Holden Forests & Gardens - Spring 2023

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SPRING 2023

SPRING 2023, V7/2

Forests & Gardens is the member magazine for Holden Forests & Gardens, which includes the Holden Arboretum in Kirtland and the Cleveland Botanical Garden in Cleveland.

MISSION: Holden Forests & Gardens connects people with the wonder, beauty, and value of trees and plants, to inspire action for healthy communities

VISION: All communities transformed into vibrant places where trees, plants, and people thrive

Creative Director: Jackie Klisuric

Editor & Vice President of Public Relations & Marketing:

Margaret Thresher

Photography: Thomas Arbour, Mark Bir, Alexandra Faidiga, Emma Dawson-Glass, Jackie Klisuric, Steve Krebs, Brian Parsons, Bob Perkoski, Connor Ryan, Margaret Thresher, Na Wei

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Tom Anderson, Chairman

Rob Galloway, Secretary

Constance Norweb

Abbey

Paul R. Abbey

Victoria U. Broer

Barbara Brown, PhD

Tera N. Coleman

Jonathan Dick

Paul E. DiCorleto, PhD

Michael Dingeldein, MD

Lavita W. Ewing

Kate Faust

Lynn-Ann Gries

Sally Gries

Joseph P. Keithley

Stephen J. Knerly, Jr.

Joseph J. Mahovlic

Michael C. Marino

Roy D. Minoff

Cynthia Moore-Hardy

Ellen W. Jones Nordell

Deidrea Otts

Jane Q. Outcalt

Katie Outcalt

Gary W. Poth

Erin Kennedy Ryan

Robin Schachat

Lynn Shiverick

Ruth M. Stafford

Charles Walton

Joy K. Ward, PhD

DEPARTMENTS

©Holden Forests & Gardens

Forests & Gardens (ISSN 2474-6371) is a class and events magazine published quarterly by Holden Forests & Gardens, 9500 Sperry Road, Kirtland, Ohio 44094-5172. Periodicals postage paid at Mentor, Ohio and additional offices.

Postmaster:

Please send address changes to Forests & Gardens Magazine

Holden Forests & Gardens

9500 Sperry Road

Kirtland, Ohio 44094-5172

FEATURES WELCOME LETTER .......................................................................................................................... 3 OUR MEMBERS: MEET OUR SCIENTISTS Meet some of our scientists and learn about the important work they are doing with Holden Forests & Gardens 4 SPRING BRINGS RHODODENDRON BLOOMS Tour the Arboretum and Botanical Garden to get a look at the array of beautiful and colorful blooms that come with the season 6 A WORLD UNDER GLASS Plant life from two widely different environments thrive in the glasshouse at Cleveland Botanical Garden 12 CARETAKERS OF THE PLANTS Discover how volunteers and HF&G scientists are exploring how warming affects spring phenology in our forests 14 CONSERVING DIVERSITY IN CRABAPPLES Crabapple trees are not only beautiful —they assist with pollination and harbor genetic diversity for modern apple breeding .........................................18
VOLUNTEER Local high school students get involved with the People for Trees movement 22 DEVELOPMENT Learn how you can help celebrate Arbor Day, which is a national holiday created to recognize the importance of trees 24 EVENTS Sean Kenney’s Nature Connects Made with LEGO® Bricks comes to Holden Arboretum May 27 to Sept. 4 26 EDUCATION Find out what you can do this spring to engage in and enjoy nature around you 28 SCIENTIST LECTURE SERIES 30 On the Cover: Azaleas bring color to the Helen S. Layer Rhododendon Garden at the Holden Arboretum.
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It’s About Blooming Time!

One of the most incredible things about spring in Northeast Ohio is that each year we look forward to it as if it’s happening for the first time. The simple joy of spotting the first flower buds coming out of the soil never gets old.

While the Holden Arboretum and Cleveland Botanical Garden are well-known destinations displaying the natural beauty and wonder that only plants and trees can provide, there is an equally awe-inspiring, albeit comparatively unknown operation within a quarter-mile of the Arboretum’s visitor entrance.

The Long Science Center is home to groundbreaking science and conservation work that attracts budding and seasoned researchers from across the country and around the world. Their research is covered in leading nature and science publications and winning coveted national awards. This team is doing work that’s quite literally saving our native plants and trees in the Great Lakes region. We are devoting the issue to this core facet of our mission featuring our scientists and some of their special projects.

We are celebrating the splendor of spring in big ways. The Arboretum is excited to announce it will open Sean Kenney's Nature Connects Made with LEGO® Bricks, featuring more than a dozen colorful creations that will pop out of garden and trail landscapes creating a magical new world at the arboretum. Nature Connects opens Saturday, May 27th.

This year our signature holiday, Arbor Day, takes place on Friday, April 28.

• People for Trees is in year three! More than 10,000 trees have been pledged, planted, and given away. We still have thousands more trees to plant to meet our goal. Make your pledge today at holdenfg.org.

• Make a gift to the Arbor Day of Giving Campaign. You will help us do even more to support the natural world in our community.

Summer Camps are now open for registration, along with many other engaging classes and programs for all ages. Plus, the ever-popular Kalberer Emergent Tower and Murch Canopy Walk open for the season and the butterflies return to the Botanical Garden beginning on April 1. Mark your calendar for these events and more. Join us for your best spring yet.

We’ll see you soon!

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WELCOME LETTER

Meet Our Scientists

Holden Forests & Gardens experts are playing key roles to further understand the world around us.

1. Lydia Jahn Norweb Fellow

Lydia explores the impacts of spring weather on wildflower phenology and the effects of acid rain on forest systems.

2. Sharon Halkovics Research Specialist

Sharon manages the Medeiros lab where she investigates the evolution of functional traits in the genus Rhododendron.

3. Maris Holowell Research Specialist

Maris and others are currently working on an experiment looking at plant-microbiome symbiosis using the duckweed species Spirodela polyrhiza

4. David Burke PhD Vice President for Science and Conservation

David’s research involves soil organisms that assist plants with nutrient uptake as well as forest pest and disease research.

5. Emma Dawson-Glass Research Specialist

Emma is the manager of the Stuble lab and helps to explore the impacts of climate change, invasive species and land-use history on the resilience of Ohio’s forests, with the goal of restoring and preserving forests.

6. Hector Ortiz PhD NSF Postdoctoral Research Associate

Hector studies the ecological niche and invasive range of Eastern Redcedar.

7. Sarah Kyker PhD Postdoctoral Research Associate

Sarah is a microbial ecologist who uses DNA sequencing to study fungi and bacteria in the environment, especially in soil where these organisms play a large role in decomposition and nutrient cycling.

