which are as comprehensive as possible. Furthermore, it would assist the staff of the Ministry to plan the development of statistical information on the agricultural sector in Grenada. In this regard, this assistance would be an important precursor to conducting the national agricultural census under SFA 2007 financing agreement. The focus of the project would be on providing the inputs that the Ministry of Agriculture is not currently able to provide from its own resources. At the same time, the project will work with the staff of the Ministry to ensure that, via the assistance, steps would be taken towards the establishment of a self-sustaining system for producing national agricultural production statistics and related information and analysis. During the implementation of the project the Ministry of Agriculture should prepare or make it part of its objective to highlight the impact of the project and maintain its sustainability. This can be achieved through the underlined activities: •

Change the system of data collection from manual to electronic. This would facilitate the electronic transfer of field data to the Statistical Unit in Ministry of Agriculture, bypassing the editing and data entry exercises, reducing

processing time and facilitating dissemination of information to end users. This process would require the use of mobile devices (for example palmtops) which would be programmed to collect the data sets (similar to electronic questionnaires) with built-in “field edit” queries to validate data quality at entry.

of cocoa growers, the distribution of cocoa growers by holding area, cropping systems used by cocoa grower, labour requirements for cocoa growing, etc.

Study of a specific livestock production system: Census tables specific to agricultural holdings with the particular livestock type – for example, sheep – can be used to measure the number and location of sheep producers, • Further training of the Statistician the distribution of sheep producers by flock assigned to the Statistical Unit in the size, the integration of sheep raising with Ministry of Agriculture, in the field cropping activities, etc. of sampling with special reference to agriculture and agricultural related Structure of agriculture in a particular surveys. area: Census tables relating to the particular geographic area, such as a • Retraining of field personnel in the district, can highlight the main crops use of electronic data capture in the grown and livestock raised in the district, field including submission of collected the agricultural practices used in the to Head Office via the Internet. district in comparison with other districts, employment characteristics in the district, • Training of field personnel in field etc. interviewing techniques including guidelines for the collection of the new Inter-relationship between crop and data sets. livestock production: Census tables can be prepared showing the number of holdings • Recruitment of IT personnel for with specific combinations of crop and data processing and ancillary related livestock types. activities. Sources of farm labour: Census tables can • Ensuring that reports on agricultural be prepared to show the types of farm labour production surveys would be submitted inputs for specific farming systems and the to end-users with email addresses. Hard role of household and outside labour. copies to be submitted to libraries, selected institutions, users without Farm typology studies: The agricultural email addresses. These reports should census can be useful for classifying holdings include request for comments on by type, as an aid to developing agricultural scope and coverage of data content and development policies. For example, format including recommendations for holdings can be sub-divided into whether improvements. they are subsistence or market oriented, and different policies and programmes can Accurate Agriculture Production Data be developed for each group. would aid the government and others in effective planning and policy-making decisions. Policy issues that can be analysed using the agricultural census are: Study of a specific crop: Census tables specific to agricultural holdings with the particular crop – for example, cocoa – can be used to measure the number and location


With Agriculture Production Data or agriculture census, the Ministry of Agriculture would be better able to analyse trends in production which would allow reorientation of its support programmes to those areas which are either most in need or which demonstrate the best potential for development. In the wider society, the presence of comprehensive statistics on agriculture would indicate quite lucidly the impact the sector is making in the socio-economic life of the country, its contribution to GDP and as provider of rural employment in particular. Finally, donor agencies providing assistance to agricultural development would be in a better position to assess the impact of their assistance on the output of the critical agricultural sector.


Meteorological Observation for 2008


he Ministry of Agriculture’s Land Use Division submitted primary data collected from its rainfall monitoring stations to the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) for analysis. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which was developed by T.B. Mckeee, N.J. Doesken and J. Kleist of Colorado State University was used to investigate drought and precipitation in Grenada. This index is favourable for investigating and monitoring drought and periods with extremely high precipitation. It also has the capability to provide an early warning of extended drought periods. Positive values are an indication of greater than median rainfalls whilst negative values indicate less than median rainfall. According to the SPI index, in 2008, there was near normal precipitation (SPI -0.81) in Grenada. Similar conditions was experienced in 2007 (SPI -0.86) and 2006 (SPI 0.46). However, pervious years 2004 (SPI 2.12) and 2005(SPI 1.46) were categorized as extremely wet.

