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april 2011

Vol. 85 No. 3

PRODUCTS 34 Hydronic 50 Plumbing 54 Cooling 55 HVAC/R

DEPARTMENTS 04 U pfront 06 Industry News 59 Manufacturer Supplier News 61 Training 61 The Source

 22 Chiropractic By Robert Bean

26 Valves: Holding The By John Siegenthaler

14 Maintenance Is The Motto Chillers are valuable assets and when treated as such they offer building owners longer equipment life and improved efficiencies. Cover Photo iStockphoto


52 Pre-Install Pointers Attention to piping and pitch will pay off with waterless technology.

Solutions To Hydronic Problems Flow – Part I

30 A Steady Evolution By Steve Goldie 32 The Terminology By Mike Miller

Behind The Technology

40 Increased Comfort=Improved By Christopher Makarewicz 42 Realize The By Rakesh Zala

Benefits Of Retrofits

44 Valves: Staying on By John Siegenthaler


the Line – Part II

and more…



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< UPFRONT Reevaluating Energy Sources

HPAC Magazine One Mount Pleasant Rd. Toronto, ON M4Y 2Y5 TEL: 416-764-2000 FAX: 416-764-1746

I GREW UP IN AN ONTARIO TOWN THAT OWED ITS existence to Atomic Energy Of Canada Limited (AECL) and the Des Joachims Hydroelectric Generating Station. I later lived in close proximity to Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. Over that period of time It was rare to hear concerns over nuclear safety voiced by those who worked in the industry or their families. On the other hand, there are no half measures in the general public. Most people have strong views one way or the other. Certainly, the public as a whole understands that when something goes wrong – it goes wrong in a big way. Still the recent (and ongoing) crisis in Japan has sparked a relatively benign public backlash and our government remains committed to building two new reactors in Clarington, ON. In fact, the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA) ( poses the question: Could this incident stall a nuclear renaissance in Canada? the bigger picture The short answer from CNA: No. • Nuclear energy provides 24-hour The long answer: Nuclear is great baseload power. It produces 15 (see sidebar), providing huge benper cent of Canada’s electricity and efits to people, the economy and over 50 per cent of Ontario’s. industry. • Canadian-produced medical isoThe energy side of things is topes are used in over 50,000 prodownplayed because if the truth cedures every day, worldwide, with be told, we could manage with5,000 of those in Canada. out nuclear as an energy source. • Canada supplies three-quarters of Not easily, not economically, and the world’s Cobalt-60, which is a certainly not with the lifestyles sterilizing agent. we have become accustomed From Speaking Notes for Denise to (particularly in Ontario), but it Carpenter, president and CEO, Canadian could be done. Nuclear Association, Standing Committee on Interestingly, the United States Natural Resources - March 24, 2011 may try to do just that, albeit over decades. In his recent State of the Union address, President Obama proposed a clean energy standard (CES) that would require 80 per cent of the nation’s electricity to come from clean energy technologies by 2035. Would the bill include nuclear energy, which makes up about 20 per cent of the United States’ total domestic electricity generation portfolio? That remains to be seen, but given the timing there may be some resistance to including nuclear. Canadians continue to have some confidence in their nuclear industry and may not leap to alternative energy sources now, but all bets will be off if the federal government is successful in its bid to sell Atomic Energy of Canada's reactor division to the private sector. <>

Editor Kerry Turner (416) 764-1549 ACCOUNT David Skene (416) 764-1590 MANAGER ACCOUNT John Chiasson (416) 764-1557 MANAGER Sales & Marketing Kim Rossiter (416) 764-1787 Coordinator Art Director Franca Romano (On Leave) Clint Rogerson Production Manager Ajay Masih (416) 764-3914 Circulation Manager Bibi Khan (416) 764-1450 PUBLISHER Peter Leonard (416) 764-1510 Executive Publisher Tim Dimopoulos Rogers Media Inc. President and CEO Keith Pelley Rogers Publishing Ltd. President and CEO Brian Segal Senior Vice-President Business AND Professional Publishing John Milne SENIOR Vice-Presidents Michael Fox Vice-Presidents Immee Chee Wah, Patrick Renard