8. Juliana Medeiros PhD Plant Biologist

Juliana focuses on understanding the complex relationships between plants and their environment, and the evolution of plant physiological adaptations with special interest in genus Rhododendron.

9. Katie Stuble PhD

Restoration Ecologist and Research Department Chair

Katie explores the diversity of life in Ohio’s forests and how we can best protect it.

10. Claudia Bashian-Victoroff MS Research Specialist

As a Research Specialist in the Soil Ecology Lab, Claudia pairs field collections and observations with laboratory techniques to understand how belowground soil organisms (mainly symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi) contribute to aboveground forest health.

11. Jing Wang MS Field Station Specialist

Jing works to breed and care for plants at the David G. Leach Research Station.

12. Mary Pitts MS Research Specialist

Mary works with state and federal agencies to monitor beech leaf disease across Ohio using molecular techniques.

13. Connor Ryan MS Rhododendron Collections Manager

Connor curates HF&G’s rhododendron collection and breeds landscape plants at the David G. Leach Research Station.

14. Rachel Kappler PhD Forest Health Coordinator

Rachel facilitates tree activities for pest-resistance breeding in current priority species, ash, American beech and eastern hemlock. She also hosts workshops, webinars, and trainings for partners to help them achieve their forest health goals.

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Spring Brings

Rhododendron Blooms

Visit the Arboretum and Botanical Garden to enjoy the beauty and diversity of seasonal flowers.

In the Research Department at Holden Forests & Gardens we love rhododendrons. The diversity in flower, leaves and form. The vast number of species (1000+!). Their ability to quite freely hybridize. Their fascinating evolutionary history and resulting physiological traits and ecological niches. Their human history — from attractive garden plants to life-saving medicines and everything in between.

The history and diversity of the genus (which includes both rhododendrons and azaleas) provide countless avenues for ornamental display, scientific research and other scholarship, and

plant conservation. In anticipation of the spring season, I want to share some of the most notable and charismatic members of our collection. With about 750 unique types of rhododendrons in the collection, there is plenty to see on the arboretum grounds.

While it is possible to see a rhododendron in bloom at HF&G from late March into September, spring is the time to see the collection at its peak. The season starts with the lepidote, scaly-leaved rhododendron species and hybrids. First up are the closely related species in the Rhododendron dauricum complex, which dot the rhododendron gardens with pink to purple flowers as early as late

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Atop beech knoll is a rock garden planted with various compact azaleas, rhododendrons, and other choice plants. If you time it right, you can catch the explosion of color from seemingly every plant in that space, including rhododendrons ‘Daniella’ and ‘Ginny Gee’ and azalea ‘Karens’, all pictured here next to the bluish carpet of moss phlox (Phlox subulata ‘Emerald Blue’).

March. From this complex is Rhododendron mucronulatum ‘Cornell Pink,’ which, though often mistakenly called an azalea, is one of the few deciduous rhododendrons. Its floating, pink flowers on bare stems signal the start of rhododendron season. Soon to follow are the ‘PJM’ rhododendrons, which my wife and I jokingly call “Purple J. Meatball,” a nod to the round, meaty shape most landscapers shear them into. The PJMs are derived from a simple but fortuitous cross between the northern Asian Rhododendron dauricum and the Carolinian Rhododendron carolinianum. These and other early bloomers can be found in both arboretum rhododendron gardens, plus the Cleveland Botanical Garden and David G. Leach Research Station.

Another favorite early bloomer in our gardens is the royal azalea (Rhododendron schlippenbachii). Royal azalea is perhaps the finest of all the deciduous azaleas, with large, lightly fragrant pink flowers on naked stems in late April to early May. Many of our royal azaleas stem from plant collecting trips HF&G staff took to Korea in the 1980s. A similar but later bloomer, the pinkshell azalea (Rhododendron vaseyi) is also a favorite. In the wild it is found only in the mountains of Western North Carolina. Compared to the royal azalea it shares flower color and exceptional fall color, but its leaves and flowers are smaller. Horticulturist MaryAnn Thesing recently planted this species originally collected on Whiteside Mountain in North Carolina along a ravine in the Helen S. Layer Rhododendron Garden. You might also catch the white-flowered form (‘White Find’) established on the western edge of the Helen S. Layer Garden or David Leach’s dark pink selection (‘Spring Spangle’) in the Leach Station gardens.

As rhododendron season jogs along, we pick up much of the rest of the pack in May. It is a slow build through April, but by mid-May many of the evergreen and deciduous azaleas have hit their stride. Deciduous Ghent azaleas Warren Corning sourced from Holland come ablaze just west of Logsdon Pond at the arboretum. These are among the oldest rhododendrons in our collection, dating to the 1950s. Drifts of evergreen azaleas can be seen through the Eliot and Linda Paine Rhododendron Discovery Garden and the Layer Rhododendron Garden. Many of these were developed locally, either by Anthony Shammarello in South Euclid or Girard Nurseries in Geneva. My current favorites from this group are ‘Girard’s Unsurpassable’ and ‘Elsie Lee.’ At the botanical garden, the Japanese garden could just as

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With about 750 unique types of rhododendrons in the collection, there is plenty to see on the arboretum grounds.
Our pride and joy, Rhododendron ‘Maud Corning’ blooms with intensely fragrant flowers in both our Layer Rhododendron Garden and Leach Research Station. One of the earliest plants in our collection, ‘Maud Corning’ came from a set of 250 rhododendrons given to first director Warren Corning by Massachusetts hybridizer Charles Dexter in 1940.

well be called the Azalea Garden, where the evergreen azaleas predominate among other broadleaf evergreens and conifers. There is also a substantial planting of evergreen azaleas and large leaf rhododendrons in the Waterfall Garden.

On the south end of the Rhododendron Discovery Garden, the Florida flame azalea (Rhododendron austrinum) will explode into orangey, fragrant, honeysuckle-esque flowers in mid to late May. We were pleasantly surprised to find this Gulf Coast native species in full bloom in 2015 following temperatures below -20°F that winter. This is further evidence of southeastern US azalea species having migrated to glacial refugia in past ice ages. These species may have slowly moved to warmer places but retained cold hardiness traits from their ancestors. Consequently, most if not all the southern azaleas grow well at HF&G.

Just as the azaleas get their flower on, many of the large leaf rhododendrons join the party. The arboretum and Leach Station gardens showcase an immense collection of large leaf rhododendrons visitors seldom see in home landscapes. Shade of pink, purple, red, white and even orange and yellow abound — products of several decades of hybridizing both in Northeast Ohio and further afield. Our pride and joy ‘ Maud Corning’ will perfume the Layer Rhododendron Garden with its sweet, spicy scent often hitting you before you see the plant itself. At the botanical garden you can see several of the standard purple and pink-flowered rhododendrons commonly available at local nurseries. These are the triedand-true performers for our area collectively called Ironclads. Perhaps the largest rhododendron at the arboretum is also one of those Ironclads, ‘ Catawbiense Boursault.’ You can find it in the large bed to the north of Beech Knoll.

