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Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal • February / March 2017


This issue: Kitimat Stikine Facility Renewable Natural Gas Electric Trucks Material Exchange

Publications Mail / Agreement # 40719512

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Contents Features 10 Building a New Solid Waste System from the Ground Up in the Regional District of Kitimat Stikine Public consultation and careful planning made this project a huge success.

12 From Trash to Treasure: Driving the Circular Economy through Material Exchange

Group launches repurposing program to save money and landfill space.

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal



Transportation & Hauling 14 Fuelling Solid Waste Fleets with Renewable Natural Gas CNG and RNG offer more opportunities than ever in Canada. 16  Electric Waste Pick-Up Needs Traction in Canada Electric collection vehicles can change collection for the better in any locale.

18  Collection Vehicle Selection: Hauling the Right Choice in a World of Options

Choosing the right truck is about so much more than budget.


21  An Eastern Townships First: Public Natural Gas Refuelling Station

Refuelling station offers Quebec haulers new opportunities to try out technology.

Recycling 23 The Fashion of Waste Diversion A partnership between Seneca College and TWD makes diversion fashionable.

24 UBC’s Urban Miners Keep LEDs out of Landfills

Urban mining is the future of hazardous and difficult materials recycling.


Grassroots 25 Seven Year Old Takes on Plastic Waste

Ryan’s Recycling is a seven-year-old boy’s dream come true.

Departments & Columns 4 From the Editor 6 Op-Ed 7 Waste Watch 27 Technology

28 PPEC Speaks 30 Policy and Law 31 Mergers 32 Around the World

33 Composting 34 Advertiser Index Next issue: Disposal Safety Front Lines


The SW&R team Jessica Kirby, Editor Solid Waste & Recycling

Climate Change Deal is a Game Changer The federal government spent the better part of last year formulating and negotiating a climate change plan it hopes will bring Canada to the global forefront as an environmental leader. The plan includes action to address and implement objectives established at the Paris climate talks, and concrete measures to meet ambitious GHG emissions targets. The Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change will allow the country to meet its goal to reduce GHG emissions by 30 per cent over 2005 levels by 2030. It includes efforts to eliminate coal-fired power, a plan to reduce the carbon content in motor fuels, investments in renewable energy and electricity projects, and support for clean technology and energy efficiency measures. The plan requires provinces to implement some kind of carbon pricing measure—cap and trade or carbon tax. Ontario and Quebec are already signatory to a three-way cap and trade agreement with California, and BC has had a carbon tax for nearly ten years. Alberta is also implementing a carbon tax, while other western provinces have withheld agreement. In Manitoba, Premier Pallister has indicated he may be willing to sign if the federal government allocates additional funding to that province’s healthcare budget. Saskatchewan, Premier Wall has withheld completely, in total disagreement of the plan’s principles

4 » Solid Waste & Recycling

on account of perceived harm to the province’s primary industries. To be successful as a long-term economic generator, the plan is going to have to withstand negative pressure from the opposition and some industries, who purport it will simply cost too much to implement. Supporters of the Pan-Canadian Framework say the money spent now is an investment into Canada’s longterm economic health as a leader in clean energy production. Proceeds go back into helping families and residents implement energy saving measures. As companies and private citizens adjust to carbon pricing and make amendments to their energy use, they will actually save money, say supporters, while securing Canada’s place in the global economy for clean energy. There is a great deal of controversy in the headlines about rising energy costs for Ontarians, directly relating to cap and trade, as some say it is a deal killer and others call claims of outrageous energy costs a myth. At the same time, a decade’s worth of data from BC shows carbon tax has been successful. Rather than kill jobs, as was the original criticism, the tax has helped BC foster an economy that prospers in a low-carbon environment. Despite BC’s carbon tax growing from $10 / tonne to $30 / tonne over the last nine years, the province has Canada’s lowest personal income tax rate, one

Lara Perraton, Group Publisher Jessica Kirby, Editor 877.755.2762 • Christina Tranberg, Advertising Sales 877.755.2762 •

contributing writers Mark Borkowski Shane Buckingham Timothy Byrne Rosalind H. Cooper Maude Hébert-Chaput Catherine Leighton Emily Milic John Mullinder John Nicholson Catherin Rust Tony Sperling Sarah Stadnyk

cover photo Charles Jaffe

Published bi-monthly by Point One Media, Inc. Solid Waste & Recycling P.O. Box 11, Station A Nanaimo, BC V9R 5K4 CANADA t: 877.755.2762 • Solid Waste & Recycling provides strategic information and perspectives on all aspects of Canadian solid waste collection, hauling, processing, and disposal to waste managers, haulers, recycling co-ordinators, landfill and compost facility operators, and other waste industry professionals. While information contained in this publication has been compiled from sources deemed to be reliable, the publisher may not be held liable for omissions or errors. Contents ©2017 by Point One Media Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or duplicated without prior written permission from the publisher. Printed in Canada. Postage paid at Simcoe, ON. Return postage guaranteed. Canada Post Canadian Publications Mail Sales Product Agreement #40719512. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Solid Waste & Recycling Circulation Department P.O. Box 11, Station A Nanaimo, BC V9R 5K4 e: From time to time we make our subscription list available to select companies and organizations whose product or service may interest you. If you do not wish your contact information to be made available, please contact us by email at or by phone at 1.877.755.2762 Solid Waste & Recycling is a registered trademark of Point One Media Inc. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Periodical Fund of the De­part­ment of Canadian Heritage.

of the lowest corporate tax rates in the country, and the province’s GDP has outshone the rest of the country’s since 2008 when the tax was implemented. Historically, Canada has implemented environmental policy with competitiveness in mind, meaning it typically establishes tax breaks, incentives, rebates, and other measures to mitigate cost changes resulting from these types of changes. Government on all sides of the issue is hoping for the same as Canada moves forward with the Pan-Canadian Framework. For industries that support or supply clean energy, there is tremendous possibility by way of work in renovation and new build industrial markets. In solid waste, an important area of potential is vehicle emissions—there exists the possibility to reduce emissions with the use of new combustion engine technology and alternatively fuelled and powered vehicles, but such a change will require major infrastructure

and system changes, which are just now starting to take hold. The Transportation and Hauling section that begins on page 14 barely grazes the surface of the possibilities, but it is something to think about as we move forward into a greener future. John Nicholson, SW&R’s business and technology writer, compiled an excellent article about the possible implications the new US leadership may have on Canadian waste management. Whether the US bans waste imports from Canada, slaps a tariff on it, or supports a favourable business environment remains to be seen, but check out John’s column on page 27 for some ideas to think about. Or better yet, plan your trip to Waste Expo 2017 in beautiful New Orleans, LA May 8-11 and see for yourself what opportunities await. The Solid Waste & Recycling sales team will be on site at booth #4372—be sure to stop in and say hello. ●●

Climate Change and Solid Waste The World Bank reports that current waste management methods, in particular landfill gas emissions, account for around five per cent of total GHG emissions in the world, and about 12 per cent of the world’s methane emissions— methane has 20 times the impact of carbon dioxide. Reducing the amount of waste that ends up in the landfill is the best way to reduce methane, since 70 per cent of our global solid waste in landfilled. Organic waste in the landfill creates methane, whereas composting does not, and waste-toenergy facilities in Europe reduce landfill waste to as little as four per cent in some places. Check out our April / May issue when we feature a story about how landfill gas management in various locales tackles emissions, and about how we can borrow technologies from other countries to help make an impact against climate change.

CWRE Fleet Care Comes to Niagara Falls The Canadian Waste and Recycling Expo is shining the spotlight on operation and maintenance this year with the introduction of a new feature area committed to assisting municipalities and operations managers optimize the lifespan and cost efficiency of their waste disposal fleets. Fleet Care is a show floor special feature area focused on the aftermarket portion of the transportation industry. CWRE has a prominent presence of heavy duty truck and equipment companies and would like to expand this area to include more companies in the maintenance arena. “The Waste & Recycling Expo Canada is excited about the introduction of a fleet care pavilion,” said Bridget Ferris, show director, Waste & Recycling Expo Canada / Municipal Equipment Expo Canada. “After speaking with our attendees, we realized that this was a niche

The feature area is an excellent complement to the show, given the number of manufacturers supporting the event, and CWRE hopes to partner with some of the industry’s key associations and organizations in an effort to continue to provide a platform that services our attendee base. “We are happy to bring a more attention to this area in our 2017 event in Niagara Falls,” said Ferris. “We welcome aftermarket companies that service the heavy duty trucks and fleet sector to participate in this opportunity to reach government agencies, construction, waste management companies, and independent shop owners.” Basic info: Dates: October 25 – 26, 2017 – 20th anniversary Location: Scotiabank Centre, Niagara Falls, ON Hours: 10 a.m. – 4 p.m. both days Cost: $40 preregistered / $60 onsite ●●

that we could serve in a greater capacity.” » February / March 2017 » 5


Building a circular strategy to reduce and recover organic waste Ontario is steadily advancing toward a circular economy. The government has already taken steps to reform existing recycling programs and has laid out its Waste-Free Ontario Strategy to guide the province’s path toward a diversion rate of 50 per cent by 2030 and 80 per cent by 2050. Achieving these goals, however, will require a comprehensive plan to tackle organic waste. Every year, Ontarians generate more than 12 million tonnes of garbage, which is enough to fill the Rogers Centre nearly 16 times. About a third of that number, or roughly four million tonnes, is organic waste. Throwing out such a large amount of organic materials not only represents a lost opportunity for Ontario to create jobs and growth in the circular economy, but it also generates a significant amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the province. With roughly 5 per cent of GHG emissions coming from disposal, Ontario must increase organics diversion to meet its climate change goals and advance toward a more circular economy. Moving in this direction will better protect our environment and promote job creation by opening up new markets for recovered organic waste, which can be used to generate biogas energy and create compost or other amendments to enrich soil on farms. Ontario government places priority on organics diversion To facilitate Ontario’s transition to a circular economy, the government has already taken action in several areas that the Ontario Waste Management Association (OWMA) has advocated for in our ReThink Organic Waste paper in 2015 and in our most recent submission to the government. 6 » Solid Waste & Recycling

First, the government has announced that it intends to release a Food Waste and Organics Action Plan by the spring of 2018. To assist with the development of this plan, the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change has established a working group of producers and waste management service providers to help set standards, timelines, and responsibilities for the reduction and diversion of organic waste. Second, the government is working with the Climate Action Reserve to adapt existing protocols under the Western Climate Initiative to govern the sale and trading of offset credits for organics diversion within the province’s cap-andtrade market. These offset credits will provide a financial incentive to invest in the compost and biogas sectors. Third, the government intends to develop a policy statement to complement its plan to reduce and divert organic waste in advance of introducing a food waste disposal ban. For the government to achieve all these goals, several regulatory and policy changes still must be made. Transitioning to a circular economy for organic waste As an active member of the province’s organics working group, the OWMA has highlighted the need for more processing capacity in Ontario. In the OWMA’s State of Waste in Ontario: Organics Report, which was released last year, we determined that 1.4 million tonnes of Ontario’s organic waste is currently being processed while more than 2 million tonnes is not. That means Ontario will require significantly more processing capacity to achieve the government’s potential

By / Shane Buckingham, OWMA Director of Communications targets of 40 per cent organics diversion by 2025 and 60 per cent by 2035. Currently, our research shows Ontario has a total of 76 organics processing facilities, or 41 compost and 35 anaerobic digestion facilities. To increase the province’s processing capacity, the OWMA has outlined steps that must be a part of the government’s strategy. First, the government must reduce the regulatory burden for organic processing facilities while maintaining the highest level of environmental protection. Ontario businesses can wait up to 300 days to get a standard environmental approval required to develop or upgrade a facility. These delays must be reduced to attract further investment in processing facilities. Second, the government should encourage the best use of organic materials by introducing new policy tools, such as disposal bans, disposal levies and, potentially, extended producer responsibility programs. Finally, the government should align its climate and energy policies, which includes those for offset credits and renewable natural gas. Reducing regulatory overlap and ensuring policies complement, not conflict, with one another will play an essential role in encouraging the required investment to build the processing capacity Ontario needs to achieve its waste diversion and climate change goals. ●●

Are you reading a borrowed copy of Solid Waste & Recycling? Get your own by subscribing for free at

BHS Adds Europe’s #1 Channel Baler to Product Offering Bulk Handling Systems (BHS) and Kadant Inc. (NYSE:KAI) have reached an agreement appointing BHS as the exclusive distributor of Kadant PAAL’s high-performance balers to Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs) in the United States and Canada. Founded in 1854 in Germany, Kadant PAAL is firmly entrenched as Europe’s leading manufacturer of channel balers used to process both recyclable materials, including paper and plastics, and nonrecyclable materials, such as treated household/commercial waste and agricultural products. “We’ve long known PAAL to produce an unrivaled channel baler, and when you combine the product with Kadant

PAAL’s commitment to the North American market, this partnership makes a lot of sense for BHS and our customers,” said BHS CEO Steve Miller. “PAAL balers fill a significant gap in the market and align perfectly with the quality and performance that BHS systems and equipment are known for. Finally our US and Canadian customers have access to the quality and performance they demand, the service and support they deserve, and at a price point that actually makes sense.” “We are pleased to be entering this segment of the North American recycling market with BHS, a leader in the design and manufacture of large scale sorting systems,” said Jonathan Painter, president and chief executive officer of Kadant Inc.

