Her Majesty the Queen
Patron's Foreword ≥
IN MARCH EVERY YEAR I am chivvied by Wasfi to give birth to the Foreword. By about the fifth Festival in 2002 I was finding it increasingly difficult not to be repetitive. The celebration of Her Majesty’s Diamond Jubilee has at least solved this problem this year by allowing me to recall Coronation Day. My brother and I were seated in a stand at the bottom of St James’ Street by Pall Mall along which the procession itself came towards us. To get there, we walked from Cadagon Place where the flat I shared was overrun with extra people who had needed a place for the night. The rain was incessant and by the time we arrived in St James’ my shoes were sodden. It rained all day as far as I can remember. But the excited buzz was that Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing had reached the summit of Everest and planted their flag there – the first time anyone could do so. My father and mother were dry-footed in the Abbey and missed most of the weather. The procession was on a scale that could not possibly be matched today with the much reduced number of naval, military and air-force personnel now available. I think I remember the Queen of Tonga, a lady of ample dimensions, sitting in an open carriage filling both seats. A random search for events in 1952, the year Her Majesty ascended the throne, brought up Joan Sutherland joining the Covent Garden Opera company at a starting salary of £10 per week; Albert Einstein refusing the Presidency of Israel; the last of the amazing London fogs – when you could stand under a street light and be unable to actually see it above – just a pea-soup coloured fog which gave these smogs their name; and the first flight of the world’s first jet airliner – the British de Havilland Comet. We are certainly lucky that the young Princess who was crowned that day is still on her throne and has come to represent a continuity and with it a wisdom and dignity that has earned her the affection of her subjects through some difficult times. Our Monarchy can rarely have been in such a popular position at any time before. The landscape is one of the subjects which has appeared fairly often in my forewords. The new grass round
the grange itself is the result of our entering the High Level Stewardship Scheme, which throughout the estate requires significant changes. The rather sketchy nature of the crop of rape beyond the grass is the result of an assault by sometimes uncontrollable little slugs about the length of a finger nail. This pest is attacked with slug pellets but there can be a moment when the cost of these gets too high to pursue repeatedly. It is like pushing water uphill. The weather is another favourite topic. It is of course responsible to a great extent for what the surroundings look like, and of course the total experience of visitors to each festival in terms of clothing. Picnics eaten in overcoats or under umbrellas do not really work unless a significant number of corks can be popped early on while gumboots certainly obscure a well-turned ankle. The weather as I write is monsoon-like – the wettest drought in anyone’s memory but the result of three dry seasons is very noticeable in the pathetic flow of the Candover Brook and, therefore, the depth of water in the lakes. This foreword gives me an opportunity to congratulate Wasfi, her comrades and everyone who is enthused by her to bring each Festival into existence. As Sir Francis Drake wrote to Sir Francis Walsingham at the Admiralty in 1587: “There must be a beginning of any great matter but the continuing unto the end until it be thoroughly finished yields the true glory”. .You will not be surprised that when each Festival is “thoroughly finished” a very well-deserved relaxation is needed by everyone involved. The book that is being produced about The Grange and its inhabitants was not my idea. My brother, Robin and I did however make available any papers or other materials which would help to make it accurate, in so far as history can ever be more than the interpretation of individual critical – and all too often prejudiced – views. We were shown the draft text and commented freely and in a few cases very firmly. I am happy to say that the writing of Richard Osborne brought an admirable concise clarity to the telling of the story. I found out a lot about the early years, particularly before my great-great-greatgrandfather bought it in 1817, fascinating. But here we are 195 years later and I cannot imagine a better use for the building.
Sally and I look forward to being around a lot during the Festival and I am, as always, confident that we shall all enjoy ourselves enormously. Ashburton
WE’VE ALL GOT TO KNOW one another a lot better during these 15 years. Grange Park Opera began in a Golden Age and has become a family affair. Families are strong and stick together in times of austerity. Ticket sales have held up. It isn’t altogether surprising that patterns of donations, however, have changed and there has been a 15% drop in unearned income.
Q&As with some prisoners who were in our project. We are back there next March. If you want to know more, or come to dinner, or come to the 2013 show email prison@ grangeparkopera.co.uk
In hard times everyone is trying to help the people having the hardest time.
At Nevill Holt we have come to the end of a chapter. We arrived there 10 years back and David Ross had just completed his magnificent renovations. 2012 will be the last year for Grange Park Opera at Nevill Holt.
A couple of months after the Strangeways riot in 1990 (UK prison pop 44,975) my new little opera company, Pimlico Opera, performed in a prison for the first time. The next year was the first collaboration, with prisoners being drilled full–time to put on a show: Sweeney Todd. Strange choice. We have been in prison every year since 1990. That is a long stretch.
In 2013 David will broaden the festival offering more variety: opera and other forms of music, art, sculpture, and there will be some significant changes to the garden showcasing what is new in horticulture. The ambition is to present extraordinary, cutting-edge talent and keep the festival fresh. It has been a wonderful decade and David has been most generous. Chapeau!
Today the prison population is 85,000. Whatever happens to people when they are in prison dictates whether they might do something laudable with the rest of their lives. The office home team put themselves out hugely to make these projects happen. One of Helen’s tasks is to contact and organise prisoner families to come to see their son/brother/friend in the show. It sounds simple – believe me it is not. This year it was our debut in Wiltshire. We were nervous of HMP Erlestoke – not the prisoners – but the audience. Would there be an audience? Padraig Fallon and High Sheriff Robert Hiscox came riding to the rescue. It sold out and on the first night the Duchess of Cornwall was in the audience. Afterwards she talked to every member of the cast. Chapeau! A governor’s vision for his prison is a matter of make or break. He holds in his hands the future of his inmates. Andrew Rogers’ prison has men serving the latter part of long sentences. There is a long waiting list for his therapeutic wing that addresses problems of addiction, anger, violent crime. He also has a catering training unit and the food is excellent We are giving a series of dinners (no alcohol) in Mr Rogers’ prison. The evening includes
≥ There is much to celebrate and anticipate at Grange Park: Bryn Terfel as the milkman Tevye in Fiddler on the Roof, Simon Keenlyside in Hamlet, and more Wagner: Rheingold and possibly Walküre (harder to cast). Meanwhile, we continue to try to help young people [outside prison]. x Artists at a crux point are given scholarships (more than 40 since 2008) to pay for their expensive coachings/lessons. x 90 free performance seats – Musical Chairs – were given to young people who otherwise could not afford the opera. Many are music students. x Another 100 were given to schools. x We have 671 Meteor members (under–35s). We want them to get the opera bug and they buy discounted tickets.
≥ We receive not a penny of state funding so your help is, in a word, essential. Listed on the following pages are the many seeing us through this Austerity Age. I get into terrible trouble for naming individuals and I am guilty of many sins of omission.
photo credit Richard Loader
Chapeaux! Michael Spencer and ICAP, Vitaly & Frederic and Gazprom, John & Anya Sainsbury, David & Amanda Leathers, William Garrett chairman, Hamish & Sophie Forsyth, James & BĂŠatrice Lupton, Joanna Lumley, Anthony & Carolyn Townsend And a Chapeau de plumes for John & Sally Ashburton
The Queue for the Khazi Lexicographer Eric Partridge derives khazi, also spelt karzy, kharsie or carzey, from a Cockney word carsey originating in the late 19th century and meaning a privy. It is presumably also derived from the Italian casa for house, with the spelling influenced by its similar sound to khaki. WE OPERA–LOVERS HAVE BEEN queuing for the khazi for what feels like many years now, and nobody is going to shed nostalgic tears at the news that Wasfi and Michael have been scouting alternatives to the large green bush-thunderboxes. We all wonder what she has in mind. An opera house resembles an abbey in that the strict timetable dictates that our needs occur simultaneously. At Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire, the choir monks had facilities on the east side of the river Skell, while the lay brethren went on two floors in the middle of the river. When the lavatories were modernised in the 12th century, engineers changed the course of the river by twenty-six metres. The Itchen flowing out of Alresford pond is five miles from Grange Park. Schoolboys delight in lavatorial humour. Adult lavatorial humour, which schoolboys regard as inferior, often takes the form of speculation about the appropriate euphemism. We all know that these words vary by region and with the style of the speaker, but can that Oxford scout really have woken his undergraduate charge with “Morning Sir, dreadful storm in the night; flooded out the scouts’ bogs, the undergraduates’ lavatories, and the dons’ toilets”?
Vespasienne des Halles
Many societies have been less prudish than ours about excretory functions. Until quite recently an English tourist travelling in the French provinces, on asking politely for the nearest facility, met astonishment from the country people and a remark like, “Mais Monsieur, vous avez toute la France”. Incidentally, don’t talk of a pissoir unless you wish to amuse or embarrass the natives. They say urinoir, or coyly, if the contrivance is for female use, urinette. Some French courtiers at the time of Louis XIV received visits on the commode, as if to assert, from a sitting position, their superior standing. After 1682, when the court moved to Versailles, all the French nobility, as well as the officers of government, and their servants, many thousands of people, had to make do with commodes or potties or the bushes, because the vast chateau had no more of a fixed facility than the cave where Robert the Bruce saw the spider. The English court sounds more evolved, though it wasn’t necessarily more comfortable. At Hampton Court Palace, a hundred and fifty years earlier, Henry VIII’s courtiers had an enormous communal lavatory with double rows, back to back, on two floors, called the Great House of
Easement. The King himself understandably preferred a close stool, an enormous commode lined with black velvet. Elizabeth I had a flushing closet installed in Richmond Palace, as invented by her godson, Sir John Harington, but was said to be too nervous to use it. Private enterprise, in this matter so common in public, was impeded in Russia in 1699 by Peter the Great’s decree making it a punishable offence to throw sewage into the street. The fact that Tchaikovsky may well have died of Asiatic cholera resulting from the insanitary conditions in St Petersburg illustrates the serious side of this whole matter. Experts say that in Russia alone the epidemic killed three million people. A cholera epidemic – the milder European version of the disease – in Vienna at around the time of Mozart’s death explains his burial so far from home. The important improvements came slowly. The water trap, discreetly preventing the escape of sewage gases, was developed in the 1780s by Scottish watchmaker and inventor Alexander Cummings, who became a Fellow of the Royal Society. However, much of the work to improve and popularise the design was performed by - and this is the moment when we need to have firm control of the schoolboy lurking in us all - Thomas Crapper. The name of the famous maker of sanitary fixtures appeared on lavatory tanks across the Empire and has tempted many into a false etymology. The four-letter word derives probably from the Middle English crappe, meaning grain which has been trodden underfoot, or chaff. From here it came, in the 19th century, to mean rubbish or nonsense. Many texts illustrate the difficulties, particularly for women, of attending public functions like plays or church services before the end of the 19th century. Pepys’s entry for 5th September 1667 talks of a little problem at the theatre: My wife was ill, and so I was forced to go out of the house with her to Lincoln’s Inn walks, and there in a corner she did her business, and was by and by well, and so into the house again, but sick of their ill acting. John Aubrey’s Life of Sir William Fleetwood, Recorder of the City of London from 1571 to 1591, consists largely of a story
of a similar embarrassment: One day goeing on foote to Guild-hall with his Clarke behind him, he was surprised in Cheapside with a sudden and violent Loosenesse, neer the Standard. He turned up his breech against the Standard and bade his man hide his face; For they shall never see my Arse again, sayd he. French women needed help during the uncommonly long sermons of the Jesuit Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704) and the bourdaloue, a tiny narrow chamber pot designed to be hidden under the skirts, evolved to meet their needs. Some think the word may be the origin of the genteel British euphemism, the loo, but the OED says the jury’s still out on that. In Paris in the 1840s the French unveiled the vespasienne, soon to be regarded by the impious British as totemic. This charming and exotic euphemism, used also for public lavatories in Italy and Romania, derives from the Flavian emperor’s tax on urine used in the tanning industry. The vespasiennes in Paris have been gradually superseded by underground facilities and by the sanisette, a high-tech box, which an imaginative person may fear contains whirring machinery, and where only the most intrepid dare tread, never mind think of lowering the costume. We don’t doubt that Wasfi and Michael will have been off to the latest World Toilet Summit & Expo, an event hosted each year by the World Toilet Organisation, but will they have decided on some of the new high-tech uber-toilets, featuring in-seat warmer/coolers (for those hot summer nights), male and female water jets, an in-bowl light, a USB port for connecting mp3 players, not to mention a wi-fi connection? If she has, we’ll be queuing well into the following act. Michael Fontes
ICAP plc Gazprom Marketing & Trading Country Houses Foundation The Linbury Trust Hamish & Sophie Forsyth Anthony & Carolyn Townsend Anonymous David & Amanda Leathers Franรงois Freyeisen & Shunichi Kubo Francis & Nathalie Phillimore Sarah & Tony Bolton William Garrett Rosenblatt Recitals James Hudleston Malcolm Herring Caroline & Geoffrey de Jager Mr & Mrs Richard Morse Elm Capital Associates Ltd William Charnley Jeremy & Rosemary Farr Ruth Markland Anonymous Heike Munro
Laurent-Perrier Champagne Christopher & Anne Saul Tom Busher & Elizabeth Benson Mrs Peter Cadbury Jane & Paul Chase-Gardener Anonymous Judith Lawless & Kevin Egan Roger & Kate Holmes David McLellan Richard Sharp Terence & Sian Sinclair Brightside Group plc LONMART Insurance Rothschild Sandbourne Asset Management Tony & Liv Lowrie Anonymous Anonymous Christina & Timothy Benn Raymond & Elizabeth Henley Sir David & Lady Plastow CHI & Partners
Ian & Clare Maurice Diane & Christopher Sheridan Mr & Mrs Robert Enslow Anonymous Martin & Jane Houston Tessa & John Manser Sir Stuart Rose Adair Turner & Orna Ni-Chionna Baring Asset Management Financial Express Mr & Mrs Charlie Caminada David & Simone Caukill David & Elizabeth Challen Mr & Mrs Grant Gordon Raymonde Jay Sue Lyons Mrs Faanya Rose Christopher Swan David Laing Foundation Mrs Jill Goulston Gareth & Janet Davies Anonymous Lucy Constable John & Carol Wates David & Fiona Taylor Mrs T Landon
The Clipper Class 2012
The Captain's Table 2012
The Cunards 2004 Mr & Mrs Robin Bowie Patrick & Julia Carter Dr & Mrs Mark Cecil Michelle Cockayne Mr Peter Fenwick OBE Hamish & Sophie Forsyth Colin & Sarah Forsyth Mr Martin George The Hardingham Trust Mr William Guinness Ron Haylock Richard & Victoria Heyman Mr & Mrs Michael Learoyd Mrs Sam Lloyd Sir Bruce & Lady MacPhail Sir Richard & Lady Morris Mr & Mrs Robin Murray-Philipson Mr & Mrs E H D Peppiatt Jim & Anne Peschek Mr & Mrs Roger Sharpley Mark & Lesley Shaw Mr & Mrs Raymond I Skilling Sir James & Lady Spooner Mr Maurice Thompson Mike Thrower & Gill Lungley Fred Vinton The Hon Mrs Louise Ward R W B Williams Colin Williams and two anonymous donors 16
Juliana & David Abell Mr Philip Bland Anthony Bunker Peter Crisp & Jeremy Crouch Mr Martin George Tim Gidley Wright Keith, Maral & Charles Hann Mr & Mrs Michael Heaton Jamie & Alison Justham Mr Gerald Levin Chris & Jane Lucas June, Dyrol & Becky Lumbard Felicity Lyons Ian & Caroline McAlpine Ian & Fiona Richards John Salmon Sir James & Lady Spooner
Mr & Mrs Charles Bennion The Everard Foundation Richard & Celia Foulkes Richard & Sally Godwin-Austen Mr Denys Johnson Keith & Lucy Jones David Rendell & Ali Smith Barry & Anne Rourke Dr S L Smith
Stowaways 2012 Nancy Asthalter David Barker QC Vicky & Steven Bobasch Mrs M J Bowen Mrs J D Bromage Sir Ian & Lady Byatt Denis & Ronda Cassidy Mr & Mrs Richard Cazenove Mrs M Charnock Dr & Mrs E R Craven Dirk FitzHugh Simon Godfrey Mr & Mrs Victor Green D C Hunter Mrs Anthony Huntington Bob Lancaster Miss Caroline Lawson-Dick Jan Leigh & Jan Rynkiewicz Mr & Mrs Pieter Mommersteeg Mrs Adam Page Sir John & the Hon Lady Parsons Ian Pasley-Tyler Admiral Sir James & Lady Perowne Mr John M Pierce Nigel & Viv Robson Hugh & Angela Sinclair Mr John Swallow Pru Tatham David & Janet Thomas Tom & Di Threlfall Heather & Andrew Wallis Dr & Mrs Ian Williams Jo & Geoff Woolf
and two anonymous donors
Lime Wood Group Ltd
Derek Johns Ltd
Christopher & Anne Saul
Consuelo & Anthony Brooke
Hiscox SCHOLARSHIP FUND
Sandbourne Asset Management
The Gamlen Charitable Trust
The Golden Bottle Trust
The Goldsmiths Company
T V Drastik
Mr C H R Wunderly
Brightside Group plc
Lady Shauna Gosling
Dr Jonathan Holliday & Dr Gwen Lewis
Pickett Fine Leathers
The Christopher Reeves Memorial Trust
Dr R Hubert Laeng-Danner
Anonymous SUPPORTING YOUNGER ARTISTS & OPERA GO-ERS D'Oyly Carte
The Dyers' Company
Oliver Colman In memory of Ann Hammond
Donors to the new theatre & the En dow Donald Kahn & family Ronnie Frost & family * The Geoff & Fiona Squire Foundation Lydia & Miles d’Arcy-Irvine * The Carphone Warehouse The Clore Duffield Foundation * Lord Harris of Peckham John & Anya Sainsbury * Simon & Virginia Robertson Anonymous * James Cave * David & Amanda Leathers Sir David & Lady Davies * EFG Private Bank William Garrett * Corus Mark Andrews * Mr & Dr J Beechey * David & Elizabeth Challen Mr & Mrs William Charnley * Mr & Mrs Peter Dicks * Simon Freakley David Gilgrist & Bobbie du Bois * Philip Gwyn * Mrs Ian Jay James & Béatrice Lupton * Donald & Jill Mackenzie Nigel & Anna McNair Scott * P F Charitable Trust Richard & Victoria Sharp * Mrs Timothy Syder Richard & Cynthia Thompson * Anne Veeder * The Band Trust
Mr & Mrs Gerald Acher Mr & Mrs David Anderson Mr & Mrs R Atkinson–Willes Anonymous Tom & Gay Bartlam Rupert T Bentley Bernard Cayser Trust Kevin & Corinne Bespolka William & Judith Bollinger Douglas Guest Bollinger James Philip Bollinger Sarah & Tony Bolton Mr & Mrs Paul Brewer Rory & Elizabeth Brooks Mr & Mrs Tony Bugg The Bulldog Trust Sir Euan Calthorpe Bt Christopher & Katie Cardona Nigel & Elisabeth Carrington Sir Peter & Lady Cazalet
Mr & Mrs Bernard Cazenove The Chase–Gardener family Pam Clarke Alastair & Tiana Collett Oliver & Cynthia Colman Michael Cuthbert Peter & Annette Dart Mr & Mrs Geoffrey de Jager Sandra & Damon de Laszlo Mr & Mrs Lionel de Rothschild Anonymous Alun & Bridget Evans Iain R Evans Mr & Mrs James fforde Mr & Mrs T Floyd Hamish & Sophie Forsyth The Misses Ismay, Ottilie & Cecilia Forsyth Peter & Judith Foy Mr Mark N Franks
Reita Gadkari Janet & John Gaymer Jacqueline & Michael Gee Trust Enrique Biel Gleeson Lady Shauna Gosling Mr & Mrs George Goulding Stephen Gosztony & Sue Butcher Nigel & Diana Grimwood William Gronow Davis Mr & Mrs Charles Haddon–Cave QC Hayden Trust Mr & Mrs Raymond Henley Malcolm Herring Mr & Mrs John Hewett Dr Jonathan Holliday & Dr Gwen Lewis George & Janette Hollingbery The Holmes Family Hugh & Tamara Hudleston
Nicholas & Jeremy Hunter Mr & Mrs David Hunter Mr & Mrs M J Isaac Hannah Jacobs Harriet Jervis Mr & Mrs J Jervoise Neil & Elizabeth Johnson Andrew & Caroline Joy Mr & Mrs Colin Keogh Dr R Hubert Laeng–Danner Rufford Foundation Mrs T Landon Barbara Yu Larsson Mr & Mrs Malcolm Le May Peter Leaver & Thomas Sharpe Mr & Mrs Adam Lee Jeremy Gardner Lewis Susie Lintott & Louisa Church David & Linda Lloyd Jones Joe & Minnie MacHale
ndowment Fun d 2 0 01
Charles & Annmarie Mackay Mr & Mrs Michael Mackenzie Tessa & John Manser J P Marland Charitable Trust Wendy & Michael Max Anonymous Mr & Mrs Peter May Harvey McGregor QC Thomas Monk Martin & Caroline Moore Elizabeth Morison Mr & Mrs Richard Morse Dr & Mrs Julian Muir The Nawrocki family The O’Hea family Sue & Peter Paice Tim & Therese Parker Alexia Paterson William & Francheska Pattisson Mark & Rachel Pearson Nigel Perfect & Peter Tilley The Lord & Lady Phillimore Sir David & Lady Plastow
Jan & Michael Potter Bruce & Lizzie Powell Mark & Veronica Powell Benjamin Pritchett–Brown Mr & Mrs Gary Ralfe Mrs Christopher Reeves David & Alex Rhodes Ros & Ken Rokison Mrs Faanya Rose Mrs Antony Rowe Mr & Mrs John Salkeld Mr & Mrs Anthony Salz Christopher & Anne Saul Mr & Mrs Richard Scopes Mr & Mrs Roderick Selkirk Mrs Christopher Sheridan Lord & Lady Simon of Highbury Edward M Siskind Paul & Rita Skinner Mr & Mrs Martin St Quinton Nicholas Stanley Donald & Rachael Stearns The Steel Charitable Trust
The Stevenson Charitable Trust John & Lesley Stuttard Mr & Mrs R H Sutton Anonymous Mr & Mrs Bernard Taylor Gordon & Sue Thorburn The Titchmarsh Family Mr & Mrs Anthony Townsend Wendy & John Trueman Adair Turner & Orna Ni–Chionna The Hon Lucy & Michael Vaughan John & Lou Verrill Lady Jane Wallop John & Carol Wates Miss Clare Williams Hamish & Elisabeth Williams Mark & Jane Williams The Hon Geoffrey & Mrs Wilson The Wolf Family Mr & Mrs C H R Wunderly Caroline Wyld
The Glass Ceiling Society 2 01 2 Robin & Anne Baring
Mr Ian & Marie-Anne Mackie
Mrs Isla Baring
William & Felicity Mather
Clare & John Barker
Ian & Clare Maurice
Madeleine & Stephen McGairl
Christina & Timothy Benn
Roger & Jackie Morris
Tom & Ann Black
Pierre & Beatrice Natural
Mrs Jenny Bland
Mr & the Hon Mrs J Ogilvie Thompson
Consuelo & Anthony Brooke
Stephen & Isobel Parkinson
The Lord Browne of Madingley
Fans of Grange Park
Tom Busher & Elizabeth Benson
Sir Desmond & Lady Pitcher
Clive & Heleen Butler
The Countess of Portsmouth
Mark & Rosemary Carawan
Samantha & Nabil Chartouni
The Tramman Trust
The Hon Sir Christopher Clarke
Mr B & Mrs J Ratner
Ian Clarkson & Richard Morris
Nigel & Viv Robson
Barry & Anne Rourke
Patricia Baines Trust
David Russell & Angela Gallop
Lynneth & David Salisbury
Miss Helen Dorey FSA
The Tansy Trust
Martin & Eugenia Ephson
George & Veronique Seligman
Peter & Fiona Espenhahn
Lord & Lady Sharman
The Kilfinan Trust
Niall & Ingrid FitzGerald
Lord & Lady Simon
Brigitte & Martin Skan
Mrs Marveen Smith
Caspar & Cathy Ingrams
Prof & Mrs Peter Sonksen
Fiona Squire & Geoff Squire OBE
Simon & Alison Jeffreys
Donald & Rachael Stearns
Mr Anthony Johnson
Mr & Mrs David Taylor
Keith & Lucy Jones
Professor & Doctor Chris Thompson
Alan & Alison Titchmarsh
Mr & Mrs Henry Lumley
Prudence & Kevan Watts
and seven anonymous donors
The School of Hippocrates 2 01 2 Mrs Genie Allenby & Daughters Camilla Baldwin Maj Gen & Mrs J Balfour Nigel Beale & Anthony Lowrey Peter Bedford Mrs Michael Beresford-West Anthony Bird Roger Birtles Mrs Nan Brenninkmeyer Lady Brown Roy & Carol Brown Anthony Bunker Julian & Jenny Cazalet Mr & Mrs J Colwell Mrs Carolyn Conlan Dr Neville Conway Mr & Mrs Giles Currie Mrs Arthur Davies Simon de Lancey Walters Michael & Anthea Del Mar Michael C A Eaton Stuart Errington CBE DL Alun & Bridget Evans Mr & Mrs Jeremy Farr Mr & Mrs Simon Fisher Mr & Mrs James Fisher Mr & Mrs Harry Fitzalan Howard Michael & Anne Forrest Mr & Mrs Geoffrey Fuller Mr & Mrs David Gamble Lindsey Gardener Mr & Mrs Wyatt Gates David & Margaret Gawler Lady Goswell Mrs Manuela Granziol
Marcus & Susan Grubb Guy & Sarah Norrie Mr & Mrs Will Hillary James & Nicky Palmer Hansgeorg & Leonor Hofmann Mr Alan Parker Christopher & Jo Holdsworth Hunt Mrs Sally Posgate Simon & Melanie Holmes Dominic & Katherine Powell Lucy Holmes & Alexandra Wood Hugh & Caroline Priestley Mr Charles & Lady Iona Ind David & Elizabeth Pritchard Judith & Peter Iredale Grant & Shirley Radcliffe Morag & Peter James John & Victoria Raymond Mr John Jarvis QC Dr Martin & Dr Marian Gilbart Read Margi & Mike Jennings Tineke Dales Ralph & Patricia Kanter David & Hilary Riddle Dr Ingo & Dr Maria Lucia Klรถcker Mr George Sandars Roger & Liz Kramers Rati & Dhruv Sawhney Diana & Terence Kyle Thomas & Phillis Sharpe Josephine Law Nigel Silby Mr & Mrs Andrew Lax Dr Anthony Smoker Mr & Mrs Peter Leaver Mr & Mrs Andrew Soundy Robert Linn Ottley Sir Nigel & Lady Teare Mr & Mrs Anthony Littlejohn Mr & Mrs Hugh Tidbury John MacGowan Mr & Mrs John Tremlett Mr Philip ter Woort & Mrs Siobhan Walker Alistair & Sara Mackintosh Chris & Miranda Ward Mr & Mrs David Maitland Johanna Waterous & Roger Parry Mrs Isabelle Mathew Kevin & Sonia Watson Wendy & Michael Max Christian Wells Kathryn & Sarah McLeland Mr & Mrs E J Weston William Middleton-Smith Nigel Williams Vivienne Alexandra Monk Penny & Nicholas Wilson Sue & Peter Morgan Jonathan & Sue Wood Ian & Jane Morrison Mr & Mrs Richard J Woolnough Colin Murray David & Liz Wootton Piotr & Liza Nahajski Peter Wrangham Mr & Mrs Jeffrey Nedas Mr Paul Nicholls Michael & Guillemette Nicholson and two anonymous donors
The School of Archimedes 2 01 2 Jackie & John Alexander Mr John Arney Dr Richard Ashton Mr & Mrs Nick Backhouse Roger & Elizabeth Backhouse Richard & Jean Baldwin Mr & Mrs Barnaud Paul & Janet Batchelor Anne Beckwith-Smith Mr Peter Bell Adrian Berrill-Cox Mr & Mrs Peter Bevan Mike & Alison Biden The Hon Mrs Diana Birtwistle Admirer of Charles Wallach David Blackburn Halldora Blair Elisabeth & Bob Boas Longina Boczon Mr & Mrs Anthony Bodie Johannes Boecker Mrs Margaret Bolam Mr & Mrs Graham Bourne Mr & Mrs W Neville Bowen Mr Julian Bower The Hon Robert Boyle & Mrs Boyle Robin & Penny Broadhurst Robin & Jill Broadley Richard Bronks Dorothy & John Brook Mr & Mrs A C Brooking Stuart & Maggie Brooks Mr & Mrs Charles H Brown Hugh & Sue Brown Chris Brown Nicholas Browne Mr & Mrs D M Bullough Lt Col & Mrs Michael Burridge Richard Butler Adams Russ & Linda Carr Max & Karina Casini Peter & Jane Cazalet Mr & Mrs Jason Chaffer Mr & Mrs Luke Chappell Mr & Mrs Shane Chichester Julia Chute Jonathan & Jane Clarke Ann Clarke Mr & Mrs Peter Clarke
