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Solid Waste & Recycling Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing and disposal October/November 2009 $10.00

CPMP No. 40069240

An EcoLog Group Publication


Co-Composting in the Scenic Town — page 8

Advancements in Scale House Tech — page 24 swr o-n 09 Cover pg 1.indd 1

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Solid Waste & Recycling

CONTENTS October/November 2009 Volume 14, Number 4

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing & disposal


Co-Composting in Banff


Cover art by Charles Jaffé

Biosolids pose unique challenges in out-of the-way places, especially in scenic tourist destinations. We look at the Town of Banff’s co-composting program. by Paul van der Werf & Chad Townsend





PMG’s “One Step” diversion program. by Clarissa Morawski

Event Report


MRF Equipment


Waste Business


Regulation Roundup






Ad Index




Up Front 14

IC&I WASTE: WASTE MINIMIZATION Three companies with award-winning programs. by Carl Friesen


PACKAGING: BEVERAGE CONTAINERS Results from The Beer Store’s WDO report. by Clarissa Morawski


PRODUCT STEWARDSHIP: STYROFOAM London Drugs styrofoam diversion program. by Guy Crittenden



RECYCLING: CURBSIDE PROGRAMS Access to recycling across Canada. by Cathy Cirko

Packaging, pg.20


NEXT EDITION SUPPLEMENT: Annual Buyer’s Guide & Directory

INFRASTRUCTURE: APPROVALS Comprehensive Certificates of Approval. by Pam Russell



MRF Equipment, pg. 24

Evaluating single-stream recycling • MRF equipment. • New compost systems • Roll-off containers and bins Space closing: November 19 Artwork required: November 21 Advertisers, contact Publisher Brad O’Brien at 1-888-702-1111 ext. 2.

Product Stewardship, pg. 28

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by Guy Crittenden “Byproducts that once sold for $150/tonne as protein have become an (estimated) $50/tonne liability.”



ew real life phenomena more closely approximate science fiction horror than the prion responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as “mad cow disease.” The story of how BSE got into the human food chain — precipitating a health scare and the slaughter of millions of herd animals (especially in the United Kingdom) — is well known. Less well known is how regulated changes in the handling of animal byproducts devastated the rendering industry by turning formerly profitable materials into expensive hard-todispose-of wastes. BSE creates holes in the brain (hence “spongiform”); “downer” cows begin to stagger and eventually collapse and die. The human variant, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), similarly causes dementia and death, and belongs to a family of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies that affect a wide range of animals. Fear that BSE-infected meat could cause illness in humans led to the precautionary destruction of herds and became a trade issue, with bans established against meat from countries with even a single BSE case. BSE investigations triggered close scrutiny of the slaughtering, processing and rendering industries where, it turned out, animal byproducts were being turned into feed in a cycle never contemplated by Mother Nature. Ruminants and non-ruminants alike — including household pets — were eating one another’s processed offal, creating an environment in which the BSE prion could flourish. This is where the science fiction horror comes in. The BSE prion, it turns out, is virtually indestructible. It can survive for many months in such unlikely places as a blood splattered slaughterhouse wall, weathering hot and freezing temperatures, ready to drop back into meat products, to be consumed and again infect an unsuspecting host. The prion can even survive fire, so it turns out that when the authorities burned animal carcasses across Great Britain, they unwittingly spread prions across the lands of grazing animals, for future take up into the food chain. In July 1997 the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) passed a mammalian-to-ruminant feed ban that was enhanced by a stricter ban in July 2007. The 2007 “enhanced feed ban” regulation requires segregation of all specified risk material (“SRM” — the “crax” composed of brains, eyes, spinal columns, ganglia, large intestine, etc.) through meat processing, rendering and disposal. SRM is no longer allowed in any type of feed, pet food or fertilizer. The CFIA posts the reports on each case of BSE confirmed in Canada. There have been 15 since May 2003. Interestingly, with each case the government extols that the animal was intercepted before entering the food chain and uses this as proof that our random BSE testing program works. The reality is that every one of these sick animals was a downer cow, so it was not random testing that brought it to attention. For case histories you can visit comenqe.shtml The enhanced ban protects animal and human health, but has impacted livestock producers, meat processors and (especially) the rendering industry. Prior to the EFB taking effect, Canadian renderers had already restructured their operations to process ruminant and non-ruminant meat

and byproducts in separate plants. This was not in response to Canadian regulation but rather to a U.S. requirement that all non-ruminant derived proteins be produced in rendering plants certified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture as being free from ruminant products. The segregation of facilities cost the rendering companies a great deal of money; although the government has provided some financial assistance, industry consolidation has occurred. Ironically, the US feed ban — referred to as “feed ban lite” by some in Canada — is not so onerous and doesn’t impose the same segregation, machine and plant cleaning, and disposal restrictions, thereby giving U.S. processors a cost advantage. Regulatory compliance costs and time frames have long been bones of contention in Canada on a number of fronts. These include veterinarian drug approvals, feed variety approvals, plant inspection costs, etc. Small producers have been pushed out, replaced by a few large processors who dominate with their economies of scale. The bottom line for industry is that the 65,000 tonnes or so of SRM that rendering plants once sold for $150 per tonne as protein have now become an (estimated) $50/tonne liability. Disposal options are few due to the nature of the material (which is unsuitable for a municipal landfill), so SRM must be sent to specially approved landfill facilities. The Canadian Renderers Association is supporting research to determine if SRM might be composted back into a useable product — primarily fertilizer. Given the virtually indestructible nature of the prion responsible for BSE, it will be interesting to see how these tests turn out. The association’s members are being asked to make major investments to run SRM in separate batches (for different end products). This is not easy in continuous feed processes, especially when the CFIA’s segregation rules governing SRM are very strict. A disposal option under consideration is cement plants, where the high temperature and long residence time would certainly destroy the BSE prion. This alternative is currently used in Europe. However, implementation in Canada has so far been inhibited by cost factors and environmental permitting requirements. This is an area where policymakers could assist by expediting approval of any environmentally-sound systems that can thoroughly (and affordably) destroy the SRM that must be kept out of the food chain. Guy Crittenden is editor of this magazine. Contact Guy at

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Solid Waste & Recycling


New Municipal Media office

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing & disposal

Guy Crittenden Editor Brad O’Brien Publisher Jamie Ross Account Manager Sheila Wilson Art Director Kim Collins Market Production Selina Rahaman Circulation Manager Carol Bell-Lenoury Mgr EcoLog Group Bruce Creighton President Business Information Group Contributing Editors Michael Cant, Rosalind Cooper, Maria Kelleher, Clarissa Morawski, Usman Valiante, Paul van der Werf Award-winning magazine Solid Waste & Recycling magazine is published six times a year by EcoLog Information Resources Group, a division of BIG Magazines L.P., a leading Canadian business-to-business information services company that also publishes HazMat Management magazine and other information products. The magazine is printed in Canada. Solid Waste & Recycling provides strategic information and perspectives on all aspects of Canadian solid waste collection, hauling, processing and disposal to waste managers, haulers, recycling coordinators, landfill and compost facility operators and other waste industry professionals. Canadian Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40069240 Information contained in this publication has been compiled from sources believed to be reliable, thus Solid Waste & Recycling cannot be responsible for the absolute correctness or sufficiency of articles or editorial contained herein. Articles in this magazine are intended to convey information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Reprint and list rental services are arranged through the Publisher at (416) 510-6798.

Municipal Media President Creighton Hooper chats with clients at the opening of the company’s


unicipal Media has moved into a new head office in Toronto. The company is known to municipal readers for its Custom Built Calendars — an online service that allows recycling and waste program coordinators to create calendars that educate the public about such things as set-out days, what may be recycled, interesting facts, etc. Here’s the new address and other contact info:

Municipal Media 276 Carlaw Ave., Suite 208A Toronto, ON M4M 3L1 Toll free: 1-888-343-3363 x1 Email: Web:

Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Circulation Department, Solid Waste & Recycling 12 Concorde Pl, Ste 800, Toronto, ON M3C 4J2 Call: (416) 442-5600 Fax: (416) 510-5148 E-mail: From time to time we make our subscription list available to select companies and organizations whose product or service may interest you. If you do not wish your contact information to be made available, please contact us via one of the following methods: Phone: 1-800-268-7742 Fax: 416-510-5148 E-Mail: Mail to: Privacy Officer Business Information Group 12 Concorde Pl, Ste 800 Toronto, ON Canada M3C 4J2 Solid Waste & Recycling, USPS 018-886 is published bimonthly by Business Information Group. US office of publication: 2424 Niagara Falls Blvd, Niagara Falls, NY 14304-0357. Periodicals Postage Paid at Niagara Falls, NY. US postmaster: Send address changes to Solid Waste & Recycling, PO Box 1118, Niagara Falls, NY 14304.

new head office in Toronto, Ontario, located in a renovated factory-style loft.


Former RCO Executive Director releases album

ohn Hanson, the former Executive Director of the Recycling Council of Ontario (RCO) has released a music album, It’s a Sin to Tell a Lie. Hanson’s musical talents are well known to many in Ontario’s recycling community; this album will allow a much wider audience to enjoy his considerable singing, guitar playing and song arranging talent. Hanson was the Executive Director of the Recycling Council of Ontario for 15 years when they won the United Nations Award for a little program called the Blue Box back in 1989. Today John resides in Ottawa with his wife and son. Simply write to John at and provide your return mail address and the promotional code SWR Or visit to sample tunes first.

