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gr a nge pa r k oper a

2006


2006 Grange park opera C ONTE NTS

2

Patron’s Foreword

4

Appeal Donors

8

Corporate Support

10 The Glass Ceiling Society and the Restoration of the Theatre Ceiling 14

Annual Donors

20

The Gardens at Nevill Holt

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Pimlico Opera in Prison

26

The Company

28

Founding Donors

29

Advertisers

62

Bruce Ford

64

Le Nozze di Figaro

80

The Barber of Seville

88

Thaïs

102

The Elixir of Love

114

Artist Biographies

127

Membership Form

128

Crossword

& friends

opposite and cover (detail): Concert by the young Mozart in the Redoutensaal on the occasion of the wedding of Joseph II and Isabella of Parma, 6th October 1760 by Meytens (1695-1770) Schloss Schonbrunn, Vienna / Bridgeman Art Library

Grange Park Opera, 12 St Thomas Street, Winchester so23 9hf tel: 01962 86 86 00   info@grangeparkopera.co.uk www.grangeparkopera.co.uk


1 June – 16 July 2006 the 9th Festival at The Grange, Hampshire the 4th Festival at Nevill Holt, Leicestershire

Gr ange Park Oper a Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Le Nozze di Figaro

Supported by the Christopher Ondaatje Foundation jules massenet

ThaĂŻs

Supported by Hamish & Sophie Forsyth, Johnny & Marie Veeder Gaetano Donizetti

The Elixir of Love Sponsored by ICAP plc gioacchino Rossini

The Barber of Seville from Nevill Holt Young Artists Sponsors Morgan Stanley

An evening with Bruce Ford & friends Jointly sponsored by Greenhill and Kroll Worldwide


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Patron’s Foreword

Thank goodness there are always new things to highlight in my Foreword each year, and 2006 is no exception. Not all may be worthy of equal billing but all are I think noteworthy, even though in January as I put pen to paper, it is a bit rash to assume that all will have come to pass or be about to do so by June. For instance, I imagined I was going to say what a huge success Pimlico Opera’s production of Chicago in Bronzefield Prison was in their first visit to a women’s prison, and I am sure it will have been.

I don’t know whether the generalisation that no theatre is ever finished is true, but it is certainly a fact here at The Grange. This year’s innovation is the removal of the net we always had suspended to catch plaster falling from the ceiling. This has been done in the belief that, whilst it was a necessary safety precaution, it did nothing for the acoustic. No net has meant a new ceiling but one which is modelled closely on the old one. Its manufacture and installation is another feather in the cap of our builders, R. J. Smith & Co.

There is a substantial chance that, unless we get an unprecedented amount of rain in the next two or three months, the Candover Brook will cease to run for the first time in living memory and the lake below The Grange will be dry. Wasfi will not be surprised that I touch on the subject of weather about which she thinks I am obsessed. So please pray for rain – soon but not during the period of the Festival, which will be too late and spoil the fun.

We are extremely excited to be introducing a new element into the season with a recital by Bruce Ford, who will already be known to many of you as one of the world's pre-eminent bel canto tenors.

This of course is the first year that we are formally permitted to go above 20 performances plus dress rehearsals, and we are making a cautious start to ensure that there is indeed a credible demand for more. The fund, which we refer to as our Endowment Fund, is now fully in a position to enable us to be a bit more dashing with our productions.

Next year’s Festival at The Grange will amazingly be our 10th and, though I am wary of celebrating too many such anniversaries, I think this is one that is worthy. I had no idea when we started whether we would still be going strong by the end of ten years because I had no idea of what Wasfi was like, nor of how capable she is of achieving her aim.

Both the restoration of the gardens and our Young Artists programme at Nevill Holt go from strength to strength. I hope more of you will make the trip to see what has been achieved at our sister festival.


As you can imagine, a great deal of thought about what would constitute a good celebration is going on, but you would hardly expect me to let you see any rabbit so far in advance.

The world of opera festivals suffered a blow last year with the sudden sad death of Leonard Ingrams, and we are delighted that Garsington is carrying on. I regard them not so much as competition, but as coadventurers and we think it is in all our interests that this sort of Festival continues to be successful. Our grateful thanks go to all who come here, all who work here, all who sponsor the productions and all advertisers in the Programme. Without you Grange Park Opera would vanish in pretty short time. 3

Sally and I look forward to seeing you during what sounds an exciting season. Ashburton 8 February 2006

left page: Design for a dirigible, French, c.1785 this page: Design for a hot-air balloon with a diameter of 120 feet to take off at Dijon, c.1784 Private Collections / The Bridgeman Art Library

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Donors to the

Grange Park Opera Appeal Donald Kahn & family D ‡

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Ronnie Frost & family Lydia & Miles d’Arcy-Irvine D The Carphone Warehouse The Clore Duffield Foundation Lord Harris of Peckham John & Anya Sainsbury Simon & Virginia Robertson ‡ Anonymous D James Cave David & Amanda Leathers D Sir David & Lady Davies D EFG Private Bank William Garrett Corus ‡ Mark Andrews D Mr & Dr J Beechey D David & Elizabeth Challen D Mr & Mrs William Charnley D Mr & Mrs Peter Dicks D Simon Freakley D David Gilgrist & Bobbie du Bois Philip Gwyn D Mrs Ian Jay James & Béatrice Lupton D Donald & Jill Mackenzie Nigel & Anna McNair Scott D P F Charitable Trust The Hon & Mrs Richard Sharp Richard & Cynthia Thompson Anne Veeder D The Band Trust

*

Edystone Lighthouse engraved by Henry Roberts 1762 The Stapleton Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library


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*

William Gronow Davis D Barbara & Michael Gwinnell D Mr & Mrs Charles Haddon-Cave QC D Hayden Trust Mr & Mrs R A Henley Malcolm Herring Mr & Mrs John Hewett John & Catherine Hickman Dr Jonathan Holliday & Dr Gwen Lewis D George & Janette Hollingbery D Anonymous Dr & Mrs Peter Honey Hugh & Tamara Hudleston Nicholas & Jeremy Hunter Mr & Mrs David Hunter Mr & Mrs M J Isaac D Hannah Jacobs Harriet Jervis D Mr & Mrs J Jervoise D Neil & Elizabeth Johnson D Andrew & Caroline Joy D Mr & Mrs Colin Keogh Dr R Hubert Laeng–Danner Rufford Foundation T Landon D Barbara Yu Larsson Mr & Mrs Malcolm Le May Peter Leaver & Thomas Sharpe Mr & Mrs Adam Lee D Jeremy Gardner Lewis Susie Lintott & Louisa Church David & Linda Lloyd Jones D Joe & Minnie MacHale Charles & Ann–Marie Mackay D Mr & Mrs Michael Mackenzie Tessa & John Manser J P Marland Charitable Trust Wendy & Michael Max D Anonymous D Mr & Mrs Peter May D Harvey McGregor QC D Thomas Monk Martin & Caroline Moore Elizabeth Morison D Dr & Mrs Julian Muir D Mr & Mrs Jay A Nawrocki The O’Hea family Sue & Peter Paice

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*

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* Additional gifts to the Endowment Fund

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Alexia Paterson Mark & Rachel Pearson D Nigel Perfect & Peter Tilley D The Lord & Lady Phillimore Sir David & Lady Plastow Jan & Michael Potter Bruce & Lizzie Powell D Mark & Veronica Powell D Benjamin Pritchett–Brown Mr & Mrs Gary Ralfe Mr & Mrs Christopher Reeves David & Alex Rhodes D Ros & Ken Rokison Mrs Faanya Rose Mrs Antony Rowe Mr & Mrs John Salkeld D Mr & Mrs Anthony Salz D Christopher & Anne Saul Mr & Mrs Richard Scopes D Mr & Mrs Roderick Selkirk Mrs Christopher Sheridan Aram Shishmaniam Lord & Lady Simon of Highbury Edward M Siskind Paul & Rita Skinner D Mr & Mrs Martin St Quinton D Nicholas Stanley Donald & Rachael Stearns D The Steel Charitable Trust The Stevenson CharitableTrust D John & Lesley Stuttard Mr & Mrs R H Sutton D Mrs Timothy Syder Anonymous Mr & Mrs Bernard Taylor Gordon & Sue Thorburn The Titchmarsh family Mr & Mrs Anthony Townsend D Wendy & John Trueman Adair Turner & Orna Ni–Chionna D The Hon Lucy & Michael Vaughan D Lady Jane Wallop D John & Carol Wates Miss Clare Williams Hamish & Elisabeth Williams Mark & Jane Williams The Hon Geoffrey & Mrs Wilson Mr & Mrs C H R Wunderly Caroline Wyld

D Founder Member from 1998/9

*

*

*

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Mr & Mrs Gerald Acher D Mr & Mrs David Anderson Mr & Mrs R Atkinson–Willes D Anonymous Tom & Gay Bartlam D Rupert T Bentley Bernard Cayser Trust Kevin & Corinne Bespolka William & Judith Bollinger Douglas Guest Bollinger James Philip Bollinger Sarah & Tony Bolton Mr & Mrs Paul Brewer Rory & Elizabeth Brooks Mr & Mrs Tony Bugg The Bulldog Trust D Sir Euan Calthorpe Bt D Christopher & Katie Cardona Nigel & Elisabeth Carrington Sir Peter & Lady Cazalet D Mr & Mrs Bernard Cazenove D The Chase–Gardener family Pam Clarke Alastair & Tiana Collett Oliver & Cynthia Colman D Michael Cuthbert Peter & Annette Dart Mr Peter Davidson D Mr & Mrs Geoffrey de Jager Sandra & Damon de Laszlo Mr & Mrs Lionel de Rothschild Anonymous Alun & Bridget Evans D Iain R Evans Mr & Mrs James fforde D Mr & Mrs T Floyd Hamish & Sophie Forsyth D The Misses Ismay, Ottilie & Cecilia Forsyth Peter & Judith Foy D Mr Mark N Franks Reita Gadkari Janet & John Gaymer Jacqueline & Michael Gee Trust Enrique Biel Gleeson Lady Shauna Gosling D Mr & Mrs George Goulding D Sir Ronald Grierson Nigel & Diana Grimwood


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"I am blatantly proud" Paula at HMP Bronzefield Whereas I pressurise Lord Ashburton to write his Foreword (page 2) in February, I am far more lenient with myself. Paula, one of our very beautiful cast of prisoners, made this headline remark confirming that Pimlico Opera’s production of Chicago with inmates of Bronzefield WAS a huge success. Michael Moody, my collaborator at the creation of the Festival and the hero of our theatre building projects, was the director. One of the aims of the work we do in prison is to stir up public debate on the purpose of prisons and the importance of what happens to prisoners if they are to emerge good and useful members of society. They have failed society, but in some respects, society has failed them. Many have little cause for hope. When banged– up with an ex–judge, Fletch in Porridge remarks “at least our dishonesty is honest; we couldn’t get anything unless we took it, but you had it and wanted more”. There is some truth in that. If you have never tried prison, please do come with us to HMP Wandsworth in March 2007. We promise an unforgettable evening.

completed substantial home improvements, including the Orangery which is now our theatre. In Leicestershire, meanwhile, The Nevills had been living at Holt for 400 years. The year before Rossini’s Barber they erected a clocktower over the stables to celebrate – allegedly – the victory at Waterloo. Behind the clocktower is the stable courtyard within which we have created an intimate theatre of similar dimensions to our first theatre at Grange Park. The discovery of the remains of medieval almshouses last year prevented the orchestra taking its customary bunkered position but for Barber the pit will be complete. Page 20 gives an update on the restoration of the wonderful gardens. My favourite is the huge walled vegetable garden with long, long peach houses and a dipping well – in anticipation of a hose pipe ban.

Now to The Grange. Three of this year’s four operas fall into a period of 50 years which saw revolution, exploration and great strides in science – hence the hot air balloons, lighthouses, dentistry and, below, Thomas Bewick’s charming engravings of birds and quadrupeds. I imagine he categorised seals as quadrupeds because they weren’t birds.

Innovations at Grange Park for 2006 range from an industrial dishwasher to delicate lampshades – thank you to Vaughans. In order to allow younger people to “test” the festival, we have a new scheme called Young Meteors which offers, on selected nights, discounted tickets to those lucky enough to be aged less than 40 and unlucky enough not to have visited us. The increased number of performances has permitted this luxury and I hope the initiative will broaden our audience and that we will be able to develop the scheme.

Figaro (1786) was written as the Henley’s were selling their five storey red brick house to the Drummonds. They set about covering the house in concrete to form the Greek temple we know today, but tired of the project and the year after Rossini composed Barber (1816) they had sold to the Barings. By the time Donizetti was writing Elisir (1832), the Barings had

During last year's festival we had two Insight Days and we have two more this year. They kick off with coffee at the Hotel du Vin followed by a 90 minute talk led by an expert. There is a relaxed lunch before participants don their black ties and frocks for the performance. Feedback has been excellent and we always welcome new subjects for discussion.


Though Lord Ashburton is reluctant to reveal the rabbits of our 10th anniversary 2007 season, I must reveal a small selection and in so doing whet your appetites. Besides the three operas (Magic Flute, Falstaff and Prokofiev's Gambler), there will be a concert performance of Handel’s Semele, tied to a recording with soprano Rosemary Joshua. Our birthday concert will be on Thursday 7th June with the London Symphony Orchestra playing for half the evening. In the second half there will be rabbits, hats, cats, and bags of bags. We anticipate that there will be greater demand for this than there are tickets and we will probably have to ballot them.

Of our sponsors and donors my first thanks are to ICAP plc, Carphone Warehouse, and Sir Christopher Ondaatje. Long may they reign. New sponsors Greenhill and Kroll Worldwide have supported the Bruce Ford recital and, for the first time, a syndicate of individuals, the families Veeder and Forsyth, are opera sponsors for Thais. I very much hope their generous

It has been William Garrett’s first year as chairman and I am grateful for his support and that of the Board. Mark Andrews is now the chairman of the Endowment Fund and a new Advisory Council (page 26), chaired by Sir David Davies, also help us. These official bodies are good humoured in their dealings with our rough and tumble and we are fortunate to have them. After eight years as Festival Housekeeper, Lorna Clive has decided no longer to flourish her feather duster. I am thrilled that she will still be at the Festival as a member of the distinguished Thermoi – those glamourous volunteers who greet you each evening. It is a miracle that in the steamy Winchester kitchen there are only six cooks: Carol, Jan, Rachel, Alison, Helen and Tracy. They serve up a varied menu: the Pimlico Opera tour and prison project, the festivals at Grange Park and at Nevill Holt, all the fund raising, the auditions and more. As is traditional my final thanks are to John and Sally Ashburton. They have greatly enhanced my life – and not only with their gift of an opera festival in this idyllic place. We all have reason to be blatantly proud and I very much hope you are too. Wasfi Kani OBE

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Each year we unhappily lose some of our members. The death last summer of our colourful young Hippocrates member Patrick Harrison was unexpected. He was handsome, cheerful, enthusiastic and I will miss him. Mary Bennett, the Principal of my Oxford college, a Founder of our festival and long time supporter of our prison projects, died aged 93. Her mind was as sharp as ever when I saw her a few weeks before she died. The phone was going every five minutes: another Oxford head of house ringing to commiserate and Mary cheerfully replying that we all need a means of exit and this was hers. She taught me a great deal – including the possibility of dying well.

example will inspire others to do the same. Warmest thanks to Morgan Stanley who have sponsored the Nevill Holt Young Artists and to the Paul Hamlyn Foundation who were the major donor to prison.


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Sponsors 2006

Hunting in the Bay of San Francisco from Voyage Pittoresque Autour du Monde engraved by Jean Augustin Franquelin (1798–1839) Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library

The chandelier in the south dining room at Grange Park


ICAP plc Hamish & Sophie Forsyth, Marie & Johnny Veeder & daughters Sir Christopher Ondaatje Morgan Stanley The Carphone Warehouse (sponsors of Grange Park Opera at Nevill Holt)

Greenhill and Kroll Worldwide

‡ J P Morgan Private Banking ‡ Alfred McAlpine plc Schroders Private Bank ‡ Laurent–Perrier Champagne The Learning Point Presentation School UBS Wealth Management Grohe ‡ Royal Bank of Scotland Clemmow Hornby Inge ‡ Clyde & Co ‡ Hotel du Vin Corporate Synergy plc ‡ SBJ Group Limited

‡ Baring Asset Management Midland Quarry Products Ltd ‡ I N G ‡ Hiscox Kleinwort Benson ‡ Reed Elsevier ‡ KBC Peel Hunt ‡ GAM (UK) Limited ‡ Rolls–Royce Allied Irish Bank plc ‡ Nathaniel Lichfield ‡ Studio E Architects advertisers Bang & Olufsen • Clifford Chance • EFG Private Bank • Elite Hotels • Eversheds • Euromoney • The Goldsmiths Company • Lainston House • Chewton Glen – the Hotel, Spa and Country Club • Chase Erwin • Jardinique • Linklaters • Moda Rosa • Pickett Fine Leathers • Thornhill Investment Management • William Bartholomew Party Organising • White & Case • Stone, Vine & Sun • Lay & Wheeler Wine Merchants

special thanks to Anthony Bolton • The Dyers Company • The Golden Bottle • Victoria & Richard Sharp • Deutsche Bank

generous support to Pimlico Opera was provided by The Paul Hamlyn Foundation John Coates Charitable Trust • Inverforth Charitable Trust • Matthew Wrightson Charitable Trust Harris Ventures • Derek Butler Trust • Dyers Company • Kate Bingham The Mackintosh Foundation

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The theatre's shabby chic ceiling

by Martin Smith

Whilst Massenet in the mid 1890s was composing Thaïs Lord Ashburton's grandfather was thinking to convert his Orangery into a Picture Gallery in which his paintings would be toplit by a glass perimeter around decorative plasterwork ceiling panels. By the 1970's the house was no longer occupied and "sweating" hay brought about the deterioriation of the plaster. Martin Smith of R J Smith (who built the award–winning theatre) explains how he went about the ceiling's restoration.

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It has long been an ambition of Grange Park Opera to remove the net below the ornate decorative plaster ceiling, to show it off better and to take advantage of its acoustic properties. The initial proposal was to install below the plaster ceiling a glass ceiling which would both reflect sound and catch any crumbling plaster. The system proved too expensive, mainly due to the immense weight of the proposed glass structure. English Heritage, who are guardians of this Grade 1 ‘statutory scheduled monument’, imposed constraints which at first seemed not only insurmountable and incongruous, given the very poor condition of the plaster ceiling, but also incompatible with the requirements of the theatre. They specified that “no historic ceiling fabric or existing mouldings or plaster

should be removed or destroyed and that the maximum amount of historic fabric should be retained.” Investigations and tests on the plain sections of lath and plaster found them to be in far worse condition than originally envisaged. Most of the lath had rotted away and the lath supports were in a dreadful state. Over the years the gypsum plaster mouldings had begun to dissolve and their ferrous metal fixings to rust. It was agreed with English Heritage to replace or repair defective supports but to leave the lath and plaster in situ. To fulfill this conservation requirement we proposed screwing a timber board cut to the shape of the panel. Thus a sandwich was formed with the lath and plaster retained in situ – though hidden.


The Glass Ceiling Society A group of individuals has contributed towards projects to improve various technical aspects of the theatre. We are most grateful to them for their generosity

left page: Before the Opera. The door at the far end is now the portico entrance to the theatre above: Ceiling roses and the swagged frieze have been removed; Dan stabilizes the friable moulding with lime putty

D Founder Member from 1998 / 9

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Anonymous Anonymous Mrs Toby Blackwell Mrs Jenny Bland The Hon Sir Christopher Clarke Ian Clarkson & Richard Morris John & Ann Eldridge Steve & Linda Garnett Ian Gatt QC Susie Gaunt Mr & Mrs Robin Hutson Caspar & Cathy Ingrams Mr Anthony Johnson Timothy Jones and Martin Mason Mr & Mrs Andrew E Law Mr Richard Leonard Ian & Clare Maurice Ian & Debrah McIsaac Roger & Jackie Morris Cameron & Heike Munro Pierre & Beatrice Natural The Countess of Portsmouth D Dominic & Katherine Powell The Ted Russell Charitable Fund James & Mary Sabben-Clare D Lord & Lady Sharman Mrs Marveen Smith Mr & Mrs Kevan Watts Mr & Mrs C H R Wunderly


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There was an additional complication. About six inches inside each of the plain panels there was an ornate timber strip which were very securely fixed. These had to be left in situ and so a timber boarding perimeter when attached to the panel gave the effect of ‘shadow gaps’ to highlight the moulding. The perimeter swagged frieze and the decorative moulded cornices surrounding the plain areas were, surprisingly, found to be constructed of shaped base moulds of timber with plaster gypsum decorative moulds. The gypsum moulds had been fixed with mild steel ferrous nails when the plaster was still damp. The timber moulds were in reasonable condition but the plaster moulds were in a very poor state. Damp had deformed them causing many to return to their original matrix liquid state and to drip like drops of water from the ceiling. The ferrous nail fixings had rusted and so the mouldings could be easily picked off the ceiling by hand. The statutory requirements meant these mouldings had to be retained. Given that many were deformed it was impossible to replace, with new moulded plaster, the intermediate missing pieces. It was, therefore, decided to retain what was there but to leave gaps.

ferrous fixings were not successful: the moulds were so delicate that they shattered. It was decided to fix them with a water soluble acrylic adhesive – water soluble to allow for conservation reversibility, a principle in vogue at present in the conservation world. This was an extremely time consuming process as there were thousands of individual pieces of plaster moulding which had to be maintained in their original positions. Attention was then given to the perimeter frieze of swags of fruit. It is interesting to note that each and every panel of fruit is of a slightly different design in that the component “fruits” had been attached almost randomly, though at ground level this is not immediately obvious. These panels were treated in a similar way with the addition of a copper armature that was fixed across the largest pieces of moulded plaster fruit. The panels were fixed back in their original position just above the steel picture rail. The original ceiling roses, made of a cast metal compound rather than plaster, were refixed within the plain horizontal panels.

Now there were two tasks: to stabilize weak and friable plaster mouldings and to refix them.

On completion of the repair and conservation of the decorative plaster ceiling the whole ceiling was painted with a breathable traditional historic shade of white paint.

The stabilization was achieved by applying numerous coats of a weak solution of lime putty called lime water. This gradually strengthened and stabilized them. Initial attempts to refix them with new non-

The restoration project should be construed as the careful conservation and repair of the historic ceiling in harmony with the rest of the building rather than a pastiche new replacement of the ceiling.


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The party on the ceiling: donors were invited to admire the superb workmanship of R J Smith photograph Kevin & Corinne Bespolka

The theatre was filled with scaffolding to create a working platform two metres from the ceiling photographs Alastair Muir

The ceiling was restored by:

William Annals Gary Annals William Colvin Dave Healey Francis Hughes Dave Knapp Jason King Les Lambell

Daniel Lambell Robert Lucas Mike Moore Greg Phillips Derek Robinson Frank Taylor Robin White


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The School of Hippocrates  ‡  2006

Supporting the Opera Without the donations of individuals listed, the festivals at The Grange & Nevill Holt simply could not happen – ticket revenues alone cannot meet the cost of the festivals. If you are able to help, please use the form on page 127 or contact Rachel Pearson 01962 868 700 rachel@grangeparkopera.co.uk

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Mr & Mrs Dan Levin Jamie & Laura Lonsdale Alistair & Sara Mackintosh Sarah B Mason Mr & Mrs William Massey William & Felicity Mather D The Lawrance Messer Charitable Trust Mr & Mrs Peter Morgan Ian & Jane Morrison Mr & Mrs Richard Morse Colin Murray Guy & Sarah Norrie Princess Paul Odescalchi The Hon David Oliver QC Mr Charles Outhwaite James & Nicky Palmer Stephen & Isobel Parkinson Stephen & Geraldine Powell Hugh & Caroline Priestley Charles Purle QC John & Victoria Raymond Mr & Mrs Nigel Reavley Mr Andrew Rome Barry & Anne Rourke Andrew & Jill Soundy Geoff Squire OBE Lisa Stone Mr David Taylor Mr & Mrs Nigel Teare Denis K Tinsley John & Louise Verrill Nick Viner & Victoria Boyarsky Mr Anthony Vlasto Chris & Miranda Ward Mr & Mrs Philip Warner Johanna Waterous & Roger Parry Kevin & Sonia Watson John Whiter Nigel Williams Nicholas & Penny Wilson Mr & Mrs R J Woolnough Mr & Mrs David Wootton Mr Charles Young D

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Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Mrs Isla Baring Mr & Mrs Julian Benson Mrs Michael Beresford-West Mr Roger Birtles Mr & Mrs Michael Bolton Adrian Bott Dr & Mrs Douglas Bridgewater Mr & Mrs Roy D Brown Anthony Bunker Mr & Mrs Peter Clarke Richard Cowen Carl L T Cullingford Kathrine Davies Mr & Mrs John Dear Miss Helen Dorey FSA Michael C A Eaton Peter Dwerryhouse LVO Mrs Stuart Errington Niall Fitzgerald KBE Mr & Mrs Geoffrey Fuller Mr & Mrs D J Gamble Mr D Gawler Suzanne & Anthony Graham-Dixon Mrs M Granziol Marcus & Susan Grubb Mr & Mrs Robin Herbert Liz Hewitt Lord & Lady Holme Lucy Holmes & Alex Wood Howard & Anne Hyman Mr Charles & Lady Iona Ind Dr Peter & Mrs Judith Iredale Ian & Noelle Irvine Rowan Jarvis Martin Jay CBE DL D Keith & Lucy Jones Liz & Roger Kramers


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The School of Archimedes  ‡  2006

photograph Anya Sainsbury

Janet & Michael Aidin Mr Robin Aisher OBE Mr & Mrs Christopher Aldous John & Jackie Alexander D Lady Allan Mrs Genie Allenby Jilly Allenby-Ryan Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous D Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Jenny & Paul Aynsley Roger & Lisa Backhouse Camilla Baldwin Mrs J Balfour John & Nicola Barber Mr Nicholas Barker Val & Christopher Bateman Anne Beckwith-Smith D Christina Benn Mr & Mrs Mark Benson The Hon Mrs Julian Berry Mike & Alison Biden Mr & Mrs Simon Bladon Halldora Blair Elisabeth & Bob Boas Lisa Bolgar Smith Mr & Mrs Ernest Boost Anthony Boswood Mr Graham Bourne D Jan Bowlus Mr & Mrs B D Bramley Mr & Mrs David Brewer Robin & Jill Broadley Mr & Mrs James Bromhead Dorothy & John Brook Consuelo & Anthony Brooke Mr & Mrs Antony Brooking Mr & Mrs Hugh Brown Mr & Mrs Nicholas Browne Mr & Mrs Robin Buchanan D Mr & Mrs Thomas Buckley Mr & Mrs Nicholas Buckworth Mr & Mrs D M Bullough Mr & Mrs Keith Burgoine Clive Butler Richard Butler Adams Mr & Mrs Peter Carden Richard Carrow Andrew & Jacquie Cartwright Mr & Mrs Massimiliano Casini Mr Shane Chichester

Tim & Maria Church Mrs Ann Clarke Michael & Angela Clayton Sir Anthony Cleaver Mrs Susan Clegg John Coke Mr & Mrs R Collin Mrs Carolyn Conlan Dr Peter Constable Dr Neville Conway Mr & Mrs Andrew Cooper Mike & Liz Cooper-Mitchell D Stuart Corbyn Matthew & Bianca Cosans Richard & Corin Cotton Alan & Heather Craft Stephen & Julia Crompton John & Susan Curtis Tineke Dales Mr Thomas Davies Mr Patrick Despard Krystyna Deuss D Michael & Rachel Dickson His Honour Mark Dyer Mr & Mrs Kenneth Eckett Mr & Mrs Symon Elliott Mr & Mrs Peter Ellis Mr Peter Evans Mr Alan Evans Martin & Maureen Farr Jeremy & Rosemary Farr Mrs Noel Faulkner Nicholas & Jane Ferguson Clare M Ferguson Richard Findlater & Mairi Eastwood Ms Sian Fisher Mr & Mrs Simon P Fisher Mr & Mrs James Fisher Mr Harry Fitzalan Howard Mr & Mrs Mark Fleming Dr T H & Dr J M Foley Michael Forrest D Mr & Mrs Robin Fox Lindsey Gardener Mark & Vicky Garthwaite D Mr & Mrs Wyatt Gates Rosalind & John George David & Anne Giles Ian & Edwina Gilroy Mrs Bruce Ginsberg Dame Elizabeth Gloster DBE Cassandra Goad Mr Brian D Goater Gill Graham-Maw Mr Kenneth Grange CBE Mr & Mrs Richard Grant


Vincent & Amanda KeavenyD Mrs Judith Kelley Dr John Kelynack Mr & Mrs G Kennedy Andrew Kennedy & Lindsay Cornish Mr & Mrs James A Kiernan Kevin Kissane W B Knowles Mrs Patricia Latham Douglas & Pru de Lavison Mr & Mrs Bill Lawes Mrs Charles Lea Mrs Sarah Leader Belinda Leathes Mrs Brian Levy Mr & Mrs Gareth Lewis Mr John Liddell Mr & Mrs Roger Liddiard Mrs Simon Lofthouse D Mr Dieter Losse Mr Henry Lumley Mr P M Luttman-Johnson Mr & Mrs Peter Macfarlane Mr Robin Mackenzie Mr & Hon Mrs Ian MacNabb Mr & Mrs J J Macnamara Bill & Sue Main Mr & Mrs David Maitland D Charles & Sue Marriott D Tim Martin Brian Matthews Esq Mr & Mrs A Mayhook-Walker Mr Neill McCance Mr & Mrs Douglas McGregor Mr & Mrs Cliff Middleton Richard & Patricia Millett Mr D & Dr J Mitchell Mr & Mrs B Money-Coutts Brigid & Freddie Monkhouse Mrs Jonathan Moore D Mr John Moreton Graham Morfey Evelyn Morgner & Ian G L Hogg Mr Simon Mosley Lady Muir Wood Dr Douglas Munro-Faure Richard Murray Bett Mr Piotr Nahajski Mr & Mrs Christopher Newell Pamela & Bruce Noble Mr & Mrs Peter Nutting Barry & Sue O’Brien D John Offord Mr & Mrs J Ogilvie Thompson Victoria O’Keeffe Janet & Michael Orr D