●● waste watch Our high quality, German-engineered balers are uniquely aligned with BHS’ commitment to performance and quality.” Founded in 1854, Kadant PAAL built the first continuously operated horizontal baler in 1960 and has since delivered more than 30,000 machines. With emphasis on product innovation, machine reliability, and service and support, the company consistently brings to market the best available baler technology along with first-class and timely support. BHS will install the first PAAL Konti baler in the US at the Monterey Regional Waste Management District (MRWMD)’s new 70 ton per hour (tph) multi-line MRF. Currently under construction by BHS, the advanced system is set to open later this year. “Known as California’s ‘First City,’ Monterey is a fitting home for North America’s first PAAL Konti baler,” said BHS Director of Sales Ted Pierpont. “To bring Europe’s leading horizontal baler brand to America just makes good sense,” said Pierpont continued. “World-class quality with a low total cost of ownership compared to other single-ram balers in the U.S. market: BHS is delighted to offer this premier baling solution to our customers.” ●●

SWANA Expands 2017 Safety Awards Program The Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA) is again recognizing excellence in solid waste safety through its awards program, while expanding the categories being honoured this year.   The SWANA Safety Awards program began last year by recognizing winners in two categories: Best Safety Innovation and Biggest Safety Improvement. In 2017, the field will

be expanded to recognize winners from each of SWANA’s seven technical divisions. Members of SWANA’s Safety Committee will then choose an overall winner to be awarded as well. SWANA’s safety awards exemplify the solid waste industry’s profound commitment to improving employee safety through communication, best practices, increased compliance with applicable regulations, and accident investigation and review. “We are very excited about the expansion of SWANA’s safety awards,” said SWANA executive director and CEO, David Biderman. “They provide an opportunity for SWANA to recognize the biggest improvements and best safety programs in various lines of business, and to share best practices that other employers in both the public and private sector can use to reduce accidents and injuries involving their operations.” SWANA has a strong commitment to safety and is determined to help move the waste collection industry off of the federal government’s list of 10 most dangerous jobs. This awards program, along with other initiatives, such as the Chapter Safety Ambassador Program and “5 to Stay Alive” campaign, are important steps in that direction.  PRECO is the official sponsor of SWANA’s 2017 Safety Awards Program. PRECO designs, engineers, and manufactures collision mitigation technology optimized for heavy-duty equipment so operators and fleets can perform with greater confidence and peace of mind. “PRECO Electronics is actively involved and committed to improving safety practices across the world’s waste and recycling industry,” said Greg Spiropulos, waste safety leader at PRECO. “Our sponsorship of SWANA’s annual safety awards allows us to recognize those that are implementing » February / March 2017 » 7

●● waste watch best practices. PRECO believes that by continually showcasing best practices the industry will ultimately reduce avoidable accidents and save lives.” Award submissions will be accepted through April 15, 2017 and winners will be announced on June 15, 2017. SWANA will present the awards to the winners at the ISWA World Congress/ WASTECON® 2017, September 25 – 27, 2017 in Baltimore, Maryland. For information on Awards eligibility and criteria, please visit https:// ●●

Setaflash Series 3 Testers Incorporate Several Innovative Design Features The management and disposal of waste materials is internationally regulated, with downstream legislation that includes laws protecting the environment, consumers and workers. There are significant consequences surrounding the correct classification of waste materials, the industry has a ‘duty of care’ regarding associated risks of managing waste materials with significant financial and legal penalties if these are not followed. The Setaflash Series 3 requires just 2ml of sample which enables the target temperature to be reached quickly, typically within 1-2 minutes. An igniter is then applied to check for a flash. Many traditional flash point tests require a much larger volume of sample (typically 70-80ml) and also take 30 minutes or longer to perform, so most operators opt for the Setaflash Small Scale Close Cup test – ASTM D3828. The Setaflash test is called up in most waste regulations to determine a waste material’s flammability and if it should be classified as hazardous. The Setaflash instrument is a simple and cost effective 8 » Solid Waste & Recycling

test that can be undertaken on-site with minimum operator skill. Results assist those responsible for handling waste to report flash point values as required under waste regulations. For more information visit www. ●●

Maple Reinders Consortium Selected as Preferred Proponent on Hamilton Biosolids Project Maple Reinders Group Ltd. has announced that the Harbour City Solutions (HCS) consortium – in which it has a 50% interest for design, construction and capital works – has been selected as the preferred proponent to build the Hamilton Biosolids Management project. The project is being delivered through a public-private partnership (PPP) using the designbuild-finance-operate-maintain model, with a 30-year contract operations term. The Hamilton Biosolids facility will treat all of the City’s biosolids processed by their wastewater treatment system using an advanced thermal drying process, the first of its level of quality and reliability in the province. The new facility will produce ‘Class A’ pellets which will be sold to the agricultural community as a slow release organic fertilizer, or to coal burning industrial facilities as a renewable fuel replacement for coal. This technology will also greatly reduce the number of transport trucks required to remove solids from the plant on a daily basis, greatly improving air quality

HCS plans to reach financial close in March of this year and immediately upon notification thereof will commence with design and construction. ●●

Energy Efficiency The Quebec Government snd Cascades Invest $11.3 Million in Two Energy Efficiency Projects With two major projects at its Cabano plant supported by the Quebec government, Cascades will significantly decrease its heavy-fuel oil consumption. These investments will result in an annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) equivalent to taking 4,000 light duty vehicles off the road. Ministers Pierre Arcand and Jean D'Amour, and Cascades president and chief executive officer Mario Plourde, have confirmed that the two energy efficiency projects represent a total investment of $11.3 million in the Cascades Containerboard Packaging– Cabano plant. The government of Quebec will contribute financial aid in the amount of $5.2 million for the two projects, while Cascades will invest $6.1 million.

in the area.

The projects consist in modifying two residual forest biomass boilers. One will be upgraded with automated controls. The second, more ambitious project involves installing a new combustion chamber and combustion air preheater to the other boiler. These projects will allow the plant to improve boiler operating time and efficiency while limiting the use of another boiler that consumes heavy-fuel oil.

The Hamilton Biosolids project is the third municipal biosolids-focused PPP project in Canada and the second to secure federal funding from PPP Canada.

The vision presented in the 2030 Energy Policy is designed to garner the support of all types of consumers, from private citizens to large companies. It proposes

●● waste watch ambitious targets that consumers can help achieve, and from which they will also benefit directly, and shows how the Government will support consumers at every step of the energy transition process. The Policy is a pact proposed by the Government to transform Quebec's energy profile between now and 2030. Founded in 1964, Cascades produces, converts and markets packaging and tissue products that are composed mainly of recycled fibres. For further information, see http:// ●●

Real-Time Mobile Applications Help Cut Down on Food Waste

Waste 360 reports thatFood Rescue and Copia are using real-time mobile technologies to cut down on food waste. Food Rescue, for example, specializes in large fresh food recovery and on feeding those in need. Waste 360 says that it is volunteer-driven and that it works with restaurants, grocers, bankers, and caterers to deliver good to soup kitchens, food pantries and hunger relief organizations. With 10 locations around the country, it has delivered more than 16.6 million meals and saved 25 million pounds of food from going into landfills, according to a press release. That has an estimated value of $42.3 million. For more information, visit www. ●●

Call2Recycle Reports Double Digit Growth in Battery Collections; Credits Growing Consumer Network Call2Recycle, Inc., North America's first and largest battery stewardship and

recycling organization, has reported that consumers recycled a record-setting 14 million pounds (6.3 million kilograms) of batteries and cellphones in collections throughout the US and Canada in 2016. Enhanced accessibility and consumer awareness played a vital role in driving the 12 percent increase in total weight of materials collected and responsibly recycled by the organization over 2015. This major environmental achievement marks the 20th consecutive year of increased collections by Call2Recycle, contributing to the 129 million pounds (58 million kilograms) of batteries diverted from landfills over the past 21 years. The continued year-over-year growth of the battery stewardship program is a result of strong, collaborative relationships between Call2Recycle and its robust network of committed industry stewards and collection partners, including retailers and municipalities. Through these partnerships, rechargeable and primary battery collections in the US amounted to nearly 8 million pounds (3.6 million kilograms) last year — an 11 percent increase over 2015. Collections from public, consumer-facing networks totaled more than 4.7 million pounds (2.1 million kilograms) of batteries, a rise of 28 per cent. Collections from municipalities alone saw substantial growth of 150 per cent year-to-date. Additionally, the number of primary batteries collected skyrocketed in 2016 with a 158 per cent increase. This growth was fueled in part by legislation that led Vermont to become the first state in the US requiring producers to finance a collection and recycling program for single-use (primary) batteries. As the appointed stewardship organization for Vermont, Call2Recycle provides convenient drop-off locations for residents to responsibly recycle their batteries. As a result, more than 114,000 pounds of batteries have been collected statewide in 2016, an astounding 187 per cent increase from the previous year.

Canadian provinces with strong participation and commitment from retailers and municipalities fostered the rise of total collection results by 12 per cent compared to 2015. Most notable results were in British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec, where Call2Recycle serves as the approved battery stewardship program. Quebec led the charge in battery collections with more than 2.4 million pounds (1.1 million kilograms) collected, a nearly 20 per cent increase. Manitoba also saw double digit growth over 2015, while British Colombia and Ontario each increased collections by eight percent. Providing easy and convenient recycling options to consumers through the establishment of close to 30,000 collection locations across North America, has also contributed to the organization's continued success. Today, more than 88 per cent of residents in the US and Canada live within 10 miles (15 kilometers) of one of Call2Recycle's public drop-off locations. Visit Follow at or twitter. com/call2recycle. ●●

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal • February / March 2017


This issue: Kitimat Stikine Facility Renewable Natural Gas Electric Trucks Material Exchange

Are you still working on your marketing plans for 2017? If so you should advertise with SW&R. Did you know we have over 8,000 print subscribers and over 6,200 digital subscribers? For more information call 1.877.755.2762 » February / March 2017 » 9



from the Ground Up in the Regional District of Kitimat Stikine By Dr. Tony Sperling, P.Eng., Sperling Hansen Associates and Roger Tooms, PMP, Regional District of Kitimat Stikine Photos courtesy of Sperling Hansen Associates.