By the end of May, you will likely have seen mesh bags or hanging flags attached to various azaleas and rhododendrons. This is a sign of science at work — internal and external researchers regularly use the Rhododendron collection to further our knowledge about plant biology and horticulture. Just as spring is a hectic time for the horticulture staff, researchers are running mad through the gardens to ensure they visit their research plants in bloom.

While many of the azaleas and rhododendrons will carry into June, this month is when the rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) and its hybrids take command. Rosebay rhododendron is Ohio’s only native large leaf rhododendron, occurring most notably at Rhododendron Cove State Nature Preserve southeast of Columbus. It blooms late for a large leaf rhododendron, and that trait is passed on to its hybrids. At the Leach Station and on Beech Knoll, you might spot the curious “Red Max,” a naturally occurring red-flowered variation on Rhododendron maximum known originally from a few plants on Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina. At the botanical garden, Rhododendron maximum and its hybrids are also planted

Data’s Impact

Mary Salomon’s passion for research and science was evident during her years as a chemist at Lubrizol, which led her to develop patents and become a department head of data management. That passion serves her well in her volunteer role with the Research and Living Collections committee under the leadership of Dr. David Burke.

During a presentation to the committee by Dr. Juliana Mederios, a need for better data management systems at HF&G was identified.

“I know the value that this brings to an organization.” said Salomon. “And then I thought, well, who’s going to pay for it?” Salomon combined this unique interest supporting data management with a savvy way to donate. “There’s a way for older people where you can contribute money from an IRA and not have to pay taxes on it.” Salomon noted.

With more than 50 years of valuable breeding data and a manageable footprint, the David G. Leach Research Station was identified to pilot a data management and mapping project for HF&G. Salomon’s donation will provide for an intern as well as GPS equipment that will map the collection to down to 2-centimeter accuracy. The project will be of immediate assistance at the Leach station with the potential for global ramifications.

“There’s a lot of potential for impact. Immediately, it’s going to help me do my job more efficiently,” said Connor Ryan, Rhododendron Collections Manager. “We will also have the ability to eventually have all the information we collect at Leach in an accessible way that could live on the website. The potential is there for all kinds of scholarship in addition to the breeding work we do. We just have to get the word out there, and this project will allow us to do so.”

It all comes down to an equation. The right combination of organizational need, enthusiasm, savvy giving and timeliness could lead to a perfect solution for HF&G’s data management.

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sporadically along the steps down into the Japanese Garden and along the Woodland Garden outer path.

For many rhododendrons, you can enjoy their foliage year-round. In spring, I love to see the contrast between the foliage and flowers. While exploring at the arboretum, please do go off the main path up and down the rolling hills of the Layer Garden and Beech Knoll. You may stumble upon the bed of solely rhododendron species I like to call the “freaks and geeks” bed. All plants there are rhododendron species, meaning they occur naturally in the mountains and Forests of the Northern Hemisphere. Most plants there will have you reconsidering what you thought was a rhododendron. This bed gives you a glimpse into the incredible foliar diversity of the genus and our future aspirations for the rhododendron gardens as we build up the plant conservation and scientific research components of the collection.

At the arboretum, you can also view rhododendrons around Blueberry Pond, in the Wildflower Garden and just outside the arboretum Visitors Center. They also are subtly planted in seemingly every outdoor space at the botanical garden — you just have to look.

Enjoy these spaces at your own leisure or come to one of our spring tours and open days. Field Station Specialist Jing Wang and I will be hosting open houses at the David G. Leach Research Station in May. The station is seldom open to the public, so

At the arboretum, drifts of evergreen azaleas carry you through the Eliot and

in

Rhododendron

this is your opportunity to see one of HF&G’s hidden gems and learn about the important work we do. At the arboretum, Horticulturists Mary Lineberger and MaryAnn Thesing and I will also be leading a tour through the Helen S. Layer Rhododendron Garden near the end of the month.

Spring is a wonderful time to enjoy one of our largest and most valuable collections and the rest HF&G has to offer. The plants mentioned here are just scratching the surface. We hope to see you here!

Furthering our Research

Leach Research Station has a collection of over 1,400 rhododendrons developed and used by our rhododendron breeding program throughout the last 50+ years. Through the help of a generous gift from Mary Salomon, we are beginning to map this collection and organize our breeding data into a more user-friendly format. We have hired an intern, Phil Sturm, to assist with the project. The project will allow him to practice skills learned during and after college while creating something useful for us. Through Mary’s support, we will be able to generate a map and dataset comprised of all the plants at the station and everything we know about them. This will make our operations at the station much more efficient and allow us to make the Leach collection more front-facing. The more people know about the collection, the more potential there is for collaboration, scholarship and sharing.

MEET THE STAFF

Connor Ryan is the Rhododendron Collections Manager at Holden Forests & Gardens, which means he has a hand in all things rhododendron at HF&G. Prior to coming to Holden, he earned a bachelor’s degree in Plant Science from Auburn University and a master’s degree in Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics from the University of Georgia. In the growing season, he can most frequently be found at Holden’s David G. Leach Research Station, where he leads an ornamental plant breeding program and stewards a vast collection of named and unnamed rhododendron hybrids. Connor started at Holden in spring 2019.

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Linda Paine Discovery Garden May. A favorite from the late, local nurseryman Anthony Shammarello, ‘Elsie Lee’ pushes bluish-lavender, semidouble flowers in mid-late May. ‘Elsie Lee’ can be found at the arboretum, botanical garden, and research station. The evergreen azalea ‘Helen Curtis’ is among the many evergreen azaleas that fill the Japanese Garden at Cleveland Botanical Garden. The Japanese Garden is the top rhododendron and azalea viewing area at the botanical garden, though you can find them throughout the grounds.
Visit the Garden Store at Cleveland Botanical Garden and the Treehouse Store at the Holden Arboretum. Check holdenfg.org for store hours. Find unique botanical gifts at the Garden and Treehouse Stores.

A World Under Glass

Discover plant life from two vastly different environments at the Cleveland Botanical Garden.

Imagine living in a place for 11 straight months without seeing a drop of rain. What would it feel like? What would you need to survive? Now imagine being stuck in one position without being able to move. There are no permanent rivers, ponds or streams, and it may rain only once or twice a year. These are the desolate environmental conditions that have shaped the plants of the Madagascar spiny forest, a thin band of habitat along the southwest shore of the island located off the southeast coast of Africa. The flora and fauna of Madagascar are so unique, it is often referred to as the world’s eighth continent.