Mr Robert Ottley Nick & Lavinia Owen Nicola Ozanne Mrs A E Pakenham George & Christine Palmer Mrs Charles Parker Mr & Mrs Jonathan Patrick Nigel & Liz Peace Michael Pearl Mr & Mrs Donald Pearse Mrs June Pearson Mr & Mrs Tim Peat Peter & Charlotte Peddie Ron & Lyn Peet D Mr & Mrs Peter Peirse-Duncombe Mr & Mrs Erik Penser Mr & Mrs Robin Petherick Jonathan & Gillian Pickering Matthew Pintus Judge & Mrs David Pitman Mr Anthony Pitt-Rivers Mr & Mrs John Platt Mrs Sally Posgate David & Jill Potter D Mrs Jane Poulter Julien & Beatrice Prevett Mr & Mrs Andrew Pucher Mr Anthony Pullinger Mr & Mrs Roberto Pumarejo Lady Rebecca Purves Mr & Mrs G Radcliffe Neil & Julie Record David & Clare Reid Scott D Hilary Reid Evans Mike & Jessamy Reynolds Mr & Mrs Michael Rice Mr Clive Richards OBE Mr & Mrs Anthony Richmond-Watson Mrs Sarah Rickett Mr & Mrs Christopher Road Caroline Roboh Nigel & Viv Robson Alex & Caroline Roe Nicolas Rogerson Peter Rosenthal David & Julia Rosier Mr & Mrs E J M Ross Tom & Kate Rossiter Anna Rostand Mr & Mrs James Roundell Mr & Mrs Peter Scoble Sir James & Lady Scott George & Veronique Seligman Elizabeth & Jonathan Selzer Mr Tony Shead

Tony & Jenny Shearer Nigel Silby Mr & Mrs Mark Silver D Amanda Slowe Adrian & Sara Smart Joe & Lucy Smouha Professor & Mrs Peter Sonksen Jo & Crispin Southgate Mr & Mrs C D Spooner Mr John von Spreckelsen Mrs Marcus Stanton Nigel & Johanna Stapleton Brian Stevens David & Debbie Stileman D Alastair Storey Mr J C Strachan Mr & Mrs Tom Sweet-Escott Trevor & Suzi Swete Caroline & Phillip Sykes Jeremy & Marika Taylor The Hon Louis & Kate Taylor Simon Thorp Esq Mr & Mrs Max Thum Mr & Mrs Hugh Tidbury Prof & Mrs G M Tonge D Sir Thomas Troubridge BT North Street Trust Piers & Sarah von Simson Mr Hady Wakefield D Rosy & David Walker Mr & Mrs Andrew Walker Mrs Denise Wallace Admirer of Charles Wallach Mrs Jane Wallis Dr Kenneth Watters Iain Webb-Wilson Mr & Mrs Graham J West D Richard & Susan Westcott Richard Westmacott Mr & Mrs Edward Weston Mr & Mrs Ian White Mr & Mrs Christopher Wilkins Mr & Mrs Howard Wilkinson Mr & Mrs P N Wilkinson Philip Williams Mr & Mrs Owain Williams Dr & Mrs S A Williams Jeremy Willoughby OBE Claire Wills Mr & Mrs Winkler von Stiernhielm Thomas & Margaret Wolf Peter Wrangham Richard Youell

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The Hon Mrs Jane Green Mick & Denise Green Mr Robin & The Hon Mrs Greenwood Alistair & Sally Gregory-Smith Kingsley Griffiths RIBA Max & Catherine Hadfield Mrs David Hagan Mrs Peter Hall David & Susan Hall Louise Hallett Mr Eben Hamilton QC John & Janet Hammond D Mr & Mrs Richard Hardman Benjamin Hargreaves Mr & Mrs David Harris Wendell & Andrea Harris Mr & Mrs Simon Hearn Mr & Mrs J E Heath Paul & Kay Henderson Basil Henley & Caro Barton Valerie & Peter Hewett Mr & Mrs Michael Hewett Mr John Heywood Mr Adam Hiddlestone Michael & Genevieve Higgin Mr & Mrs Christopher Hills Mr & Mrs H C Hintzen Frank Hitchman Mr & Mrs Hansgeorg Hoffmann D Mr Christopher Holdsworth Hunt Sir Trevor & Lady Holdsworth Mr David Holland Roger & Kate Holmes Mr Charles Holroyd Mrs Alexandra Homan David & Mal Hope-Mason Mr & Mrs Richard Howorth Mrs Marie-Josee Hunter Peter & Susan Hutson Mrs Madeleine Hyde Mr & Mrs James Illingworth Mr Charles Irby D Ramsay Ismail & David Crellin Mr & Mrs Peter James Mr & Mrs E & I Jamieson John Jarvis QC Mr & Mrs Michael Jodrell Dr & Mrs I C Johnson Sally & Scot Johnston Owen & Jane Jonathan Alan & Judi Jones Hilary Jones Mr & Mrs Pierre Jungels Michael Kallenbach & Robert Taylor


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The School of Plato  ‡  2006 Mr Rick Abbott Tim & Philippa Abell Abu Khamis D Mrs Tikki Adorian Mrs Peter Ainsley Mrs Julie Aldridge Mrs Rosemary Alexander M P Almond Jeremy & Anne Amos Mrs Angela Anderson John Andrews Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Laura Anson Lesley Astani Mr & Mrs Robert Atkin Mark & Priscilla Austen Jane & Robert Avery Mr & Mrs N P Backhouse Felicity Bagenal Mr & Mrs N Bagshawe Mrs Grenfell Bailey Margaret Bailey Jean & Richard Baldwin Mr & Mrs J Barlow and Misses K & G Barlow Sir James & Lady Emma Barnard Mr & Mrs S R Barrow Caroline Barton Stanley Bates Richard Bayley Baron C von Bechtolsheim Mr Peter Bell Christopher Bellew Mrs Mary Bennett D Mr & Mrs D Betancor Mrs John Bevan Mr & Mrs P B Bevan Roger W Binns The Hon Mrs Diana Birtwistle Mr & Mrs Charles Blackmore Mr & Mrs Anthony Bodie Mrs Margaret Bolam George Bompas QC Mrs D C Bonsall D Mr Edward Booth-Clibborn John & Lillie Boumphrey Mr & Mrs W Neville Bowen Julian Bower The Hon Robert Boyle Mr & Mrs David Briggs Mr & Mrs Charles Brims Dr Amanda Britton Robin & Penny Broadhurst Adam & Sarah Broke Mr Charles Bromfield Mr & Mrs Charles H Brown Christopher Brown Mrs Nicky Brown Finn Bruce Mark & Victoria Burch D Mr & Mrs Geoffrey Burnand Mr & Mrs Murray Bywater Dr Bella Caiger Mr Donald Campbell Mr A J Carruthers Mr Nicholas Carter D Mr & Mrs Hugh Carter Mr & Mrs Charles Cassels Denis & Ronda Cassidy

Clifford & Judy Catt Peter & Di Cawdron Mr Graham Cawsey & Mrs Virginia Korda The Hon Mrs A R Cecil Mr & Mrs Jason Chaffer The Lord Chesham Lord Chorley Mr & Mrs Andrew Christie Mr & Mrs Trevor Clarke Diana Clarkson Mr & Mrs Adam Cleal Mrs Janice Coates Mrs Laurence Colchester Mr Adrian Cole Mrs Jane Colwell Dr Mavis Conway Mary Cooke D Mr Hugh Cookson Mrs Oliver Corbett Robert & Morella Cottam D David & Nicola Cowley Tom Cross Brown Mr & Mrs C Crouch Mr David Crowe D Lady Curtis Mrs Elizabeth & Mr René Dalucas Dr & Mrs Christopher Davenport Jones Mike & Suzette Davis Toby de Lotbinière Mr & Mrs John de Trafford Mr Robert Dean Bonnie Dean Mr & Mrs James Denham Mr Adrian C Dewey Mr & Mrs Lindsay Dibden Dr Michael Dingle Mr & Mrs Robert Dixon Mr & Mrs Matthew Dobbs Mrs S Dodson Mr Tony Doggart D Dr Barbara Domayne-Hayman Mrs Christine Douse Professor T A & Mrs B Downes Noreen Doyle Roger & Denise Drew Mr & Mrs Reg Drury Jamie Dundas Mrs Dickie Dutton Mr J M Dyson Eleri Ebenezer Mrs Patrick Eccles Malcolm & Yvonne Edwards D Lee MacCormick Edwards PhD Commander & Mrs James Ekins Julian & Eileen Ellis Vernon & Hazel Ellis Robert H Enslow Austin & Ragna Erwin D Michael & Wendy Evans Mr Roger Facer CB Steven F G Fachada Mr & Mrs E Farquharson Mr & Mrs Graham Ferguson Josephine Fitzalan Howard Michael Fitzgerald Mr & Mrs Brian Fitzpatrick Mr & Mrs Andrew Fleming Mr & Mrs L Fletcher J A Floyd Charitable Settlement Mrs Jane Fraser James & Diana Freeland Dr H J Freeman Mr Simon Frisby Mrs Joyce Fuller Pam Garside & Simon Carter Bamber & Christina Gascoigne Mr & Mrs A Gavin Mr & Mrs Robert Gayner Jacqueline & Jonathan Gestetner Mr & Mrs T J Gibbons Dr F J Gilmurray Mr & Mrs Tim Goad The Reverend Simon Godfrey TD

Dr R Godwin-Austen Dr & Mrs Simon Goodison Colin & Letts Goodwin John & Tanny Gordon Chris & Sally Gordon John Gordon Sir Alexander & Lady Graham Mr Peter Granger Mr Robert B Gray D Mr & Mrs Quintin Greatrex Mr & Mrs Anthony Green Hugh & Sarah Green David & Barbara Greggains John & Ann Grieves Mr & Mrs Tom Grillo Ms Jill Grinstead Pamela Gross BA Hons Mr & Mrs Edmund Grower Diana Guerrini Nerissa Guest The Hon F B Guinness Richard & Judy Haes Mr M Hall & Ms S Mackillop Mrs Allyson Hall Susan Hall Mrs Jennifer Hall Mr & Mrs Philippe & Jane Hallauer Tim & Jenny Hamilton David & Judith Hankinson Tom & Susan Hankinson Richard & Janet Hanna Mrs Valerie Hardwick Miss Lorna Harper Giles Harrap Jocelin & Cherry Harris Mr & Mrs Julian Harvey Dr Fred Haslam Mr & Mrs Roy Hatch Mr & Mrs Brian Haughton N G Hebditch Miss Jane Henry Martin & Alicia Herbert Mr & Mrs Alan Herring Dr & Mrs M Hession Dr & Mrs G R Hext Mrs Patricia Hingston P R Hinton Marianne Hinton Mr & Mrs Peter Hobbs D Mr & Mrs M Hodgkinson Keith & Sandra Hodgkinson Mr & Mrs I F Hodgson Mr R E Hofer Mr & Mrs Guy Holborn Peter & Marianne Hooley Mr Christopher Hopkinson Mr David Hopkinson CBE Elaine & Nigel Horder Mr & Mrs W Horne Barbara Hosking Mr & Mrs W N J Howard Steven & Nicki Howarth Mrs William Hughes Robert Hugill & David Hughes Ms Siu Fun Hui Mrs Sue Humphrey Mrs Juliet Huntley Liz & John Hustler The Hutchings Family Mrs E Hyde Lord & Lady Inchyra Dr & Mrs G S Ingram Tim & Christine Ingram Sir Barry & Lady Jackson D Mrs Rachel James Mr & Mrs Charles Jamieson Mrs M V Jennings Mr Derek Johns Michael & Jane Johnson Mr & Mrs Nicholas Jonas Dr & Mrs M Jonas Avril Jones Russell Jones FCIM Douglas Jones

Prof Heather Joshi OBE John Gordon Jowett Lord & Lady Judd Jonathan & Clarinda Kane Mr & Mrs Oliver Kinsey Mr & Mrs Martin Knight Mr & Mrs N Korban Drs A & Z Kurtz Mrs Henry Labram Mr A G Lambert Toby Landau & Nudrat Majeed Rear Admiral & Mrs John Lang Mrs B Langevad John Learmonth D Mrs Natalie Lee Mrs Jane Leefe James & Hilary Leek John & Jill Leek Jan Leigh & Jan Rynkiewicz Mr & Mrs Leprince Jungbluth Sonya Leydecker Mr & Mrs Eric Leyns Mr & Mrs Adrian Lightfoot The Hon Mrs Lisser Mr & Mrs Anthony Littlejohn Anne Longden Brigadier Desmond Longfield Peter Lord Mrs Simon Loup Mr & Mrs Alan Lovell Mr Joseph Lulham Mr & Mrs Donald Maxwell Macdonald Bruce & Maggie Macfarlane Derek Mackay MBE Mr James Mackintosh Sir Nevil Macready BT CBE Mr & Mrs T Maier David & Mary Male Mr & Mrs George Mallinckrodt KBE Tom & Sarah Manners Mr & Mrs Patrick Mannix Mr & Mrs Andrew Marchant Mr & Mrs B Mauleverer Mr Jonathan McCafferty Christopher & Clare McCann Rosalind McCarthy Mr & Mrs James McGill Dr Valentine McHardy Mr & Mrs Christopher McLaren The Hon Michael & Mrs McLaren Mrs Caroline McNeil Mrs Jane McVittie Mr & Mrs Nigel Meeson QC Mr Paul Megson Mr & Mrs Nigel Melville William Middleton-Smith Dr & Mrs Patrick Mill Dr J W Millbank Peter Miller & Hilary Kingsley Mr & Mrs Hallam Mills Mr Patrick Mitford Slade D Mr & Mrs E Mocatta Vivienne Alexandra Monk Lord Montagu of Beaulieu D Dr Chris Morley Sara Morton Mr David Moss Tom & Brenda Muir Mrs R R L Munro-Ferguson Mrs John Nangle Sir Paul & Lady Neave Jeremy & Elizabeth Nicholson Mrs Jacqueline Nimmo Sir Edwin & Lady Nixon Hon Michael & Mrs Nolan Mr & Mrs Mark Norris Amelia, Lady Northbrook The Lord Northbrook John & Dianne Norton D Francis & Amanda Norton Lt Col & Mrs Richard Norton Mr & Mrs D Novakovic Hon M J & Mrs O’Brien Dr & Mrs Robin Odgers

Mr Preben Oeye & Mr John Derrick Anthony & Lorraine Ogden Dr & Mrs Guy O’Keeffe Mrs John Oldacre John Paine Mrs Charles Palmer-Tomkinson Mrs Roderick Parker Mrs Blake Parker Sir Michael & Lady Parker Clive & Deborah Parritt Mr & Mrs P Pattinson Mr & Mrs Donald Payne John & Jacqui Pearson Ann & Nigel Pearson Mr & Mrs Alexander Pease Mr & Mrs Anthony Peck Claudia Pendred Mr Charles Petre Mr R B Petre T A M Pigott Mr Anthony Pinsent Mr Richard Plummer Mrs Caro Poulter Patricia Powell Mr & Mrs Michael Pragnell Judith Prickett & Raymond Sutton Edward Priday Jennifer Priestley David & Judith Pritchard Peter & Sally Procopis Mr & Mrs Stephen Proctor Penny Proudlock Michael Pullan Robin Purchas QC Gill & Clive Purkiss Mrs Rosalind Quaife Mrs Chris Quayle Mr & Mrs Gerald Raingold Sir Peter Ramsbotham D Mr John Rank Mr & Mrs John Rees The Hon.Philip Remnant Mrs Caroline Rimell Jill Ritblat Miles & Vivian Roberts Mr & Mrs James Roberts Mrs Denise Roberts Mr & Mrs Tim Roberts Mr & Mrs David Robins Mr Michael Rogerson TD Mr John Ross Mr Alan Roxburgh Joan & Lewis Rudd Ken & Lesley Rushton Prof & Mrs D L Russell-Jones Mr G R Sandars Mr & Mrs William Saunders Richard & Susie Saville Mrs Peter Sawdy Mr John Schofield Sebastian & Lindsey Scotney Mr & Mrs Alistair Scott Mr & Mrs Colin Scott-Malden Gordon & Sally Scutt Prof & Mrs Jacques R Seguin James & Karin Sehmer Dr Martin Seifert Count M de Selys Longchamps Mrs Simon Shaw Mr & Mrs Clinton Silver Professor David & Mrs Gillian Silverman Mr & Mrs Peter Simor Mr & Mrs Mark Simpson Ian Skeet Sir Jock Slater Mr & Mrs Anthony Slingsby Colonel Michael Smart Mr & Mrs R A Smart Mr & Mrs Robin Smeeton Barry & Gill Smith Mr & Mrs Stephen Smyth Pippa & Ian Southward

Mr & Mrs J P Spencer Mr J G Stanford D Professor Emeritus James Stevens Curl Christopher & Tineke Stewart The Hon Henry Stewart Mr & Mrs Hugh Stewart Heather Stewart Mrs Roger Stiles Ian & Jenny Streat D Mr & Mrs Toby Stubbs William & Caroline Sturge Major John Sturgis MC Camilla Swiderski David & Paula Swift Mr & Mrs Richard Sykes D Tim & Anne Sykes Mr & Mrs John Taylor Mrs P M Taylor Mrs Fleur Taylor Mrs Margaret Tesolin Mr & Mrs P M Thomas Dr & Mrs N H Thomas Mr Anthony John Thompson D Mr & Mrs R Tickner Mrs Colin Tillie Mr & Mrs G W Tindley Mrs Anna Tognetti Baron Wencelas de Traux de Wardin Mrs P Tremlett Veronique & Alexander Trotter Lady Tumim CBE Dr & Mrs James A Turtle Mr & Mrs J Vale Leonard van Geest Esq L C Varnavides Mano Vayis Brigadier & Mrs H R W Vernon Katharine Verrill Mr & Mrs Hugo Vickers X N C Villers Mr Anthony Walker Sir Timothy & Lady Walker Mrs Jane Wallace George & Pat Wallace Mr & Mrs Guy Waller Janet & Roger Wallhouse Dr Sarah Wallis Mr & Mrs C P M Walters Mr Richard Walton Mr & Mrs Tim Watkins D Ian & Victoria Watson Colin & Suzy Webster Niels Weise Christian Wells Roger Westcott Mrs Joy M Weston Mr & Mrs Graham Westwell Mrs Angela Wheeler Robert & Katharine Whitaker Harvey & Diana White Tony White Sue Whitley Chris & Emma Will Professor & Mrs Roger Williams Simon & Lucinda Williams Mr & Mrs P J d’A Willis Peter Wilmot-Sitwell Christopher Wilson Esq Mr Craig Wilson Mr W S Witts Mr Robert Wodehouse David & Vivienne Woolf Jonathan & Candida Woolley David & Vicky Wormsley Richard Worthington Tim Wright D Tony & Jackie Yates-Watson George & Moira Yip Mrs Paul Zisman D Zsalya


nevill holt ‡ 2006 In 2003 we held our first opera festival at Nevill Holt in Leicestershire, an area that has never before had its own opera company. The cost of staging opera to a high artistic standard cannot be met by box office revenues alone & the members listed below have helped to bridge the gap. We are very grateful to them for their support Please help if you can : use the form on page 126

The Captains’ Table Andrew Haigh • Keith Hann • Kate & Philip Douglas • Mr Denis Dunstone • Jane & Chris Lucas • Ivor Braka

‡ The Clipper Class Mr & Mrs J D Abell • Mrs Patricia Carson • Peter Crisp & Jeremy Crouch • Michael & Joanna George • Arthur & Shan Hazlerigg Mr & Mrs Michael Heaton • Mrs Mark Jackson-Stops • Mr J W Jeffrey MBE • Walia Kani D • Mr & Mrs A C Keene Mrs Nicholas Lyons • Ian & Caroline McAlpine • Mr & Mrs James Saunders Watson • Mr & Mrs H A Sinclair Harvey & Kate Smyth • Mr Richard & the Hon Mrs Wheeler-Bennett

‡ The Stowaways Mrs Robin Abbott • Anonymous • Anonymous • Anonymous • Anonymous • Mr W H Baker & Miss S G Mahaffy • David Barker QC Stanley Bates • Brian & Catherine Beardsall • David Beaty • Mr & Mrs Mark Booth • Dr & Mrs Gareth Bowen • Mr & Mrs Robin Buchanan D 19

Anthony Bunker • Michael Butterfield • Denis & Ronda Cassidy • Mrs Mark Charnock • Mr & Mrs George Cornelius • Richard & Lisa Dennis Dexter • Mrs R Foulkes • Mrs V J French • Mr Jinx Grafftey-Smith • Mr & Mrs Victor Green • David Hughes • Mr Timothy Hutton Paul Hyde-Thomson CBE • J Denys Johnson • Philip & Emer Kirwan • Robert Lancaster • Tom & Grete Lawson • Mr & Mrs Jeremy Lea Ann Lees • Mrs Timothy Milward • Pieter & Patricia Mommersteeg • Sarah Panes • Mr Graham Parkinson CBE • Mr David Phillips MA Mr Ben Ramsden • Robert & Monica Rust • Mr & Mrs Christopher Simpson • Mr & Mrs B Spoor • Mr J G Stanford D • David & Liz Staveley

Mr & Mrs C O Stenderup • Mrs Valerie Stevens Brian Stokes • Mr John Swallow • Mr & Mrs David Thomas • Mrs A J Thorman • John & Louise Verrill Robert & Patricia Wakeford • Mr & Mrs J R Whitehead • Stephen & Susan Whittle • J R Whysall Mr & Mrs E G Wignall • Miss Veronica Wignall • Miss Elizabeth Wignall • Miss Beatrix Wignall • Master Edward Wignall Master Francis Wignall • Master George Wignall • Mr Matthew Williams

The Cunard SET Mr & Mrs Robin Bowie • Patrick & Julia Carter D • Anonymous • Dr & Mrs Mark Cecil • Mr Peter Fenwick OBE Hamish & Sophie Forsyth D • Colin & Sarah Forsyth • Mr Martin George • The Hardingham Trust Mr William Guinness • Ron Haylock • Richard & Victoria Heyman • Mr & Mrs Michael Learoyd • Anonymous Mrs Sam Lloyd • Sir Bruce & Lady MacPhail • Sir Richard & Lady Morris • Mr & Mrs Robin Murray-Philipson Mr & Mrs E H D Peppiatt • Jim & Anne Peschek • Mr & Mrs Roger Sharpley • Mark & Lesley Shaw Mr & Mrs Raymond I Skilling • Sir James & Lady Spooner • Mr Maurice Thompson • Mike Thrower & Gill Lungley Fred Vinton • The Hon Mrs Louise Ward • R W B Williams • Colin Williams Steps at the end of the North Lawn, Nevill Holt


The Gardens at Nevill Holt

by Jane Rogers

The historic gardens at Nevill Holt were laid out in the 17th century. With woodland areas, three walled gardens, ambitious herbaceous borders, and more, they invite exploration. Head Gardener, Jane Rogers, brings us up to date with the changes – including moving 18 young French oaks. Opera–goers are encouraged to take photographs for next year's Festival Programme.

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There have always been gardens at Nevill Holt and the layout of the walls and some features have been dated back to 1661. Archeological investigations suggest that the walled gardens were established prior to 1645 when owner Henry Nevill (whose initials HN can be seen on the fireplace in the Great Hall) fought with Royalists at the Battle of Naseby. He was then imprisoned and fined £3,000 by Cromwell, leaving the family in debt for decades, and the gardens fell into disrepair. The winter and early spring of 2005–6 has seen a great deal of work on the 'skeleton' of the garden: the hard landscaping and other adjustments to correct proportions before getting onto the fun part of planting and adding the decorative touches. We are lucky in three respects: the owners take great pride in the garden, we have the help of awardwinning designer Rupert Golby and we have a team of talented and dedicated gardeners and craftspeople implementing the master plan.

Stage one has focussed on the two lawns at the back of the Hall: the North Lawn and the Cedar Lawn. Though old photos show island beds in front of the cloister and a planting of large trees in the middle of the North Lawn, these were removed when the Hall was used as a school between 1919 and 1999. It made sense to keep this part of the garden fairly open and visible from the Hall. Between the two lawns there was a scruffy soil bank whose purpose was to overcome an awkward change in levels. In the last few months we have put in a low retaining wall for almost the full length of the Cedar Lawn: from the end of the Queen Anne wing to the front wall of Font House Garden. Not only is the wall far tidier, but it brings about a clearer definition of the different areas – each with its own look and feel. Now we can concentrate on the two 80 metre herbaceous borders either side of the Cedar Lawn. These have fairly recently been planted up with blocks of flowering perennials and are in need of some

left to right: 1. The Quercus Ilex between the North Lawn and the Cedar Lawn number being lifted into the Italian Walled Garden

2. A close up of the 18 trees looking complacent

3. One of their


height. There are beautiful old brick walls which have just had the crumbling top courses rebuilt and made safe. We must be careful to allow them to remain as a feature in themselves without being swamped by large shrubs and climbers.

D lifting them from their home for the last three years with a six tonne digger

D tele-lifting them over the wall D and finally placing them on a board lying over

horizontol fence posts, and by hand rolling them in much the same way as did the ancient Egyptians when building the pyramids. The trees will appreciate the shelter from the high walls and provide that much–needed height. The 2,500 sq Vegetable Garden seems to have been cultivated for the last 350 years. Three years ago the extensive glasshouses were restored as well as the dipping well. It will continue providing vegetables, fruit, cut flowers and living plants for the kitchen and rooms. In the glasshouses we grow peaches and nectarines, indoor grapes and wonderful tomatoes, cucumbers and even melons. It is always one of the

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Another area to receive major attention this spring is the Italian Walled Garden. It was for a time a Rose Garden but we felt the area needed height and drama. We have already widened the borders and re–laid the paths with reclaimed York stone paving to give better proportions. The temple and pond have been restored to their former glory. The most dramatic development has been the planting of 18 Quercus Ilex (Evergreen Oak or Holm Oak). These specimen topiary were between the two lawns and moving them has in itself created drama.

D tracking them across the lawn


most commented–on parts of the garden with its rows of edible and decorative produce. The fantastic soil makes it a joy to work in.

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Font House Garden was at one time a Japanese garden. Its elaborate ironwork gates, surmounted by a carved crest, reveal a secret place with an ancient font and Harry Potter-esque lead griffins. Rather incongruously there is at the far end a 1970s bungalow. For this summer, it will be a wildflower garden and in the autumn it will receive more attention. The woodland will receive some serious tweaking before the opera festival and, to make it into a major component of the garden, will need more again in the autumn. We will then move closely–planted shrubs and young trees and prepare the ground for under–planting with suitable shade–loving perennials

and bulbs. This is something for you to look forward to in 2007. Beyond the ha–ha there is an old orchard just crying out for renovation and replanting to turn it into everyone's idea of heaven on a sunny day. The creation of a great garden of any size requires an immense investment of time, care and energy. And even more so with a place of the age and history of Nevill Holt. It is a fabulous opportunity. We have a marvellous team who are forging ahead to create a remarkable garden. We are thrilled to be in this wonderful place. So please feel very welcome to chat with myself or any of the gardeners as you walk about the grounds. We love the chance to talk about it.

this page: Decorative cabbages and produce from the Vegetable Garden opposite: The temple in the Italian Garden before restoration; the crest over the entrance to one of the walled gardens; Allium Sphaerocephalon in the Cedar Lawn border


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PIMLICO OPERA'S CHICAGO IN HMP BRONZEFIELD GUARDIAN MAEV KENNEDY

Director MICHAEL MOODY D Music Director JOHN BESWICK Choreographer DONNA KING D Designer ANTHONY MACILWAINE Costume Design HOLLY WADDINGTON Lighting Design PETER HARRISON

No Chicago cast is ever likely to get a bigger laugh than the Bronzefield chorus line in the Cell Block Tango. The six merry murderesses, swishing their hips and belting "I didn't do it, but if I dunnit, how could you tell me that I was wrong?"

THE TIMES LIBBY PURVES

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Apart from the buzz and education that professional showbiz brings into a prison, part of the mission is to get the rest of us in: through the security, behind the razor wire, across the exercise yard, face to face with the inmates …

JUDGES

Christopher & Katie Cardona Michael Cuthbert Angela C Deacon Vilas & Reita Gadkari Anonymous Mr & Mrs Robert B Gray Emily Hughes–Hallett Fund Neil & Elizabeth Johnson The de Laszlo Foundation David & Amanda Leathers The Lord & Lady Phillimore Libby Purves OBE Richard & Victoria Sharp Jonny Veeder QC John Wates

GOVERNORS

Brian Abbs Mr & Mrs Gerald Acher Anonymous Anonymous Mr Roger Birtles Sir Peter & Lady Cazalet Margaret Chin-Wolf John & Ann Eldridge

NEW STATESMAN MICHAEL PORTILLO

Now that our lattes bear inscriptions “The liquid in this container may be hot”, it is perhaps not surprising that Pimlico Opera’s guidance to patrons attending its production of Chicago inside a prison advised them not to bring firearms. The lights went up on the chorus line, consisting entirely of prisoners saucily dressed in black lace. They looked gorgeous, their smiles generous and warm. Three or four could have been models. It was a really entertaining show. While we watched, we forgot where we were. We returned to reality when the house lights came up on a row of warders flanking the stalls. We filed out through the electronic fingerprint reader, deeply moved by the evening’s experience.

Mr Ian Gatt QC Alan & Karen Grieve Charitable Trust Tim & Jenny Hamilton Cynthia Harrap Trust Paul & Kay Henderson Mark Howard Mrs I M Hunter Mr & Mrs Richard Jacobs QC Mr John Jeffrey MBE & Mrs Shirley Jeffrey Andrew & Caroline Joy Mr & Mrs Francis C Lang Miss A Mostyn-Owen Mr Erik Penser Mr & Mrs James Roberts Caroline Roboh Ken & Ros Rokison Richard & Helen Sheldon Mr Geoff Squire OBE Mrs Fiona Squire Donald & Rachael Stearns Wendy Trueman John Trueman Diana Wackerbarth Mark & Jane Williams Mrs Alison Wintgens Thomas Wolf

JAILBIRDS

Tim & Philippa Abell Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Artifax Mr Robert Bickerdike Mrs J Blackwell Mrs Halldora Blair Mrs Jane Blunden JP Mrs Margaret Bolam Anthony & Consuelo Brooke Ms Lynn Brooks Anthony Bunker Mrs Ann Chillingworth Sue Clark Mrs Carolyn Conlan Mr & Mrs John Dear Mrs A H Doggart Christine Douse Noreen Doyle Mr J M Dyson Mrs John Edge Yvonne & Malcolm Edwards Austin & Ragna Erwin Alun & Bridget Evans Gillian & Leslie Fletcher Philip Freeman Mr & Mrs Alastair Gavin

TIME MAGAZINE JUMANA FAROUKY

After an officer heard Opal, 24, a mother of three, singing outside her cell and suggested she try out for Chicago, she landed a role. "I wanted to act ever since I was a kid, but never had anyone to push me" she says. In the last weeks of rehearsal, Opal was worried that her lawyer's advice to change her plea from guilty to not guilty would get her released and make her miss the show. So she decided to change it back. "If I get out, I'll come back to do the play". Despite her best effort to stay in jail, Opal was set free. On opening night for the women of Bronzefield Prison, it's a chance to briefly escape into a life filled with applause, glamour, glitter and jazz hands. It won't last long, but right now, this jailhouse rocks.