We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Publications Assistance Program towards our mailing costs. © 2009 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior consent. ISSN-1483-7714 PAP Registration No. 10991

The Forest Stewardship Council logo signifies that this magazine is printed on paper from responsibly managed forests. “To earn FSC certification and the right to use the FSC label, an organization must first adapt its management and operations to conform to all applicable FSC requirements.” Our paper – Arborweb – contains 30 per cent post-consumer recycled content. For more information, visit

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Mary Anne Davidson, chair of The Vancouver Board of Trade’s Community Affairs Committee, opened the forum by welcoming the sponsor, participants and speakers. The event was held at the Morris J. Wosk Centre for Dialogue.


etro Vancouver’s adoption of the “Zero Waste Challenge” — a “sustainable” framework for its waste management — was the focus of discussion at the Waste Management Forum Series, Part 1, hosted by The Vancouver Board of Trade. The forum was the first in a series that will explore various solutions and opinions on proposals for waste management in Vancouver. Metro Vancouver has set a goal to increase the rate of diversion (recycling and composting) from the current 55 per cent to 70 per cent by 2015. Discussions centered around the diversion and landfill/zero waste option as well as a recent report compiled for Metro Vancouver by AECOM Canada Ltd. The report analyzes the waste to energy (WTE), landfilling, and mechanical biological treatment (MBT) options for managing waste after diversion, comparing their economic and environmental implications. Mary Anne Davidson, chair of The Vancouver Board of Trade’s Community Affairs Committee, opened the forum by welcoming the sponsor, participants and speakers. “Metro Vancouver is facing a momentous decision, and needs to look at the environmental impacts of the different options,” said first speaker Dr. Jeffrey Morris. principal of Sound Resource Management. “A zero waste strategy is the best solution for Metro Vancouver, with waste disposal acting as an interim solution,” he added. Morris stated he preferred a landfill strategy for waste disposal over the WTE solution recommended in the AECOM report, due to climate, human health, and environmental factors. Morris said his own research suggests it’s possible for Metro Vancouver to achieve an even higher level of diversion at 80 per cent. He mentioned several strategies that would encourage “zero waste,” such as linear garbage rates and sin taxes, and touched on achievements in Seattle, where 97 per cent of yard trimmings are composted due to regulatory bans in place. Paul Levelton, director of KPMG’s Global Infrastructure and Projects Group, stressed the need for more information in order to make

a good decision on what Metro Vancouver should do for future waste management. “The majority of the costs of the waste disposal solution will be levied on the business community,” Levelton said, with Metro Vancouver generating approximately 3.4 million tonnes of waste per year. He believes that with the risks and uncertainty of the costs involved, Metro Vancouver will need to take into consideration the changes in new capital costs, changes in waste volume, and the possible impact of removing organic food waste from waste disposal. Levelton suggested Metro Vancouver perform a detailed financial analysis, assess risk, and assess non-financial matters (through a multi-criteria analysis), in order to make a fully informed decision. He said the costs of landfill practices are known, and will likely be consistent with current experience but WTE and MBT costs and risks are uncertain and harder to account for. Levelton called for more information in order to fully complete a thorough multi-criteria analysis of all the available waste management options by including the implications on financial, human health, ecosystem toxicity, climate change, operational flexibility, public acceptability, customer, public policy compatibility, and economic development considerations. He also stressed he felt more time and information is needed to fully assess the waste after diversion disposal options. A question and answer session followed, including a question from Patricia Ross, chair of the Fraser Valley Regional District, who asked about the waste management solution’s impact on agricultural food sources; Dr. Morris responded by explaining a methodology involving Toluene and Mercury levels. Ted Rattray, senior vice-president of Belkorp, was also in attendance and talked about the status of the Cache Creek landfill. An application to extend the life of the current landfill for two years is in the final stages of the approval process and an application for a longterm extension of the landfill on an adjacent piece of property is going through the government approval process as well. October/November 2009 7

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Banff B


by Paul van der Werf & Chad Townsend “Banff produces high quality compost from its biosolids. This high quality production is expected to continue with the addition of food wastes.”

Using biosolids compost in a national park


he scenic Town of Banff is a unique community nestled within Banff National Park in Alberta. Over the years the town has worked diligently to reduce the environmental impact created by its residents, businesses and the town’s up to five million annual visitors. The town has been composting its biosolids with woodchip amendment since 2003; more recently, food waste has been co-composted with biosolids. In-vessel composting is undertaken at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); uncured compost has been cured and used for remediation purposes at an old landfill in the park. This site is now considered rehabilitated, but remains in use as an interim site for excess compost curing and for storage. The town sought to identify and justify suitable locations for both the curing and end use of the composted product, and to establish appropriate protocols/mitigations for both activities. With a limited town land base, sites in the wider park had to be considered (with the agreement of Parks Canada, of course). A study was undertaken to help find a new curing location and to identify options for compost curing and finished biosolids compost utilization. While composted biosolids have been identified as an organic material for ecological restoration in Canada’s protected areas (Parks Canada and the Canadian Parks Council, 2008), concerns were raised

locally about the potential impacts of chemical constituents that may be present in the biosolids and possibly the biosolids compost. The study included a Risk Assessment to help identify, assess and manage any risks to public health/safety and ecological integrity from the curing and end-use of biosolids composts. The study has some further implications regarding the use of biosolids compost: if it’s acceptable for use in a beautiful national park where requirements are very stringent, it can (in theory) be used almost anywhere. The project was undertaken by 2cg Inc. and Golder Associates. It was jointly funded by the town along with Parks Canada and, given the province’s interest in the findings, Alberta Environment. The analysis of biosolids compost using conventional laboratory testing and ecotoxicity testing (i.e., receptor exposure toxicology) resulted in a Risk Assessment and ultimately allowed the development of a Risk Characterization. The RA tested the requirements of the CCME Compost Quality Guidelines and other environmental requirements, and included possible risk parameters not currently captured in these environmental requirements. A risk management strategy was developed to guide how compost would be cured and utilized.

Compost quality The biosolids compost produced at the Banff WWTP can be categorized as a natural organic material. This compost meets CCME Category B compost requirements and, except for marginally higher Se (Selenium) in some samples, meets all CCME Category A compost requirements. The metal concentrations in Banff’s biosolids are relatively low. This is not unexpected as the town’s industry is generally limited to tourism, making its quality of biosolids quite high. Table 1 depicts selected metal concentrations undertaken by Environment Canada in a comprehensive study of wastewater sludge (Environment Canada, 2007) and compares them to concentrations from samples collected for this study. The concentrations measured for this study

f Biosolids

October/November 2009 9


Table 1

Comparison of metal concentrations in Canadian sludges vs uncured and finished composts from the Banff WWTP Canadian Sludges 1995-1998 Mean Concentrationa

Banff Uncured Compostb

Banff Finished Compostb

mg/kg DW Metal

































a. Means of 6 observations, one per months during Sept. 1993-Feb. 1994 b. Uncured compost based on 6 samples from 2008, except As which is based on 3 samples. Finished compost is based on 1 sample.

are relatively low and echo historical data. Ecotoxicity testing revealed that some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) were detected in both biosolids compost and the undisturbed soil. This was not unexpected as all fecal matter could be expected to have some concentration of these chemicals. Based on limited analysis there is some indication that these chemicals are decomposed during the composting process. The literature suggests that composting can have a positive impact on decomposing these chemicals. Furthermore, the literature suggests these chemicals break down quickly in soil. The Risk Assessment and Risk Characterization exercise showed that: • The leachate of uncured compost is acutely toxic to fish; • There is the presence of EDC in some compost and undisturbed soil elutriate; and

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• The use of undiluted compost has a negative impact on plant emergence and plant growth. There were a number of Risk Management recommendations for a new curing site that emanated from the results of the Risk Assessment including: • The curing area should be set-back from surface water; • Although the risk does not appear great, the curing area should be kept away from recreational areas to avoid exposure to compost or leachate by the general public; and • Although the risk does not appear great, the curing area should not be readily accessible (e.g., fenced) to terrestrial receptors to avoid exposure to compost or leachate. None of these outcomes was unexpected and essentially reaffirm current knowledge and groundworks/MC7564/SWR 12/5/08 well established best practices to mitigate 10:23 AM these risks.

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“Ultimately an isolated, previously disturbed site on the outside of town was selected for curing. This site featured old lined sewage lagoons.”


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Curing site selection It was determined that about 0.4 ha (one acre) of space was required to manage curing, screening and finished product storage. A number of previously disturbed sites (gravel pits, etc.) were examined in the Banff area and in the park that could be used to cure compost. This included examination of space at the WWTP, a site outside of town used to dispose of clean fill, as well as some other sites. The goal was to find a curing site that afforded proper curing but at the same time was close to areas where the compost could be used. Ultimately an isolated, previously disturbed site on the outside of town was selected for curing. This site featured old lined sewage lagoons. The reasons for this selection included: • Option to contain leachate generated during curing process; 9:59 AM Page 1 Vermeer/AB/SWR 8/6/09 • Option to fence the curing area; • Close proximity to WWTP; and • Odour contained well away from visitors and residents.

References Report Fate and Significance of Contaminants in Wastewater Sludge Generated at Municipal and Other Publicly owned Wastewater Treatment Facilities (Environment Canada, 2007) Principles and Guidelines for Ecological Restoration in Canada’s Protected Natural Areas (Parks Canada and the Canadian Parks Council, 2008)

This site is currently in the design phase; it’s expected that an impermeable curing pad will be constructed in early 2010. It was recommended that two main compost products be produced: a Landscaping Grade and a Reclamation/Remediation Grade, with about half of annual compost production dedicated to each use.

discussed. A strategy to cure and utilize this compost has been developed. Banff and Parks Canada should be able to build on the success of their shared responsibility in composting and utilizing biosolids compost, to continue to contribute positively to maintaining and improving the ecological integrity of the national park.