Now, in your mind, fly to University Circle and the Cleveland Botanical Garden. If you’ve never visited, the garden is anchored by the towering Eleanor Armstrong Smith glasshouse, which is divided into two distinct biomes that tell the story of how climate shapes the plants that grow in a place. Step into the main entrance and you will be transported to southwestern Madagascar, the driest part of the mini continent. The towering cliffs represent an oasis at Isalo National Park. Look up and you’ll see tropical looking screw pines (Pandanus spp.) and traveler’s palms (Ravenella spp.) But quickly, you’ll notice rocky outcrops and the scraggly, thorny plants making a hardscrabble life growing in nooks of soil. As you continue, you’ll slowly journey southwest to the coast, reaching the driest part of the continent that is the Madagascar spiny forest.

The spiny forest is well named — many of the plants are covered with very sharp, strong spines that would bloody anyone that tried to venture through. Unlike the tropical Costa Rica glasshouse next door, the Madagascar forest is harsh. Beautiful is a word rarely used to describe it, and some may call it bland and devoid of color at best. Human beings are naturally uncomfortable in this type of environment. But when you visit, please live in that discomfort for a bit and explore your surroundings. Imagine how difficult it is for organic beings to persist in such a harsh, dry place. I guarantee you will find wonder and magic when you stop, think and take in the exotic plants around you.

Despite its dryness, this community isn’t a sparsely vegetated desert. Both in nature and in the glasshouse, the spiny forest is surprisingly full of many rare and unusual plants that have incredible adaptations to help them survive. When it does rain, the plants burst with life, and the glasshouse is surprisingly green and lush in early summer. But in the long interludes without water,

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Madagascar Palm Pachypodium lemerii - Flower Madagascar Palm Pachypodium lemerii - Whole Tree

adaptive structures like pachycaul trunks, succulent leaves and reduced leaves help the plants stave off desiccation.

Perhaps the most easily spotted tree with a pachycaul (literally “thick stem”) trunk is the Madagascar palm (Pachypodium lamerei). Spines cover every part of the plant except the leaves and flowers. The trunk is noticeably thickened, serving as a reservoir of water during dry times. In the upper reaches, antler-like ascending branches support sizable clusters of white, fragrant flowers — it’s one of the few showy plants in the glasshouse. For most of the year, it is leafless, but it makes up for this by carrying out photosynthesis in its trunk and branches. While called a palm, it’s a member of the dogbane family (Apocynaceae).

Another adaptation to avoid water loss is to have leaves with waxy coatings and thickened, fleshy, water storing tissue. While Aloe vera (a scientific name everyone can learn!) may be a familiar plant, did you know that some Aloes of this forest keep growing upwards and form single-stemmed trees? It’s an excellent specimen of vahombre, the indigenous name for the Madagascar tree aloe (Aloe vaombe), which can be seen near the east wall of the glasshouse, growing up and supported by a Madagascar palm. As it reaches upward, its old leaves senesce but stay attached to the stem, hiding it by a long tower of stacked, withered leaves.

Our final endemic is member of the genus Didierea. Many of these plants have the word “octopus” in their common names because they have large, cactus-like stems that reach up from the ground like massive tentacles. Be on the lookout for the

MEET THE STAFF

octopus plant, Didierea trollii. Its trunk branches into two arms that twist laterally. When growing with other individuals in the wild, the landscape looks somewhat like the twisting necks of the nine-headed hydra of ancient Greece. The Octopus plant has deciduous, reduced leaves that are protected by long, strong and really sharp spines.

These are but three of the nearly 100 plant taxa, many of which are threatened with extinction, that call the glasshouse home. While some like the Madagascar palm are widely available in the horticultural trade, others remain rarely propagated. Unfortunately, Madagascar is one of the least economically developed countries in the world, and the people practice subsistence slash and burn methods, which destroy this rare habitat as it is converted to grazing land.

Holden Forests & Gardens is one of only two organizations in the world that exhibit plants from the Madagascar spiny forest in a glasshouse. While the collection was assembled primarily for educational purposes, there is great potential to acquire additional specimens through collaboration with other gardens so that it can truly serve a conservation purpose. Our advantage is that we house the plants in a climate-controlled glasshouse, allowing us to adapt to a changing climate and manipulate the environment in which they are housed.

I invite you to explore the Madagascar glasshouse during your next visit. The unique shapes, textures and patterns and incredible stories of plant survival from a harsh, faraway land are truly fascinating.

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Tom Arbour is the Curator of Living Collections at Holden Forests & Gardens. He guides the acquisition and documentation of more than 20,000 plants and trees at Cleveland Botanical Garden and the Holden Arboretum. Tom has been working with rare plants and trees professionally for over 20 years while exploring Ohio’s highest quality natural areas. Vahombre, Aloe vaombe Madagascar Palm Pachypodium lemerii - Trunk Tom Arbour and Didierea trollii

Caretakers of the Plants

Community science volunteers help HF&G researchers explore the impacts of warming on spring phenology in our forests.

On a cool March day, I find myself standing in Bole Woods at the Holden Arboretum. Above me tower 100-year-old beech and maple trees, their branches still bare from the winter chill. Below me, tiny shoots of green poke through the damp brown ground. This is what I’m here for — I am on the hunt for the first signs of spring. I crouch and gently rifle through the frosty leaf litter, spying my target — the curly, mottled leaf of a young trout lily. Delighted, I use a numbered metal stake to mark my quarry and call to my

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companion to record the stake number and date. This trout lily has become one of over 2,500 spring ephemeral wildflowers the Stuble Community Ecology lab is monitoring to track the effects of global warming on plant communities.

We are specifically monitoring plant phenology, or the timing of annually occurring life history events like leaf emergence and flowering. In our case, we’re monitoring the phenology of some of Ohio’s most iconic spring wildflowers: trillium, trout

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Community scientist volunteers and high school intern collecting spring phenology data in 2019.

lily, squirrel corn and Dutchman’s breeches. These wildflowers take advantage of high light levels in the forest understory during the spring before the trees overhead have leafed out. We also monitor the forest canopy to see when leaves first appear and how quickly the canopy closes. To do this, the Stuble lab and a team of community science volunteers trek through the early vernal chill to observe and record the dates that spring wildflowers emerge, flower, and drop their seed. Additionally, we monitor how fast overstory trees put on leaves using a camera with a special fisheye lens to take pictures of the forest canopy.