Mrs A Grange Peter Granger Mr & Mrs Charles Haddon-Cave Benjamin Hargreaves John Holmes David & Wendy Hunter Martin & Evelyn Jacomb Mr & Mrs Michael Jodrell Lord & Lady Judd The Bishop of Kensington Abu Khamis Dr Zarrina Kurtz Mr P M Luttman-Johnson Celia Mason Mr & Mrs N G McMullen Joanna Mersey Patricia & Richard Millett Mary Moore A D Munro-Faure Mrs Lesley Myles MBE JP DL Sara Nathan Bruce & Pamela Noble John & Dianne Norton Mrs Charles Parker J R Parker John & Jacqui Pearson Mr P C Peddie Michael & Jan Potter Mrs Iona Priestley Maggie Robshaw Nigel & Viv Robson

Mrs Faanya Rose Anna & Pierre Rostand Sir James & Lady Scott Tony Shearer Sir James & Lady Spooner Mrs Judith St Quinton Mr J G Stanford Mary Stiles Mr David Taylor Mrs Gillian Thrower Lady Tumim CBE Mark & Margaret Weston Graham & Kay Westwell Sue Whitley Lord & Lady Beaumont of Whitley Mr & Mrs Geoffrey Wilson Mr & Mrs Eric Winkler Asia-Sophia Wolf Shan-Conrad Wolf Tian-Benjamin Wolf Richard Youell Tessa Youell


VOLUME XCVI - NO 35

WEDNESDAY, MARCH , 1925

PRICE TWO CENTS

BEAUTY VAMPS JURY & WINS TOAST OF MURDERESS ROW ACQUITTED OF KILLING LOVER Confessed To Slaying Because He Threatened To Leave Her, Then Claimed He Attempted To Attack Her In Apartment

WINS NOT GUILTY VERDICT IN 2 HOURS, QUITS SPOUSE NEXT DAY AND IS OFF FOR HOLLYWOOD CAREER.

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CONT’D BACK PAGE


PATRON The Rt Hon Lord Ashburton KG BOARD William Garrett (Chairman) The Rt Hon Lord Ashburton KG D Iain Burnside D Simon Freakley D Wasfi Kani OBE D The Hon Mary-Ann Sheehy D

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ENDOWMENT FUND BOARD Mark Andrews (Chairman) D Hamish Forsyth D William Garrett Wasfi Kani OBE D Marie Veeder D ADVISORY COUNCIL Sir David Davies (Chairman) D Gerry Acher CBE D Miles d'Arcy Irvine D Dame Vivien Duffield CBE Jacob Grierson D Donald Kahn D James Lupton D Viscount Norwich David Ross Victoria Sharp The Hon Jeremy Soames D CHIEF EXECUTIVE Wasfi Kani OBE D EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Michael Moody D FINANCE DIRECTOR Carol Butler MEMBERSHIP & MARKETING Rachel Pearson D COMPANY MANAGER Helen Sennett ADMINISTRATORS Alison Duncan Tracy Harding (assistant)

Alexander Creswell's trompe l'oeil banners in the dining room at Grange Park

MUSIC CONSULTANT Anthony Legge

HEAD OF LIGHTING Nick Mumford

RÉPÉTITEURS Jeremy Cooke D (Figaro) John Beswick (Barber) Catriona Beveridge (Thais) Lesley Ann Sammons (Elixir)

CHIEF ELECTRICIAN Heidi Riley DEPUTY Andy Turner Peter Mous

TECHNICAL STAGE MANAGER Declan Costello DEPUTIES Frank Crossley Matthew Robinson

LIGHTING Whitelight

STAGE TECHNICIANS Anthony Bobb-Semple Piotr Baumann James Fahy Chief Robson Dawethi Sylva Parizkova Duncan Russell PROJECTION DESIGNER Jon Driscoll

BOX OFFICE MANAGER Jan Tuffield

PRESS & PUBLICITY Franklin Rae Communications

STAGE MANAGERS Jenny Campbell (Thais) Fiona Greenhill (Figaro) Paul Grist (Elixir) Sarah Tryfan (Elixir) Ruth Taylor (Barber) DEPUTY STAGE MANAGERS Marion Auer (Figaro) Charles Lloyd (Thais) ASM Bella Lagnado (Thais) Jacqueline Carden (Figaro) Abi Duddleston (Barber)

PRODUCTION MANAGER Alison Ritchie ORCHESTRA MANAGER Mark Lacey D

SETS Clearwater (Figaro) Set-Up Scenery (Thais) Visual Scene (Elixir) Clearwater (Barber)

D associated with Grange Park since its inception in 1998

COSTUME SUPERVISOR Sarah Bowern Caroline Hughes (Barber) DEPUTY Gayle Woodsend WARDROBE MISTRESS Alyson Fielden D COSTUME CUTTERS Susan Casey Amanda Brothwell (assistant) Connie Fairbairn (assistant) COSTUME MAKERS Marianne Brun Elsa Threadgold (Figaro) Chloe Simcox (Milliner) Anna Gronerous (wigs) Classic Cuts (Figaro) COSTUME HIRE Angels AT NEVILL HOLT PRODUCTION MANAGER Simon Curtis HEAD OF STAGE Nigel Vincent SITE MANAGER Fi Smith-Bingham D THERMOI Judy Bennion Eric & Flic Craven Colin & Sarah Forsyth Frances Fray Laura Gaze Tor & Richard Heyman Poppy Law Chris & Helen Roberts Fiona Thorne

Grange Park Opera, The Coach House, 12 St Thomas Street, Winchester SO23 9HF tel. 01962 86 86 00 www.grangeparkopera.co.uk Grange Park Opera is registered charity no 1068046. Its Directors are the Charity Trustees. Lord Ashburton and his family own the site; they placed The Grange in the guardianship of English Heritage in 1975 and a lease with Grange Park which expires in 2018


THE RESTAURANT Anthony Lane & Heidi Coles

FESTIVAL PROGRAMME Sutchinda Thompson (design) D Phil Ellis (print) D Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and sometimes this has not proved possible. We would be pleased to hear from copyright holders not contacted

Solicitor FARRER & co Alistair Collett D Accountant WILKINSON LATHAM Sophie Holborn Planning Consultant Nathaniel Lichfield Iain Rhind D Insurance Broker Richard Walton

SITE MANAGERS Judith Becher D Sue Paice D

HOUSEKEEPER Karen Wheeler Jane Laws Assisted by Rosie Kingsford Nicola Kinnersley David Gollins Jenny Jefferies Jo Richards Stephanie Davis PARTY CO-ORDINATOR Sarah Stevens TENT KEEPER Peter Paice Derek Lintott (assistant) SUPERVISOR OF LONG MARQUEE Lizzie Holmes THE GRANGE & GROUNDS Richard Loader D Ian Conduct James Jenner John & Victoria Salkeld D Steve Shepherd David Manston Ben Cross FRONT OF HOUSE Stevie Kavanagh USHERS Jill Hardy Edward Tyrwhitt-Drake Charlie Kearns Sam Jefferies

ORCHESTRA Andrew Court (leader) D Megan Pound D Nicolette Brown Matthew Fairman D Joanna West D Nancy Roberts Jeremy Sampson Vernon Dean Ruth Funnell Carole Howat D Fiona Chesterman Zoe Davies D Jenny Gibbs D Alain Petitclerc Catherine Smart Helen Pitstow Peter Hembrough Louise Bevan Frances Richard Martin Humbey John Murphy Justin Ward Jason Glover Stephen Giles Lionel Handy D

Jo Handy D Brian Mullan Matthew Forbes Claire Constable Paul Brunner Natalie Rozario BASS Caroline Harding Dawn Baker John Bakewell Kate Saxby FLUTE Alison Hayhurst Janna Huneke D OBOE Andrew Knights D Judith Allen CLARINET Mark Simmons D Mark Lacey D BASSOON Julia Staniforth Constance Tanner HORN Richard Berry Richard Bayliss Jonathan Eddie Miles Hewitt TRUMPET Tony Cross Julie Ryan Clare Duncan D TROMBONE Rob Workman Robb Tooley Lewis Edney TIMPANI Mark Taylor PERCUSSION Donna–Maria Landowski HARP Gabriella dall Olio

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Food Kaye Thomson Creative Catering Hampshire Champagne Laurent–Perrier D Décor Alexander Creswell D

THERMOI Penny Akroyd Jean Amos Nikki Barker Sue Bristow Sue Brown Lorna Clive D Virginia Collett Louise Cox Pru & Douglas de Lavison Gill Dockray Andrea Harris Lizzie Holmes Inge Hunter Charmian Jones Penelope Kellie Angela Larard Susie Lintott Sue Paice D Lucy Pease Caroline Perry Carolyn Ranald Jo Seligman Katharine Sellon Ann Smart Di Threlfall Sarah Tillie The Hon Gina Tufnell Don & Barbara Woods

VIOLIN 1 VIOLIN 2 VIOLA CELLO


Founders

contributed to the first festival at Grange Park 1998/9

D and have made further gifts

Olympians & Titans Mr Mark Andrews D

Lydia & Miles d’Arcy-Irvine D

Mr & Mrs Donald Kahn D

Mr & Mrs Hugh Peppiatt D

Mr Felix Appelbe BSc FRSA

Sir David & Lady Davies D

Mr T Landon D

Mrs Lucinda Stevens

Mr Peter Arengo-Jones OBE

Mr Peter Foy D

James & Béatrice Lupton D

Mr & Mrs Anthony Townsend D

Mr David Buchler

Mr Simon Freakley D

Mr & Mrs Charles Mackay D

Mr & Mrs Max Ulfane

Mr William F Charnley D

Mr William Gronow Davis D

Mr Harvey McGregor QC D

Mrs Marie Veeder D

Professor Ian Craft

Mr Michael Hoare D

Greg & Gail Melgaard

Mr & Mrs Graham John West D

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Corporate Founders Systems Union Group Ltd Ashe Park Mineral Water D Baring Asset Management D British Steel Distribution D

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Athenians Mr & Mrs James Airy

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D D

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PERFECT HARMONY

E V E RY T H I N G Y O U W O U L D E X P E C T FROM AN ELITE HOTEL Tylney Hall, surrounded by the rolling Hampshire countryside and just 20 minutes from The Grange Park Opera, is one of three magnificent properties presented by Elite Hotels, enjoying spectacular settings in the South of England. Each hotel displays individual charm and character, offering discerning guests spacious and exquisitely furnished accommodation and extensive leisure facilities. The award-winning restaurants offer the finest cuisine and wine selections. For further information, please telephone the hotel of your choice or visit our web-site below. Picnic hampers available on request.

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Kleinwort Benson is delighted to support Grange Park Opera.

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sunday 2 july

The first festival concert has been generously supported by

Kroll Worldwide and

Greenhill


an evening at THE granGE with

BRUCE ford Tenor piano

AND friends

There is a separate Programme Booklet for this concert The evening will include songs, opera arias, duets and trios by Verdi, Donizetti, Handel, Rossini, Mozart ‌ ‌ et des bonnes bouches

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IAIN BURNSIDE


Le Nozze di Figaro is the seventh production to have been

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generously supported by

The Christopher Ondaatje Foundation


Opera buffa in four acts Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 – 1791) to a libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte after Beaumarchais Sung in Italian with surtitles by Peter Kreiss, by arrangement with the Royal Opera, Covent Garden First performance Burgtheater, Vienna, May 1, 1786 First performance in England, Haymarket Theatre, London, 1812 Performances at The Grange June 1, 3, 9, 11, 18, 20, 23, 28, 29, 2006 Performances at Nevill Holt July 8, 9, 14, 2006 Sponsored by The Carphone Warehouse

Le Noz z e di

Christian Curnyn Conductor

Stephen Langridge Director

George Souglides Designer

Wolfgang Goebbel Lighting Designer

Dan O'Neill movement

Hazel Gould assistant director

figaro Count Almaviva's valet count almaviva susanna Countess Almaviva's maid countess almaviva marcellina housekeeper bartolo a doctor cherubino a young boy don basilio a priest & music teacher antonio gardener and Susanna's uncle barbarina daughter of Antonio don curzio a lawyer bridesmaids

Olafur Sigurdarson Howard Reddy Sophie Daneman Rebecca von Lipinski Anne–Marie Owens Joanna Gamble (from June 28) Stephen Richardson Frances Bourne Hubert Francis Deryck Hamon Kim Sheehan Elizabeth Bailey (June 28) Lindsey Day Catherine Friel Olivia Shrive

continuo Jeremy Cooke

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Figaro


Synopsis Le Nozze di Figaro Important background information: 1. Three years ago Figaro helped Count Almaviva to wrest Rosina (now Countess Almaviva) from the grasp of her legal guardian, Dr Bartolo (cf The Barber of Seville) 2. Figaro borrowed some money from Marcellina, promising that he will marry her if he can’t pay her back. 3. The Count has renounced his droit de seigneur – the right of the feudal lord to sleep with a servant on her wedding night before her new husband. 4. He now regrets it. ACT 1

Count Almaviva’s palace, Aguas Frescas, near Seville It is the day of Figaro and Susanna’s wedding and they are assessing their new sleeping quarters, situated conveniently close to the rooms of the Count and Countess. “Convenient if either should call them”, says Figaro. “Also convenient” says Susanna “if you are out and about and the Count's libido stirs”. This is a bolt from the blue – Figaro is determined that he will not be outwitted.

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Marcellina and Bartolo arrive. If she is to enforce her marriage to Figaro, she urgently must convince the Count to favour her in Court. Bartolo, sniffing the possibility of revenge for the humiliation he suffered at the hands of Figaro, agrees to leave no legal stone unturned. Phase one of the plan is to get Susanna to upset the Count. Susanna appears and Marcellina, pretending not to have noticed her, insults her. Cherubino, godson of the Countess and a house guest, dashes in. Disaster has struck. He has been caught by the Count with the gardener's daughter, Barbarina, and has been ordered to leave immediately. Cherubino confesses to Susanna that all women make him crazy with desire.

The Duchess of Alba 1795 by Goya (1746–1828) Palacio de Liria, Madrid / The Bridgeman Art Library

When the Count knocks, Cherubino has to hide. The Count makes it clear that he would pay Susanna for a reinstatement of the droit de seigneur. Interrupted by the arrival of Basilio, the Count himself hides. Basilio has come to gossip: he advises Susanna to take the Count as a lover – rather than Cherubino who should be warned that his interest in the Countess is bound to be noticed by the Count before long. The Count bursts from his hiding place and in telling of Cherubino's previous disgrace … discovers him. Figaro and the staff of the house interrupt with a song in praise of the Count for abandoning the droit de seigneur. Figaro and Susanna plead with him to forgive Cherubino with the lesser punishment of a stint in the Army. Figaro whispers to Cherubino that he should stick about to talk later but outwardly he supports the Count.


ACT 2 The Countess' Room The Countess knows of her husband's affairs and despairs the loss of his love. Figaro reveals a plan: he has sent an anonymous letter to the Count telling of an assignation between the Countess and a lover so that the Count will be too preoccupied to sabotage their wedding. In addition, Susanna will agree to meet him in the garden – only they’ll dress up Cherubino instead. Then he will be exposed at the crucial moment. The women agree to the plan and Cherubino is being dressed up by the Countess when the Count arrives. Cherubino hides in the dressing room. 67

Susanna, on her return, overhears the row between husband and wife. The Count has received the fake letter and suspects the Countess is hiding her lover in her dressing room. "It’s only Susanna", says the Countess. "Let me see then", says the Count. "No", says the Countess. The Count forces the Countess to accompany him as he fetches tools to break into the dressing room. Susanna rushes to the rescue. She frees Cherubino, advising him that the only escape is the window. and takes his place in the dressing room. When the Almavivas return, the Countess confesses that it is Cherubino in hiding. Susanna emerges to their astonishment. The women pretend that the letter and everything else was just a joke. The Count asks forgiveness. When Figaro enters he is unaware of developments and denies knowledge of the letter. Antonio the gardener bursts in with the unlikely story that someone, who looked like Cherubino, jumped from the window. "No, it was me", says Figaro, and limps to prove it. Antonio produces a paper dropped by the jumping person: it is the army commission. Figaro's quick wit saves the day: he was in the process of getting the commission stamped with official seal (true). It is all looking a bit shaky, when, to top it all, Marcellina enters with Basilio and Bartolo demanding payment or marriage.

The Duke of Alba 1795 by Goya (1746–1828) Palacio de Liria, Madrid / The Bridgeman Art Library

INTERVAL


ACT 3 The Count is suspicious. He doesn’t want to insult the Countess by doubting her honesty, but he will send Basilio off to check up on Cherubino’s whereabouts. The Countess, adapting Figaro’s earlier plan, tells Susanna to fix a rendezvous with the Count but she herself, not Cherubino, will go in place of Susanna – and Figaro should be kept in the dark about it.

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Susanna finds the Count and explains she will meet him after the wedding. His ectasy is short–lived when he overhears Susanna whispering to Figaro. Flying into a fury, he decides to support Marcellina in court. Barbarina is trying to save Cherubino from his army life in Seville. She will disguise him as one of the local girls who are presenting flowers to the Countess. The Countess, reduced to scheming with her staff against her husband, feels humiliated. The court case over, lawyer Don Curzio gives the verdict: “pay up or marry Marcellina”. Figaro flounders, saying that he can’t marry without the consent of his parents who, given the gold and jewels found by the bandits who brought him up, were clearly noble people. Furthermore, there is a birthmark on his right arm … In the wildest turn around imaginable his would–be bride Marcellina turns out to be his mother and his father none other than Bartolo. Surely there is nothing that the Count can now do to stop the wedding of Susanna and Figaro. Wanting to pursue her plan, the Countess dictates a love letter from Susanna to the Count asking for a meeting in the garden. As a sign that he has accepted he must return the pin which seals the letter. Girls arrive with flowers for the Countess. The one who stands out is, claims Barbarina, her cousin. It is, of course, Cherubino. Barbarina interrupts the Count's tirade, alluding to his past seductions, and Figaro hurries everyone off to the wedding to avoid further questioning.

At the ceremony Susanna slips the love letter to the Count. He drops the pin and Figaro notices but doesn't realise the letter is from Susanna. ACT 4 In the Garden Barbarina is in despair. She has lost the pin that the Count gave her to return to Susanna. It dawns on Figaro that this is the pin he saw at the wedding. Despite Marcellina’s attempts to calm him, he is looking for revenge on behalf of all wronged husbands. Marcellina decides to warn Susanna – women must stick together. Barbarina, looking for the place she has arranged to meet Cherubino, hears someone coming and hides. Figaro arrives with various house staff and they hide. Alone, he rails against women, their infidelities and the way they manage to twist men round their fingers. Marcellina, Susanna and the Countess start their performance which is designed to confuse both Figaro and the Count. First on the scene is testosterone–fuelled Cherubino who makes a pass at the Countess, dressed as Susanna. The Count's seduction of “Susanna” is interrupted by Figaro. Figaro bemoans his fate. “The Countess” (real Susanna) has some fun with Figaro who by now has, in fact, recognised her. His empassioned seduction of this “Countess” is designed to infuriate Susanna. Figaro explains it was all a joke. Now the Count returns. “The Countess” and Figaro improvise an amorous exit towards the pavilion and the Count grabs Figaro, calling for witnesses. Everyone steps forward begging for forgiveness but the Count refuses. When the real Countess reveals herself, the Count must beg forgiveness from her. She is more generous. The household celebrates the power of love.


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top: Garden in the Old French Style from ‘Hints on the Formation of Gardens & Pleasure Grounds’ by John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843) The Stapleton Collection middle: Special cabinet for transporting shrubs & bushes; chest of drawers for transporting plants; woven basket for transporting plants from the artist’s notebook made during the expedition of Jean-Fran by Duche de Vancy, Gaspard (d.1788) Bibliotheque Mazarine, Paris / Archives Charmet bottom: Elevations & ground plan of a glasshouse; Design for a Botanic garden John Claudius Loudon (as above) The Bridgeman Art Library


Enlightment & Reason by Paul Robinson Mozart's Figaro and Rossini's Barber have much in common. Paul Robinson, Professor of History at Stanford University, explains that each embodies the intellectual concerns of its time. Figaro exhibits how humans can overcome the antagonisms that separate them from one another. Barber, written 30 years later in the wake of the French Revolution, is from a mood of intellectual and emotional retreat.

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Operas reflect the intellectual climate of their age and we experience them differently – indeed more interestingly – when this is taken into account. Mozart’s Le nozze di Figaro and Rossini’s Il barbiere di Siviglia are two of the most popular and admired operas in the repertory. Figaro, which had its premiere in 1786, is among the oldest operas regularly performed, and some consider it still the greatest; Il barbiere dates from 1816, making it among the earliest bel canto operas. These two are particularly suited to comparison because they share so many things yet they leave such remarkably different impressions. An important source of that difference is intellectual. But first let us consider their similarities. Both operas are social comedies, in which we laugh at absurd conventions about class, sex, power and property. Both, moreover, are in Italian, lending them a shared vocabulary and an aura of linguistic continuity. More striking and unusual, both derive from plays by Beaumarchais. The plays themselves are intimately related and even peopled by many of the same characters. This last fact has occasionally been a source of confusion, because Rossini, the younger of the two composers, set the first of the Beaumarchais plays, while Mozart’s whose opera preceded Rossini’s by three decades, set the sequel. The explanation is simple: when Mozart came to write Le nozze di Figaro the earlier had already been made into an opera by Giovanni Paisiello. Rossini’s Il barbiere, therefore, tells the earlier story. Mozart’s opera picks it up somewhat later, and, like the second Beaumarchais play, focuses on the marriage of the barber (once more a personal servant in the Almaviva household) and the philandering of the formerly romantic Count. The two operas also share musical characteristics. The most general is the use of similar melodic and harmonic conventions; in both we hear the same fondness for regular symmetrical and clearly articulated phrases, the same steadiness of pulse, the same transparency and stability of harmonic organisation. The operas are separated by only three decades, and since Rossini was a relatively conservative composer one could argue that Mozart’s opera seems more advanced.

A second musical similarity is that both are constructed of ‘numbers’: arias, duets and ensembles. These are separated by recitative, the listener thus experiencing both operas as a series of discrete musical events, each with its distinct beginning and ending. In both, the numbers last about three minutes. They generally start and end in the key and have a fixed rhythm, tempo and orchestral accompaniment, or are in two clearly contrasted sections, one slow, the other fast. And they characteristically contain melodic material that is repeated several times. Most of the numbers are sufficiently autonomous to be performed as concert pieces. Because of this method of construction the audience’s sense of theatrical time is the same in both operas: there are, so to speak, two clocks. During the recitative things more or less move along as they do in real life. But during the numbers, as if by Einsteinian magic, a kind of ‘slow time’ supplants quotidian time: people repeat themselves unconscionably – much to our delight, of course. There is a significant difference in Mozart’s and Rossini’s use of this convention. Rossini is more self–concious: no small part of our laughter comes from his implicit suggestion that this convention is absurd when the situation demands that his characters should return to ordinary time. The similarities between the operas extend to the concerted finales, which lend concentrated musical expression to the dramatic climaxes. The finale of Act 2 of Le nozze di Figaro is one of the most admired achievements in opera. Rossini adopts the same groundplan, and the listener comes away from the two operas aware of having been treated to analogous musical experiences at their culminations. In spite of their similarities, however, the effect on us of these works is dissimilar, even antithetical. One leaves a performance of Il barbiere having laughed and delighted by its many musical felicities. But while the opera–goer has also laughed – though probably less uproariously – during Figaro, and while its tunes are haunting, it is not uncommon to leave Mozart’s opera profoundly moved. This Rossini can never achieve.


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The House of Cards by Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699–1779) Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library


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The changes in the European climate of opinion over the 30–year span separating the two works are crucial sources of this striking emotional difference. But there are also musical and dramatic reasons. Broadly, Figaro is about infidelity, while Il barbiere is about courtship. By their very nature these two subjects elicit different responses from their composers. Also, although many of the same characters appear in both operas, they appear at different stages of their lives, entertain different concerns and exhibit different qualities of heart and mind. These differences result in rather drastic musical transformations. For example, the music teacher, Basilio, appears in both works, but he is a basso profondo in Rossini’s opera, while an effete, oleaginous tenor in Mozart’s. Certain important characters in Mozart’s opera do not yet exist in Rossini’s, notably the page Cherubino, Figaro’s fiancée Susanna, and his mother Marcellina. Most important, virtually every character assumes a different dramatic stature: Rossini’s Bartolo is a major figure but is relegated to a secondary role by Mozart. We therefore do not think of these characters as identical, or even as earlier and later versions of the same persons. It is inconceivable that Rossini’s unflappable heroine Rosina (a coloratura mezzo) could have matured into Mozart’s melancholy Countess (a spinto soprano). Considerations of sheer talent aside, Mozart and Rossini display significant musical idiosyncrasies that probably reflect nothing further than the mystery of artistic inspiration. These differences might be subsumed under the general (and impressionistic) proposition that Mozart draws one’s attention to the core of the musical process – to rhythm, harmony and melody – whereas in Rossini one attends to detail – to ornament, dynamic changes and the exquisite and humorous particulars of his orchestration. Even when all such matters are taken into account, neither they nor textual differences entirely explain the dissimilar effect of the two operas: there remains an element of intellectual disparity. This difference mirrors the fact that Le nozze di Figaro was written in the 18th century and embodies the characteristic intellectual

concerns of its time, while Il barbiere di Siviglia was written in the early 19th and embodies ideas and attitudes that achieved ascendancy only in the wake of the French Revolution. That Mozart’s music, and his operas in particular, are products of the European Enlightenment is a commonplace of cultural history. The connection is the most transparent in Die Zauberflöte, which is explicit in its Enlightenment values, even down to the particulars of freemasonry. But the Enlightenment is to be found not merely in Mozart’s texts – whether by Lorenzo da Ponte or Emanuel Schikaneder – but in his music as well. It is because he succeeds in realising its values musically that the question is of enduring interest. The Enlightenment was a complex intellectual movement, and Enlightenment thinkers, like those of any generation, concerned themselves with many issues that do not allow of musical, or even theatrical, realisation. Empiricism, deism and anticlericalism are hardly the stuff of great tunes. None the less, certain fundamental Enlightenment intellectual and moral beliefs lend themselves readily to musical representation, at least in the hands of a composer who shared them. Mozart manifestly did, and his commitment to Enlightenment values was as complete as Voltaire’s, Rousseau’s or Kant’s. The most important of those values is the conviction that human beings can overcome the antagonisms that separate them from one another. Like the philosophes, Mozart believed that we have the intellectual and emotional resources to transcend our hostilities. He believed in the possibility of reconciliation. That in my view is the fundamental theme of Le nozze di Figaro, of both its story and its music. As Freudians or post–Freudians, we can perhaps no longer fully accept the proposition, for we have come to think of egoism and aggression as intractable elements of our psychic make–up – a point of view shared, significantly, by Rossini. But to feel the completeness with which Mozart believed in reconciliation is an experience which, above all else, is why we leave the theatre so moved. Reconciliation is a perennial theme of art and thought.


But in Figaro the theme is accorded such prominence, explored in such detail and allowed to permeate the musical and dramatic action so thoroughly that whereas in other works of art we experience instances of reconciliation (the reunion of separate lovers in Fidelio, or of parent and child in King Lear, for example), in Figaro reconciliation, almost as if it were an abstraction, lodges itself in the memory as the essence of what we have seen – the argument, so to speak.

Il barbiere di Siviglia, on the other hand, reflects European intellectual life in the early 19th century, a period of reaction against the Enlightenment. That reaction was extremely complex, resulting in a cultural and intellectual era of great richness. We are perhaps most familiar with the aspect of that reaction referred to as Romanticism, which, among other things, involved an intensified subjectivity; in music it is best represented by Schubert. But there was another aspect, which gave rise to an intellectual perspective in many ways the opposite of Romanticism: the aversion to intellect and to political enthusiasm found in the great conservative thinkers of

Il barbiere di Siviglia, is the perfect operatic realisation of this mood of intellectual and emotional retreat. It is relentlessly unserious, displays human viciousness in all conceivable guises and refuses any kind of psychological or moral investment. The message is that life can be managed only by laughing at it. For the rounded characters and human conflicts of Figaro Rossini substitutes superbly exaggerated caricatures and incidents of the utmost archness. Il barbiere, in effect, is a musical joke, perhaps the greatest piece of musical slapstick ever written. It stands in relation to Le nozze di Figaro much as the Comedy of Errors stands in relation to Twelfth Night. And while this difference can be attributed in part to peculiarities of Rossini’s character and to his distinctive musical gifts, his opera is none the less inconceivable outside the intellectual atmosphere of post–Napoleonic Europe. How little the difference is to be explained in terms of Rossini’s literary source can be established by comparing not merely Beaumarchais’ two plays, which are remarkably similar, but also Rossini’s opera with what Paisiello made of the same material in 1782. The qualities of exaggeration, self assertion and outrageousness that make Rossini’s opera unforgettable are quite absent in Paisiello’s agreeably tuneful and almost gentle rendering of the story. Only by locating Il barbiere di Siviglia against the background of European conservatism, I believe, can one understand why this work of 1816, paradoxically, is the least Romantic of all important operas.

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If reconciliation is the argument, Reason is its means. Enlightenment thinkers were not consistent in their use of the word, but their conception of Reason was critical: the faculty of mind that disputed the unargued claims of tradition, revelation and authority. The Enlightenment at once celebrates Reason – as one’s best hope in an unfriendly world – and cautions about its limitations: if not checked by the more humble powers of observation and common sense, pure rationality eventuates in fiction. Le nozze di Figaro is the musical embodiment of this 18th century conception. It celebrates intelligence, dramatically in the machinations of its protagonist and musically in the cleverness of its composer. In the finale to the second act these two elements are brought together in a moment of supreme intellectual and musical exhibitionism. Yet at that very moment, intelligence is also mocked and its pretensions deflated, in the best Enlightenment tradition. Viewed psychologically or ethically, then the opera is an 18th–century essay on conflict and reconciliation – an Enlightenment tract on Reason.

the age, above all Edmund Burke, who, though dead in 1797, cast a long shadow over early 19th–century European political imagination. The Enlightenment came to be considered an act of intellectual hubris: men had overreached themselves in believing that injustice could be eliminated by a simple effort of mind and goodwill. In reality, conservatives argued, the insufficiencies of our existence were rooted in human nature and the precariousness of common survival. To ignore these unpleasant facts was to invite disaster such as the French Revolution. Wisdom therefore called for a withdrawal of intellect and passion from the over–extended positions they had staked out in the 18th century. A modulated cynicism, in other words, was the only sensible attitude.