Paul van der Werf is president of 2cg Inc. in London, Ontario. Contact Paul at; Chad Townsend is Environmental Coordinator, Planning & Development with the Town of Banff, Alberta. Contact Chad at

Banff produces high quality compost from its biosolids. This high quality production is expected to continue with the addition of food wastes. The risks to curing and utilizing this compost were assessed and the means to mitigate these risks have been identified and

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October/November 2009 13

by Clarissa Morawski


“PMG’s long standing success in the business lies in their wide ranging knowledge of local, national and international recycling and reuse markets.”

PMG Transforming the commercial waste management model

“The time is long-past for digging bigger holes to bury our waste” — Honourable John Gerretsen, Ontario Minister of the Environment, September 22, 2009


usinesses are aware that their provincial governments are about to change the way waste is managed. Over the next few months, for instance, the Ontario government will announce new policy aimed at significantly reducing the amount of industrial, commercial, and institutional waste generated by Ontario business. (See editorial Aug/Sept 2009). Disposal taxes, landfill bans, service provider accreditation; enhancing coverage of existing 3Rs regulation; performance targets; and producer responsibility for IC&I waste are some of the options being considered. It’s fairly certain that whatever policy tools the government chooses to use, business will need to re-think how it handles its waste in Canada’s progressive jurisdictions. Providing a new paradigm from traditional management of waste is becoming a viable operating business for companies that broker secondary materials and products for both resale, reuse, and recycling. The Institution Recycling Network or IRN offers recycling and reuse programs in six northeastern US states that achieve exceptionally high (>90 per cent) reuse and recycling rates. Over 60 commodity marketing programs enable IRN to haul deconstruction, pre-demolition, and new construction materials like wooden beams, wood waste, flooring, windows, fixtures, brick, gypsum, and metals (to name a few). According to Mark Lennon, Director of IRN, compared to disposal, recycling costs much less for nearly all construction and demolition materials. Lennon estimates than the tip fee for sorted C&D materials ranges from revenues of about $100 per ton (for metals) to a cost high of $85 per ton for mixed debris, versus an average disposal tip fee of $105 per ton. Lennon remarks on the key elements for diversion success as well as a cleaner, safer jobsite. “Early planning in terms of a waste management plan, regular reporting and documentation, as well as clear specifications on specific responsibilities, and which materials are eligible for diversion, are all essential for program effectiveness,” he says. IRN also manages surplus property, like office furniture; medical furniture, kitchen equipment etc. that it transports to charitable reuse markets throughout the world. Similar new business models are showing up in Canada as well. Starting as a pallet refurbishing business decades ago, Brampton Ontario-based PMG is transforming the typical commercial waste management model into a simple, cost effective zero waste system. Strategically situated near the junction of two major Ontario highways, PMG’s massive (125,000 square foot) facility is used for sorting and storing almost anything that is reusable or recyclable — from

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traditional recyclables (cardboard, metal and plastics), electrical and electronic equipment, old office furniture, windows, lumber, racks and shelving to nearly new but slightly damaged goods. PMG is also an Ontario Electronic Stewardship (OES) certified collector of WEEE. PMG employees (~40 FTE) transport, offload, dismantle, sort and re-load materials or goods destined for their end-market. PMG’s eight in-office staff manage logistics, client communication and markets. PMG’s long standing success in the business lies in its wide ranging knowledge of local, national and international recycling and reuse markets, which include traditional recyclers, compost facilities, re-seller charities like Habitat for Humanity, and international charity organizations that facilitate the placement of needed goods like office, school and medical furniture as well as other reusables. Tim McGillion, president and founder of the 20 year old company describes the new “One-Step™” Recycling Program as a simple, cost effective solution for a company wanting to maximize diversion. All that’s requested from the client is to keep the material out of the disposal compactor. “What’s often unaccounted by business in terms of waste management costs, are the externalized costs associated with their on-site compactors, like health and safety, capital, maintenance and repair costs.” PMG’s alternative model provides clients with either a trailer at a loading dock which is replaced when full (with one call to PMGs offices), or a direct pick-up. Today PMG has over 161 trailers at retailers; office buildings; manufacturers; and institutions located throughout the province. “But cost savings is not always the primary driver for those involved in the program,” says McGillion. “Many companies want certainty and proper documentation about the final destination of their waste, and in terms of the One-StepTM Recycling Program, an agreement for optimum reuse or recycling of their secondary resources.” New waste diversion policy measures will likely affect most small and medium enterprises (SMEs), most of which have been exempt from existing recycling regulations (e.g., Ontario Reg 102/94 & 103/94). More than 42 per cent of the IC&I waste generated comes from SMEs, which number in the tens of thousands of individual companies in larger provinces. Diversion service providers with experience and far-reaching market networks as well as well-established systems in place for handling, storing, and reporting a wide variety of materials will likely lead the transformation of “waste management” to “secondary materials management”. Clarissa Morawski is prinicpal of CM Consulting based in Peterborough, Ontario. Contact Clarissa at

Fueling our future! This summer, Edmonton announced the world’s first waste to ethanol plant. Thanks to the vision and leadership of our federal and provincial governments, Canada is now developing newer and even better renewable fuels. That is good news for our environment, good news for homegrown jobs, and good news for Canadians at the pump.

Ethanol and Biodiesel Growing Beyond Oil

Waste Minimization Three organizations use it as a core part of their sustainability strategy


program of waste minimization requires action on many different fronts, but pays off in many ways as well — including reduced costs. Three entrants in the Waste Minimization Awards of the Recycling Council of Ontario (RCO) show a variety of strategies and tactics in their waste-minimization programs that could be useful information to other companies and organizations..

Teknion Corporation

As a leader in the international development, manufacturing and marketing of office systems and related office furniture and products, Teknion is the centre of a vast network of suppliers and customers. In 2003, the company set a focus on sustainable development, and developed a program that considered the factors it could influence in its supply chain and production methods. Teknion’s sustainability drive included registering all its manufacturing sites and administrative offices to the international environmental process standard ISO 14001, which calls for a concerted program of minimizing environmental impacts. Other certifications included the ECO Logo (Canada’s Environmental Choice Program) and the Globe Foundation Award in 2007 — the highest recognition in Canada and well known in the United States for environmental performance — for Environmental Excellence. Teknion is also a consistent winner of the RCO’s Waste Minimization Award, including the Gold Award in 2007. Teknion’s statistics on waste minimization show the company’s progress. Landfill-destined waste, in tonnes generated per $100,000 in sales: 0.90 in 2003; 0.35 in 2007; 16 October/November 2009

Diversion rate from landfill (diverted waste compared to total waste): 45 percent in 2002; 87 percent in 2007; Diversion of waste, in tonnes: 7,891 in 2003; 12,311 in 2007. Some improvements in the company’s waste footprint have come through changes to the company’s products. For example, Teknion moved away from using backing panels made of three materials — fiberglass, steel and polyester — that were difficult to separate at the end of the product’s life. The new panels are now made of just two materials, steel and polyester, using a new laminating machine that controls the amount of adhesive applied, allowing easy separation of steel frame and polyester when the product is recycled.

Exhibition Place

As the site of the Canadian National Exhibition each fall as well as a wide range of events throughout the year, Exhibition Place in central Toronto sees 5.3 million visitors annually. As part of its initiative to reduce its environmental footprint,

by Carl Friesen “CompX says, the products it manufactures are 94 to 99 percent recyclable, and products contain 45 to 60 percent recyclable material.”

I C & I WA S T E

Exhibition Place’s plan is to use diversion, recycling and reduction of waste to become 80 percent waste-free by 2010. Initiatives include: Four-stream recycling to separate and recycle waste materials including glass, paper, wood, plastic and organic compost at three of its buildings: Direct Energy Centre, Allstream Centre and Better Living Centre; Three-stream recycling to separate and recycle waste materials (glass, plastic, paper, waste on the exterior grounds; Two-stream recyclers (plastics and organics) at BMO Field for zero-waste events; Direct Energy Centre uses and recycles 100 percent post-consumer waste (PCW) hand towels for all public washrooms, with used towels being composted; Direct Energy Centre uses recycling and

safe disposal programs for items such as batteries, fluorescent lamps, paint and toner cartridges; Perishable food is donated to shelters and food banks in Toronto, and food waste is donated to local farmers.

CompX Waterloo

About 99.27 percent of the 1,791,000 kilogram waste stream of this Kitchener Ontariobased manufacturer of furniture components is diverted from landfill through recycling and re-use, according to an independent audit by AET Consultants. Most of the diverted material is scrap metal. About 88 percent of the remaining waste is diverted. CompX has a recycling program for corrugated cardboard, recyclable paper, shredded

paper, food and beverage containers, scrap metal, wood, low-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chlorinate (including strapping), tissue/ toweling and organics. At the other end of the product’s lifecycle, CompX says, the products it manufactures are 94 to 99 percent recyclable, and products contain 45 to 60 percent recyclable material. Carl Friesen is a writer based in Mississauga, Ontario who specializes in helping business professionals build their profile through published articles. He is a Senior Associate with emerson consulting group inc. Contact Carl at 289-232-4057 or

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Biomass Forestry sector waste is an energy source, Business of Climate Change conference told


anada’s forestry industry is doing its part to cut greenhouse emissions, said Avrom Lazar, President and CEO of the Forest Products Association of Canada, in a panel discussion at the “Business of Climate Change” in Toronto on September 29. As part of a panel discussion, Lazar said that wood scrap, sawdust and other byproducts are being used to generate heat, some of which is used to produce electrical power. This means that rather than decaying and producing methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas, the biofuel can help switch some power generation away from fossil fuels. What’s missing in this picture, Lazar said, is a systemic policy that promotes this type of activity. Such activities are largely driven by government policy, which is hard to anticipate. “Each time we invest, the rules change,” said Lazar. Integration is needed on a larger level as well, he said, describing how Indonesian forests are cut and the wood shipped to the Netherlands — where it’s burned for energy, with the users able to gain greenhouse gas credits for doing so, not considering the total environmental cost of forest removal and shipping the wood. Lazar said that in many cases the science has not yet been done on the environmental, social and economic cost of using a given weight of dry fibre in various ways. While much of recent government policy been around economic Walinga VC2336 6/11/07 2:36 PMhas Page 1


The forestry sector can be a source of biomass for electricity generation. (Inset photo) Michael Denham of Accenture Canada address the Business of Climate Change conference in Toronto on September 29, 2009.

stimulus, he continued, almost any steps taken to stimulate the economy will increase greenhouse gas emissions. In an interview after the panel discussion, Lazar said that while forestry company operations may be located far from main power grid corridors, they’re capable of supplying some of the electrical load consumed by nearby towns. What’s needed is government policy supporting better access to capital to allow this to happen, and also for public electrical utilities to be more accepting of this type of power source. — Written by Carl Friesen. (See article, page 16)

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by Clarissa Morawski “In one year alone, the refillable beer bottle can claim to have avoided more than 2.3 million gigajoules of energy, equivalent to more than 383,000 barrels of oil, worth $27.5 million.”