Diana Clarkson Michael & Angela Clayton Mrs Susie Clegg Liz & Mike Cooper-Mitchell Matthew & Bianca Cosans Corin & Richard Cotton Chris & Penny Crouch Mr Carl Cullingford John & Susan Curtis Mrs Clifford R Dammers Anne & Jonathan Dawson Douglas & Pru de Lavison Leopold de Rothschild Charitable Trust Count & Countess M de Selys Patrick & Nikki Despard Krystyna Deuss Brian & Susan Dickie Mr & Mrs Ian Doherty Dr Barbara Domayne-Hayman Christine Douse Mark & Nicola Dumas Nick & Lesley Dumbreck Mr & Mrs K S Eckett Yvonne & Malcolm Edwards Mr & Mrs Peter Ellis Morfydd Evans Martin & Maureen Farr Barry Fearn Esq TD The Fischer Fund Ms Sian Fisher Mr & Mrs J Foster Mindy Fowler Lindsay & Robin Fox Jillian Ede & David Gendron Peter Gerrard Michael & Diane Gibbons North Street Trust David & Anne Giles Ian & Edwina Gilroy Mr & Mrs Bruce Ginsberg Michael & Caroline Godbee Richard & Sally Godwin-Austen Mr & Mrs Richard Grant Mr Robert B Gray Mr Robin & The Hon Mrs Gilly Greenwood Alistair & Sally Gregory-Smith Mr & Mrs David Grenier Reade & Elizabeth Griffith
Mr & Mrs Alistair Groom Gerard & Diana Guerrini Max & Catherine Hadfield Andrew Haigh Annabel & Peter Hall Mr & Mrs Rupert Hambro Eben Hamilton QC John & Janet Hammond Tim Harris Wendell & Andrea Harris Maggie Heath Mr and Mrs J E Heath Paul & Kay Henderson Valerie & Peter Hewett Michael & Sarah Hewett Michael & Genevieve Higgin Patrick & Sue Higham Mr & Mrs Herman Hintzen Diana & Michael Hobson Lady Holdsworth H R Holland Peter & Marianne Hooley David & Mal Hope-Mason Mr & Mrs David Hopkinson Mr & Mrs Richard Hughes Mrs Marie-Josee Hunter Andrew & Kay Hunter Johnston Mr & Mrs Charles Irby Martin & Sandra Jay Mr & Mrs Michael Jodrell Neil & Elizabeth Johnson Sally & Scot Johnston Owen & Jane Jonathan Hilary Jones Mr & Mrs Edward Jones Alan & Judi Jones Mr Per Jonsson Mr & Mrs Pierre Jungels Vincent & Amanda Keaveny Mrs Judith Kelley Tim & Tamsin Kelly Tim & Ginny Kempster Andrew Kennedy & Lindsay Cornish Mrs Dinah Kennedy Mark Kerr Mr & Mrs J Kiernan George Kingston Kevin Kissane Mrs Gabrielle Knights
William & Mary Knowles Stephen & Miriam Kramer Louise Kramers Dr Zarrina Kurtz Mr & Mrs Bill Lawes Belinda Leathes Professor Natalie Lee Hilary & James Leek Ruth & Brian Levy Sonya Leydecker Mrs Roger Liddiard Anne Longden Brigadier Desmond Longfield Dieter & Lesley Losse Mrs Sally Lykiardopulo Robin & Jean Mackenzie Ian & Jane Macnabb J J Macnamara Sir Nevil Macready BT CBE David & Mary Male Brian & Penelope Matthews Gill & Doug McGregor Michael McLaren QC & Caroline McLaren John & Janet McLean John McVittie Gillian Milton Patrick Mitford-Slade David & Angela Moss Brian & Claudine Muirhead Christopher & Annie Newell Lady (Bridget) Nixon Pamela & Bruce Noble Mr & Mrs Peter Nutting Barry & Sue O'Brien Princess Paul Odescalchi Mr John Derrick & Mr Preben Ă˜ye Dr Cecily O'Neill Lavinia & Nick Owen Sir Michael & Lady Parker Liz Peace CBE & Nigel Peace Mr & Mrs Tim Peat Mark Rhys & Leonie Penna Mr & Mrs Erik Penser Mr & Mrs Hugh Peppiatt T H Perkins & Avril Jones Richard & Gail Pertwee Mr & Mrs Robin Petherick Mr & Mrs J Pinna-Griffith
Matthew Pintus & Joanna Ward David & Christina Pitman Tricia Guild & Richard Polo David & Jill Potter Jane Poulter Mike & Jill Pullan Tony Pullinger Gill & Clive Purkiss Elizabeth & Nigel Reavley Neil & Julie Record Hilary Reid Evans The Hon Philip Remnant Mike & Jessamy Reynolds Dame Alison Richard & Robert Dewar Mr & Mrs James Roberts Alex & Caroline Roe Lionel & Sue Rosenblatt Peter Rosenthal David Rosier Julian & Catherine Roskill Mr & Mrs E J M Ross Peter Saunders Peter & Carolyn Scoble Jonathan & Elizabeth Selzer John & Tita Shakeshaft Sue & Gerry Sharp Rob & Felicity Shepherd David & Jeni Sieff Mr J G Stanford Nigel & Johanna Stapleton Brian Stevens Lisa Stone
Mr John Strachan Mr & Mrs Tom Sweet-Escott Caroline & Phillip Sykes Mr & Mrs H Thompson Mr & Mrs Max Thum Prof & Mrs G M Tonge Mr & Mrs Brian Trafford Joanna Trollope Sir Thomas & Lady Troubridge Sir Michael & Lady Turner Dr & Mrs James Turtle Ms Ayesha Vardag X N C Villers Olof & Suzie Winkler von Stiernhielm Mrs Peter Wake DL Judy & Richard Wake Mr & Mrs Hady Wakefield Mr & Mrs Walton Dr Kenneth Watters Colin & Suzy Webster Mr. J. Anthony Wechsler Mr & Mrs Graham J West Oliver & Felicity Wethered Jane & Ian White Isobel Williams Mr & Mrs Patrick J D'A Willis Jane & Leslie Wood Dr Ian Wylie & Prof S Griffiths OBE Richard Youell
and nine anonymous donors
The School of Plato 2 01 2 Rick & Susie Abbott Dr Stewart Abbott Philippa Abell Abu Khamis Mrs Peter Ainsley Miss Rula Al-Adasani Mr & Mrs Christopher Aldous Mrs Rosemary Alexander Lady Allan Mrs David Anderson John & Anita Andrews Dr Derek Ashburner Mr & Mrs David Ashcroft Brian D & Katherine Ashton Young M J Askham Jacqueline Assheton Chris & Claire Aston Priscilla & Mark Austen Mrs Andrew Bailey Simon Bailey Neha & Robert Bailhache Marie & Mike Bakowski Chris & Elizabeth Ballard Mrs Susan Band Mrs Caroline J Barber Oliver Barnes Val & Christopher Bateman Stanley Bates Dr Walter Bernhart Lord & Lady Blair Mr & Mrs Carey Blake Gilbert Bland Lisa Bolgar Smith David & Margaret Bonsall Mrs Harry Bowlby David & Tessa Brewer Viscountess Bridgeman Dr & Mrs Douglas Bridgewater Mrs Hilary Bridgman Charles & Patricia Brims John & Amanda Britton Adam & Sarah Broke George Brown & Alison Calver Mr & Mrs D Browne Finn Bruce Patricia & David Buck Mr & Mrs Martin Burton Peter D Byrne Mr & Mrs Murray Bywater Dr Bella Caiger Brigette & Damien Carpanini Richard J Carrow Mr Andrew Carruthers Lord & Lady Carter of Coles Mr & Mrs Nicholas Carter Andrew & Jacqueline Cartwright
Mr Michael Cash Denis & Ronda Cassidy Graham Cawsey & Virginia Korda Dr J D H Chadwick Philip & Arabella Chalkley Mr & Mrs Trevor Clarke Mr & Mrs Henry Clay Adam & Noreen Cleal Sir Anthony & Lady Cleaver Nicholas Coates Mrs Laurence Colchester Jonathan Coles & Rob Allison Mr & Mrs R Collin Dr & Mrs Peter Collins S T Connell Anthony Cooke Mr & Mrs Tim Cooper Andrew & Donna Cooper Johnny & Liz Cowper-Coles Alan & Heather Craft Mr & Mrs Keith Craig Stephen & Julia Crompton Tom Cross Brown Peta & David Crowther AD & JM Cummins Lady Curtis Mrs Sarah Daniels Mr Antoni Daszewski Dr & Mrs Christopher Davenport-Jones Dr Susanna Davidson Diana & Derek Davis Dr Gisela Davis Mrs D De Groot Sir John & Lady de Trafford B Dean Jocelyn Dehnert Adrian Dewey Mr & Mrs Matthew Dobbs Professor T A & Mrs B Downes Philippa Drew Paul Drury Mr & Mrs Reg Drury Matthew & Christian Dryden Cathy Dumelow Jamie Dundas Mrs Dickie Dutton Walton & Jane Eddlestone Lord & Lady Eden Sir Malcolm & Lady Edge Mr & Mrs Neil Edmonstone Jennifer Edwards Alan Evans Elizabeth Evans Sir Anthony & Lady Evans Michael & Wendy Evans Roger Facer CB
Steven F G Fachada Alys & Graham Ferguson Dr & Mrs J C Ferrer Andrew & Lucinda Fleming J A Floyd Charitable Trust Sooying Foster Andrea Frears James & Diana Freeland Sally Furlong Bamber & Christina Gascoigne Susie Gaunt Robert & Ginna Gayner Mr & Mrs Brett Gill Mr & Mrs Gill-Dougherty Mr & Mrs N Goodenough Dr & Mrs Goodison Mr & Mrs P A Goodson Colin & Letts Goodwin Mr John Gordon Lady Graham Peter Granger Mrs S M Grant Christopher & Amanda Graves Geraldine & Anthony Green The Hon Mrs Jane Green David & Barbara Greggains Anne M Bailey John & Ann Grieves Tom & Sarah Grillo Carol & Edmund Grower The Hon F B Guinness Paul & Miranda Gunn Richard & Judy Haes Mrs Allyson Hall Mr & Mrs Philipp & Jane Hallauer Nigel & Jane Halsey Mrs Valerie Hardwick Giles Harrap Robert & Judith Hart Mr & Mrs Julian Harvey Dr Fred Haslam Carl Hawkings Helen & Kevin Hayes Mr & Mrs Jamie Heath N G Hebditch Alan & Ann Herring Lady Heseltine John & Catherine Hickman Graham & Frances High Dr A E Hinton & Dr N G Bellenger Mark & Vicki Hodgkinson Mr and Mrs I F Hodgson Mr & Mrs Daniel Hodson Mr R E Hofer Mr Robin Holmes John & Hilary Holmes Barbara Hosking
Billy & Heather Howard Mr & Mrs Richard Howorth Bill & Anthea Hughes Robert Hugill & David Hughes Siu Fun Hui Mr & Mrs Nick Humble David & Sue Humphrey Mrs Juliet Huntley Mrs Madeleine F Hyde Mrs E Hyde Howard & Anne Hyman Peter & Katharine Ingram Tim & Christine Ingram Mr Ramsay Ismail & Mr David Crellin Mr & Mrs C J Jack Dr Philip Kay & Alexandra Jackson Kay Mrs Rachel James Mr & Mrs Charles Jamieson Mr Derek Johns Nigel & Cathy Johnson-Hill Jo & Nick Jonas Caroline & Max Jonas Douglas Jones Prof Heather Joshi OBE Lord & Lady Judd S Hรถelder & C Katzka Chris & Tamsyn Keen Capt & Mrs David Kennedy Michael & Julia Kerby Mr & Mrs Oliver Kinsey Mr & Mrs Martin Knight Mr & Mrs N Korban Mr & Mrs Gerald Lambert Rear Admiral & Mrs John Lang David & Madi Laurence Richard Law Sir Christopher & Lady Lawrence-Jones John Learmonth Mr & Mrs Leprince Jungbluth Eric & Pauline Leyns Mr & Mrs Adrian Lightfoot Mr & Mrs John Littlewood James Lonsdale Mrs Simon Loup Bertrand & Sarah Louveaux Alan & Virginia Lovell J R F Lulham Josephine Lundberg Bruce & Maggie Macfarlane Derek Mackay Mrs Tom Mackean Mr & Mrs J Mackintosh John & Vanessa MacMahon Mrs Victoria Macpherson
Bill & Sue Main Philip & Valerie Marsden Russell Martin Mrs Elisabeth Mason Harry & Emma Matovu Christopher & Clare McCann Professor Sean McConville Madeline McGill Mr Paul Megson Nigel & Maria Melville Cliff & Sandra Middleton Antony & Alison Milford Dr & Mrs P J Mill Dr John Millbank Hilary Kingsley & Peter Miller Patricia & Richard Millett Charles & Susie Mitchell Edward & Diana Mocatta Mr & Mrs Pieter Mommersteeg Mrs Jonathan Moore David & Alison Moore-Gwyn Dr Chris Morley David & Jutta Morris Professor Neil Mortensen Edward & Susannah Moss William Nash Sir Paul & Lady Neave Anthony & Jenny Newhouse Sir Charles & Lady Nicholson Jeremy & Elizabeth Nicholson J S Nicoll Jeremy & Elizabeth Nieboer George Nissen CBE Lt Col & Mrs Richard Norton John & Dianne Norton Mr & Mrs Francis Norton Sir Charles & Lady Nunneley The Hon Mr & Mrs Michael O'Brien Carol Orchard Janet & Michael Orr Nicola Ozanne John A Paine Mrs Christine Palmer C A Palmer Tomkinson Mrs Jill Parker Mrs Blake Parker Deborah & Clive Parritt Mr & Mrs P Pattinson Michael & Gill Pearey Michael Pearl Donald Pearse
John & Jacqui Pearson Lucy Pease Giuseppe & Penny Pecorelli Mrs C E Peddie Nicholas & Caroline Perry C H Petre Mr R B Petre Jonathan & Gillian Pickering Mr & Mrs Charles Pike Mr & Mrs N C Pitman Mr & Mrs Anthony Pitt-Rivers Mr & Mrs Alex Popplewell Mr & Mrs Michael Pragnell Graham & Virginia Prain Judith Prickett & Raymond Sutton Edward Priday Mrs D E Priestley David & Judith Pritchard Peter & Sally Procopis Mr & Mrs Stephen Proctor Penny Proudlock Mr Robin Purchas Dennis & Susanne Purser Lady Purves Douglas & Jane Rae Mr & Mrs Gerald Raingold Lady Ramsbotham John Rank Mr & Mrs Michael Rappolt Jane & Graham Reddish Christopher Reed David Rendell & Ali Smith Lt Col & Mrs Ralph Reynolds John Rhodes Jeremy & Camilla Richardson Mrs Caroline Rimell Lady Susan Ripley Lady Ritblat Lady Rivett-Carnac Christopher & Zofia Road Malcolm Roberts James & Catharine Robertson Murie & Ian Ronald Martyn & Pippa Rose Dr Mark Rosenthal James & Jane Roundell Margaret Rowe & John Schlesinger Mr Alan Roxburgh Joan & Lewis Rudd Prof & Mrs D Russell-Jones Alicia Salter
Piers & Sarah von Simson Ian & Wendy Sampson David von Simson John Schofield Mr & Mrs A M Scott Lady Walker Mr & Mrs Colin Scott-Malden Mr Tony Walker Mr & Mrs Gordon Scutt Mr David & Prof Lorna Secker Walker Mrs D Wallace Mrs Jane Wallace Mr & Mrs James Sehmer George & Pat Wallace Mr Richard Sharp Janet & Roger Wallhouse David Sheraton & Kate Stabb Dr Sarah Wallis Mr Andrew Simon John & Mavis Ward Peter Simor Guy R Warrington Sir Jock Slater Katherine Watts Amanda & Richard Slowe Mr Niels Weise Russell & Julia Smart Roger Westcott Mr & Mrs Robin Smeeton Richard & Susan Westcott Mr & Mrs Peter J Smith Mrs Joy M Weston Joe & Lucy Smouha Graeme & Sue Sloan Mr Jean-Philippe Snelling Donald & Audrey White Ian & Pippa Southward Tony & Fiona White David Spence Harvey & Diana White Mr & Mrs J P Spencer I J & M L Whitting Peter William Stansfield David & Jill Williams Heather Stewart Prof Roger Williams CBE Christopher & Tineke Stewart & Mrs Roger Williams Mr J M Stoke Mrs Philip Williams Mr & Mrs G J Stranks Michael & Alyson Wilson Ian & Jenny Streat Mr William Witts Mr & Mrs N L C Strong Ginny & Alastair Woodrow Toby & Fiona Stubbs The Lady Woolf John Sturgis David & Vivienne Woolf Liliane Sutton Nick & Sue Woollacott Ron & Celia Swan Richard Worthington Mr & Mrs Richard H Sykes Jerry & Clare Wright Fleur Taylor and Jeremy & Marika Taylor twentyâ€“four anonymous donors Mrs Patricia Taylor Mr & Mrs R Taylor-Gooby Margaret Tesolin Mr & Mrs P M Thomas Tony & Valerie Thompson Mrs A J Thorman Mr Rupert Tickner Mr & Mrs G W Tindley Dr Michael Toseland Rachel & David Townsend Clive & Tessa Tulloch Lawrence Turner OBE L C Varnavides Mrs Hugo Vickers Mr & Mrs Nick Vidovich Nick Viner & Victoria Boyarsky
Founding Donors 1 9 98 1 9 9 9
Mr Mark Andrews Mr Felix Appelbe BSc FRSA Mr Peter Arengo-Jones OBE Mr David Buchler Mr William F Charnley Professor Ian Craft Lydia & Miles d’Arcy-Irvine Sir David & Lady Davies
Mr Peter Foy Mr Simon Freakley Mr William Gronow Davis Mr Michael Hoare Mr & Mrs Donald Kahn Mr T Landon James & Béatrice Lupton Mr & Mrs Charles Mackay
Mr Harvey McGregor QC Greg & Gail Melgaard Mr & Mrs Hugh Peppiatt Mrs Lucinda Stevens Mr & Mrs Anthony Townsend Mr & Mrs Max Ulfane Mrs Marie Veeder Mr & Mrs Graham John West
Systems Union Group Ltd – Ashe Park Mineral Water – Baring Asset Management – British Steel Distribution – BT Alex Brown – Hays plc – Wilde Sapte – Barclays Private Banking – Catering & Allied – Coutts & Co – Biddle – Denton Hall – Houston & Church – Knight Frank – Leopold de Rothschild Trust – Well Marine Reinsurance Brokers
Mr & Mrs James Airy John & Jackie Alexander Mr & Mrs R Atkinson-Willes Miss Anne Beckwith-Smith Mr & Dr J Beechey Sheila Lady Bernard Mr Robert Bickerdike Mrs M R Bonsall Mrs Cherida Cannon Mr Patrick Carter Mr & Mrs Bernard Cazenove Mrs Justin Clark Mr & Mrs M Cooper-Mitchell Mr & Mrs R G Cottam Mr David Crowe Mr Nicholas de Zoete Ms K Deuss Gillian Devas
Mr & Mrs Gerald Acher Richard & Delia Baker Mr & Mrs Nicholas Baring Mr & Mrs Tom Bartlam Dori Bateson Mr Peter Bedford Mr & Mrs Robin Behar Mr Alan Bell Mr Keith Benham Mrs M Bennett Sir Christopher & Lady Bland Mrs Gerald Bland Mr & Mrs Simon Borrows Mr Graham Bourne Mr Peter Braunwalder Mr & Mrs Keith Bromley Mr Robin W T Buchanan Mr & Mrs Mark Burch Mrs James Butler Sir Euan Calthorpe Bt Mr & Mrs Michael Campbell Mr Maximilian Carter Sir Peter & Lady Cazalet David & Elizabeth Challen Mr Oliver Colman Cynthia Colman Dr P M de Z Cooke Mr & Mrs Brian Cornish Mr Peter Davidson
Mr Anthony Doggart Robyn Durie Mr & Mrs W L Eddlestone Stuart & Anne Fowler Archie & Henrietta Fraser Gen Sir David Fraser GCB OBE Mr & Mrs Wyatt Gates Lt Col David R Gilbert His Honour Judge Martin Graham QC Mr Robert B Gray Mr & Mrs J C Green Mr John Hammond Mr & Mrs Peter Hobbs Mr & Mrs G Hollingbery Mr Charles Irby Mr & Mrs Malcolm Isaac Mr Barry Jackson
Guy Boney & Bente Dawkins Mr Peter Dicks Mr & Mrs Malcolm Edwards Austin & Ragna Erwin Mr T Alun Evans CMG Alastair & Robina Farley Mr & Mrs J fforde Mr & Mrs Roger Fidgen Hamish & Sophie Forsyth Mr & Mrs Robin Fox Mr Andrew Frost Mr Stephen Frost Mr Nicholas R Gold Lady Shauna Gosling Mr & Mrs George Goulding Mr Verne Grinstead Mr Michael Gwinnell Mr Philip Gwyn Mr & Mrs Charles HaddonCave QC Mr & Mrs Philip Hallett Mr Clifford Hampton Mr Alan H Harrison Angela & David Harvey The Bulldog Trust Dr & Mrs James F Hill Mr & Mrs Hansgeorg Hofmann Mr Peter Holland Dr Jonathan Holliday
Mrs Julian Jeffs Mrs Lynette G Joly JP Mrs Z L Kelton Mr John Learmonth Mr Gerald Levin Mr & Mrs Mark Lomas Mr & Mrs David Maitland Anonymous Gordon & Julia Medcalf Lord Montagu of Beaulieu Mrs Jonathan Moore Mr Barry O’Brien Mr Laurence O’Mara Mrs Deidre Pegg Miss Mahtab Pouria Mrs C H Powell Mrs Joan L Prior Mrs Thomas Redfern
Mr J P Hungerford Robin & Pat Ilbert The Countess of Iveagh Mr & Mrs Evan James Mr Martin Jay Mr & Mrs David Jervis Mr J T L Jervoise Neil & Elizabeth Johnson Mr & Mrs A N Joy Ms Walia Kani Mr Vincent Keaveny Maureen & Jim Kelly Peter Kerfack & Russell Townend Mr & Mrs David Leathers Mr & Mrs Adam Lee David & Linda Lloyd Jones Mr Simon Lofthouse Dr Peter Lyndon-Skeggs Mrs Stuart Macnaghten The Hon Dwight Makins Mr & Mrs Charles Marriott Mr John Marden Mr William Mather Wendy & Michael Max Mr & Mrs P N J May Mr & Mrs T McMaddy Mr Nigel McNair Scott Mr & Mrs A S McWhirter
Mr John A Rickards Dr Janet Ritterman Mrs Martin St Quinton Mr Anthony Salz Anne Lady Scott Mr & Mrs Philip Snuggs Mr David F M Stileman Mr & Mrs Ian Streat Mr R H Sutton Mr Peter Tilley The Hon Mrs W Tufnell K Sandberg & T Watkins Mr & Mrs T Wightman Andrew & Emma Wilson Olivia Winterton Dr Nicholas Wright Mr Tim Wright Mrs Paul Zisman
Mr James Meade Leni Lady Miller Mr & Mrs Patrick Mitford Slade Miss Charlotte Moore Elizabeth Morison Mr Michael J Morley Dr & Mrs Julian Muir Lord Neill of Bladen QC Sir Charles Nicholson Bt John & Dianne Norton John Julius Norwich Mr & Mrs Michael Orr Major General & Mrs Simon Pack Mark & Rachel Pearson Ron & Lyn Peet Mr & Mrs Nicholas PhelpsBrown The Countess of Portsmouth Mr & Mrs David Potter Bruce & Lizzie Powell Mark & Veronica Powell Mr & Mrs Richard Priestley Mrs Barbara Rait Sir Peter & Lady Ramsbotham Mr Myrddin Rees MS FRCS Mr David Reid Scott David & Alex Rhodes Anonymous Mrs Eric Robinson
Clare Rowland Mr & Mrs James Sabben-Clare Sir Timothy Sainsbury Mrs John Salkeld Lady Salomon Mr Richard Scopes The Countess of Selborne Mr & Mrs Mark Silver Mr Paul Skinner Mrs David Smith The Hon & Mrs Jeremy Soames Mr J G Stanford Mrs Donald Stearns Mr R Kirk Stephenson Mr & Mrs Richard H Sykes Mr Anthony John Thompson Professor & Mrs G M Tonge Adair Turner & Orna Ni-Chionna Bill Tustin Mr & Mrs David Vaughan The Hon Mrs Lucy Vaughan Mrs Peter Vey Caroline Vroom Mr Hady Wakefield Lady Jane Wallop Dr & Mrs Oliver Wethered M Whalley & K Goldie-Morrison Mr F E B Witts Mr Charles Young
PAT R O N
The Rt Hon Lord Ashburton KG B OA R D
William Garrett (Chairman) The Hon Mark Baring Iain Burnside Hamish Forsyth Simon Freakley Wasfi Kani OBE The Hon Mary-Ann Sheehy E N D O W M E N T F U N D B OA R D
Mark Andrews (Chairman) William Garrett Emma Kane Wasfi Kani OBE Mark Lacey Marie Veeder
THE HOME TEAM
P R O D U C T I O N M A N AG E R
in alphabetical order Scott Cooper Bernard Davies Lizzie Holmes Wasfi Kani OBE Annabel Larard Charlotte March Michael Moody Sue Paice Rachel Pearson Emilia Pountney Annabel Ross Claire Routh Helen Sennett Caroline Sheahan Rebecca Thomas Jan Tuffield
Alison Ritchie SETS
All Scene All Props Idomeneo Visual Scene Butterfly & Onegin Set up Scenery Spades S C E N I C PA I N T E R S
John Waterworth Idomeneo Chris Clark Spades & Idomeneo floor
T EC H N I C A L S TAG E M A N AG E R
Declan Costello DEPUTIES
Sylva Parizkova Niall Mulcahy Sean Wright R E P E T I T EU R S
T H E P L AC E
Richard Loader Sue Paice John & Victoria Salkeld (roses & more) David Manston (sweet peas) Rob Jones (tents) Steve Penn (trains) Jill Hardy (front of house) Fred Baring usher Laura Stevens usher Amy Skehill-Miller usher Alex Don usher T H E R E S TAU R A N T
Emily Grafton assisted by Will Perkins & Ruari Watt & Celine Ragouilliaux Kaye Thomson Creative Catering Sally Clarke Breads The Woolpack Catered picnics
Jeremy Cooke Butterfly & Onegin Ian Ryan Idomeneo Sergey Rybin Spades Elizabeth Burgess L A N G UAG E COAC H
M U S I C CO N S U LTA N T S
Phillip Thomas Idomeneo & Butterfly David Gowland Spades S TAG E M A N AG E R S
Anne-Maria Casson Spades Aisling Fitzgerald Idomeneo Vickki Maiden Butterfly D E P U T Y S TAG E M A N AG E R S
Sarah Tryfan Spades Laura Page Idomeneo Iain Mackenzie–Humphreys Onegin Suzie Erith Butterfly Ellie Williams Idomeneo Jean Hally Spades Catherine Lewis Butterfly Bella Burton student ASM Onegin
Décor Alexander Creswell
YO U N G A S S I S TA N T
Lauren Collins Spades
James Pitkin Alex Perry John Sherrard Ricky Copp Lizze Marshall
Daniela My Italian Sergey Rybin Russian Alexia Mankovskaya Russian
Champagne Laurent-Perrier Wine Stone Vine & Sun
S TAG E T EC H N I C I A N S
P R O P S S U P E RV I S I O N
Marcus Hall Props WIGS
Darren Ware Campbell Young
TH E O RCH E S T R A O F N E VILL H O LT
LIGHTING PROGR AMMER
Warren Letton Sarah Brown Spades
M A N AG E M E N T
C H I E F E L EC T R I C I A N
Strand Musicians (www.strandmusicians.co.uk)
Adam Sansom Paul Gregory
Megan Pound leader Joanna West Peter Hembrough Fiona Chesterman Nikki Hutchings Nancy Roberts
PRO D U C T I O N EL EC T RI CI A N
Wesley Hiscock COSTUME SUPERVISOR S
Yvonne Milnes Onegin Caroline Hughes Butterfly Heidi Bryan Idomeneo Ilona Karas Spades: Supervisor & Assistant Costume Design DEPUT Y
Polly Laurence-Marrese Spades Josie Thomas Butterfly COS T U M E A S S I S TA N T S
Astrid Schulz Cutter Janna Bannon Cutter Janet Spriggs Milliner Silje Odemotland Student Sewer Edith Furlong Student Sewer COS T U M E M A K E R S
Josie Thomas Gretchen Luttmer Suzanne Parkinson Jane Gill Lal D’Abo Mark Costello Janet Christmas Karen Crichton Alexandra Maier-Bishop COS T U M E H I R E
Cos Props Angels Costumiers WA R D R O B E M I S T R E S S
Alyson Fielden Assisted by Rebecca Hopkins
A DV I S O RY CO U N C I L
Sir David Davies (Chairman) Sir Gerry Acher CBE Miles d'Arcy Irvine Dame Vivien Duffield CBE Jacob Grierson Donald Kahn James Lupton Viscount Norwich David Ross Victoria Sharp The Hon Jeremy Soames EG G C U P S
Penny Akroyd Sue Batchelor Jane Barber Sue Brown Henrietta Cooke John Feast Pru de Lavison Andrea Harris Inge Hunter Angela Larard Susie Lintott Caroline Perry Hugh & Jane Powlett Clare Read Jo Seligman Katherine Sellon Di Threlfall Clare Whitfield
AT N E V I L L H O LT
P R O D U C T I O N M A N AG E R
Joanna Lee Alice Butcher Claire Turk David Smith
C H I E F E L EC T R I C I A N
Alison Ritchie H E A D O F S TAG E
Wesley Hiscock Fi Quirk
Jason Glover Dan Manente Mike Briggs
A S S I S TA N T L X & S TAG E
C E L LO
S I T E M A N AG E R
Brian Mullan Natalie Rozario Claire Constable
Adam Bee WA R D R O B E
Edd Lindley W I G S & M A K E- U P M I S T R E S S
Belles Berry VO LU N T E E R S
Kate Saxby Liz Bradley F LU T E
Eric & Flick Craven Sarah Forsyth John Gaze Geraldine Henson Richard & Victoria Heyman Gillian Horrocks Valerie Mansfield Clare Pearce-Smith Laurie Prashad Alex Pyper Chris & Helen Roberts
Tim Taylorson Daniel Parkin OBOE
John Crossman CL ARINET
Mark Lacey Karen Hobbs BASSOON
Louise Watson HORN
Jon Hassan Lyndsey Kempley Kevin Elliot
W I G S & M A K E- U P M I S T R E S S
Fraser Tannock Alex Jagger
Helen Keelan Mistress Belles Berry Assistant Elizabeth Marini Assistant Amy Callingham Student
Andrew Cole T I M PA N I
Mark Taylor K E Y B OA R D
Mrs Beeton's Household Management 1 Pigeon pie 2 Raised Game pie 3 Cutlets and Peas 4 Prawns en Bouquet 5 Crème Chicken 6 Plovers’ Eggs 7 Lamb Cutlets Farcie 8 Larks Farcie 9 Piped Ham
TH E EN G LISH CHA M BER O RCH E S TR A Idomeneo & Madama Butterfly VIOLIN 1
F LU T E
Stephanie Gonley leader John Mills Sophie Langdon Julia Rumley Shana Douglas Sue Briscoe Edward Bale Natalia Bonner Clare Thompson Kaija Lukas
Jonathan Barritt Andrew Williams Lydia Lowndes-Northcot Sophie Renshaw Jessica Beeston Martin Fenn
Philippa Davies Kate Hill Debbie Davis
Andrew Crowley Neil Brough Simon Munday
Philip Harmer Debbie Goodyer Jessica Mogridge
Colin Sheen Ian Moffatt Paul Lambert
Douglas Mitchell Jill Turner Alan Andrews
Richard Milone Ruth Funnell Christopher Bevan Kate Robinson Helena Nichols Julia Burkert Alison Gordon James Dickenson
C E L LO
Caroline Dale Tim Lowe Julia Graham Dietrich Bethge Alexandra Mackenzie Ken Ichinose DOUBLE BASS
Paul Sherman Ben Russell Lucy Hare Jacqueline Dosser
T I M PA N I / P E R C US S I O N
Jeremy Cornes Tim Barry Stephen Burke
Paul Boyes Lizbeth Elliott Claire Webster
Richard Berry Beth Randell Richard Dilley Alastair Rycroft
Pauline Gilbertson Charlotte Templeman
BO U RN EMO U T H S YM PH O N Y O RCH E S TR A The Queen of Spades VIOLIN 1
F LU T E
Amyn Merchant leader Kate Turnbull Karen Leach
Jacoba Gale § Eva Malmbom John Murphy James Pullman Michael Smith § Philip Borg-Wheeler
Anna Pyne Alex Jakeman
Chris Avison Peter Turnbull §
P I CCO LO
Kevin Morgan § Robb Tooley
Jennifer Curiel Tim Fisher § Julie Gillett-Smith Kate Hawes Laura Kernohan David Parsons § VIOLIN 2
Carol Paige Penny Tweed § Andrew Cowen Anne Maybury § Lara Carter § Rebecca Clark Victoria Hodgson Janice Thorgilson §
C E L LO
Jesper Svedberg Roger Preston § Garry Stevens Calum Cook Stephanie Oade Gillian Rycroft DOUBLE BASS
David Daly § Nicole Boyesen David Kenihan § Jane Ferns §
Edward Kay § Rebecca Kozam
Kevin Banks § Christine Roberts
Andy Cresci §
Eb CL ARINET
BASS CL ARINET
T I M PA N I
Chris Cooper Robert Walker §
§ with BSO for more than 20 years
Jonathan Barritt Ruth Spicer Robert Harris § Kevin Pritchard Edward Lockwood
Heather Duncan Head of Concerts & Programming
Rebecca Goode Orchestra Manager
Helen Harris Librarian
Tulchan wishes Grange Park Opera a very successful 2012 Season
020 7353 4200 www.tulchangroup.com Capital Markets Communications
Grange Park Opera:Layout 1
“Keep your love of nature, for that is the true way to understand art better.” VINCENT VAN GOGH
E N J O Y C H A M P A G N E L A U R E N T- P E R R I E R R E S P O N S I B LY. l a u r e n t - p e r r i e r. c o m
In association with
Power and Allure
1st June 28th July 2012 Mon - Sat 10am - 5pm
4500 years of gold treasures from across Britain Discover gold treasures near you. www.thegoldtrail.co.uk ENTRANCE FREE The Goldsmithsâ€™ Company, Goldsmithsâ€™ Hall, Foster Lane, London EC2V 6BN
pickett_grange_park_ april.pdf 4/18/2012 1:24:19 PM
1533 Grange Park Opera Mag
RONALD PHILLIPS FINE ANTIQUE ENGLISH FURNITURE
A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD GIRANDOLES English, circa 1765 26 BRUTON STREET, LONDON W1J 6QL TEL: +44 (0)207 493 2341 ADVICE @ RONALDPHILLIPS.CO.UK
W W W. R O N A L D P H I L L I P S A N T I Q U E S . C O M
DEREK JOHNS LTD Wishes Grange Park Opera a very successful season
Thomas Hudson (Devon 1701 – 1779 Twickenham) Portrait of Georg Friedrich Händel, circa 1740, oil on canvas, 75.3 x 63.6 cm Derek Johns Ltd. 12 Duke Street St. James’s London SW1Y 6BN Tel: 0207 839 7671 Fax: 0207 930 0986 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.derekjohns.co.uk
STOCKBRIDGE SO20 6JX Tel. 01264 781851 email@example.com www.danebury.com
COSSACK VINTAGE 2005 Wine of the year 2011 & WVA Gold Cup Traditionally bottle fermented Minimum 5 years storage in a chalk cellar Produced from Auxerrois Blanc & Rulander grapes Superior taste with a fine mousse & elegant dry citrus finish
TO SUPPORT GRANGE PARK OPERA. Sandbourne Asset Management
Authorised and regulated by the Financial Services Authority
1690_1_Grange Opera Full Page Ad AW.indd 1
In search of excellence. In support of excellence.