RECOGNIZING that their existing unlined landfills could pose an environmental threat to the pristine salmon-bearing waters of the Kitsumkalum River and Thornhill Creek, 20 years ago the Regional District of Kitimat Stikine (RDKS) embarked on a complex journey to reduce the amount of garbage being generated and to establish a new regional landfill that would have less environmental impact than the existing unlined landfills in Terrace and Thornhill. Approval of the project required a co-ordinated team effort from the RDKS board, City of Terrace Council, RDKS staff, MOE, local First Nations, and a diverse team of expert consultants, and extensive consultation with the public. The resulting transformation is totally revolutionary. It includes new curbside automated collection of recyclables and organics, a state of the art Gore composting facility, a new landfill with an advanced five stage treatment system, and a shiny new transfer station facility. After evaluating and investigating numerous potential landfill sites, the Forceman Ridge area located on Highway 37, halfway between the main towns of Terrace and Kitimat, was selected as the preferred location. It is about 30 km south of Terrace, far away from any creeks and rivers and on an ancestral alluvial fan of sand and gravel that will provide abundant cover and construction material. Although many stakeholders were concerned about the new landfill site, at 10 Âť Solid Waste & Recycling

the end of the day the new landfill was broadly supported by the host communities on account of responsive design changes such as the addition of a secondary liner, long term local jobs, and mitigation measures to offset habitat loss. Protection of groundwater resources was of paramount importance to the community. In addition to the double liner, a leak detection system was added to provide early warning of potential problems. The leachate treatment system was designed for minimum impact as well. The system includes a 90,000 m3 equalization lagoon capable of storing a full year of leachate production, an aeration lagoon completed with 30 diffusers, a sedimentation pond, a sand filter, and a 2.5 Ha phytoremediation area that is being planted with more than 4,000 poplar, alder, and cottonwood trees. During the summer treatment season the trees will uptake most of the treated leachate that will be generated on this project, resulting in minimal discharge to the environment. A comprehensive economic model of the entire RDKS solid waste system was developed to guide design choices and to ensure that the project could be developed within the $17.5 million capital budget. The model included a waste generation projection, and tracked capital and operating costs for collection, transfer, hauling, composting, recycling, and landfill disposal of each waste component.


“Through a carefully structured tender process that included education, job shadowing, and training, a local contractor was selected to operate the facility.” by SHA and RDKS staff. Four of the five contracts were awarded to local contractors, keeping $14.4 million of the capital budget at home in the RDKS.

The model confirmed that system costs would be minimized by developing a transfer station close to town and hauling waste in large transfer trailers rather than requiring the municipal and commercial packers to make the long trip out to Forceman Ridge. In a somewhat unconventional move, two high capacity Titan end dump trailers were purchased for the haul, facilitating back hauling of compost, top soil, and construction materials to Thornhill and a very durable, low maintenance haul solution. Ultimately, it was determined that the existing Thornhill landfill was the preferred location for the new transfer station facility. A three bay steel building was erected to accommodate commercial traffic while public self hauls are managed in a six-bay “Z” wall facility with 50-yard roll off bins for MSW, clean wood waste, yard waste, demolition waste, and asbestos. Organics collected curbside are tipped into a dedicated organics bin that is transferred to a Gore composting facility, also located at the Forceman site. The new $2.2 million composting facility has three concrete tunnels inside a 1,500 m2 MegaDome fabric building and two outdoor curing bays. The compost facility has a design capacity of 4,000 tonnes/year. Air is introduced into the pile with large blowers to control oxygen, heat, and moisture. Gore membranes isolate the organic waste from vectors and do a great job of containing odours. The RDKS and SHA adopted a “self managed approach” to deliver this project. Rather than tendering one or two large contracts that could only be bid by large companies based outside the RDKS, this project was broken up into five smaller contracts for 1) landfill closure at Thornhill, 2) transfer station construction at Thornhill, 3) site grading and berm construction at Forceman, 4) liner placement at Forceman, and 5) Environmental Upgrades at Forceman. Contract values ranged between $1 and $5 million. The individual contracts were jointly managed and co-ordinated

In addition, the self manage team also procured $2.5 million of the infrastructure through smaller tenders and invitations to quote for the Titan trailers, roll-off bins, office building, maintenance shop, and lock blocks, saving on the mark-up normally charged by the general contractors when procuring equipment for projects. Through a carefully structured tender process that included education, job shadowing, and training, a local contractor was selected to operate the facility, keeping the operations dollars in the RDKS as well. In recognition of the creative solutions developed by the project team, the project was recently awarded the Environmental Sustainability Award by Mary Polak, B.C. Minister of Environment, much appreciated kudos for an exhausted but proud design and management team. ●●

SPERLING HANSEN ASSOCIATES Designing Better Landfills Today for a Cleaner Tomorrow Since 1995 SHA’s team of qualified

professionals has provided sustainable and

viable solutions for even the most demanding solid waste management projects.

For more details contact: / 604.986.7723 » February / March 2017 » 11


FROM TRASH TO TREASURE: Driving the Circular Economy through Material Exchange AS A RESIDENT of a major urban center, I have access to a range of resources and tools to help me recycle: from a 3-1-1 call center ready to answer my questions, to an online Waste Wizard tool that provides information about where material can be reused or recycled. For a member of the business community in the same region, it’s not always so clear where to turn for help improving sustainability. Finding hands-on support at low to no cost can prove challenging. Partners in Project Green is a business-led, not-for-profit organization that works with enterprises in the Greater Toronto Area to help them achieve their sustainability goals. Initiated by the Greater Toronto Airport Authority and Toronto and Region Conservation, Partners in Project Green provides comprehensive, integrated support for sustainability efforts in four key areas: water conservation, energy efficiency, employee engagement, and waste management. Our flagship waste management program, Material Exchange, is a free, online waste and recycling marketplace open to organizations operating throughout the Greater Toronto Area. Registered participants may use this web platform to list unused waste and recycling materials that would typically be landfilled, and organize exchanges with other local organizations. Once registered on Material Exchange, users enjoy immediate access to: 12 » Solid Waste & Recycling

By / Catherine Leighton Photos submitted by Partners in Project Green

• Browse listings to identify and source material and services • Create listings to offer and request materials • Receive email notifications about new listings • Connect with other local organizations looking to exchange unwanted resources • Report on the results of exchanges to highlight success stories Key to the platform’s success is the active facilitation support we provide to our users. If there is no activity on a listing, the Material Exchange team steps in to help identify solution providers and increase the likelihood of a successful exchange. Material Exchange is growing in popularity, with 275 users now registered on the platform. Since it launched, users have made 140 exchanges, diverting 4,683 tonnes of material for reuse or recycling. In 2016, users exchanged a wide variety of materials, including coffee pods, pallets, hospital equipment, construction equipment, furniture, recycling bins, freezer packs, organic material, duvets, and ash trees. Our users can be broken down into two key groups: generators and solution providers. Generators are organizations from the industrial, commercial, and institutional sectors that are

FEATURE generating and offering waste to be repurposed or recycled. Solution providers, meanwhile, are organizations willing to accept this material for reprocessing. In many cases, solution providers are haulers, material recovery facilities, brokers, and specialty recyclers. However, as Ontario moves towards the circular economy and industrial ecology, a growing number of generators on the platform are themselves acting as solution providers. Material Exchange has, for example, helped to ensure used hospital equipment was reused locally. In 2016, Runnymede Healthcare Centre used the platform to find other institutions interested in accepting several high-quality, lightly-used hospital bathtubs that would otherwise have been earmarked for landfill. Through Material Exchange, Runnymede Healthcare Centre identified two local long-term care facilities with use for the bathtubs: Sarsfield Colonial Homes and Jarlette Health Centre. The result: 1.5 tonnes of hospital equipment was reused. (To purchase bathtubs like these new would have cost the two facilities approximately $110,000.) “Material Exchange is a fantastic opportunity for community and health care providers to offer quality used items to other organizations so they can benefit from their use,” said James Abraham, care service co-ordinator at Jarlette Health Services. “The staff, residents, and management at Leacock Care Centre are very thankful for the generous donation from Runnymede Health Centre.”

local businesses improve their diversion rates, and supports the growth of new end-markets for recycled goods. The platform gets results—and it produces case studies demonstrating alternative business models for diverting waste, improving sustainability, and saving money. To showcase such innovation, Solid Waste and Recycling magazine is launching a new column where I will be highlighting case studies and lessons learned from Material Exchange to inspire your business. ●● Catherine Leighton is the waste management co-ordinator at Partners in Project Green, an initiative of Toronto and Region Conservation and Toronto Pearson. She can be reached at For more information about Material Exchange, please visit


“[Our] top priority is to enhance the health and well-being of our patients and the local community, and our deep commitment to sustainability reflects this,” said Karl Karvonen, manager of facilities and environmental sustainability at Runnymede Healthcare Centre. “Our hospital’s collaboration with Partners in Project Green’s Material Exchange platform helped us to reduce our environmental impact.” A wide cross-section of industrial, commercial, and institutional organizations use Material Exchange to identify potential partnerships and divert material. Some come to us seeking a one-time solution, while others are looking for support for an ongoing diversion program. We help organizations just starting their waste management initiatives, as well as those already far down the road toward zero waste. Registered participants include organizations of all sizes, from those with a handful of employees to others with a workforce in the thousands. Last year alone, our users included the likes of Ikea, Maple Leaf Foods, Greater Toronto Airport Authority, Air Canada, and Coca Cola. Material Exchange drives the local circular economy, helps

WWW.RCBC.CA » February / March 2017 » 13


Fuelling Solid Waste Fleets with Renewable Natural Gas By / Sarah Stadnyk Photo courtesy of Clean Energy

WITH THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR contributing the largest portion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, renewable natural gas (RNG) from food waste and organic material is the next game-changer in vehicle fuelling and the biggest opportunity for near-term, cost-neutral sustainability. RNG can be generated from any source where organics undergo anaerobic digestion, such as landfills, residential source separated organics treatment facilities, and wastewater treatment. RNG is cost-competitive with diesel fuel, interchangeable with natural gas, and carbon neutral. “Farms and municipalities are wellpositioned to convert their biogas to RNG, a locally produced alternative fuel suitable for on-farm use and for trucking fleets,” says Jennifer Green, executive director of the Canadian Biogas Association. Fuelling with RNG is an excellent opportunity for the solid waste sector, as they can locally produce vehicle fuel on-site for their fleets. “For the waste industry, RNG just makes sense,” says 14 » Solid Waste & Recycling

Bruce Winchester, executive director of the Canadian Natural Gas Vehicles Alliance. “Fifty per cent of fleets in North America are natural gas powered anyway, taking the product they carry around and making it a fuel is the perfect way to close the loop.” Environmental Benefits of RNG Generating biogas from landfill gas (LFG) and diverting organics to biogas facilities has several environmental benefits. The 2013 Canadian Biogas Study by Kelleher Environmental found that converting just half of the food waste discarded in Canada into biogas would avoid 2.2 million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year, the equivalent of taking 490,000 cars off the road. The biogas process recovers nutrients from organic waste and returns them to the soil, resulting in improved soil health. Water sources are protected by destroying pathogens in organic material, which reduces the risk of potential environmental impact. Organizations with sustainability goals can consider using a blend of CNG, a competitively priced fuel that generates fewer atmospheric pollutants

than diesel, and RNG for their trucking needs. Blending 10 per cent RNG with 90 per cent CNG offers lifecycle GHG emissions reductions of over 31 per cent compared to diesel or gasoline, and when 100 per cent RNG is used to fuel vehicles lifecycle GHG emissions can be reduced by 90 per cent. There is no technical barrier to blending RNG and CNG, and the ratio is site-specific depending on the availability of RNG. Consider the Business Case for RNG Production When studying the business case for producing RNG, consider the gas volumes the material can produce and the cost to do so compared to the cost of current fuelling methods. While RNG is more expensive than CNG, it is about the same price as diesel or gasoline. Blending RNG with CNG makes sense economically, allowing businesses to be green and still save money. According to Union Gas analysis, blending 10 per cet RNG with 90 per cent CNG adds five cents per litre to the price of CNG, which maintains the strong economic advantage of using CNG/RNG over crude oil-based fuels.