Rising Spirits Alcohol beverage container reuse and recycling climbs higher than ever


his fall The Beer Store (TBS) released its annual Packaging Stewardship Report, Responsible Stewardship 2008-2009, with statistics on reuse and recycling of alcohol beverage packaging in Ontario. Since 1927 the privately operated retail and distribution company has been operating a depositrefund-based packaging management system. Today it recovers packaging on behalf of the 89 beer brandowners and 346 associated brands sold through the system. The costs of the depositrefund system are covered through a schedule of service fees payable by those brandowners. The backbone of the TBS deposit-refund system is the refillable beer bottle. Over 70 per cent of total beer sales (of about two billion units) are refillable glass bottles. (See chart.). With each bottle making an average of 12 to 15 trips over relatively short distances from retail store back to brewery, the refillable bottle provides both economic and environmental efficiencies. Currently, 48 Canadian brewers (including 17 Ontario brewers) are signatories to the Industry Standard Bottle (ISB) Agreement which allows them to utilize the ISB as their primary beer container. In one year, more than 1.4 billion beer bottle sales were provided using just over 94 million new beer bottles, avoiding all primary resource extraction energy and pollution associated with manufacturing 1.4 billion new bottles from scratch. In one year alone, the refillable beer bottle can claim to have avoided more than 2.3 million gigajoules of energy, equivalent to more than 383,000 barrels of oil, worth $27.5 million. Refillable and non-refillable beer container and secondary packaging

20 October/November 2009

recovery piggy-backs on the existing full goods distribution system — when each TBS or brewery truck delivers goods, it returns with empty containers and secondary packaging. At the largest of TBS’s 12 distribution centers, balers consolidate beer cartons for shipment directly to end markets (thereby avoiding additional transfer and processing). Over a five-year period (2005-2009), collection rates of glass beer bottles and aluminum beer cans have increased. Recovery of refillable glass bottles is up from 97 per cent to 99 per cent; single-use glass bottles from 85 per cent to 89 per cent; and aluminum cans up from 67 per cent to 79 per cent. (See chart.). The program’s recycling performance is also good news. All waste glass is being shipped short distances to Brampton, Ontario where it’s used primarily for the manufacture of new bottles, with the remaining glass used to make fiberglass, also locally. Aluminum cans are recycled into new aluminum sheet for cans and all carton fibre is recycled into paperboard and box products. TBS also recovers and recycles wine, sprits, and beer sold by the LCBO under the Ontario Deposit Return Program (ODRP). In its second year ODRP is also demonstrating significant performance gains. TBS recovers these containers from consumers and



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from almost 17,600 bars and restaurants and uses the same reverse distribution system as it does for beer containers. In only two years, the collection rate for all ODRP containers went from 67 per cent to 73 per cent (Glass bottles 76 per cent and aluminum cans 79 per cent). All container categories experienced improved collection rates, with the exception of small aseptic cartons. (see bar chart.) The TBS system provides a good example of a consumer friendly, logistically efficient and environmentally effective packaging recovery system that is only getting better with age.


Clarissa Morawski is principal of CM Consulting based in Peterborough, Ontario. Contact Clarissa at

The conference will focus on two environmental issues in Ontario: the proposed amendments to Ontario Brownfield Regulation 153/04; and Extended Producer Responsibility and Zero Waste initiatives under Ontario’s Waste Diversion Act. There will also be a round table on the Green Energy Act and its application to waste facilities and brownfield sites.



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by Aengus McLoone “By taking a camera snapshot of each vehicle entering the facility, operators can cut down on illegal materials entering the site.”

A Matter of Scale Advancements in scale house offerings


ith hundreds of vehicles frequenting recycling facilities each day, the need for up-to-date technology and operational efficiencies are key in maximizing business potential in for-profit environments and skillfully utilizing taxpayer dollars in governmentmanaged organizations. Necessary security measures for employees, customers, cash and physical property also become a major priority. Recycling facility operators are reporting an increased trend in the use of scale houses and control cabins to assist with operations at the front line. Amy Roering, of Hennepin County Environmental Services, comments on security and customer service benefits. “We found that our operations function much better with the presence of the new scale house,” she says. Not only are facilities utilizing more scale houses, they’re adding more scales to increase inbound and outbound lanes, sometimes even

creating a separate “express line” for specific categories of customers. In addition to the increased security that scale houses provide, new technology software and security camera mounts tied into the structures help decrease customer discrepancies. By taking a camera snapshot of each vehicle entering the facility, operators are able to detail the weight, size and appearance of each load, cutting down on illegal materials entering the site and being dumped. The primary issues faced by facilities without a scale house are security and equipment maintenance problems. The security of company assets in an unconfined space as well as the threat from dust and weather can create an environment that’s detrimental to necessary electronics such as computers and communications systems. Some facilities use a job box, which provides little shelter during hot, cold or rainy weather. Those that don’t use any structure generally

The Hennepin County prefabricated scale controller: B.I.G.’s scale controller building serves a Southern California metal recycling center by checking and weighing incoming and outgoing loads.


have a large open lot that vehicles enter. One of the problems drivers encounter is that they’re not immediately directed where to go, having no discernable landmark indicating a place to stop and unload. Uncontrolled environments that once plagued the operational efficiency at many facilities can now be eliminated with the installation of a prefabricated scale house. Unlike manufacturing a structure on-site, prefabricated options avoid retaining an architectural firm, going through a permit process, finding a competent builder, and then waiting for a construction process to play itself out. In the case of Hennepin County, the primary functions found to be the most helpful was the climate control offered by the HVAC, traffic control, and safety for vendors, suppliers, visitors, drivers and attendants. In addition, workers found the scale house contributed greatly to a clean working environment as a decrease in noise pollution, Molok/AB/SWR 10/13/09 2:01 as PMwellPage 1 which was a significant help in answering phone calls. “It provides the same things a building would: security, safety from the elements, and it’s clean,” she says. “Our employees keep saying that it’s so clean. They are also more productive with a climate controlled

scale house, especially with our harsh weather.” After researching prefabricated structures offering custom designs, Hennepin County chose to go with California-based B.I.G. Enterprises due to their product life expectancy and ability to meet the tough design requirements. One of the major contributing factors to this increased lifespan is the paint on the scale houses. The new B.I.G. paint system provides a catalyzed two-component polyurethane topcoat paint that serves as a protective feature by resisting chemical, impact, fade, abrasion and UV exposure. Recently tested by an independent third party for rust and corrosion under extreme simulated weather conditions, the paint system showed no signs of rusting, no undercut creeping and no corrosion at the scribe cut in the steel after 3,500 hours of punishing laboratory tests. Another feature critical to operational efficiency for Hennepin County was the custom window design. “We really like the windows because the employees have a 360-degree view from our scale house, which helps with traffic control,” adds Roering.

To find out more about the

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The scale houses also allow the employee to have some privacy when dealing with customers at the entrance. This lets them take notes in private and make a phone call if they feel questionable material is present and they don’t want the customer to hear. One facility owner comments on the functionality of the doors. “These doors are offset from one another. So as the customers pull up, we can swing open the door and easily look inside the truck without having to go completely outside. As they pull in, we can observe if they have any material that we don’t buy and then write it down on the ticket that we give them. When they leave, we open the outbound door to make sure they still have the unwanted materials, and didn’t just dump it. These offset doors speed the process immeasurably.” With plenty of cabinet and counter space available, scale house and cabin control operators find the area convenient and easy to use. Each scale house comes with electrical, including provisions for data, communication and security camera systems, stainless steel shelves, and a high output commercial HVAC. Aengus McLoone is with Beckett & Beckett, Inc. in Los Angeles, California. Contact Aengus at


R e c y c le y o u r

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by Guy Crittenden


“In the last 18 months, London Drugs has prevented more than 40 semi-truck loads of Styrofoam (some 50,000 lbs) from entering landfills.