Euromoney is the monthly magazine of the international financial markets. It's proud to support Grange Park Opera. Euromoney.com
Specialist insurance for: - High value homes - Galleries - Museums - Dealers - Private collections - Corporate collections - Artists
For a competitive quote or to find out more, go to:
Part of LONMAR GLOBAL RISKS LIMITED, a registered Lloydâ€™s broker. Authorised and regulated by the Financial Services Authority.
Boy fancies girl. Girl falls in love. Boy sails away. Girl waits and waits. Boy sails back. Miraculous change of heart. Happy ever after.
Seeing things differently. We
Grange Park Opera.
HIRSH L O N D O N
MAJESTIC NATURAL GREEN DIAMOND
Where Every Piece Is A Work Of Art www.hirshlondon.com
WEST END 56-57 BURLINGTON ARCADE W1J 0QN - T +44 (0)20 7499 6814 - CITY 9 HATTON GARDEN EC1N 8AH - T +44 (0)20 7831 3333
AS GOOD AS OUR WORD
Trust takes years to build, but only seconds to destroy.
Home and Business Insurance hiscox.co.uk/trust Policies are underwritten by Hiscox Underwriting Ltd on behalf of Hiscox Insurance Company Ltd, both of which are authorised and regulated by the Financial Services Authority. 9829 03/12
WELCOMES YOU With . . . ORCHESTRA BONBONS . . . OPERA ARIAS. . . Pagliacci
Si può? (The prologue)
Come due tizzi accesi Vision fugitive
Ya vas lyublyu
Ah! Per sempre io ti perdei Cortigiani, vil razza dannata
O vin, dissipe la tristesse
Wieder hinaus ins strahlende Licht
SONGS FROM THE SHOWS. . . Carousel
RODGERS & HAMMERSTEIN
If I loved you / Soliloquy
My Fair Lady
LERNER & LOEWE
Porgy & Bess
GEORGE & IRA GERSHWIN
On the street where you live
It ain’t necessarily so
RODGERS & HAMMERSTEIN
Oh, what a beautiful mornin
Night and Day
FORREST & WRIGHT / BORODIN
Stranger in Paradise
WARREN & DUBIN
I only have eyes for you
. . . and more surprises
side 15 t h bi r t hday c elebr at ion
bOUrnEMOUth SYMphOnY OrChEStr a CONDUCTOR
Grange Park on Monday 2 July 2012
Rambles with Simon Keenlyside Simon’s professional accomplishments are on the internet in technicolor. Leaving music aside, we asked this man of many talents and diverse interests, a few questions. >>>>>A most beautiful train journey? The hour along the estuary – Swansea - past Llanelli, Ferryside and ending up in Carmarthen......is probably my favourite...if only because it leads me home. And I dream of my little heaven in west Wales...most days of my life. I loved the beautiful steam-train from Glasgow to Fort William ending at the gateway to the Western Isles. As beautiful a place as anywhere on this earth >>>>>In which age would you have liked to live? This would be the age I would so love to live: 35,000 years ago. You can keep the whole modern era, the last 5,000 years. For me, the whole lot pales when compared with period before the last neanderthals disappear. Can you imagine the interaction between migrating groups of modern humans? Neanderthal communities: intelligent, social, different animals. Wonderful neaderthals who ruled the northern hemisphere for 200,000 years. They buried their dead...they used red ochre and ritual.... But what else they could or couldn’t do, isn’t yet clear. >>>>>Did neanderthal interbreed with homo sapiens? The argument sallies back and forth. And it seems there IS evidence of a significant degree of interbreeding between modern humans and their oh-so-close relations. However, as to whether the sub-species died out or interbred? I think the jury is still out. The evidence of neanderthal genes in our own modern human genome is there, but that doesn’t mean to say that they were entirely assimilated. The last evidence of them living separately is in northern Spain around 27,000 years ago. So close! How how many other hominids roamed the earth and stalked their evolutionary cul-de-sacs?
>>>>>Whittling I’m off with a small saw to cut a stem of broom that I saw from the train window as it slowed at West Acton. Why? Working recently with Jeffrey Tate in Hamburg (Schumann, wonderful Faust scenes) I saw that he was leaning his entire weight on a skinny little knotted stick. He tested me to see if I might guess the type of wood. I couldn’t. Jeffery told me that broom is quite the best wood for a walking stick. I thought I had seen an old broom plant in a field in Wales. But sadly…not. So .... Imagine my surprise dear reader... when being a general dogsbody and carrying a swatch of Wallpaper from here to there – Imagine my surprise when I saw an outcrop .... of straight stemmed broom....growing on the railway siding ...at West Acton. So...that is where I'm now going. Hopping over the iron railings...to possibly collect and fashion myself...either a nice straight walking stick....or a criminal record. If you wanted to get a good stick....made of broom... it would cost you many hundreds of pounds. My dad [Raymond Keenlyside, violinist, Aeolian string quartet] conked out this year. A few years ago when he fell in the river and couldn’t get out, I had a beautiful hardwood stick made for him. To my horror when went to collect it cost....500 smackers. True it had a silver top. When I gave it to him it was on the undestanding that when he conked out...I would have it back. I’d rather he had it...but there it is. I have it. Anyway... I had to shin over the railway bridge and ...spent a wonderful hour...perusing the convoluted stems of broom. Lovely striated bark. And no, the thing doesn't grow straight. Neither straight nor quickly. Whittling a stick is as good a project as any other.
>>>>Got any old train tickets - or a stamp collection? I would be a bit of a train spotter if I really did have an old train ticket. (Though, for real - I really really did meet Jenny Agutter in Orso a few weeks ago, after a Traviata performance. And she’s still a beautiful woman! So maybe that would count in lieu of an old railway ticket?) But I had a scrap book. Aged 8 and 9. Looking at it ... I’m not sure what my feelings are. Elation? Shame? And in that little mouldering paper folder...with ears punched tatty as used bus tickets, I found the two things you asked for. One .... is a stamp. I didn’t ever collect stamps. Though as a child of the 60’s, my father’s mother did send me a stamp album...which.......was never opened. The stamp I have, I found around 1968 whilst on a walk in the forest in West Wales. It was in a broken down cottage without a roof, right in the middle of the trees. Mature oak growing from right within the main room. The way through those woods was along a beautiful Tolkeinesque oak wood. My brother and I would follow the stream to a little village and lunch with my father’s friend - former oboist of the Philharmonia. The outside for ever and a day...doing .... stuff....in mud and water and woods and with wood and knives and bows. In the falling-down-house, I found a letter. I couldn't read it but ....there was a penny red stamp on the front. I didnt know what a penny red was at that time. Some of the boys in my choir school had mentioned that the stamp you want to find is a penny black. Obviously...leaning towards the red spectrum...this stamp wasn’t and isn’t that.... So there’s your stamp. And the ticket I have too. I kept it because the trip I made was a very important one to me. I was in my mid-teens and finding out about where I came from. All that stuff. I knew that my mother’s side were Jewish and I had regularly watched that stunning TV documentary, narrated by Lawrence Olivier The World at War. It was stimulus enough for me to want to go and see some of these places. So aged 16 (1976), I set off into Europe with my thumb as ticket. Once in Eastern Europe I headed for southern Poland. And this ticket is a train ticket that took me to East Berlin for the day. Through Checkpoint Charlie. I remember the great posters - unchanged some of them since the 50's. The great disrepair...and all the police presence. Personally, I wanted to inspect the sports centres. I was an athlete and wanted to see what facilities gave these runners such an edge. Coming back to the West a man jumped that train.... And to my surprise many people on the train shouted for his arrest. He hadn’t a hope: the station platform was lined with police and dogs...a dozen all along the platform. So...that’s my ticket.
>>>>Making wildflower meadows I’m working gently at my voice here in splendid isolation in my corner of heaven in West Wales. That and on my tractor, stripping the top soil and seeding two fields with wild flowers.
land sends up rocks...each year....and I have to check the tracks...that I mow...to avoid all the new massive boulders that have floated up. Some of which are so big...that I can’t move them. Where was I?
Why stripping top soil? Wild flowers do best in the poorest of soils. They cannot compete with grass so the more you can take off, the better it’ll be. I tried it in moderation a couple of years ago. Didn’t have the nerve to make such a terrible mess of a beautiful field.... so I did patches. And it was a wonder! Such vindication to watch the last handfuls of summer swallows....bank against the hedgerow and start their bombing-runs along the lines of flowers that had finally squeezed themselves out by late August and September. I needed to mow those areas hard for another 2 years...to give the wildflowers a chance to get their roots established. But I couldn’t. Now I am making a god awful mess of stripping the turf off a field. I’ve found a way of using the split bucket so that I can back-cut...and ..when I get it right...it cuts the turf, at around 5 inches deep – like a knife cuts butter – slowly slowly....But then... Trying to scrape up the cut turf... It’s proving a nightmare. It looks awful... Looks so easy when a digger driver does it. It’s not!!! Mine is now like the Somme...complete with shell holes from where I dug too hard. But I know the flowers won’t care ...so long as they don't have to compete with the grass. And I’ve got millions of seeds which must go in this weekend. The HARROW makes regular....the lumps and bumps, to an extent. I would liked to go over it a few more times... but its smooth enough anyway......And ... The other astonishing thing about the earth....is that it will all flow together within a year or so.
I am totally potty about the meadows and all. To feel the land...the substrate...the hedges...as you work with them....gives wonderful ...almost mysterious dividends. The boulders floating up to the surface, the earth flowing together again, the woodcock, hobby and goshawk...the barn owls and grouse... All coming along ...within the first season of work...and almost immediately the land changes... Mystifying. How the hell do they know? Where do they come from and how come they arrive so quickly. Not to mention the butterflies and moths. Where do they appear from? Some haven’t been there for at least 100 or more years. Or the bluebells...Which after ....again...100 years or more....of lying dormant with no chance of ever poking their heads up...a century of sheep grazing... Suddenly....there are thousands of bluebells... Which were waiting.....All along. I put in (or Zen‡ did) around 5,000.... And lo and behold...Another few thousand popped up..... Little little Lolitas....pouting and hand on the hip...all around my newly-planted ones. Fantastic. And...- can see in my mind’s eye.... A buzzing field...knee -deep in flowers and with beautiful little mown vole trails wiggling through my field....And in the middle ...a pub bench... And me with a book sitting there watching stuff. That is an ambition worth working for. I know it WILL happen. I must mow and mow for two years ....-
Not only will it flow together..... But great lumps of quartz.....boulders...Will float....FLOAT ..up to the surface (and kill the blades of my mower). It’s a miracle that the
‡ the clever, beautiful prima ballerina Zenaida Yanowsky – to whom Simon is married
>>>>You don't seem a party animal I never go to parties. I went to a fancy dress party once. But it was a huge thing... And I had been doing fundraisers for Royal Opera House. I was told that I really HAD to come in fancy dress. So....I did. I went and hired a costume. Ali baba type. And ...ROH made me up...and gave me a false nose.... We got out the taxi ...me and Zen... And to my utter horror....This is at the Dorchester ... Nobody...but nobody was in fancy dress. Zen turned to me ....And she said...“Well ...I’ll tell you one thing. You’re not gonna pull looking like that!” ... Almost as soon as she’d said that....and as we crossed the threshold of the hotel and came out of the revolving door.... a VERY busty young wannabee. With collagen lips and ...peroxide blonde ... Hit on me ... Straight away... And right in front of Zen.
>>>>A dead composer you would like to meet? I suspect that it must have been a wonderful thing to have been a friend of Mr Mozart. I would love to have talked to Hugo Wolf. Yes he was manic and ended up in a lunatic asylum. I live in awe of the speed he wrote some of his astonishingly beautiful songs in his times of lucidity. Songs which I have lived with all my adult life. Sometimes many miniature masterpieces written in a single day. I’ve often walked in the woods outside Vienna where some of these wonderful works were written. I’d love to repeat those walks with Hugo Wolf ...
But apart from one Superman shirt....all the men were in DJs. And...horror of horrors ..... I won the prize for the best outfit...and had to go up on stage....in front of Elton John and all these Hollywood stars...and I had to sing my lowest note...
Nicholas Kraemer CONDUCTOR
DIRECTOR/DESIGNER Supported by Terence & Sian Sinclair
Shelby Williams MOVEMENT
eng lish chamber o rchestr a LEADER Stephanie Gonley
Id ome ne o is ge nerously s upporte d by
David & Amanda Leathers Sarah & Tony Bolton Tony & Liv Lowrie Anonymous
oper a in three ac ts Text by the AbbĂŠ Varesco after a French opera by Campra and Danchet First performance Munich Residenz Theatre 29 January 1781 Performances at Grange Park on June 1, 9, 14, 22, 28 July 1 Sung in Italian with surtitles by Jonathan Burton
WOLFG ANG AM ADEUS MOZ ART 1756 1791
Id om e ne o, king of Cre te
H is s on , Id am ante
A r bace , the king â€™s conf id ant Ele ttr a , a G re e k prince s s Ilia , a Troj an prince s s d aug h ter of K ing Priam and held captive Voice of Ne ptune H ig h Prie s t of Ne ptune
Supported by Francois Freyeisen & Shunichi Kubo
Supported by Heike Munro
Supported by Martin & Jane Houston
Supported by Roger & Kate Holmes
Supported by William Charnley Her Act 2 aria is sponsored by David & Fiona Taylor
Supported by David & Simone Caukill
Id ome ne o Id ome ne o Id ome ne o 61
Th e Tr oj a n War s ar e in full s wing ! Th e K ing o f Cr e te , Id o m e n e o, is awa y f ig h ting for th e G r e e ks ag a in s t th e Tr oj a n s a n d h a s le f t h is s o n , Id a m a n te , to r ule in h is a bs e nce. Ele ttr a , a G r e e k prince s s , h a s falle n in love with Id a m a n te , bu t h is h e ar t be lo ng s to Ili a , a Tr oj a n prince s s h e ld pr is o n e r o n th e isla n d. Id o m e n e o, o n h is tr iu m p h a n t r e turn , is ca ug h t in a s torm a n d ple d g e s to N e p tu n e a s acrif ice â€“ o f th e f ir s t living th ing h e e nco u n te r s o n s h or e. A la s , it is h is s o n.
ACT ONE The captive princess Ilia reflects on her beloved Troy. She has a secret love for her captor, the prince Idamante. Their fathers were enemies. Idamante arrives to free the Trojan prisoners. Saddened by Ilia’s rejection of his love, he points out that Trojans and Cretans alike welcome the return of peace. The Greek princess Elettra is jealous of Ilia and berates Idamante for showing clemency toward enemy prisoners. Arbace, the king’s confidant, interrupts with the news that Idomeneo, the king, has been lost at sea. Elettra is tormented by the idea that Trojan Ilia could soon be Queen of Crete. The king has landed safely but realises the foolishness of the promise he made to Neptune in return for his safety: to sacrifice the first living creature he meets on shore. The king has not seen his son for many years and when Idamante arrives, he does not recognise him. Soon, however, he does and he orders Idamante never to seek him out. Idamante is grief-stricken by his father’s rejection. They sing the praises of Neptune for whom there will be a sacrifice.
ACT T WO Arbace advises the king that if Idamante went into exile immediately, a substitute could be sacrificed. Idomeneo orders his son to escort Elettra home to Greece. Ilia has lost everything. She is moved by the king’s kindness and says that he will be her father and Crete her country. Idomeneo realises that by saving his son he has brought Ilia great unhappiness. Though he has overcome the storm at sea, he is beset by an inner unease. Elettra welcomes the idea of going to Argos (the island not the shop) with Idamante. Idomeneo bids his son farewell and urges him to learn the art of ruling while he is away. Before the ship can sail another storm breaks out and a
monster appears. Taking this to be a message from the angry Neptune, the king offers himself as sacrifice. He atones for having defaulted on his pledge with the sea god.
Ilia asks the breezes to carry her love to Idamante. Her love for him is still a secret and she has no idea that he loves her. Idamante appears and explains that the monster is devastating the island. Despite the immense danger he must go to fight the creature. Besides, death is preferable to the torments of his unrequited love for Ilia. She too confesses her love. Elettra and Idomeneo arrive. Idamante asks his father why he is sending him away. Idomeneo can reply only that the youth must leave. Ilia asks for consolation from Elettra who is still bearing a grudge against the Trojan princess. The people, led by the High Priest of Neptune, are clamoring for the king. They want to be told the name of the person whose sacrifice is demanded by the god. The king confesses that his own son is the promised victim. The king prays that the god may be appeased. Arbace announces that Idamante has succeeded in killing the monster but Idomeneo fears further reprisals from Neptune. Idamante now understands his father’s dilemma and is ready to die. There is an agonising farewell. Idomeneo is about to sacrifice his son when Ilia intervenes, offering her own life instead. Neptune commands that Idomeneo yield the throne to Idamante and Ilia. Everyone is jubilant apart from Elettra. Idomeneo presents Idamante and his bride as the new rulers. The people call upon the god of love and marriage to bless the royal pair and bring peace.
Th is is m y belove d s on , in wh om I am well ple ase d If killing a child was the answer, what was the question? Michael Fontes makes suggestions THE STORY OF IDOMENEO comes from The Adventures of Télémaque, an allegorical novel by the astonishing Archbishop Fénelon of Cambrai (1651-1715). One of the most widely read and influential books of the 18th century, Télémaque inspired many imitations, including l’Abbé Jean Terrasson’s Sethos, itself the inspiration for The Magic Flute. Fénelon wrote his book primarily as a work of instruction for his pupil, the Duke of Burgundy, Louis XIV’s grandson, and second in line to the throne. Full of lively narrative and surprisingly republican sentiments, it trickled out, in rogue editions, in 1699, became enormously popular, and caused the witty archbishop to be permanently exiled to his diocese, a sentence deemed worse than death by the typical French courtier of the time. The Adventures of Télémaque presents Idomeneus, the fearsome Cretan warrior-king, as an infanticide. He murders his son as a sacrifice to Neptune because of his dangerous vow. Idomenée stands for Louis XIV in Fénelon’s book, and the story serves as an example to the young prince of how foolish it may be for a king to make a rash promise. Mozart wrote home to his sister from Bologna when he was fourteen saying that he was reading Télémaque, so the story would have been familiar. So would Fénelon himself, for Mozart’s father, Leopold, was a great admirer of the archbishop, and took young Wolfgang to Cambrai to visit Fénelon’s tomb in 1766, when the boy was ten. Many myths, fables, and religions present accounts of child sacrifice. However distasteful and disgusting it may seem, as an idea it clearly appeals to something profound in man. What was the question to which killing a child was the answer? Some have sought an explanation in the worries of primitive agricultural man in the face of natural phenomena, acts of a seemingly quixotic and angry god, like floods, thunderstorms, disease, earthquakes, and particularly in the face of his biggest recurrent problem, winter. Dependent on the land to provide all his needs, early man feared that when winter came it might stay, that
warm days would never return. David Hume argues that we cannot be certain that spring will follow winter, the way we can be that a bachelor is unmarried. The fact that we’ve always known it happen doesn’t mean that it’s bound to happen next year. Early agricultural man, reliant on renewed light and warmth to bring back greenness and food, worried about this. His life depended on it. For all that the modern food industry has abolished the seasons - we can buy asparagus and strawberries at Christmas - our lives depend upon it too. Greenness brought food and was, therefore, special, magical. We still have pubs called The Green Man to remind us of the time when a young person from the village was sent into the woods and told to return dressed in green, symbolizing the budding spring, as if by turning on all the lights in the streets we might make the day dawn more quickly. Each year we are reminded of our veneration for things green by our habit of bringing an evergreen tree into the house at Christmas, so that its ability to preserve its greenness, to defy winter, may transfer strength and prosperity, and apparent ability to withstand cold and darkness, to us, our house, and our family. The holly and the ivy, symbols of men (‘the holly bears a prickle’) and women, are both associated with Christmas, both evergreen, and both common in English woods in winter. Green became the colour of magic. The folk imagination saw Robin Hood as a magic figure, dressed traditionally in Lincoln green, ready to protect the poor people of Nottingham. In the story of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the Green Knight has his head chopped off by Sir Gawain at the Christmas Feast. He picks up his head by the hair and mounts his horse. Then the detached head speaks. There’s magic for you! Early peoples clearly and understandably associated the greenness of the trees and the grass with vigour and fruitfulness, and the magic of renewal and fertility. Psychologists tell us that light deprivation causes depression, depression that would have aggravated the
François de Salignac de la Mothe Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai Joseph Vivien (1657–1734) Munich Alte Pinakothek
natural anxiety felt in winter by agricultural man that warm days might not return. Psychologists also tell us that anxiety causes us to look for a scapegoat, for someone to blame. In hard economic times we blame the government. We vote for the other lot at elections, hoping that any change will be for the better, and perhaps that by making a sacrifice we will propitiate an angry god. Anti-European feeling in the UK becomes more acute in times of slow economic growth. More surprisingly, perhaps, we are also inclined to find scapegoats within our communities, to choose individuals or groups whom we can blame. Studies of anti-black violence in the southern United States at the end of the 19th century
show a striking correlation between falls in the price of cotton and rises in the number of lynchings of black men by whites. The word scapegoat itself suggests a victim. The ancient Syrians commonly sent a she-goat out into the wilderness, as a symbol of the expulsion of evil from the community. An alternative to expulsion was death, sacrifice. Man seems to have an inbuilt psychological tendency to think that he will escape danger if he slaughters an animal or a person to propitiate a god who has shown his anger by the withdrawal of light and warmth, as any turkey will tell you.
The idea takes several forms. Sometimes the scapegoat represents something evil or undesirable, something that we need to expunge from society. Alternatively, the scapegoat is an innocent victim, a lamb or a virgin girl, an offering chosen for its apparent purity, as if the blamelessness of the victim will make the sacrifice more significant in the eyes of the cruel god. Idomeneo’s sacrifice is of this second kind. Although he wasn’t to know that Idamante would be the first person he would meet, his vow was dangerous. Those who loved him most would be most concerned about his fate, and therefore most likely to be waiting anxiously on the shore. Almost all institutionalised superstitions present the expiatory sacrifice of an innocent victim as a means of atoning and of appeasing the gods. It’s there in most early societies; we find it among the Sumerians, Hebrews, Indians, Africans, Greeks and Romans. In the Americas, the Aztecs, anxious that the sun might not rise the next day, sacrificed enemy and friend alike at a rate beyond, some claim, the potential of the gas chambers of Auschwitz. Their sacrificial hymns talk of victims sent to death to plead for us, or consecrated to annul all sin. In the Bible, three kings sacrifice their sons: King Manasseh of Judah (7th century BC), King Ahaz of Judah (8th century BC) and King Mesha of Moab (9th century BC), who sacrificed his eldest son in the hope of victory in battle: And when the king of Moab saw that the battle was too sore for him, he took with him seven hundred men that drew swords, to break through even unto the king of Edom: but they could not. Then he took his eldest son that should have reigned in his stead, and offered him for a burnt offering upon the wall. And there was great indignation against Israel: and they departed from him, and returned to their own land. 2 Kings 3.26-7 The nearest parallel to Idomeneo is Jephthah, Judge of Israel, and hero of Handel’s oratorio. In Judges 11, before his battle with the Ammonites, Jephthah swore a terrible oath to God: If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands, then it shall be, that whatsoever
cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord’s, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering. Jephthah raised the stakes to make the vow more telling. Somone coming forth from the doors of his house to meet him would be someone he held dear. In the event, Jephthah meets his daughter, his only child. The girl asks for two months’ grace, that I may go down on the mountains ... and bewail my virginity. Having bewailed her virginity she returns from the mountains and is immolated, a fate too harsh in the eyes of the librettist of Handel’s Jephthah, where an angel intervenes and she is condemned instead to perpetual virginity. Thy daughter, Jephthah, thou must dedicate To God, in pure and virgin state fore’er. The parallels between Jephthah and Idomeneo ought not to surprise us because Fénelon based his story on Jephthah, as we might guess from the obedient responses of the two unfortunate children. My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the Lord, do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth; forasmuch as the Lord hath taken vengeance for thee of thine enemies, even of the children of Ammon. Judges 11, 36 My father, here I am. Your son is ready to die to appease the god; don’t provoke his anger. I die happy, because my death will guarantee your salvation. Strike, father. Have no fear of finding in me a son frightened of death, unworthy of you. Les Aventures de Télémaque, Book 5 The moving responses of these young people remind us also of Iphigenia, readily accepting her fate when she learns that her father Agamemnon has offended Artemis, who will not supply the winds needed for the fleet to leave Aulis unless Agamemnon sacrifices his daughter. We need also to consider the famous story of Abraham and Isaac. God commanded Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac. Abraham set out to obey God’s will, but an angel intervened at the climactic moment and Isaac was saved.