TRANSPORTATION / HAULING However, there are many variables with RNG production that limit generalizations that can be made about the business case. When considering producing RNG, it is recommended to connect with consultants, technology suppliers, and representatives that have direct experience with these systems. Generate Biogas and Upgrade it to RNG Biogas can be generated from landfills, source separated organics (SSO), wastewater treatment, or a combination of these organic sources. Landfills produce a relatively large amount of biogas, and while some sites generate electricity and sell it to the grid, several landfills are not able to connect. Many of these sites offer sufficient economies of scale to produce RNG fuel for fleet vehicles, creating closed-loop energy systems. Biogas includes carbon dioxide, contaminant gases, and moisture, which need to be removed prior to using it in a vehicle engine to increase the methane content in a process called upgrading. There are several widely used technologies for biogas upgrading including pressure swing adsorption, water scrubbing, chemical absorption, membrane separation, and cryogenic separation. For government permits and approvals required for biogas and upgrading systems, consultation with the province’s Ministry of Environment and provincial safety authority is recommended since regulations vary from province to province. Transition your Fleet to CNG Vehicles To capitalize on the RNG opportunity, the fleets must be converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. New CNG vehicles typically cost between $15,000 and $35,000 more than conventional diesel fleet vehicles, however the higher initial investment is offset by the substantial fuel savings. Many municipalities and businesses are transitioning their fleets to CNG vehicles to save money and reduce GHG emissions. New

CNG vehicles can replace older fleet vehicles, or existing vehicles can be upgraded. RNG is easily integrated into CNG fleets and the vehicles aren’t reliant on returning to the RNG source as they can be refuelled at any natural gas fuelling station. Choose a Fuelling System How the vehicles are re-fueled is another factor to consider. The cost for a typical CNG refuelling station ranges from approximately $600k to $1.8M depending on the number of trucks and site specific requirements and conditions. Slow fill, fast fill, and combination fuelling systems are available and the chosen fuelling system is unique for each situation. Solid waste fleets most commonly use slow fill stations allowing the vehicles to be refuelled simultaneously overnight. The slow fill stations have lower capital costs due to a smaller compressor and little or no storage and can benefit from off-peak electricity for compression. Challenges and Concerns Certain perceptions of CNG vehicles need to be overcome to facilitate wider adoption of the technology. It can be challenging to convince perspective fleets to use another type of fuel since diesel is a well-established fuel with a developed market and supply chain. Switching fuels may not be an attractive option for some depending on the current business model of the organization, given the capital costs for vehicle conversions and fuelling stations. However, CNG is competitively priced compared to diesel and over ten years an annual

average savings of $125,650 per truck can be realized. Additional economic benefits from local renewable energy production include green job creation and local energy security. In addition, while some business owners may be concerned about the range of natural gas vehicles given the lower energy density, the distance is predictable and heavy duty vehicles can use an array of tanks to provide comparable distance to diesel. There are plenty of options to refuel with about 100 points in Canada where you can refuel a natural gas vehicle. With over 11 million CNG vehicles in use over 30 countries, there is no fundamental challenge to fuelling with CNG and the technology is quite straightforward. The production of RNG offers an attractive waste management solution for closing the loop between organic waste and fuel. Converting organic materials to RNG captures energy from waste, reduces odour, and produces local renewable fuel for solid waste fleets. More information on making the transition to RNG is available in the Canadian Biogas Association’s Closing the Loop Primer for Municipalities, Food Processors, and Fleets on Fueling Vehicles Using Renewable Natural Gas. Visit to access this resource and learn more about the Canadian biogas industry. Municipalities interested in learning more about fuelling their fleets with RNG can contact Jennifer Green at ●●

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ELECTRIC WASTE PICK-UP Needs Traction in Canada By Jessica Kirby Photo courtesy of Canadian Electric Vehicles.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY REGULATION in Canada becomes more stringent by the year, calling for change and new technology in all industries, especially heavy GHG emitters like transportation and hauling. In fact, in 2014 transportation was responsible for 23 per cent of Canada’s GHG emissions or 171 Mt CO2 eq. According to Transport Canada, between 1990 and 1994, passenger car emissions dropped 123 per cent while freight truck emissions grew 132 per cent. If Canada is going to meet federal government promises to reduce emissions by 50 per cent over 2005 levels by 2030, it is going to take new technology and new thinking to get the job done. Canadian manufacturer Canadian Electric Vehicles (CEV) has been designing and manufacturing electric vehicles and electric vehicle components for over 20 years, and has broken into international markets. Vehicles in service range in size from three-ton aircraft refuelling and LAV trucks to the Might-E Tug, an electric towing unit which tows a variety of carts and equipment weighing up to 10,000 pounds. Its stand out product, however, is the Might-E Truck, a custom heavy duty electric utility vehicle built from the ground up using North American automotive parts, and with potential to save municipalities time and costs as downtown maintenance trucks or local garbage and recycling pickup. According to CEV, Mighty-E trucks are road legal under Transport Canada regulations for Low Speed Electric Vehicles, and travel at a top speed of 40km/hr. 16 » Solid Waste & Recycling

Might-E Trucks are electric powered, mid-sized vehicles designed for work with up to 1,500 pound load capacity. Available as a base chassis, cab and chassis, pickup box, flat deck, van, or customized for specific applications, Mighty-E Truck boasts durability, performance, and range thanks to steel and composites construction and 72V AC drive with regenerative braking. The vehicles are in use all across Canada and the US for municipal service, airport service, park and trail maintenance, as university vehicles, and in other applications. Grand Forks, Coquitlam, Tofino, and Ucluelet are just a few municipalities using them for various work, and Alert Bay, on northern Vancouver Island uses one for recycling pick-up in the town and on reserve. Beyond that, the concept of using these small but powerful and efficient vehicles for waste and recycling has gained popularity faster south of the border. Randy Holmquist owner of Canadian Electric Vehicles Ltd. based in Lantzville, BC said there are a number of factors preventing ready adoption, at least so far. “What I run into the most is fleet mangers used to big diesel powered trucks, and not really interested in a new [collection] concept,” he said. The way it works in Banff, Alberta, Canada’s only municipality currently using one of CEV’s vehicles for waste pick-up, the electric truck collects by neighbourhood and dumps into a 12yard bin behind city hall. When the bin is full, a big truck takes it to the transfer station.


Fleet managers unfamiliar with the concept may not feel sure the technology is reliable, although Holmquist has been manufacturing and selling electric vehicles and associated technologies for more than 20 years. “The other extreme is you have a regular garbage truck that goes from area to area picking up from the small trucks,” said Holmquist. “The small trucks are in a certain area, pick up and dump into the big truck, then move to a new area for a couple of hours. “The small trucks go from neighbourhood to neighbourhood and the big ones come to collect from them.” Canada’s resistance to take on a new model stems from a combination of factors, he said. The idea is unfamiliar, and change always feels like a risk. Fleet managers unfamiliar with the concept may not feel sure the technology is reliable, although Holmquist has been manufacturing and selling electric vehicles and associated technologies for more than 20 years. The upfront cost of these vehicles is about $40,000, so not unmanageable, and large, off-road tires keep them rolling in any weather conditions. “Most Canadian winters are much colder than in the US and there is battery chemistry to consider, but we make and sell battery warmers, too,” said Holmquist. The town of Ajax in southern Ontario uses CEV vehicles for municipal service, and uses battery warmers to keep the vehicles moving in all weather. The US has, as least for the past several years, offered positive environmental incentives targeting off-road and commercial vehicles, which might explain their growing popularity in that country. In early February, the government of BC announced $5000 rebates on commercial electric and alternately fuelled vehicles, which could cause demand for CEV trucks to perk up. Minister of Energy and Mines Bill Bennett recently announced an investment of $40 million to encourage British Columbians to make the switch to zero-emission vehicles, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and support investment in made-in-BC green technology. “Zero-emission vehicles are clean, quiet, and reliable, and help drivers reduce fuel and maintenance costs and tailpipe emissions, and are a growing economic sector in the province,” said Bennett.

“Additional funding of $40 million for the Clean Energy Vehicle Program will help make zero-emission vehicles more affordable for British Columbians and build out charging infrastructure at residences, businesses, and along our roads and highways to make sure there are places to charge them up.” The funding for the Province’s Clean Energy Vehicle (CEV) Program will be distributed over the next three years to support continued point-of-sale purchase incentives of up to $5,000 for battery electric vehicles and $6,000 for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. When combined with SCRAP-IT program incentives, total savings could be up to $11,000 for a new electric vehicle. “There are all sorts of incentives for on road cars and but never for off road stuff,” said Holmquist. “I guess they needed to know the technology is viable and the vehicles are available.” BC introduced the CEV Program in 2011 and has since committed more than $71 million for vehicle purchase incentives, charging and hydrogen fuelling infrastructure, vehicle fleet programs, public outreach, and research and training. To date, BC has the highest ratio of ZEV sales to non-ZEV sales in Canada with over 4,800 ZEVs on the road, and the largest charging network in Canada with over 1,100 public, Level 2 charging stations, and 30 fast-charging stations. The next ten years will likely see big change for Holmquist and CEV as Canadian environmental regulation shifts in favour of the green energy and clean technology economy. “It’s not rocket science,” said Holmquist. “When I started 20 years ago, people thought I was crazy and said, ‘Who would buy that?’ I guess I sort of thought it was the future and worth holding out for.” Find out more at ●● » February / March 2017 » 17


COLLECTION VEHICLE SELECTION Hauling the Right Choice in a World of Options By Jessica Kirby

THERE IS MORE to selecting waste collection vehicles than

budget—the industry’s day-to-day working requirements are heavy duty and the list of reasons to choose one model over the other is complex. Considering conditions, technology, efficiency, and lifespan is just the beginning.

Locale Every municipality will have its own considerations involving geography, climate, population, and scope. These factors will affect component specifications, such as tire grit and ply, or conventional versus alternative fuel based on refuelling options. Where and when collection takes place is another factor to consider in chassis selection and cab construction, with durability and comfort at the forefront of those decisions. The type of truck—front, side, or rear loader—may be specified by the municipality, but factors like fuel choice, traffic patterns, and road types will affect these decisions, as well.

Component Placement Tank placement is important considering space constraints in body integration and route requirements. Roof-mounted tanks in a neighbourhood with low-hanging branches may cause problems, while side or rear-mounted tanks can help with weight dispersal or space saving measures. Trucks travelling on dirt roads will benefits from dust covers on brakes, and brake types will vary depending on the elevation and geography of a neighbourhood.

Return on Investment Most haulers will have their trucks a decade or more, and maximizing return on investment (ROI) has a great deal to do with that time frame, as well as component selection and use considerations. Considering the above factors are key to making the right purchasing decision; flexibility is also essential. If hauling needs change, this can affect the type of truck necessary. When change occurs, how will this affect the availability of mechanical repair, parts, and service? Consider driver skill, ability, and availability in model selection. Most dealers will impart knowledge about how to extend a truck’s life via specific driving habits, maintenance tips, and training opportunities and smart haulers will take these opportunities to maximize truck life and ROI. 18 » Solid Waste & Recycling

Maintenance Speaking of ROI, preventative versus operational maintenance represents a question of pay now or pay later. Given the dayto-day heavy duty conditions waste vehicles experience, maintenance decisions begin with purchasing based on the previous factors, as well as chassis, body, and cab durability. Once again, dealers will impart preventative maintenance recommendations as well as straightforward advice on which components need changing well in advance of failure to maximize cost savings. At the very least, wear-proof options and a regular maintenance schedule are essential to a truck’s longevity.