Styrofoam Recycling London Drugs diverts Styrofoam from landfills in Western Canada


any people wonder how to dispose of Styrofoam and other packaging after they’ve purchased products such as a TV or computer, once they get these items home. Since Styrofoam is not recycled as part of most municipal recycling programs, the majority of Styrofoam still goes to landfill. London Drugs offers a solution that makes the recycling process easy for consumers. Through a partnership with Genesis Recycling, London Drugs offers an in-store take-back packaging recycling program. Founded in 1945, B.C.-based London Drugs currently has 70 stores in more than 35 major markets throughout British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The company employs more than 7,500 people and carries a diverse range of health and consumer electronic products. The company appears to “get it” that offering product stewardship to customers creates a competitive advantage, as it deepens the relationship with customers. Customers can simply leave product packaging at London Drugs’ customer service desks as they leave with their purchases, from perfume boxes and cardboard packaging to toothpaste boxes and Styrofoam from a microwave purchase or a boxed appliance. In the case of Styrofoam, the pesky packing material is picked up at all of London Drugs 70 stores and collected at its warehouse before shipping to partner Genesis Recycling. There, the Styrofoam blocks are heated with special machinery and condensed into polystyrene “pucks,” each about the size of a hatbox and weighing about 20 kilograms. The pucks become a commodity that’s then shipped and sold to be remanufactured into new products. At this stage, though, Styrofoam recycling is an added cost to London Drugs. “In its expanded form, polystyrene is very inefficient to ship,” says Clint Mahlman, London Drugs Senior Vice President. “One whole semi-truckload only weighs about 1.5 tonnes so it’s very labor intensive to collect and ship for recycling. But we’re committed to making this 28 August/September 2009

program work, both for our customers’ convenience and the capacity of our landfills.” Here are some quick facts about London Drugs Styrofoam recycling: • London Drugs fills at least one semi truck per week with Styrofoam to go to recycling. • Over the last 18 months, London Drugs stores across Western Canada diverted 50,000 pounds of Styrofoam from going to the landfill. • London Drugs has been recycling Styrofoam since March 2007, with partner Genesis Recycling in Aldergrove, B.C. • London Drugs only accepts packaging of products sold at London Drugs. “As a company, we continue to work diligently with our suppliers to reduce Styrofoam used in products and packaging,” says Mahlman. “But we’re also looking at long-term solutions to divert this waste from going to landfills. Our ‘What’s the Green Deal’ program is a ‘beyond blue box’ initiative that attempts to give consumers more options for recycling materials that previously ended up in the garbage.” The following list outlines the many items customers can bring back to London Drugs as part of the company’s comprehensive recycling program: • Cell phones, PDA and rechargeable batteries • Alkaline Batteries • Disposable cameras • Ink jet cartridges • Laser cartridges • Metal film canisters • Plastic bags • Pop bottles and cans (BC only) • Electrical and Electronic goods (TVs, VCRs, computers, monitors, printers etc) • Small Appliances (purchased at London Drugs) • Styrofoam packaging from our products • Cardboard packaging from our products • Insurance plastic folders • Laser cartridges • Compact Fluorescent Bulbs (CFLs) • fluorescent light tubes up to 4-foot lengths On items not purchased at London Drugs, recycling fees will apply to offset recycling costs. The company will gladly waive these fees if the item was purchased at London Drugs and customers have the receipt. Guy Crittenden is editor of this magazine. Contact Guy at To see how Styrofoam is converted visit to view the video

by Pamela Russell, P.Eng


“The Comprehensive Cof A recognizes that the pace of industrial change is significant and that site owners need to react.”

Speeding Up Approvals Is a Comprehensive CofA for you?


o you want to extend the hours of operation at your waste transfer facility to provide better customer service? Or bring in waste from a neighbouring municipality? Or possibly you want to recover and recycle some of the material that’s delivered to your transfer station instead of sending it all to landfill? Although these are all environmentally insignificant modifications, these changes would typically require an amendment to a Certificate of Approval (CofA) for a waste management facility. Amending a CofA is not just time consuming and costly to the facility operator, it also consumes the limited resources at the environment ministry and therefore slows down the processing of applications for new waste facilities or applications for amendments for changes that are more environmentally significant. As part of an overall initiative by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment to streamline the approval process for waste facilities and to provide better guidance to applicant’s, the ministry recently introduced the Comprehensive CofA process for waste transfer and processing facilities. This development should be of interest to policymakers across the country.

The objective of the Comprehensive CofA is to provide a company with operational flexibility to make changes to their waste facility without a requirement to make an application for an amendment. It allows industry to plan and to make changes to their facilities in a timely manner and to reduce the delays associated with the traditional approvals process. A Comprehensive CofA incorporates additional conditions to ensure that the ministry is kept informed of the continued site operations, that the company remains in compliance with legislative requirements, and that the environment is not adversely affected. The extent to which operational flexibility is permitted by a Comprehensive CofA for a waste disposal site is contained within the Engineer’s Report provided by the proponent. The Engineers Report basically establishes pre-approved limits for site conditions and defines the envelope of operational flexibility that the site can work within without requiring further approvals. The Engineers Report must be prepared under the direction of and signed by an Independent Professional Engineer. The Environmental Bill of Rights posting includes a description of both the start up operations

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October/November 2009 29


and the full operating envelop as defined in the Engineers Report so that stakeholders are advised of what future operations may happen at the site. Golder Associates prepared the first application for a Comprehensive CofA for a waste transfer and processing facility in September of 2008. Since that time, one other Comprehensive CofA has been granted for a waste transfer and processing facility. The environment ministry hopes to see all traditional certifications for waste transfer and processing facilities converted to Comprehensive CofAs within the next several years. If you are considering applying for approval for a new waste transfer and processing facility or making modifications to your CofA for your current facility, you should consider

the benefits of a Comprehensive CofA. The rate of change in most industries is moving at an ever-increasing pace, and this is particularly true of the waste industry. New technologies for material recovery are constantly being developed and Extended Producer Responsibility is providing incentives to recover materials far beyond what was traditionally being done. The Comprehensive Cof A recognizes that the pace of industrial change is significant and that site owners need to react. The approval requirements for a Waste Comprehensive CofA are described within the ministry’s “Guide for Applying for Approval of Waste Disposal Sites” which can be accessed on the Ministry website at www.ene. Also, the

30 October/November 2009

ministry has published an electronic orientation session for applicants and consultants at To view a sample application package for a Comprehensive CofA for a waste transfer and processing facility, check the ministry website at 6837e.pdf Pam Russell, P.Eng., is a Senior Waste Engineer with Golder Associates Ltd. in Whitby, Ontario. Contact Pam at This article was written with the assistance of Tim Edwards, Special Projects Engineer, Environmental Assessment and Approvals Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment.

Because our ENVIRONMENT is too precious to leave in the hands of AMATEURS.

RECYCLING 269-793-7183 Phone 269-793-8793 Fax

A Matter of Access More Canadians have access to recycling plastic packaging


new report from CM Consulting shows that a greater number of Canadians has access to recycling household plastic packaging and that a broader range of plastic packaging is being accepted by municipalities. Estimates of Levels of Residential Recycling Access for Plastic Packaging in Canada was released by EPIC in April of this year. The study is a follow-up on a similar report commissioned in late 2004. The biggest changes in the new report, compared to its 2004 predecessor, are the increases in access to recycling of tubs and lids — from 56 to 88 per cent — and a jump from 18 to 86 per cent for other bottles and jugs. Significant improvements were also made in non-beverage PET containers, which increased from 77 to 91 per cent, and in

Recycle full containers, PET, Aluminum, Aseptik and more Recycle your foam and turn waste into profits!

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Percentage of Population with access to Recycling 2005


PET Beverage



PET Non-Beverage



HDPE Beverage



HDPE Non-Beverage






Film and Bags



Tubs and Llids



Other Bottles & Jugs



Expanded Polystyrene


see chart below

*This # does not include the many retailers that now offer in-store plastic bag recycling programs.

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32 October/November 2009

The following demonstrates the percentage of the population with access to recycling the new types of plstics that have been added in the latest report.

New categories of plastic packaging PET Thermoform


HDPE Pails over 5L


Polystyrene – Expanded Food


Polystyrene – Expanded Packaging


Polystryene – Crystal


Garden Rigid Plastic



by Cathy Cirko non-beverage HDPE bottles, which went from 79 to 91 per cent. The report identifies curbside and depot collection programs as being the primary avenues for the collection of plastic packaging. It also makes mention of the fact that although access to municipal plastic film and bag recycling is just over 50 per cent, there are close to 2,000 grocery retail stores across Ontario accept plastic bags for recycling. The new report also differs from the previous one in that it includes several more types of household plastic packaging, including PET thermoform, HDPE pails over 5L, garden rigid plastic, and more categories of Polystyrene packaging (expanded polystyrene for food, for packaging and crystal Polystyrene). (See article, page 28.)

In almost every case of plastic packaging, there has been a marked increased in the percentage of Canadians who now have access to recycling through their local recycling programs. The main exception to this is the province of Newfoundland, which continues to offer access for only PET beverage bottles and HDPE beverage bottles. The new report clearly shows that the groundwork to achieve higher diversion rates for plastic packaging has been laid. But there is further work needed to better engage the consumer to participate in these programs. EPIC will continue to work with Canadian municipalities to help increase the diversion of plastic packaging by enabling them to provide their residents with greater access to recycling and to increase the types of plastic packaging

“The groundwork to achieve higher diversion rates for plastic packaging has been laid.”

to be recycled in their communities. The new report is available for downloading from the EPIC web site at epic or directly at Clarissa_EPIC_Access_FINAL_ REPORT2_2009.pdf Cathy Cirko is the vice president of the Canadian Plastics Industry Association (CPIA). Contact Cathy at

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artRFID Ad for the CWRE Show Edition of Solid Waste and Recycling Distributed at the Show

by John Nicholson, M.Sc.,P.Eng.


“QSTV recently signed an agreement with the Dominican Republic for the purchase of a KDS system.”

Waste-to-Energy KDS in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia


ohn Kearns is a unique individual in his sixties with the ambition and drive of someone half his age. A self-described inventor, I had the pleasure of meeting Kearns this past summer when vacationing in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. He was working toward the completion of his 20 tonne per day Kearns Disintegration System (KDS) that will undergo testing this fall.