Mozart & Da Ponte by H C Robbins Landon

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Mozart's librettist, Lorenzo Da Ponte, implies in his Memoirs, published some 30 years after Figaro was written, that he, Da Ponte, had been behind the making and success of the opera. Renowned scholar H C Robbins Landon presents the evidence and the nature of the collaboration. From Mozart: The Golden Years 1781 – 1791 published by Thames & Hudson.

Three immortal operas were conceived by the poet Lorenzo Da Ponte and Mozart. Their great collaboration began officially in 1785, but we owe it in part to an event which had occurred five years earlier, when Mozart was preparing his first great opera, Idomeneo, in Munich. On 29 November 1780, two days before the first orchestral rehearsal, Empress Maria Theresa died. In October 1762 when Mozart was only six, he had bewitched the Court at Schonbrunn Castle with his incredible proficiency; sadly however, the Empress, who accomplished such political wonders as a young ruler, never took Mozart very seriously. Her son, Archduke Ferdinand, Governor and Captain–General of the Italian province of Lombardy, had commissioned Mozart to write an opera, Ascanio in Alba, to celebrate his marriage to Princess Maria Beatrice d’Este. The opera performed in October 1771 was such a success that Ferdinand seriously considered engaging Wolfgang. Being a dutiful son, he wrote to his mother about the matter. But on 12 December 1771 she replied: You ask if you may take the young Salzburgian into your service. I cannot imagine as what, since I cannot believe you require a composer or such useless people. But if it will give you pleasure, I would not wish to stand in your way. What I say is, do not burden yourself with useless people and never grant titles to that kind of person who would misuse it, running about the world like beggars. Apart from that, he has a large family. Maria Theresa had, to say the least, an imperfect understanding of music. The Empress was also rather prudish, particularly with regard to the theatre. She had caused Haydn’s opera Der krumme Teufel to be banned, because of its political satire and its sexually compromising sections. As long as she reigned, it was quite inconceivable that the libretti of Figaro, Don Giovanni or Cosi fan tutte would have got past the censors. The Empress had a strict censorship organisation, led by Baron Gottfried van Swieten, Prefect of the Imperial and Royal Library, which prevented compromising books from being imported into Austria. As a result, the taste and knowledge of the Austrian literary world lagged

far behind that of England and France, and even of Germany. The Empress interested herself in all this censorship, arguing with van Swieten… From 1765, Maria Theresa had allowed her son Joseph to act as a co–regent, but Joseph, a child of the Enlightenment, longed to put into practice a whole series of reforms which his mother, becoming more conservative as she grew older, sought to hinder. Joseph II was the most interesting, if deeply problematical monarch ever to occupy the Habsburg throne, and it is in large part to him that we owe the existence of two Da Ponte–Mozart operas – Figaro and Cosi – as well as the Vienna performances of Don Giovanni. As soon as he was able, after his mother’s death, Joseph – who would be 40 on 13 March 1781 – set about propelling the Austrian monarchy into the world of the Enlightenment, and one of his early concerns was to impose restrictions on, though not to abolish, the censors’ office. As the 1780’s progressed, Austria was witness to a vast flood of political pamphlets, satires, articles and books, such as would have horrified Maria Theresa. The power of the Church was broken politically and economically. The Pope came to Austria in 1782 to reason with Joseph, but to no avail. The numerous monasteries within the monarchy were drastically curtailed. To a detached observer it must have seemed that Austria was approaching Arcadia. Torture was abolished, and barbarous methods of execution such as breaking on the wheel became the exception, not the rule. When the French Revolution broke out in 1789, it was certainly in part Joseph’s earlier reforms which saved Austria from a similar fate; but the Church and the nobility (whose vast feudal power had been broken) loathed Joseph II. On the other hand, the peasantry, literary men, merchants, Jews, Protestants, the downtrodden and the poor came to regard him as god. When he stopped his carriage, jumped out, and took the plough in his own hand, he became a hero to the farmers: it was a trick that Napoleon was to remember. It is against this background that we now focus on the events of 1785 in Vienna, to which had come the extraordinary figure of Lorenzo Da Ponte, libertine,


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A Cavalcade in the Winter Riding School of the Vienna Hof to celebrate the defeat of the French army at Prague, 1743 Martin II Meytens (1695–1770) Schloss Schonbrunn, Vienna / The Bridgeman Art Library


poseur, converted Jew, cultivated man of letters, failed priest and protégé of Antonio Salieri, the court composer. Da Ponte had become personally and politically compromised in his native Italy, first in Venice and then in Treviso; he found it expedient to go to Dresden, where he procured a letter of recommendation to Salieri, which he presented early in 1782. Salieri was well–known, had the ear of the new Emperor, and Da Ponte was introduced to Joseph II, who impressed the Italian ‘by the utter simplicity of his manner and his dress’. In his Memoirs (written many years later and therefore not wholly reliable) Da Ponte makes a special point that it was because of his ‘perseverance and firmness alone that Europe and the world in great part owe the exquisite vocal compositions of [Mozart] that admirable genius’. Da Ponte further states that he met Mozart at the home of Baron Wetzlar, and shortly thereafter proposed to Mozart an operatic collaboration. Mozart answered, ‘I would do so most willingly, but I am certain that I should never get permission’. Da Ponte answered. ‘That will be my business’.

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Da Ponte’s account of the conception of Figaro is as follows: In conversation with me one day…he asked me whether I could easily make an opera from a comedy by Beaumarchais – Le Mariage de Figaro. I liked the suggestion very much and promised to write one. But there was a very great difficulty to overcome. A few days previous, the Emperor had forbidden the company at the German theatre to perform that comedy, which was too licentiously written, he thought, for a self–respecting audience: how then propose it to him for an opera? Baron Wetzlar offered, with noble generosity, to pay me a handsome price for the words, and then, should we fail of production in Vienna, to have the opera presented in London, or France. But I refused this offer and proposed writing the words and the music secretly and then awaiting a favourable opportunity to show them to the Directors [of the Opera], or to the Emperor himself, for which step I confidently volunteered to assume the responsibility….I set to work, accordingly, and as fast as I wrote the words, Mozart set them to music. In six weeks everything was in order. Mozart’s lucky star ordained that the Opera should fail of scores at just that moment. Seizing the opportunity, I went, without saying a word to a living person, to offer Figaro to the Emperor. ‘What’, he said. ‘Don’t you know that Mozart, though a wonder at instrumental music, has written only one opera, and nothing remarkable at that? [Joseph meant Entführung, Vienna 1782; he apparently knew nothing of Mozart’s earlier operas and understood nothing of Entführung.] ‘Yes: Sire’, I replied quietly, ‘but without your Majesty’s

clemency I would have written but one drama in Vienna!’ ‘That may be true’, he answered, ‘but this Mariage de Figaro – I have just forbidden the German troupe to use it!’ ‘Yes; Sire’, I rejoined, ‘but I was writing an opera, and not a play. I had to omit many scenes and to cut others quite considerably. I have omitted or cut anything that might offend good taste or public decency at a performance over which the Sovereign Majesty might preside. The music I may add, as far as I may judge of it, seems to me marvellously beautiful’. ‘Good! If that be the case, I will rely on your good taste as to the music and on your wisdom as to the morality. Send the score to the copyist.’ I ran straight to Mozart, but I had not yet finished imparting the good news when a page of the Emperor’s came and handed him a note, wherein he was commanded to present himself at once at the Palace, bringing his score. He obeyed the royal order, allowed the Emperor to hear various selections, which pleased him immensely, or to tell the truth without exaggeration, astounded him. Naturally, one’s first reaction to such dialogue reported so long after the event is one of considerable scepticism, the more so since John Stone discovered an 1819 version of the 1823 Memoirs … with significant differences. ‘Contradictions’, says Daniel Heartz, ‘accumulate to a point where it becomes difficult to lend credence to Da Ponte’s main claim, about how he won the day for the new opera in a personal interview with the Emporer….If we believe Da Ponte, the Empeorer capitulated with the speed of an opera buffa clown. This demands a credulity of the reader that few can possess. By suggesting that the play be revised to make it more respectable, Joseph had from the beginning shown more interest than Da Ponte let on….’ Is the entire Da Ponte story of Figaro’s birth therefore a fabrication? Possibly not. In the Memoirs Da Ponte actually states that he invited Joseph II to attend the dress rehearsal. Although such a procedure would have been most unusual – the Emperor did not normally attend dress rehearsals of plays or operas – the story is in fact true. Count Zinzendorf relates that on that day – 29 April 1786 – ‘I went to find the Emperor in the Augarten [where he often resided], but he had gone to town to attend the rehearsal of the opera…’ Now let us break into Da Ponte’s Memoirs and buttress his tale with some other contemporary evidence. For a long while it was fashionable to treat with scepticism Da Ponte’s claim that Figaro was written and composed within six weeks. Mozart’s autograph – the first two acts are in Berlin and the last two acts are among the rediscovered treasures of the former Silesian monastery


of Grussau, now lodged in Cracow – shows that the score was first laid out in a kind of musical shorthand, i.e. the essential instruments were noted, along with all the vocal parts. The editor of Figaro in the New Mozart Edition, Ludwig Finscher, considers that the period of six weeks is entirely plausible, and from a variety of evidence it seems that the work was put down during October and November 1785. The singers’ parts could be copied from this short score, and Mozart could then fill in the orchestration during vocal rehearsals. Our next news also serves to confirm the extreme speed with which the opera was composed. In the Mozart biography by Edward Holmes, we are told that the composer wrote the finale to Act 2 during two nights and a day; on the second night he felt so ill that he had to break off, leaving only a few pages to orchestrate (another piece of evidence concerning Mozart’s method of composition). That he was under a great physical strain is also shown in an unpublished memoir by his English pupil Thomas Attwood, who was with Mozart from June 1785. Attwood writes: ‘Mozart at the time I was with him, appeared to be of a cheerful habit, his health not very strong. In consequence of being so much over the table when composing he was obliged to have an upright Desk and stand there when he wrote….’

It was therefore clear that the public in the Burgtheater would regard Mozart’s setting of Figaro as the natural sequel to Paisiello’s Barber (just as the two were in sequence as originally written by Beaumarchais). When Mozart started to write music for Figaro, he was at great pains to emphasise the sequential nature of his characters who had started life in the Barber. Let us take one case: in Paisiello’s masterpiece – for it is that, despite the fact that it is now largely (though not entirely) forgotten – Rosina, not yet married to Lindoro (disguised as the count), appears for the first time at the end of Act 1

Beaumarchais’ sequel, Le Mariage de Figaro, had engendered one of the greatest theatrical scandals in history. When its author offered the piece in 1781 to the Comédie Française, Louis XVI actually read the manuscript and declared, ‘This is atrocious, this will never be played!’, but after endless intrigues, counter–intrigues and pressure of all kinds, it was given privately in the Chateau de Gennevilliers with royal permission. Then, on 27 April 1784, Le Mariage de Figaro was finally given by the Comédie Française in Paris and became the greatest hit of its period, with 68 further performances. The question of the political content of the play has been ardently discussed. Was it a forerunner of the French Revolution? How much of the supposedly dangerous political content influenced Mozart and Da Ponte in their choice of the subject as an operatic libretto? In 1785 several German translations of the play appeared, including an official one, Figaros Hochzeit, oder Der tolle Tag; sanctioned by Beaumarchais; it was published in Kehl across the Rhine from Strasbourg (then as now in France). Mozart owned one of the translations, which is catalogued under no 41 in the list of his effects made after his death to value the estate. Whatever we may think of the political and moral content of the piece, it is clear that Joseph II considered it too dangerous to stage but, as we have seen, not too dangerous to read: anyone was allowed to own the book. We have no idea how much of the overall plan of the operatic libretto is Mozart’s and how much Da Ponte’s, but we may assume that it was a real collaboration. Of the many changes that were made vis–a–vis Beaumarchais, we might single out two: Act 5 of the play included a long monologue for Figaro – highly political, highly inflammatory – which runs to several printed pages. In the opera this becomes Figaro’s celebrated warning about women in Act 4, Aprite un po quel’occhi, uomini incauti e sciocchi (Open your eyes a little, you incautious and silly men). This substitution will have found Imperial favour for two reasons; first, it removes entirely the political satire of the French original; secondly, it describes in

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There were several reasons why Mozart chose Beaumarchais’ sequel to Le Barbier de Seville, and perhaps the most obvious is that Il barbiere di Siviglia was already famous as an opera in the version by Giovanni Paisiello. Paisiello had first given it at the Court of Catherine the Great in St Petersburg and from there, in 1782, it had spread across Europe, arriving in Vienna in 1783. Its success had persuaded the Emperor to ask Paisiello for a new opera, Il Re Teodoro in Venezia, which had likewise been an enormous success in 1784. Paisiello’s recent Barber was in the forefront of Mozart’s and Da Ponte’s minds, as it was also in the minds of the opera–going public in Vienna. First performed on 13 August 1783, it took Vienna by storm and with 60 performances became the most popular single opera in the history of the Vienna theatre in the 18th century.

– alone – in one of the most beautiful numbers in the opera: the cavatina ‘Giusto ciel, che conoscete’. The tempo is slow (larghetto), it is love music (she is pouring out her necessarily secret feelings for Lindoro), it contains prominent parts for clarinets and is in E flat. In Figaro, when the Countess makes her first appearance, she is now unhappily married to the Count, and pours her heart out – in E flat, alone on the stage, and with prominent clarinets. The point would have been at once clear to the Viennese audience…. In fact, Le nozze de Figaro was planned in minute detail to be a worthy successor to Il barbiere di Siviglia.


rich detail how men are traduced by women, ending with the famous lines, ‘il resto nol dico, già ognuno lo sà (I won’t say the rest, everybody knows it already). This is followed by solos for the French horns, in Italian corni, which term also means horns on the head, the traditional symbol of a cuckold. This accorded perfectly with Joseph II’s ambivalent attitude towards women, and we can visualise him chortling over the horn solos, as Mozart played him music from the scores.

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In fact one of the many glories of Da Ponte’s libretto and Mozart’s score is precisely the great understanding shown for all women in Figaro: in the case of the Countess they go in quite a different direction from Beaumarchais. Her appearance in Act 2, in splendid isolation, was meticulously prepared both by Da Ponte and by Mozart… Most of the letters Wolfgang wrote to his father during the period when he was composing Figaro are lost, but sometimes the contents are relayed by Leopold to his daughter. On 11 November 1785, for example, Leopold writes: At last I received a letter from your brother consisting of twelve lines. He excuses himself because he is head over heels in the midst of finishing the opera, Le nozze di Figaro …I know the piece, it is a very difficult play, and the translation from the French into an opera must certainly be free, if the opera is to be effective. God willing, the action will be good, and I don’t doubt for the music: but it will cost him much running back and forth and disputing until the book is organised in such a way that he can set to work on it – and he will have to put it off and take his good time with it, as is his usual pretty way, now he must go to work in earnest since Count Rosenberg is pressing him. Leopold thought that Wolfgang had put off the work: in fact Figaro’s score is not only a piece of meticulous planning but shows no traces of disorganisation at all – quite the contrary. While the rehearsals of Figaro were going on, Mozart had to overcome a whole series of cabals and difficulties. There was (and is) a short ballet in the opera, but ballets were in principle forbidden. Count Orsini–Rosenberg, Director of the Court Opera, sent for Da Ponte and

removed the ballet. Da Ponte records the following: I hurried to Mozart … begged him to allow me just two days’ time, and to leave everything to me. The dress rehearsal of the opera was to be held that day. I went in person to invite the Sovereign, and he promised to attend at the hour set. And in fact he came, and with him half the aristocracy of Vienna…. The first act went off amid general applause, but at the end of Act 3 comes a pantomimic scene between the Count and Susanna, during which the orchestra plays and the dance takes place. But the way His Excellency [Rosenberg] … had adapted the scene, all one could see was the Count and Susanna gesticulating and there being no music, it all looked like a puppet show. ‘What’s all this?’ exclaimed the Emperor…His Majesty therefore, sent for me…and [upon the Emperor’s intervention] the scene which had been suppressed was in shape to be tried and the Emperor cried, ‘Oh, now it’s all right.’ Perhaps this episode was the reason for the première being postponed from 28 April to 1 May. Leopold Mozart, writing to his daughter, mentions the intrigues that were besetting the opera and its authors. He had his information from friends of Wolfgang’s, the soprano Josepha Dusek and her husband from Prague, who had shortly before arrived in Salzburg to give concerts. On 28 April, Leopold writes: Today your brother’s opera Figaro will be staged for the first time. It will be remarkable if it succeeds, for I know that extraordinary cabals have been mounted against him. Salieri with his followers have set heaven and earth in motion yet again to defeat him. …. At the first performance, which Mozart led from the fortepiano, the public was divided in its reactions, probably because the piece did not yet ‘sit’ well with the singers and also because many in the audience had first to come to terms with its novelty. Yet we have Leopold Mozart’s quotations from his son’s letters which show that at the second performance five numbers were repeated, at the third seven, the little duet Aprite presto between Susanna and Cherubino being given three times. The day after this third performance, Emperor Joseph ordered Count Orsini–Rosenberg to limit the encores, and to this effect an announcement was issued on 12 May, saying that no pieces for more than one voice could be repeated.


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Simon Bolivar (1783–1830) by Juan Lovera (1776–1841) Atwater Kent Museum of Philadelphia, Courtesy of Historical Society of Pennsylvania Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library

Aged just 15 and familiar with the works of Voltaire and Rousseau, Bolivar set sail from Venezuela for Spain to continue his education. In an exchange with his mentor Humboldt, a naturalist recently returned from a five-year survey of South America, Bolivar remembered remarking: "In truth, what a brilliant fate – that of the New World, if only its people were freed of their yoke". To which Humboldt replied "I believe the country is ready for its independence. But I cannot see the man who is to achieve it". After a brief spell attached to the retinue of Bonaparte, Bolivar returned to Venezuela. As Bonaparte invaded Spain, so Bolivar began his liberation of South America. Like so many great military leaders he was to prove better at war than peace.


The Barber of Seville

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from Nevill Holt Young Artists

has been generously supported by


Melodramma buffa in two acts Gioacchino Rossini (1792 – 1868) to a libretto by Sterbini after Beaumarchais English version by David Parry First performance Teatro Argentino, Rome, 20 February, 1816 First performance in England, King's Theatre, Haymarket, 1818 Performances at Nevill Holt July 13, 15, 16, 2006 before touring around England supported by the Arts Council

the barber of

Richard Balcombe Conductor

Ptolemy Christie Director

George Souglides Emma Ryott ASSOCIATE DesignerS

Jon Clark Lighting Designer

rosina ward of Doctor Bartolo count almaviva figaro barber & jack–of–all–trades doctor bartolo don basilio music teacher berta housekeeper fiorello Almaviva's servant

Serena Kay Nicholas Sharratt James McOran–Campbell Freddie Tong Lucasz Jakobczyk Susan Jiwey Andrew Conley

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seville


Synopsis The Barber of Seville

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Three years before The Marriage of Figaro Doctor Bartolo is determined to marry his ward, Rosina. She has noticed that she has an admirer but she does not know that he is Count Almaviva. Figaro, a jack–of–all–trades, helps the Count win Rosina.

A View of Seville during a storm Spanish School (16th century) Museo de America, Madrid / The Bridgeman Art Library previous page: Exterior of the Casa de la Conchas, Salamanca


ACT 1 Outside Dr Bartolo’s House Count Almaviva's servant, Fiorello, has hired a band of musicians to serenade a lovely girl. There is no response. Figaro enters in high spirits at the prospect of another day as Factotum of Seville and Almaviva explains to him that he wishes to court a girl in cognito whom he believes to be the daughter of a Doctor. Figaro points out that she is his ward, not daughter, and that, since he works in the household, access should be easy. The lovely girl is called Rosina. She has noticed her admirer and throws him a letter asking that he reveal himself and his intentions – but he must wait for her ‘gaoler’, Bartolo, to leave the house. As Bartolo leaves we learn that he himself intends to marry Rosina at the first opportunity. Prompted by Figaro, the Count again serenades Rosina giving his name as Lindoro, an impoverished student with honourable intentions.

Inside Dr Bartolo’s house Rosina already loves her Lindoro and writes him a letter. She is debating how to send it when Figaro appears and, shortly after, Bartolo. Figaro hides. Next on the scene is Basilio, a music teacher and renowned gossip, who has heard that Rosina’s admirer is none other than Count Almaviva. He advises Bartolo to slander Almaviva and so run him out of town. Bartolo insists that a marriage contract be drawn up immediately for himself and Rosina. Figaro warns Rosina of Bartolo’s plan to marry and suggests she write to Lindoro. No sooner said than done and Figaro sets off to deliver it. Bartolo wants to know what has been going on: why is a sheet of paper missing and why is there ink on Rosina's fingers? Distraught though determined, her evasiveness sends Bartolo into a frenzy. Almaviva, disguised as a soldier demanding to take up his billet, is at the front door. As Bartolo searches for his exemption papers, Almaviva reveals himself to Rosina as Lindoro and manages to slip her a letter. Berta, Basilio,

INTERVAL ACT 2 Inside Dr Bartolo’s House Bartolo decides that the billetted soldier must have been sent by the Count. Next the Count enters disguised as Alonso, claiming he has been sent by Basilio. To put Bartolo off the scent, he gives Bartolo Rosina’s letter to Lindoro, suggesting it be used as proof that Rosina is being hoodwinked. Mollified, Bartolo fetches Rosina for her lesson. She recognises Alonso as Lindoro and sings a coded love message. Bartolo bemoans the disgraceful decline of musical standards. Figaro arrives to shave Bartolo and manages to steal the balcony door key. Then Basilio himself appears, and Almaviva bribes him to play along. Figaro shaves Bartolo and Alonso tells Rosina that they will elope tonight at midnight. Bartolo overhears and, realizing that Alonso is a fraud, chases them out. Berta complains of the racket. Basilio hasn't a clue to the identity of Alonso and Bartolo realises he must act swiftly. He asks Basilio to fetch a notary to finalise the marriage. Bartolo shows Rosina the Alonso / Lindoro letter which suggests she is being lured into the evil clutches of the philandering Almaviva. Believing Bartolo’s story, she tells him that Lindoro is going to fetch her at midnight and agrees to marry Bartolo. As he goes to fetch the police a ferocious storm breaks out. When Almaviva and Figaro climb into the house, Rosina confronts them. When Almaviva reveals who he really is there is a crucial delay to their departure as people approach. The ladder for their escape has been removed and they hide. Basilio and a notary let themselves in. Figaro takes advantage of the situation and asks him to marry Count Almaviva to his "niece". Bartolo arrives home to find he is too late. True love has triumphed over all obstacles.

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Figaro advises Almaviva to disguise himself as a soldier billeted to the Bartolo household. They will meet later.

then Figaro, then the military police add to the melée.The officer–in–charge is about to arrest the Count when he reveals his true identity. One and all are dumbstruck.


Pícaro! Son qua. Ehi, Pícaro! Son qua. Pícaro qua,

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A man of many talents, Beaumarchais, is remembered chiefly for his trilogy of plays about Count Almaviva, Rosina and Figaro: The Barber of Seville, The Marriage of Figaro, and The Guilty Mother; and also, perhaps, for his remark that there is no play not improved by being set to music. Michael Fontes asks us to consider whether fixer Figaro has his roots in the commedia dell'arte Pícaro. Confucius says: the man who stands on a hill with his mouth open will have to wait a long time before a roast duck flies in. Grasping opportunity by the forelock was a rule of life for Pierre–Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (1732–1799), the greatest French dramatist of the 18th century. His father, a Parisian clockmaker, threw him out of the house because he was troublesome, like so many gifted boys. He must have picked up much of his father’s skill, however, for he owed his introduction to the court to the invention of a watch escapement (the part that makes the mechanism unwind slowly). The ‘double virgule’ escapement is now extremely rare and no watches by Beaumarchais are known still to exist, but his victory in a dispute with the famous clockmaker Jean– André Lepaute over the invention led to his becoming clockmaker to Louis XV. Socially adroit, good–looking and witty, he soon charmed some of the ladies of the court and made a brilliant marriage. He became tutor in the harp to the King’s daughters – he even devised technical improvements in the harp’s pedals. He was used by the government as a secret agent in both England and Germany, and was involved in running arms to the American colonists. He undertook various publishing ventures – he brought out the first complete edition of Voltaire, for instance, and helped establish some sort of law of copyright in France. The theatre was his first love and he is remembered chiefly for his trilogy of plays about Almaviva, Rosina and Figaro: The Barber of Seville, The Marriage of Figaro and The Guilty Mother; and also, perhaps, for his remark that there is no play not improved by being set to music. The two major operas based on his plays, Rossini’s Barber and Mozart’s Figaro, both reflect Beaumarchais’ main contribution to 18th–century theatre: the drama of intrigue in which various plots interweave and collide with magical comic effect. The characters lack the moral weight we find in Molière, the master of French 17th century comedy and Beaumarchais’ major inspiration – The Barber of Seville has virtually the same plot as Molière’s L’Ecole des Femmes. Beaumarchais was finding fault with the ancien régime; Molière was aiming at mankind itself. Molière derived many of his plot lines from the North

Italian commedia dell’arte, with which he had become familiar during his thirteen years of wandering in the provinces. This was a comedy of stock characters and situations based on masked characters who became household names: Pantaloon, Harlequin, Punchinello, Columbine. The typical story revolved round an old man (Pantaloon – big trousers) with a pretty young wife or ward. The question was how the young people could prise the pretty girl away from the old dupe. The Italians lent enormous verve to this apparently dry formula: the actors improvised within a pre–arranged scenario and individuals became famous for the speed and spirit of their repartee and comic invention. One actor, who often played the Doctor, was famous for his ability to turn a complete somersault while holding a glass of wine, not spilling a drop – a skill which he retained into his 83rd year. The audience would travel for many leagues and keenly await his finding an appropriate moment to perform the trick. Most companies had a repertoire of standard jokes or replies into which they could slip when inspiration failed: And so you’ll come? Yes. You’ll not forget? No. You’ll not forget? Yes. YES? No, no, no, I’ll not forget. Da Ponte’s joke, incidentally, not Beaumarchais’. Rascally servants were de rigueur, an inspiration dating back to Plautus and classical Greek drama. The bragging Captain, often Spanish, with a feather in his hat and a sword in his belt, telling extraordinary tales about vanquishing a whole army of Turks yet always running away at the first hint of real danger, is the spiritual father of Falstaff – remember those ‘rogues in buckram’? He usually makes a pass at the none–too–innocent servant maid, and gets beaten up by her lover, Harlequin. He is derived from the Miles Gloriosus of Plautus, and was known to Italians as Il Capitano Spavento della Valle Inferno. Over time in different countries he came to be called Scaramouche, Le Capitaine Fracasse or Ralph Roister Doister.


Pícaro la, Pícaro su, Pícaro giu by Michael Fontes

The impertinent servant, the model for Figaro, is commonplace in Molière. Some critics have tried to derive Figaro from the Spanish pícaro (accent on the first syllable, like Figaro), the insolent menial who dominates the novels of low life popular in Spain in the 16th century, from whom we get the word ‘picaresque’. Manuscripts of Spanish plays by people like Tirso di Molina were found in Molière’s papers at his death. He did write an important play on a Spanish theme, Dom Juan. Don Quixote is a mine of comic invention and, as we might expect, we can find textual evidence that Molière drew on Cervantes’ book, both parts of which had been translated into French by Oudin and Rousset by 1618:

Madame Jourdain, the similarly down–to–earth wife of a ridiculous social climber, Molière’s Bourgeois Gentilhomme, explains in blunt terms what she fears the neighbours will say if they force their daughter to marry a marquis: ‘See that high and mighty lady with her snooty airs? That’s Mister Jourdain’s daughter, you know. She was glad enough, as a little girl, to play at being the lady

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In Chapter 5 of the second part of Don Quixote, Teresa Panza, Sancho’s wife, ridicules his plans to become Governor of an Island and to marry their daughter to a Countess: I will give them no cause to cry (when they see me go like a countess, or a governor’s madam), ‘Look, look how Madam Hog–wash struts along! It was but the other day she would tug ye a distaff, capped with hemp, from morning till night, and would go to mass with her coat over her head for want of a hood; yet now, look, how she goes in her farthingale, and her rich trimmings and fallals, no less than a whole tradesman’s shop about her mangy back, as if everybody did not know her.’ No, husband, you may go, and be a governor, or an islander, and look as big as bull–beef if you will; but by my grandmother’s daughter, neither I nor my girl will budge a foot from our thatched house. Motteux’s translation 1712

Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais by Jean-Marc Nattier (1685–1766) Comédie Francaise, Paris / The Bridgeman Art Library

among us. She’s not always been as stuck up as you see her now: both her grandfathers sold cloth in the market by St Innocent’s Gate. They scraped together money for their children, and they’re paying for it dear, no doubt, in the next world. You don’t get rich like that by honest means, do you?’ I don’t want people saying things like that; I want a son–in–law who’ll take my daughter for what she is, and to whom I can simply say, ‘Sit down and have dinner with us, lad’ Fontes’ translation 2005


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The setting of both the Barber and Figaro in Spain, and also, perhaps, the Figaro/pícaro assonance, have inclined people to identify Figaro with the Spanish pícaro. Seville has certainly become the place to set an opera – Barber, Figaro, Don Giovanni, Carmen, Fidelio and Forza del Destino are all located there. But Figaro (the character) is very different from the tough, unprincipled, petty criminal of the Spanish novels, like Lazarillo de Tormes, or Pablos, the hero of El Buscón by Quevedo, to mention two of the most famous pícaros in 16th century literature. Nobody has done anything to help a pícaro; he has nothing to repay but unkindness. He is not one to wait for a roast duck to fly in; he goes out and pilfers one from his neighbour. His attraction to readers lay in his resourcefulness in the face of real hardship, and in the contrast between the realism with which he is presented and the hooey of the inflated fantasies about knights and fine ladies then in vogue, at which Cervantes was having a tilt in Don Quixote. Some people, perhaps because of the episodic nature of Cervantes’ masterpiece, have wrongly come to regard Sancho Panza as a pícaro, and this may have softened general appreciation of the type: Sancho is far too amiable, amusing and vulnerable to be a pícaro. The one pícaro whom Don Quixote meets on his travels is the terrifying galley–slave Ginés de Passamonte whom Quixote frees from his chains in Chapter 22 of Part 1, and who repays this kindness by pelting the Don viciously with rocks, stripping him and Sancho, and stealing their clothes and Pancho’s donkey, Dapple; this last detail is omitted in the text, ‘because of a printer’s oversight’, as we learn in Part Two. Even Ginés loses his bite in Part 2 when he reappears as a puppeteer: recognizing madness when he sees it, he doesn’t dare reproach Quixote for mistaking his show for reality, bursting in and smashing the puppets. Figaro is much closer to the impertinent servants in Plautus, via Brighella, the commedia dell’arte’s roguish and sophisticated servant, from whom Molière had developed Scapin. Beaumarchais has politicized this figure for his own purposes. He wanted to attack the whole system of privilege, injustice and censorship under the ancien régime, not just through the plot line – the

count’s claim of the droit de cuissage over Figaro in Susanna’s bed – but in the famous second tirade, toned down by da Ponte in ‘Se Vuol Ballare’: ‘Because you are a Lord, you think yourself a genius!... Nobility, fortune, rank, places; are these the things to be proud of? What have you done to deserve them? You went to the trouble of being born, that’s all. While I, for God’s sake, I, sunk in an ocean of nobodies, have had to be at great pains and to deploy real ingenuity merely to stay alive’. Beaumarchais needed Figaro to be a jack–of–all–trades, a factotum, because that meant he could show how the injustices of the system impinged on various occupations. He could thus talk about such things as his problems with censorship: Figaro has been a writer and can say, ‘Provided that, in my writings, I speak neither of the authorities, nor of religion, nor of politics, nor of morals, nor of the people in power, nor of the banking system, nor of the Opera, nor of other entertainments, nor of anyone who believes in anything, I am free to print whatsoever I choose, as long as I submit my work to inspection by two or three censors’. Danton maintained that Figaro had ‘put paid to the aristocracy’. Napoleon is said to have described The Marriage of Figaro as ‘the revolution already in action’. Louis XVI said that they would have to pull down the Bastille if they wished to reduce the play to ‘a dangerous irrelevance’. The fact that Beaumarchais managed to get away with so much criticism of the system weakens, in itself, his attack on censorship under the ancien régime. So for me Figaro is no pícaro. He is Plautus’ cheeky servant; he is Brighella; he is Scapin, politicized, given teeth, not just petulant and grumbling but with a new sense of bitter social injustice, which mattered little to Rossini, perhaps not much even to Mozart, but was of first importance to his creator, Beaumarchais. There is further editorial on Rossini's Barber within the section on Le Nozze di Figaro


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Autumn, or The Grape Harvest 1786 by Goya (1746–1828) Prado, Madrid / Giraudon / The Bridgeman Art Library


Tha誰s

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has been generously supported by

Johnny, Marie & Anne Veeder and

Hamish, Sophie, Ismay, Ottilie & Cecilia Forsyth with thanks for many memorable evenings and the promise of many more


Comédie Lyrique in three acts Jules Massenet (1756 – 1791) to a libretto by Louis Gallet after the novel by Anatole France Sung in Italian with surtitles by Andrew Huth First performance L'Opéra, Paris, March 16, 1894 Performances at The Grange June 2, 4, 10, 16, 24, 27, 30, 2006

thais Conductor

David Fielding Director / designer

Dan O'Neill movement

Wolfgang Goebbel Lighting Designer

Béatrice Lupton language coach

athanaël a monk palemon a monk

Ashley Holland Vuyani Mlinde

thaïs an actress and courtesan

Anne–Sophie Duprels

nicias a philosopher and friend of Athanaël nicias' servant crobyle servant myrtale servant albine abbess monks

Jeffrey Lloyd–Roberts David Borloz Elizabeth Bailey Flora McIntosh Harriet Williams John-Colyn Gyeantey Matthew Waldren Ian Wilson-Pope

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Martin André


Thaïs' childhood To begin at the beginning we look to Anatole France's novel upon which Massenet based the opera. Thaïs' early years were spent in the company of drunkards, sailors and the family slave, a Nubian called Ahmes.