Climate Change Impact on Agriculture in Grenada According to Grenada’s first National Communication on Climate Change presented in the year 2000, climate change impacts on tropical crops in Grenada is not clear. However, as regards to livestock specifically in Carriacou, based on historical data there is vulnerability of extreme drought which may result stock losses (GOG-MOF, 2000). Similarly, as it relates to fisheries, the breeding ground of seventeen (17) of the main demersal species may be adversely affected because of sea level rising over mangroves and reefs a consequence of climate change (GOGMOF, 2000).

Automatic Weather Station at Mirabeau in St. Andrew

Table 14: SPI Values and Precipitation Intensities (Mckee et al 1993) SPI


Probability (%)

2.0 +

Extremely wet


1.5 to 1.99

Very wet


1.0 to 1.49

Moderately wet


-0.99 to 0.99

Near normal

-1.0 to -1.49

Moderately dry


Severely dry


Extremely dry


-1.5 to -1.99

-2.0 and less


Table 15: Showing Average Rainfall in Inches at Selected Monitoring Stations (2004- 2008) Monitoring Stations






Lower Marli (North)






Mt. Hartman (South)






Clozier (West)






Mirabeau Agri. Station (East)







List of Figures & Tables

Figures Figure Number

Figure Name


Grenada’s Agriculture Sector Contribution to GDP by Economic Activity


Agriculture Sector’s Contribution to National Export Earnings


The Dynamics of Grenada’s Agriculture Sector


Comparison of Local Poultry Meat Production vs. Imported Poultry Meat


Fish Production 2003-2008


Fish Exports in Value 2003-2008


Forest Trees Production 2003-2008


Spice Exported in 2003-2008


Cocoa Bean Production 2003-2008


Cocoa Bean Exports in Value 2003-2008


Comparison of Cocoa Bean Producers 2003-2008


Nutmeg Exports in Value 2003-2008


Nutmegs Exported in Quantity (nutmeg processed for exports) 2003-2008


Mace Exported in Quantity 2003-2008

Page Number

7 7 10 25 29 29 33 39 41 41 42 44 45 45



Table Number

Table Name


Estimated National Production of Fruits in Pounds (lbs) for 2005-2008

Page Number


Estimated National Production of Vegetables in Pounds (lbs) for 2005-2008


Estimated National Production of Tubers and Root Crops in Pounds (lbs) for 20052008


Plantlet Production & Distribution Figures 2004-2008


Purchase of Tissue Culture Plantlets 2005-2008


Tissue Culture Plantlets Production 2005-2008


Number of Farmers Receiving Assistance Under the Irrigation Programme by Agriculture District for the Year 2008


Poultry Production in 2008 (comparison percentage and value increase/decrease with Production in 2007)



Distribution of Dairy Goats by Parish


Size of Grenada’s Forest Reserves


Quantities of Individual Spices Exported from 2003-2008 in Pounds (lbs)


Selected Capital Project for 2008


CARDI’s Distribution of Crop Planting Material for 2008

26 34 39 50 52

11 12 12 13 15 16 22


Agency for Reconstruction and Plan for Agriculture and Rural Life in the Development. 2005. Modernizing Americas. IICA Headquarters. San Jose. Agriculture in Grenada: A National Policy Strategy. ARD Publication. St. George’s. Mc Bain, H. 2007. “Caribbean Tourism and Agriculture: linking to enhance Amanor-Boadu, V. 2003. Options for development and competitiveness”. Financing Agricultural Value-Adding Business xml/2/28172/L.76.pdf h t t p : / / w w w. a g m r c . o r g / m e d i a / c m s / [accessed June 28 2009]. financeagbusiness_DBBAC4E22E484.pdf [accessed April 29 2009]. Nyack-Compton, S. 2008. “Transforming Belmont Estate: A Strategic Plan”. Belmonte Brizan, G.1998. Grenada – Island of Estate Publication. St. George’s. Conflict. Macmillan Caribbean. Oxford. Paul, R. 2008. Towards a Strategy for Bruinsma, J. 2003. World Agriculture: Agriculture and Poverty Alleviation in the Towards 2015/2030. FAO: Earthen OECS. UNDP: Publication UNDP SubPublications Ltd. London. regional Office. Bridgetown. Caribbean Agri-Tourism. 2008. [accessed April 29, 2009].