Plant phenology is very responsive to environmental cues, including temperature and light availability. Since the 1890s, spring temperatures have increased by about 2°F, and the timing of spring life history events (including flowering and leaf out) have consistently advanced over this time. In fact, shifts in spring phenology have been some of the earliest evidence that

even modest levels of warming are likely to cause important impacts in our forests and other ecosystems. Places like arboreta and botanical gardens can be key in the study of plant responses to warming. By maintaining collections representing huge diversity of plants from around the world and also protecting native ecosystems into perpetuity, public gardens ensure that the same plants can be observed year after year.

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We are specifically monitoring plant phenology, or the timing of annually occurring life history events like leaf emergence and flowering.
Within the Holden Arboretum’s Bole
Woods, monitoring spring wildflowers and the forest canopy can clue us in to important ecosystem shifts due to climate change.
A trout lily (Erythronium americanum) flower. A great white trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) flower being visited by a Halictid bee.

This allows us to track things like plant phenology through time to understand incremental changes in response to changes in environmental cues like temperature. This work is further aided by a ready and willing team of volunteers (community scientists) who help us with regular checks of these plants.

Within the Holden Arboretum’s Bole Woods, monitoring spring wildflowers and the forest canopy can clue us in to important ecosystem shifts due to climate change. Not only can we observe how spring wildflower and forest canopy phenology is changing independently, but we can also observe how these changes are interacting. Because spring wildflowers rely on high light availability while the canopy is still open, seemingly small changes in the timing of canopy leaf out could have significant consequences for spring wildflowers’ ability to do things like photosynthesize and accumulate resources. With data on wildflower and forest canopy phenology, we can ask questions like: Are spring wildflowers and the forest canopy responding to changes in temperature and weather in the same way? Does each species of spring wildflower respond in the same way? Do shifts in the timing of canopy closure mean wildflowers will have more or less time in the sun throughout the spring transition? Answering these questions can help us better understand the threat of climate warming to plant persistence, and identify which species are most at risk.

The Holden Arboretum and the Cleveland Botanical Gardens are the perfect places to observe plant phenology because of our diverse collections and natural areas. If you’re curious to observe plant phenology for yourself this spring, try visiting the Holden Arboretum’s Myrtle S. Holden Wildflower Garden. Here, you will see gorgeous spring ephemerals like bloodroot and mayapple, along with our friends trout lily, trillium and squirrel corn. Alternatively, the Pierson Creek Valley trail will get you into our forests to enjoy these species in the wild. Try coming several times throughout the spring to see when each species emerges and flowers, and observe how the timing of these events coincide with leaf-out in the canopy. If you’re really keen, take notes and plan a trip for the same time next year to see how phenology changes annually in response to different spring temperatures. Observing how our world is changing with warming can help us to better understand the importance of taking steps to address climate change. By supporting Holden Forests & Gardens, you help to support work understanding, addressing, and mitigating the impacts of climate warming.

MEET THE STAFF

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Emma Dawson-Glass and Katie Stuble are members of HF&G’s Research Department where Emma serves as a Research Specialist and Katie serves as the Research Chair and Community Ecologist. They study forest health and resilience in the face of climate change and other emerging pressures in forests at HF&G and beyond.
FEATURE
A Bole Woods phenology plot in early March before spring wildflowers have emerged. Each numbered stake marks an individual spring wildflower we are tracking. Stakes are marked with pink tape to make sure we are able to see all of the stakes during surveys.

Great places to search for spring wildflowers at HF&G:

Holden Arboretum

Bole Woods Loop

Helen S. Layer Rhododendron Garden

Myrtle S. Holden Wildflower Garden

Pierson Creek Valley Trail

Cleveland Botanical Garden

Hershey Children’s Garden

Woodland Garden

Behind the Scenes

The Bole Woods Spring Phenology Project is only possible through the generous help of HF&G’s dedicated team of volunteers. Initiated in 2018, our team of community science volunteers has diligently trekked into Bole Woods to collect data on the forest’s spring wildflowers and trees three times a week from March through June every spring for the past six years. Through unexpectedly warm spring days and late-season snow, these determined volunteers help us watch how spring progresses every year. Over the past six years, the work of these community scientists

has revealed huge flexibility in the timing of spring events in the forest, which they’ve shown to shift two to three weeks based on the average spring temperature of the year. Their continued support will help us to further elucidate these patterns in the coming years.

Interested in working with the Stuble lab on their Bole Woods Phenology monitoring project? Email volunteer@holdenfg.org and specify you are interested in working on this project for more information on getting involved.

SPRING 2023 17 FEATURE
Trillium grandiflorum Trout Lilies, Pierson Creek Squirrel corn (Dicentra canadensis) flowers

Conserving Diversity in Crabapples

Crabapples are popular ornamental trees. They feed pollinators and harbor essential genetic diversity for modern apple breeding. Learn more about the genetic diversity, microbiome diversity and pollinator diversity of crabapples at Holden.

Crabapple genetic diversity

Crabapples are important members of the rose family. Many crabapples are cultivated as ornamental trees or rootstocks. The Holden Arboretum hosts a valuable collection of crabapple cultivars and wild species, as part of the long-term National Crabapple Evaluation Project (NCEP) plots established since the 1980s. There are 40 different crabapple cultivars and species in the NCEP plot at Holden. Many of these crabapples are museum trees now, which are important genetic resources that are only present at botanical gardens and arboreta.

Using molecular tools, we provide the first demonstration of the genetic diversity in our crabapple collections. Holden’s 2022 summer research intern, Maris Hollowell, worked with Dr. Wei to extract DNA from these crabapples and decipher their genetic relatedness and diversity. Maris presented this work at the 2022 SEARCH symposium. The research is supported by a Global Botanic Garden Fund from the Botanic Gardens Conservation International for the purpose of integrated diversity conservation in crabapples.

18 FORESTS & GARDENS

Crabapple microbiome diversity

Crabapples host diverse microbes. These microbes influence tree health and disease resistance. Holden’s 2021 Norweb Fellow, Jessica LaBella, isolated fungi from crabapple leaves and found that the apple scab fungus is very common in our crabapple collections. Supported by a Corliss Knapp Engle Scholarship in Horticulture from the Garden Club of America, LaBella presented the work at the 2021 SEARCH symposium. We also found that some crabapples are more resistant than others. We are evaluating the microbiomes of resistant vs. susceptible crabapples using DNA sequencing. This assessment is a critical step for our goal to harness microbiomes for disease resistance in crabapples.