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Thaïs was the child of poor though free parents who were idolaters. From her youngest days her father kept an inn much frequented by sailors at Alexandria near the gate of the Moon. A few vivid detached souvenirs of her infancy remained in her mind. She could recall her father as he sat with his legs crossed in the angle of the hearth, a big quiet man, but one to be feared, like one of those old Pharaohs whose memory the chants of complaint, uttered by the blind at the crossways, preserve. She could recall, too, her thin and sorrowful mother, wandering about the house like a famished cat, and filling it with the sounds of her piercing voice, and the light of her phosphorescent eyes. It was said that she was a magician, and changed into an owl at night to meet her lovers. Rumour lied: Thaïs knew well from frequent observation that her mother had not dealings with the magic arts, but as she was devoured with avarice, she spent the night counting the day’s profit. Her inert father and avaricious mother allowed her to shape her life like the animals in the yard. Portrait of a woman wearing gold pectoral, tomb decoration Roman Period Egyptian (c.30 BC – AD 337) Louvre, Paris / The Bridgeman Art Library

Thus she became very skilful in stealing obols one by one from the girdles of drunken sailors and amusing them by naïve songs, and infamous words of whose meaning she


Each night she was wakened by the scuffles of the drinkers. Oyster–shells hurled across the tables in the midst of furious uproar wounded their faces. Sometimes by the light of smoky lamps she saw knives gleam and blood flow. In her early years, the only form of human goodness known to her was in the person of Ahmes, in whom she was humiliated. Ahmes, the slave of the house, was a Nubian blacker than the pots he gravely scoured and as good as a night of sleep. He often took Thaïs upon his knees and told her stories in which there were caverns full of treasure, built for avaricious kings, who put to death the masons and architects. There were too, in these stories, clever thieves, who married King’s daughters,

and courtesans who built pyramids. Little Thaïs loved Ahmes as a father, as a mother, as a nurse, and as a dog. She clung to the slave and followed him to the cellar among the wine jars, and to the yard among the poor ragged hens who fluttered, quicker than eaglets, before the negro’s knife. Often at nights upon the straw he made water–mills and ships large as a hand with all their equipment for Thaïs, instead of sleeping. From his master’s continual ill–treatment he had an ear torn off, and his body was covered with scars. His face, however, still wore a peaceful and joyful expression. No one about him thought of asking him whence he drew his soul’s consolation and his heart’s pacification. He was as simple as a child. When doing his daily work he chanted canticles which made the child tremble and dream. Ahmes was a Christian. He had been baptised, and was called Theodore at the feasts of the faithful, which he attended secretly during the time allowed him for sleep. When Thaïs was seven years old, Ahmes began to speak to her of God …

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was ignorant. She passed from knee to knee in the tavern impregnated with the smell of fermented drinks; then, with her face sticky with beer, and covered with scratches from the sailors’ rough beards, she escaped clasping the obols in her little hands, and ran to buy honeycomb from an old woman in the gate of the Moon. Every day the scenes were the same: sailors recounted their dangers in times of storms, then played dice or huckle–bones, and called with oaths for the best Cilician beer.


Synopsis Thaïs In a desert retreat Palemon and other monks, preparing their evening meal, are relieved when one of their number, Athanaël, returns from Alexandria. Since joining the brotherhood and dedicating his life to the Lord, he has not visited the city of his childhood for some time and is full of indignation about its depravities. He is particularly censorious about the scandalous performer and prostitute Thaïs who even haunts him in lascivious dreams. That night he wakes believing he is chosen to save her from her degrading life. The monks try to persuade him to sever his ties with the past, but he is resolute and sets off for Alexandria once more.

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He learns that the rich and sybaritic playboy Nicias, his former friend, has procured the services of Thaïs

at a weekly rate. There is but one day left of this week of pleasure and Nicias proposes to throw a celebratory party in her honour. Nicias, who finds Athanaël’s plans for Thaïs quite absurd, invites him, out of curiosity, to join them. The crowd are enthralled when Thaïs publicly humiliates Athanaël, pouring scorn upon his attempts to win her. She mockingly invites him to pay her a visit later, to continue with his “conversion”. Alone Thaïs studies herself in the mirror. She acknowledges she does not know the meaning of true happiness. Even her beauty will fade and what will be left? Athanaël at first amuses her. She tries seduction but he exhibits a fanatical violence that terrifies her. He declares he will not leave without her and, as the night’s vigil passes, Thaïs sleeplessly struggles with her destiny.


By dawn Thaïs has chosen and begs the monk for guidance. His demands are extreme. She must forgo her old life, burn all her worldly goods, and enter a convent. Nicias and his friends are horrified, but still fail to forestall her departure. To everyone’s astonishment her conversion is accomplished.

Some weeks later his fellow monks have become concerned for his well–being. He does not eat and locks himself away; he confesses impure fantasies about Thaïs to Palemon. His thoughts keep returning to a seductive vision during his sleep. But then, in a new cruel twist of fate, he sees a vision of Thaïs sanctified, purified by remorse and prayer, but at the point of death.

INTERVAL Athanaël has deceived himself. Even as they travel to the nunnery, he begins to doubt his own motives. He takes pleasure in her mortification and rejoices in dominating her. A terrible emptiness overcomes him as he leaves her at the convent.

On waking, he hurries to the convent where Sister Albine waits to welcome him. Thaïs is indeed dying. She rapturously remembers their desert journey but does not hear him confess his love for her. Thaïs dies in peace exclaiming: “I see God”. Athanaël is left in torment.

Thebaid by Fra Angelico (c. 1387–1455) Uffizi, Florence / The Bridgeman Art Library

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Thaïs: an introduction by Hugh Macdonald At a time when his country was in the grip of a vigorous Catholic revival, Anatole France’s novel Thaïs was a bitter attack on sanctimonious piety and on clericalism in general. Massenet's attraction to the novel was probably a combination of the ageless theatrical appeal of ritual and the tension between worldly pleasure and a spiritual outlook.

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It is often assumed that because Massenet, like Gounod, was fond of religious scenes and religious themes in his operas, he was himself a pious Christian. Of Gounod that would be true, but Massenet had a much more detached view of the matter and was drawn to such topics by the ageless theatrical appeal of ritual and by the psychological conflicts that spiritual devotion can bring about. Of all his twenty–five operas Thaïs thrusts this conflict most obviously into the forefront, since at its most basic level it depicts the tension between worldly pleasure and self–denying asceticism. Anatole France’s novel Thaïs, on which the opera is based, was a runaway success when it appeared in 1890, partly because France (the country, not he) was in the grip of a vigorous Catholic revival and partly because in its principal character, Paphnuce, France (he, not the country) was making a bitter attack on sanctimonious piety and on clericalism in general.

bottom right and next page: Ottoman characters 1789 French School School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London / The Bridgeman Art Library

Massenet, as was his wont, kept the controversy at arm’s length and could not be accused of taking sides with the author. From his point of view the opera offered the kind of scenes at which he excelled and a degree of emotional tension which, as the composer of Manon and Werther, he knew he could intensify to marvellous effect. Thaïs had a mixed reception at the Paris Opéra in 1894, but after Massenet had revised it in 1898 it went on to worldwide success in the years leading up to World War I and has enjoyed continuous and growing success in our own time. The role of Thaïs, originally written for the American soprano Sybil Sanderson, has drawn many great artists, including Mary Garden, Geraldine Farrar, Maria Jeritza, Leontyne Price, Beverley Sills and Renée Fleming. The Méditation, which serves as an interlude in Act II, is known to millions, whether they have ever heard of the opera Thaïs or not.


As it was first performed in 1893, Thaïs thus contained two lengthy balletic episodes (removed from its final version) as well as the Méditation serving as an orchestral interlude in Act II. The final 1898 version has a different set of ballets at the end of Act II, often omitted in modern performances which may reasonably claim to emulate the more modest aspirations of Massenet’s original plan. Massenet’s autobiography credits his publisher Henri Heugel and his librettist Louis Gallet for bringing France’s novel to his attention. Other sources claim that it was his wife who first had the idea. In any case Gallet and Massenet came to the task with an original approach which may owe something to Charpentier, composer of Louise and a former student and close friend of Massenet. Both Louise and Thaïs break with the convention of setting a libretto written in verse. The purpose of prose in Louise was to create a Zola–like naturalism, but for Thaïs

Gallet wrote what he called ‘poésie mélique’ – ‘music–like poetry’, actually prose, in which assonance, alliteration and evocative vocabulary could replace rhyme and metre, elements now made superflous by the flexibility of modern music after Wagner. These two French operas would soon be joined by another famous prose opera: Pelléas et Mélisande. A widely circulated story about Thaïs was that Gallet changed the name of Paphnuce for the leading male role to Athanaël because nothing would rhyme with Paphnuce other than puce and prépuce, a story that has to be untrue since there are no rhymes in Thaïs at all. The opera is concerned with the contrary pulls of hedonism and asceticism: Eros versus the Holy Ghost, or sensuality versus Christian virtue. This is of course a gross simplification since Thaïs herself shows that these need not be mutually exclusive and that a devotion to one may not preclude a commitment to the other. It is also a tragic tale of bad timing, like Eugene Onegin: when she would have him, he refuses, and vice versa. The dichotomy of pleasure and piety was given particular sharpness by Anatole France’s choice of subject, for Thaïs was an early Christian saint whose encounter with the asceticism of coptic Egypt in the 4th century AD and the sensuality of post–Hellenic Alexandria brought a brilliantly exotic flavour both to the novel and to the opera. The story of Thaïs was first told by Hrosvitha, a 10th century German nun, in whose chronicle Thaïs is seen as a repentant courtesan coming to Christ after a life of sin. Her story was taken up in a 13th century Italian collection which was translated into French

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Massenet’s masterpiece, Werther, based on Goethe’s novel, received its première not in Paris but in Vienna, where Massenet spent the early months of 1892; while there he also produced a ballet, Le Carillon. These successes compensated for the failure the year before of Le Mage, an Aida–like grand opera that has never been revived, and on his return to Paris he settled down to the composition of Thaïs with his usual dispatch, rising early each morning and working assiduously until noon. For Sybil Sanderson he had already written the spectacular Esclarmonde in 1889; she was now singing Manon at the Opéra–Comique, and it was for her and for that theatre that Thaïs was originally intended. When the Opéra brought off the coup of signing her on a contract the Opéra–Comique could not match, Massenet had to rethink his new opera for the larger stage and more grandiose expectations of the Opéra.


Street vendor

Market official

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in 1845. France read widely in search of background for his novel, one important aspect of which – missing in the opera – is a lengthy discussion between a group of philosophers at Nicias’ table. For Massenet the unusual setting was a challenge to which he responded vigorously, always alert to the possibilities of evoking distant times and remote places. This was one of his greatest skills. The first Thebaid (the opening scene) marvellously depicts the arid Egyptian desert and the Cenobites’ paltry diet of bread and salt. The music has a bareness and desolation that throws Athanaël’s first entrance into relief, since his musical motive is dissonant and expressive, full of pain, which the others are immediately aware of. His determination to rescue Thaïs from her iniquity is prompted by a vision of her ‘half–naked, seen from behind’ being wildly applauded in the theatre. This takes him to Alexandria for the second scene, where party–goers and philosophers are enjoying the hospitality of Nicias, an old friend. For Athanaël has a dissolute past which included an early unfulfilled encounter with Thaïs and conversion to the path of spirituality. The carnality of this scene is equally well depicted in music of a noisy secular kind, echoes of which are still Kettle drummer

The Turner

Imam calling to prayer

Soup maker

to be heard at the opening of Act II as Thaïs reflects on seeing Athanaël again and on the emptiness of her soul. Her great solo ‘Dis–moi que je suis belle’, addressed to a mirror, reveals her fatal weakness in never wanting to grow old or to lose her beauty. Athanaël thus touches on a sensitive spot in promising eternal life. Having scoffed at his elevated notion of love, so different from her own, she immediately wants to know how eternal life might be attained, and with some brutality he derides her way of life. If her closing words in this scene are a defiant affirmation of her independence of spirit, the Méditation that follows tells a different story. This famous violin solo, so elegantly melodious and so perfectly constructed, depicts not the agony of Thaïs’s soul nor the violent conflict between two states of mind, but a vision of perfect serenity to which her eyes are opened. It is an image of bliss drawing her towards final redemption and spiritual peace. For Thaïs, the music tells us, there is no turning back. We are immediately brought back to the real world by exotic music played by oboe, cor anglais, piano, crotales and an Arabian drum. Perhaps Massenet had heard the Egyptian musicians at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1878 – or at the next one in 1889 (when Debussy The Ambassadors’ Janissary

Daugher of Sultans


Sweep

Water bearer

Trumpeter of the Janissary's band

Janissary officer

Athanaël’s wretched fate no longer concerns us, for the music is now entirely focussed on Thaïs whose apotheosis is embodied in the Méditation and in a sublime closing phrase that takes her twice up to high D and all the way down to low B, a tribute to Sybil Sanderson’s remarkable vocal range. Thaïs’s death is not the miserable expiry of a mortally sick Violetta or Mimi; she is not even driven to it by Athanaël’s uncontrollable desires. Though weakened physically beyond recovery, she is spiritually transformed and sees heaven opening up to embrace her. Massenet by no means envisaged Thaïs as the sexy vamp she has often been presented as, for the depths of her character and the early part of her life (which only the novel gives us) reveal complex feelings and instincts wherein both sensual and spiritual passions play a part. She has strengths and weaknesses and a sense of tragedy ill–concealed in her early faith in her own independence. Massenet’s music similarly displays a depth and subtlety in its handling of moods and motives, and, as always, a masterly control of dramatic pace. Behind the beautiful melodies and exotic evocations a master’s hand is at work.

Musician

Scribe to the Janissary

Coffee seller

Prisoner in chains

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heard Javanese music) – but he was not concerned with ethnographical accuracy in recreating the music of 4th century Egypt, and he really didn’t need any help of that kind. As Gérard Condé has observed in his study of Thaïs, ‘Nothing sounds so false in the theatre as authenticity.’ The opening scene of Act III, ‘The Oasis’, was added by Massenet for the 1898 revision. It shows the weary, starving journey of Thaïs and Athanaël across the desert, full of memories of the similar scene for Mary and Joseph in the desert in Berlioz’s L’Enfance du Christ, which Massenet never forgot after hearing Berlioz conduct it in 1855. It helps to explain why Thaïs is brought to the point of death by the rigours of her new life, and it marks the moment when the contrary spiritual paths of the two protagonists briefly cross. But he is now on the way down while Thaïs is drawn ever upward. In the second Thebaid, which follows, Athanaël’s passion for Thaïs, which is now no longer spiritual but all too carnal, brings him face to face with his fellow Cenobites who can only reflect that he should never have ventured out into the world. A second vision of Thaïs, who seems to be mocking his pretended spirituality, makes him rush out into the night to find her. The brief but brilliant orchestral interlude shows him running to her side and dissolves into a reminiscence of the Méditation.


Memories of Thaïs by Mary Garden

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Born in 1874 in Aberdeen, Mary Garden went to the United States when she was seven and began voice lessons. She travelled to Paris to continue her training and made her public début there in 1900 in Charpentier's Louise. She was acclaimed not only for her brilliant and highly individual singing but also for her dramatic ability. From l’Envers du décor [‘Behind the Scenes’], Edition de Paris, 1952. Translated by Jennifer Batchelor I sang Thaïs for the first time in Aix. Massenet had written the opera for my great friend Sibyl Sanderson, who created the rôle in 1896. Sibyl owned a magnificent property near Aix, and came to one of my performances. ‘Mary’, she declared, ‘Thaïs must wear a string of pearls.’ She took off her necklace and placed it around my neck. Decked in this finery, I presented myself before the manager, who immediately became extremely nervous. ‘Can you imagine what this necklace is worth? If anything happens, I’ll be to blame.’ He stayed at my side all evening, and only relaxed once Sibyl’s pearls had been returned to her after the performance. King George I of Greece came to my dressing room to offer his congratulations and predict a great success. It was this royal support that made me decide some years later to make my New York début in Thaïs. New York and my Thaïs début. Company and conductor were excellent. Everything was ready. Then I caught a cold. The climate in New York is so much harsher than in Paris. The première had to be delayed. It finally took place on 25 November, 1908. For years, the Metropolitan Opera, America’s leading lyric theatre, had performed Verdi, Meyerbeer and Wagner, but never modern French opera. The public did not understand Massenet’s music and the reviews were terrible. Réginald de Koven of the New York World was alone in noting that ‘something new’ happened to opera in the United States that night. But apart from his positive report, what a disaster! One critic declared that my top notes sounded like ‘Irish snakes’. I asked my father: ‘Papa, what sort of snakes do they have in Ireland?’ ‘There have never been any snakes in Ireland, my dear.’ No doubt the critic was implying that I had

no top notes in my vocal register. In France, I was thought of as a singer: in America, a ‘singing actress’. That’s what they called me, and I loved it. After the second performance of Thaïs, the general manager of the Metropolitan came to my dressing room, and announced with a tragic air, ‘Mary, there’s no more money, not even enough to pay the gas bill.’ This was the moment to show my metal. I resolved to defend this great opera myself. In every interview I gave, I spoke of nothing but Thaïs. I had Ben Ali Haggin paint me as Thaïs, and the portrait was placed in the shop window at Knoedler’s. Buses stopped in front of it. Except for a dreadful snowstorm, I know of nothing that could halt the New York bus service. Success finally crowned our efforts, and every time there was a drop in box office sales on another show, it was taken off and replaced by Thaïs. The critics put this success down to my costume. The dress was made of the palest pink crêpe de Chine. From a distance, I looked naked and everyone held their breath when I threw off my coat. One day in New York in 1916, I received a visit from Samuel Goldwyn. He said, ‘You are a famous singer. I want to make a film of Thaïs with you in the leading rôle.’ My first reaction was surprise. I couldn’t for the life of me see the point of having a singer in a silent film. The idea seemed absurd, but Goldwyn gave me no time to think. ‘Ten weeks work. 125,000 dollars.’ ‘Mr Goldwyn’, I said, ‘you have convinced me. When do we leave for Egypt?’ ‘Egypt? We’ll shoot the desert scenes in Florida, the rest in Jersey City.’


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‘Has the director ever been to Egypt?’ ‘Don’t worry about that. If he hasn’t been there, we’ll show him some postcards.’ I left for New Jersey. Shooting began. It was obvious from the first scene that the director neither knew nor wanted to know anything about Egypt. The real Thaïs would have pulled a wry face to see what a caricature he turned her into. One scene took place on an avenue lined with thirteen poles, with a parrot perched on top of each one. ‘Walk forward in a regal manner,’ the director told me, ‘and as you do so, scratch the parrots on the head.’ ‘Are you serious?’ ‘I’m telling you, scratch their heads!’ ‘All of them?’ ‘All of them!’ So I did. For 125,000 dollars, I would gladly have scratched the head of every parrot in the world.

I returned to New York. People, especially women, recognised me just about everywhere I went. I owe a great deal to American women. It was they who first understood modern French opera. Men live for their work: only women take an interest in the arts. One evening, when Thaïs was playing at the Paris Opéra, my sister was seated in the Stalls. Beside her were an American couple, conversing loudly. ‘I didn’t want to come, as well you know,’ said the husband to his wife. ‘I wanted to go to the Folies–Bergères.’ ‘Well, this evening, you are at the Opéra, my dear,’ she replied sweetly. He went on complaining. But he showed a sudden interest when I appeared in front of the monk, stripped of my dress. ‘Gee! This is terrific. Quick, pass me the opera glasses!’ According to my sister, he didn’t let go of the glasses for the rest of the evening. That’s the American male for you!


The Temptation of St Anthony at the Opera by Tezier Massenet was extremely popular and when Thaïs opened, it did so with a runaway success. The opera lays itself open to frivolous readings of which Tézier's is one. Its contemporary connotations are explained in square brackets. Translated by Jennifer Batchelor Le premier acte nous représente un bouillon Duval en Thébaïde. Anthoine–Athanaël projette un long voyage; il trouve

The first act takes place at a meal in a

que ça manque décidément de femmes au désert.

monastic retreat.

[An American guide–book of the period ‘European Travel for Women’ talks about the difficulties for women taking meals out in Paris if not accompanied by a man and recommends the Bouillon Duval where ‘you are waited upon by young women; although the company is not

Anthoine–Athanaël makes plans for a long

journey; he has found a distinct shortage of

Un rêve folichon qu’il fait le décide à partir.

He has an exciting dream and decides to leave.

women in the desert.

exciting, it is respectable']

Reçu enfin par Nicias en gogüette, il clame: – Cachez ça!... Je hais la chair! Il arrive chez Nicias, un Labadens avec qui il a fait ses études. Le domestique,

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se méprenant, lui crie: – La mendacité est interdite!

He arrives at the home of Nicias, a

former fellow–student. The servant, not realising who he is, shouts at him: ‘No begging allowed here!’

Tu est donc végétarien comme Sarcey?

He is finally received by Nicias, who has been out bingeing. ‘Hide them! I can’t stand flesh!’, he exclaims. ‘So you’re a vegetarian, like Sarcey?’

Son ami lui prête un paletot pour

Apparition de Thaïs, qui lui tape dans

cacher ses loques.

l’oeil.

His friend lends him a robe to cover

He sees Thaïs and takes a fancy

his ragged clothes.

to her.

[Francisque Sarcey (1827–1899) was the most influential French theatre critic of the day, and renowned for his strong opinions]

Non sans avoir jeté, au préalable, des poignées d’or à la foule, qui veut l’empêcher de partir: ce qui prouve

Tu veux me racheter? lui dit Thaïs; les autres n’ont jamais voulu

Au moment de partir, il veut briser une

que m’acheter. Je t’écoute, ça me

statuette de l’Amour; mais, comme elle

changera!

est en caoutchouc, il y renonce.

‘You want to buy me my freedom?’

As they leave, he tries to smash a

wants to buy me. I’m going to listen

it’s made of rubber, he has to

asks Thaïs; ‘everyone else just

to what you have to say and I’m going to change.’

small statue of Eros; but because

qu’il y a eu des chéquards dans tous Et il file avec Thaïs, en posant un lapin à son ami.

He runs off with Thaïs, without

paying his friend for her services…

les temps!

… first throwing a fistful of gold

coins at the crowd trying to stop

him leaving: thus proving that there have always been corrupt people around.

abandon the idea.

[‘Chéquards’ were French members of parliament convicted of corruption over the Panama affair in 1892, two years before the première of Thaïs]

Revenu dans la Thébaïde, il a un rêve Brown–Séquardien.

Once back in the monastic retreat, his dreams are hot stuff.

[Charles Edouard Brown–Séquard (1817–1894), was a leading British–French physiologist and neurologist, best known for his research into hormones and the adrenal gland]

Devenu hystérique à la belle étoile,

Thaïs, vexée de la concurrence,

il ménace de violer tout le corps de

s’enlève au ciel, pendant qu’il meurt

ballet.

d’une attaque d’hystérie foudroyante.

Sleeping out in the open, he

Thaïs, annoyed by the competition,

to ravish the entire corps de ballet.

a violent attack of hysterics.

Et l’on applaudit… Saluez, Massenet!

becomes hysterical and threatens

rises up to Heaven, while he dies of

General applause…

Congratulations, Massenet!


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AKG Images


The Elixir of Love

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is the third production to have been generously supported by

ICAP plc


Comedy in two acts Gaetano Donizetti (1797 – 1848) to a text by Felice Romani English version by Amanda Holden First performance Teatro della Canobbiana, Milan, May 21, 1832 First performance in England, Lyceum Theatre, London, 1836 Performances at The Grange June 17, 21, 22, 25, 26, July 1, 4, 2006

the elixir of Mark Shanahan Conductor

Martin Constantine Director

Lez Brotherston Designer

Tom Roden Movement

Emma Barrington–Binns associate Designer

Jon Clark Lighting Designer

adina nemorino a young man in love with Adina belcore a sergeant dulcamara a travelling salesman giannetta man in tea van young girl young boy

Victoria Joyce Colin Lee Quentin Hayes Eric Roberts Elena Ferrari Nathaniel Gibbs Flora Baring Lyonel Tollemache

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love


Synopsis The Elixir of Love Nemorino loves Adina but she is indifferent to him. A salesman, Dulcamara, arrives in town with a miracle elixir – actually Bordeaux – which will make any man irresistable. Nemorino attributes his sudden popularity to the elixir. However, the rest of the girls have heard that he has inherited a small fortune. Adina grapples with her true feelings.

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ACT 1 Tea break in a small town in the middle of nowhere Giannetta and the others are taking a few moments rest in the midday sun. Adina is reading leisurely but under the constant stare of Nemorino who is overwhelmed by her beauty, her intelligence – she even knows how to read! – and of the impossibility of his ever being able to win her. She finishes her book and is pressured into reading it aloud to the workers. It is the story of how Tristan won the love of the fair Isolde by means of an elixir of love. Sergeant Belcore and his troop arrive in town. He immediately sets his sights on seducing Adina, advising her to surrender to his charms. Her reply is cool but this does little to allay Nemorino’s envy. The others look on in fascination and Giannetta urges them to return to work. Belcore leaves to find lodgings Alone together, Nemorino plucks up the courage to approach Adina. She ignores his entreaties but advises that he make a trip to visit his sick uncle. Adina seems unashamed of her capricious nature; her affections are changeable. Nemorino insists that he is the reverse; he will love her until the day he dies. There is great excitement at the arrival of another outsider: a salesman, Dulcamara. He calms the crowd before getting down to the real purpose of his visit: selling a miracle cure for every trouble. It transforms septuagenarians into strapping fathers, eliminates wrinkles, kills rats and brings the dead to life! Mrs Beeton’s Everyday Cookery & Housekeeping Book London Library / The Bridgeman Art Library

Nemorino wonders if, by any chance, Dulcamara stocks the elixir that Queen Isolde was given. For a moment Dulcamara is thrown but recovers: he brewed Isolde’s elixir himself. He sells a grateful Nemorino a bottle of Bordeaux. The Instructions for Use are as follows: shake


gently and drink (but there will be no effect for 24 hours – and by then Dulcamara will be on the road). Nemorino takes a slug and the delicious warmth gives him confidence enough to play Adina at her own game: he simply ignores her. Adina is so puzzled and put out by Nemorino’s apparent disinterest that when Belcore appears she accepts his proposal of marriage and the wedding is fixed for the following week. Far from showing concern, Nemorino bursts out laughing, secure in his knowledge that long before their wedding day the elixir will have taken effect. BUT . . . news reaches town that Belcore must leave the following morning and so the wedding date is brought forward – they will get married at once. Nemorino begs Adina to wait just one more day but she can’t and invites everyone to celebrate. INTERVAL

The lawyer arrives to witness the signing of the marriage contract and as Dulcamara tucks into the feast, he is joined by Nemorino, heart–broken. Perhaps a second bottle of the elixir will produce the necessary immediate effect (for he is leaving in half–an–hour) – but Nemorino has no money. Meanwhile, Adina has postponed the ceremony, feeling that her triumph over Nemorino is incomplete unless he sees her wed another. Belcore returns, disgruntled, and proposes a solution to Nemorino’s financial problems: join up to his regiment. Committing himself to the perils of war to win Adina’s heart for a single day is but nothing to Nemorino who signs up and rushes off to find Dulcamara and the elixir. Giannetta shares with the others the hottest gossip – Nemorino’ s uncle has died leaving him a small fortune. Unaware of this development, Nemorino appears, having polished off most of the elixir. He is gratified, but not altogether surprised, when the girls flock round him.

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ACT 2 At Adina’s wedding, Dulcamara wants to perform his party–piece. He takes the part of an amorous elderly senator and Adina the role of a kind girl who prefers her handsome gondolier to the old man’s bank balance.