The system

Invented by Kearns back in 1980s, the patented KDS technology is a two-stage combustion system that utilizes a primary chamber and afterburner. In the primary chamber, waste is combusted at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1400°C. In the afterburner, the products of combustion from the primary chamber are maintained at temperatures between 800 to 1,600°C for approximately 4.2 seconds. The main differences between a KDS and a typical mass burn incinerator found in North America and Europe is the high temperature, long holding time, and reduced ash found in a KDS. Besides municipal solid waste, the KDS was designed to accommodate a variety of solid, semi-solid and liquid waste. It’s also modular in design so the capacity of the system can be tailored to meet the needs of the end user. The result is a system that is ideal for small and medium sized communities with a mix of waste streams that need to be managed. The company claims it can process municipal solid waste at a cost of $66 per tonne.


A five tonne-per-day prototype KDS was built and tested in Nova Scotia in 2000 to evaluate the performance of the technology. Independent third party testing performed by AMEC Earth and Environmental verified that the system could fully combust municipal waste resulting in ash with very low carbon content. AMEC also concluded that the KDS prototype generally produced fewer emissions when compared to typical incinerators. Based on the success of the prototype unit, it’s anticipated the new and improved 20-tpd sys-

Artist’s rendering of the facility.

Members of the 34 October/November 2009



tem that will be tested this fall will satisfy government regulators and potential customers. The company will ensure that testing of the 20-tpd KDS will meet the requirements of Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Canada. Anyone familiar with ETV knows that verification is not easy or cheap. The benefits of verification far outweigh the extra effort and cost, especially if one is marketing to global clients. It’s an excellent marketing and sales tool as it provides a company with credibility on its claims and prospective buyers with a level of comfort. Also, through ETV verification, permitting and approvals associated with a technology can be expedited. Kearns is confident that testing will meet the emission standards of both the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Besides ETV Canada verification, the system is undergoing review by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment under it New Environmental Technology Evaluation (NETE) program.

Sales and marketing

The success of any thermal treatment company hinges on its ability to sell its solution. With respect to global sales and distribution of the KDS, Kearns and his company, Kearns Disintegration Systems Canada Limited, have partnered with Quantum Solutions Technology Ventures Inc. (QSTV), headquartered in Markham, Ontario. Besides its interest in marketing and sales of waste solutions through its involvement with Kearns’ company, QSTV is also involved in building development and venture funding around the globe. Through the efforts at QSTV there is already interest in the KDS from municipalities and private companies in over 30 countries. QSTV recently signed an agreement with the Dominican Republic for the purchase of a KDS system complete with energy-fromwaste capabilities. It is anticipated that the facility will be operational by 2012. Another major advantage QSTV brings to the table is its financing capabilities. Through its partnerships with merchant banking groups, QSTV has the ability to provide up to 100 per cent financing for projects. Customers have


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three payment options — outright purchase of a KDS, financing by QSTV for construction and operation, or a joint venture with minimal or no capital investment by the municipality.

John Nicholson, M.Sc., P.Eng., is a consultant based in Toronto, Ontario. Contact John at

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by Rosalind Cooper, LL.B “The changes include establishing an overall 70 per cent diversion target to be achieved by December 31, 2011.”

Waste Initiatives across Canada Revised Ontario WEEE plan

The draft “Final (Phase 1 and 2) Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Program Plan,” that was posted by Waste Diversion Ontario for comment, has now been approved by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. The Plan revises and replaces the “Final Phase I Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Program Plan” that was approved by the ministry on July 10, 2008. The revised plan comes into force on April 1, 2010. In the interim, Ontario Electronics Stewardship will continue to implement the Phase I Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Program Plan that commenced on April 1, 2009. The revisions to the existing Plan include the addition of the second phase of waste electrical and electronic equipment materials, and incorporate new information gathered since the approval of the Phase I Plan. The revisions permit stewards, who already operate or are interested in operating closed-loop end-of-life management systems for their electrical and electronic equipment products, to participate under the program. The revisions also include a modified “direct ship option” to address those situations where generators of waste electrical and electronic equipment are not able to send materials through the program’s consolidation system (due to security concerns). There’s also increased flexibility for waste electrical and electronic equipment generators and collection sites. First, the sorting and packaging requirements have been expanded to allow for containers approved by Ontario Electronic Stewardship (OES). Second, waste electrical and electronic equipment generation sites, that would not otherwise qualify to be approved collection sites, will be allowed to participate under the program. The revisions also amend the fee-setting methodology to include calculation of a program compliance fee, and add new materials and revise other material categories to allow increased accuracy in Ontario Electronic Stewardship (OES) cost models and fee setting calculations.

Zero Waste in British Columbia?

The Recycling Council of British Columbia has produced a report entitled “On the Road to Zero Waste: Priorities for Local Government.” The report discusses the “zero waste” alternative, which is defined as “a goal that is both pragmatic and visionary, to guide people to emulate sustainable natural cycles, where all discarded materials are resources for others to use.” The focus is on designing and managing products and processes to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, and to conserve and recover all resources. The report indicates that if a zero waste approach was applied in British Columbia, it would maximize levels of diversion from landfill and promote waste reduction and prevention. The intention is to eliminate the concept of waste, rather than managing waste after it’s produced. Some of the methods suggested in the report for achieving zero waste include pay-as-you-throw systems, disposal bans, comprehensive organics collection and management programs, green procurement, economic incentives, social marketing and education, and extended producer responsibility. (See news item, page 7.) 36 October/November 2009

Public spaces recycling pilot

Ontario’s first-ever public spaces recycling program has been launched by the City of Sarnia, Refreshments Canada, the Canadian Bottled Water Association, Nestlé Waters Canada, and Waste Diversion Ontario. The objectives of the program are to pursue recyclable items that are abandoned by consumers in various locations, including park spaces, recreation facilities such as arenas, transit stops, bars and restaurants, elementary and secondary schools, convenience stores and gas stations, and that otherwise would be part of Ontario’s blue box curbside recycling program. A similar program was launched in Quebec by the beverage industry and the Quebec government in June 2008. The recovery rates being achieved in that program are 85 per cent and include recyclables such as glass, aluminium, plastic and paper. The results of the Sarnia pilot program will be considered by Ontario’s environment ministry as a means of enhancing the existing blue box program.

Measuring performance on battery recycling

Two organizations have come together to produce a study on battery recycling metrics. One of the organizations is Call2Recycle, which is the only free rechargeable battery and cell phone collection program in North America, and the other is the Product Stewardship Institute (PSI). The report entitled “Battery Performance Metrics: Recommendations for Best Practice,” considers how stewardship performance is measured and offers guidance that stakeholders can use to evaluate and strengthen battery collection initiatives. Currently, governments and businesses use a variety of methodologies to determine collection and participation rates in recycling. These methodologies result in discrepancies and create difficulties in assessing the success of the various recycling initiatives. The objective of the report is to encourage the use of common metrics, and greater access to data to evaluate the performance of battery collection programs. (See news item, page 43.)

Ontario’s Blue Box Program Plan revised

Ontario’s environment ministry has requested that certain changes be made to the Blue Box Program Plan under the Waste Diversion Act, 2002 and that the revised plan be submitted to the ministry by April 30, 2010. The changes include establishing an overall 70 per cent diversion target to be achieved by December 31, 2011 and revising the calculation of the quantity of blue box wastes diverted by incorporating residential blue box waste that’s collected via non-municipal collection systems. In addition, the changes include identification and inclusion of packaging-like material sold as products (such as empty aluminium pie plates) that are compatible with current collection systems. The minister has also requested that WDO review the management of packaging and printed paper by Ontario municipalities, and provide a report by February 28, 2010 with recommendations. Rosalind Cooper, LL.B., is a partner with Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP, with offices across Canada. Ms. Cooper is based in Toronto, Ontario. Contact Rosalind at


New RAR-240 suspension

BHS completes sorting system at Wisconsin MRF

Bulk Handling Systems (BHS) has completed the installation of a state-of-the-art 25 tonneper-hour single stream sorting system at the new Material Recovery Facility (MRF) in Outagamie County, Wisconsin. The MRF is a joint effort of three counties — Brown, Outagamie, and Winnebago — and was built to process material from the new single stream program developed by the three counties. The program is expected to generate greater volumes of recyclable materials and divert these materials from landfill. The three county single stream program combines paper with plastic, glass and metal recyclables. The system focuses on the reduction of operating costs by optimizing integrated processes to emphasize mechanization and the extraction of recoverable materials on the first pass. As a result, quality is high, processing costs are low, and residue values are very low. Visit

Polar Tank Trailer, LLC, and Ridewell Suspensions are pleased to announce the release of an RAR-240 suspension with stainless steel hangers and upper spring plates. This version of Ridewell’s air-ride suspension is available for a full range of tank trailers, exclusively through Polar Tank. The new stainless parts offer improved appearance and durability, and will increase the efficiency of the manufacturing process at Polar Tank. RAR-240 air-rides accommodate virtually every kind of on or off highway trailer and are available in underslung and overslung configurations for 25,000 and 30,000 lb. capacities. The Monopivot 240’s single bushing acts as a pivot for extreme axle articulation as well as an additional load_cushioning element. Polar Tank Trailer, LLC, is the largest tank trailer manufacturer in North America. Ridewell manufactures suspensions for the truck, trailer, bus, and RV industries. Pub−2009−E.jpg Visit and

Automated route capabilities for waste haulers

Routeware, Inc., a leader in the design and manufacture of hardware and software for the waste industry, has announced a strategic alliance with Linlar Enterprises that will bring an unprecedented new approach to route audits. Combining Routeware’s powerful onboard solutions with LinLar’s market-leading route audit capabilities, waste haulers can now identify issues with route and customer profitability and route efficiency prior to, during, and after installation of the Routeware system. LinLar’s muti-step audit methodologies have helped haulers pinpoint and resolve issues with their routes for more than a decade. Combined with the detailed tracking capabilities of Routeware’s on-board system, haulers will now be able to micro-measure route performance and profitability, leading to cost reduction, improved customer service, and increased bottom-line results across the operation. Visit and

October/November 2009 37


Puzer/Ecosir restructuring

Eco-safe truck wash

Puzer of Finland was purchased by a publicly traded company earlier this year and is now part of that company’s waste management division Ecosir Group Oy. The organization says it will add some interesting technologies to its current list of services such as Sir Lift underground compactors, deep collection containers, and waste transfer stations. All key personnel from Puzer have been retained to continue and to improve on the vacuum waste collection system. Visit

The new environmentally safe Oil Eater truck wash is formulated to effectively remove grease, diesel, dirt, bird droppings and much more with spot-free results. Ultra-concentrated, Oil Eater is a low VOC cleaner/degreaser that is non-acid, non corrosive, non-hazardous and completely biodegradable. The highfoaming wash can be diluted up to 100:l. It works in hard and soft water, cleans carbon deposits, lubricates brushes, is safe on proportioners and is ideal for automatic and high pressure self-service systems. It also is safe on polished aluminum, paint, glass, rubber and vinyl when used as directed. Oil Eater truck wash is available in a 5-gallon pail and 30 and 55-gallon drums. Visit

New fabricated hammer mills

Stedman introduces a new line of fabricated hammer mills for crushing, grinding and pulverizing. The line includes Type “A”, “B” and “BX” Hammer Mill models and features a more competitive cost and lighter weight than previous Stedman hammer mills that were all cast. Hammer mills operate with a rain of hammer or ring blows to shatter and disintegrate materials, require less maintenance and allow for easy access for adjustments and replacements.