Crabapple pollinator diversity

Flowering crabapples are essential food resources for pollinators. We observe pollinators that visit 93 crabapple trees at Holden Arboretum and 214 crabapple trees at Secrest Arboretum. We find that crabapples attract diverse pollinators, including honeybees, bumblebees, carpenter bees, mining bees, sweat bees, other bees, wasps, flies and butterflies. Bees are the dominant pollinators of crabapples, especially honeybees. Pollinators prefer crabapples that have a lot of flowers — especially white flowers compared to other flower colors.

Holden’s 2020 summer research intern, Miyauna Incarnato, conducted pollinator observations and presented the work at the 2020 SEARCH symposium. We are continuing our crabapple pollinator observations every year during the peak flowering season from late April to early May. This work is run by pollinator volunteers at Holden. Our 2022 crabapple pollinator team was lucky to have Dave Marble, Jennifer Ault, Patricia Collier and Trish Hannington. We are looking forward to working with more volunteers who are interested in pollinators.

“Crabapples are important for pollinators and humans,” says Wei. “We hope that our research on crabapples will benefit our society by training young scientists and advance our knowledge and effort in conserving biodiversity.”

MEET THE STAFF

Na Wei, PhD, is a Plant Biologist at Holden. She leads the evolutionary ecology and genomics lab. Her research program seeks to elucidate the mechanisms that influence plant adaptation to rapid environmental change. Her research tackles these grand questions using interdisciplinary approaches, integrating plant biology, microbial ecology, pollination biology, evolutionary biology, genetics, and genomics. Na received her PhD in ecology and evolutionary biology from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

SPRING 2023 19
FEATURE
Jessica LaBella Miyauna Incarnato Learn more about crabapple pollinator diversity on the next page.

Crabapple Pollinator Diversity

Learn about the importance of flowering crabapples and how they are essential food resources for pollinators.

We observed pollinators that visit 93 crabapple trees at Holden Arboretum and 214 crabapple trees at Secrest Arboretum. We found that crabapples attract diverse pollinators, and we will continue to observe them each year.

From our research, we observed that there are more honey bees at Secrest Arboretm and more mining bees at Holden Arboretum visiting crabapples.

Crabapple Flower Colors

White

Pink

Dark Red

Pollinators

Illustrations by Cameron Squire

20 FORESTS & GARDENS FEATURE
Honey bee Halictidae Bombus bimaculatus Colletidae/ Megachilidae Bombus griseocollis Small Black Bee Bombus impatiens Wasp Xylocopa virginica Fly Andrenidae Butterfly

Save the Date

Mark your calendar for these spring events.

CLEVELAND BOTANICAL GARDEN

MIDWEST CACTUS AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY SHOW & SALE

The Midwest Cactus and Succulent Society Annual Show and Sale will take place Saturday and Sunday March 25 & 26 at CBG. Registration is not required to attend. Please note this sale is cash or check only.

March 25 & 26, Open Hours

SPRING EGG HUNT

Make plans to join us for an eggceptionally fun day at the Cleveland Botanical Garden. New this year, there will be no official “start” time to the egg hunt. Eggs will be continually hidden all morning long. Once each hunter has received his/her 10 natural seed bomb eggs, they can retrieve their delicious prize at our candy station. Our seed bomb eggs are a great way to avoid plastic and encourage planting.

April 8, 9 a.m.-noon

Advance registration is required.

MOTHER’S DAY BRUNCH AND BOUTIQUE

May 14

(Brunch, 9 a.m.-noon)

(Boutique only in collaboration with Made Cleveland, 10 a.m.-4 p.m.) Registration required for brunch.

HOLDEN ARBORETUM

APOLLO’S FIRE

June 8, 9 & 10

Tickets will be made available in mid spring on the Apollo’s Fire website.

ROSE SHOW

June 17 & 18, Open Hours

ARTISANS AT THE ARBORETUM

Join artisans from Made Cleveland in this outdoor market-style event.

June 24 & 25, Open Hours

People for Trees in Year Three

Holden Forests & Gardens is entering the third year of our People for Trees™ campaign. We have made a commitment to have 15,000 new trees planted and cared for by the end of 2025.

Already, Northeast Ohio residents have given away, pledged and planted more than 10,000 trees. That’s amazing, but we still need more People for Trees to pledge and plant. Share your love of nature and invite a friend, neighbor and family member to join in the community-wide effort.

On the first day of Spring, March 20, we officially launched year three of the campaign and have a goal of 500 new pledges by Arbor Day, April 28.

Find out how people are getting involved.

22 FORESTS & GARDENS PEOPLE FOR THE TREES

My Planting Story

Iwas incredibly inspired by my tree planting experience with Holden’s Tree Corp and the Cuyahoga Metropolitan Housing Authority. My volunteer group from Magnificat High School was composed of students that have a passion for horticulture and serving others, and the planting was a formative learning experience for us. I was inspired by the communal environment and respect for the neighborhood’s residents as well as the educational aspect of the tree planting. The purpose of the planting — to improve the tree canopy and the health and wellbeing of the residents —was evident throughout my time spent with the volunteers. Everyone involved, regardless of experience, worked together and helped each other throughout every single step of planting the trees. I had conducted research on the low urban canopy cover in Cleveland and its intersectionality with racial and socioeconomic injustices, and I am incredibly grateful that I was able to participate in this act of hands-on, impactful service. This tree planting addressed and worked toward not only replenishing the tree canopy but also eliminating the injustices that stem from the low canopy cover in Central Cleveland.

Q: “How do trees impact your life?”

Trees provide me with health benefits and ecosystem services. Trees filter toxic chemicals from the air and water. Trees provide me with shade, and they are home to many of my favorite birds, animals and insects. Not only do trees benefit my physical health, but they also impact my mental health and well-being. Access to greenspace and the beauty of trees is a privilege that I am extremely grateful for. Specifically, I am able to experience the calming effects of trees at my nearest Cleveland Metroparks as well as at the Cleveland Botanical Gardens.

Q: “What was your group’s perspective on our Cuyahoga Metropolitan Housing Authority planting?” My group was made up of high school students, so many of us had no experience with planting trees. However, the CMHA planting’s atmosphere was incredibly encouraging and educational. No girl in my group went without a role or task in the process, and no one ever felt bored because we were all eager to give ourselves more work to do. From my perspective and from the feedback from many of the girls in my group, it was an amazing experience for us to get involved in our community and be part of real change. Additionally, this CMHA planting prompted a reestablished horticulture and service-based relationship between Magnificat High School’s Seeds of Service Club and Holden Forests & Gardens.

SPRING 2023 23 PEOPLE FOR THE TREES
Eva Miller

April 28

HELP US reach this year’s goal of $85,000.

Arbor Day is a national holiday where communities around the globe gather to celebrate trees and the important role that they play in our environment.

Holden Forests & Gardens has made Arbor Day our Day of Giving to encourage people to donate and support our tree research scientists and tree advocates.