Sacrifice of Isaac 1603 Caravaggio (1571-1610) Uffizi, Florence
The symbolism of the story has caused much dispute. We may say to ourselves that Isaac was the typical pure child, the classic sacrificial victim, yet Talmudic scholars hold that he was 37 at the time - they also say that his mother, Sarah, was 90 when he was born, and died at the age of 127. Even if we reject this Talmudic view as far-fetched, we cannot forget that the Bible says that Isaac walked with his father into Mount Moriah carrying the load of wood necessary for the fire. He was clearly closer to being a teenager than a babe in arms. Rembrandt and Caravaggio got this right.
authority, of Abraham to his god’s command, and of Isaac to that of his father. In Mozart’s opera, Idamante shows a similar willingness to submit to the painful consequences, once he discovers, in the third act, the nature of his father’s vow to Neptune.
However, child sacrifice was widely practised by the early Semitic peoples. Maybe we should regard the story as a none-too-subtle piece of propaganda against the practice. The story’s most remarkable and moving element is its presentation of double compliance to
Oswiu bound himself by vow, in case he should be victorious, to consecrate to God his daughter Enfleda, then only one year old, and give with her twelve portions of land to build and endow monasteries. God heard his vow, and Oswiu, with an inferior army, defeated and slew the tyrant near
Roger of Wendover tells us that in AD 655 the Northumbrian King Oswiu made a more gentle vow about the outcome of the battle of Winwidfield, at Garforth near Leeds, against the ‘barbarous’ (ie pagan) Penda, King of Mercia.
Loyden, now Leeds in Yorkshire. The place of this battle was called Winwidfield or Field of Victory; situated on the river Winuaed, now Aire. In Britten’s Billy Budd, based on Herman Melville’s terrifying story, we have all felt that Billy is being sacrificed by Captain Vere, to cleanse the ship of Taggart’s evil. E M Forster, one of the librettists, made this explicit when he said that Billy’s goodness was of the glowing, aggressive sort which cannot exist unless it has evil to consume. When Billy strikes Claggart, Vere exclaims, Struck dead by the angel of God! Yet the angel must hang! Vere later admits that he could have escaped from the stranglehold of naval law and saved Billy, adding that he has himself been saved by Billy’s open forgiveness of him when the hanging took place. The role of Billy as the atoning sacrificial victim is clear, but we cannot escape the impression that Britten wanted Vere to bear much of the moral impact of the opera because Peter Pears was singing the part. Britten also created the part of Abraham in his canticle Abraham & Isaac for Pears.
2011, presidential candidate Michele Bachmann, the Republican representative for Minnesota, and founder member of the House Tea Party Caucus, addressed a political rally in Florida. She said that Hurricane Irene and the earthquake felt along much of the East Coast were messages from God to warn “politicians” to start heeding divine guidance, which she suggested is being channelled through small government conservatives. “I don’t know how much God has to do to get the attention of the politicians. We’ve had an earthquake; we’ve had a hurricane. He said, ‘Are you going to start listening to me here?’” We shall find out in November whether President Obama will become their sacrificial victim.
Many different religions hold that their god, often publicly and ritually sacrificed, rose from the dead. We inevitably sense a link between the atoning sacrifice followed by resurrection, and winter followed by the return of greenness and warmth. Primitive man felt he needed to make a grand gesture to appease the wrathful god. Only then could he be confident that winter would end, and the world be resurrected, come back to life. No gesture could be greater than sacrificing what you hold most dear, your child. In some religions the link between ritual sacrifice and renewal is explicit. Followers of the Mithraic Mysteries, widely practised across the Roman Empire, held that when Mithra sacrificed the sacred bull created by the supreme deity, Ahura Mazda, the body of the dying bull gave forth plants, animals, and all the beneficial things of the earth. If these ideas are fundamental to most human societies, we should expect to find the themes of Idomeneo in our own. We don’t need to look very far. At the end of December
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart c 1780 minature
1762 Leopold spends 100fl on a fine carriage 1780 Commission fee for Idomeneo 60 ducats (=270fl)
On retirement, Leopold’s salary was 500 fl – roughly on a par with a Salzburg tradesman 1786 Commission fee for Figaro 450fl 1787 Leopold dies and leaves Wolfgang 1,000 fl 1789 Commission fee for Così 850fl 1790 Prince Lichnowsky brought a court case against
Mozart for 1,435fl Mozart lost
Currency and values
Florins and gulden were the same thing 1 ducat approx = 4.5fl Günter G Bauer, Professor Emeritus of the Mozarteum gives detail on income and outgoings of the Mozart household in his book Mozart. Geld, Ruhm und Ehre He suggests that 1fl = £25 of today’s money The carriage purchased in Pressburg was £2,500 For Idomeneo he was paid £6,750 Leopold’s salary was £12,500 For Figaro he was paid £11,250 For Cosi he was paid £21,250 But in terms of services and goods that could be bought in 1770, perhaps £25 is on the low side
The Ro ad to Id om e ne o Munich had offered Mozart 60 ducats for the new opera Idomeneo. On 5 November 1780 he took the mail coach from Salzburg and the 110 miles was covered in one hectic day. ‘After Wasserburg I really didn’t think I would bring my arse to Munich in one piece’. The life of a successful musician was often on the road. Adrian Mourby gives an idea of how bumpy it was. GIVEN THE LACK OF RAILWAYS - and even decent roads - in Mozart’s time, the composer of Idomeneo was a relentless and plucky traveller. Old Leopold Mozart (1719–1787), ailing but desperately ambitious, knew that to get patronage for his musical son he had to hoik the young Amadeus round any European court that would receive him. Fortunately, Leopold had a post at the Salzburg court and he used this to make connections, particularly amongst the all-powerful Habsburgs. In the 18th century there was a relative or employee of Empress Maria Theresa dominating most cities south of Vienna and well into Italy. Count Karl Joseph von Firmian was particularly useful to Leopold. Not only a keen musiclover and the Empress’ plenipotentiary in Northern Italy, he was the nephew of the very same Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg who had given 24-year-old Leopold his first court position as fourth violinist at a salary of 240fl. By 1862 Leopold was a second violinist – about to be promoted to deputy Kapellmeister – when he took the family to Pressburg “at the request of the Hungarian nobility”. So confident was he of their future that he decided to purchase his own coach: a fine model for 100fl. On Saturday 24 December at 8.30am the family set off from Pressburg and travelled the 30 miles to Vienna in 12 hours. Wolfgang enthralled the Empress and she famously dandled him on her knee.
son’s compositions, Leopold would journey forth with young Wolfgang in tow for months, sometimes years, on end. On the Great Western Tour of 1763 the family (Wolfgang, 7 and Nannerl, 11) was away for three and a half years rattling about the rutted roads of Europe in the Pressburg purchase. [Estimates of profits of this tour are 12,500fl – 16,000fl] Usually father and son travelled together without a servant. It was cheaper to hire local porters and even a cook. Besides, a servant needed feeding and Leopold’s intention was to receive sustenance from his hosts as often as possible. Preparing the itinerary was one challenge but travelling from A to B was quite another. In December 1769, father and son were off to Italy for the first time. Leopold judged the old Pressburg coach wouldn’t cope with the snowstorms expected south of Innsbruck and so he was obliged to hire a coach and driver. On the plus side, the level of comfort was much better than either Mozart expected. ‘As warm as a room’, Wolfgang wrote to his sister. It took the pair three days to reach Innsbruck, travelling 116 miles along two river valleys. It’s a journey that today takes just over two hours by car.
Using men like von Firmian, Leopold would spend months preparing for a journey. It was important that the young prodigy from Salzburg was welcomed into and fêted at the houses of the most important people in each town or city where father and son landed. This was a time-consuming business. The state of the roads across Europe was improving but letterpost travelled at three miles per hour, - four mph on a ‘post road’ built for rapid communication within the Habsburg empire. Fresh teams were kept at posts usually 20 miles apart. Six hours on an 18th century road was enough for most horses. A letter to Milan could take weeks to be answered. Having set up a trip, furnished himself with letters of introduction and credit and bundled up copies of his
Food was another issue. On that short initial journey the Mozarts were fortunate to be fed and lodged one night by the Prefect of Lofer who was able to give them ‘a fine room and a good bed’ according to Wolfgang, but at Kalterl in the mountains, Leopold recorded gloomily, ‘We had some potted veal for lunch accompanied by the most fearful smell; we washed it down with a few draughts of good beer as the wine was no better than a laxative.’ Pot luck on the road could be no luck at all. Arriving in Innsbruck at 5.30 in the afternoon, things began to look up. It had already been well-advertised that the deputy Kapellmeister of Salzburg’s PrinceArchbishop would be arriving that month with his astonishing teenage son. The Mayor of Innsbruck, Jacob Phillip Pichler personally welcomed the Mozarts and escorted them to the hotel he owned. This was the kind of treatment that Leopold worked hard to ensure greeted them at every stop. ‘We are well, thank God,’ he wrote to his wife. ‘We are lodging at the Weisses Kreuz.’ Because travelling was such an uncertain science, Leopold had not committed to an immediate performance. On arriving at the inn he sent a note to Count Johann Spaur, brother of a canon of Salzburg Cathedral, to announce the prodigy’s arrival. He was relieved to receive an invitation by return confirming that the vice-president of the provincial government, Count Leopold Franz Künigl was inviting the new arrivals to give a concert at his home two days later. The aristocracy turned out in good numbers that evening and Leopold recorded that he received 12 ducats as an honorarium. After Innsbruck young Mozart wouldn’t perform again for another eight days, in Rovereto, south of Trento, after a terrible journey over the Brenner Pass. ‘Nothing but dressing and undressing, packing and unpacking’ Leopold complained. ‘And, in addition, no warm room; freezing like a dog everything you touch is ice cold.’ The trip lasted 15 months and probably ended up in profit.
From 1772 there was a new Prince-Archbishop, Hieronymus Colloredo. He was less accommodating of the Mozarts' irrepressible desire to travel. However, in March 1773 he gave Wolfgang a post as a court musician at a measly salary of 150 fl. By 1777 the young composer had had enough of Leopold’s intensely controlling ways. Desperate to get out of the Salzburg feudal backwater and insulted by the pitiful salary, in August he resigned his position at court and the following month set off in search of patronage and glory – and hopefully another job - with his mother as companion. It was a compromise as Papa was adamant that someone must look after the family’s great hope. Mozart revelled in his new freedom, claiming he knew ‘how to deal with postillions, porters and the like.’ Travelling in the family coach it took mother and son just two days to travel the 110 miles to Munich via Wasserburg where they spent the night queued up to cross the river Inn. This was a major road, vital for trade between Munich, Salzburg and Italy. Mother and son took a room at Franz Joseph Albert’s Hotel and after six days of enjoying the big city and networking, Mozart managed to arrange what he had come for; an ‘informal’ encounter with the Elector of Bavaria, Maximillian III Joseph on his way to Mass. Though he called Mozart ‘my dear child’, the Elector made it clear there was no vacancy at the Bavarian court. Despite failing in their mission, Mozart and his mother stayed on, much to Leopold’s annoyance: ‘You cannot loll about at Albert’s consuming money and losing time,’ he wrote, ‘Pretty words, epigrams of praise and cries of “Bravissimo” pay neither coachmen nor innkeepers’. Once the Elector and his court had left Munich, Leopold virtually ordered his wife and son to try their luck in Augsburg, only a day’s ride north. He even recommended a hotel to them, the Zum weissen Lamm which he knew to be cheaper than many. ‘I am busy packing which tires me no end,’ Anna Maria complained to her husband. ‘I am doing it all myself; Wolfgang cannot help me in the slightest way. I could shove my feet into my snout for exhaustion.’ Left to their own devices mother and son were simply
incapable of working as hard as Leopold wished. They idled so long in Munich and Augsburg that they missed Prince Taxis, who was the only possible patron on the road to Mannheim. It was in Mannheim that Anna Maria’s health began to decline. A life on the road was not ideal for a 57-year-old woman whose funds were dwindling and whose son was not succeeding in bringing in an income. ‘I am at home alone,’ she wrote to Leopold one night when Mozart was off socialising again. The poor woman could afford to eat and drink only sparingly and she did not keep a fire in her room unless she was dressing or undressing. From Mannheim Mozart was supposed to proceed to Paris, but his mother’s ill-health and the discovery of the attractive Weber sisters delayed that arrangement. Eventually Nannerl (aged a marriageable 26 and no longer able to continue her career as an excellent keyboard player) offered to refinance the tour from her savings and Leopold was able to send fresh letters of credit from Salzburg. 7 March 1778, Mannheim, Wolfgang to his father I have now set all my hopes on Paris, for the German princes are all niggards. .. Now to the journey. A week today we
leave here. We are unfortunate as regards the sale of the carriage and have found no buyer to date. We shall have to be content if we get four louis d’or for it. People here advise us, if we cannot dispose of the carriage, to hire a hackney coachman and drive in it as far as Strasburg for it should be easier to sell it there. However, as it is cheaper to travel post I shall leave the carriage here in charge of honest people You must know that since this is not a commercial town no carriers go to Paris and everthing is sent by the post. I am told that the fare from here to Strasburg is half a louis-d’or for each passenger, so I think it should not cost us more than 15 gulden in all. After four and a half wasted months (certainly in Leopold’s eyes) the couple set off for Paris via Metz - a journey of nine days in fine weather. The Mozarts took ten because of a bad storm as they neared Paris. ‘We got soaking wet in the carriage and could scarcely breathe,’ Anna Maria wrote. ‘The wind and the rain almost choked and drowned us.’ To finance their stay in Paris, the couple had already presold the family coach to the driver. He would claim it
from them on their arrival at Rue Bourg l’Abbé. This was not an unusual arrangement, but the Mozarts didn’t do very well by it as the driver had had to attach a new chassis to the coach before such a long journey could be contemplated. They also, annoyingly, had to pay duty of 38 sous on Mozart’s manuscript paper on passing through French customs. In Paris hopes of a major commission failed to materialise, although Mozart did get some of his music played at the Opéra (11 June). He made a study of the Parisian style; something that would bear fruit in Idomeneo. Disaster struck on 3 July 1778. Anna Maria Mozart died, leaving Mozart alone for the first time in his life. To Abbé Bullinger ‘ for your eyes alone . . . This has been the saddest day of my life . . my dear mother is no more.’ He asks the Abbé not to tell his father but to prepare him. Six days later Wolfgang tells his father.. Despite all Wolfgang’s delaying tactics, he was obliged to leave Paris in September, travelling the cheapest way possible in a diligence, the French equivalent of stage coach. This invariably crowded covered wagon transported passengers and goods and was drawn by four horses and the most common form of public transport in Europe before the railways. The journey to
Strasburg should have been completed in five days but the driver admitted he would take ten. ‘He goes inch by inch,’ Mozart recorded. ‘And doesn’t change horses.’ The lack of fresh teams meant that each day the diligence could travel fewer and fewer miles. The compartment was crowded and the stagecoach schedule allowed for only a few hours sleep each night at a coaching inn. Worst of all Wolfgang was shocked to discover that one of the passengers squeezed in alongside him had syphilis; ‘the French disease, he did not even deny it!’ Eventually when the coach stopped at Nancy, Wolfgang got out and refused to get back on board. He spent a week enjoying the city’s airy squares and arrived 10 days later into Strasburg. Though ordered home, he headed for Mannheim and then Munich where he spent Christmas with the Weber family. [Aloysia was offered a salary of 1,000fl by Munich in 1778]. Leopold wrote angrily to him ‘You departed Paris on 26 September. Had you travelled directly to Salzburg I could have paid off 100 fl of our debts!’ Turned down by Aloysia Weber, and not yet thinking about her sister Constanze, Wolfgang gave up on his bid for independence and agreed to return to Salzburg. Leopold was able to sweeten the deal by prevailing on Herr Gschwendtner, a family friend with a soft spot for Nannerl, to collect Wolfgang from Munich in ‘his very
comfortable carriage’. On 15 January 1779 the wunderkind was home after 15 months away. POSTSCRIPT
Mozart had in all likelihood had enough of life on the 18th century road. Fighting with porters, drivers, hosts and innkeepers was one thing. Fighting Leopold something else. Meanwhile, old anxious Leopold had been laying plans to get Mozart a position back at the Salzburg court. Two days after his arrival, Colloredo ‘graciously retained and admitted the suppliant’ – and re-employed him as court organist and concertmaster, carrying a salary of 450fl which he could supplement with performance fees and commissions.
In January 1781, Idomeneo premiere with ‘considerable success’ in Munich and Mozart returns to Salzburg. Two months later, the Archbishop summons him to Vienna, where he is attending the coronation of Joseph II. Wolfgang is offered a fee of 220fl to perform for Countess Thun, but Colloredo refuses permission and refuses to accept Mozart’s resignation. In June, however, permission to resign is granted. Colloredo’s steward literally kicks him down the stairs of the Residenz and out of Salzburg.
Eighteen months after giving up his struggle for independence, this Archbishop’s organist was summoned to Munich by the new Elector. Karl Theodore wanted a new opera for a court carnival and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was his chosen composer for a handsome fee of 60 ducats. On 5 November 1780 Mozart departed from Salzburg on the mail coach, which could complete the journey in one hectic day. Though he grumbled ‘After Wasserburg I really didn’t think I would bring my arse to Munich in one piece’ he was happy, a number of choruses for Idomeneo already parcelled up in his luggage.
The next year he marries Aloysia’s sister Constanze.
Mozart was back on the road again.
In 1784 Nannerl marries a wealthy magistrate, Johann Baptist Franz von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg and moves to St. Gilgen, 29km east of Salzburg. Berchtold, twice a widower, has five children and Nannerl bears him three. She gave her own son (Leopold b1785) to her father to raise. Her father dies in 1787 and Wolfgang in 1791. Constanze lived on to 1842 but just missed the train. By 1848 it was possible to travel by rail throughout northern Europe.
CONDUCTOR Supported by Mrs T Landon
Eugene Onegin is supported by CHI
in their 7th year of sponsorship
Francis O’Connor DESIGNER
o RCH ESTR A o f NE vIll H o lT LEADER Megan Pound
lYRIC SCENES IN THREE AC TS Text by Konstantin Shilovsky, the composer and his brother Modest based on the novel in rhyming verse by Alexander Pushkin (1799–1837) First performance Maly Theatre, Moscow, 29/17 March 1879 Performances at Nevill Holt on July 5, 7, 8, 10 Sung in Russian with surtitles
PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSK Y 1840 1893
Eugene Onegin TATYANA OLGA HER SISTER MADAM LARINA THEIR MOTHER LENSKY OLGA's FIANCÉ EUGENE ONEGIN LENSKY's FRIEND FILIPYEVNA PRINCE GREMIN
Supported by Ian & Clare Maurice
Supported by an anonymous donor
Alexia Mankovskaya Anthony Flaum
Supported by John & Carol Wates
Supported by the David Laing Foundation
Miriam Sharrad Matthew Stiff
Michael Budd Bianca Hopkins David Murley Sarah O’Connell Lauren Poulton Damien Lee Stirk
Tatyana, a dreamer, falls in love with the glamorous Onegin whose arrogance conceals an inability to love. The peaceful household is destroyed when Onegin kills his friend Lensky. Years pass and Onegin meets Tatyana, now married to a prince. Her poise entrances Onegin. But he has missed his moment.
ACT ONE On the country estate of the widowed Madam Larina, they celebrate the harvest. Madam Larina’s daughter Olga teases her older sister Tatyana for avoiding the fun; she prefers romantic novels. Olga’s fiancé, the poet Lensky, arrives with his friend Eugene Onegin. Onegin asks Tatyana how she tolerates the boredom of country life. Unnerved by his good looks and elegance, she struggles to answer. In her bedroom, Tatyana persuades her nurse Filipyevna to speak about her own marriage. Tatyana admits she is in love. Alone, she sits up all night writing a passionate letter to Onegin. At dawn she gives the letter to Filipyevna to deliver. In the garden. Tatyana and Onegin have a difficult conversation. He has received the letter and his response is measured. He admits he was touched by her letter, but predicts that he would quickly tire of her and can, therefore, only offer friendship. He leaves with a barbed remark that she take better control of her emotions. ACT TWO Some time later, it is Tatyana’s name day and a party is underway. Onegin dances with her but is bored by the guests’ provincial ways. Annoyed with Lensky for having dragged him there, Onegin dances with Olga whose head is turned by his charm. Monsieur Triquet serenades Tatyana with a song he has written for her. The dancing resumes and Lensky erupts in jealousy and quarrels with Onegin for flirting with Olga. Larina begs them to be calm, but Lensky cannot curb his rage. Onegin accepts his challenge to a duel. Lensky waits for Onegin at the appointed spot. He reflects on the folly of his life and imagines Olga visiting his grave. Onegin finally arrives, and they agree that the duel is pointless. They would prefer to laugh together than to fight, but honour must be satisfied. Onegin kills Lensky.
INTERVAL ACT THREE Years later. A ball at the Gremin Palace, St Petersburg Onegin has travelled the world seeking a meaning in life. He has found nothing and he is back where he began, socialising. Suddenly he notices Tatyana, bearing herself with great dignity. She is no longer the country girl. Questioning his cousin, Prince Gremin, he is told that Gremin has married Tatyana. Gremin introduces Onegin to his wife and Tatyana maintains her composure. Onegin realises that he is in love with Tatyana. The following day, Tatyana receives an impassioned letter from Onegin. He rushes in and falls at her feet. She maintains her poise and asks if it is her status that now makes her attractive. She remembers days when they might have been happy, but that time has passed. Onegin reiterates his love. Faltering for a moment, Tatyana admits that she still loves him, but she will not leave her husband and ruin her life. Onegin is left, regretting his foolish past and an empty future. .
Duel in the Snow Cast aside Hollywood ideas of the contestants starting back–to–back. The Code Duello had been drawn up in 1777 by gentlemen of Tipperary, Galway, Sligo, Mayo and Roscommon and had come to apply all over Europe. Michael Fontes offers advice to would–be duellists. THE AUTHOR OF Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades, Alexander Pushkin, Russia’s greatest poet, died after a duel. Struck by a bullet to the lower abdomen, he succumbed to traumatic peritonitis in terrible agony two days later, on January 29 th (old style) 1837, at the age of 37. The fact lends striking irony to the duel in Eugene Onegin, where Onegin kills his friend Lensky. Pushkin was one of the great poets of all time. Russians point out that his genius lay not so much in the originality of his stories as in the magic combination in his Russian of music and rhythm and allusion. He’s as untranslatable as Shakespeare or Racine. The rich harmonies, the dancing wit and the extraordinary verbal dexterity cannot be conserved. Pushkin acted as an inspiration to most later Russian writers. We hear the rustle of Tatyana’s dress when we meet Tolstoy’s enchanting Natasha Rostov in War and Peace. Gogol, who knew Pushkin, said of him: All that brought joy to my life, all that gave me greatest pleasure, vanished with him . . . I did not write a single line without imagining him standing before me. What would he say of it? What would he notice? What would make him laugh? More than all others, he has pushed back the boundaries of the Russian language and shown all its spaciousness. Before Pushkin, the Russian language had not been considered suitable for literature at all. The long words, each with its single strong accent, pose daunting problems for a poet. The court spoke French. Pushkin’s sharpness of intuition, his deeply nuanced language, and his sensitivity to historical and political issues, explain the reverence felt for him, and that reverence should not be underestimated: the Russian adoration of Pushkin has no equal in the modern literary world. No other writer excites in a people such deeply personal, almost familial, feelings as ordinary Russians show for Pushkin, who expressed miraculously well what they most strongly felt. He was a voice crying in the wilderness, a call to freedom and for human values in despotic times, and the prime mover, through his works, in the forging of a consciousness of what it means to be Russian.
Pushkin was strong on irony. At the end of his verse novel, he talks of the benefits of dying young and takes as abrupt a goodbye of his readers as he did of life: Blest he who’s left the hurly-burly of life’s repast betimes, nor sought to drain its beaker down, nor thought of finishing its book, but early has wished it an abrupt goodbye -and, with my Eugene, so have I. Last lines of Eugene Onegin (1831), Translation Charles Johnston
Pushkin was not destined to live long. He may, in many people’s view, have been as gifted as Shakespeare, but he was also irascible, depressive, libidinous, scatological, spendthrift, tiny - five foot six, and both ugly and foppish, given to sporting a fez and Turkish pantaloons. Often hugely entertaining, he was also quick to give offence and to take it. Many women found Pushkin’s sexual importunacy repelling, but many succumbed nevertheless, or maybe as a result. He kept written records and was to say when he found his wife that she was his 113th woman. He was vulnerable. He bragged of his descent from six hundred years of aristocrats, yet everyone knew that his mother was the grand-daughter of Gannibal, the black slave given as a present to Peter the Great, a black slave of great gifts who became a general and Russia’s foremost military engineer. Pushkin was a compulsive duellist, who walked about public gardens swinging an 18-pound cudgel to strengthen his pistol arm. He became a crack shot and was entirely familiar with the complicated procedure for duels. When away from the capital, he kept in trim by firing off a hundred rounds a day. He challenged others on at least fifteen occasions and was called out himself six times. Through the intercession of his seconds, only four of these challenges turned into actual confrontations. He treated duels as glibly as does Eugene. In the middle of his duel with Wilhelm Küchelbecker, the Decembrist, whom he’d known since their time at the Lyceum together, Pushkin shouted to Baron Delvig, his opponent’s second and
Wing of a blue roller 1512 Albrecth Dürer (1471-1528)
another schoolmate: ‘Delvig! Come and stand where I am; it’s safer over here.’ Küchelbecker fired first and missed. Pushkin fired into the air, as he did on at least one of the other occasions. The cause of his final duel could not have been more sordid or banal. His beautiful and flirtatious young wife, Natalia, whom he had married in 1831, when she was nineteen, had become a source of potential offence to the madcap poet. Already anxious about her fidelity to him and very heavily in debt, Pushkin itched under the constraints imposed on him by the Tsar. Conscious of the poet’s eminence and concerned about his anarchic and liberal views, Tsar Nicholas had appointed himself Pushkin’s personal censor and protector. For the poet this meant an absurd uniform, a need to attend court functions, and the inevitable and deeply resented feeling that he was being watched.
Pushkin persuaded himself, maybe correctly, that his wife was having an affair with Georges-Charles d’Anthès, a French royalist émigré, who had been formally (with the consent of his father) adopted by a homosexual lover, Baron van Heeckeren, the Dutch Ambassador to St Petersburg. The ambassador, some said, had picked up the young Frenchman at an inn in a small German town. Angry at the public attention being paid to his wife, Pushkin started circulating vicious rumours about the homosexual pair. Van Heeckeren became anxious that his protégé, who stood up for the older man, might be killed in a duel with Pushkin, and tried to effect a reconciliation, or at least a truce, by arranging a marriage between d’Anthès and Natalia’s sister, who adored the young Frenchman. Pushkin was not led by this marriage to doubt that Natalia was the real object of d’Anthès’ interest, and a confrontation became inevitable when Pushkin and many of his acquaintances received copies of an anonymous letter saying that he was a cuckold,
or, more provocatively, that he was Acting Grand Master of the Order of Cuckolds. Pushkin, who didn’t really need provocation to take offence, replied with a letter to the Dutch Ambassador, accusing van Heeckeren of pimping his adoptive son (‘Like some filthy old harpy, you have been sidling up to my wife in corners to urge the suit of your bastard’). He seems to have convinced himself that d’Anthès had married the sister to get closer to Natalia, which gives an interesting insight into St Petersburg life at the time, as does the fact that Pushkin’s diary suggests that the poet inquired of the local prostitutes whether there was physical evidence of the ambassador’s attentions to the young Frenchman. Pushkin was clearly serious about this final duel, fixed for five in the afternoon, for he chose as his second a friend he knew would not try to dissuade him. He behaved very like Eugene on the fatal day, sleeping late, breakfasting at eleven with his family, stopping on his way for a lemonade at the fashionable Wolf et Beranget Confectionery on Nevsky Prospekt. The Literary Café now
in the building boasts a perfectly hideous wax figure of the poet at a window table. The shots were exchanged in a snowy field near the frozen Neva. D’Anthès fired first. Pushkin, knocked over by a severe wound to the abdomen, managed to raise himself onto an elbow and fire his own shot, which lightly wounded D’Anthès in the arm. Given Pushkin’s prowess with a pistol, and his hatred of his adversary, people have wondered if D’Anthès was wearing steel protection of some kind. D’Anthès’ friends suggested that Pushkin’s shot glanced off a button. People have also wondered if Pushkin could have been saved had he been taken to a hospital. The bullet penetrated the right pelvic bone, continued through the lower abdomen, and crushed the right part of the sacral bone. Given the gravity of the injury, doctors today agree that only extensive modern abdominal surgery, combined with antibiotics, could have saved the poet’s life. His suffering must have been appalling. People did not recover from such injuries in 1837. D’Anthès was sentenced to hang and then exiled to France. He showed deep affection for his wife until her death in 1843 following the birth of their fourth child. One of his daughters went mad and turned her room into a shrine to Pushkin, but D’Anthès himself flourished. He became a respected French senator and a well-known figure in the Parisian beau-monde. He died in November 1895, aged eighty-three. Every true Russian still spits on the ground at the mention of his name, a tradition which started soon after Pushkin’s death. In Russia by Pushkin’s time, pistols were the norm in duels, and the rules, codified by the Irish, had come to apply all over Europe. The Code Duello had been drawn up and settled at Clonmel Summer Assizes of 1777 by gentlemen-delegates of Tipperary, Galway, Sligo, Mayo and Roscommon, and prescribed for general adoption throughout Ireland. We need to cast aside Hollywood ideas of the contestants starting back-to-back and walking away from each other. The contestants faced each other across a barrier,
Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d’Anthès
Pushkin’s wife, Natalia Nikolaevna Pushkina (née Goncharova) painted in 1849 more than a decade after the poet’s death by Ivan Makarov
a no-man’s land marked out by stakes. They each started some agreed distance from the barrier and walked towards their end of it, aiming at each other as they walked. Traditionally the person challenged had the right to fire first and he needed then to stand his ground to receive the shot of his adversary. The loading of the pistols and the other details for the duel were determined at a prior meeting of the seconds. Here in outline are four rules among many so agreed for Pushkin’s final duel: 1. The two adversaries will be placed twenty paces apart, each five paces from the barrier, which will be ten paces wide between them. 2. Each having a pistol, they shall upon the signal given, advance towards the barrier if they wish, but neither must go beyond it. 3. It is further agreed that he who fires first must in no way change his place, so that he should accept to be fired upon from the same distance as he himself fired. 4. If when both parties have fired the business remains unresolved, they shall restart the duel, each returning to his original place, twenty paces from the other.