Warne’s Cookery & Housekeeping Book Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library

Adina is surprised however – surprised, piqued, and not a little touched, when she learns that Nemorino joined up as a means to win her love. She realises how cruel she has been and that she loves Nemorino. Not one to miss an opportunity, Dulcamara offers Adina the elixir, but she prefers to use her own charms. Nemorino notices the change in Adina –  the furtive tear in her eye which says it all – she does indeed love him. When Adina appears Nemorino acts indifferently and she presents his army contract which she has bought back so that he won’t go away. Nemorino, irritated, responds that if she forsakes love he will join the army anyway. Adina admits she loves him. Belcore returns to find the couple in one another’s arms. Dulcamara informs the gathered crowd the news of Nemorino’s inheritance and claims his wondrous elixir not only brings love but wealth. There is brisk trading before the salesman sets off for another small town in the middle of nowhere.


Quackery by Colin Jones

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Stretching back to Rabelais, Ben Jonson and Molière, the quack has enjoyed a long literary genealogy. His stall at markets and fairs would combine medical services, the sale of potions and theatrical manoeuvres. The rise of medical science, the brilliant progress of scientific surgery and the emergence of the pharmaceutical industry brought about the end of such charlatans and Dulcamara became simply a folkloric relic. Donizetti’s L’Elisir d’amore opens with Adina reading the tale of Tristan and Isolde while her suitor, the hapless Nemorino, imagines the effects of an elixir of love. The arrival of the itinerant medical quack ‘Doctor’ Dulcamara appears to offer just such a magical brew. When Donzetti’s librettist, Felice Romani, adapted Auber’s Le Philtre (‘The Potion’, 1831) to give the Italian composer one of his most striking commercial and artistic successes, the figure of the mountebank enjoyed a long literary genealogy in European culture, stretching back to Rabelais, Ben Jonson and Molière. Nor was Dulcamara merely an artistic convention. There were a great many real–life quacks just as colourful as Dulcamara – maybe even more so – parading round towns, villages, fairs and markets of Western Europe, and like him combining the arts of street–theatre with the arcana of medicine. Critics of the quack reviled such fraudulent and hypocritical promotional gestures. For Samuel Johnson a quack was ‘a boastful pretender to arts which he does not understand’. Another dictionary defined a quack or charlatan as a ‘ false physician who mounts a theatre in a public square to sell drugs and who brings people together by tricks and clowning so as to be able to sell more’. It was indeed the designed theatrical aspect of his art which put him beyond the pale for most respectable physicians. The quack’s original was the ciarlatano (charlatan) of the piazzas of Renaissance Italy, who had set up his stall and combined medical services and potions sales with a wide variety of theatrical and fairground manoeuvres, held together by salesman’s spiel. The derivation of the term charlatan was revealing in this respect: the word came either from the Italian ciarlare (to chatter, prattle) – or else from the Latin circulator (an itinerant). The English term quack (short for quacksalver) and mountebank added other features to this composite portrait: the boastful talking

up (quacking) of ointments and potions (salves) combined with mounting of a bench (Italian: banco) or stall. In the sale of his extravagant remedies and services, the quack thus combined – as did Dulcamara – mobility, publicity and hyperbole. Dulcamara was something of a lone operator; the conventional quack was more likely to be one of a team, travelling with a band of helpers, and operating off a trestled stage. There might be a zany or merry–andrew, to play the dupe, or simpleton to attract custom and to lead the cheers. Some quacks sported a Moor (or at least blacked someone up) to add exotic glamour to their manoeuvres; others had clowns, acrobats, jugglers and tightrope walkers in tow; others put on plays and held mime or marionette shows. Music was very much a part of the act: Dulcamara arrived to the sound of the trumpet; others had small orchestras. They also invariably displayed an assortment of suitable props: animals, both live (monkeys, parrots etc.) and stuffed (notably crocodiles). The quack gave his audience all the fun of the fair – and much theatrical skill to boot. The troupes accompanying Italian medical charlatans which started to circulate throughout Western Europe from the late 16th century onwards brought with them many of the theatrical techniques and features of the Commedia dell’arte. The quack cortège might thus double as a troupe of travelling players. Indeed this link between medicine and stagecraft was long–lasting, even when theatrical troupes had begun to give up itineracy for a more sedentary existence. The first composition by the Italian dramatist Goldoni (whose father had been a mountebank) in 1735, for example, was written for a Venetian quack, Buonafede Vitali, who had received formal university training before turning to the medical and theatrical market place.


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The Pharmacist by Pietro Longhi (1702–1788) Galleria dell’ Accademia, Venice / The Bridgeman Art Library


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Rabelais’s Gargantua, in the 16th century, had visited the fair ‘to see jugglers, mountebanks and quacksalvers and [had] considered their miming, their shifts, their somersaults and their smooth tongue’. In the carnivalesque romp, which the self respecting quack laid on for his audience, his tongue needed to be smooth: his gift of the gab, which so infuriated quack–bashers, was his breadticket, attracting custom and selling his wares. No pitch was complete without a recounting of all the successful cures wrought on the great and the good, though the effusions tended to be longer on the promises then the achievements. There was a strong performative aspect to the quack’s medical salesmanship. Quacks were reputed for offering treatments where their manual dexterity – some said their trickery and conjuring – could be demonstrated in the open air. Tooth pulling was a particular speciality. One practitioner was known to pull teeth with one hand while firing a pistol into the air with the other, and having his head enclosed in a sack. Others performed seated on a horse: the operator placed the very tip of his sword at the base of the throbbing tooth, and a flick of the wrist did the job. (Quite what facial mutilation resulted if the horse stumbled or the saddle slipped we do not know – though at least the mounted swordsman – tooth drawer was in a good position to get away fast!) Other manual demonstrations involved skilled surgical procedures: couching cataracts, for example, or cutting for ‘the stone’: bladderstones, and also the mythical stone alleged to be inside the skull of the lunatic and ‘extracted’ after some assiduous drilling. For particularly troublesome hernias, the quack could also offer expeditious castration. The sale of their own secret remedies constituted another quack standby, and could similarly be turned into lively street theatre. A particular speciality in this respect was snake–bite oil. The quack would allow a snake to

bite him, seem to be ailing, then miraculously recover following a swig of the magic potion. Wound salves and creams for burns and contusions lent themselves to similar superficially masochistic histrionics. Probably a good deal of the quack’s trade came from providing treatments for banal, workaday ailments for which the medicine of the day had little remedy, and which were suffered by individuals probably too poor anyway to afford regular medical treatment. Everything from acne to varicose veins, from headaches to haemorrhoids, from precocious baldness to unseemly hairiness, had its own range of ‘secret’ remedies – and where a quack did not have a specific to hand he could always offer his own proprietary panacea. In his play L’Amour Medecin, 1665, Molière portrays a quack (modelled on a notorious charlatan who had a regular pitch on the Pont–Neuf bridge in Paris, a well–known charlatans’ rendezvous) who hawks a potion claimed to cure ‘the itch, the mange, ringworm, fever, plague, pox, hernias and the measles’. Nor were such claims mere fiction. A 98–year–old quack in Jacobean London offered an Elixir vitae (‘Elixir of Life’) which, it was claimed, ‘hath such a force and vigour that if it were possible it would revive the Dead, were that not a secret reserved to God only’. Such puffed panaceas might have produced a placebo effect in trusting patients, leading to cure – and the swelling of the quack’s reputation. One would say that this was the kind of thing which got quackery bad name – if it did not have one already. So too was the tendency of the charlatan to venture into more delicate areas of private life which the qualified medical professions regarded as way beyond the capacity of the medical art. Quacks dabbled, for example, in cosmetic preparations – ointments for baldness, hair– removers, skin–whiteners, tooth–powders, and so on. Even more impressively, they were darkly accused of


diffusing abortifacients, and they also boasted ‘cures’ for venereal diseases, problems of menstrual flow, infertility, impotence, frigidity – and unrequited love. By the early 19th century, no self–respecting quack would presume his clients silly enough to be duped into believing in an elixir of love – yet, if the need were shown to be there, he could always knock something up, even if this was only, as in the case of Dulcamara, a bottle of Bordeaux.

After about 1850 this Golden Age of Quackery showed signs of drawing to an end. The chorus of quack–bashing grew ever shriller and more vehement. Moreover, the rise of medical science, the professionalisation of trained practitioners, the brilliant progress of scientific surgery, the emergence of the pharmaceutical industry and the development of mass entertainment made a figure such as Dulcamara seem simply a folkloric relic. Other traditional itinerants were enjoying a similar fate: the gypsy fortune–tellers of Merimee’s (and Bizet’s) Carmen or the recruiting sergeants like L’Elisir d’amore’s puffed–up and vainglorious Belcore were becoming anachronisms. Yet Donzetti’s audience on the opera’s opening night in 1832 had almost certainly encountered similar figures to Belcore and Dulcamara at some stage. The demise of real–life Dulcamaras did not of course spell the death of quackery, whose obituary it would be premature to write. Irregular practitioners lacking the endorsement of the medical community showed an enviable ability to adapt to changing cultural expectations and altered market conditions. Indeed as long as the medical profession operates in a market economy and fails to fulfil widespread human desires for long life, health, beauty, sexual felicity – desires which it also helps to generate – we can expect this situation to continue. Though latterly often renamed as ‘complementary medicine’ and ‘alternative therapies’, quackery flourishes in our midst. The health–giving pretensions of herbal drinks have recently been demonstrated by the British Consumer Association to be a sham yet there is not expected to be a reduction in their sales. In this sense, perhaps we are all heirs to Dulcamara’s ‘clients’.

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By the time Donzetti composed L’Elisir d’amore, the reputation of itinerant quacks was worsening, and they were also finding tough competition from other irregular medical practitioners better adapted to the changing character of the medical marketplace. Dulcamara’s rivals did not require the sound of trumpets, the carnivalesque spiel and demonstrative sleight of hand to make their case – print media, newspaper advertisement and the mantle of science (rather than the trappings of nobility) sufficed. The period from roughly 1750 to 1850 saw a remarkable flowering of this new commercially minded medical entrepreneur in the big cities of Western Europe. This was the age in which – to the profound and apoplectic fury of the medical profession – the oculist ‘Chevalier Taylor’ cut for the cataract in most of the royal courts (and, by his own account, bedded nuns in most of the convents) of Europe; in which Franz–Anton Mesmer developed mesmerist therapy which the King of France felt obliged to ban because of its spectacularly orgasmic effect on female patients; in which the eccentric count of St Germain (widely believed to be several hundred years old) and the more bizarre adventurer Cagliostro peddled love–potions and elixirs for longevity to Europe’s court aristocracies; and in which James Graham, in his Temple of Health and Hymen on Pall Mall, offered a ‘Celestial Bed’ for the infallible production of beautiful children. It was an age of homeopathy, medical botany, naturopathy, spiritualism, phrenology and much besides. And it saw medical compounds of sometimes dubious

efficacy – Epsom Salts, Daffy’s Elixir, Dr James’s Fever Powders, Ward’s Pill and Drop – becoming universally recognised.


I will show you a love potion without drug or herb, or any witch's spell, if you wish to be loved, love 110

by Michael Fontes

When love speaks, the voice of all the gods makes heaven drowsy with the harmony, but when love remains silent don’t forget that Reed Hearon, chef/owner of The Black Cat’s Blue Bar in San Francisco, gives a recipe for love potion, as follows: D 1/4 cup canton ginger liqueur D 1/4 cup blood orange juice D 1/4 cup strong ginger beer D 1 teaspoon powdered ginger Stir well. Mix 1 part love potion with 3 parts Champagne. Down a good swig of this and they’ll be drawn to you like a magnet. When you are preparing a potion, remember: the stranger the ingredients the more powerful the effect – on the imagination certainly, if not on the system. Witches’ mummy, maw and gulf of shark are probably not yet available to the modern housewife, though Ben Jonson’s Volpone suggests you can make an efficacious substitute for Macbeth’s witches’ brew from a sheep’s gall, a roasted bitch’s marrow, some few sod earwigs, pounded caterpillars, a little capon’s grease and fasting spittle. You may mock opera’s use of the device of magic potions to bring about such desirable qualities as lovability, invisibility, forgetfulness or everlasting life, but by a

pleasant irony Donizetti’s opera The Elixir of Love contains nothing more elixirous than Bordò non Elisir. Modern Britain is full of people who use Bordeaux in the same way as Nemorino. Sixty per cent of visits to British surgeries result in the issuing of a prescription. So perhaps opera is not, in the matter of potions, so far removed from everyday life. Love potions in stories symbolize the magic removal of a person from his humdrum condition, to a higher level of madness, known, on the rare occasions when it occurs between English people, as ‘being in love’. The potion represents the quixotic nature of love – Cupid is blindfold and can’t see where he’s firing those darts – as well as the violent, compulsive and magical nature of the fit. Plato has a subtle little story to illustrate this in the Symposium (Tolstoy said he divided his life into two parts; the part before and the part after reading Plato’s Symposium). Plato playfully suggests that we were once circular beings with four hands and four feet: The primeval man was round, his back and sides forming a circle; and he had four hands and four feet, one head with two faces, looking opposite ways, set on a round neck and precisely alike; also four ears, two privy members, and the remainder to correspond. He could walk upright as men now do, backwards or forwards as he pleased, and he could also roll over and over at a great pace, turning on his four hands and four feet, eight in all, like tumblers going over and over with their legs in the air; this was when he wanted to run fast. Benjamin Jowett’s translation The Gods thought us too powerful and dangerous like that, so they cut us in half (‘like sorb–apples ripe for pickling’) and, ever since, the halves have been rushing wildly about trying to find each other. The potion symbolizes the magic reunion of the separated parts, and indeed it is a commonplace for lovers to talk of being ‘united’, of ‘finding each other’, of ‘being the same person’. Tristan and Isolde indulge in a lot of such talk, particularly in the second act of Wagner’s opera:


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The Kiss 1907–1908 by Gustav Klimt (1862–1918) Osterreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna / The Bridgeman Art Library

ISOLDE TRISTAN ISOLDE TRISTAN BOTH

Thus we die, undivided... one eternally without end... never waking ... never fearing ... embracing namelessly in love, given entirely to each other, living only in our love

The potion has brought them another prominent aspect of being in love: a lack of interest in, almost a disdain for, external influences. This was attractive to Wagner who made the Day, the harsh light of bourgeois respectability,

the numinous villain of his opera, as it was at that stage of his own life. He was in love with Mathilde Wesendonck, the wife of his wealthy Swiss benefactor. However, just as, when mixing blue and yellow to get green, we lose both the blue and the yellow in the green, we pay a price for becoming truly part of a collective entity. Drinking the potion if it is to mean union with another being implies loss of individuality. Bluebeard represents at one level grasping, rapacious, male sexuality, full of lust and terrible secrets, which are horrifying for his young wife to discover. Many feminists interpret the


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story as illustrating the disadvantages of a patriarchal society and the dangers faced by a girl in marriage. The existence of myths like Turandot, or Judith, in which the violence is initiated by the female partner, the femme fatale, suggests we should look elsewhere for an explanation of the symbol. Both partners lose as well as gain something in love; the problem is not gender–specific. Bluebeard and Turandot illustrate ways in which primitive society represented to itself the loss of individuality, to woman and man respectively, implicit in drinking the potion, in falling in love. We must not confuse Plato’s image of the ‘other half’ with Hofmannsthal’s image of the shadow in Die Frau ohne Schatten. Hofmannsthal explains that the woman’s shadow represents not the husband, but the potential child in the womb, and thus her ability to bear children. Over the course of the opera the shadow comes to mean the whole experience of child–bearing and, by extension, familiarity with the human condition – pain, vulnerability, forlorn hopes, love, suffering, death. The dyer’s wife has known all these things and is ready to give them up; the Empress, with no shadow, has no knowledge of them, and craves familiarity with them, hoping thereby to become a complete being. So, when, in the last act, Keikobad sends the Empress the shadow she has earned by her unselfishness, he gives her not just the ability to bear children, but sensitivity to fear, guilt, love, pain and death. Hofmannsthal clearly wished his opera to send a stronger message than a trite injunction to bring more children into the world. He wants us to accept his belief that the future of mankind hangs on our teaching our children to love one another and to embrace the human condition, for all its obvious miseries and tribulations, as the only source of emotional and moral fulfilment. As the three nightwatchmen in the magical closing bars of the first act rather laconically put it: “You husbands and wives, who lie in each other’s loving arms, you are the bridge across the chasm, whereby the dead can live again. Blessed be your work of love.” An analogous symbol to the love potion is pre–vision, the concept that we are already familiar with our soul–mate from a previous existence. This idea is implicit in Plato’s

fable in the Symposium, but explained more powerfully in the Phaedo:

When someone looks at any object, and perceives that the object aims at being some other thing, but falls short of, and cannot attain to it – he who makes this observation must have had previous knowledge of that to which, as he says, the other, although similar, was inferior. Benjamin Jowett’s translation

In other words we have a notion of absolute goodness and purity which can have come only from a former life of the soul, because here on earth we encounter nothing but particulars. Thus we can magically recognize our true soul–mate because we have already met him or her in some previous life. Tamino is shown a portrait of Pamina, falls in love with her immediately (‘Dies Bildnis ist bezaubernd schön’), and when he rescues her the pre–vision gives him the sense that she has been chosen for him. Similarly Berg’s Lulu says that she can tell in the dark if a man is made for her because she dreamed of him when sick as a child. In Busoni’s Turandot, as in Hans Christian Andersen’s version of the story, the prince has a vision of Turandot before he actually meets her. You don’t need a degree in psychology to notice that a potion is often a device to point an emotional shift which has already taken place. In the first act of Tristan for all the tough talk, indeed because of it, you feel that the Irish princess and the Cornish knight are already infatuated with each other. Brangäne in the wings doesn’t need to do anything more than put some old lemonade into glasses to achieve the desired effect. Isolde has asked for the death potion, and that is, in one sense, what she gets: the theme of love as death (liebestod) is central to the opera. Tristan reveals his besotted condition by his willingness to drink the draught, to trust Isolde to take them together wherever she wishes. But often the potion performs the function of removing moral responsibility for one’s state and therefore for one’s actions: I remember a pupil once telling me that I shouldn’t punish him for some bad behaviour, because he had been drunk at the time. We don’t think less of


Convention requires that potions in operas should work, and this fact invites impishness and disrespect. Hofmannsthal’s libretto for The Egyptian Helen plays relentlessly with the convention. He starts from the idea that Menelaus must have had difficulty forgiving Helen for her gallivantings in Troy. To absolve her from blame Hofmannsthal invokes a story originating from Stesichorus of Himera, and repeated in Euripides, that the Helen who went to Troy was a spirit duplicate; the real Helen spent the ten years of the war demurely in Egypt. To help Helen impose this nonsense on an incredulous Menelaus a sorceress, aided by an all–knowing mollusc – a mussel, and a wilful troupe of giggling elves, provides Helen with potions, one for forgetfulness and the other, its antidote, for remembrance. Unfortunately these potions do not act on Menelaus in the way Helen had hoped, and Hofmannsthal gleefully exploits the comic potential of this idea. Characteristically he uses the comedy to add spice to the central theme of the opera, the drama of reconciliation between husband and wife after a period of extended marital discord, each recognizing the other for what they truly are. After all, Helen and Menelaus have considerable grounds for mutual reproach – in

this version Menelaus has murdered Paris – and their reciprocal guilt is one reason why Hofmannsthal chose their story to make his point. The potions of remembering and oblivion thus come to represent a forgiving and forgetting – euphemism for the morally more interesting idea of forgiving while not forgetting; each has to accept the marriage partner without illusions. Hofmannsthal was clearly fascinated by the dramatic power of a dialectic, of a vibrant resolution of opposites, like the Empress and the dyer’s wife. Perhaps he thought the device brought a sense of universality, or of inclusiveness, though it’s more than the notion that if you include the poles you thereby embrace also all the land between them: the excitement stems from the interaction between the contradictory ideas or styles. An even more explicit and obvious example is the resolution in Ariadne auf Naxos of the comic (Papageno) and the dramatic (Tamino) traditions in opera. The fact that Mozart had already combined them in the Magic Flute was the ultimate recommendation; both Hofmannsthal and Strauss revered Mozart. Strauss writes music in homage to Mozart, like the breakfast music in the first act of Rosenkavalier, or the music for wind band, clearly reminiscent of Mozart’s Gran Partita, K 361. Hofmannsthal was a founding father of the Salzburg festival and his feelings, both about Mozart and about the resolution of opposites, are clear in his First Appeal on Behalf of a Salzburg Festival Plan: ‘Salzburg as a work of architecture is positioned between urban and rural, the age–old and the contemporary, the princely Baroque design and lovely, eternal peasant style. Mozart is the expression of all these. Central Europe contains no more beautiful place, and it was precisely here that Mozart had to be born’. In The Egyptian Helen the wild comedy of uncertainty about the effects of the potions lends ironic bite to the central drama of the reconciliation of Helen and Menelaus: the laughter only just manages to break through the tears. Tamino and Papageno thus come together again after their recent reunion with Ariadne on Naxos; Strauss’s music movingly projects both comic and dramatic themes simultaneously. The work is perhaps the most touching of Strauss’s triptych of operas about marriage – The Woman without a Shadow, The Egyptian Helen and Intermezzo.

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Siegfried, the noble savage, when he behaves scandalously to Brünnhilde, for we know he’s been slipped a draught of forgetfulness brewed by the appalling Hagen. In Götterdämmerung the potions are more clearly a narrative device, as opposed to a validation of a pre–existing condition, than is the Love Potion in Tristan. We accept the potions all the more readily in Wagner because the stories are derived from myths and eddas, and often concerned with gods and monsters, which makes them well adapted to Wagner’s noisy style about which Mark Twain wrote so passionately after going to Lohengrin: ‘The banging and slamming and booming and crashing were something beyond belief. The racking and pitiless pain of it remains stored up in my memory alongside the memory of the time that I had my teeth fixed’. Despite this, and remarks like ‘there isn’t often anything in Wagner opera that one would call by such a violent name as acting’, Twain loved Wagner, to judge from his frequent returns to the dentist’s chair. He was of a naturally debunking disposition, particularly when he found himself anywhere near the Rhine.


Biographies MARTIN ANDRÉ

RICHARD BALCOMBE

Martin studied music at Cambridge and,

Richard has worked with some of the

National Opera, went on to perform with

Gothenburg Symphony, Orchestre National

Conductor Thais

Conductor Barber of Seville

having been a resident conductor at Welsh

world’s

the Royal Opera, English National Opera,

de Lille, Odense Symphony, Stavanger

Bank Show Award), Scottish Opera, Glyndebourne and Opera

Stockholm Sinfonietta, Sonderjyllands Symphony and Prague

from 1993-1996 and in 1996 he was awarded the Arts Foundation

Philharmonic, Royal Scottish National, Halle, Ulster, BBC Concert,

Opera North (Eight Little Greats, South

orchestras

including

Symphony, Estonian National Symphony,

Northern Ireland. He was Music Director of English Touring Opera

Chamber Orchestra, and in the UK the London Philharmonic, Royal

Conducting Fellowship. In 2000 he conducted a “real time” live

Northern Chamber, London Concert and the Orchestra of Scottish

worked in the opera houses in Canada, Czech Republic, France,

Touring Opera), Butterfly and Magic Flute (Central Festival Opera),

and the USA. In recent seasons he has built close relationships

Fledermaus, The Mikado, HMS Pinafore, The Gondoliers and Pirates

broadcast of The Marriage of Figaro for BBC TV. Martin has

Opera. Opera includes Barber (Castleward Opera), Rigoletto (English

Germany, Holland, Israel, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa

Falstaff, Tosca, Così, Marriage of Figaro (London Opera Players),

with the Orquestra Nacional do Porto, REMIX Ensemble (Portugal),

of Penzance (Carl Rosa), La Bohème (London City Opera) and HMS

(Norway). Concert appearances have included the Philharmonia,

He has conducted for Bryn Terfel, Jose Carreras and Alagna and

Concert Orchestra, English Chamber Orchestra, Scottish Chamber

Town (2004) and South Pacific (2005).

Limburgs Symphonie Orkest (Holland) and Collegium Music Bergen Queensland Philharmonic, Royal Scottish National Orchestra, BBC Orchestra and Northern Sinfonia.

Pinafore and The Mikado (D’Oyly Carte in the UK and America).

Gheorgiu on BBC TV. At Grange Park Richard conducted Wonderful

EMMA BARRINGTON-BINNS

ELIZABETH BAILEY

Associate Designer The Elixir of Love

Elizabeth recently completed the GSMD

Hall College and has worked extensively

Emma studied Theatre Design at Bretton

Crobyle Thais / ensemble Opera Course, studying with John Evans.

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leading

She performed the roles of Philine Mignon, Thérèse Les Mamelles de Tiresias, Lucia

as an assistant designer in theatre, film

television and opera. She recently assisted

Ultz on The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant

Rape of Lucretia, Barbarina Le Nozze di

(ENO), Francis O’Connor La Traviata (ENO), South Pacific and Don

Figaro and Barbarina in the British premiere of The Little Green

Giovanni (Grange Park Opera), and Lez Brotherston on Much Ado

Swallow by Jonathan Dove. Future roles include Monica in Menotti’s

About Nothing (RSC), and Edward Scissorhands (Sadler’s Wells).

The Medium (Fribourg Opera), Rosina La Finta Semplice (Neuchatel)

Co-design credits with Giuseppe Belli include: Henry V & A Woman

and Barbarina Le Nozze di Figaro (Lausanne).

Killed with Kindness, Antigone, The Merchant of Venice, Comedy of Errors for Northern Broadsides (UK tours) and Poetry or Bust (Salts Mill) written and directed by Tony Harrison. Also Once Upon

ANDREW BAIN ensemble Andrew's stage appearances include Filch

a Time in Wigan (Contact Theatre, West Yorkshire Playhouse &

Whistle Down The Wind (UK Tour), Beauty &

Everyman, Edinburgh Festival and tour), Star Cross’d Lovers (WNO

and Beggar Beggars Opera (Opera Project), The Beast (Watermill), Reader (Greenwich Playhouse),

Macheath

Beggars

Opera

(Cochrane), Les Miserables (UK Tour) and

Tours). Godspell and Return to the Forbidden Planet (Cheltenham

concert tour). Emma was the recipient of the Young Designers award at Cambridge Arts Theatre and designed King Lear. She received the BBC ‘Vision’ design award for costume.

City of Angels (Landor). As producer Andrew's credits include MEN (Pleasance, Edinburgh), Bed (Tristan Bates), Trust Byron (Gate and Edinburgh) and Pains of Youth (BAC).

DAVID–ALEXANDRE BORLOZ

Nicias’ servant Thais / ensemble

Swiss–born David-Alexandre completed a SERA BAINES ensemble At 18, Sera was a finalist at the Llangollen Musical Eisteddfod. She went on to study at the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama, ‘’The Knack’’ at ENO with Mary King and the Royal Academy of Music. Appearances include Poppea, First Lady, Zerlina, a recital for the opening of the Shakespeare wing at the National Portrait Gallery and Strauss’ Op.10 cycle (Dukes Hall, RAM).

Masters degree and the Opera Course at the GSMD and last summer attended the

Aix-en-Provence Academy where he won the festival Friend’s Prize. Operatic roles

include Antonio Le Nozze di Figaro, Morales Carmen, Papageno Zauberflöte, Junius Rape of Lucretia, Lothario Mignon, Ramiro L’heure Espagnole and Truffaldino in the British Premiere of Jonathan

Dove’s The Little Green Swallow. Plans include Menotti’s Amelia al Ballo, Le Nozze di Figaro and Britten’s Little Sweep (Lausanne Opera), Menotti’s The Medium and Milhaud’s Le pauvre matelot (Fribourg) and Amonasro Aida (Avenches Arena, Switzerland).


FRANCES BOURNE

Adventures. Opera includes Maria Padilla

A graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge

Rio de Janeiro), Hansel & Gretel (Opera Zuid

Cherubino Le Nozze di Figaro

and the Royal Academy of Music, Frances

has appeared as a soloist for Sir John

Eliot Gardiner, Trevor Pinnock, Sir Roger

Norrington, Emmanuelle Haim, Andrew

Manze, Harry Christophers and Sir Neville Mariner. Roles include

Sorceress Dido & Aeneas (Gardiner), Judith Weir’s The Consolations

of Scholarship (Kokoro), Oreste (Linbury, ROH), Irene Tamerlano

and Dorabella, Cherubino and Dido. Other appearances include

(Buxton), Sonnambula (Teatro Municipale,

& Opera Northern Ireland), Cunning Little Vixen, Ariadne auf Naxos, Werther (Opera

Zuid), Falstaff (Sicily & Copenhagen), Dido & Aeneas / Venus & Adonis (Innsbruck &

De Vlaamse Opera), Le Roi Malgré Lui, Butterfly (Opera North), Rosenkavalier (Hong Kong Festival) Cornet Rilke’s Song of Love

and Death (Glyndebourne on Tour). Dance includes Soldier’s Tale

(Linbury Studio), Play Without Words (RNT & New Adventures), The

recitals at Buxton and Presteigne Festivals and soloist in A Child

Car Man, Cinderella, Swan Lake, Highland Fling (AMP), Bounce

(Hanover Band), Messiah (The Sixteen) and Midsummer Night’s

The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Dracula, A Christmas Carol,

of our Time (Huddersfield Choral Society), Pergolesi Stabat Mater Dream (Orchestre Revolutionnaire et Romantique).

EMMA BRENNAN ensemble Emma

studied

at

the

(Stockholm / Roundhouse), Six Faces (K-Ballet Tokyo), Carmen, Swan Lake, Romeo & Juliet (Northern Ballet Theatre). Theatre includes Volpone, Design for Living, A Woman of No Importance

Birmingham

Conservatoire and has worked with Bath

Opera, White Horse Opera, CBSO Chorus.

Roles include Donna Elvira Don Giovanni, title role Suor Angelica, Marguerite Faust, Ellen Orford Peter Grimes, Tatiana Eugene

Onegin. Recitals include Mahler’s Knaben Wunderhorn, Puccini Arias & Gershwin Songs, with tour to Italy. Emma won the 2004 Mario Lanza Opera Prize. LEZ BROTHERSTON

Designer The Elixir of Love

Lez won a Tony Award for Adventures in Motion Pictures Swan Lake

(Sheffield Crucible), Bedroom Farce, Midsummer Night’s Dream,

Alarms & Excursions (West End), Rosenkrantz & Guildenstern are Dead (National Theatre). Musicals include Brighton Rock (Almeida Theatre & West End), Tonight’s the Night, My One and Only, Spend Spend Spend (West End).