This year’s goal is set at $85,000.

To help us along, HF&G supporter Roy Minoff has offered to match up to $25,000! We also have an anonymous donor

who is matching $5,000. That is $30,000 in matching gifts. By supporting Arbor Day of Giving, you are doubling the impact of your donation.

HF&G researchers and arboriculture team are working hard to mitigate the effects of climate change and improve the environment through valuable tree research, advocacy and tree planting programs. We need your help to work together so we can all make an impact on a healthier environment. In honor of Arbor Day and the work HF&G does for our community, please consider supporting the HF&G Arbor Day of Giving TODAY.

DEVELOPMENT

Ways to Give

Online, visit www.holdenfg.org

By check or respond to mailed request. Mail checks to: Holden Forests & Gardens

PO Box 74422 Cleveland, OH 44194-0002

Scan the QR code:

We encourage YOU to celebrate trees and the environment and GIVE BACK to our efforts to support urban greening and forestry initiatives, mission-oriented research, conservation and horticultural work, educational programming and world-class visitor experiences.

• Give online and it counts toward HF&G Arbor Day of Giving.

• Respond by mail before April 28.

We will celebrate YOU by offering free admission to both campuses and will be distributing free tree saplings to visitors, along with information about their proper planting and care.

Thank you for your support!

For more information, please contact Lynne Robie at lrobie@holdenfg.org or 216-707-2852.

MEET THE STAFF

Lynne Robie joined Holden Forests & Gardens in 2020 as the Annual Fund Manager and is based at the Cleveland Botanical Garden campus. She has been in the fundraising profession for over eight years, most recently as Development Officer at Cornerstone of Hope and prior to that Ronald McDonald House of Cleveland and Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. Before working in the nonprofit sector, Lynne spent 12 years in direct mail marketing. She took time off to raise her family, entered the world of fundraising and never looked back. Lynne is passionate about fundraising and managing the HF&G Annual Fund program and eagerly embraces the culture of philanthropy.

SPRING 2023 25 DEVELOPMENT
to Give
28
Day of Giving
When
April
Arbor

The Holden Arboretum is excited to announce it will open a new outdoor exhibit that will appeal to the kid in all of us. Sean Kenney’s Nature Connects Made with LEGO® Bricks features more than a dozen towering creations that will pop out of garden and trail landscapes creating a magical new world at the arboretum. Nature Connects opens Saturday, May 27 and runs through Monday, September 4, 2023.

Tickets will be sold in advance beginning May 13th at holdenfg.org.

The new exhibit brings some of nature’s most beloved flora and fauna to colorful life with 14 impressive sculptures built with simple toy blocks. As visitors explore the lush arboretum

Building Upon Nature

Sean Kenney’s Nature Connects Made with LEGO® Bricks opens May 27.

grounds, they will be greeted by a giant monarch butterfly, a gorgeous lily, a huge hummingbird pollinating a flower and nearly a dozen more delightful creations.

“We are delighted to bring this unique and playful exhibit to the Holden Arboretum and hope that folks will have fun exploring the grounds to find all 14 nature-inspired sculptures,” said Beth Kelly, Director of Guest Experience. “While many of artist Sean Kenney’s creations will stand out because of their enormous size or gravity-defying shapes, some will require keener observation skills!”

Sean Kenney is an award-winning artist who uses LEGO pieces as a medium for contemporary sculpture, portraiture and

26 FORESTS & GARDENS EVENTS

commercial art. He is recognized as one of the leading experts in the field and is a founding member of several global programs that aim to encourage and support this emerging art form.

Just as LEGO pieces interconnect, everything in nature is in a delicate balance. The narrative that accompanies the intricate displays will remind visitors of the importance of conservation, the balance of ecosystems, as well as the relationships between humankind and the natural world.

“We created sculptures that have thin flower petals, insect wings or antennae and legs. Making these giant sculptures sturdy enough was one of the biggest challenges I faced,” said Kenney. Balancing the delicate wispiness of nature with the sturdiness that’s required was quite a feat!”

Millions of people have visited Kenney’s exhibitions, he has authored nine children’s books and The LEGO Group collaborated with him as an official partner for 14 years. Kenney’s work has been acclaimed by The New York Times, PBS Arts, BBC Arts and Vogue, and he continues to create every day at his studio in Amsterdam.

Explore the beauty and wonder of Sean Kenney’s Nature Connects Made with LEGO ® Bricks, open Tuesdays through Sundays to the public from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. for a limited engagement through September 4. Tickets are available to purchase ahead of time at holdenfg.org, or at the Holden Arboretum.

MEET THE STAFF

Margaret Cook is the Communications Specialist for Holden Forests & Gardens. She focuses on creating and sharing visitation and mission-related content through social media and public relations. Margaret graduated from the University of Dayton with a bachelor of science degree in Business Administration with a major in Marketing. She grew up going to the Cleveland Botanical Garden with her family and has always had a passion for exploring and protecting the outdoors.

SPRING 2023 27 EVENTS

Natural Enrichment

This spring, plant a garden, nurture a tree, and learn how to compost with the help of our experts.

MARCH

March 23

Phenology for Gardeners (Jessica Burns)

4:30 – 6:30 p.m.

Virtual

Adult

$15 per member, $30 per non-member

March 28

Women’s History Month: Early 20th Century Field Guides (Jen Graham)

6:30 – 8 p.m.

Virtual

Adult

$10 per member, $25 per non-member

March 31

Wine & Cheese Night Hike (Dan Donaldson)

8 – 11 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$30 per member, $45 per non-member

April 8

Upcycling for the Earth! (Kristina Arthur)

9 – 11 a.m.

Holden Arboretum

Children, 3 – 5 years old with adult $25 per member, $40 per non-member (Price includes 1 adult and 1 child, $15 per additional child)

April 15

House Plant Extensive: Pests & Propagation (Deyampert Giles)

10:30 a.m. – Noon

Cleveland Botanical Garden

Adult

$30 per member, $45 per non-member

Stebbins Gulch: A Hike Through Geological History (Dan Best)

11:30 a.m. – 3:30 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$10 per member, $20 per non-member

April 20

Home-Scale Compost: From No Yard to Huge Yard (Rob Maganja & Jessica Burns)

1 – 4 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$35 per member, $50 per non-member

April 27

A Beginner’s Guide to Planting Trees (Nick Chilson)

1 – 3 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$25 per member, $40 per non-member

April 28

Wine & Cheese Night Hike (Dan Donaldson)

8 – 11 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$30 per member, $45 non-members

April 29

Franken-Plants! Grafting 101 (Danny Wylie)

10 – 11:30 a.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$25 per member, $40 per non-member

Plant ID: Session 1 (Alexandra Faidaga)

1 – 3 p.m.