RIGHT A pistol by Perin Le Page, Paris c1840 BELOW The duel Ilia Efimovich Repin (1844–1930)
The seconds agreed that they could use different pistols, judging the two weapons equal in power. Like Eugene, Pushkin used a Le Page pistol made in Paris. He had pawned silver to obtain a pair. Pushkin liked high-quality French products, like Breguet watches and Le Page pistols; both are mentioned by name in Eugene Onegin. Pushkin must have had a weapon like this in mind for Herman to take with him to the old Countess’s bedroom. D’Anthès used a pistol made in Dresden, from a pair borrowed from Ernest de Barante, the younger son of the French Ambassador to St Petersburg. Barante’s pistols have found their way back to France and can now be seen in the Musée de la Poste in Amboise. By a bizarre coincidence, Barante, who lent the fatal pistol, was himself to fight a duel with Lermontov, author of A Hero of our Time, and, after Pushkin’s death, Russia’s leading poet and writer. We wonder why the Russian authorities did so little to prevent émigré Frenchmen mowing down their country’s leading poets. Some writers have not been able to resist the lie that the same pistol killed both Pushkin and Lermontov, but in fact Lermontov survived his duel with Barante, fought
first with swords and then with pistols. As a result of the duel he was exiled to the provinces; he joined the army which was fighting in the Caucasus. There he directed a quip too far at a brother officer, Nikolai Martynov, and died in a duel with him. Like Pushkin, Lermontov made the hero of his great novel, Pechorin, kill a friend in a duel, in this case fought at the edge of a cliff, so that the loser’s death could be explained as an accident. These duelling pistols used the percussion cap system developed by a Scottish Presbyterian minister, Alexander John Forsyth (1768-1843) early in the 19th century. Le Page had adopted the principle for pistols in 1807. Forsyth, a keen wildfowler, was irritated by the flintlock’s flash in the pan, which gave warning to the duck he was intending to massacre. He was, therefore, keen to develop a more stealthy system of ignition. As often happens, an invention designed to overcome one difficulty overcame others too; the percussion-lock, which used a small percussion cap, was much more reliable and weatherproof than the flint-lock, to the point that Napoleon offered Forsyth £20,000 to come to France. Fortunately for Wellington ten years later, Forsyth declined, even though Lord Chatham, John Pitt, brother of William Pitt the younger, the Master of Ordnance in London at the time, was lukewarm about his invention.
Duels were illegal right across Europe. Governments didn’t want their most mettlesome officers killed in large numbers, or junior officers encouraged to secure advancement by insulting and then murdering their superiors. Nevertheless they were so common among the officer classes that they proved impossible to prevent. They took place at times and in places where police intervention was unlikely. The object was usually not so much to kill your opponent as to gain satisfaction, to preserve your honour by showing that you were prepared to die for it. Reading nineteenth-century Russian novels we receive the correct impression that the least slight could occasion a duel. Even the bumbling and fabulously rich Pierre in War & Peace fights one: he challenges Dolokhov, a seasoned bretteur, someone who enjoys killing people in duels. In the event Pierre wounds Dolokhov, almost by mistake. Turgenev gives one of the most vivid accounts of a duel in literature when the nihilist hero of Fathers and Sons, Bazarov, is challenged by Pavel Petrovitch, the uncle of his friend Arkady. Bazarov moved slowly forward, and Pavel Petrovitch, his left hand thrust in his pocket, walked towards him, gradually raising the muzzle of his pistol . . . ‘He’s aiming that pistol straight at my nose,’ thought Bazarov, ‘and doesn’t he squint down it carefully like a ruffian! Not an agreeable sensation this. I’m going to look at his watch chain.’ Something whizzed sharply by his ear, and at the same instant there was the sound of a shot. ‘I heard it, so I must be all right,’ flashed through Bazarov’s brain. He took one more step, and without taking aim, pulled the trigger. Pavel Petrovitch gave a slight start, and clutched his thigh. A stream of blood began to trickle down his white trousers. Fathers & Sons, Ch 24
In England back in the 17th century, duels had not always been so dangerous. John Aubrey gives an insight into this in his brief life of Sir William Petty: I remember about 1660 there was a great difference between him (Sir William) and Sir Hierome Sanchy, one of Oliver’s knights. The Knight had been a Soldier, and challenged Sir William to fight with him. Sir William is extremely short sighted, and being the challengee it belonged to him to nominate place and weapon. He nominates, for the place, a darke Cellar, and the weapon to be a great Carpenter’s Axe. This turned the knight’s challenge into Ridicule, and so it came to nought. By the 19th century even the phlegmatic English were keen duellists. Four British prime ministers had experience of duels. William Pitt the Younger was challenged by the Irish MP, George Tierney, over insults passed during a debate in the house on naval law. They fought at three in the afternoon on Putney Heath. Both men missed twice; people think the seconds may have intentionally underpowdered the pistols. The Duke of Wellington, who despised duelling, challenged fellow Tory, Lord Winchelsea, over an insult questioning his motives concerning Catholic emancipation. They fought at the asparagus fields at Battersea on 21 March 1829. Both men deliberately fired wide. We should be thankful that the duelling culture has died. Alan Clark’s wonderfully readable diaries hint at affairs which would have caused trouble in nineteenth-century Russia. Clark, a man who said he could not properly enjoy a carol service if he had not properly enjoyed at least one of the ladies in the congregation, had celebrated affairs, with both Valerie Harkess and with each of her two daughters, Josephine and Alison. Had she been Valerie Pushkin, the poet would have put a bullet in him. As it was, how did the modern English person behave? The wife sold her story to the News of the World, lest anyone remain ignorant of the details. The outraged husband said he would have liked to horsewhip Clark, had himself photographed by the Daily Mail waving a riding crop some horsewhip! - and later remarked that he hoped the girls had got a good price for their story.
CONDUCTOR Supported by Caroline & Geoffrey de Jager
Antony McDonald DIRECTOR/DESIGNER
Lucy Burge MOVEMENT
BoU RN EMo U TH SYMPH o NY oRCH ESTR A LEADER Amyn Merchant
The Queen of Spades is sponsored by
Gazprom Marketing & Trading 86
oPER A IN THREE AC TS Libretto by the composer’s brother Modest Tchaikovsky based on a short story by Alexander Pushkin First performance St. Petersburg, 19 December 1890 Performances at Grange Park on June 13, 16, 18, 21, 24, 26, 30 Sung in Russian with surtitles by Paula Kennedy
PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSK Y 1840 1893
Count Tom s ky Prince Yele ts ky S urin
His head is supported by Judith Lawless & Kevin Egan His body is supported anonymously His legs are supported by David McLellan
Supported by Malcolm Herring
Quirijn de Lang
Supported by Richard Sharp
Supported by Diane & Christopher Sheridan
Tche kalins ky L is a Her gr and m other, the Counte s s Polin a , L is a's frie nd CHILDREN FROM TWYFORD SCHOOL Jessica Addlington, Zara Boucher, Annabelle Budd, Eleanor Green, Katie Harvey, Matilda Hubble, Poppy Hussey, Zara Lawrence, Isabelle de Merode, Minnie Mitchell, Maisie Molyneux, Olivia Steel, James Baxter, Gerard Cloke Browne, James Diaper, Max Dolan, Blake Margason, George Readwin, Hugo Richardson, Joss Richardson, Tom Stone, Jack Woosnam, Alexander Worth, Freddie Worth
Tch aplits ky N arum ov
Supported by Jeremy & Rosemary Farr
Anne Sophie Duprels
Supported by Francis & Nathalie Phillimore
Supported by an anonymous donor
Her ‘Romance’ is supported by an anonymous donor
Supported by Raymond & Elizabeth Henley
Supported by Mr & Mrs Grant Gordon
G overne s s
M as h a , L is a's m aid
The Em pre s s
Supported by Christina & Timothy Benn Supported by Raymonde Jay
Inge Hunter 87
Herman, an officer, falls in love with Lisa, a girl heâ€™s never spoken to, and who is engaged to the Prince Yeletsky. Herman uses Lisa to gain access to her grandmother, a Countess, who won a fortune in the casino with the secret of â€˜the three cardsâ€™. Herman is determined to discover that secret, but the Countess dies before revealing it. In his obsession to find the winning combination, Herman loses Lisa, his mind and ultimately his own life. .
ACT ONE The Summer Gardens Officers discuss their comrade Herman who spends night after night at the gambling table without ever placing a bet. He arrives and confesses he is in love with an unknown woman of noble birth which will make her unattainable. Prince Yeletsky is congratulated on his recent engagement. He points out his fiancée Lisa out walking with her grandmother, the Countess. Herman is devastated: Lisa is the woman he loves. Lisa and the Countess also recognise Herman as the melancholy stranger who has been following them for days. Tomsky tells his friends how the old Countess came to be known as ‘The Queen of Spades’. She was a famous beauty and gambled away her husband’s entire fortune in Paris. A mysterious French count swore her to secrecy and told her the three winning cards which ensure success. Thus she recouped the fortune. Having told the secret to her husband and to a lover, a ghost appeared with a dire prediction: ‘You will die at the hands of a third man who, compelled by love, will attempt to wrest from you the secret of the three cards.’ Herman stands, brooding. If he discovers the three cards he can make a fortune and Lisa will marry him. He swears he will marry her or die. Lisa’s room Lisa, Polina and friends are enjoying themselves and their governess breaks up the party. Alone, Lisa admits she does not love Yeletsky and is infatuated with Herman. He suddenly appears and has to hide when the Countess knocks. She scolds Lisa for being out of bed and leaves. Herman tells Lisa of his love and they kiss.
INTERVAL The Countess’s bedroom In order to meet Lisa, Herman must pass through the Countess's bedroom. He is mesmerised by her portrait and is certain their fates are linked. Hearing footsteps, he hides. The Countess, Lisa and her maid Masha arrive. The Countess goes to sleep. Herman comes out of hiding and demands she tells him the three cards. She refuses and Herman threatens her. The Countess dies of fright. Lisa has heard the noises and Herman explains what happened. Lisa thinks that he has befriended her in order to discover the secret of the cards. ACT THREE Herman’s quarters in the barracks Herman has received a letter from Lisa, asking him to meet her by the canal at midnight. Herman is sure the dead Countess winked at him at the funeral. Her ghost appears and tells him he must marry Lisa and also tells him the winning cards: three, seven, ace. The Winter Palace Canal Lisa still loves Herman but doesn't trust him. When Herman arrives he asks her to go with him – to the gambling-house. Lisa protests but he is obsessed with the winning at cards. Lisa throws herself into the canal. The gambling-house Yeletsky isn't normally a gambler, but following all his misfortune is going to try his luck. Herman stakes a large figure on a single card a three. He wins.
ACT TWO A masked ball Tchekalinsky and Surin laugh at Herman’s obsession with the three cards. Yeletsky has noticed Lisa’s melancholy and asks her to confide in him. Lisa wants to see Herman again and has sent him a letter. He is convinced he must win at cards to make himself worthy of her. The Master of Ceremonies announces the guest of honour: the Empress.
He places all the winnings on his seven. He wins again. There is no challenge to Herman’s third card, until Yeletsky matches his bet. Herman reveals his third card – Ace. But Yeletsky has the Queen of Spades. The ghost of the Countess has lied to Herman. He kills himself and sees a vision of Lisa. She forgives him and he dies.
Pushkin's ending has Herman in Room 17 at the obukhov hospital muttering repeatedly: Three, seven, ace . . . Three, seven, queen
Lu c k o r s k il l: d Louisa, Lady Ashburton, c 1902 She was the second wife of William Bingham, 2nd Lord Ashburton He died March 1864 and she lived for another 39 years
Emperor Alexander II (1818â€“1881) by an unknown artist There were many attempts on his life including, in 1879, the derailment of the Imperial train
e ic o h c r o m is in m r e t e :d
Bill Brewer, Professor of Philosophy at King's College, London asks where the blame lies. Is Herman responsible for his actions? Is his obsession with gambling his own choice?
A CENTRAL THEME of The Queen of Spades is the disastrous unravelling of Herman’s obsession with attaining and exploiting the formula for winning at the card table. In what we believe is a game of chance, the possibility of such a formula lays bare a fascinating conflict in our attitudes. Let us suppose that there is a simple formula that anyone could use to guarantee a win. Then the outcome is determined in advance. However, in these games who actually wins is a matter of pure luck. Furthermore, and crucial to Herman’s demise, any player in possession of the winning formula is clearly cheating. At the same time, for the winner to deserve praise, then he must surely bring an element of skill and be responsible for the result. These same conflicting issues lie at the heart of the philosophical problem of free will. It has preoccupied philosophers since ancient times and is still hotly contested. On the one hand . . . . . . ways that people behave are ultimately determined by their genetic make-up, their upbringing, and their basic physical constitution along with the ineluctable laws of nature. But what about people’s choices – don’t they make a difference to behaviour? Well, yes, but … these choices are themselves determined by their make-up, upbringing and the laws of nature. Furthermore, these determining factors are all entirely outside people’s control: we don’t choose our make-up, our upbringing, or the laws of nature. When people do what they do, then, they couldn’t possibly have done otherwise. Herman’s genes, his upbringing, determined his actions and he couldn’t do otherwise On the other hand . . . . . . a necessary condition for holding people responsible for what they do is that they could have done otherwise: that they freely choose what they do from a number of realistic alternatives. Certainly, when we encounter
cases in which this condition is clearly not met (they couldn’t do anything other than what they actually do) then we do not hold them responsible. For example, we catch a person shoplifting and it turns out that they are acting under hypnosis. They are acting out a predetermined pattern of behaviour imposed upon them by the hypnotist: a simple formula entirely outside their control. So the hypnotist, if anyone, and certainly not the shoplifter, is responsible. Similarly, if Herman forced every other player to throw in their hands at gun point, we would hardly regard him as deserving the prize for having won the game, because he gave them no alternative and fixed the result unfairly. But if all action is ultimately determined by prior factors outside the person’s control, then should we not suspend all praise and blame, reward and punishment, and give up on the idea of moral responsibility altogether? On that account all human behaviour is like that of the hypnotised shoplifter - though the determination is more complex, involving physical, chemical, genetic, sociological and many other factors. Any praise or blame, reward or punishment would be entirely inappropriate. For opera this would be a disaster. We would sit in the theatre without engaging with the characters making their difficult choices. One response to this conflict is to accept that our behaviour is indeed determined, in every case, but with the proviso that only some forms of determination are incompatible with responsibility. For example, if behaviour is determined by hypnosis or at gunpoint, then responsibility lapses. Still, other forms of determination may be compatible with responsibility, in the case of ‘normal’ human behaviour, when people do what they do without external compulsion, in the light of their beliefs, desires, goals and purposes. There are two strategies to define / characterise these forms of determination: those which can be linked to responsibility and those which can’t.
Strategy one This says that behaviour is susceptible to moral evaluation when, but only when, a significant determining factor is the personâ€™s conscious desire or intention to perform it. We deserve praise or blame just when we do what we decide to do. A more sophisticated hypnotist than the one above might control her subjectsâ€™ decisions, desires, and intentions, though, rather than their behaviour directly. She hypnotises people to desire to shoplift, and so decide to do so. Once again, they are not to be held responsible. Similarly, if Herman wins by giving his opponents a drug which causes them to desire to give up, he again wins unfairly and is undeserving of the prize. So Strategy One seems unsuccessful. Strategy Two This accepts that our desires and decisions, like our behaviour itself, are determined; but it insists that the behaviour for which we are responsible is that resulting from desires that we are happy to have, rather than those that we wish we didnâ€™t have. So responsible action is that determined by desires that we endorse or identify with. Once again, though, our preferences about which of our desires should influence our behaviour are plausibly determined by our genetic make-up, upbringing, physical constitution and the laws of nature: and the problem appears once again. A desperate move here would be to suggest that our actions simply arrive like a bolt out of the blue. Far from being determined by our physical make-up and previous experience, via our preferences, priorities, decisions and intentions, our actions are random and unconnected with anything that went before. This is clearly hopeless for it equally deprives us of any responsibility for what we do. Our actions simply happen to us, without any explanation whatsoever, and we are once again without any good reason to claim praise or suffer blame, reap reward or endure punishment. So it seems that responsibility is undermined by both too tight a connection between behaviour and what went before and by too loose a connection as well.
A different line of response developed in philosophical literature is to acknowledge that strict determination is incompatible with responsibility, but to insist that responsibility depends upon a distinctive type of connection between people and their behaviour. Again there are two common strategies. Strategy one This says that responsible behaviour is that which is caused directly by the person herself, rather than being determined by the various things that happen and have happened to her. She makes a decisive intervention that is not traceable back to prior factors beyond her control. This all sounds like a plausible start; but without a clear explanation of the distinction between what is caused by the person herself as opposed to what happens to her, it is little more than a restatement of the intuition that we are responsible for some but not all of what we do. It may be possible to elaborate the idea; but that remains to be done Strategy Two This strategy, which may play a role in elaboration of the first, contrasts two forms of explanation. It associates determinism, and hence lack of responsibility, with one form of explanation. Freedom, and hence responsibility, praise and blame, are associated only with the other form of explanation. Explanation 1 We may explain why something happened by revealing it as an instance of the way that things simply tend to happen, as determined by what came before. For example, we explain the red billiard ball moved as it did because the white ball hit it at speed and that massive objects interact according to such-and-such laws of motion. This is the way of the world, and so the red ball had no alternative. Likewise, it is simply a law of nature that skillful hypnosis produces the predetermined behavioural result, without any choice on the part of the subject.
Explanation 2 We may explain alternatively why something happened by revealing it as an instance of the way that things rationally ought to happen. For example, we explain that Lisa lets Herman into her room because she is persuaded by his entreaties and wishes to be with him. This makes sense of what happened, in that we can now see why Lisa did what she did: it was rational in that situation. What happened was not determined without alternative by prior circumstances. On reflection, Lisa may have sent Herman away, and things would haver turned out quite differently. The key contrast is that in the second kind of explanation the subject does what she does for a reason she has to do so. The billiard ball or hypnotised subject have no reason themselves for what they do. They just do it! The proposal is that this second kind of rational explanation connects behaviour with a personâ€™s character, experience, preferences and priorities in a way that renders her responsible, and justifies apportioning praise, blame, reward or punishment accordingly. Furthermore, it does so in a way that avoids the unwelcome consequence of the former kind of deterministic explanation that she could not have done otherwise, and is therefore after all not really responsible. The problem with this second strategy is explaining how such rational explanations fit alongside deterministic explanations. This problem is particularly pressing since scientific explanation is deterministic in character â€“ it investigates the way that things simply tend to happen in the world â€“ and we have some reason to suppose that human behaviour will eventually be understood in scientific terms. In that case, citing the distinctively rational explanation of behaviour will only provide a temporary justification for ascriptions of responsibility. In the end it would be shown that there is no such thing. Though Tchaikovsky / Pushkin are not engaged with these issues of determined character, rational choices and so on, it is such tensions that give the piece its enormous and enduring emotional impact. We wish Herman to see the folly of his ways, to live happily with Lisa, to consider alternatives . . . . . . And we worry that he has no choice.
Votsinsk: PT born here 1840 y Rayazan railway made von Meck his fortune y
Y1860 Baring Brothers raised the finance to build the
y1851 railway to
Moscow-Kursk-Kiev-Fastov-Orel line. Von Meck built Kursk-Kiev section. Fastov junction was conveniently close to PTs sister at Kamenka and Brailov
the von Meck estate ‘at my disposal I have carriages, yBrailov: horses, a library, several pianos, a harmonium, a mass of sheet music—in a word, what could be better’
yVienna: most trains from Russia to Europe passed through and PT liked it ‘more more than almost any city in the world’ world on his first trip abroad 1861 and his last 1893, the yBerlin: train went through Berlin Berlin: rail links in 1840s
Dresden: 1839 railway to Leipzig
1850 railway to Vienna yWarsaw: 1861 railway to St Pb'g 1,200km
Kamenka y Y yFastov
Russia had built about 20km of railway when Tchaikovsky was born in 1840. At 21 he made his first trip abroad by train, and at his death the Russian rail network exceeded 30,000km
51 railway to Moscow
1887 Train Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod and boat down Volga
y1863 Rayazan - Moscow railway
Faster than fairies, faster than witches . . .
Between the first and last quarters of the 19th century, the railways transformed the world from one where few people, other than soldiers and sailors had travelled beyond their parishes to one where it became possible to cross continents in days. Tchaikovsky’s international celebrity status was the result of his talent, his train travel and von Meck’s money – which came from railway building. Dates are new style 1824 Pushkin clashes with the government and is banished from Moscow and St Petersburg
1825 September Stockton–Darlington railway opens 40km 1826 May Pushkin petitions the new Tsar to be allowed to return. He writes to a friend that if freedom were restored to him he would not remain in Russia another month adding we live in a sad age – when I picture to myself London, railways, steam boats, English reviews, or Paris theatres and brothels, my godforsaken Mikhailovskoye [where he was exiled] bores and enrages me September Pushkin is escorted back to Moscow. Tsar Nicholas I presents him at court Gentlemen, permit me to introduce a new Pushkin; please forget the old one
1830 Autumn Pushkin writes in his journal that he has finished his novel in verse Eugene Onegin. It has taken 7 years, 4 months and 17 days September Liverpool–Manchester railway 56km. As far afield as America and India newspapers covered the story. What can be more palpably absurd than the prospect held out of locomotives travelling twice as fast as stage coaches! We trust that Parliament will, in all railways it may sanction, limit the speed to eight or nine miles an hour Quarterly Review
1834 Russia’s first metalled road Moscow–St Petersburg. The 800km takes 10 days
1835 First German railway Nuremberg–Fürth 6.5km 1837 February Pushkin killed in a duel July Euston station with its magnificent Doric arch is completed. It is one of the grandest stations in Europe October Russia’s first railway St Petersburg–Tsarskoye Selo 17km
1839 April Leipzig–Dresden line 116km October First Italian railway Naples–Portici 7.25km
1840 May Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky born in Votkinsk November Railway time adopted in England. Plymouth had, for example, been 20 minutes earlier than London
1842 Constanze Mozart dies in Salzburg, 51 years after the death of her husband. She would have seen a train
1847 Karl von Meck marries 16 year old Nadezhda 1851 St Petersburg–Moscow line 800km takes 15 hours. The Tsar demands passengers subject to a police check and required to carry passports. ‘Germany’ has 4,500km and France 3,000km. Paris, Hamburg, Dresden, Berlin, Vienna, Warsaw are all linked by rail 1854 March Japan–US Treaty ends Japan’s seclusion 1857 Tchaikovsky (PT) studying at the School of Jurisprudence. First signs of homosexual sensibilities: infatuated with his schoolfriend Sergei Kireev The primitive state of communications in Russia hampered trade and administration of the vast Empire. Railways, the necessity for which was disputed ten years ago, are now admitted by all classes of the population, to be a necessity for the Empire Tsar Alexander II April “Messrs Baring Brothers & Co are ready to receive applications for shares in the Grand Russian Railway Company” Karl von Meck working as a government official. His wife wants him to join the booming Russian railways. UK 9.6 Germany 4.8 France 3.2 Russia 2 Italy 2.4 1860 0 10 20 thousands of km of railway
1861 March Tsar Alexander II confers freedom on millions of serfs who previously were bought and sold like cattle Spring/summer PT visits Berlin, Hamburg, Antwerp, Brussels, Ostend, London and Paris as translator to an engineer. Probably uses the newly–completed St Petersburg–Warsaw line and the Cologne–Antwerp line Autumn PT has his first lessons in composition. I have begun working on music theory, and with great success; it would be foolish not to try my luck in that line when I have quite reasonable ability. The only thing that worries me is my weak character: laziness might well take over His sister Sasha, marries Lev Davydov and moves to family estates at Kamenka (see map) where PT would spend many summers. His niece Tanya is born
1863 January Paddington–Farringdon, first London 'tube' 1843 Ambitious Cologne–Antwerp line 180km completed – soon carrying 26,000 people per day
UK Germany 20 France 17 Russia 12 Italy 6 1870 0 10 20 thousands of km of railway
April PT resigns his position as clerk in Ministry of Justice April First train to the Riviera to a fishing village, Cannes Karl von Meck appointed main contractor for MoscowRyazan railway which had a monopoly on grain transport. It made him a fortune. In the next decade he was involved in many other lines including Kursk-Kiev. 1866-1899 Russian rail network expands from 5,000km to 53,200km
1864 Wooden bridge over the Po replaced by an iron
1873 May I left Kamenka, visited Breslau, Dresden, Cologne, Zurich, Geneva, Milan and Lake Como and . . . incidentally, went up the Rigi by the newly-built railway which is technically most astonishing (first rack & pinion railway in Europe) November Suicide of Eduard Zak. 14 years later PT writes he had never loved anyone as much and still wept for him December Von Meck hears the première of The Tempest and talks to Rubinstein about Tchaikovsky
structure so that express trains can travel Berlin–Rome
1873-77 Tolstoy’s fascination for trains extended to the
1866 January PT Symphony no1 I ruined my nerves slogging
passionate link with conservatory student Eduard Zak
death of Anna Karenina. He read Trollope’s The Prime Minister in which Lopez dies at Tenways Junction, Willesden. In 1872 Tolstoy’s neighbour’s mistress Anna Piragova threw herself under a train after learning her lover was to marry another. Tolstoy viewed her mangled corpse
1870 PT writes ironically about the Bolshoi theatre-
1875 Puccini age 17 walks Lucca–Pisa 30km with his
away at the symphony which just would not come
1869 Autumn PT Fantasy Overture Romeo & Juliet. Begins
goers rushing to hear the ‘inspired melodies’ of Verdi and such ‘everlastingly beautiful’ works as Trovatore and Traviata August Every year PT would take a long summer break, travelling all over Europe – mainly by rail. Germany had most extensive network with 66 companies which Bismarck would unify in 1879
1872 Japan’s first railway Shimbashi (Tokyo) – Yokohama. Emperor appears in state regalia for the first time in public First postage stamps in Japan
brother to hear Aida October Première Piano Concerto no1 in Boston, USA given by von Bülow. Rubinstein had been scathing of it In Petersburg, Russian operas and such interesting works as Wagner’s Tannhäuser and Lohengrin are staged at the Mariinsky Theatre alongside standard Italian repertoire PT
1876 January Hears Carmen in Paris. Greatly impressed
Celebrations at the Pavlovsk Railway Station for the 25th anniversary of the Tsarskoye Selo railway 1862 Adolf Charlemagne (1826-1901) Pavlovsk station complex included a hall for dinners, balls and concerts, two smaller hall, two winter gardens and forty guest rooms The Schumanns performed there
January On hearing of his wife's infidelity, Karl has a heart attack and dies. Nadezhda von Meck (NvM) inherits control over vast financial holdings including two railway networks, large estates and several million roubles. Seven of their 11 children still live at home. She sells one railway and runs the other with her brother and eldest son, Vladimir April Completes Swan Lake July / August Travels by train (reading Dante Divine Comedy) via Fastov to Vichy to take the waters and on to Bayreuth for première of The Ring. Meets Liszt, whose daughter is married to Wagner, but Wagner wouldn’t see him To Modest I will do my utmost to get married this year . . I will at any rate abandon my habits for ever December Tolstoy sends him a song and they meet. First correspondence with NvM who wishes to remove his financial embarrassment. I am very unsympathetic in my personal relations because I do not possess any femininity whatever; second, I do not know how to be tender, and this characteristic has passed on to my entire family. All of us are afraid to be affected or sentimental, and therefore the general nature of our family relationships is comradely, or masculine, so to speak NvM
1877 April Receives love letter from Antonina Milyukova May (i) Ask NvM for a loan of 3,000 roubles. She makes a gift as thanks for the dedication of Symphony no4 which is nearly finished (ii) Starts Onegin (iii) Antonina writes more letters and threatens suicide. He agrees to meet her 1 June PT and Antonina meet and, wanting to avoid Onegin’s heartless mould, he proposes two days later. He spends the month of June with his librettist Shilovksy at Glebevo (40 miles from Moscow) to concentrate on Onegin. He keeps his impending marriage a secret Early July Returns to Moscow to make plans for the wedding on 18th. He tells NvM on 15th. Honeymoon in St Petersburg In the physical sense my wife has become absolutely detestable Early August Flees to Kiev and then Kamenka leaving his wife in Moscow 8 September In Kamenka finishing short score of Onegin. Uncertain if Tatyana and Onegin should run off together Lev Davydov’s father (1792–1855) was part of the unsuccessful 1825 Decembrist uprising and Pushkin, a supporter of the Decembrists, had visited Kamenka. Antonina Milyukova (1848–1917) She was briefly married to Tchaikovsky
Lev’s mother (1802–1895) had met Pushkin and said this ending would be sacrilegious Early September Returns to Antonina in Moscow. They were two weeks of continual, absolutely unbearable moral torture. I fell into despair. I sought death. He went to the Moscoa River, immersed himself in the freezing water certain he would catch pneumonia and die 6 October He leaves Antonina for Switzerland To NvM It's strange that my life has crossed with yours just at this time. I can feel that you are my real friend who can read my soul, despite the fact that we know each other only through corresponding. NvM offers PT a regular allowance. and he spends the remainder of the year travelling
1878 April Offers NvM the Onegin sketches I suggest Onegin because I’ve never composed any other work with such ease as that opera and the manuscript is sometimes quite legible – there aren’t many corrections May To Kamenka then to the von Meck estate at Brailov – though she was not there. They had agreed never to meet
1879 March Berlin Of everything I have seen in Berlin I like the aquarium most of all. Yesterday I saw the crocodiles being fed and today it is feeding time for the snakes and boa constrictors. I wanted to go and watch but I am afraid of the impression the boa constrictors will have on me when the are fed live rabbits March In Moscow for première of Onegin. Antonina appears at his apartment. To NvM I had hardly appeared than she
Tchaikovsky niece Tatyana (1861-1887) She was a morphine addict
threw herself on my neck and began to repeat ceaselessly that I was the only person in the world that she loved, that she could not live without me, that she would agree to any conditions provided that I would live with her. This scene shook me to the core. It demonstrated to me that only abroad and in the country am I guaranteed against being pestered by a certain person Summer At von Meck’s estate he studies Lohengrin whilst writing Maid of Orleans To NvM You have several times asked me about boating. I am not a great lover of this activity. In general I only like excursions which (1) involve some sort of exercise and (2) have the possibility of wandering, being able to digress at will, stopping and daydreaming
1880 PT’s older brother Nikolai works for the railways and helps draw up the Railway Code Debussy travels as music teacher with NvM. He wants to marry one of her daughters
1881-2 PT travels for four months in Italy. Visits Pompeii, reads about Bellini even as a I child I burst into tears at the strength of ... his elegant melodies. And ever since, in spite of his many imperfections, his dull accompaniments, the crass banal strettos … the coarseness and vulgarity of his recitatives, I still feel a liking for his music I am sick and tired of Napes. Imagine what it is like having barrel-organs playing under one’s window from morning until night – and never fewer than two or three at once. One forgets all the beauty of Naples because of this accursed music
1882 Spring Kamenka. My niece [Tanya, 21] is worse than ever, poisoning herself with morphine, and poisoning her parents and everyone else living in her company with her attacks of illness, which are repeated daily because of the morphine Reads Bleak House. I have been crying because (a) I am sorry for Lady Dedlock (b) because I am sorry to part company with all these characers (c) from emotionand gratitude to a writer as great as Dickens
1883 10-14 January Berlin hears Tristan – disappointed 23 January NvM’s son Nikolai marries Tanya's sister Anna 14 January–23 May Paris This extended stay had been organised because Sasha (PTs sister) did not know that her daughter Tanya was pregant. She gives birth in Paris and Nikolai Tchaikovsky adopts the illegitimate child To NvM I have just returned from the Opéra-Comique [in Paris], where I have heard Le Mariage de Figaro twice, and if any more performances are scheduled, I will carry on going to them
1886 May – June Paris meets Gabriel Fauré and Ambroise Thomas. Pauline Viardot shows him Mozart’s manuscript score of Don Giovanni, which she had bought at auction in London (1855). Saw the orchestra score of Mozart’s Don Giovanni, written IN HIS OWN HAND ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !. Back to the hotel To NvM It is as though I had shaken Mozart’s own hand and chatted to him 1887 January On the day after the first performance of Cherevichki we received news here of the sudden death of my poor niece Tanya. She died in Petersburg at a bal-masqué. Morphia destroyed her May On finishing The Enchantress, a long trip I have no regrets at all about choosing such a long way round because I have seen much that is new and interesting . . . Nizhny Novgorod by train. I managed to get a second-class ticket for the steamer . . . I very much enjoyed my trip on the Volga. [5 days to Astrakan]. The Caspian Sea turned out to be very perfidious. I thought that at any minute the waves were going to smash the boat up – I didn’t get a wink of sleep By sea to Baku the bathing is magnificent . . . I went to see the area where they extract oil. It’s an impressive sight, but a gloomy one. Train to Tiflis, then Cologne two very long visits to Cologne Cathedral, and strolled along the banks of the Rhine waiting for the 6pm train to Aachen Autumn Meets the 28–year–old Chekhov in St Petersburg
1888 Tsar Alexander grants a 3,000 rouble annuity for life
The Imperial Broad–Gauge Train built 1896 met the requirements of the latest railway technology There were 10 carriages, 7 provided livings quarters for the Imperial Family, a kitchen, and two carriages for luggage and servants
UK Germany France Russian Italy 13 1890 0 10 thousands of km
5 January First European conducting tour starts in Leipzig where he meets Brahms, Ethel Smyth and Grieg. The tour includes Hamburg (where he meets Mahler), Prague (where he meets train-enthusiast Dvorak) 4 February My life in Berlin was sheer torture. I didn’t have a minute to myself. Do you recognise in this musican travelling round Europe the same man who only a few years ago hid from social life and lived in solitude? The last days of my stay in Hamburg and the day in Berlin were dreadful. In Berlin I heard some works by a new German genius, Richard Strauss. (He met Strauss) Bülow makes much of him, just as he did of Brahms and others. The next morning I travelled to Leipzig for Die Meistersinger. It was very interesting. Next day I dined with Grieg 12 February Takes the train to Prague. The conductor of the train asked whether I was Tchaikovsky and was dancing attendance all the time. At the station [Prague], masses of people, deputations children with bouquets. In the evening Otello at the opera February / March Paris Meets Gounod, Massenet, Widor In Paris I found many glories, but little money 8 March London To conduct his own work at St James Hall (built 1858 in the triangle Regent Street / Piccadilly / Vine Street) London is a miserable and depressing city 27 March Vienna Saw Mikado I could hardly endure two– thirds of one act
33 43 36 30 20
1890 January Première of Sleeping Beauty at Mariinsky and goes abroad to compose Queen of Spades. He settles on Florence. Modest sends scenes as he completes them – and not in the sequence of the narrative 11 February I am going through a very mysterious stage on my road to the grave. Something is going on deep inside me ... a weariness of life, a disillusionment; at times an insane melancholy ... this is something hopeless and final, and, as is characteristic of finales, banal 7 March One act of Puritani in the evening. Terrible stuff this Bellini, but delightful all the same. 10 March Finished Scene 6 [canal] As soon as I have finished the draft I'll start stright away on the full piano score. That will be very easy work but tedious and I want to move to some other town to do it, but I don't want to go home. I'll go home when I've finished the piano score. I'll be very annoyed if the seventh scene doesn't come tomorrow. 11 March Scene 7 arrived Many thanks Modya not only for the virtues of your libretto but for the remarkable accuracy of your timing.