It’s the Law It is worth mentioning that the law reigns supreme, and vehicles must adhere to weight and size requirements, as well as municipal productivity requirements and operator safety. Features addressing each of these are available and most dealers will present a range of options to meet them. If there is a way to run as many routes but with fewer trucks, or change the collection model to maximize productivity or safety, this will be a prime consideration.

Innovation Alternative fuels and electric or hydrogen power are the most recent and impactful innovations to come to work vehicles in Europe and the Americas. Though alternative power hasn’t quite caught on in Canada, the US is revamping its model in come capacities to save time and costs with electric vehicles in certain applications. Alternative fuelling, however, is rising quickly in Canada and will be the next step in breaking into a era of efficiency and cost savings. CNG stations and biosolid facilities are becoming common place and will make fuel consumption a key component of truck selection. Hybrid technologies are also refining in efficiency and cost and will bring a new horizon to the industry. Other innovations drive overall ROI and lifespan decisions, including disc brakes, hydraulic components, and weatherready body components. The most important consideration overall is that haulers consider everything, end to end. ●●

SERVING CUSTOMER NEEDS FOR 75 YEARS. The year was 1942. A man by the name of Leland James searched high and low but couldn’t fi nd a truck that met his high efficiency standards. So he did what a true trucking visionary would do. Leland built his own. It was that bold endeavor that led to the birth of Freightliner Trucks. A company that has been fueled by innovation and driven by customer input for the past seven and a half decades. And we’ll continue to serve our customers by doing the hard work on job sites everywhere for many years to come.

Competitive financing available through Daimler Truck Financial. For the Freightliner Trucks dealer nearest you, call 1-800-FTL-HELP. FTL/MC-A-1449. Specifications are subject to change without notice. Copyright © 2017 Daimler Trucks North America LLC. All rights reserved. Freightliner Trucks is a division of Daimler Trucks North America LLC, a Daimler company.


Daimler Trucks North America Celebrates a Century of Innovation Daimler Trucks North America (DTNA) is set to celebrate a century of innovation with anniversaries of Freightliner, Detroit, Western Star and Thomas Built Bus brands. This year, Freightliner Trucks celebrates 75 years of innovation while Western Star Trucks hits 50 years of rugged performance, Thomas Built Bus enjoys 100 years of business and Detroit reaches a milestone of offering industry-leading engines for almost 80 years. From the 1942 debut of the Freightliner® Model 600 “Shovelnose,” the industry’s first all-aluminum cab, to the 2017 launch of the new Cascadia®, which fully integrates technology and safety systems, Freightliner Trucks has been at the center of industry innovation for 75 years. Along the way Freightliner has pushed the boundaries of fuel efficiency with the SuperTruck program and revolutionized commercial vehicle technology and safety systems with the Freightliner Inspiration Truck, the first licensed autonomous truck to operate on a North American highway. “I am very proud of our company’s rich history,” said Martin Daum, president and CEO, Daimler Trucks North America. “We have a portfolio of brands that, while very different, share a strong legacy of innovation. Over the past century we’ve grown into North America’s undisputed market leader, and as we celebrate our past, we’re looking forward to a future that pushes the boundaries of innovation.” Daimler Trucks North America is a Daimler company, the world’s leading commercial vehicle manufacturer. ●●

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announced in December the first public refuelling station for compressed natural gas (CNG) has been set up in Quebec’s the Eastern Townships, the tenth such installation to join the Blue Road. Located at 405 Rodolphe Racine Street, in Sherbrooke, and operated by SaniEstrie, this station will be accessible to the public, more specifically, to transportation companies and municipalities who use or who wish to adopt this alternative fuel.

“Economic recovery is a priority for our government,” said Minister of Energy and Natural Resources and Minister responsible for the Plan Nord, Pierre Arcand “We want to modernize Québec’s economy through the energy transition announced in the 2030 Energy Policy. “Ensuring access to natural gas to as many regions as possible will enable us to achieve the objectives that we have set for ourselves [and] use of this resource will help promote this transition to a low-carbon economy.”

SaniEstrie made the switch to natural gas just over a year ago when it acquired nine new CNG trucks, with the goal of converting 30 more over the next five years. “We are very pleased to offer a new CNG fuelling point for Québec-based and particularly local transporters, so they may benefit, as do we, from the numerous advantages of natural gas, especially from an economic and environmental perspective,” said SaniEstrie’s vice-president, Sylvain Gagné. » February / March 2017 » 21


“This new public station is a great opportunity for transportation companies and municipalities to test trucks equipped with natural gas engines.” “It is crucial for companies such as ours to remain at the leading edge of industry trends in order to stand out from other players in the sector.” The Blue Road is growing This new refuelling point on the Blue Road, a network of public natural gas fuelling stations, will allow companies who fill their trucks with this alternative fuel to travel from the Eastern Townships to Montreal and even to have the possibility of reaching the United States. “The proximity of highways 10 and 55 made Sherbrooke a prime location

for pursuing the deployment of the Blue Road,” said Martin Imbleau, vicepresident, development and renewable energies at Gaz Métro. “We salute SaniEstrie for their decision to make the switch to natural gas and to provide an additional fuel point on the Blue Road.” This new public station is a great opportunity for transportation companies and municipalities to test trucks equipped with natural gas engines. With its possibilities of being used for transporting goods, residual materials, or even for public transport, natural gas technology is a proven

solution that allows for an immediate reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of up to 25 per cent per vehicle. Founded in 2002 by the group Gestion Sani-Eco Inc. and Yves Duhamel, SaniEstrie Inc. specializes in residential, commercial, and industrial waste transport. The company also rents containers in a range of sizes for disposing of construction and other waste materials. In 2014, the company built a transshipment centre on its Sherbrooke site, and in 2015, it established a new program focused on green energy. Sani-Estrie now has trucks running on natural gas, a clean energy. Gaz Métro is the largest natural gas distribution company in Québec, with a network of over 10,000 km of underground pipelines serving more than 300 municipalities and more than 200,000 customers. ●●

EDITOR’S PICK: WHERE THE RUBBER MEETS THE GAS TANK A start-up company in Australia has discovered a way to produce biofuel from rubber tires, and use the fuel to run turbo-charged diesel engines with 30 per cent fewer emissions. Green Distillation Technologies (GDT) uses a technique called destructive distillation to convert rubber to energy at an average rate of 3,000 litres of bio-oil from a single seven-tonne mining truck tire. The process does not create emissions, and some of the recycled oil is used as a heat source for converting the tires to energy. Used tires are loaded into a sealed, air-tight process chamber where applied heat acts as a catalyst for the chemical reaction that breaks the tire into various compounds, one of which is manufactured oil. 22 » Solid Waste & Recycling

The oil was tested in six-cylinder diesel engine in 10 and 20 per cent diesel blends and, even on four different engine loads and under constant speed, produced significantly reduced emissions with no cost to performance. The resulting fuel could also be used as a heating fuel or refined further to create aviation fuel. Company founders took notice of the world’s massive stockpiles of used tires—waste for some and a resource for GDT that grows by about a billion tires a year. The company aims to increase its production to create approximately eight million litres annually by the middle of this year. For more information visit http://www. ●●

© Can Stock Photo / yurok


THE FASHION OF Textile Diversion By / Emily Milic

© Can Stock Photo / Dole

SENECA’S SCHOOL OF FASHION has partnered with

leading textile reclamation company, Textile Waste Diversion (TWD), on a research project with the goal of reducing the mounds of unwanted clothing that currently ends up in municipal landfills. TWD is an Ontario-based textile reclamation company working in innovative ways to set new standards for the industry. An integral part of the company’s mission is to assist municipalities in reaching zero waste goals around textile waste.

Taking Back

Currently, 85 per cent of all unwanted clothing ends up in municipal landfills, which produces greenhouse gases, contributing to climate change. With this research project, TWD and Seneca aim to address this challenge and take advantage of opportunities to shift consumer clothing disposal behaviour. “TWD is honoured to be selected as Seneca’s partner in such an important initiative,” said TWD’s vice-president of development, Daniela Siggia. “We are confident this program will not only help in carbon reduction, but also provide us valuable information that is sure to impact future sector development.” Seneca’s Applied Research Fund is funding the project, which will be conducted at Seneca’s Newnham Campus. The project will make an immediate difference in the diversion of textile wastes on campus and the study is also expected to provide new information about the influence of education, examining how a social marketing campaign can change a student’s attitude and behaviours in regards to textile waste diversion. The data will be used to develop new and better textile diversion methods with study results used to support the development and enhancement of related guidelines, activities, and curriculum at Seneca. “We created this project because our students love fashion,” said Sabine Weber, Seneca Faculty member and lead researcher on the project. “If people love a garment but don’t have use for it anymore, they should find it a new home that isn’t in a landfill. We hope this project will help to teach people about the importance of textile recycling and help people think twice before throwing textiles in the garbage.”

© Can Stock Photo / AnikaSalsera

A Newnham campus-wide survey will be conducted as part of the research to learn about existing student attitudes and behaviours towards textile diversion. Other project initiatives include: • Textile waste collection bins will be set up around campus with TWD monitoring the bins and assessing the quality and quantity of the articles. This data will be analyzed with consideration given to expansion of the collection initiative. • A swap event that would offer students in the School of Fashion’s Applied Marketing course an opportunity to explore effects on pricing. • A student-run textile waste management group will be initiated and will help to develop activities and events related to textile waste diversion to raise awareness and education. “This project is one of several sustainability focused initiatives that the School of Fashion is involved with,” said Gitte Hansen, chair, Seneca’s School of Fashion. “They are part of a larger effort to promote and embed sustainability in the Seneca culture and the values and learnings we impart on our students.” Textile Waste Diversion is a family-owned and operated recycling company, leading the way in the textile waste diversion industry, to build a community driven, green future. TWD supports textile recycling industry regulation and employee development, and is dedicated to setting a new standard for the industry. TWD also helps to raise media and public sector awareness of the positive environmental impact and economic potential the textile recycling industry offers local communities. With campuses in Toronto, York Region, and Peterborough, Seneca offers degrees, diplomas, certificates, and graduate programs renowned for their quality and respected by employers. It is one of the largest comprehensive colleges in Canada, offering nearly 300 full-time, part-time, and online programs, combining the highest academic standards with work-integrated and applied learning. ●● » February / March 2017 » 23


UBC’S URBAN MINERS Keep LEDs out of Landfills By / Tom Horacek Photo courtesy of Clare Keirnan / UBC Light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs last much longer and use less energy than fluorescent lights and are becoming a popular choice for holiday lighting, indoor lights, and many other uses. Now mineral processing engineer Maria Holuszko and her PhD student Amit Kumar have found a way to make LEDs even more environmentally friendly. They’ve evaluated a process that recovers valuable metals in LEDs and reduces the amount of waste that eventually ends up in landfills. How recyclable are LEDs? The main materials are generally recyclable—plastics, glass, metals, ceramics, adhesives, and electronic components. From the LED itself, we can recover copper and small amounts of rare earth metals including lutetium, cerium and europium, and the “technology metals” gallium and indium, which are used to produce high-tech devices. We also hope to capture tiny amounts of precious metals such as gold and silver.