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Hammer mills are available for a variety of size reduction applications, including alum cake, bran, coal, fish scrap, gypsum, limestone, shelled corn, steamed bone, wood, dried milk, oats, salt cake and animal tankage. Type “A” Hammer Mills (up-running) feature a 2-stage reduction principle for a dual mechanical reduction using the revolving hammers to shatter materials upon entry and then further disintegrating materials against the breaker plates. Type “B” Heavy Duty Hammer Mills use heavy, reversible hammers in conjunction with Stedman’s exclusive sawtooth breaker plate to produce uniform product. Type “BX” Medium-Duty Hammer Mills, similar to Type “B”, feature a larger feed opening for medium hard, lumpy or bulky materials. Both the “B” and “BX” are down running hammer mills. Visit


Parker Pacific to represent Precision Husky in BC

Parker Pacific will sell and service all of Precision Husky’s equipment in all its locations in British Columbia. Pictured, left to right, is Parker Pacific’s Forestry Equipment Manager, Tracey Russell and Precision’s Vice President/ Engineering, Billy Daniels. Precision’s regional sales manager in the northwest area

is Jon Littler. The complete Precision Husky line of equipment includes ten models of tub grinders and six models of horizontal grinders. These units are available with engines from 100 horsepower to 1100 horsepower. Precision Husky Corporation may be the largest manufacturer of sawmill chippers in the world, according to Chairman and CEO, Bob Smith. The company manufactures stationary



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chippers, from the smallest to the very largest, and from 50 horsepower to 3500 horsepower, along with four major sizes of mobile whole tree chippers. Along with its line of Husky knuckle boom loaders, Precision also manufactures three distinct models of flail debarkers: Model 2300 two-flail unit designed primarily for short wood; Model 2300-C three-flail unit combination with chipper mounted on the same frame designed for tree-length wood with bark content of one to two per cent; and, Model 2300-4 four-flail unit. The four-flail units are designed primarily for the eucalyptus plantations that now stretch literally around the world. They are capable of debarking multiple stems at 175 feet per minute (53 m/minute) with an average bark content of three-tenths of one percent.

Smith stated that he believed, “No other debarker on the market today can achieve these results.” Visit

Badger introduces new shredding machine

Badger Shredding Products Inc. introduces its NEW B2060T crawler mounted shredding machine. The new B2060T has Intertractor crawler frames that allow the machine to be mobile onsite. The fully remote controlled B2060T has a very high quality Rexroth hydraulic system that is powered by a 9.0L 325HP John Deere diesel engine. The heart of the B2060T is its five-foot-square processing chamber which has twin counter rotating shafts that have 13 replaceable blades and

two sets of replaceable cutting teeth per blade that rotate between 12-17 RPM. The machine is equipped with a cross-belt magnet and the discharge conveyor has a discharge height of 10’. The general dimensions of the machine are 10’ wide, 31’ long, 11’3” high and approx 75,000lbs.

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Tight Turning Radius The Li’l FELLA has handling that might remind you more of a sports car than a heavy truck. Pick-up and deliver containers in tight spots — without leaving the cab!


The machine is designed to process scrap metal material, concrete with rebar, pre-cast concrete with 7-strand wire, asphalt, construction and demolition material, tires, white goods and green waste. Visit

HGL mixers mount to IBCs or totes

Neptune Mixer Company’s new Series HGL (430 RPM) mixers allow easy integration with standard intermediate bulk-containers (IBCs) or poly tote bins by use of an optional 2” 316SS

eering Inc of Dallas Texas and Tulsa City WWTP. The system utilizes sludge-to-sludge heat recovery that could have a payback of within a year. Compact rectangular flow channels allow for a no plug design, or at least for much, much less plugging, then any other technology. Visit

Tire Sizes for Scrap & Waste Applications

bulkhead fitting. The HGL Mixer features a short shaft and a folding propeller that are constructed of 316SS and capable of fitting through a two-inch opening; the prop’s operating diameter is nine inches. A second folding propeller can be added as an accessory and bolted anywhere on the 3/4” dia. shaft. Motors available with Neptune’s HGL Mixer include TEFC electric motors (1/3 to 1 HP) or air motors (1/2 to 1 HP). Explosion-proof motors are also available. Visit

Heat Exchangers

DDI, the manufacturer of the “Rectangular Square Cube”™ channeled, low-maintenance heat exchangers and heat recovery has announced that the company installed six large heat exchangers via Ashbrook Simon-Hartley, of Houston TX, for their ECO-THERM Process Design in Tulsa Oklahoma. This project was with the cooperation of HDR Engin-

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Quebec borough shoots for zero waste

A new industrial composter is expected to bring the borough of Verdun, Quebec, closer to its goal of zero waste in municipal buildings. The Montreal borough expects the composter to process 175 metric tonnes of waste and 70 tonnes of compost each year. It is the second phase of the borough’s initiative to reduce landfill waste. Verdun already cut back on collection to once weekly for recyclables and waste, also reducing bulky item pick-up to once a month. While recycling rates have gone up from 47 per cent to 53 per cent, food leftovers and green waste still make up nearly 45 per cent of residential waste. The composter, located in the municipality’s greenhouses, is expected to help the borough achieve its goal, while also cutting back on landfill transportation and waste processing expenses. Organic materials will come from the borough’s municipal buildings, as well as some local suppliers. The project will also determine if other Montreal boroughs could install similar composters. This news item first appeared in our affiliate news service www.EcoLogcom (9/22/2009)

High Ontario paper packaging diversion rate

the provincial government, Waste Diversion Ontario, vets the process. “This is a very good result for paper packaging,” says John Mullinder, head of the industry’s environmental council, PPEC. “Not many people realize that the average recycled content of the paper packaging we supply to the Canadian marketplace is 66 per cent.” Old corrugated boxes are now the most widely recovered of all Blue Box materials with an amazing recovery rate of 92 per cent, up 15 percentage points on the previous data year. Industrial recycling of corrugated is also very good, says the environmental council, perhaps as high as 80 per cent. “To put corrugated recycling in perspective,’’ says Mullinder, “just one large supermarket chain in Ontario sends more than four times as many old corrugated boxes for recycling than all the municipalities of Ontario combined.” The lighter weight boxboard carton commonly used to deliver cereals and foodstuffs, also does well in the latest survey, increasing its recovery rate from 58 per cent to 65 per cent. “These cartons are mostly 100 per cent recycled content in the first place,” says Mullinder, “and in fact Ontario pioneered the further recycling of this material almost 20 years ago. It does present problems at the reprocessing stage, but to have some 65 per cent of it diverted from landfill is really good.” Visit

Almost 70 per cent of the paper packaging entering Ontario households was sent for recycling in 2008, according to statistics recently Our latest TV program focuses on organics released by Blue Box industry funding organOur TV program “Going Green for Green” ization, Stewardship Ontario. introduces the audience to some leading-edge The numbers are released every year and practices in the business of turning organic are based on a combination of waste audits of waste into profit. The program is the latest in what householders put out for recycling or garour series hosted by Michael Lavelle. bage, and reports by companies on what maLook in the Multimedia box at www.solidterials they place into the residential marketBIO REACTOR AD corporation 8/2/06 3:25 1 place. A non-crown set upPMby Page

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GHG calculator at RCA conference

Environment Canada’s GHG Calculator for Waste Management was presented at the Recycling Council of Alberta’s conference “Green for Gold.” This workshop, led by representatives from Environment Canada and ICF International, provided hands-on exposure to using the calculator. Environment Canada created the GHG Calculator for Waste Management to help municipalities and other users estimate GHG emission reductions from different waste management practices, including recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion (a treatment that digests organic waste in the absence of oxygen), combustion, and landfilling. The calculator helps users construct two distinct scenarios (baseline and alternative) for managing the same quantity and composition of municipal solid waste. The calculator then automatically calculates the GHG emissions and energy savings that will result from implementing the alternative scenario. Other information such as landfill gas recovery practices, and the transportation distance can also be entered into the calculator. For example, the calculator could be used to assess the GHG emission reductions that will occur when a municipality begins to compost organic waste instead of sending it to landfill, or the benefits of expanding municipal curbside recycling programs. Visit

New report on waste and climate change

The garbage filling our trashcans is also changing our global climate, according to complimentary reports released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Product Policy Institute (PPI). The EPA Report reveals that 37 percent of United States