Tchaikovsky with two singers from the first performance of Queen of Spades
12 March Will finish the opera in three days September to NvM Of my stay in Kamenka, I brought away sad feelings. They have all aged a lot there. There is a melancholy in everything, with no sign of previous joyfulness. The attacks which she (his sister Sasha) suffers are of a very nasty nature and are a result of the morphine and all manner of other narcotics. Alcohol has now been added to the morphine. My sister resorts to this new poison in everincreasing amounts 4 October NvM writes a final letter which has not survived. She was ruined financially and was stopping his allowance. PT replies My very dear friend! Your news profoundly grieved me, not for myself but for you. It would, of course, be untrue to say that such a radical curtailment of my budget will have no effect on my material prosperity . . . my income has increased substantially in recent years and there is no reason to suppose that it will not go on increasing at a rapid rate. . . . rest assured that I was not in the slightest distressed at the thought of the material deprivation which faces me. . . . I was rather offended by the last words of your letter but I don't think that you can really have meant what you said. Do you seriously believe that I would think about you only when I was having the benefit of your money? Could I forget for a single moment all that you have done for me and how much I owe you? NvM’s children probably wanted her to end the relationship with PT. She fired Vladimir, her son and business partner, in summer 1890. He dies of tuberculosis in 1892 December Première of Queen of Spades in St Petersburg
1891 February Starts Nutcracker March Tsar inaugurates construction of the longest railway on the earth Trans–Siberian Railway. Completed 1916 April En route to America, PT reads in Russian newspaper of his sister Sasha’s death. Via loathsome Rouen to Le Havre. Direct from station to his cabin on the steamship La Bretagne It turns out I am vulnerable to sea-sickness 26 April Arrives in New York My room has gas and electric light and a private bathroom; heaps of extremely comfortable furniture; there is an apparatus for speaking to the reception desk and all sorts of things to make one comfortable which do not exist in Europe
Carnegie, an amazing eccentirc, who from being a telegraph boy, was transformed into one of America's richest men . . he grasped me by the hand, crying out that I was uncrowned but the most genuine king of music, embraced me (without kissing: here men never kiss each other)
1893 February Starts Symphony no6 Pathétique 25 May–30 June By train Berlin–London–Cambridge– London–Paris–Klin 13 June Receives an Honorary Doctorate of Music at Cambridge with Boito, Saint-Saëns, Bruch. Grieg is too ill to attend 28 October Conducts première of Symphony no6. The concert includes the dances from Idomeneo 1 November Dines with friends at Leiner’s restaurant. 6 November Dies
Minature copy of Imperial regalia by FabergĂŠ c1900
Queen Victoria with her son Edward, Prince of Wales (right)) Tsar Nicholas, and Alexandra holding Grand Duchess Tatyana, 1896, the year before her Diamond Jubilee
Empress Alexandra Feodorovna 1907 (1872â€“1918) She spent her childhood at the court of her grandmother Queen Victoria, married in 1894 and named her first two children Tatyana and Olga
DID TCHAIKOVSKY COMMIT SUICIDE OR DIE OF CHOLERA? TCHAIKOVSKY SCHOLAR ALEXANDER POZNANSKY
2 November Stomach pains. Doctors Vasily and Lev Bertenson attend and diagnose cholera. By about 11 pm the life of the patient was in immediate danger: he began to experience spasms, his head and extremities turned dark blue, and his temperature fell. Throughout the night the doctor undertook energetic measures, such as the constant massaging of his patient's body by several persons at a time 3-4 November He feels better – then worsens 6 November 3am Dies TCHAIKOVSKY SCHOLAR ALEXANDRA ORLOVA
Tchaikovsky was pressured to take his own life having committed a sexual indiscretion ‘everybody knows about it . . . in Leningard it is a living oral tradition passed on by grandparents to grandchildren. In the 1920s Dr Vasily Bertenson (1853-1933) was saying this openly. He had attended Tchaikovsky in the final days 2 November Cancels meeting in Moscow. Visits the house of former student at the School of Jurisprudence Nikolai Jacobi (d 1902) who has assembled a court of honour. His wife Elizaveta sat with her needlework in the adjoining room. Voices could be heard - sometimes loud and emotional and sometimes dropping to a whisper. This went on for almost five hours. Tchaikovsky came bursting out . . . very pale and upset . . . and left. All the others remained for a long time. When they left Jacobi explained to his wife that the Tsar had a letter incriminating Tchaikovsky for having sex with a young nobleman and it would not be published if Tchaikovsky took his own life Galina von Meck (3rd child of Anna Davydov, died Hounslow 1985) writes he returned home very upset about something – and not feeling very well. He asked his brother for a glass of water. His brother said it needs to be boiled and PT ignored his brother's protests, went into the kitchen filled a glass of water from the tap and drank it saying ‘Who cares anyway?’ That same evening he felt quite ill
UK Germany France Russian Italy 1916 0 10 thousands of km
38 61 50 70 17 20
Orlova suggest he took the poison with the water. She was told the story in spring 1966 by historian Alexander Voitov who had been told the story in 1913 by Elizaveta Jacobi who was present at the court of honour
1894 13 January NvM dies of tuberculosis in Nice 1929 Her son Nikolai, an engineer is accused of advising heavier-thanaverage loads on freight trains, thereby wearing out the rails. He is shot. This is described in Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Archipelago
David & Elizabeth Challen Sue Lyons Mrs Faanya Rose Christopher Swan Mrs Jill Goulston Gareth & Janet Davies
each supported a geisha Sir Stuart Rose
sponsored their golden parasols Jane & Paul Chaseâ€“Gardener
sponsored the humming chorus Mr & Mrs Robert Enslow
sponsored the Stars & Stripes
The production is generously sponsored by
in their eighth year of support
Gianluca Marciano CONDUCTOR Supported by Ruth Markland
DIRECTOR Supported by Tom Busher & Elizabeth Benson
Mark Bailey DESIGNER
Nikki Woollaston MOVEMENT
Wayne Dowdeswell LIGHTING DESIGNER
e ng lish chamber o rchestr a LEADER Stephanie Gonley
M ELO D R AM MA I N T H R E E AC T S Text by Giacosa and Illica based on a play by John Luther Long First performance Milan, 17 February 1904 Performances at The Grange May 31, June 2, 8, 10, 15, 17, 19, 23, 27, 29 2012 Sung in Italian with surtitles by David Edwards
Madama B utterfly
A geisha Cio-Cio-San
Her servant Suzuki
Lieutenant B F Pinkerton American Consul Sharpless A marriage broker Goro Butterflyâ€™s uncle The Bonze Yamadori
Supported by an anonymous donor 'Un bel di' is sponsored by Adair Turner & Orna Ni-Chionna Supported by James Hudleston
Supported by Sir David & Lady Plastow
Supported by Mr & Mrs Richard Morse
Supported by Mrs Peter Cadbury
Supported by Tessa & John Manser
Supported by Mr & Mrs Charlie Caminada
Mother Aunt Cousin Uncle Yakuside Commissioner Registrar Trouble
Carol Rowlands Clare Presland Jennifer Walker Osian Gwynn Richard Immergluck Adam Crockatt Zeth Franco
Supported by Lucy Constable
Madama Butterfly R
S Pinkerton, an American naval officer stationed in Japan, has arranged a marriage to a Japanese geisha girl, Cio-Cio-San, known as Butterfly. He goes through a wedding ceremony with her, in spite of warnings by Sharpless, the American Consul.
r r Q 106
t r r
t r r
ACT 1 A hillside overlooking Nagasaki Goro, a marriage broker has arranged for Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton, to ‘marry’ Cio-Cio-San. Pinkerton inspects the house which is part of the marriage contract and meets Butterfly’s maid Suzuki and the other servants. Sharpless, the American Consul, arrives and they drink a toast to America. Sharpless is fearful for Butterfly and tries to dissuade Pinkerton from marrying her. Pinkerton wants to possess her even though he knows this may destroy her and toasts the ‘real’ American wife he will have one day. Butterfly and her friends arrive. She tells Sharpless the story of how her family fell on hard times and the women became geishas. Her mother will come to the wedding but her father is dead. Butterfly shows Pinkerton her possessions – except for the most sacred one: a dagger which belonged to her father. It was a gift from the Mikado and an order to commit suicide. Butterfly tells Pinkerton that for his sake she has become a Christian, but she has not told her family. The couple are married. Her uncle, the Bonze, berates Butterfly for turning her back on her religion. The family also insults her and Pinkerton orders everyone to leave. Pinkerton comforts his bride and, as night falls, he leads her into the house.
INTERVAL ACT 2 Three years later Pinkerton has been recalled to America. Butterfly and the faithful Suzuki are still living in the house. They have little money but Butterfly refuses to believe that Pinkerton has deserted her and tells Suzuki he will one day return.
Sharpless and Goro arrive to tell Butterfly that Pinkerton’s ship is due to arrive in Nagasaki that very day. Butterfly is ecstatic and Sharpless cannot bring himself to tell her the remainder of the message. In the passing years, Goro has been trying to marry her off to various suitors – including the wealthy Yamadori. She has refused all proposals, believing Pinkerton will return. Sharpless tries again to deliver the rest of Pinkerton’s letter to Butterfly and to persuade her to accept Yamadori. She brings in her child - Pinkerton’s child - of whose existence neither Sharpless nor Pinkerton had any knowledge. Sharpless leaves, promising to tell Pinkerton about his child. Goro has spread rumours that Butterfly has a fatherless child. She is angry and hears the harbour cannon signalling the arrival of a ship. She tells Suzuki to decorate the house to celebrate Pinkerton’s arrival and puts on her wedding dress to wait for her husband. Dawn the following day Suzuki persuades Butterfly to sleep after their all-night vigil. Sharpless arrives with Pinkerton and his American wife. Sharpless wants Suzuki to help break the news to Butterfly that Pinkerton is married; together they must secure the child’s future. Pinkerton cannot pluck up the courage to face Butterfly. The men leave it to Suzuki to tell her the truth. Kate Pinkerton asks whether she may take the child away so that he can be properly cared for. Butterfly, maintaining her dignity, replies that if Pinkerton returns to the house in half an hour she will give him the answer. She refuses Pinkerton’s money. When the visitors have left, she dismisses Suzuki and prepares herself for a ceremonial suicide.
The Butterfly R h Game
t r r
From The Deer Cry Pavilion, a story of Westerners in Japan 1868–1905 by Pat Barr
A WESTERNER needed no more than a little money and an introduction to a Japanese go–between who took him along to a certain tea–house where numbers of pretty girls tripped gaily about. And eventually (there was no hurry) he chose the one who most appealed to him and said he would marry her. The marriage – a perfectly legal union, signed and sealed in the nearby police office – was arranged by the go–between, a quite indispensable person who could usually suggest a house to rent also. Here, the foreigner could install the girl and live with her just as long as he wanted – during a five– year tour of duty perhaps, or for a couple of years, or until he got bored or a baby was due, whatever was the most convenient. And when he went away the marriage just dissolved itself; the girl returned to her family or the tea–house, or, in some cases, she then married a man of her own race and lived happily ever after. Temporary liaisons such as these were common in all the treaty ports . . .
As early as 1860 when Bishop George Smith of Hong Kong visited Yokohama, he expressed his outrage at the
number of foreign bachelors in the port who had native ‘wives’. In those early days, local Japanese customs officials often acted as go–betweens and the Bishop was almost as scandalised by this implied approval of authority as he was by the practice itself. As more foreign bachelors – junior clerks, shopkeepers, commercial agents, young engineers and military men – came to the treaty ports, so the procedure became more organised. The owners of some bars and tea–houses, a few strategically placed flower–sellers, bath–house keepers and even laundry–men took over the role of procurers and certain houses were rented again and again for those brief partnerships. The women, who were invariably the daughters of working–class families, stayed inside the home, as most Japanese women did anyway; they were not accepted in the wider social life of the foreign community but mixed almost exclusively with their own relatives (who usually accepted the situation) and with other couples on the same footing. Nevertheless, the practice was tacitly allowed as a convenient solution in a society where there were not enough unmarried western women to go round and where pressures of convention
t S r Q
t r S
and finance often prevented a young man from making a ‘respectable’ marriage until he had attained a sufficiently high economic and social status. Long before Madama Butterfly was created, Nagasaki was the most notorious for this particular business. Its girls were supposed to be the prettiest and the easiest to live with; arrangements were cheap and made with a minimum of fuss. Nagasaki had always been an easy– come–easy–go sort of place. It was one of the first three ports in the country opened for foreign trade and was soon famed for the rowdiness of its gay quarter and its amiable desire to keep visiting sailors happy. Very soon, however, Yokohama and Kobe between them lured away much of its export trade and Nagasaki could not be bothered to keep abreast in the commercial rat race.
A disdainful journalist who visited it early in the 1880s wrote ‘The principal productions of Nagasaki are tobacco, jinrikishas, desponding commission agents, unripe plums, ships’ chandlers, bow–legged Custom House officials, bankrupts, water melons, intoxicated sailors, tortoise– shell bracelets, mosquitoes, grog–shops and stagnation. The prevalent epidemics are dysentry and insolvency’. Four years later an equally unimpressed reporter wrote ‘Nagasaki has rather the look of never having been thoroughly vitalised . . . and money here is as scarce as angels’ visits’.
Japan opens its doors When Japan eventually opened its doors in the 1850s, Westerners misunderstood the motivation for Japanese civility. Jean–Pierre Lehmann has written many books on Japan including From Feudal Isolation to World Power and The Image of Japan (1850–1905)
The conditions under which the Dutch were tolerated were restrictive. There were to be only about eleven of them, they were to live on a small island in the bay of Nagasaki and, somewhat akin to the English club, they were to be exclusively male. Unlike an English club, however, the pragmatic Japanese attitude to sex led the Nagasaki municipal authorities to ‘provide’ local women, partly to meet the Dutch needs, but also so the authorities could obtain information on Dutch mores.
Japanese and Western attitudes to sex and women were very different. From the Japanese perspective, for a professional woman to have sex with a foreigner was not reprehensible. Indeed, the profession of geisha (courtesan) was respected. (Butterfly is a geisha in the opera but the lesser social rank of tea house girl in the play).
Sex was one thing but children were another. Occupying an island some distance from mainland Asia, Japan tended towards isolation – a tendency that became the official policy of sakoku (closed country) from 1637 to 1854 – and the Japanese self–perception was
The Japanese had a strict view on ‘racial purity’. Indeed, as recently as the mid 1980s, the then prime minister Yashuro Nakasone got into hot water in the Western press for making public comments about the superiority of the homogeneous Japanese race. Consequently, the offspring of mixed marriages, known in Japanese as ainoko, suffered discrimination. After two centuries of very limited outside contact, pressure to open its doors began to mount. In 1854 the American Commodore Perry, with a fleet of four steam ships (’black ships’ as the Japanese called them), obtained a treaty of friendship and commerce. In Japanese governing circles, however, there was by no means a consensus. There were two opposing factions. The first were those in favour of joi (expel the barbarians to prevent foreign pollution of Japan’s sacred soil) and the second favoured kaikoku (open country). The kaikoku faction won. It acknowledged the military, economic and technological superiority of the West, and
one of ‘uniqueness’ and ’homogeneity’.
THE FIRST ENCOUNTER between Japan and the West was in the mid–16th century. Seafaring Iberian traders and missionaries arrived on Japanese shores. A few decades later came the Dutch, whose fleet included an English pilot, Will Adams, who came to be known as Anjinsama (honourable Mr Pilot), the hero of Shogun. Spaniards and Portuguese traded goods (including arms) and converted Japanese souls. The Dutch concentrated on achieving material rather than spiritual gain and so when Christianity was banned in the early 17th century, the Dutch were allowed to stay and the Iberians expelled (or tortured and executed).
thought pragmatically. If Japan resisted the West would resort to force.
The proverbial civility of the many Butterflies led Westerners to misunderstand the motivation of kaikoku. The true motivation in opening the country was certainly not ‘open the country and, by the way, have you met my sister?’ Japanese civility in fact masked a grim determination to infiltrate Western cultures, to discover and absorb their secrets and ‘catch up’.
One of the more famous Western residents of Nagasaki was Thomas Glover (1838–1911). An Aberdonian by birth, he had gone to the East as a trader and initially pioneered the commercial efforts of the great Scottish trading house, Jardine Matheson. Having arrived at a time when the drama of Japanese politics was unfolding, Glover became involved in political intrigue and provided material aid and advice to the kaikoku faction. He is said to have introduced whisky – a beverage for which the Japanese have demonstrated great fondness. As with practically everything else, having observed the technology through imports, by the early 20th century the Japanese began producing their own brew and protected their infant industry with the result that Scottish whisky distillers would like to see a bit more kaikoku in the Japanese spirits market. Glover’s house overlooking Nagasaki bay survived the atomic bomb and can be visited. In the grounds there is a statue erected to Madama Butterfly.
The old decentralized, feudal regime was replaced by a new state unified under the inviolate rule of the emperor and administered by what soon became a meritocratic civil service. Under state guidance, the political revolution was followed by an industrial revolution. At the same
time, a formidable military machine was being put together. As all this was happening, the West failed to take Japan seriously. There came to be an increasingly yawning gap between the image Japan conveyed to the West – Madama Butterfly, tea houses, parasols – and the reality of the growing Japanese challenge to the West. First to fall victim to the illusion were the Russians. Challenged to war by Japan in 1904, Russia experienced a humiliating defeat a year later. The British, Americans and French failed in the inter–war period to comprehend the force and extent of Japan’s commercial and geopolitical ambitions. In 1945 Japan was defeated. Now the country was not only ‘opened’ again, but indeed occupied for seven years. Many Pinkertons returned and were met by many Butterflies. The romance began again. On the Japanese side, efforts were energetically channelled into discovering the secrets of American technology and business acumen. The leitmotif reappeared. For several decades Japan’s growing industrial strength was neither recognised nor respected in the West. Then, and quickly, Western industries fell under the discreet Japanese juggernaut – steel, electronics, machine tools, cars – and there was the drama of the America/Japan showdown; the ’black ships’ returned to the harbour.
Japan opened and signed more treaties with the West. By the mid–1860s, Western merchants, missionaries, officials, sailors, tourists, writers came to Japan. In the early decades they lived exclusively in a number of treaty ports, such as Yokohama, Kobe, Hakodate and Nagasaki, the last being the setting for Madama Butterfly.
Was there a real life Pinkerton? When John Luther Long’s play appeared, there was ’savage’ reaction from the US Navy. The author claimed the story was entirely his fantasy but 30 years later his sister revealed that she had witnessed the events. Arthur Groos, Professor of German Literature at Cornell University and co-editor of the Cambridge Opera Journal, sets about identifying the real Pinkerton. JOHN LUTHER LONG'S SISTER, Sarah Jane (Jennie) Correll, was a missionary in Japan from 1892 to 1897. Revealing herself in 1931 to be the source of the story, she gave a series of talks in Japan and China and published a written version. She asserts that Madame Butterfly is ‘true to the life . . . The secret of the heroine on whom the drama was based was known only to two persons, of whom I am one; and it is now for the first time revealed’ and goes on to tell the tale of a little tea¬house girl, Chô-san, Miss Butterfly which happened around 1892–3. On leave in Philadelphia in August 1897 she told her brother, John Luther Long, a lawyer with literary ambitions, the story of Chô-san. Cadet William B Franklin c1888 Records of US Naval Academy
‘A few days afterwards he showed me what he had composed, and asked my opinion of it. I was to mark the margin of the manuscript where I found anything not true to the life.’ Long’s Madame Butterfly appeared four months later, in January 1898. Some readers found the story too ’close to life’ and were outraged at the indiscretion. So the preface to a 1903 Christmas edition of Madame Butterfly does some explaining and covering up. ‘And where has Butterfly gone? I do not know. I lost sight of her, as you did, that dark night she fled with Trouble and Suzuki from the little, empty, happy house . . . And is she a fancy, or does she live? Both. And where is Pinkerton? At least not in the US Navy - if the savage letters I receive from his fellows are true’. He is careful to conceal his real-life source. ‘No-one ever [knows] what process of the mind produces such things’. . . . Which suggests the event actually took place and there was a real Pinkerton.
Arthur Groos begins with the opening of Long’s story: a conversation between two officers named Pinkerton and Sayre on a ship steaming towards Nagasaki. Pinkerton has just been ‘banished’ from a prestigious Mediterranean assignment to the Asiatic station; Sayre, an experienced naval surgeon with several tours of duty ‘out here’, jokingly suggests he try a ‘temporary marriage’ - an experiment he denies having made himself but admits has been tried by his brother ‘Jack’. Arthur Groos tracked down a naval surgeon John S Sayre who served on the Asiatic station with several lengthy stays in Nagasaki coinciding with Jennie Correll’s
time. One of the ‘savage letters’ that John Luther Long received can probably be attributed to John Sayre. There was no officer in the US Navy named Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton but ‘savage’ reaction suggests the name is not far off. Groos looked for officers at the Naval Academy with names involving Benjamin and Franklin in the period 1873 and 1888. He found six who saw duty on the Asiatic station in the early 1890s. The real Pinkerton would fulfil four criteria: • •
Jennie Correll’s describes Pinkerton as a ‘young man’, suggesting that our suspect was an ensign Long’s Pinkerton ‘repines continually’ about his ‘banishment’ to the Asiatic station from the Mediterranean, whence he ‘had just come’ We are looking for someone who was in Nagasaki between 1892 and 1894 for a long enough period to have contracted a ‘Japanese marriage’. Officers entered into such arrangements – financially impossible for enlisted men – primarily to avoid disease Our suspect served on the same vessel as Sayre He was no longer in the Navy in 1903
Through examination of the navy’s lists of officers, their assignments, tables of ships’ positions, ports of call and dates and the deck logs of individual vessels, Groos eliminated four of the six officers on the basis of age. Of the two remaining junior officers one is an Ensign Benjamin F. Hutchison who did serve in the Mediterranean before being transferred to the Pacific. However, he never served with Sayre. This leaves only Ensign William B. Franklin (1868–1942), who resigned his commission in 1896 to marry the daughter of the mayor of New York City, founded a Wall Street brokerage firm and the American Malt Company, and advanced through the Naval Reserve to the rank of
rear admiral. He matches all the criteria • • •
He was a ‘young man’ (aged 24) in 1892. He was ‘not in the United States Navy’ in 1903 He was a cadet on the cruise of the ‘new Navy’s’ White Squadron through the Mediterranean, followed by the posting to the Far East on the antiquated Lancaster and Marion, the last of the US Navy’s old wooden warships He made visits to Nagasaki in 1892-4 He was a shipmate of Sayre for eight months.