PTOLEMY CHRISTIE

Director Barber of Seville

Ptolemy has directed Sondheim's Assassins

in two British prisons using a cast of

inmates (Pimlico Opera), Cosi (Nevill Holt Young Artists / Grange Park Opera) and

La Traviata (Pimlico Opera). He assisted

on Jenufa (Opera Zuid / Hannover Oper), Pelléas et Mélisande

Sophie Daneman (Eileen), arrested for causing a disturbance, joins her captors in an Irish dance. Wonderful Town Grange Park Opera 2004 Director & Designer Antony McDonald

Franck Lopez (Masetto) and Susanna Andersson (Zerlina) in Don Giovanni Grange Park Opera 2005 Director Daniel Slater Designer Francis O'Connor

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and an Olivier Award for Cinderella. He is Associate Artist of New

(Royal Exchange), The Dark, Little Foxes (Donmar), The Crucible


(Glyndebourne on Tour), Die Walküre, Götterdämmerung (Tiroler

Matrimonio (Auckland Opera Factory) and various principal and

Opera). He has assisted John Cox on The Rake’s Progress (San

has recently performed Junius The Rape of Lucretia, Guglielmo

Festspiele), I Capuleti e I Montecchi, La Bohème (Grange Park

Francisco Opera, Australia Opera and Nationale Reisopera), Die Frau ohne Schatten (Royal Opera House and Melbourne Festival), Capriccio, Albert Herring (Opera Australia).

Lighting Design Elixir of Love / Barber lighting

design

for

theatre

includes The Soldier’s Tale (The Old Vic).

performed at Blenheim Palace with Dame Kiri Te Kanawa.

Director Elixir of Love

Trained at University College London and

Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, Martin directed The Elixir of Love for Nevill Holt

Gone To Earth (Shared Experience Lyric

Young Artists programme last year and

Dog (Drum Theatre Plymouth), Underworld

Opera tour. Other opera credits include Truly Madly Mozart (Royal

Mandragora (Tara Arts at the Tron Theatre).Lighting design

staged ENO / BBC Proms, Royal Albert Hall). Martin's theatre

Hammersmith), The Tale That Wags The (Frantic Assembly at Lyric Hammersmith),

for dance includes: Real (ACE Dance Company), Mountains are

Mountains (Phillipp Gehmacher at Tanz Quartier Vienna), Into the

Woods (Zoo Nation at Peacock Theatre), Maverick Matador and

Destiny’s Carrot (Juliet Aster at Dance East), Embryonic Dreams

(Pyromania at The Pleasance). Jon's opera credits include Cosi (Grange Park Opera at Nevill Holt). Jon is Associate Lighting Designer for Evita (Adelphi, London).

revived the production for the Pimlico

Festival Hall), Si j’étais Roi (Opera South), War & Peace (semicredits include The Briefcase Encounter (Young Vic), Pirandello

The Man with the Flower in his Mouth, four short plays by Anton Chekhov, The Fat Stock Show (Chichester Festival Theatre),

Reunion / Dark Pony by David Mamet (King’s Head), Toby Farrows’

Aeroplane Bones, Gringos (Bristol Old Vic), The Woods (Theatre West), Our Country’s Good (Bloomsbury), Summer in the City

(Bristol Old Vic, BAC), Gringos (BAC), Bath Time by Mary McNally

(Bristol Old Vic, Pleasance Edinburgh, Southwark Playhouse), The Bald Prima Donna by Eugene Ionesco (Bristol Old Vic, Canal Café)

ANDREW CONLEY

Fiorello Barber / ensemble

Born in Papua New Guinea, Andrew has

and Richard II (Stratford, Buxton, Bloomsbury Theatre, Prague).

a degree in Philosophy & English and

CHRISTIAN CURNYN

College of Music. Appearances include

Christian was born in Glasgow, read

is currently in his final year at the Royal

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and Falke Die Fledermaus (Benjamin Britten Opera School) and

MARTIN CONSTANTINE

JON CLARK Recent

understudies with NZ Opera Emerging Artist Programme. He

Guglielmo, Figaro Il Barbiere di Siviglia,

Mityukha Boris Godunov, and L’Hotelier, Manon (New Zealand

Opera), Boris Cheryomuski, Pluto,Orpheus in the Underworld, Mr

Kofner The Consul, Ben The Telephone and Slook La Cambiale di

Conductor Le Nozze di Figaro

music at York University and studied harpsichord at the Guildhall School of Music. In 1994 Christian founded The Early

Opera Company whose productions have

Scenes from South Pacific Grange Park Opera 2005 Director Craig Revel Horwood Designer Francis O'Connor / Yvonne Milnes


included Agrippina (New York), Ariodante (BOC Covent Garden

LINDSEY DAY

(Buxton / Aldeburgh Festivals), and Handel’s Susanna. Other

Australian born Lindsey Day has performed

Festival), Orlando (South Bank Early Music Festival), Partenope

engagements have included Dido & Aeneas, Charpentier’s Actéon (St John’s, Smith Square), Fairy Queen, Acis & Galatea, King Arthur (Wigmore Hall), Monteverdi’s Ballo delle Ingrate and Combattimento

(York Early Music Festival), Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo and Poppea, Charpentier’s Medee and Rinaldo (GSMD). For Batignano Christian

conducted Cesti's Il Pomo d’Oro, Handel’s Acis, Galatea et Polifemo. Recent engagements include Rameau’s Platée (Lisbon), La Malade Imaginaire (Blois and Reims), Semele (British Youth Opera), Semele

Curzio Le Nozze di Figaro / ensemble

in many productions. Operatically his roles

have included Alfredo, Rodolfo, Don Jose, Beppe, Tamino, Lysander, Pinkerton and

Erik. On the musical theatre stage Lindsey

has performed Benny Southstreet Guys & Dolls, Tony West Side

Story, a number of roles in The Phantom of the Opera and Chicago

(HMP Bronzefield / Pimlico Opera).

(Scottish Opera), Jeptha (Halle Handel Festival), Saul (Opera

ANNE–SOPHIE DUPRELS

to Scottish Opera to conduct Handel’s Tamerlano later this year.

Anne–Sophie Duprels trained as a pianist

North) and Messiah (Stavanger Symphony Orchestra). He returns

SOPHIE DANEMAN

Susanna Le Nozze di Figaro

Sophie has an international reputation in

Thais Thais

and studied at the Conservatoire National

Superieur de Musique et de Danse, Paris. On graduating, she appeared at Teatro

alla Scala in their world première of Aldo

repertoire ranging from Monteverdi and

Clementi’s Carillon and a recital for their Young Artists Program.

roles include Rodelinda (Broomhill Opera

roles include La Voix Humaine and Thérèse Les Mamelles de

Handel to Schoenberg and Berg. Her title and Netherlands), Semele (San Francisco),

Arianna (Göttingen Handel Festival), Mélisande (Opéra Comique

In 2001 she was voted the Classical Revelation by ADAMI. Recent

Tiresias (Eurobottega / La Scala in Cosenza), Susanna Le Nozze

di Figaro, Despina Cosi, Witch Hansel & Gretel and Naïade Ariadne

with Georges Prêtre), Servilia La Clemenza di Tito (Barcelona),

auf Naxos (Lyon and Châtelet), Rita Rita (Opéra Comique, Paris),

Belinda   Dido & Aeneas (Munich) , Theodora (William Christie

(Opera de Lyon), Marzellina Fidelio (Nantes and Angers), Amanda

extensively with William Christie and Les Arts Florissants as well

Carlos (San Francisco) and Adina L’Elisir D’Amore. UK appearances

Euridice L’Anima del Filosofo (Lausanne), Euridice   L’Orfeo, in New York, Paris and Salzburg). She has toured and recorded as performing with Christopher Hogwood, Sir Neville Mariner,

Gérard Lesne, Jean-Claude Malgoire, Marcus Creed, Phillipe

Le Grand Macabre and Thibault in the French version of Don include Mimi La Bohéme (Grange Park and Scottish Opera),

Violetta (Opera North), Oksana Tcherevichki (Garsington), Violetta Traviata, Magda La Rondine, title roles Lucia di Lammermoor and

and the Berlin Philharmonic. Her many recordings include Acis

Luisa Miller (Holland Park). This season’s and future plans include

Ottone in Villa.

Cellini (Strasbourg), and Mimi (Royal Albert Hall).

& Galatea (Gramophone Award 2000), Handel Rodelinda, Vivaldi

Fiordiligi Cosi (Glimmerglass and Strasbourg), Theresa Benvenuto

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Herreweghe, Robert King, Nicholas McGegan, Richard Hickox

die Erste Zofe Der Zwerg (Geneva), Carolina Il Matrimonio Segreto


ELENA FERRARI

Wicked Witch of the West (Feelgood Theatre), Laurie Oklahoma,

Elena made her operatic début at Opera

City (Channel 4) and was Mariella Smack the Pony (BBC 1).

Cherubino, and Despina. On TV Catherine presented Night & the

Giannetta The Elixir of Love

North as Musetta La Bohème, followed by Fiordiligi Così fan tutte, Violetta La Traviata,

HUBERT FRANCIS

Wordsworth Albert Herring. She appeared

Hubert studied at Royal Northern College

Countess Marriage of Figaro, Violetta Traviata (ETO), Cinna Lucio

Young Artists Programme (2002-04) his

Basilio Le Nozze di Figaro

Bice in Korngold’s Violanta and Miss as Lauretta Gianni Schicchi, Sister Genevieve Suor Angelica (ENO),

and whilst a member of the Royal Opera’s

Silla (Garsington), Tamiri Il re pastore (Classical Opera Company),

credits included Male Chorus The Rape

Opera), Rosalinde Fledermaus (Holland Park), Eltrude Arne Alfred

Der Kaiser von Atlantis. He has worked with conductors Badea,

belverde (Batignano), Lusya in Shostakovich’s Cheryomushki

Copley, Jones, Loy, Miller, Moshinksy and Tambosi. Recent credits

Donna Anna Don Giovanni, Antonia Les Contes d’Hoffmann (Diva

of Lucretia, Spoletta Tosca and Harlekin

(Early Opera Company), Tartagliona in Jonathan Dove’s L’augellino

Benini, Davis, Jourdan, Jurowski and Pappano and directors

(Pimlico Opera), and the lead role Elsie in the world premiere of

include Yannakos Greek Passion (Royal Opera’s production at the

de la Monnaie, Brussels / Musiektheater Transparent, Antwerp).

La Fanciulla del West (Royal Opera House). He returns to Grange

Wim Henderick’s The Triumph of Spirit over Matter (Theatre Royale Previously at Grange Park: Musetta La Bohème, Tisbe Cenerentola,

Janácek Theatre in Brno), Tambourmajor Wozzeck (WNO) and Trin

Park in 2006 as Monsieur Grieux The Gambler.

Concepcion L’heure Espagnole.

JOANNA GAMBLE

DAVID FIELDING

Marcellina Le Nozze di Figaro

David studied at the Central School.

Polya Enchantress, Mrs Wade Wonderful

Director/Designer Thais

Current work includes The Gambler (Prokofiev)

for

Grange

Park,

New York) and La Damnation de Faust

(Dresden). Directing/design credits include The Enchantress,

Rinaldo and The Turn of the Screw (Grange Park), The Turk in Italy (English National Opera), Die Schweigsame Frau, Capriccio,

118

Town, Annina La Traviata. Other opera

credits include Mrs Peachum Threepenny

Die

Aegyptische Helena (Metropolitan Opera,

Daphne, Idomeneo, Die Aegyptische Helena, Die Liebe der   Danae, Intermezzo, Arabella (Garsington), Mercadante's Elisa e Claudia (Wexford), Otello (Düsseldorf), The Ring (Tokyo), Racine's

(from June 28)

Previous roles at Grange Park include

Opera (Pimlico Opera), Second Lady Magic

Flute (Opera Roffensia), Argante Rinaldo, Sorceress Dido & Aeneas

(Varazhdin, Croatia), Bertha Barber (Opera à la Carte) and ENO’s staged Verdi Requiem. In 2003/4 Joanna toured Idomeneo (Berlin

Philharmonic/Rattle) and Amadeus (City of London Sinfonia). Future plans include the title role in Michael Hurd’s opera The Widow of Ephesus.

Britannicus (Crucible Sheffield), The Intelligence Park (Almeida),

NATHANIEL GIBBS ensemble

(Time Out Award 1993 – Best Director and Designer), The New

(Grange Park), Billy Flynn Chicago (Pimlico

The Hypochondriacs, Betrayal (Glasgow Citizens), Elisabeth II Menoza, Eve of Retirement (Gate), The Park, Back to Methuselah (RSC). He has designed Xerxes, Simon Boccanegra, A Masked Ball

(English National Opera), La Clemenza di Tito (Glyndebourne),

Wozzeck, Mahagonny (Scottish Opera), Elektra (Welsh National Opera), Giulio Cesare (Paris), King Lear and The Tempest (RSC). JENNIFER FISHER ensemble

Jennifer Fisher is from Co. Londonderry. Recent

roles

include

Dreite

Dame

Cherubino,

Siebel,

(Windsor & Eton Opera), Young Widow Osud

(Garsington),

Melisande (St.John’s Smith Square) and various roles in contemporary operas. CATHERINE FRIEL

Bridesmaid Le Nozze di Figaro / ensemble

Catherine was born in Glasgow. She

Recent credits include Stewpot South Pacific Opera & inmates of HMP Bronzefield), Tea Man Elixir of Love (Pimlico Opera tour). Previous

prison

appearances

include

Nicely-Nicely Guys & Dolls (Wormwood

Scrubs), The Balladeer and Proprietor in Sondheim’s Assassins (HMP Ashwell, Leicestershire and HMP Coldingley, Bisley). Nathaniel

appears regularly in pantomime. TV credits include Emmerdale,

Hollyoaks and Paramount’s new film version of Alfie. In 2007 he plays Mr Astley The Gambler (Grange Park).

WOLFGANG GOEBBEL

Lighting Design Thais / Le Nozze di Figaro

Wolfgang has lit shows for English National

Opera, Royal Opera House, Glyndebourne, Edinburgh Festival, Welsh National Opera,

Scottish Opera, Opera North, Toneellhuis Antwerpen,

De

Nederlandse

Opera

attended Douglas Academy Music School,

Amsterdam, Teatro alla Scala Milano, Teatro del Liceo Barcelona.

Dancers and went on to Royal Northern

houses of Hamburg, Munich, Dusseldorf, Stuttgart, Frankfurt,

danced professionally with the McLaren

College. Her credits cover both musical

theatre and opera including Lady Ella Patience (Gilbert & Sullivan Opera), Vittoria The Gondoliers (Carl Rosa Opera), Suzanna in

Offenbach’s Robinson Crusoe, Drusilla L’Incoronazione di Poppea,

He worked at the Salzburg Festival, Bregenz Festival, and opera Leipzig, Berlin, Aachen. He made his debut at the Metropolitan

Opera New York in 2000. He lit plays at the Nottingham Playhouse,

Schaubuhne Berlin, Schauspielhaus Cologne, Theatre du Chatelet,

Burgtheater Vienna, Maxim Gorki Berlin, Schauspielhaus Zurich


and recently for the Royal Shakespeare Company. Wolfgang's

(Holland Park), Papagena Magic Flute (Imperial Opera), a season

Midsummer Marriage (Royal Opera), Olivier Award Best Production

(London City Opera in Palm Desert, USA), and Zerlina/Donna Elvira

Evening Standard Award Meistersinger von Nurnberg (Royal Opera

second season with the Grange Park ensemble.

awards include Evening Standard Award for Best Production for

with D’Oyly Carte at the Savoy Theatre, Orlofsky Fledermaus

Tristan & Isolde (English National Opera), Olivier Award Paul Bunyan,

Don Giovanni excerpts (Stamford Chamber Orchestra). This is her

House) and the Moliere winning production Chemin Solitaire in

Paris. He is a part-time lecturer in Lighting Design in Munich,

BRONWEN HAYDOCK ensemble

Covent Garden, Don Giovanni (Vienna and Kopenhagen), Zaide

the Queensland Conservatorium of Music,

Dresden and Nottingham. Future plans Ring des Nibelungen at

Born in New Zealand, Bronwen trained at

(Salzburg), Simon Boccanegra (Hamburg), The Great Highway

Australia. Her roles include Mrs Sedley

(London), Die tote Stadt (Barcelona).

Peter Grimes, Principessa Suor Angelica,

Bradamante Alcina, Charlotte Werther,

Sorceress Dido & Aeneas, Petra A Little

HAZEL GOULD

Assistant Director Le Nozze di Figaro

Light Music, Third Lady, Second Lady Magic Flute, Mrs Herring

Central School of Speech and Drama. She

UK) and Pearl Fishers (Swansea City Opera).

Hazel trained at Manchester University and

was the assistant director of The Marriage of Figaro (Opera North), Tangier Tattoo,

(Glyndebourne tour) and Semele (Buxton).

Albert Herring (Benjamin Britten Foundation), Cosi, Tosca (Opera

QUENTIN HAYES

Belcore The Elixir of Love

She has worked as a director on education programmes in opera,

Quentin studied at Dartington and the

company Plain, London, and The Nothing Club, New York.

as for all the leading UK opera companies,

theatre and orchestras and is a founder member of the theatre

Guildhall. He has sung in Germany as well most

recently

Le

(Glyndebourne/BBC

JOHN-COLYN GYEANTEY ensemble

Dancaire

TV)

and

Carmen Angelotti

John-Colyn Gyeantey studied at the RCM

Tosca (Scottish Opera). For five years he was a principal artist

Norris. Roles include Nanki-Poo (Charles

Ping Turandot, Herald Lohengrin, Ned Keene Peter Grimes and

Spinelloccio

Pappano, Rattle, Thieleman and Jordan. Recent engagements

under Margaret Cable and David Owen Court Opera), Morales (Opera del Mar), (RCM),

The

Good

Angel

Cuthman’s Journey by Geoffrey Hanson

Schaunard Bohème, with such eminent conductors as Haitink,

include Where the Wild Things Are (Berlin Philharmonic), Elijah (Netherlands Radio Philharmonic), Tosca (CBSO), War Requiem

(Concertgebouw, Amsterdam), Angelotti Tosca, Zuniga Carmen (CBSO) and Billy Budd (LSO). Previously for Grange Park Quentin

DERYCK HAMON

Antonio Le Nozze di Figaro

has sung Almaviva Figaro, Figaro Barber, Clavaroche Fortunio and

at Rose Bruford and Royal Northern

(Snape Maltings) and Turandot (ROH).

Deryck comes from Guernsey and studied

College. Roles with Grange Park include

Potap Enchantress, Laski Le Roi Malgré Lui

and Benoit / Alcindoro La Bohème. He has

Cecil Maria Stuarda. Future engagements include Sea Symphony

ASHLEY HOLLAND Athanael Thais

appeared in Macbeth (City of Birmingham Touring Opera), Valoucky

Ashley studied at Warwick University and

Tosca, Sarastro Magic Flute and Bonze Madama Butterfly (Mid

principal baritone at English National

The Kiss, Katya Kabanova (Opera Theatre Company, Dublin),

the Royal Northern College of Music. Whilst

Wales Opera), Sulpice La Fille du Regiment, Commendatore Don

Opera, his roles included Zurga Pearl

Marriage of Figaro and La Traviata (Diva Opera), Commendatore

Cosi, Cecil Maria Stuarda, Belcore L’Elisir D’Amore, Lescaut Manon,

Little Vixen (English Touring Opera), Nathan Detroit Guys & Dolls

Other engagements include Antonio Linda di Chamonix (concert

Festival), Leonora, L’Oca Del Cairo, Candide (Batignano), cover

Don Giovanni (Calgary), Sharpless Butterfly (Cincinnati), roles in

Giovanni, Dr Miracle and Coppelius Tales of Hoffmann, Bartolo The Don Giovanni, Alcindoro/Benoit Bohème and Parson Cunning

Fishers, Sharpless Butterfly, Guglielmo

Ottakar Der Freischutz, Marcello Boheme and Escamillo Carmen.

(Wormwood Scrubs / Pimlico Opera), Torquato Tasso (Buxton

performance with Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment), title role

Zuniga Carmen, Dikoy Katya Kabanova (Scottish Opera).

Candide (London Symphony Orchestra/Kent Nagano) and in Weill’s Der Protagonist and The Royal Palace (BBCSO / Sir Andrew Davis),

Bosun Billy Budd (Bastille Opera), Ford Falstaff (Dresden, ENO),

BRIDGET HARDY ensemble

Bridget trained in music, drama and

Sharpless, Germont Père Traviata (Opera Pacific), Creon Oedipus

and

Don Giovanni (Royal Opera), Marcello Bohème (Dresden), Enrico

dance at Birmingham University, Berlin

Rex (Opera North), Junius The Rape of Lucretia (Lausanne), Masetto

include Cavalleria Rusticana, Pagliacci, The

Lucia di Lammermoor (Chicago Lyric Opera), Amfortas Parsifal

Buttercup HMS Pinafore, Edith Pirates of

and future plans include Marquis de la Force Dialogues of the

London.

Recent

appearances

Flying Dutchman (WNO), Cousin Hebe and

Penzance and Pitti-Sing cover Mikado (Carl Rosa Opera, with tour

of Australia, New Zealand), Other roles include Annina Traviata

(Graz), Don Pedro Maria Padilla (Minnesota). Recent engagements

Carmelites, Marcello Bohème, Mr Redburn Billy Budd (ENO), Orazio Orazi e Curiazzi (Minnesota).

119

(Dream Opera) and Dr Miracle Tales of Hoffmann (Abbey Opera).

at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden where roles included


LUKASZ JAKOBCZYK

Carmen, and Kromov Merry Widow. As a chorus member Peter

Basilio The Barber of Seville

Ballo in Maschera and Barber of Seville (Holland Park), Mikado, The

education as a bassoonist and only later

Die Fledermaus (Carl Rosa Opera).

Nevill Holt Young Artist

has appeared in Fancuilla del West, Luisa Miller, Norma, Tosca,

Born in Poland Lukasz started his musical

Gondoliers, Pirates of Penzance, Iolanthe, Yeoman of the Guard and

studied voice, first at the Poznan Music Academy and, since 2004, the Royal

Nevill Holt Young Artist

and Frere Laurent in Gounod’s Roméo and Juliette (British Youth

London born Serena trained at the Royal

competition in Blackburn.

Guido Flavio, Hermia Midsummer Night’s

Sivilia, Banquo Macbeth, Leporello/Commendatore Don Giovanni,

Rosina The Barber of Seville

Opera). In October 2005 he won the Junior Kathleen Ferrier

College of Music where roles included Dream and Zita Gianni Schicchi. Other roles

NICHOLAS JENKINS Chorus Master

include Rosina Barber of Seville (Clonter), title role Cenerentola

College,

(Mid Wales), Sara Tobias and the Angel (ETO / Young Vic), Second

Guildhall School. Nicholas was Assistant

Classical Opera) and Adriano Adriano in Syria (Classical Opera

performances

T’Ang in Nixon in China.

Nicholas

studied

at

Merton

Oxford, Trinity College of Music and the

Lady Magic Flute (Opera North), Rosina La Vera Costanza (Bampton

Conductor to Marc Minkowski for the

Company). Future engagements include her ENO debut as Nancy

of

the

re-discovered

Offenbach opera Les Fées du Rhin (Opéra

National de Lyon) and assisted on Turn of the Screw, Semele

CATRINE KIRKMAN ensemble

projects include conducting Così fan tutte (Besançon), Assistant

from the Guildhall School of Music &

Les Musiciens du Louvre for Dido & Aeneas (Théâtre du Chatelet).

Kitchen Boy and Second Nymph in Rusalka

(Manoel Theatre, Malta), Vanessa (Bloomsbury Theatre). Future

Catrine graduated with a Masters degree

Conductor for Rameau’s Platée (Palais Garnier), Chorus Master to

Drama. Recent operatic roles include the

SUSAN JIWEY

Nevill Holt Young Artist

Berta The Barber of Seville / ensemble

120

SERENA KAY

College of Music. His repertoire includes Don Basilio Il Barbiere di

(Iford Festival), Juliet in a new production

of Britten’s The Little Sweep (Britten

Festival in Aldeburgh) and Laurette in Bizet’s Doctor Miracle.

Roles include Adina L’Elisir d’Amore (Vox

STEPHEN LANGRIDGE

title role in Handel’s Alcina. She has sung

Stephen directed Maria Stuarda in 2005

Lirika), Apparition Macbeth (Holland Park),

Director Le Nozze di Figaro

with the Allegri Quartet and this summer

at

sings Donna Elvira with Opéra de Baugé. VICTORIA JOYCE

Grange

Park.

Current

and

recent

productions include The Minotaur by Sir Harrison Birtwistle, (World Premiere,

Royal Opera House 2008), Tangier Tattoo

Adina The Elixir of Love

(World Premiere Glyndebourne Touring Opera, 2005), Barbe Bleu

as La Charmeuse Thais, returning in 2004

Austria, 2007 and Grange Park Opera 2008). Other productions

production by Elijah Moshinsky of The

Bregenz and Huddersfield Festivals), Cosi and Marriage of Figaro

engagements in Europe include Queen of the Night (State Opera

(ENO), Arianna in Creta, The Turn of the Screw (National Reisopera,

Festival Pesaro), Fauré Requiem in Brussels. Since graduating

Greek National Opera), La Navarraise, Le Portrait de Manon, and

included Sophie Werther, and Naiad/Zerbinetta Ariadne Auf Naxos

The Mask of Orpheus (South Bank Centre), La Cenerentola (Welsh

the Royal Opera House at the Linbury Studio she created the roles

Story (Bullingdon and Mountjoy Prisons), I Pagliacci and Gianni

Victoria Joyce made her ENO debut in 2003

by Offenbach (co-production Bregenz Festival 2006, St Polten,

as Queen of the Night, and Mabel in a new

include The Passion of IO (world premiere Aldeburgh, then Almeida,

Pirates Of Penzance. Recent and current

Hamburg), Contessa di Folleville Viaggio a Reims (Rossini Opera from the Royal Northern College of Music, UK engagements have (Holland Park, Aldeburgh Festival, and English Touring Opera). For

of Policeman/Duck in Martin Ward’s Wind In The Willows. Victoria is generously sponsored by the Peter Moores Foundation.

(Ystad Festival Sweden), Semele (Buxton), For the Public Good

Holland), Orfeo (Japanese tour), The Possessed (world premiere

L’Enfant Prodigue (GSMD), Giulio Cesare (Opera de Bordeaux),

National Opera). For Pimlico Opera Cosi, Don Giovanni, West Side

Schicchi, La Traviata and Falstaff.

COLIN LEE

PETER KENT ensemble

Nemorino The Elixir of Love

in Aida, Carmen, Butterfly, Cavalleria

in 1994 and joined English National Opera

Hall. Peter's recent solo roles include

Barber of Seville, Helenus and Iopas The

Giuseppe Traviata (Holland Park), Marco

Other roles include Almaviva Il Barbiere di Seviglia (Garsington,

With Raymond Gubbay Peter has appeared

Born in South Africa, Colin moved to London

Rusticana and I Pagliacci at Royal Albert

in 2002 where roles included Almaviva

Parpignol La Boheme, First Prisoner Fidelio, and Francesco The Gondoliers (Carl Rosa Opera), Remendado

Trojans, Ferrando Cosi and Fenton Falstaff.

WNO and Dijon), Ermanno L’equivoco Stravagante and Comte Ory


(Garsington), Ernesto Don Pasquale and Lindoro l’Italiana in Algeri

FLORA MCINTOSH

Juive (Bastille), Marzio

Flora began singing in 1995 and entered

(Klagenfurt). Plans include Nemorino in Klagenfurt, Léopold La

Myrtale Thais / ensemble

in Algeri (Lille, Amiens and Caen), Tonio La Fille du Regiment at

the RNCM in 1999, graduating with 1st

Florez, and Ramiro Cenerentola (WNO).

includes Meg Page Falstaff, Papagena/3rd

Mitridate (Salzburg), Lindoro L’Italiana

class

Covent Garden next January, sharing the role with Juan Diego

honours.

Operatic

experience

Lady, Dorabella, Suzanne in Butler’s A

JAMIE LONSDALE ensemble

Better Place, Judith Duke Bluebeard’s Castle, Soprano, Oliver’s A

as a Midshipman, spending five years

The Queen of Spades, and Fanny Nelson/Emma Hamilton in the

Navy. At 24 he returned from sea and

Batignano Festival she appeared as Armida in Handel’s Armida

Since embarking on his vocal studies in

and the Southbank Sinfonia at Westminster Cathedral.

Born in London Jamie went to Dartmouth

Man of Feeling, The Drummer, The Emperor of Atlantis, Masha

sailing round the world with the Royal

world premiere of Bawden’s A Sailor’s Tale (and recording). At

became involved in asset management.

Abbandonata. Future plans include Elijah with Sir Thomas Allen

1997, his appearances include The Usher Trial by Jury (Wantage),

Gherardo Gianni Schicchi (Opera Anywhere), Sergeant Kenneth

JAMES MCORAN-CAMPBELL

Sciaronne, and the Jailer Tosca (O4 Opera).

Figaro The Barber of Seville

Nevill Holt Young Artist

Johnston South Pacific (Grange Park Opera), and as Spoletta,

James trained at the Guildhall School of Music & Drama and at the National Opera

JEFFREY LLOYD-ROBERTS Nicias Thais Born

in

Wales,

Jeffrey

Studio. He has appeared recently with studied

at

Lancaster University and RNCM. Operatic

Opera North as Don Giovanni and Count

Figaro and as Belcore l’Elisir d’Amore for Nevill Holt Young Artists.

performances include Andres Wozzeck,

Other roles include title role Don Giovanni (Opera North), Dandini

Francesca da Rimini, Jenik The Bartered

Scholar (Opera East), Marcello Bohème, Harashta The Cunning

Laca Jenufa, Rodolfo La Bohème, Paolo

Cenerentola, Dunmow A Dinner Engagement, Louis The Wandering

Bride, Weill’s Love Life and One touch of Venus (Opera North),

Little Vixen and Masetto Don Giovanni (English Touring Opera) and

Janek The Makropulos Case (WNO), Judas The Last Supper

created the roles of Mohammed and Alec Harvey in the premières

of Tiresias, Peter Quint The Turn of the Screw, Lenski Eugene Onegin

Wiegold. He has appeared with the orchestras of WNO and Royal

Florestan Fidelio, Don José Carmen and Macduff Macbeth (ETO), (Glyndebourne at QEH), Yuri The Enchantress, Husband The Breasts

La fidelta premiata, title role Albert Herring, Burlotto Le pescatrici,

of Manifest Destiny by Keith Burstein and Brief Encounter by Peter

Ballet Sinfonia.