200 TONS




This mining of metals from waste streams is what “urban mining” is about. While urban mining, even at its most efficient, can probably only meet about a quarter of the current demand for metals, it can complement traditional mining and do the environment good at the same time. How does your method work? We have developed a flowsheet for processing waste LED bulbs using crushing, grinding, and other simple physical processes to recover valuable metals in an economic and environmentally safe manner. The methods are based on material properties such as density, electrical conductivity, shape, and size—so they’re simple, clean, and economical. Our methods resulted in capturing higher amounts of recoverable, valuable metals in the final sample. The copper content alone was at 65 per cent, compared to the 30 or 40 per cent copper content usually obtained from ore in traditional mine processing. The lead content was six per cent, zinc was 4.5 per cent and silver was 1,640 parts per million—pretty good concentrations. Eventually, we also hope to use this workflow to find a way to recover gold in significant amounts. How do you plan to scale up this process? We’ve done a test run of the process in collaboration with Contact Environmental, BC’s major lamp recycler, located in Richmond. We’ve proven that it works, with significant amounts of copper, lead, zinc, and silver being recovered and kept out of landfills. We plan to improve the recovery of metals even further and eventually implement this processing on a larger scale in 2017, with funding support from research not-for-profit Mitacs.

EXCLUSIVE NORTH AMERICAN PARTNER OF HAAS RECYCLING SYSTEMS HAAS TYRON 2000 XL is the perfect tool for high volume waste reduction. With adjustable shaft speeds and independant shaft control in both forward and reverse, you can make quick work out of even the toughest materials. For more details visit: | 1.800.465.3214 Capacities can range from 25 tons per hour to 100 tons per hour, depending on the application and material.

24 » Solid Waste & Recycling

E-waste from old computers, cellphones, LED lights, and other electronic devices is a growing problem for North American communities and also for the developing countries that are processing our waste. If we can extract the maximum amount of material from e-waste, we would make it easier and safer to recycle. We will be able to limit other communities’ exposure to potentially toxic materials, while also recovering valuable minerals. My dream is to find a way to close the cycle so that in the future, there is zero waste. ●● Visit for more information on UBC’s urban mining research.

SEVEN YEAR OLD Takes on Plastic Waste

© Can Stock Photo / 9comeback


By / Jessica Kirby

PLASTIC PRODUCTION has jumped more than 320 per

cent over three decades, amounting in about 300 million tons of plastic pieces introduced into circulation annually—85 per cent of which is never recycled. Once discarded or brought to the landfill, the wind or scavengers carry it away where about ten per cent of it finds its way to waterways and, eventually, the ocean. In fact, 80 per cent of ocean waste originates from land, and 90 per cent of that is plastic. Some statistics say there are more pieces of plastic in the ocean than fish. Plastic’s long shelf life becomes the bane of ocean life’s existence, as pieces break down slowly and into microplastics, which cause health complications for ocean creatures that mistake them for food. Ryan Hickman of San Juan Capistrano, California was inspired to do something to help while making some cash. The then-three year old decided the recycling business was for him after visiting the local recycling centre with his parents. Ryan’s Recycling’s website, which represents seven-year-old Ryan’s now-active business, says after that first trip to the recycling centre he told his parents he wanted to give each of his neighbours plastic bags with which to collect their recyclables to pick up. His parents ran with it, and Ryan’s Recycling was born. Hickman collects all returnables from neighbours and friends, and sorts them by type – plastic, aluminum, and glass – and brings them to the recycling centre. He is saving the money collected to fund his future college education, though, according to his website, he may tell you he is saving for a full-sized waste collection truck of his own. Hickman has appeared on the Ellen Degeneres Show and hundreds of websites internationally, and the Pacific Marine Mammal Center (PMMC) in Laguna Beach made him a youth ambassador. PMMC is a rescue facility that advocates for ocean health and awareness of more than 700 marine species

currently threatened with extinction. Proceeds from Ryan’s Recycling t-shirts go to help PMMC’s rescue efforts. Hickman collects recycling from his customers on a regular cycle. He dedicates time each week for sorting and makes weekly trips to cash in his collectables, given to him by neighbours, friends, family, and co-workers of the adults in his life. He will, with the help of his parents, make pick-ups anywhere in Orange County. As of January this year he has recycled over 200,000 bottles and cans and donated $1,624 to charity. For more information please visit Plastic Waste Facts • Over the last ten years we have produced more plastic than during the whole of the last century. • 50 percent of the plastic we use, we use just once and throw away. • Enough plastic is thrown away each year to circle the earth four times. • Ocean pollution kills more than one million sea birds each year. • Discarded fishing nets kill approximately 300,000 dolphins and porpoises every year. • The ocean garbage site off the coast of California called North Pacific Gyre is the largest garbage site in the world and twice the size of Texas. • It is estimated that every square mile of ocean has more than 45,000 pieces of plastic floating in it. Information courtesy of and ●● » February / March 2017 » 25

Are you ready for the best industry education, networking, and inspiration (so you can work smarter)? It’s all happening at WasteExpo 2017 (May 9-11, New Orleans, LA)

WasteExpo is the largest waste, recycling, and organics event in North America—and it’s where the industry turns for answers. The event (49 years strong!) brings together top players from the public and private sectors—from across the US and around the world. For WasteExpo 2017, we’re heading back to New Orleans—a city that has as much heart for business as it does for soulful jazz and crave-worthy cuisine. And we’re happy to give you a sneak peek of this year’s educational program, designed in conjunction with the National Waste & Recycling Association (NWRA) and Dr. Stuart Buckner, former Director of the U.S. Composting Council. The agenda puts technology and innovation front-and-center and features many case studies and knowledge sharing. Explore these learning tracks: • Anaerobic Digestion, Composting, Organics Diversion & Recovery • Fleet Management/Collection • Regulatory/Labour/Training • Technology/Business Development

In other words, this all-in program boasts everything you need to do your job smarter, safer, and more efficiently. It’s worldclass learning, unmatched by any other industry conference. And did we mention the 600+ exhibitors ready to help you solve your latest challenges? It’s no wonder that waste and recycling leaders turn to WasteExpo for the answers, insights, and solutions they need. In addition to the educational agenda, WasteExpo’s popular special events include the EREF Charitable Auction, NWRA Awards Breakfast, Welcome Reception, and much more. Are you ready to join 13,000 of your industry peers to gain the innovative and forward-thinking learning you need to compete in today’s always-changing waste industry? Get ready to talk market trends, regulatory updates, safety best practices, cutting-edge innovations and technology, and so much more. We hope to see you in New Orleans. Solid Waste & Recycling Readers Save Learn more and register at with promo code VP7. You’ll save 25% on the Premium Pass and get free Exhibit Hall admission. ●●

• Recycling/Landfill • Food Recovery Forum—back by popular demand And gain valuable takeaways from our “Spotlight” sessions: 1. Reducing Food Waste and Increasing Organics Diversion and Recovery in Municipal Programs 2. The Digitalization of Waste & Recycling 3. Innovative City Planning – Smart Cities with a Solid (Waste) Plan 4. Managing Contamination: Does One Bad Apple Spoil the Whole Barrel?

26 » Solid Waste & Recycling

VISIT SW&R AT BOOTH #4372 The Solid Waste & Recycling team will be on site at WasteExpo so be sure to stop by to meet the staff and get the latest copy of our magazine.

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal • February / March 2017


This issue: Kitimat Stikine Facility Renewable Natural Gas Electric Trucks Material Exchange

The USA, Executive Orders, and Canadian Waste Management The Unpredictable Giant The new USA President’s “American First” policy, commitment to renegotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), promise to reduce regulations (especially ones related to the environment), and pledge to provide faster “yes” or “no” answers on development, has serious potential to turn the waste management industry in Canada upside down. There is a level of predictability in the early days of the new US president in that one could argue he is keeping his campaign promises. On the other hand, the executive orders that have been signed have come as a shock to those most impacted by them. I see potential changes in US policy that could serious impact waste management in Canada. Scenario One: Ban on Waste Imports in the US One concern some Canadian industries and municipalities should have is that of an executive order being issued by the US president banning the imports of Canadian waste into America for any number of reasons may seem nonsensical to a waste industry professional—protecting American jobs, as a bargaining chip over some other trade issue, or for national security. If not an outright ban, the US presidential interference could take the form of a tariff on all waste coming into the US from Canada. At this point, the reason for the US suddenly closing the border to imports of Canadian waste really doesn’t matter. What does matter is that companies and municipalities that rely on US waste management facilities have contingency plans in place if such a ban does occur. In my view, the thousands of industries and several municipalities that ship

waste to the US will need both the federal and provincial government to potentially enact emergency measures to handle the sudden crisis. In Ontario alone, approximately 4 million tonnes of solid non-hazardous waste are shipped annually to the US for treatment and/or disposal. The vast majority of this waste is from the industrial, commercial, and institutional sectors. For hazardous waste shipments, the annual export number is 519,000 tonnes. More than one research paper has concluded that the capacity to manage waste in some provinces, especially Ontario, is woefully inadequate and that landfill capacity is in rapid decline. The amount of landfill capacity available in Ontario is less than the disposal capacity required for IC&I and CRD waste generated by Ontario sources per some research reports. This is an weakness that a business-savvy, “American First” president might exploit. In the short term, Canada should be able to handle a US landfill ban. For example, in Ontario there is currently a remaining landfill capacity in the province of 127 million tonnes. The challenge will come when trying to add extra waste management/disposal capacity. The timeline for environmental permitting of a new landfill or energy-from-waste facility in the province is typically three or more years. Scenario Two: US Waste Management Advantages The vision of the new US president, backed by a Republican majority in the House of Representatives and Senate, is less red tape and faster approvals for business. One potential outcome of the application of this vision is an increase in waste management capacity

●● technology By /John Nicholson, M.Sc., P.Eng.

along in States bordering Canada as a way to create more jobs for American workers. The result could potentially mean a shrivelling of waste-to-resource developments in Canada as clean-tech and entrepreneurial waste management companies set up shop along the border and reap the benefits of less regulation and faster approvals. The Good and The Bad Whether the US bans waste from Canada, slaps a tariff on it, or creates a favourable business environment that results the growth of waste management industry in the US at the expense of Canadian competitors, it is still an unknown at this juncture. What seems to be clearly known is that unpredictable and sometimes questionable policy decision-making will be occurring in the foreseeable future from the US White House. If the US bans imports of waste from Canada, this is arguably good news for Canadian environmental activists and the Canadian waste management industry in the long run. Canada will be forced to deal with it once waste and greater diversion and more final disposal capacity (i.e., EFW facilities and/ or landfills) will be needed on this side of the border. If the “American First” policy results in a push to expand the US waste management industry and create an environment where export of waste from Canada to the US is cheaper, it is a benefit to the IC&I sector and municipalities that export waste to the US. Strategy Wins The need for contingency planning and strategy development is required by all waste industry professionals, all entities Continued on page 34 » February / March 2017 » 27

●● PPEC Speaks

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly about Ontario’s Blue Box

The good news is that the reported recovery rates for almost every single material category in Ontario’s Blue Box have improved over the last 13 years, some by as much as 20 percentage points. The bad news is that several categories have made very little progress and lag way behind the others, and that the real recovery rates are much lower than those reported. Here is our Report Card by material group, based on the latest recovery numbers from Stewardship Ontario. Please note that this is not a judgement on the merits of individual materials but rather an assessment of how well they are being recovered in Ontario’s Blue Box system. There is clearly room for improvement. Printed Paper - A Printed paper has been a consistent good performer, rising from 67 per cent reported recovery back in 2003 to 82 per cent in 2015. The recovery rate for old newspapers and old telephone books is in the 90s. Somewhat further back, and dragging the printed paper category down, is the recovery rate for printing and writing paper (Other Printed). This has ranged from 39 per cent up to 59 per cent and is currently at 55 per cent. Glass Packaging - B+ The reported recovery rate for clear and coloured glass is an impressive 80 per cent. Years ago, all we heard about was glass going to landfill or being used as road fill. Beyond talk of glass breaking in the collection process and contaminating loads of other materials, however, glass recovery is apparently in good shape. A lot of recovered glass these days goes into blast and filter media rather than higher end uses such as fibreglass and cullet, which have more demanding quality requirements. Paper Packaging - B Old corrugated containers (OCC) or boxes have the highest reported recovery rate of all Blue Box materials (98 per cent). From there it’s a drop back to paper-based gable top cartons which have surged from a 10 per cent to a 61 per cent recovery rate; boxboard at 43%; followed by aseptic cartons (made of paper, plastic and aluminum), and laminants. The relatively low recovery rate for old boxboard is a concern. It reached as high as 65 per cent recovery in 2008 but has dropped back to