Franklin entered Nagasaki harbour for the first time the fine day of Thursday, 21 April 1892. After three weeks, he was transferred to the Marion. In June the Marion rendezvoused with the broken-down Palos, whose medical officer was Sayre, and towed the smaller gunboat to dry-dock in Japan, reaching Nagasaki on the 19 June. Sayre and Franklin remained in Nagasaki for six and a half weeks. It seems to have been a pleasant stay. The ship’s log reports that enlisted man are as many as five or six days late from shore leave – some still inebriated. Although the 4th of July was a ‘gala day’ for the squadron, Ensign Franklin probably did not enjoy the festivities. In addition to serving two watches, he reported the following day to the ship’s doctor, who treated him for gonorrhoea. The Marion departed on 2 August, returning to Nagasaki in early December. Ensign Franklin, the officer of the watch, recorded the transfer of Dr John S. Sayre to his ship. The two remained together on their second voyage until 10 August 1893, when Franklin, again officer of the watch, recorded the doctor’s transfer at Yokohama. Sayre and Franklin neither served together nor docked in Nagasaki again. Assuming Franklin married Butterfly in 1892 or 1893, there is a gap of ‘3 years’ before he marries his American wife. We have found our man.
Silk screen Flowering Cherry and Autumn Maples with Poem Slips c1660 Tosa Mitsuoki (c1617-1691) Art Institute of Chicago
Ritual suicide About the close of the 15th century, the military custom of permitting any samurai to perform hara kiri, instead of subjecting him to the shame of execution, appears to have been generally established. Afterwards it became the recognised duty of a samurai to kill himself at the word of command. All samurai were subject to this disciplinary law, even lords of provinces; and in samurai families, children of both sexes were trained how to perform suicide whenever personal honour or the will of a liege lord might require it. Women, I should observe, did not perform hara kiri, but jigai – that is to say, piercing the throat with a dagger so as to sever the arteries by a single thrust–and–cut movement. The important fact to remember is that honour and loyalty required the samurai man or woman to be ready at any moment to perform self–destruction by the sword. . . .it was certainly also common enough for a bereaved wife to perform suicide, not through despair, but through the wish to follow her husband into the other world, and there to wait upon him as in life. Instances of female suicide, representing the old ideal of duty to a dead husband, have occurred in recent times. Such suicides are usually performed according to the feudal rules – the woman robing herself in white for the occasion. At the time of the later war of China there occurred in Tokyo one remarkable suicide of this kind; the victim being the wife of Lieutenant Asada, who had fallen in battle. She was only 21. On hearing of her husband’s death, she at once began to make preparations for her own – writing letters of farewell to her relatives, putting her affairs in order, and carefully cleaning the house, according to old–time rule. Thereafter she donned her death–robe; laid mattings down opposite to the alcove in the guest–room; placed her husband’s portrait in the alcove, and set offerings before it. When everything had been arranged, she seated herself before the portrait, took up her dagger, and with the single skilful thrust divided the arteries of her throat. from Japan, An Attempt at Interpretation by Lafcadio Hearn, 1904
BiograPhieS MARK BAILEY Designer Butterfly Opera includes Rise & Fall of the City of Mahagonny (LA), Carmen (ROH Linbury), Ariadne auf Naxos (Lausanne/Florence), Il Maestro di Capella, Susanna’s Secret, The Telephone (Buxton Festival), and work for Opera North, Almeida Opera. Dance credits include Sleeping Beauty (Hong Kong Ballet), Snow Queen, Melody on the move (ENB), costumes L’Arlesienne (ENB School). Theatre includes Save the Last Dance for Me, Jekyll & Hyde (UK Tour), Macbeth, Hamlet (Chicago Shakespeare Theatre), As You Like It, Animal Farm, Taming of the Shrew (Clwyd Theatr, Associate Artist). West End credits include Winslow Boy, Mack & Mabel, Rat Pack Confidential, Importance of Being Earnest (also Toronto), Present Laughter, Iolanthe, Gondoliers, Legal Fictions and Rent. STEPHEN BARLOW Conductor
Spades studied at Trinity College‚ Cambridge and GSMD and was a co-founder of Opera 80. Current Artistic Director of the Buxton Festival, recent and future projects include The Barber of Baghdad and Intermezzo (Buxton), Boheme, Falstaff‚ Norma, Capriccio‚ Rusalka and Tristan und Isolde (Grange Park), Otello (Birmingham) and A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Guildhall). He has appeared at Glyndebourne, The Royal Opera, English National Opera, Opera Northern Ireland, Scottish Opera and Opera North as well as conducting his own opera King (Canterbury Cathedral) and his Clarinet Concerto with Emma Johnson and the Ulster Orchestra, Rake’s Progress (Reisopera), Carmen, Faust and Nabucco in Australia, Bluebeard’s Castle (Auckland Philharmonia). He has conducted most of the major UK orchestras and orchestras worldwide. Recordings include Joseph James’ Requiem with Sumi Jo and his own composition Rainbow Bear with his wife, Joanna Lumley‚ as narrator. Sponsor Caroline & Geoffrey de Jager MYVANWY BENTALL ensemble
is from Yorkshire and read music at the University of Huddersfield. Myvanwy continued her vocal studies at RAM and on ENO Opera Works. Myvanwy has appeared with choirs and orchestras in West Yorkshire and with Opera South, BYO, Opera Holland Park, Kentish Opera, Merry Opera and Unexpected Opera.
MICHAEL BUDD dancer Onegin trained with Royal Ballet. He has toured the world with European Ballet, Vienna Festival Ballet, Debbie McGee & Paul Daniels’ company, Ballet Imaginaire, Balletomania, Johann Strauss Gala. With Adventures in Motion Pictures (Swan Lake) he visited Istanbul, Israel, Japan, South Korea, Germany, France, Italy and Holland. Michael teaches modern dance, ballet and jazz at Adagio School of Dance in Essex. CAMILLA BULL ensemble studied
at GSMD. Opera includes Rake’s Progress (Aldeburgh Festival and Opera Faber, Ponte de Lima Festival, Portugal), Polinesso Ariodante (Scarlet Opera), Orpheus Orpheus & Eurydice (Opera South East), Didymus Theodora (Baroque Opera Live), Page Rigoletto (Bury Court), Maddalena Rigoletto (tour of Italy with Southbank Sinfonia) and Aunt Jane Hugh the Drover (Hampstead Garden Opera). LUCY
Spades was principal dancer with Rambert between 1970 and 1985. During this time Lucy performed as guest artist with Rudolf Nureyev dancing the role of Colombine to Nureyev’s Pierrot. On retiring, she became a long-standing member of Ian Spink’s Second Stride Company. She has danced for ROH, ENO, WNO, Opera North and Scottish Opera. She also choreographed and arranged dances for Christine Edzard’s feature film The Nutcracker. Lucy is a founder member of The Mature Dancers’ project in London. With Antony McDonald: Rusalka (Grange Park), The Ring Cycle, Manon (Nationale Reisopera), Tsarevitch (South Bavarian Theatres), Maria Stuarda (Opera North) L’Enfant et les Sortileges (Bolshoi, Moscow). Other: Carmen (Opera North, Flanders Opera). With Richard Jones: Tales of Hoffman (ROH), Lohengrin (Munich), Billy Budd (Frankfurt, Amsterdam), Gianni Schicchi, L’Heure Espagnole, Gloriana (ROH), Die Meistersinger (WNO). CAMERON BURNS Chorus Master was an Academic and
Organ Scholar at New College, Oxford and attended the National Opera Studio. Credits include Powder her Face and Salome (ROH and Mariinsky Theatre, St Petersburg), Faust, A Dog’s Heart, Parsifal, Damnation of Faust, Lucrezia
Borgia, Mikado, Boheme (ENO), L’Elisir d’amore, Nozze di Figaro (WNO), Giovanni (Aldeburgh), Rake’s Progress (BYO), Cimarosa’s Matrimonio Segreto (Barga, Italy), Otello, Lohengrin and Elektra in concert with LSC, Rigoletto, Tristan und Isolde, Tosca (Grange Park Opera), Otello, Tosca (Dorset Opera), Siegfried, Götterdämmerung (Nationale Reisopera), Ruddigore (Opera North). DAWN BURNS ensemble is from
Belfast and recently graduated from RWCMD. Roles there include Dido Dido & Aeneas, Marcellina Figaro, Ida Fledermaus and 3rd Lady Flute. She performed with BBC National Chorus of Wales and received 1st prize at the 2011 Abergavenny Eisteddfod. LAURA
graduated from Royal Holloway College. Opera includes Belinda Dido & Aeneas (Burghley Opera) and chorus in Aida, Norma, Ruslan & Ludmilla, La Perichole, Lucia di Lammermoor, L’Elisir d’amore and Turandot (Dorset Opera). Laura sings on commercial albums / soundtracks with Metro Voice and London Voices. ROSEMARY CLIFFORD ensemble is from Hertfordshire
read English Literature at Bristol before studying at GSMD. Recent chorus work includes Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor (Guildhall School of Music) and Matthew Passion (National Theatre). NICHOLAS CRAWLEY Zaretsky Onegin / ensemble was born in
Buckinghamshire and was Head Chorister at St Albans Cathedral. He studies at Royal Academy where roles include Somarone Beatrice et Benedict and Bartley Riders to the Sea. Recent work includes Helmsman Tristan und Isolde (Grange Park Opera), Mozart’s Figaro (Amersham Music Festival), Sergeant and cover Colline Boheme (BYO), Kecal Bartered Bride (Grimsby Philharmonic), The Man in Rogers’ The Raven (OperaUpClose, Grimeborn) and cover Ercole Il Giasone (Royal Academy Opera).
Butterfly / ensemble studied at GSMD. Recent work includes Dick Johnson Fanciulla del West, Ottavio (OperaUpClose), 4ème Jeune Homme La Coeur de Célimène and Head Oompa Loompa in the European première of Golden Ticket (Wexford), chorus in Statkowski’s Maria and Mercadante’s Virginia. Other opera includes Laurie in Mark Adamo’s opera Little Women (Banff Opera) and chorus in Grange Park Opera’s productions of Rigoletto and Tristan und Isolde. Adam writes for, sings and plays guitar in his band, Everybody Be Cool. GABRIELLE DALTON Costume Designer Idomeneo. For Grange
Park: Rusalka (Associate Costume Designer). Costume designs: Carmen (Opera North, Salzburg), Magical Night, Red Balloon, (ROH2 and tour), Barber of Seville, (Savoy Opera), Rheingold and Walküre (Associate Costume Designer - Nationale Reisopera), Joe Turner Has Come and Gone (Young Vic), Three Water Plays (Almeida Opera), Turandot (Nationale Reisopera), Le nozze di Figaro (Bologna, Genoa, Barcelona, Tel Aviv, Champs-Elysées, Paris and Bordeaux), Of Thee I Sing and Let ‘em Eat Cake, Dido & Aeneas, Les Noces and Ruddigore (Opera North). In America she worked as Costume Director on five productions by Opera Pacific and as Costume Assistant on Otello and Don Pasquale for Los Angeles Opera. DAVID DANHOLT Idomeneo is
from Denmark and has appeared at Royal Opera Copenhagen, Danish National Opera, Bregenz Festival in roles including Eurimaco Il ritorno D’Ulisse in Patria, Gastone Traviata, Don Ottavio Giovanni, title role Faust, Steuermann Fliegende Holländer, Tamino Zauberflöte, Nemorino Elisir d’amore, Alfredo Traviata and title role Idomeneo. Other engagements include The Orchestra Pit, a contemporary opera by Danish composer Bo Gunge (Den Fynske Opera) and Die Passagierin (Teatro Real Madrid). His oratorio appearances include Mozart Requiem, Messiah and Judas Maccabaeus, Haydn Schöpfung (Teatro Lirico di Cagliari), Messiah (Odense Symphony Orchestra), Bach Christmas Oratorio (Ålborg Symphony Orchestra) and Elijah with many Danish and Scandinavian orchestras. Sponsor Francois Freyeisen & Shunichi Kubo
NICOLAS DARMANIN Triquet
Onegin / ensemble completed a law degree in Malta before moving to London to study at the Royal College of Music. Opera includes Ramiro, Ernesto, Ferrando, Ottavio, Tamino, Mercury. He appeared as Bambino in Linda di Chamounix (ROH). TIMOTHY
Spades studied at RCM. He has sung with Scottish Opera, Opera North and Glyndebourne. Other appearances include Ashby Fanciulla, Sparafucile Rigoletto, Parson/Badger Cunning Little Vixen, Haushofmeister Capriccio and Angelotti Tosca (Grange Park), Leporello Giovanni (Batignano), Speaker Flute (on tour in the USA), Colline Boheme, Don Fernando Fidelio, Tom Ballo in Maschera and Quinalt Adriana Lecouvreur (OHP), Le Spectre Hamlet (Chelsea Opera), Superintendent Budd Albert Herring (Aldeburgh), Mephistopheles Faust (Edinburgh Grand Opera). He recorded various roles in Goehr’s Arianna. Plans include Mozart Requiem (Snape Maltings) and Superintendent Budd (ETO). Sponsor Diane & Christopher Sheridan ILONA DOMNICH Tatyana Onegin
was born in St Petersburg, and studied at RCM. Opera roles include Gilda Rigoletto (Bury Court, Anghiari / Ischia Festivals, Italy), Blonde Entführung (Dartington Opera School), Zerlina Giovanni and Pamina Zauberflöte (ETO), Countess Figaro (Co Opera), Venus Judgement of Paris (Wigmore Hall), Mimi Boheme (Vignette Productions) as well as Madam Herz Impresario, Colombina Jewel Box and Lisetta Vera Costanza. Sponsor Ian & Clare Maurice WAYNE DOWDESWELL Lighting Designer Butterfly trained at Bristol
Old Vic Theatre School. Theatre: The Shakespeare Revue, Cherry Orchard, Tamburlaine the Great, Edward II, The Roman Actor, The Island Princess, The Malcontent, The Tamer Tamed, Sejanus, Breakfast with Mugabe, Canterbury Tales (RSC), Medea (Wyndhams & NY), The Birthday Party, Not the End of the World (Bristol Old Vic), The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, Whisky Galore! (Pitlochry), Sweeney Todd (Cheltenham), Dr Faustus, School for Scandal, Duchess of Malfi (Stage on Screen), Private Peaceful (Scamp, UK tour),
Love on the Dole, David Copperfield, Streetcar (Octagon, Bolton). Opera: Eugene Onegin, Rinaldo (Grange Park Opera), Cunning Little Vixen, Giovanni, Falstaff, Midsummer Night’s Dream (Longborough), Mikado (D’Oyly Carte, Savoy Theatre), Lucia di Lammermoor, (Scottish Opera & Mariinsky, St Petersburg). JOHN DOYLE Director Butterfly Opera includes Peter Grimes (Metropolitan Opera), Lucia di Lammermoor (Houston/La Fenice/ Mariinsky/Scottish Opera), Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (LA Opera). Theatre in US includes Sweeney Todd (Tony Award Best Director of a Musical), Company (Tony Award Best Musical Revival) and A Catered Affair (Drama League Award), Exorcist (Geffen, LA), Ten Cents a Dance (Princeton), Road Show (Public Theatre/ Menier Chocolate Factory), Where’s Charley? (Encores! NY), Wings (Second Stage, NY), Kiss Me Kate (Stratford Shakespeare Festival), Caucasian Chalk Circle (San Francisco), Merrily We Roll Along (Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park). In the UK, John has been Artistic Director of four regional theatres. Numerous credits include Gondoliers, Mack & Mabel (West End), Fiddler on the Roof, Merrily We Roll Along (Watermill), Oklahoma! (Chichester) and Amadeus (Wilton’s Music Hall). He directed the feature film Main Street. Sponsor Tom Busher & Elizabeth Benson ALEX DULIBA Yamadori Butterfly / ensemble was born in Cheshire and studied at GSMD and RCM. He has appeared with BYO cover Sid Albert Herring, Orpheus Stephen Oliver’s Eurydice, Rake’s Progress (Aldeburgh), Forza del Destino (OHP). Roles include Starveling Midsummer’s Night’s Dream (RCM), Dancairo (Co-Opera Co) and title role Louis Mander's Ancient Mariner (Wilton’s Music Hall). Sponsor Mr & Mrs Charlie Caminada ANNE SOPHIE DUPRELS
Spades studied at the Conservatoire National Superieur de Musique et de Danse, Paris. UK engagements include Thaïs and Rusalka (Grange Park), Violetta‚ Micaëla, Mimi (Opera North), Violetta, Magda Rondine‚ Lucia, Luisa Miller‚ Katya Kabanova‚ Jenufa, Mélisande (OHP), Mimi (RAH/Raymond Gubbay), Manon (SO), Oksana Tcherevichki (Garsington). Roles outside UK include Manon (Buenos Aires), Jenufa (New Zealand), staged Four Last Songs (Bastille), Theresa Benvenuto Cellini
(Strasbourg), Fiordiligi (Glimmerglass, Strasbourg), Elle Voix Humaine and Thérèse Mamelles de Tiresias (La Scala in Cosenza), Rita (Paris), Carolina Matrimonio Segreto (Lyon). Plans include Mélisande (Buenos Aires), Blanche Dialogues des Carmélites (Grange Park Opera). Sponsor Francis & Nathalie Phillimore MATTHEW DUNCAN ensemble
trained at RNCM. Appearances at Grange Park include Tosca, Love for Three Oranges and Tristan und Isolde. Recent roles include Schaunard Boheme (OperaUpClose), Butcher Merrie England (Opera South), Guglielmo Così (European Chamber Opera), Rigoletto (Bury Court Opera), Frank Fledermaus and Billy Billy Budd (RNCM), Melchior Amahl and the Night Visitors (Dress Circle), Junius Rape of Lucretia (Elemental Opera). NICOLAS DWYER Captain Onegin / ensemble has performed at
Grange Park as Jailer Tosca, Herald Rigoletto and Ridicule Love for Three Oranges. Other appearances inclde contemporary operas at the Tête à Tête and Grimeborn festivals, Marcello Boheme (OperaUpClose), Guglielmo Così (Situation Opera), 1st Witch Dido & Aeneas (GSMD), Alidoro Cenerentola (OperaUpClose), Javert Miserables in prison with Pimlico Opera. Nicolas resumes studies at GSMD later this year. CHARLES EDWARDS Director & Designer Idomeneo was born
in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and graduated from Central School of Art and Design. He made his début as a director with Così (MidWales Opera) in 2001, followed by Oedipus Rex (Opera North) and Elektra (ROH) in 2003 and 2008. He directed John Woolrich’ song-cycle The Sea and its Shore (Almeida Opera Festival), Maria di Rohan (Wexford), Turandot (De Nationale Reisopera) and Rigoletto (Opera North). His designs have been seen at ROH, ENO, Opera North, Bastille Paris, Metropolitan Opera New York, Lyric Opera Chicago, San Francisco Opera as well as many other European and USA opera houses. Sponsor Terence & Sian Sinclair SPIRO FERNANDO ensemble completed a Masters in Philosophy at LSE and studied singing at TCM. Roles include Notary Gianni Schicchi, 2nd Prisoner Fidelio, cover Seneca Poppea, Yakuside Butterfly, Benoit and Alcindoro
Boheme, Melisso Alcina, Masetto Giovanni, Antonio Figaro, 2nd Gondolier Death in Venice, Minder / Journalist Playing Away and Zuniga Carmen. He has sung chorus for BYO, OHP, Opera South, Garsington, Longborough, Aldeburgh and Bregenz festivals and Raymond Gubbay. ANTHONY
Onegin studied musical theatre at Royal Academy of Music and in September joins the National Opera Studio. Opera credits include cover Nemorino Elixir of Love (ENO), Rodolfo Boheme and Ottavio Giovanni (OperaUpClose), Nemorino (Burry Port), Prisoner Zaide (Classical Opera Company), Paris Belle Hélène (Suffolk Opera) and Alfredo Traviata (Merry Opera). Anthony was in the Glyndebourne chorus in 2011 and earlier this year was Jean Valjean Les Miserables (Pimlico Opera in HMP Erlestoke). MARTA FONTANALS-SIMMONS Kate Pinkerton Butterfly / ensemble
studied at GSMD. As a soloist, Marta has performed at St Martin-inthe-Fields, St John’s Smith Square and Barbican Hall. Opera includes Eva Comedy on the Bridge (Minotaur Music Theatre) cover Lucretia Rape of Lucretia (BYO). Plans include Hansel Hansel & Gretel (Clonter) Ruggiero Orlando Generoso (Barber Opera). Sponsor Lucy Constable AMY FRESTON Ilia Idomeneo was
born in London and trained as a classical dancer before studying singing at the RNCM and NOS. She is a frequent guest at Opera North where recent roles include Despina Così and Rose Maybud Ruddigore. She has sung numerous roles for Glyndebourne and appeared with ENO, Garsington, ROH Linbury Theatre, Göttingen Handel Festival, Early Opera Company, Classical Opera Company, ETO and Aldeburgh Festival. In concert she has performed with the Orchestra of Age Enlightenment, Gabrieli Consort and Players, CBSO, Northern Sinfonia, Les Concerts d’Astrée. Sponsor William Charnley Her Act 3 aria Zeffiretti David & Fiona Taylor
SARA FULGONI Suzuki Butterfly / Polina Spades has performed a huge variety of repertoire worldwide. Notable appearances include Adalgisa Norma, Clairon Capriccio and Brangäne Tristan und Isolde (Grange Park), Judith Bluebeard’s Castle (Canadian Opera Company and Barcelona), title role in Rape of Lucretia (VARA Radio and Radio France), Waltraute Götterdämmerung (ENO). Recent highlights include Baba the Turk Rake’s Progress (Rome and Bologna), Juno and Waltraute (De Vlaamse Opera) and Margret Wozzeck (La Monnaie). Sara has worked with Riccardo Chailly, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Riccardo Muti, Josep Pons and the late Giuseppe Sinopoli. Plans include Béatrice Béatrice et Benedicte (WNO), Mère Marie Dialogues des Carmélites (Grange Park), Maddalena Rigoletto (La Monnaie and Strasbourg). Sponsor James Hudleston Polina's Romance Anonymous STEPHEN
Butterfly won the Kathleen Ferrier Memorial Scholarship and was a finalist in the inaugural Plácido Domingo Operalia Competition. He sang Kurwenal Tristan und Isolde for Grange Park Opera in 2011. He has appeared at the Baden Baden, Glyndebourne, Lucerne and Salzburg festivals, and with ROH, ENO, OHP, WNO, Scottish Opera, Dallas Opera, Netherlands Opera, Den Norske Opera, Paris Opera, Opéra de Metz, Opéra de Montpellier, Opéra de Nantes, Opéra National du Rhin and Opéra de Rouen. He has recorded for Chandos, DGG and Naxos. Sponsor Mr & Mrs Richard Morse GEORGIA GINSBERG ensemble
read Japanese and History of Art at Cambridge and studied at TCM and RAM. Opera includes Governess Turn of the Screw, Zerlina & Donna Elvira Don Giovanni, Despina Così, Cleopatra Giulio Cesare, Proserpina L’Orféo, Frasquita Carmen and Josephine HMS Pinafore. ELEANOR GREENWOOD ensemble graduated from RAM.
Her roles include Pachole The Waif Statkowski’s Maria and La Ciesca Gianni Schicchi (Wexford), Hänsel, Endimione La Calisto, the Wife Cheryomushki, Count Orlofksy Fledermaus, Mrs Fairfax Jane Eyre (Australian
Premiere), L’Enfant L’Enfant et les Sortileges, Rosina (WSO) and roles in Cunning Little Vixen (Ryedale Festival). OSIAN GWYNN Yakuside Butterfly
/ ensemble recently graduated from GSMD. Opera includes Almaviva Figaro (Co-Opera Co), Loudspeaker Der Kaiser von Atlantis (Grimeborne Festival), Stravinky’s Les Noces (Alsace, Champagne, Normandy and Paris), Lads in their Hundreds which was performed in Camden and Ludlow Festival. MATTHEW HARGREAVES Voice of Neptune Idomeneo / Narumov Spades studied at
GSMD. Recent opera includes Angelotti Tosca‚ Inspector A Dog’s Heart and Gubetta Lucrezia Borgia (ENO), Figaro, Leporello (OHP), Montano/Herald Otello (BBC Philharmonic). Other engagements include Giovanni‚ Escamillo Carmen‚ Schaunard Boheme‚ Speaker Magic Flute‚ Masetto Giovanni (WNO)‚ Tomsky Queen of Spades‚ Zurga Pearl Fishers and Basilio Barbiere di Siviglia (OHP)‚ Sciarrone Tosca (Royal Opera House)‚ Angelotti Tosca and Escamillo (RAH), The Gallworm The Cricket Recovers (Bregenz)‚ Junius Rape of Lucretia (Florence), Abbot Curlew River (Rouen), English Clerk Death in Venice and Traveller Curlew River (Concertgebouw). Sponsor Mr & Mrs Grant Gordon LYNNE HOCKNEY Choreographer
Onegin trained at the Royal Ballet School. Her choreographic career encompasses opera‚ theatre‚ film and television‚ working with directors as diverse as James Cameron‚ Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sir Peter Hall. Film credits includes The Village‚ Titanic‚ True Lies‚ Town & Country‚ Wild‚ Wild West‚ and Rocky & Bullwinkle. Opera includes Rosenkavalier (Bolshoi)‚ Traviata (Magdeburg), Iolanta, Francesca da Rimini (Vienna), Peter Grimes, Otello (Graz), Don Quichotte (Nederlandse Opera), Jenufa (Glyndebourne, Malmö), Orfeo ed Euridice‚ Tancredi, Eugene Onegin (Lyon), Cenerentola (Glyndebourne, Berlin), Midsummer Night’s Dream, Otello (Glyndebourne, Chicago), Traviata (Scottish Opera)‚ Cav and Pag (RAH, Dallas, New York, Palm Beach)‚ Manon Lescaut (Opera North, Oviedo, Norway)‚ Zauberflöte (Opera Zuid)‚ Dido & Aeneas (Chicago) and Pirates of Penzance (Glimmerglass).
BIANCA HOPKINS dancer Onegin
is from Gold Coast, Australia and trained at New Zealand School of Dance. She danced with Royal New Zealand Ballet in Madame Butterfly and worked on Peter Jackson's film King Kong. Since moving to Europe she has performed with Vienna Festival Ballet, Springs Dance Company, Ballet Soul, Antique Dances and appeared in Manon (ROH) and Faust (ENO). MATTHEW HOWARD ensemble
recently completed his training at Trinity College of Music. An experienced church musician, he has a permanent position at All Saints, Margaret Street and sings at many London’s churches and cathedrals. Matthew has appeared with BYO. CARYL HUGHES Olga Onegin studied at RAM and Cardiff International Academy of Voice. She appeared with Bryn Terfel at Grange Park 2011 and as 1st Nymph Rusalka. Roles include Cosette Les Miserables (Pimlico Opera in Erlestoke Prison), Varvara Katya, Cenerentola (Scottish Opera), Teti Le nozze di Teti e di Peleo, Orlovsky Fledermaus (WNO), Rita Rat Fantastic Mr Fox (ETO), Sonya Sonya’s Story (Tête à Tête), Rosina Barber of Seville (Armonico Consort), Madama Brillante Italian Girl in London (Bampton), Irene Tamerlano (Opera by Definition), Yniold Pelléas et Mélisande (Independent Opera), Flora Enchanted Pig (Young Vic Theatre/The Opera Group). Sponsor Anonymous ROMAN IALCIC Tomsky Spades was born in Chisinau, Moldova and was a member of Theater St Gallen, Switzerland, where roles included Escamillo Carmen, Tomsky Queen of Spades and Kaspar Der Freischütz. Other engagements include Abimelech Samson et Dalila (St Gallen), Varlaam Boris Godunov (Klagenfurt and Münster), Don Profondo Il viaggio a Reims (Teatro Real, Madrid), Doctor Macbeth (Teatro Villamarta, Jerez de la Frontera) and Kaspar Freischütz (Opéra de Toulon / Opéra-Théâtre de St-Étienne). Sponsor Malcolm Herring
RICHARD IMMERGLÜCK Commissioner Butterfly / ensemble
studied at GSMD. Recent roles include Sharpless Butterfly, Essex Merrie England, Sid Albert Herring, Leporello Giovanni, Marullo Rigoletto and title roles Barber of Seville and Nozze di Figaro. He appeared with Grange Park’s Rising Stars in Madama Butterfly. BYRON JACKSON ensemble was born in Birmingham and studied at the Birmingham Conservatoire. He made his debut at Sadler’s Wells in Rangwan Koanga. He has appeared in ROH world premieres: Le Gendre’s Bird of Night and Anna Nicole. Other appearances include RAH, Buxton Festival Opera, Opera de Lyon and Teatro dei Rozzi, Italy and roles include Ben The Telephone, Zmora Statkowski’s Maria (Wexford), 1st Priest Flute (Garsington), Leporello Giovanni (Longborough), Montano Otello (Birmingham Opera Company, filmed for BBC2). STEPHEN JEFFERY
studied at RCM and Birmingham Conservatoire. Roles include Fabrizio Pietra del Paragone (Stanley Hall Opera), Garibaldo Rodelinda, Berrerdo Riccardo Primo, Masetto Giovanni (Opera de Baugé), Morales Carmen, Schaunard Boheme (Blackheath Halls Opera), Marco Gianni Schicchi (Wexford). DANIEL JOY ensemble studied at RCM and the opera course at GSMD. Roles include Albert Herring, Giovanni L’Assedio di Calais, Ricardo Cherubin (GSMD), Gherardo Gianni Schicchi, Kozak Statkowski’s Maria (Wexford), title role Prodigal Son (Ryedale and Grimeborn festivals), Jimmy in John Estacio’s Lillian Ailing (Banff, Canada). PAUL KEOGAN Lighting Design
Spades / Idomeneo / Onegin was born in Ireland and studied at Trinity, Dublin and Glasgow University. Recent work includes Big Maggie, Penelope, The Walworth Farce (Druid Theatre), Boheme, (Nationale Reisopera), Curse of the Starving Class, Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui (Abbey Theatre), Molly Sweeney, The Birds,
Performances, Gates of Gold (Gate Theatre), Intemperance (Everyman, Liverpool), Streetcar Named Desire, Tartuffe (Liverpool, Playhouse), Taming of the Shrew (RSC), Harvest (Royal Court), Born Bad (Hampstead Theatre), Blue/Orange (Crucible), The Crucible (Regents Park), Pierrot Lunaire (Almeida), Trad (Galway Arts Festival), Makropulos, Fliegende Holländer (Opera Zuid), Mines of Sulphur (Wexford), Zauberflöte (Korea), Barber of Seville (Cork) Lady Macbeth of Mtensk, Silver Tassie, Dead Man Walking (Opera Ireland). MITESH
studied at Birmingham Conservatoire. Roles include Don Jose Carmen, Bartered Bride, Elvino Sonnambula, Mr Upfold Albert Herring and Amaryllus Poisoned Kiss. He has appeared with RSC, Longborough, and in Dove’s Life is a Dream (Birmingham Opera). MATTHEW KIMBLE
was born in Bedford and trained at GSMD. Roles include Albert Herring, Tamino, Don José, Orpheus Orpheus in the Underworld, Beppe Pagliacci and Gastone Traviata. He has worked with OHP, Aldeburgh, Bregenz Festival, Carl Rosa, Chelmsford Opera. CHARLOTTE KING
was at Goldsmiths College and is currently at GSMD. She has sung Rosina, Suzuki and Carmen, Aunt Jane Hugh the Drover (Hampstead Garden Opera), Siegrune Walküre (St Endellion) and Sesto Clemenza and Sorceress Dido & Aeneas (Riverside Opera). WILLIAM KNIGHT ensemble was
a chorister of St Paul’s and read Music at University of York. He recently sang Colin in Rousseau’s Le Devin du Village (University College) and toured with The Marian Consort in Girona and Capilla Cayrasco in Cuenca, Spain. MARIA
graduated from St Petersburg Conservatoire and studies at RSAMD. Opera includes Tatyana Onegin, Nicolette L’amour de trois oranges, Antonia Contes d’Hoffmann, Natasha Rostova War & Peace.