Ramsaroop, M. 2007. Foundation Study towards the Establishment of an Agricultural Data Service in Grenada. Draft Report European Union SFA 2003: St. George’s.

Caribbean Agro-Tourism. 2009. Thomas, K. 2009.. “A Stakeholder trade/WhyAgro-Trade.htm Informed Approach to the Development of [accessed June 28, 2009]. Formal Agri-Tourism Backward Linkages in Grenada.” Unpublished Research Paper. Food and Agriculture Organization, University of the West Indies – Cave Hill. Inter-American Institute for Cooperation Bridgetown. on Agriculture, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Secretariat. 2004. Grenada Plan of Action for the Rehabilitation/ Revitalization of the Agricultural Sector in the Aftermath of Hurricane Ivan. Summary Document. Grenada. Government of Grenada: Ministry of Finance. 2000. First National Communication on Climate Change for Grenada. Government of Grenada and UNDP. St. George’s. Hayle, C. 2006. “Market Research on Agrotourism Products and Services.” Publications/Carolyn-Hayle.pdf [accessed June 28 2009]. Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture. 2007. Hemispheric Ministerial Agreements: Agro 2003-2015


Contact Information

Ministerial Division/ Allied Organization


Contact Person

Telephone Number (473)



Agronomy Division

Ms. Shira Baldeo

440-3083 ext. 3002



Biotechnology Division

Dr. Malachy Dottin

440-4460 ext. 3026


Caribbean Agriculture Research and Development Institute

Mr. Reginald Andall


Westerhall, St. David

Engineering Division

Mr. Raymond Baptiste

440-2708 ext. 3003


Extension Division

Mr. Randolph Shears

440-3083 ext. 3001


Fisheries Division

Mr. Justine Rennie



Forestry Division

Mr. Aden Forteau



Grenada Cocoa and Nutmeg Association

Mrs. Joyce John


Lagoon Road, St. George

Grenada Cocoa Association

Mr. Andrew Hastick


Lagoon Road, St. George

Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Mr. Cosmos Joseph Agriculture


The Villa, St. George’s

Marketing National Importing Board

Mr. Fitzroy James


Young Street, St. George’s

Minor Spices Cooperative

Mr. Milton Gabriel


Laura Land St. David

Pest and Disease Management Unit

Mr. Paul Graham




Produce Chemist Lab

Dr. Guido Marcelle



Veterinary Division

Dr. Bowen Louison

440-2708 ext. 3018




Grenada’s Annual Agriculture Review can be accessed from the following website and links: Annex Annex 1: Food and Live Animals Imports 01/2008 – 06/2008 Annex 2: Food and Live Animals Exports 01/2008 – 06/2008


Report designed by: AllyDay Creative Projects Ltd. |

The Annual Report

Mission Statement To present a review on Grenada’s agriculture sector which highlights developments, identify obstacles, informs problem solving and provides an outlook for future development and agriculture diversification.

Vision Statement Grenada’s Annual Agriculture Review will be the most thorough, yet, concise replica of the sector’s information sort after by all stakeholders including producers, policy makers, donor agencies, academia and marketers of Grenada’s agriculture industry.

Key Objectives The Annual Review would; •

allow national planners and decision makers to assess the contribution of agriculture within the overall economy and allocate the necessary resources for its development;

allow the Ministry of Agriculture to assess the impact of its assistance and to plan future activities;

provide donor agencies with required statistics, information and analysis to allow them to formulate appropriate assistance to the country and to allow the effectiveness of this assistance to be monitored;

permit researchers, students and potential investors to use the information emanating from the review to great effect.



Agrimetrologist • Agri-Journalist • Agronomist • Biotechnologist • Extention Officer • Tree Surgeon • Pomologist • Nematologist • Nursery/Green House Manager • Olerticulturelist • Permanent Secretary in Agriculture • Strategic Planning Officer • Marine Biologist • Veterinary Officer • Public Relations Officer • Quarantine Officer • Pest Control Officer • Fishery Officer • Lands & Survey Officer • Hydrologist and MORE!

MOA Annual Review Grenada 2008  
MOA Annual Review Grenada 2008  

Ministry of Agriculture Review 2008