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By / John Mullinder 43 per cent since. Stewardship Ontario did target boxboard toothpaste cartons, toilet paper roll tubes, tissue boxes, and other toiletry packaging in an advertising campaign in 2015. Steel Packaging - B The latest reported recovery rate for steel food and beverage cans is a respectable 71 per cent. Other steel packaging such as aerosols and paint cans drag the overall steel category down 10 per cent. In fact, paint cans are the only category in the Blue Box whose recovery rate has declined over the last 13 years. Aluminum Packaging - D The low reported recovery rate for aluminum food and beverage cans in Ontario (42 per cent) has always been a bit of a puzzler and is frequently compared unfavourably with its far higher recovery rates in Canada’s many deposit provinces where recovery ranges between 61 per cent and 97 per cent. One reason offered for the difference is that the recovery rate for cans in Ontario is only for those that end up in the home. It doesn’t include those used at public events, in offices, or factories. The aluminum stewards also reported residential sales some 13 per cent lower in 2015 than what various waste audits used to provide a provincial total suggested was in the home. But even if you allow for this difference, the reported recovery rate only rises to 48 per cent. We doubt that Blue Box scavengers are grabbing the other 52 per cent. Plastic Packaging - D The reported recovery rate for plastics packaging reached 32 per cent in 2015. The highest rate was for PET bottles (66 per cent) and the biggest increase over the years was turned in by the “Other Plastics” category with one-third now being reported as recovered. Apart from PET and HDPE bottles, however, the plastic recovery rates are poor. The far uglier truth about all reported Ontario Blue Box recovery rates, however, is that they don’t tell the real story. They are basically “sent for recycling numbers,” in most cases, what was sent to an end-market from a material recycling facility or MRF. These reported “recovery” rates don’t deduct the various yield losses that occur in remanufacturing that curbside material back into new products, or the contamination that must be removed (and is normally landfilled) before remanufacturing can actually take place. For example, all reported paper numbers need to be shaved by at least 10 per cent because paper fibres shrink in the repulping process. When a municipality sends 100 tonnes of paper to a paper recycling mill, only 90 per cent of it will

●● PPEC Speaks come out the other end. And with single-stream collection there is a lot more plastic, glass, and metal contamination in the paper bales. This is usually sent to landfill. And you can chop maybe 30 per cent off the reported PET bottle “recovery” rate since PET yields at the end-market range, at best, between 60 and 70 per cent. A recent attempt by the Canadian Standards Association to grapple with this issue and come up with a definition of recycling, falls short in our view, and is one of the reasons why PPEC is developing a more accurate and real measurement of what paper materials are actually being recycled in this province. ●● Printed Paper (Reported Recovery Rates)












Telephone Directories



Other Printed Paper



Paper Packaging (Reported Recovery Rates)






Corrugated Boxes



Boxboard Cartons



Gable Top



Aseptic Cartons



Paper Laminants



Glass Packaging (Reported Recover Rates












Steel Packaging (Reported Recovery Rates






Food & Beverage Cans






Paint Cans



Aluminum Packaging (Reported Recovery Rates)






Food & Beverage Cans



Other Aluminum



Plastics Packaging (Reported Recovery Rates)






PET Bottles



HDPE Bottles



Plastic Film



Plastic Laminants






Other Plastics



Source: PPEC Analysis of Stewardship Ontario Blue Box data between 2003 and 2015.

News Bite

Hair Care Industry First Creates Sustainable Business Model Advancing Circular Economy The Procter & Gamble Company has announced that Head & Shoulders (H&S) will produce the world’s first recyclable shampoo bottle made from up to 25 per cent recycled beach plastic. In partnership with recycling experts TerraCycle and SUEZ, this innovation will come to France this summer as a limited-edition H&S bottle available to consumers in Carrefour. This will be the world’s largest production run of recyclable bottles made with post-consumer recycled (PCR) beach plastic, and a first major step in establishing a unique supply chain that involves the support of thousands of volunteers and hundreds of NGOs collecting plastic waste found on beaches. Additionally, P&G announced that in Europe by end of 2018 more than half a billion bottles per year will include up to 25 per cent post-consumer recycled plastic. This represents more than 90 per cent of all the hair care bottles sold in Europe across P&G’s hair care portfolio of flagship brands like Pantene and Head & Shoulders. The project will require a supply of 2,600 tons of recycled plastic every year – the same weight as eight fully loaded Boeing 747 jumbo jets. P&G has been using PCR plastic in packaging for over 25 years, and this announcement is an important step in the company’s journey to meet their Corporate 2020 goal of doubling the tonnage of PCR plastic used in packaging.   According to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation (EMF) 95 per cent of the value of plastic packaging material, worth $80-120 billion annually, is lost to the economy and on the current track, there could be more plastics than fish in the ocean (by weight) by 2050. For more information please visit P&G online at ●● » February / March 2017 » 29

●● policy and law

Amendments to Federal Hazardous Waste and Recyclable Material Regulations

By / Rosalind H. Cooper

Amendments to the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations have been made to allow Canada to meet its obligations under the United Nations Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. One of the obligations involves seeking consent of an importing or transit country for any export from Canada of waste or recyclable materials subject to the Basel Convention, including household waste. The other obligation involves taking or returning shipments that cannot be completed as planned.

Environment that the authorities of the country of import or transit have approved the disposal or recycling at an alternate facility. Disposal of Mercury-Containing Lamps The Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development has received a report on Bill C-238, An Act respecting the development of a national strategy for the safe disposal of lamps containing mercury. The short title of the proposed legislation is National Strategy for Safe Disposal of Lamps Containing Mercury Act.

of practice was to prevent the release of mercury to the environment by identifying best practices for collection, storage, transportation, and processing of mercury-containing lamps at their end of life. The Code was intended to guide jurisdictions and industry in planning waste management programs and any related regulations.

The amendments expand on what is defined as “hazardous” and provides that waste and recyclable material, including those collected from households, are considered “hazardous” for the purpose of export if (i) they are defined as or considered to be “hazardous” under the legislation of the importing or transit country; (ii) their importation is prohibited under the legislation of the importing country; or (iii) they are one of the “hazardous wastes” or “other wastes” in the Basel Convention and the importing country is a Party to the Basel Convention.

Mercury is used in a number of products, such as fluorescent light bulbs, thermometers, thermostats, batteries, switches, relays, and measuring devices. The use of mercury in consumer products can pose a risk both to human health and to the environment. While many consumer products made with mercury are being phased out with the use of less harmful substitutes, compact fluorescent light bulbs are an exception and their usage is increasing. This is because fluorescent light bulbs have several performance and environmental advantages. There is no substitute for mercury in fluorescent lighting.

Bill C-238 would require the Minister of the Environment, in co-operation with provinces, territories, environmental groups, and industry, to develop and implement a national strategy for the safe disposal of lamps containing mercury, which includes compact and tube fluorescent light bulbs. The national strategy is to include national standards for the disposal of mercury-containing lamps; guidelines for disposal facilities; and, a plan for promoting public awareness of the importance of safe disposal. Bill C-238 also requires that the Minister table in Parliament a report on the effectiveness of the national strategy every five years.

Municipalities are responsible for collecting and disposing of recycling products that contain mercury. Programs for the safe disposal of fluorescent light bulbs vary from one region to another and some municipalities allow mercurycontaining light bulbs to be put in the garbage for normal collection.

Nunavut Proposes Waste Reduction Diversion Act One of the last jurisdictions in Canada to implement waste diversion laws is the Territory of Nunavut. However, with the introduction of Bill 27, the Waste Reduction Diversion Act, all provinces now have programs for waste diversion. The objective of Bill 27 is the establishment and enforcement of programs to reduce, recover, or divert waste, as well as prohibition of materials that cause impairment of the natural environment. Bill 27

A Canadian exporter must notify the Department of the Environment and obtain a permit before any export of waste or recyclable material. The new provisions will address shipments of waste or recyclable material for which consent was given by the importing and transit countries and for which a permit was issued, but that could not be completed as planned. Other amendments provide that a Canadian exporter or importer no longer needs to inform the authorities of the foreign country of a refused shipment; and, that the Canadian exporter must receive confirmation from the Ministry of the 30 » Solid Waste & Recycling

In February 2016, the federal government published a proposed “Code of Practice for the Environmentally Sound Management of End-of-life Lamps Containing Mercury” for public comment. The objective of the Code

Continued on page 34

Why it is Imperative to Have a Well Written and Organized Business Plan Michael Kavanagh of Ariem received a business plan from a business that was in the Greater Toronto Area. The company was looking for funding to open two new sites in various parts of the world, substantial funds to cover operating costs at these two sites, and working capital for their existing operation. The plan was originally forwarded to a major mergers and acquisition firm but was subsequently transmitted to Kavanagh as it was a funding request rather than a request to purchase or sell a business. The did forward the plan to several lenders as a favour to the client, but the response was negative. The plan was a prepopulated form from a government lending company ironically touting itself a bank for entrepreneurs. The form was completed by the firm’s outside accountants and was over 60 pages with colour graphs and very nice pictures. Near the end of this lengthy plan, the financing program was outlined with very little detail. Kavanagh and Shamit Khosla of Ariem jointly reviewed the plan and noted there was not much thought put into the program and little interaction between the company and the outside accountants in putting the plan together. The request for financing was scattered and, quite frankly, made no sense. The prepopulated nature of the form also made it difficult for a proper layout. Sections were scattered so that personal net worths were followed by business forecasts. The forecasts were not realistic having no actual basis in historical results. It was not surprising that the lenders’ response was negative. Kavanagh noted that this is hardly unique. We have seen other business plans that have been prepared and are not cohesive. The commonality to all is that they did not achieve the goal of

●● mergers By / Mark Borkowski President, Mercantile Mergers & Acquisitions Corp.

acquiring the needed funds. Banks and lending institutions have accelerated cost reductions to maintain or increase profitability. This drive to increase profitability is driven partly by the increased costs of regulation and scrutiny. The cost reductions are across the board staff reductions. The remaining staff are then tasked with managing more portfolios while carrying out other duties including business development. Time, which was previously in short supply, is in even shorter supply, now. Why is this important? Account managers’ time, as noted above, is very limited. They do not have time to read disjointed, poorly organized business plans. In addition, sending a disjointed proposal to the risk management department seriously erodes the account manager’s credibility for future deals. Account managers who have poor credibility will be on the chopping block when the next rounds of cuts are planned. Therefore, there will be little or no consideration or review of a poorly prepared business plan. Khosla advised that a clear, concise, well-organized business plan greatly increases the chances of the funding requests being approved. It also important to take the time to prepare the report including a clear outline and why the program is being presented. Before forwarding to the lenders, take the time to revisit. In addition to the basic items, care should also be taken with respect to spelling and punctuation, making sure there are no inconsistencies, especially in the numbers and, of course, proper layout is essential. Firms, such as Ariem, that specialize in assisting businesses and preparing plans, are your best bets for your projects. These firms can provide

an independent look, and can help in covering areas that are not readily noticeable to the owners who are usually too busy running their businesses. These firms typically employ experienced people who have worked at banks or financial institutions for many years. They know what is needed to satisfy the risk management department and secure the needed funds. Businesses need money to meet dayto-day obligations and to fund growth. Given the importance of this critical aspect, it is surprising that businesses do not treat the request with more concern and urgency as evidenced by halfthought-out business plan presentations. While there is considerable pressure to lower or keep costs constant, saving money on the preparation of a poorly prepared business plan will end up costing more than any cost to write up a plan. It should be noted that plans don’t need to have glossy paper or multiple pages of colour photographs. The facts laid out in a logical order with the story of the business and the program will be sufficient. With almost everyone carrying smartphones, anyone can take a picture. However, it takes a professional photographer, with the right lighting, positioning, and equipment, to present the best picture. With such a critical component for your business, seek experienced professionals that can properly present your business’s crucial request. Continued on page 34 » February / March 2017 » 31

●● around the world

The Waste Collection and Treatment System of Paphos - Cyprus The seaside resort of Paphos is a very popular tourist destination in the summer months, making managing the collection and transfer of wastes a very important task for the Municipality of Paphos. Waste containers of 660 and 1100 litre capacity are provided in Paphos town centre and its suburbs at communal collection points along the roadside. Where there are large apartment blocks and large restaurants, additional containers are provided for the extra quantities of waste produced through the summer season. Household dustbins used for waste at bars and tavernas are also emptied and returned to their owners.