NICHOLAS KRAEMER Conductor
Idomeneo is Permanent Guest Conductor of Manchester Camerata and Principal Guest Conductor of Music of the Baroque, Chicago and the Kristiansand Symphony Orchestra, Norway. He has conducted the Berlin Philharmonic, Chicago Symphony, Rotterdam Philharmonic, Bergen Philharmonic, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, the Halle and BBC Philharmonic Orchestras. Opera engagements include Paris, Lisbon, Amsterdam, Bergen, Colorado, Geneva, Aachen conducting works by Monteverdi, Handel, Mozart and Britten. He was the Baroque Music Director in the film The Madness of King George. QUIRIJN DE LANG Yeletsky Spades
was born in The Netherlands and studied at the Scuola di Musica, Milano and the Curtis Institute, Philadelphia. Opera includes Pantalon Love for Three Oranges (Nederlandse Oper), Le Surintendant Cendrillon, Masetto Giovanni (La Monnaie), Count Capriccio (Grange Park), Ottokar Freischütz, Pete Dayton in Neuwirth’s Lost Highway (ENO), Papageno Zauberflöte (Luxembourg), Guglielmo Così, Schaunard Boheme (Opera North), Malatesta Don Pasquale (Nationale Reisopera), Harlekin Ariadne auf Naxos, Dandini Cenerentola and Selem Turco in Italia (Garsington), Marco Gianni Schicchi, Harlekin and title role in Hendrickx’s Achilleus (De Vlaamse Opera). HYE-YOUN LEE Elettra Idomeneo
was born in South Korea and made her London debut as Marie La Fille du Regiment (OHP), returning as Musetta Boheme. Other engagements include Lucia Lucia di Lammermoor, Oscar Ballo in maschera (Opéra National de Rhin), Silvia L’isola disabitata (Opera Basse Normandie), First Esquire Parsifal (Paris Opera), Cio-Cio-San Butterfly (Grange Park Rising Stars) Lisette Rondine (OHP and Finnish National Opera). Sponsor Roger & Kate Holmes DANIELA
Idomeneo is Austrian and studied in Vienna, Salzburg and London and was a BBC Radio 3 New Generation Artist. Recent engagements include Zemlinksy’s Maeterlinck Lieder (BBCNOW/
Kazushi Ono), Mendelssohn A Midsummer Night’s Dream (LSO/Haitink), Ramiro Finta giardiniera (AAM), Mozart Requiem under Sir Colin Davis and Juanjo Mena and Zarzuela arias and Spanish songs (BBCSO). In 2008, she made her ROH debut as Hermia Midsummer Night’s Dream. Plans include Dvorak Stabat Mater (BBC Philharmonic). Sponsor Heike Munro JEFFREY LLOYD-ROBERTS Tchekalinksy Spades was born in
Wales and read music at Lancaster University before studying at RNCM. For Grange Park: Basilio / Curzio Figaro, Husband Breasts of Tiresias, Lensky Onegin, Quint Turn of the Screw, Prince Yuri Enchantress, Nicias Thais, Alexei The Gambler, Erik Der fliegende Holländer and Prince Love for Three Oranges. He has worked regularly with Opera North, including title role Peter Grimes, ENO (Alwa Lulu), ROH (Anna Nicole), Scottish Opera (Adventures of Mr Broucek), WNO, Glyndebourne Festival, Birmingham Opera (Andres Wozzeck), ETO, Garsington Opera and Holland Park. He made his Salzburg debut in 2010 as Erik Fliegende Höllander. Sponsor Jeremy & Rosemary Farr TOM LOWE ensemble studied at RAM. Roles include Eisenstein Fledermaus and cover Witch Hansel & Gretel (Bloomsbury Opera), Dancairo Carmen (Longborough), Remendado and cover Don Jose Carmen (Co-Opera Co), Goro and Pinkerton Butterfly (OperaUpClose). With Incognito Artists he has toured Turkey, Moscow and Thailand. ALEXIA MANKOVSKAYA Larina Onegin / ensemble was born in
Belarus and studied at TCM. Opera includes Cherubino, L’Enfant L’Enfant et les Sortilèges, Arminda Finta Giardiniera, Leonora Prima la Musica, Witch Hansel & Gretel, Ceprano Rigoletto. In recital she has appeared at St Martin in the Fields, Royal Palace, Madrid, Munich Residenz, Rachmaninovsky Hall, Moscow. GIANLUCA MARCIANO Conductor Butterfly made
his conducting debut in Zagreb in 2007, going on to conduct Nabucco, Traviata, Turandot, Carmen, Cenerentola and Barbiere di Siviglia. He is Music Director of
Tbilisi Opera House (Forza del Destino, Cavalleria Rusticana, Nabucco, Attila, Trovatore, Aida and Mitridate, Re di Ponto), Artistic Director of the Al Bustan Festival, Beirut and Principal Guest Conductor of the Beijing Drama, Dance & Opera Orchestra. He has conducted Barbiere and Traviata (Minsk), Pietra del Paragone, La Damoiselle Elue and Mamelles de Tiresias (Sassari) and Traviata (Prague). UK work includes Tosca (Grange Park) and Manon Lescaut, Traviata and La Favorite (Chelsea Opera Group). Sponsor Ruth Markland ANTONY MCDONALD Director & Designer Spades As Director/
Designer: Rusalka, Wonderful Town (Grange Park), Ring Cycle, 2009-2012, Manon and King Priam (Nationale Reisopera), Maria Stuarda (Opera North), Tsarevitch (South Bavarian Theatre), Knot Garden, Aida, Samson et Dalilah (Scottish Opera), L’Enfant et les Sortilèges (Bolshoi). As Designer: Makropolous Case (Frankfurt), Gloriana (Houston), Gambler (ROH), Cunning Little Vixen (Netherlands Opera), Billy Budd (Frankfurt, Amsterdam), Giulietta (Paris Opera, Geneva, ENO), Prima Donna by Rufus Wainwright (Manchester International Festival, Sadlers Wells, Toronto, NYC Opera), Midsummer Night’s Dream, Merry Widow (Met, New York). JAMES MCORAN-CAMPBELL Onegin was born in London and
studied at GSMD and the NOS. For Grange Park Opera James has sung Figaro Il Barbiere di Siviglia and Belcore L’Elisir d’amore (Rising Stars), Bello Fanciulla del West, Gamekeeper Rusalka. Recent engagements include roles in Street Scene (Young Vic and Vienna), Rolf The Sound of Music (Châtelet), title role Giovanni, Count Figaro and Pastore/Spirito Orfeo (Opera North), Dandini Cenerentola (WNO), Falke Fledermaus (Castleward), Nardo Finta Giardiniera (Opéra de Baugé) and Ormus Cama The Ground beneath her Feet (Manchester International Festival). Sponsor David Laing Foundation STEPHEN
Onegin credits include Manon Lescaut, Zauberflöte (Teatro Regio di Parma), Figaro (Glyndebourne), Pique Dame (La Scala), Village Romeo & Juliet, Carmen, Aida (Cagliari), Così (Châtelet), Ezio (Champs–Elysées). He has worked with Salzburger Landestheater, Buxton Festival, Marseille, Opera Bergen,
Kiev Festival, Teatro delle Muse, Teatro Massimo Palermo, Lisbon and Thessaloniki. Plans include new productions of Falstaff (Teatro Regio di Parma), Carmen (Teatro Nacional de São Carlos), A Village Romeo and Juliet (Wexford Festival) and Aida (Raymond Gubbay, RAH). SARAH MINNS ensemble was
at RAM, RWCMD and trained with Welsh National Youth Opera. Roles include Bianca Rondine, Sprite Fantastic Mr Fox (OHP), Musetta Boheme, Miss Wordsworth Albert Herring, Kate Pinkerton Butterfly, Fox Cunning Little Vixen, Frasquita Carmen and Gretel Hansel & Gretel. NICHOLAS MORRIS
trained at RSAMD. Roles include Peter Hänsel & Gretel, Count Figaro, Denisov War & Peace (Scotland and Russia), Lindorf Les Contes d’Hoffmann, Tchelio L’amour des trois Oranges, Junius Rape of Lucretia (BYO), Forester Cunning Little Vixen (Scottish Opera). DAVID MURLEY dancer Onegin
trained in France and London. Opera credits include Traviata, Manon, Queen of Spades (ROH), Mikado (ENO), Carmen, Giulio Cesare, Zauberflöte and Love & Other Demons (Glyndebourne). Other credits include Pinocchio (Wizard Theatre), Nonsuch Dance Company, Sahara Pranam Bollywood Spectacular in India, Pam Ann’s Christmas Cracker (Soho Theatre). Film/TV credits: Margot (Mammoth Screen), Filth and Wisdom by Madonna, It’s Now or Never (ITV).
Street Dance 3D the movie, O Caritas by Peter Darrell (Curve Foundation), Manon (ROH, Japan tour), Phantom of the Opera 25th anniversary and The Snowman. FRANCIS O’CONNOR
Onegin trained at Wimbledon School of Art. RSC productions include Midsummer Night’s Dream, Love’s Labour’s Lost and Written on The Heart. Designs in NY and Broadway include Beauty Queen of Lennane, Translations, The Cripple of Innishmaan and Silver Tassie (Lincoln Centre Festival). He is a frequent collaborator with Garry Hynes, Druid, Gate and the Abbey in Ireland. Opera designs include Capriccio, Fanciulla del West, Magic Flute, Don Giovanni, South Pacific (Grange Park), other opera designs for Garsington, Buxton, Opera North, ENO, Strasbourg, Berlin, Switzerland and the USA. ADELE O’NEILL ensemble was
born in South Wales and studied at GSMD. Roles include Adina L’Elisir, Leonora Trovatore, Violetta, Micaëla Carmen, Adele Fledermaus. Adele won the gold medal singing competition at Llangollen International Eisteddfod in 2008. NICOLE OPPLER ensemble was a
street urchin in Jonathan Miller’s Carmen at ENO. Subsequent roles include Novice Suor Angelica (Fulham Opera), Cherie Blair Trial by Jury: A Footballer’s Tale (Minotaur Music Theatre), Emilia Otello (Vox Lirika), Angela Patience, Sangazure The Sorcerer, Duchess of Plaza Toro Gondoliers and Katisha Mikado.
MATTHEW NICHOLLS ensemble
ANNE-MARIE OWENS Countess
was a chorister at Wells Cathedral and studied at RCM. Opera appearances include chorus at Grange Park Opera, Pearl Fishers, Curlew River, Fra Diavolo, Cavalleria Rusticana and Pagliacci.
Spades was born in South Shields and studied at GSMD. Repertoire includes Brangäne Tristan und Isolde, Fricka Rheingold, Amneris Aida, Azucena Trovatore, Herodias Salome, Venus Tannhäuser, Santuzza Cavalleria Rusticana, Anezka Two Widows, Mrs Grose Turn of the Screw, Auntie Peter Grimes, Morozova Opricnick, Madelon Andrea Chenier, Clarissa Love for Three Oranges. Recent and future appearances include Fricka Walküre (Nationale Reisopera), Marcellina (Opera Naradowa), Petrovna Tsar’s Bride (ROH), Dame Hannah Ruddigore (Opera North), Judith Weir’s Miss Fortune (Bregenz Festival and ROH), Mrs Herring Albert Herring (Toulouse). Sponsor Anonymous
Onegin is from East Sussex and was with Ballet West in the Scottish Highlands. Repertoire includes Pas de Deux Onegin (Glyndebourne), Dream (Independent Ballet Wales), Juliet
Butterfly has collaborated with noted conductors such as James Conlon, Emmanuel Plasson and Emmanuel Villaume. Opera includes includes Jay Gatsby The Great Gatsby (Chicago), Duca (Grange Park), Electrician Powder Her Face (Bologna, Lugo), Des Grieux Manon (Chicago, Grand Rapids), title role Candide (Münchner Philharmoniker), Manrico Trovatore (Portland), Edgard Lucie de Lammermoor (Cincinnati), Rodolfo Boheme (Cleveland Opera), Alfredo (Michigan), Duke Rigoletto (New Orleans), Prince Karl The Student Prince (Nashville). Sponsor Sir David & Lady Plastow IAIN PATON High Priest Idomeneo
was born in Scotland and studied at RSAMD. Recent and upcoming engagements include appearances at De Nederlandse Opera, Aixen-Provence, Garsington, City of Birmingham Opera, Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra San Francisco and ROH. At Scottish Opera, Opera North and De Vlaamse Opera his roles include Pedrillo Entführung, Novice Billy Budd, Vanya Katya Kabanova, Tamino Flute, Vasek Bartered Bride, Lensky Onegin, Albert Herring, Ottavio Don Giovanni, Venus & Adonis, Dido & Aeneas, Ferrando, Almaviva. LAUREN
Onegin graduated from Central School of Ballet in 2005. Touring extensively with Ballet Cymru roles include Juliet Romeo & Juliet, Helena Midsummer Night's Dream, Myrtha and Peasant Pas Giselle, Blodeuwedd Bride of Flowers, Belle Beauty & the Beast, Glythin Lady of the Lake and Rosie Probert Under Milk Wood. Choreographic works for Ballet Cymru include Carnival of the Animals, Kneading You, Spanish Suite and Urban Sprawl and a multi-discipline work based on the life and music of Victor Ullman. EMILIA POUNTNEY
studied at TCM. Roles include Dew Fairy & Sandman Hänsel und Gretel (Opera at Home), Barbarina Figaro (Co-Opera Co), Papagena Flute and 1st Witch Dido & Aeneas (Hampstead Garden Opera). In the last few years Emilia has appeared regularly in the Grange Park Opera chorus. She recently appeared in Les Miserables with Pimlico Opera at HMP Erlestoke.
CLARE PRESLAND Aunt Butterfly / ensemble trained at ENO Works
and GSMD. Opera includes cover Omar Death of Klinghoffer (ENO), Musetta (OperaUpClose), Rosina, Suzuki, Dorabella (Jackdaws), Jenny Threepenny Opera (Hawaii), Kate Pinkerton, Peaseblossom Midsummer Night's Dream (LFO), Annina Traviata, 2nd Witch Dido (Opera Project). TOBY
Onegin is Artistic Director of the Orion Symphony Orchestra, Principal Guest Conductor of the Kammerphilhamonie Graz. Opera includes Rigoletto (Grange Park), Hänsel und Gretel, Il Seraglio, Bailey The Black Monk, Sciarrino Infinito Nero, He has worked in four prisons with Pimlico Opera. Orchestral works includes L’Ensemble Orchestral de Paris, Orchestra of Opera North, Sinfonia Viva, St Petersburg Camerata, St Petersburg Festival Orchestra. Sponsor Mrs T Landon ANDREW REES Goro Butterfly / Tchaplitsky Spades was born in
Carmarthen and studied at the RNCM and GSMD. Recent and future engagements include Melot Tristan und Isolde (Grange Park), Eisslinger Meistersinger (ROH, WNO), Kudryash Kat’a Kabanova (WNO), Doctor Anna Nicole and Froh Das Rheingold (ROH) and Steva Jenufa (New Israeli Opera). He has appeared with Opera North, Mid-Wales Opera‚ Theater St Gallen‚ Holland Park‚ Almeida Opera‚ Chelsea Opera Group‚ Nantes Opera and Lille Opera. Sponsor Goro Mrs Peter Cadbury Sponsor Tchaplitsky Raymond & Elizabeth Henley UNA REYNOLDS ensemble read Psychology in Sydney whilst studying voice. Before relocating to the UK she was with Opera Australia where roles included Josephine HMS Pinafore, Princess Zara Utopia Ltd and Edith Pirates. BRETT
was born in South Wales and graduated in Law and Languages. He worked for BBC Radio and TV in London and Italy, Grange Park, WNO, Garsington, Swansea City Opera and Opera North. Roles
include Tamino, 1st Armed Man Flute, Brighella Ariadne auf Naxos, Gaston Traviata and Don Jose Carmen. NIGEL ROBSON Arbace Idomeneo
was born in Argyllshire and studied with Alexander Young and Gustave Sacher. Roles include Bajazet Tamerlano (Drottningholm), Peter Grimes (Nationale Reisopera), Captain Vere Billy Budd (WNO, Canadian Opera Company), Witch Hansel & Gretel, Laca Jenufa, title role Il Ritorno d'Ulisse in Patria (Lisbon and Opera North), High Priest Idomeneo (La Monnaie and Champs-Elysées) and Ulysses (ENO/Young Vic). Sponsor Martin & Jane Houston JAMIE ROCK ensemble is from Dublin. Opera includes Sid Albert Herring, Figaro, Schaunard Boheme (Silent Opera), Bartly Riders to the Sea (Anna Livia Dublin), Yamadori Butterfly (Lyric Opera Dublin), Masetto Giovanni (Paris). He played Szlachcic Maria and in Trouble in Tahiti (Wexford). CAROL
Butterfly was born in South Shields and has previously sung title roles in Norma and Tosca for Grange Park Opera. For her US debut as Fiordiligi Così (Dallas Opera), she was nominated for the Maria Callas Award. Other engagements include ENO, Florida Grand Opera, Sante Fe Opera, Opera Australia, Flanders Opera, Opéra de Bordeaux, Opéra de Montpellier, Opéra National du Rhin, Den Norske Opera, Opera Oviedo. Plans include I Puritani (Grange Park), Aida, Ballo in maschera (Finnish National Opera), Walküre (Opéra de Rennes). Sponsor Anonymous Her golden parasol Sir Stuart Rose Her Act 2 aria Adair Turner & Orna Ni-Chionna CATARINA SERENO
studied in Portugal and at GSMD. Opera includes Elle Voix Humaine, Belinda Dido & Aeneas, Jessy Kleine Mahagonny, Madame Silberklang Schauspieldirektor and Voce 4 Laborintus II (Mahogany Opera). She has performed at the Barbican, LSO St Lukes and recorded for Portuguese radio Antena 2.
Butterfly / Governess Spades Role include Waltraute Walküre and Marcellina Figaro (Scottish Opera), Babulenka Gambler, Owl/ Forester’s Wife Cunning Little Vixen (Grange Park), Mrs Grose Turn of the Screw, Mrs Sedley Grimes (Reisopera), Mother Jeanne Carmelites (WNO), Suzuki Butterfly (LCO/Columbia Artists), Judy Punch & Judy (MTW, Linbury), Goneril Hosokawa’s Vision of Lear (Linbury), Euryklea Rushton’s Trojan Trilogy (Opera Group), Lady Comme ci comme ça The Gambler (ROH). Plans include Annina Traviata (Reisopera) and Housewife Gloriana (ROH). Sponsor Christina & Timothy Benn JAMES SAVAGE-HANFORD ensemble read Music
at Emmanuel, Cambridge. Opera includes chorus in Figaro, Rondine (OHP), William Hugh the Drover (Hampstead Garden Opera), Venus and Adonis (Sforza Baroque) and Too Hot to Handel (Armonico Consort). In September James starts a postgraduate course at the RWCMD.
EMMA SEWELL Mascha Spades / ensemble trained at TCM.
Appearances include Sound of Music (cover Maria), Snow White Into the Woods, Edith Pirates of Penzance, Peep-Bo Mikado, Mad Margaret Ruddigore and Les Miserables (Pimlico Opera, HMP Erlestoke). Sponsor Raymonde Jay MIRIAM SHARRAD
Onegin was with the Australian Opera Studio. Roles include Cornelia Guilio Cesare, Bianca Rape of Lucretia, Dulcinée Quichotte, Dorabella, Cherubino, Niklausse Hoffmann, Meg Page Falstaff, Frog Cunning Little Vixen (Grange Park), Marcellina, Mrs Fox Fantastic Mr Fox (ETO), Dinah Trouble in Tahiti (Renard Productions). ANGELA SIMKIN ensemble is from Lincoln, studied at RNCM. Roles include Edith Pirates of Penzance (Buxton G&S Opera), and Queen Elizabeth I Merrie England (Opera South), Margaret Ghosts of Ruddigore, Ida/Dr Blind Fledermaus and Valencienne Merry Widow (Opera Della Luna).
graduated from the ENO Opera Works programme and RAM. Roles include Miranda Golden Ticket and La Cour de Célimène (Wexford), Mercedes, Dorabella, Suzuki, Didon, Olga, Romeo, Annio, Hansel and Leonora.
Carmen (BBC), Joel Schumacher’s Phantom of the Opera, Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake (Dancing with the Stars, Ch7 Australia). Damien teaches at Rambert School, Cisne Negro Compania de Dança, Brazil, The Place, GFO. TOM
JOANNA SOANE ensemble studied
at TCM and RCM. She has sung with OHP, Savoy Opera, Raymond Gubbay at RAH. Roles include Barbarina (Savoy Opera), Iolanthe (Buxton), Hansel (Candlelight Opera), Mabel (Grim’s Dyke) and Marguerite (Kennet Opera).
is a graduate of TCM. Opera includes Leporello Giovanni (OperaUpClose), Paul in Phillip Glass’s Les Enfants Terribles (Grimeborn Festival), Jack Rance Fanciulla del West (King’s Head). He is currently creating the role of Chandler in Comedy Central’s Friends, The Opera
PHILIP SPENDLEY ensemble gave
CARL TANNER Hermann Spades
up his job as a bank manager to study music. He trained at GSMD where he sang Michele Tabarro, Earl of Dunmow Dinner Engagement, Figaro and Olivier Capriccio. Roles include title role Eugene Onegin, Schaunard Boheme (BYO), Sciarrone, Sagrestano Tosca (Grange Park) and Publio Clemenza di Tito (ETO).
has sung leading roles worldwide and made his debut this season at Marinsky, St Petersburg as Canio and at the Bolshoi as Calaf. Other opera this season includes Calaf Turandot, Radames Aida (Hamburg), Calaf (Deutsche Oper Berlin), Canio Pagliacci (Naples). In 2010, he made his Met debut as Dick Johnson Fanciulla del West and at Edinburgh Festival. Besides his signature role Otello, other recent performances include Andrea Chenier (Tokyo), Enzo Grimaldo Gioconda (Madrid), Calaf (Barcelona), Luigi (Teatro Colon) and Des Grieux Manon Lescaut (Las Palmas). Plans include Aida (Edmonton), Pagliacci (Austin) and Fanciulla (Liege). Sponsored in parts: Head Judith Lawless & Kevin Egan Body Anonymous Legs David McLellan
studies at the RAM. Roles includes Dido, Savitri and Mrs Herring. She appeared as a soloist in Schmitt’s La Tragedie de Salome (BBC SO) and in Daniel-Lesur’s Cantique des Cantiques (BBC Symphony Chorus). MATTHEW STIFF Gremin Onegin
ALEX VEAREY-ROBERTS ensemble
/ ensemble was born in Grimsby and studied at Huddersfield University and recently left GSMD. Opera includes Antonio Figaro (Vignette Productions), Sergeant of Police Pirates of Penzance (Grimsby Operatic Society), Marchese d’Obigny Traviata (Chelsea Opera Group), Magnifico Cenerentola (Clonter), Charon Eurdice and Mozart’s Figaro (BYO), King Balthazar Ahmal & the Night Visitors (Iford), Ashby La fanciulla del West (OperaUpClose). Plans include Pistola Falstaff (Chateau Berbiguieres).
is a graduate of RCM where he performed the roles of Contino Belfiore Finta Giardiniera and Vasek Bartered Bride. Alex has been touring with Co-Opera Co performing as Don Jose Carmen.
DAMIEN LEE STIRK dancer Onegin has performed
with ENB, Israel Ballet, Ballet National de Marseille and Matthew Bourne’s New Adventures. Film / TV includes:
Butterfly / ensemble was born in Birmingham and graduated from RWCMD. Opera includes title role in Brian Irvine’s The Tailor’s Daughter, title role Cendrillon, Micaela Carmen, Denise Veronique, Richard Barnard’s The Journey, commissioned by WNO.
graduated from Birmingham and studies at RAM. Opera includes 3rd Lady Flute (RAO), Tormentilla Poisoned Kiss, Orlofsky Fledermaus (Birmingham University Opera, Juno Semele (Hampstead Garden Opera). EMILY WARD ensemble trained at
RAM. Opera appearances include Bregenz Festival, Mimi Boheme and Dido (Silent Opera), Musetta (Wexford), L’Amour Anacréon (Benslow Opera), Yquem Lovely Ladies (Unlimited Opera) and Mélisande Pelléas et Mélisande. EMMA WATKINSON
graduated from TCM. Roles include Violetta (Park Opera, Go Opera), title role in ColeridgeTaylor’s Thelma, Marenka Bartered Bride (Surrey Opera), Lady Billows Albert Herring (Surrey Opera, Co-Opera Co) and Countess Figaro (Co-Opera Co) and chorus work for Opera North and OHP. DEREK WELTON Bonze Butterfly
is Australian, gained a BA from Melbourne. He has performed at Salzburg Festival, Teatro dell’Opera di Roma and Opera North, Roles include Count Giovanni, Masetto, Guglielmo, Papageno, Mozart’s Figaro, Sprecher, Salieri’s Falstaff, King Sallinen’s The King goes forth to France, Nick Shadow, Monterone and Donner Das Rheingold. Plans include Mozart’s Figaro for Glyndebourne on Tour and Bach’s Christmas Oratorio with the Sønderjyllands Symfoniorkester, Denmark. Sponsor Tessa & John Manser
at London Studio Centre and Royal Winnipeg Ballet School. As a dancer her credits include Ballet Work 1020 (Martin Creed), Swan Lake, Original Cast Edward Scissorhands, The Car-Man, Highland Fling and Nutcracker! (Matthew Bourne’s New Adventures), Original Cast The Car-Man and Cinderella (AMP). Film credits include WWZ, Great Expectations, One Day, Short Order. As Assistant Choreographer and dancer Lucrezia Borgia (ENO), Turandot (ENO), Assistant Choreographer Midsummer Night’s Dream (La Scala, Lyon), Movement Director Bird of Pray (Courtyard Theatre, London), Assistant Choreographer Haziq and the Giggles music video, Assistant Choreographer Magical Night (ROH) and Carmen (Salzburg Easter Festival).
studied at City University, TCM and Flanders Opera Studio. Roles include title role in Philippe Boesmans’ Julie, Nancy Albert Herring, title role Giustino, Dido, Ino Semele. Plans include Olga Eugene Onegin (Somerset Opera). JOANNA
SHELBY WILLIAMS Choreographer Idomeneo trained
THOMAS WOOD ensemble is from Australia and was a member of the chorus of West Australian Opera. He performed the role of Judge Danforth The Crucible, and in Samson et Dalila, Madama Butterfly, Candide, Zauberflöte, Fanciulla del West. Since moving to the UK he has worked with Grange Park Opera, OHP and Opera North. NIKKI WOOLLASTON Choreographer Butterfly
Choreographic & Musical staging credits include: Backbeat (Duke of York’s, Glasgow Citizens’), Rigoletto (OHP), Madama Butterfly and Tosca (Grange Park), Oklahoma! (Chichester), Wuthering Heights (UK Tour), Marguerite (Haymarket, London and Japan), Kismet (ENO), The King And I (UK Tour), Nymph Errant (Minerva, Chichester), Vivien Ellis Awards (Her Majesty’s, London), Dick Whittington, Cinderella and Aladdin (Watford Palace), Mother Goose (Bury St Edmonds). Associate and Resident Choreographic credits include: Oliver! (London Palladium), Cats (New London Theatre), Anything Goes (National Theatre), On the Town (ENO & Châtelet), Sinatra (London Palladium & UK tour). Directorial credits include: She Loves Me (Chichester – Assistant Director & Choreographer), Madama Butterfly (Grange Park – Revival Director). Nikki is part of the choreographic team for the London Olympics 2012.