Baron Lummer Intermezzo, Sir Morosus Die Schweigsame Frau

KEVIN MCRAE ensemble

Freischütz (Zwingenberg) and Peter Quint (Opera Omaha). Future

Town where he sang with the CAPAB

Alexei The Gambler (Grange Park), and Das Lied von der Erde

Opera. Having settled in this country, he

and Matteo Arabella (Garsington). Abroad he has sung Max Der

Kevin studied at the University of Cape

engagements include the title role of Peter Grimes (Opera North),

Opera Company and Roodepoort City

(Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra).

commenced singing studies with Norman

The arrival of Elizabeth I at Court Janis Kelly (Queen Elizabeth) in Maria Stuarda Grange Park Opera 2005 Director Stephen Langridge Designer George Souglides Festival Lighting Designer Chris Davey

121

(Grange Park), Hoffmann (Diva Opera throughout France), Lindoro

Count and Figaro in Le Nozze di Figaro (BYO & Opera Brava). He


Bailey and has appeared for Opera Inside Out, European Chamber

award-winning Featherstonehaughs, he performed with many

Barbiere di Siviglia, Philippo Don Carlo, Alidoro La Cenerentola and

Second Stride, Toronto Dance Theatre and Extemporary.

Opera, Central Festival Opera and Pavilion Opera as Bartolo Il

other leading dance companies including DV8 Physical Theatre,

Germont La Traviata.

a choreographer Dan’s work includes ATC’s Jeff Koons, Frantic

Assembly’s Peepshow, Great Expectations (Bristol Old Vic), Monkey

VUYANI MLINDE

(Young Vic) and Escapade (South Bank Centre). Dan’s work for

Vuyani began his training with Wilhelm

The Human Voice (Channel 4), IMZ nominated Showtime (SE Arts)

South Africa in 1999, won an eight month

Dan leads workshops and residencies for various organisations

Young

and Dance on Screen.

screen includes Desert Dreams (BBC), The Linesman (BBC/NPS),

Palemon Thais / ensemble

Theunissen at the Free State Musicon,

and many other short dance films and documentaries. As a teacher

scholarship at the Opera Queensland

including RADA and The Laban Centre, in both Physical Theatre

Artist

Programme

and

for

2005/2006 has won a full scholarship at Royal College of Music.

Roles include Bonze Madama Butterfly (South Africa), Zuniga

ANNE-MARIE OWENS

Station by Isak Roux for Bass and String quartet, Sarastro Magic

Anne-Marie Owens studied at the Guildhall

Don Giovanni (Australia), Colline La Boheme (South African State

Opera Studio. She made her professional

Carmen (the first opera presented in Mozambique), he premiered

Marcellina Le Nozze di Figaro

Flute (University of Potchefstroom), Angelotti Tosca, Leporello

School of Music & Drama and the National

Theatre). Coming engagements include a concert for former

President of South Africa Dr. Nelson Mandela, Zuniga Carmen

debut

as

Mistress

until 23 June

Quickly

Falstaff

(Glyndebourne Tour) and joined English

(Haddo), Il Commendatore with Sir Thomas Allen as Don Giovanni,

National Opera in 1985, where recent roles include Anezka The Two

College of Music). This is Vuyani's professional début in Britain.

Rusalka, and Judith Weir’s Blond Eckbert (filmed for Channel 4).

Massimiliano Masnadieri, Nick Shadow Rake’s Progress (Royal He is supported by the Peter Moores Foundation and Ernest Oppenheimer Memorial Trust.

ANDREW O’CONNOR ensemble

Born in London, Andrew studied at The

Guildhall School of Music & Drama. He has

122

As

Widows, High Priestess La Vestale, Marfa Khovanshchina, Jezibaba Anne-Marie’s extensive opera repertoire has included Brangäne

Tristan und Isolde, Amneris Aida, Azucena Il Trovatore, Venus Tannhäuser, Herodias Salome and Santuzza Cavalleria Rusticana.

Recent engagements include Morozova in Tchaikovsky’s Opricnick (Cagliari), Madelon Andrea Chenier (Scottish Opera), Ragonde Le

Comte Ory (Garsington) and Witch Hänsel und Gretel for Opera

sung in Japan, Australia and New Zealand,

Australia. Future engagements include Mrs Grose Turn of the Screw

in Carmen, Bohème (Royal Albert Hall),

North) and Jezibaba in Rusalka (Opera Australia). Anne-Marie

USA and across Europe and has appeared Tristan und Isolde (Glyndebourne Festival),

Die Fledermaus and La Boheme (Holland Park), Madama Butterfly,

Carmen (London City Opera), Cosi and Romeo & Juliet (British

Youth Opera). Andrew played 1930's boxing champion, Jack Kid Berg in Howard Fredric’s The Whitechapel Whirlwind.

(Glyndebourne Festival), Herodias Salome (Santa Fe and Opera has also appeared with Royal Opera House Covent Garden, Welsh

National Opera, Opera North, Opéra National de Paris, Théâtre Royale de La Monnaie, Opéra de Lausanne, New York City Opera,

Santiago Opera, Arizona Opera, Lyric Opera of Chicago, Opera di San Carlo, the Komische Oper, Berlin, Bayerische Staatsoper.

DAN O'NEILL Movement Thais / Le Nozze di Figaro

GILLIAN POLLOCK ensemble

as a Choreographer and Filmmaker. A founder member of the

Whilst a student she received the Countess of Munster award and

Dan enjoyed an extensive performing career before working

Gillian graduated from Napier University, RWCMD and RSAMD.

Stephen Richardson (Mamirov), Carole Wilso Janis Kelly (Queen Elizabeth), Adrian Dwyer (Leicester), Director Stephen Langridge Designer George Souglides T


received a Silver Medal from the Worshipful

Theatre his roles included Count Almaviva Le nozze di Figaro,

include Judith Elegies Willy Russell, Le Feu

Boheme, Tarquinius The Rape of Lucretia and Captain The Death

Company of Musicians. Her opera roles / La Princesse L’Enfant et les Sortileges, title role Aida (Windsor & Eton).

John Sorel The Consul, Ramiro L’heure espanole, Marcello La

of Klinghoffer. Engagements this season include Elder McLean Susannah, Podesta in Dr Miracle (Wexford Festival) and Count

Almaviva Le Nozze di Figaro (Opera North). Howard represented Ireland in the 2005 BBC Singer of the World Competition.

ALEX POULTON ensemble

STEPHEN RICHARDSON

and Hochschule für Musik, Weimar. He has

British

City Opera, Court Opera Productions,

Manchester University before training at

Alex studied at Birmingham Conservatoire

Dr Bartolo Le Nozze di Figaro

sung roles with Mid-Wales Opera, London

born in Liverpool and read music at

Longborough Festival Opera and The

the Royal Northern College of Music. A

includes Yamadori Butterfly (US tours with Columbia Artists), Don

has given the premiere performances of a number of important

(Royal Scottish Ballet), Masetto Don Giovanni (Zeist Opera Festival,

Royal Opera, Covent Garden and The Emperor in Tan Dun’s Tea

European Chamber Opera. Recent work

bass

Stephen

Richardson

was

specialist in contemporary repertoire he

José in a contemporary score based upon the story of Carmen

works including Adès’ The Tempest in the role of Stephano at the

Netherlands) and Zuniga / Dancaïro Carmen (tour of Thailand).

at Suntory Hall, Tokyo. This season he made his debut at Opera

JONATHAN PUGSLEY ensemble Jonathan

recently

completed

Australia as Falstaff, and Sarastro in Die Zauberflöte. He has also performed the role of Kaspar in Weber’s Der Freischütz with Opera

a

post–

de Rennes and Don Quichotte (Fénelon’s Le Chevalier Imaginaire)

a Peter

for Ensemble Intercontemporain. As a concert artist Stephen

and Tartato in Detlev Glanert’s opera

Forthcoming concerts include Adès’ Powder her Face with the

graduate year at RNCM and is

Moores Scholar. He has premiered Sottile

Richardson is recognised for the broadness of his repertoire.

Enigma, and Chailly’s Monologue Il Libro

London Symphony Orchestra at the Barbican, conducted by the

dei

Reclami

(Montepulciano).

Other

appearances include Bartolo, Colline La Bohème and Angelotti

composer, and Handel’s Messiah (Minnesota Orchestra). ERIC ROBERTS

e Clorinda (Goldberg Ensemble), Mr Page Merry Wives of Windsor

Eric studied at the Royal Northern College

Uberto La Serva Padrona, Tancredi Il combatemento di Tancredi

Dulcamara The Elixir of Love

(Opera South), Achillas Julius Caesar (Yorke Trust) and Page Amahl

of Music and made his first professional

& the Night Visitors (Northern Sinfonia).

appearances at WNO as Papageno The Magic

HOWARD REDDY

Count Almaviva Le Nozze di Figaro

Flute,

Falke

Die

Fledermaus,

Shelkalov Boris Godunov, Novice’s Friend

Billy Budd and Guglielmo Cosi. He has since worked with all the

Born in Carlow, Ireland, Howard took

major British opera companies. For Scottish Opera roles include

University College Dublin and last year

Mahagonny, Bartolo Barber of Seville and Mr Redburn Billy Budd

Music, Philadelphia. With the Curtis Opera

in the Underworld, Alfonso Cosi, Don Isaacs in Gherard’s The

a degree in Business and Law from graduated from the Curtis Institute of

onMajella (Yevpraksia) plot (Mary to kill The Enchantress Cullagh Stuart) in Maria Stuarda Grange Park Opera 2005 The Enchantress Grange Park Opera 2004 Director & Designer David Fielding

Lord Mountararat Iolanthe, Trinity Moses The Rise & Fall of

and with Opera North: Bartolo Barber of Seville, Jupiter Orpheus

123

Tosca (Opus 21), Alidoro Cenerentola (RNCM, Ryedale Festival),


Duenna, Sir Robert Cecil Gloriana, Papageno and Mr Gedge Albert

(Kazan, tour of Holland and France), co-design of costumes La

and multi roles Pacific Overtures, and, for Glyndebourne, Benoit

Nine the musical (Malmo, Sweden), Manon Lescaut (Gothenburg

Herring. For ENO he sang Koko Mikado, Mayor Christmas Eve

Boheme (Bregenz Festival dir. Antony McDonald & Richard Jones),

and Alcindoro in their televised production of La Boheme. At the

Opera), Manon Lescaut (dir. Keith Warner, ENO).

Buxton Festival he appeared most recently as Montroc Un Giorno di Regno and Don Andres Perichole. Eric's work abroad has included

JAMES SCARLETT ensemble

Omaha), Elder Son The Prodigal Son (La Fenice), the baritone roles

Art at KIAD, Canterbury and completed

(Vancouver), Faninal Der Rosenkavalier (Spoleto Festival) and

course at TCM. Roles include Don Curzio

Dr Bartolo (Brisbane Lyric Opera), title role Eugene Onegin (Opera

James was born in Bromley, studied Fine

Death in Venice (Flanders), Major General The Pirates of Penzance

the advanced post-graduate diploma

Magnifico Cenerentola (Opera Zuid and Frankfurt). This season’s

(SOC and BYO), Mercury Orpheus in the

Psychiatrist One Touch of Venus (Opera North / Ravenna Festival)

Bleecker Street (Peacock Theatre), Don Ramiro Cenerentola and

and future plans include Dr Bartolo Barber of Seville (WNO), Ko-Ko Mikado (ENO).

Underworld (BYO), Michele The Saint of

title role Comte Ory. Future engagements include Almaviva Barber of Seville.

TOM RODEN

Movement The Elixir of Love

AMY SEDGWICK ensemble

comedy group New Art Club. Their work

where her solo appearances included

Tom is Co-Director of the dance, theatre,

Amy studied at Huddersfield and GSMD

The Short Still Show was a finalist at last

Bianca in Thea Musgrave’s The voice of

shows, The Electric Tales and the award

Suzuki Madame Butterfly and Dulcinee

Ariadne, Veronique in Bizet’s Dr Miracle,

years Place Prize and their two previous winning This Is Modern, have toured Europe and America. He has choreographed work for Air Dance Company, Scottish Dance

in Massenet’s Don Quixote. Chorus work

includes Cosi fan tutte, Marriage of Figaro (Garsington).

124

Theatre, Reckless Sleepers and The Glee Club. Choreography for

opera includes Hansel & Gretel and Magic Flute (Opera North) and

MARK SHANAHAN

in his own work he performed in the film of Twelfth Night directed

Mark studied at Chetham’s school of Music,

Bregenz Festival .

of Music. His previous appearances at

Babettes Feast (Linbury, Royal Opera House). As well as appearing

Conductor The Elixir of Love

by Tim Supple and danced the lead role in Cunning Little Vixen at

London University and the Royal Academy

Grange Park include Mikado (also La EMMA RYOTT

Fenice), Traviata (also Opera North) and I

Associate Designer The Barber of Seville

Capuleti e i Montecchi. For ENO he is largely associated with Italian

Polytechnic. Current and recent work

and Puccini La Boheme, La Traviata, Ernani, Otello and Tosca. He

Warner, Dresden 2007), Berenice (dir.

Symphony Orchestra of Ireland, Stavanger Symphony, the Orchestre

Touch of Venus (dir. Tim Albery, Opera North), Sandman, Lulu, Eine

Philharmonic Orchestra and The English Northern Philharmonia.

Ballet), Ulysses & Penelope (chor. Christian Spuck, Royal Ballet of

Rigoletto (Opera North), Following his debut in 2005 at Frankfurt

Kimoulis, Epidaurus, 2005), The King and I (UK Tour), Marriage of

and in 2007–08 Simon Boccanegra.

Emma studied Theatre Design at Trent

repertoire: La Forza del Destino, Barber of Seville, Leoncavallo

includes Damnation of Faust (dir. Keith

has been invited to conduct the Halle, BBC Philharmonic, National

Christian Spuck, Heidelberg Opera), One

Filarmonica de Gran Canaria, Netherlands Symphony, Royal

Monstre Tragödie, La Peau Blanche (chor. Christian Spuck, Stuttgart

Future plans include his return to the National Reisopera and

Flanders 2006). Other work includes Oedipus Rex (dir. George

Opera with Tosca, he will return for productions of Death In Venice

Figaro (Savoy Theatre, dir. Matthew Richardson), The Pearl Fishers

Freddie Tong (Dulcamara) arrives in town The Elixir of Love Nevill Holt 2005 Nevill Holt Young Artists Director Martin Constantine Designer Lez Brotherston Lighting Designer Jon Clark


KIM SHEEHAN Barbarina Le Nozze di Figaro

KELLY SHARP ensemble

Kelly studied at Huddersfield University

Irish soprano, Kim Sheehan is currently at the Benjamin Britten

title role Iolanthe, Juno Orpheus in the

L’infedelta delusa (Bampton Classical Opera), Susanna (cover),

and Kit Kat Girl Cabaret. Grange Park

(cover) Faust (Opera South), Contessa De Folleville Il Viaggio a

Opera, First Act Opera, The Gilbert & Sullivan Opera Company and

Youth Opera), Adina L’Elisir d’Amore, Despina, Cosi Fan Tutte

and Trinity College of Music. Roles include

International Opera School at the RCM. Her roles include Vespina

Underworld, Bridesmaid Le Nozze di Figaro

Marriage of Figaro (Garsington), Fulvia (cover) Ezio (RCM), Siebel

Opera, Swansea City Opera, British Youth

Reims, Vixen (cover) & Young Vixen The Cunning Little Vixen (British

The Bold Balladiers.

(Opera Ireland). Future engagements include Adele Fledermaus (RCM), Anna Page (cover) Merry Wives of Windsor (Opera South).

NICK SHARRATT Nevill Holt Young Artist Almaviva The Barber of Seville Born

in

Nottingham,

Nicholas

OLAFUR SIGURDARSON

Figaro Le Nozze di Figaro

read

Commerce at Birmingham University, and

Born in Iceland, Olafur trained at the

of Music and National Opera Studio. He

Academy of Music and Royal Scottish

went on to the Royal Northern College

Reykjavik

appeared last year as Nemorino L'Elisir

Academy of Music & Drama. In 2001 he

debut singing First Prisoner Fidelio (Chatelet and Birmingham

Icelandic Opera’s ensemble. Recent engagements have included

d'Amore for Nevill Holt Young Artists. He made his Glyndebourne

College

of

Singing,

Royal

was apppointed the first principal of the

Opera Company) and was awarded the Erich Vietheer Memorial

Scarpia Tosca, Figaro Le Nozze di Figaro and title role Macbeth,

Proms), understudy, title role Albert Herring and Snout Midsummer

La Bohème and Tarquinius The Rape Of Lucretia (Icelandic Opera),

Dialogues of the Carmelites (IVAI Tel Aviv), Eufemio di Siracusa Gli

West, Tonio I Pagliacci, title role Macbeth (Holland Park), Escamillo

Ernesto Pasquale (Mananan Festival), Pedrillo Entfuhrung, Fenton

Ballad Of Baby Doe (English Touring Opera), and Garibaldo cover

L’infedelta delusa (Bampton) and Pedrillo Entfuhrung (Opera

Award, 2002. Other roles include Rudolph Euryanthe (also BBC Night’s Dream. (Glyndebourne), Tamino Zauberflote, Chevalier Equivoci (Batignano), Four Servants Tales of Hoffmann (Wexford),

Falstaff (Opera Project), Ernesto La Vera Costanza, Nencio

Figaro Il Barbiere di Siviglia, Papageno The Magic Flute, Schaunard

title role Rigoletto (Mid Wales Opera), Jack Rance La Fanciulla del Carmen, Sulpice La Fille du Regiment and Horace Tabor The

Rodelinda (Glyndebourne Touring Opera).

GEORGE SOUGLIDES

include his Opera North debut singing Eusebio Love’s Luggage

Current work includes a joint production of

Touch of Venus.

2006, St Polten, Austria, 2007 and Grange

and Andres Maria del Carmen for NAXOS. Recent engagements

Designer Le Nozze di Figaro / Barber

Lost, Tinca Il Tabarro, Brother Seven Deadly Sins, Rodney One

Offenbach's Barbe Bleu for Bregenz Festival Park Opera 2008. Recent productions

OLIVIA SHRIVE

include Maria Stuarda (Grange Park Opera

Bridesmaid Le Nozze di Figaro / ensemble

2005), Peace by Aristophanes (Epidaurus Festival 2005 and tour),

the RWCMD, Cardiff. She has made recent

Der Freischutz costumes (Reisopera, Holland), Marriage of Figaro

St. Martin in the Fields, The Mansion

Harris Vronto (Athens), Xerxes and L’Elisir d’Amore (Greek National

Olivia was born in Norfolk and studied at

Arianna in Creta (Reisopera, Holland), Semele (Buxton Festival),

solo appearances at St. Paul’s Cathedral,

(Ystad, Sweden and Guildhall School of Music), The Possessed by

House and at a Royal banquet in Kuala

Opera). Previous work includes: Madame Butterfly (Opera on a

Lumpur. Her roles include Dorabella Cosi (Starlight Opera) and Carmen (City Opera). This is her second year at Grange Park.

Shoestring, Citizens, Glasgow), Arcadia, Bourgeois Gentilhomme

(Thessaloniki), The Private Room (New End Theatre), The Talking Cure (Athens), Midsummer Night’s Dream (Aldeburgh Festival),

125

Project). Recordings include the Judge Schwanda the Bagpiper


Cosi fan tutte (Scottish Opera Go Round) and Rape of Lucretia

Festivals, recordings of Fanny in Il Prigoniero d’Edimborgo, and

the indoor version of Un Ballo in Maschera for the Bregenz Festival.

the world première of Gerald Barry's The Bitter Tears of Petra von

(Britten Pears School, Snape). In 1999 and 2000 George designed

Emma d’Antiochia for Opera Rara. Rebecca appeared as Karin in

Productions for Castleward Opera include La Traviata and Don

Kant for English National Opera.

Pasquale and for Opera Northern Ireland, Maria Stuarda.

MATTHEW WALDREN ensemble

KARIN THYSELIUS ensemble

Matthew studied at Cambridge University,

at the GSMD. She has appeared in Brahms

Florissants, Raymond Gubbay, Grange Park

Mass (King’s College Chapel, Cambridge),

Credits include: Masetto Don Giovanni,

Masses (Netherlands). Karin’s opera roles

and Boatswain HMS Pinafore, La Vengeance Medée, Thesée, Fidelio,

Karin was born in Stockholm and studied

and GSMD and has performed for Les Arts

Requiem, Fauré Requiem, Mozart C minor

Opera, Holland Park, and Carl Rosa Opera.

Poulenc Gloria, Vivaldi Gloria, Schubert

include Shepherd Boy Tosca, First Boy and Papagena Zauberflöte,

Virtù L’Incoronazione di Poppea, and Frasquita Carmen.

Tosca, Die Fledermaus and much of the G & S canon. VICTORIA WARD ensemble

FREDDIE TONG Nevill Holt Young Artist

Victoria trained at Merseyside Dance &

Freddie was born in Hong Kong. He

is a guest choreographer. Credits include

at University College London and went on

Brothers, Constance Three Musketeers (all

Recent operatic roles include Dulcamara

Opera (Bridewell / ENO Bayliss) and Make-Up Mary It’s Christmas

Pimlico Opera), Masetto Don Giovanni (Holland Park), El Dancairo

Theatre, Hamburg), Hebe HMS Pinafore, Pitti-Sing Mikado (Carl

(Minotaur Music Theatre), Papageno The Magic Flute, Baron La

(Pimlico Opera / HMP Ashwell, HMP Coldingley). For Grange Park

Bartolo The Barber of Seville

Drama Centre and Mountview where she

gained a BSc in Economics and Statistics

Molly Wesley John Wesley, Brenda Blood

to the Guildhall School of Music & Drama.

national tours), Polly Peachum Beggar’s

L’Elisir d’Amore (Grange Park Opera Nevill Holt Young Artist,

Carol! Abroad she has appeared in Don’t Misunderstand Me (English

Carmen (Singapore Lyric Opera), Don Magnifico Cenerentola

Rosa, Australian tour). Victoria was Sarah-Jane Moore Assassins

Traviata, King of Egypt Aida (Kentish Opera), Figaro Le Nozze

she played Helen Wonderful Town, Dina South Pacific.

di Figaro (Opera! Festival in Zeist, Holland and Pavilion Opera),

Henrik Masquerade, Second Elder Susanna, Sirocco L’Etoile, and

126

Zuniga Carmen, Bob Beckett, Dick Deadeye

Ebn-Hakia Iolanta (GSMD).

Albine Thais

Harriet studied at GSMD. At Grange Park

GLENN TWEEDIE ensemble Glenn

HARRIET WILLIAMS

was

born

in

Belfast,

roles include Nenila Enchantress, Anna Maria studied

Geography & Social Sciences, and then

worked in Government before switching

Stuarda. Other work includes Quickly Falstaff

(ETO), Smeaton Anna Bolena (Tower of

London) Old Sister Babette’s Feast (Linbury

to music. He studied at RNCM and the

Studio), Marcellina Figaro (Music Theatre Kernow), Cherubino

include Torquemada L’Heure Espagnole,

Opera Group), Kate Pinkerton Butterfly and Angelina Cenerentola

Royal College of Music. Recent opera roles

Lacouf Les Mamelles des Tiresias, Caius Falstaff, Eduard Un Giorno

di Regno, Piqillo Perichole, Don Luigi Maria Padilla, Monostatos Magic Flute and Pifear Si j'étais Roi, Professor South Pacific (Grange Park), HMS Pinafore (Carl Rosa tour Australia / New Zealand), Peter Grimes (Nationale Reisoper, Holland), Viennese Gala (UK tour).

Figaro and Flora Traviata (WNO), Parseis Esclarmonde (Chelsea (Clonter), Annina Traviata (Bath & Wessex Opera), Carmen (English

Pocket Opera) and Ariodante (Early Opera Company). IAN WILSON-POPE ensemble

London born, Ian studied at Trinity. In

2001 he won the Ricordi Opera Prize for

REBECCA VON LIPINSKI

his portrayal of Nonancourt in Nino Rota’s

Rebecca was born in Mansfield, and

appeared at Grange Park Opera covering

Music in Manchester supported by the

last two seasons. Latest roles include Don Fernando Fidelio, Henry

Countess Le Nozze di Figaro

studied at the Royal Northern College of Peter Moores Foundation. Rebecca was a member of the National Opera Studio in

Il Cappello di Paglia di Firenze. He has Talbot Maria Stuarda and ensemble for the

Kissinger Nixon in China and Enrico (Henry) VIII Anna Bolena.

London 2002–03 season and Glyndebourne Festival Opera Chorus

SIMON WORRELL ensemble

Dream, and performing Berthe Euryanthe. Recent engagements

practised as a hospital doctor. He has

Orchestra at the Barbican, London, Sophie in Flashmob for BBC

Opera Interludes as Gaston La Traviata

in 2001 and 2002 covering the role of Helena A Midsummer Night’s

Before attending the Guildhall Simon

include title role The Second Mrs Kong with the BBC Symphony

sung with European Chamber Opera and

Television, Musetta La Bohème (Scottish Opera), Carmina Burana

and Curlew River (Britten-Pears School).

with the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra, Mabel Pirates of Penzance (Carl Rosa Opera Company at the Buxton and Malvern

Other appearances include La Boheme,

Acis & Galatea, Barber of Seville and Elixir of Love (Holland Park).


APPLICATION FOR M G R A N G E

PA R K

ope r a

&

OPERA

CATEGORIES OF SUPPORT

AT

N E V I L L H O LT

7

NOTE that tickets are for the use of the family of the registered individual and must not be sold on

I would like to support Grange Park Opera

THE glass ceiling SOCIETY The proposed donation (£1,000) will be acknowledged in the programme. Members may wish to support us further with an application for tickets for the season. Members will be invited to gatherings associated with the development of the festival and will be invited to apply for tickets for the tenth birthday concert. THE SCHOOL OF HIPPOCR ATES The proposed donation (£600 for one year) will be acknowledged in the programme. Members may wish to support us further with an application for up to 16 tickets for the season and will be invited to a postperformance party and will be invited to apply for two tickets for the tenth birthday concert. THE SCHOOL OF ARCHIMEDES The proposed donation (£300 for one year) will be acknowledged in the programme. Members may wish to support us further with an application for up to 8 tickets. THE SCHOOL OF PLATO The proposed donation (£150 for one year) will be acknowledged in the programme. Members may wish to support us further with an application for 4 tickets for the season. THE MAILING LIST £25 is the suggested donation and we will send you a list of available dates and ticket prices in February so that you can book promptly. The full calendar of dates can viewed on the website from November. The Schools of Plato, Archimedes, Hippocrates and The Glass Ceiling Society do not need to join the mailing list.

I would like to support the Opera at Nevill Holt THE captain’s table The proposed donation (£375 for one year) will be acknowledged in the programme. Members may wish to support us further with an application for up to 12 tickets for the Nevill Holt festival and 4 tickets for the Grange Park festival. You will be invited into the Great Hall for a glass of champagne after a performance to meet the cast and conductor. THE CLIPPER CLASS The proposed donation (£175 for one year) will be acknowledged in the programme. The Clipper Class may wish to support us further with an application for up to 8 tickets for the Nevill Holt festival and 2 tickets for the Grange Park festival. THE stowaways The proposed donation (£75 for one year) will be acknowledged in the programme. The Stowaways may wish support us further with an application for up to 6 tickets for the Nevill Holt festival. Please send to Grange Park Opera, The Coach House, 12 St Thomas Street, Winchester SO23 9HF keeping a copy for yourself I enclose a personal cheque payable to Grange Park Opera for £

Customs & Excise have asked us to point out that donations of lesser and greater amounts are acceptable and that tickets are not guaranteed

Name ___________________________________ Acknowledgement__________________________________ Please give your title, forename and surname and indicate how you would like to be acknowledged in the programme (for example Mr Michael Wood CBE)

Address _________________________________ Signature__________________________________________

are you on board ?

________________________________________ Date______________________________________________ ________________________________________ tel day_ ___________________________________________ ________________________________________ fax day____________________________________________ Postcode ________________________________ tel eve ____________________________________________ year of birth______________________________

mobile ____________________________________________

email_________________________________________________________________________________________ special request_________________________________________________________________________________

GIFT AID

declaration for grange park opera (charity no 1068046)

Please reclaim tax on all donations I have made since 6 April 2000 and all donations I make hereafter until further notice. The April 2000 Gift Aid regulations are financially advantageous to charities without costing you any more. All donations are eligible if you pay an amount of income tax or capital gains tax equal to the tax we may reclaim on your donations (currently 28p for every £1 you give). There is no longer a special form. We will assume that your donations are eligible for Gift Aid unless you strike out this section.


Elixir by Diva The first correct solution opened on 30th August will receive two tickets for the 2007 tenth anniversary festival Send solutions to : Grange Park Opera (Crossword), The Coach House, 12 St Thomas Street, Winchester SO23 9HF

ACROSS

DOWN

5 Opposite of love? Another type? (8)

3

2

1 Will forlorn swain embracing onset of love suit them? (6)

4

9,24 O’s in the barrel – gallon swallowed by French aristocrats

12

5

How to view this puzzle? 5 across of O also favourable

Fancy man consequently caught in law breaking (9)

6

Boil over with love (4)

7

Gets lucky with love handles! (5)

8

14 It could, we're told, be the hair style gets one weak at the

13

knees to account for … (11)

15

16 … a sort of increase allowing 2O to cancel … (11)

17

20 … trouble concerning love (5)

21 As if 2O’s unhinged previously a door? (9)

23

(2,1,6,2,4)

Intermittently illuminates rotating 14s? (7)

Old masters defeat environmental disaster? (3,5) Misses nearly bypassing invading troops (10) Almond shaped about Mary's body? (8)

Harriet offers Cupid a change of heart and is transported (7)

18 14 found storeys away (7)

14 where money's brass (5,4)

19 14 finds 6 near Delhi (6)

24

See 9

26

Ostentatious walk puts troops on a diet (6)

25

Mata Hari taking Kapoor for some fool produces 14 (7,3)

(4,4)

10 Wind up in explosive love making (9) 11

O to be in love! (6)

Acknowledges dilemma's cleared up by midday (3,4)

22 Caesar’s love upset his city (4)

Male 9 pursuing male 14 (8)

2005 puzzle BALI HA'I The puzzle contained 16 hidden islands that were

128

not visible in the cryptic part of the clue

1

2

3

9

4

5

6

7

8

10

11

12 13

2005 winner William Mather of Bristol

14

Other correct solutions Pamela Grosvenor, John Henly, Derek Mackay,

15 16

17

Tom Millest, Jane Poulter, James Sehmer

18

Frances Waddington and a brainy person who 19

20

21

forgot to give their name ! Past winners 2004 Pamela Grosvenor of Fareham

22

2003 Jane Poulter of Winchester 23

24

2002 Tony Phillips of Chalfont St Giles 2001 John Grimshaw of London SW18 2000 John Henly of Havant

25

26

1999 Michael James Apt John


supporting Grange Park Opera 2006 Opening soon Hotel du Vin Cambridge – Spring 2007 Hotel du Vin York – Summer 2007

Grange Park Opera 2006 Programme  

Grange Park Opera 2006 Programme

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