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total greenhouse gas emissions result from the provision and use of goods produced within the U.S. “Goods” includes all consumer products and packaging, including building components and passenger vehicles. “Provision and use” includes all activities from resource extraction, manufacturing, and transport to use and disposal. A supplemental white paper, released by PPI and written by the lead technical author of the EPA report, tells an even more surprising story. When emissions of products made abroad and consumed here are included, and exports are subtracted, products and packaging account for 44 percent of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The PPI report adds the full global impact to the data published in the EPA report. “These reports prove that implementing product stewardship programs in the U.S. will result in the greatest reduction of our carbon footprint,” said Heidi Sanborn, executive director of the California Product Stewardship Council, an organization of local governments working for EPR policy in California. “The reports show that EPR should be included in every climate action plan.” The reports: EPA Report, Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Through Land and Materials Management: land_and_materials_management.pdf PPI White Paper, Products, Packaging and US Greenhouse Gas Emissions,

Ontario approves HHW plan

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Ontario Environment Minister John Gerretsen has approved the consolidated Municipal Hazardous or Special Waste (MHSW) Program Plan (Phases 1, 2 & 3), to start July 2010. The plan is pursuant to section 26 of the Waste Diversion Act, 2002, and the plan was submitted July 31, 2009 by Waste Diversion Ontario (WDO). The stewardship program puts Ontario at the leading edge of special waste management in North America. The minister’s approval letter (dated September 22) may be found at the Stewardship Ontario website, plan.html

Battery stewardship news

Several important developments in the realm of battery stewardship have occurred recently. Call2Recycle(r), the only free rechargeable battery and cell phone collection program in North America, and the non-profit Product Stewardship Institute (PSI) have released the results of a study on battery recycling metrics.

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The report, “Battery Performance Metrics: Recommendations for Best Practice,” examines differing ways that stewardship performance is gauged and offers guidance that policy makers, manufacturers and program Telephone: 416.405.8880 • Fax: 416.405.8830 pants can use to evaluate and strengthen battery collection initiatives. Currently, governments and businesses use Leaders in Municipal, Planning & Environmental Law a variety of methodologies to calculate colFor more information, contact: lection and participation rates. These differJames Ayres ent methodologies result in discrepancies in Certified by the Law Society of Upper reported metrics and the perceived success of Canada as a Specialist in Municipal programs. Call2Recycle and PSI hope this reand Environmental Law port will open a dialogue that leads to common metrics and greater access to data to evaluate 416 869 5967 or the performance of battery collection programs. “Measuring performance is critical to collecting and recycling more batteries,” said Scott Cassel, executive director of Product CASSELS BROCK/MC7575/HMM.indd 1 1/22/09 11:30:21 AMStewardship Institute. “This study is meant to motivate all key stakeholders to reach a consensus on performance measures with an emphasis on a collection rate target supported by convenience measures, per capita collection rates and wider sustainability metrics.” Call2Recycle and PSI support the assembly of an advisory panel of experts to research, discuss and seek consensus on measuring performance, setting ambitious performance goals, and maximizing battery collection and recycling. The Battery Performance Metrics report is available at In Canada, call2Recycle(r) and the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation of Canada (RBRCC) have advised that their draft plan for a battery stewardship program has been published, and a series of public consultation sessions were held during the first week of October 2009. Visit DEWALT, a leading manufacturer of industrial power tools, announced a national battery-recycling program that will take place at DEWALT’s 82 service centers nation• Private & Public Sectors • Waste diversion planning wide throughout the months of October and • Residential, IC&I and • Composting, MBT, November. DEWALT, in conjunction with the C&D waste streams Recycling, , E-Waste Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation • Waste auditing Waste (RBRC), hopes to encourage the thousands of Management Consulting Paul van der Werf, M.Sc. | 519-645-7733 | 877-801-7733 | professional contractors who rely on its Nickel Services Cadmium (Ni-Cd), Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries on a daily basis to aid in helping the environment by recycling old units. Through the program users who recycle their Ni-Cd, Ni-MH or Li-Ion DEWALT power tool batteries at one of the company’s service centers will receive a $10 discount to put toward their next DEWALT battery purchase. Visit Also, see article on lithium battery recycling markets, page 46. • • • •

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AECOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Al-Jon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 AMRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Applied Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Bandag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 BCEIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Battery Broker Environmental Services Inc ., The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Baycon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Bulk Handling Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Cassels Brock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Cdn Renewable Fuels Assoc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Environmental Compliance Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Environmental Business Consultants (J . Nicholson) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Eriez Magnetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Fast Pace Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Greey EnWaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Groundworx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Harris Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 HMI Mgmt Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Labrie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Lafleche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Laurin Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Machinex Recycling Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

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Mack Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Metro Waste Paper Recovery Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Molok . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Norseman Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Paradigm Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Paul Van der Werf (2CG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Protainer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Rechargeable Battery Recycling Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Recycling Equip Council Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Rehrig Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Samuel Strapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Schuyler Rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Sebright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Sims Cab Depot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Softpak Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Trux Route Management Systems Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 TY Cushion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Van Dyk Baler Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Vermeer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Vulcan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Walinga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Walker Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

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October/November 2009 45


Lithium Batteries

by Eric Glover “Toxco plans to use the DOE grant to transfer its existing lithium battery recycling technology from its Trail, British Columbia recycling facility to the Lancaster site.”

Recycling market gears for growth


ead-acid batteries, the kind found in traditional gasoline-powered vehicles, top the list of the most highly recycled consumer products, according to Johnson Controls. Approximately 97 per cent of all lead-acid batteries are recycled each year — nearly double the rate of aluminum cans (49 per cent) and more than twice that of paper (45 per cent). Even scrap steel falls well short of the recycling standard set by lead-acid batteries: the Steel Recycling Institute reported a 78.2 per cent steel recycling rate for 2007. Although there’s a well-established infrastructure in place for leadacid battery recycling, the same cannot be said of large-format lithium-ion batteries, which are expected to soon become the dominant type of battery used in hybrid and electric vehicles. (Small lithium batteries are widely used now in consumer electronics devices.) Currently, most hybrid and electric vehicles on the road use nickel-metal hydride batteries, but the technology advantages of lithium batteries are likely to make them the preferred type for hybrid and electric vehicles. For example, lithium batteries can be lighter and smaller than nickel-metal hydride batteries, while providing more energy and power.

Toxco to the rescue Right now, there are no designated recycling facilities in the US for the type of lithium batteries that will be used in hybrid and electric vehicles. That is about to change, however, as Californiabased battery recycler Toxco was recently granted $9.5 million by the US Department of Energy to construct the nation’s first lithium battery recycling plant. This facility will be built at Toxco’s existing Lancaster, Ohio plant which already processes nickel-metal hydride batteries as well as lead-acid batteries. Toxco plans to use the DOE grant to transfer its existing lithium battery recycling technology, now used at its Trail, British Columbia recycling facility, to the Lancaster site and adapt it for vehicle batteries. The process for recycling lithium batteries is actually quite complex, involving a number of technical steps (though most of them are automated). When batteries arrive at Toxco’s Trail facility, any residual electric energy from them must be removed first since lithium can be explosive at room temperature. To do this, Toxco immerses the batteries in liquid nitrogen, cooling them to -325 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature, lithium “is rendered relatively inert,” according to the company. Once that’s done, the batteries can be safely shredded so that key metals like aluminum, copper, and steel can easily be separated and collected for sale. In addition, the “lithium components are separated and converted to lithium carbonate for resale,” Toxco states. Finally, Toxco recovers nonhazardous materials like the plastic casings and other miscellaneous components for appropriate recycling or scrapping. 46 October/November 2009

A future growth opportunity As it stands now, there’s little market for lithium battery recycling, since the small-size lithium batteries typically used contain little lithium. Moreover, lithium is not an expensive metal, selling for just a few dollars a pound. However, as automakers switch to lithium technology and hybrid vehicle adoption continues to increase, many believe that lithium pricing will increase, perhaps substantially so depending on the demand for hybrid vehicles. If this occurs, the economics of lithium battery recycling should become more favorable. Moreover, there’s clearly going to be a sizeable recycling opportunity for the nickel and cobalt metals that are also used in lithium batteries. These metals are (today) considerably more valuable than lithium and already widely recycled because of their value. As for company involvement in this emerging area of the recycling industry, Toxco is expanding its lithium battery recycling technology to the United States. Overseas, Umicore recycles a limited number of lithium-ion batteries at a pilot plant in Sweden. Meanwhile, two Japanese companies, Nippon Mining & Metals Co. and GS Yuasa, “each plan to start collecting lithium ion batteries from scrapped electric and hybrid vehicles in order to recycle their aluminum. Nippon developed technology that extracts lithium from the batteries, and plans to have its trial plant running as early as 2011,” according to an online report in Hybrid Cars. The report noted that GS Yuasa, a major producer of automotive batteries, will begin collecting used lithium-ion batteries from automakers in a few years to further develop its recycling process. Back in the United States, we checked in with Johnson Controls, which is the world’s leading manufacturer of lead-acid batteries. Management noted that since the company just started production of lithium batteries for hybrids, there’s nothing to recycle for a while. (We note that current hybrid vehicle batteries are supposed to last as long the car, which is at least 100,000 miles and potentially up to 200,000 miles, according to our research.) However, JCI said its expectation is that the lithium batteries “will certainly be recycled.” It’s not clear whether the company plans to do this itself or will outsource it to a third party. While it’s still early, we think lithium battery recycling is an emerging growth segment of the recycling industry definitely worth watching in the years ahead. NOTE: This article first appeared in Canaccord Adam’s Talking Trash newsletter (September 21, 2009 edition) Eric Glover is Analyst, Sustainability Practice in the San Francisco, California office of Canaccord Adams (headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts). Contact Eric at

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Solid Waste & Recycling October/November 2009