The collection service is provided directly by the Municipality of Paphos. It uses rear-loading collection vehicles of 16 cubic metres capacity and in a two-axle configuration. Each collection crew comprises three personnel: a driver and two loaders. The collection service starts in the town centre from 3 a.m. but 5 a.m. in the outer suburbs. Collection vehicles normally collect two loads each day holding a net payload of 10,500 tonnes. This large payload is partly due to the large amount of food waste collected from bars, restaurants, apartments, and hotels in central Paphos. The collection vehicles are of 16 cubic metres capacity and are supplied by a local Cypriot manufacturer called Panaos. They are mounted onto twoaxle Iveco Eurocargo and Scania four series chassis, which feature a day cab with seating accommodation for a driver and two collection operatives. To ease driver fatigue, all chassis feature the Allison automatic transmission. The 3000 series model is fitted in the Iveco Eurocargo chassis while the 4000 series model is fitted in the Scania four series chassis. The two loaders place the 660 and 1100 32 » Solid Waste & Recycling

litre containers at the rear of the waste collection vehicle to be emptied by the vehicle’s lifting mechanism. Once emptied, the loaders return them to the communal collection point. The waste collection vehicle continues its journey to the next communal collection point, with the two operatives standing on the rear steps of the collection vehicle. Any excess waste consisting of bags, cardboard boxes, etc. is also loaded into the hopper of the collection vehicle. The streets are cleaned by the municipality with mechanical sweepers once the waste collection service has been completed. Waste is collected from some hotels in 660 and 1100 litre containers while other hotels are provided with Bergmann portable skip compactors, which the municipality believes is more productive as they can hold five tonnes of waste, and only need to be emptied twice a week. In comparison, the 660 and 1100 litre containers need emptying daily. The skip compactors are collected from the hotels and transported to the sanitary landfill site outside Paphos where the load is discharged. Once empty, the compactor containers are returned to the hotel so that fresh waste can be loaded. The compactor containers are collected by third-party private companies with a conventional skip loading vehicle of 18 tonnes gross vehicle weight and in twoaxle configuration subcontracted by the municipality of Paphos. These skip loaders have been acquired from the UK second hand and feature equipment manufactured by Maclift, Telehoist, Powell Duffryn, and Hyva. Although these vehicles are second hand, they have all been repainted so that they look respectable while working on behalf of Paphos municipality. Waste collection in Paphos by the conventional waste collection vehicles

By / Timothy Byrne

is based on six-hour shifts from 3 a.m. until 9 a.m. and from 5 a.m. until 11 a.m. When waste collection vehicles are loaded, they travel to the new sanitary landfill near Paphos, which opened in 2006. On arrival, all collection vehicles are weighed on a computerised weigh bridge, with gross vehicle weight and payload recorded. They drive onto the landfill and discharge their load at the tip face, before returning to the landfill to collect their weigh bridge ticket with their respective weights itemized. Collection vehicles leave the site to either continue with their collection route or they return to the depot for the end of shift.

The sanitary landfill site was constructed to comply with the European Union Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. This was because Cyprus was preparing to join the European Union as well as having to close old dumping sites because they did not meet any criteria of sound landfill practices. The landfill site is open from 7 a.m. until 5 p.m. seven days a week. This creates problems when the collection vehicle working in Paphos from 3 a.m. fills up by 5 a.m. The driver and crew have to sit for one and a half hours outside Continued on page 34

●● composting

BonApp Fridges Offer Grassroots Produce Recycling BonApp, the brainchild of Geneviève Rousseau, is all about helping extra food stay out of the (new) compost program in Montreal. The idea is for people to share excess produce before it goes bad. To facilitate this exchange, BonApp is setting up its first five fridges (it is hoped the first of many) in community spaces on the island of Montreal. The first fridge was launched at le 5ième, a zero-waste cafe and coworking space, in Little Burgundy.

The fridge has a glass door and is smaller than I expected. Geneviève said she wanted it to be welcoming for sharers. She makes a good point – a fridge with a glass door will be better maintained, while a smaller one is easier to manage than a larger one – especially if this is the very first time a project like this is launched. It is a pilot

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal • February / March 2017


This issue: Kitimat Stikine Facility Renewable Natural Gas Electric Trucks Material Exchange

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By / Catherine Rust

project—no one precisely knows how the fridge will be used, however, there are terms and conditions. For instance, whole produce is welcome, but sliced is not; unopened and sealed dairy and non-perishables are okay, but opened items, meat, and fish are outside the scope of this program. Users agree to use due caution to make sure items left and taken are edible and everyone is encouraged to use common sense when it comes to freshness, safety, and allergies. I pointed out that I am the type of person who would happily donate but would be worried about taking fruit or veg out of the fridge in case there were people who needed it more than I do. However, this is so pre-Uber economy thinking! As Geneviève points out: “…food waste is a behavioural (+ lack of education) problem at the consumer level, whereas ‘food insecurity’ is more systemic and economical. Food banks already exist to help people in need, as well as big actors such as Moisson Montreal and Tablée des chefs, which I admire. Grocery stores and restaurants partner with them. However, for consumers to be able to share within a trusted space and community, options were limited and that is why we are installing our small BonApp fridges. Students already love the concept as they are also more price sensitive.” In other words, the point of the fridge is for people to share and BonApp trying to change behaviour, not supply food

banks. For example, perhaps you’ve bought too many potatoes and know you can’t use them before they will go bad. Bring them into le 5ième and take some peppers for that stew you are making tonight. While BonApp supplies to interested community partners the fridge and the handmade stand on which the fridge sits, the care and operation of the fridge are the responsibility of the businesses that offer to host it. These businesses will make sure the produce is rotated from back to front to ensure that the ripest fruit and vegetables are picked first. BonApp has launched four community fridges and has a fifth one planned for January 31 at the co-working space, l’Esplanade in Montreal. So far the concept is working with a few learning curves. As Geneviève notes, “things are going well for the fridges. People sometimes bring more and other times take more... we will try to remind people to use it via different strategies.” For more information on how the program is progressing, please visit the BonApp website. ●● Follow BonApp on Facebook or Twitter @ BonAppMTL Read more from Catherine at

Let’s talk trash! 2cg Waste Audits • Waste Diversion Planning • Stewardship Organics • Food Waste Reduction Paul van der Werf, M.Sc. 519-645-7733

@2cg @allfoodisfood


Waste Management Consulting Services






PROJECTS » February / March 2017 » 33

●● advertiser index The USA, Executive Orders, and Canadian Waste Management

Why it is Imperative to Have a Well Written and Organized Business Plan

Continued from page 27

Continued from page 31

that currently export waste to the US, and all levels of government in Canada.

Remember, you don’t get a second chance to make a good first impression. ●●

Perhaps it is time for Canadian industries and government have a clear strategy for promoting local solutions to local problems (i.e., “Canadian First”) with respect waste management policies. It may be needed to counteract potentially damaging rules that may be forthcoming south of the border. ●●

Amendments to Federal Hazardous Waste and Recyclable Material Regulations

Continued from page 30

is expected to cover printed paper and packaging; waste electronics and electrical equipment, used oils, and paints, tires; and, possibly batteries and other municipal hazardous solid wastes. Importers, brand owners, vendors, and manufactures will be obliged under most of these programs, regardless of whether they have a business presence in the Territory. Printed paper and packaging diversion, which typically applies only to residents of a province or territory, may be extended to nonresident distributors in Nunavut to ensure diversion rates meet the overall program goals. ●●

Ariem is an entrepreneurial company based in Mississauga, Ontario whose goal is to help small and medium sized businesses solve their operational and financial issues. Visit Ariem’s website at www.ariem. ca Shamit Khosla, CPA, CA brings his extensive operational experience as CFO and business owner to the operational side. Michael Kavanagh, a merchant and commercial banker for 35 years, provides expert knowledge of the financial issues. Contact: Mercantile is a mid-market mergers and acquisitions brokerage focused on selling mid-market companies

The Waste Collection and Treatment System of Paphos - Cyprus Continued from page 32

the landfill, waiting for it to open. The landfill also receives waste from other municipalities who also face the same problem if they begin their waste collection services in the small hours. There has also been waste transfer stations constructed across Cyprus which started operating approximately the same time as the new sanitary landfill site. Both the transfer stations and the sanitary landfill were funded by EU Cohesion Funds. The new transfer

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stations are not located near to Paphos, so it would be uneconomical for waste collection vehicles to travel from this municipality to discharge their load at these transfer stations. The landfill extracts methane through the use of a flare torch and the heat extracted is exported to the power industry. Leachate is treated in a lagoon, and once the initial treatment has taken place, it is transported off site to a desalination plant for further treatment. Once the leachate has undergone further treatment and has been stabilized, it is discharged into the sewer system under a consented discharge. Other infrastructure is also being built on the landfill site to help Cyprus comply with the European Union Landfill Directive. An anaerobic digestion plant is part of the future plans for the site, as well as a material recycling facility and a construction and demolition wastes facility. The latter two projects will help to pre treat municipal and construction and demolition waste with only the rejects being deposited into the landfill cell. In conclusion, the municipality of Paphos provides an efficient waste collection service to its residents and tourist industry. With the continual roll out of static portable compactors to hotels, the municipality will help save money for many years to come through reducing operational and labour costs in providing an efficient waste collection service to its tourist industry. ●●

Phone Website Page 519.645.7733 33 303.651.5500 20 800.FTL.HELP 19 410.329.1300 15 604.683.6009 13 800.465.3214 24 604.986.7723 11 203.967.1100 IFC 708.486.0744 OBC

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it’s simple.



enough said.

Where do business leaders find the best business leads? “There is not a better place than WasteExpo to get a current ‘pulse’ on the industry from all levels of the leading players’ leadership. We’ve come away from WasteExpo many of the past 19 years with an acquisition opportunity we later closed. In our 20th year, we’re looking forward to seeing and celebrating with our friends throughout this great industry.” Ron Mittelstaedt Chairman & CEO Waste Connections

Only at WasteExpo 2017

Don’t overthink it. Ron hasn’t for 19 years. He knows WasteExpo is where the best and brightest converge to meet, exchange ideas and introduce new methodologies that will impact the industry for years to come. Looking for the latest in recycling techniques? WasteExpo offers more than any other event in the industry. It is THE event—with 600+ exhibitors, a comprehensive education program and a venue ideal for doing business. There’s nothing else to think about—you need to be here. Learn more at

Conferences & Special Events: May 8-11, 2017 • Exhibits: May 9-11, 2017 Morial Convention Center New Orleans, LA, USA Associated with:

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Solid Waste & Recycling February / March 2017  
Solid Waste & Recycling February / March 2017