Cleveland Botanical Garden

Adult

$50 per member, $65 per non-member (Price includes a follow-up session on May 5)

APRIL MAY

April 1

House Plant Basics (Deyampert Giles)

10:30 a.m. – Noon

Cleveland Botanical Garden

Adult

$30 per member, $45 per non-member

April 22

Lettuce Plant a Garden! (Sandi Cesarov & Sommer Tolan)

10 – 11 a.m.

Holden Arboretum

Children, ages 4 – 7 years with adult $20 per member, $35 per non-member (Price includes 1 child and 1 adult, $15 per additional child)

May 5

Plant ID: Session 2 (Alexandra Faidiga)

1 – 3 p.m.

Cleveland Botanical Garden

Adult (See April 29 for pricing)

28 FORESTS & GARDENS
EDUCATION

May 12

Mother’s Day Make & Take: Hand-Tied Garden Bouquets (Lorinda Laughlin)

1 – 2:30 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$60 per member, $75 per non-member

May 13

Grow Great Vegetables with Author Bevin Cohen

10:30 a.m. – Noon

Cleveland Botanical Garden

Adult

$30 per member, $45 per non-member

May 14

Spring Blossoms Tour (Connor Ryan)

10 – 11:30 a.m.

Leach Research Station

Adult

$20 per member, $35 per non-member

Leach Research Station Open House

Noon – 1:30 pm, 2 – 3:30 p.m.,

4 – 5:30 p.m.

Leach Research Station

Families

$10 per member, $15 per non-member

May 20

Beginner Bonsai (MaryAnn Thiesing & Danny Wylie)

10 a.m. – noon

Holden Arboretum

Adult, children 12 and over with adult* $120 per member, $135 per non-member (*Adults accompanying children do not need to register)

Magnificence on the Mountain Hike (Dan Best)

11:30 a.m. – 3 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$10 per member, $20 per non-member

May 23

Rhododendron Walking Tour

3:30 – 5 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult, children 12 and over with adult $10 per member, $25 per nonmember

May 26

Wine & Cheese Night Hike (Dan Donaldson)

8 – 11 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$30 per member, $45 non-members

May 27

Spring Blossoms Tour (Connor Ryan)

10 – 11:30 a.m.

Leach Research Station

Adult

$20 per member, $35 per non-member

Leach Research Station Open House

Noon – 1:30 pm, 2 – 3:30 p.m., 4 – 5:30 p.m.

Leach Research Station

Families

$10 per member, $15 per non-member

JUNE

June 4

Fundamentals of Pruning Trees & Shrubs (Rob D)

1 – 2 p.m.

Cleveland Botanical Garden

Adult

$20 per member, $35 per non-member

June 17

Stebbins Gulch: A Hike Through Geological History (Dan Best)

11:30 a.m. – 3:30 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult

$10 per member, $20 per non-member

Firefly Foray (Carly Martin)

8 – 11 p.m.

Holden Arboretum

Adult, children 12 and over with adult $35 per member, $50 per non-member

See a class you’d like to attend? Find more information and register at holdenfg.org.

SPRING 2023 29 EDUCATION

AND PROGRAMS

Meet Our Scientists

This year’s Scientist Lecture Series will feature research projects taking place at our Long Science Center. These lectures are open to the public and FREE.

Spring ephemeral wildflowers and their vulnerability to climate change

Thursday, May 25

11 a.m.-Noon, Reinberger Classroom, Corning Visitor Center Ben Lee, Ph.D.

MEET DR. BEN LEE

Dr. Ben Lee is a postdoctoral research fellow currently working at Holden Forests & Gardens, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the University of Pittsburgh. He was awarded his PhD in 2020 from the University of Michigan, where he studied the effects of climate change on the recruitment of deciduous tree species in temperate forests. Dr. Lee continues to research the myriad effects on temperate forest communities and, in particular, understory wildflower species. His current research project at Holden investigates the role of climate change in shaping plant-fungal symbioses through the use of 120-year-old herbarium specimens collected across eastern North America.

Ecology, history and cultural knowledge working together to better understand the future of forests in the face of climate change

Friday, June 23

11 a.m-Noon, Reinberger Classroom, Corning Visitor Center

Hector Ortiz, Ph.D.

MEET HECTOR ORTIZ

Hector Ortiz is originally from Sonora, Mexico. He has a bachelor’s degree in Biotechnology, with a focus on agronomy, agroecology, and botany. In Mexico after finishing his Master’s in Natural Resources and Arid Environments, Hector worked as consultant conservation scientist for the Agave program and leader of the plant pathology program of the National Institute of Research in Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock in northwest Mexico. After moving from Mexico to the US he was intern of the Conservation and Land Management Program of the Chicago Program of the Chicago Botanic Garden, and stations at the Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. He completed his PhD in Wildlife and Wildlands Conservation at Brigham Young University, and currently works as a postdoctoral scientist at the Holden Arboretum.

The Effects of Floral Traits on Plant-Pollinator Interactions

Friday, July 28

11 a.m.-Noon, Reinberger Classroom, Corning Visitor Center

Rainee Kaczorowski, Ph.D.

From ants and seeds to botanical gardens and climate change: the story of an ecologist’s evolution

Thursday, August 24

11 a.m.-Noon, Reinberger

30
CLASSES
FORESTS & GARDENS

9500 Sperry Road

Kirtland, Ohio 44094

holdenfg.org

Forests & Gardens is the member magazine for Holden Forests & Gardens, which includes the Holden Arboretum in Kirtland and the Cleveland Botanical Garden in Cleveland.

MISSION: Holden Forests & Gardens connects people with the wonder, beauty, and value of trees and plants, to inspire action for healthy communities

VISION: All communities transformed into vibrant places where trees, plants, and people thrive ©Holden Forests & Gardens

“Holden Forests & Gardens” and the related logo is a trademark owned by The Holden Arboretum.

9550 SPERRY ROAD, KIRTLAND, OHIO 44094

HOLDENFG.ORG

440.946.4400

HOURS

TUESDAY - SUNDAY: 9AM - 5PM

MONDAY: CLOSED

For updates, visit holdenfg.org

11030 EAST BLVD, CLEVELAND, OHIO 44106 HOLDENFG.ORG

216.721.1600

HOURS

TUESDAY- SATURDAY: 10AM - 5PM

SUNDAY: NOON - 5PM

MONDAY: CLOSED

For updates, visit holdenfg.org

@cbgarden @holdenarb @cbgarden @holdenarboretum @clegarden @holden_arb Newsletter holdenfg.org
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