Publications Mail Agreement No. 40070230, Registration No. 10815 Return undeliverable items to: Heating Plumbing Air Conditioning, Circulation Dept., 8th Floor – 1 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto, ON M4Y 2Y5 Heating Plumbing Air Conditioning (established 1923) is published 7 times per year by Rogers Publishing Limited, a division of Rogers Media Inc. HPAC Magazine is the leading Canadian business publication for the owner/manager of mechanical contracting businesses and their supply partners. ISSN: 0017-9418 Contents Copyright © 2011 by Rogers Publishing Limited, may not be reprinted without permission. Subscriber Services: To subscribe, renew your subscription or to change your address or information… please visit us at Subscription Price per year: $40.00 CDN; Outside Canada per year: $80.00 US; Single copy Canada: $5.00 CDN. Heating Plumbing Air Conditioning is published 7 times per year except for occasional combined, expanded or premium issues, which count as two subscription issues. Mail Preferences: Occasionally we make our subscriber list available to reputable companies whose products or services may be of interest to you. If you do not want your name to be made available please contact us at or update your profile at HPAC Magazine receives unsolicited materials (including letters to the editor, press releases, promotional items and images) from time to time. HPAC Magazine, its affiliates and assignees may use, reproduce, publish, re-publish, distribute, store and archive such unsolicited submissions in whole or in part in any form or medium whatsoever, without compensation of any sort. Notice: HPAC Magazine, Rogers Publishing Limited, their staff, officers, directors and shareholders (hence known as the “Publisher”) assume no liability, obligations, or responsibility for claims arising from advertised products. The Publisher also reserves the right to limit liability for editorial errors, omissions and oversights to a printed correction in a subsequent issue. HPAC Magazine’s editorial is written for management level mechanical industry personnel who have documented training in the mechanical fields in which they work. Manufacturers’ printed instructions, datasheets and notices always take precedence to published editorial statements. Our environmental policy is available at We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Periodical Fund (CPF) for our publishing activities.

Proud member of:

Editor 4

HPAC | april 2011


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Industry News

SEE THE LATEST HPAC e-newsletter @ NATIONAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR CERTIFICATION PROGRAM LAUNCHED The Mechanical Service Contractors of Canada (MSCC) has launched its National Certification Program for Mechanical Service Contractors. The certification program is the culmination of more than three years of development and testing in consultation with industry stakeholders representing service contractors, building owners, and property managers. Scott Munro, MSCC chairman said, "MSCC designation demonstrates to your customers that your company deploys industry leading best practices in key competencies such as safety, education, customer service and staffing." MSCC has created the MSCC Certified Contractor Certification, which is a company-wide designation, and the MSCC Technician Certification, which is an individual designation for journeymen in two distinct fields: plumbing and heating, and HVAC. These two designations are tightly integrated. As an example, contractor certification requires that at least 20 per cent of your journeymen are qualified as MSCC

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WATER USE EFFICIENCY OBJECTIVE UNDER CONSIDERATION The Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes (CCBFC) may develop a water use efficiency objective for Canada’s National Building Code and National Plumbing Code. The matter will be decided using the CCBFC’s approved protocol for adding new objectives. The first two steps of the protocol, receipt and initial consideration of a request to add a water use efficiency objective, were completed by the CCBFC's executive committee last fall. A steering committee was then set up to oversee completion of a consultant's analysis of the issues surrounding the matter. The consultant will review various policy directives (municipal, provincial/territorial, federal) related to water use efficiency, as well as existing mechanisms continued on page 8

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HPAC | april 2011

© 2011 Masco Canada Limited.

BEAUTIFUL, YES. WATER-EFFICIENT, OF COURSE. Contributing to LEED® certification. Delta Faucet is your source for smart water delivery solutions. As a WaterSense® partner, Delta® is committed to encouraging efficient use of water resources. All Delta lavatory faucets flow at a maximum of 1.5 gpm, resulting in up to a 32% water savings* and contributing to LEED certification. Saving water— it’s a beautiful thing. Another way that Delta is more than just a faucet.


*Water Efficient Product - Flow Rate of 1.5 gpm (5.7 L/min) versus Industry Standard ASME.A112.18.1/CSA.B125.1 of 2.2 gpm (8.3 L/min)

Cooling Season Savings Start In The Backyard.

< Industry News

continued from page 6

Coming Soon ABC 2011 The Canadian Institute of Plumbing and Heating is heading to the Fairmont Empress in Victoria, BC for its annual business conference on June 26-29.

Year after year, KeepRite® condensing units are a favorite with pros like you—and the customers you serve. During cooling season, customers turn to you because you’re a proven pro. You have the KeepRite condensing units that deliver high efficiency and quiet operation. Timely registration required for 10 year parts limited warranty. Limited warranty period is 5 years for parts if not registered within 90 days of installation. Jurisdictions where warranty benefits cannot be conditioned on registration will receive the registered limited warranty period. Please see warranty certificate for further details and restrictions. Many models of KeepRite products are ENERGY STAR® qualified. For details, visit © 2011 International Comfort Products, LLC


HPAC | april 2011

nisms (e.g., regulations, incentives and disincentives) to address it and then recommend a course of action. The consultant's report will inform the CCBFC executive committee in their recommendation on whether or not to add water use efficiency to the codes as an objective. The recommendation will be considered by both the CCBFC and the Provincial/Territorial Policy Advisory Committee on Codes (PTPACC) and submitted to public review. A decision on whether or not to proceed with an objective is expected to be made by summer 2011. If the decision is positive, the CCBFC will set up a joint task group with PTPACC to scope out the task. This will include development of a water use efficiency objective and functional statements, as well as technical requirements, all of which would be submitted for public review prior to implementation in the 2015 Codes. For more information, contact Cathy Taraschuk at 613-9930049 or

EDUCATION AND AWARENESS ACTIVITIES FOCUS ON RADON A number of initiatives by Health Canada, such as retail engagement events, social media campaigns, and distribution materials, are designed to promote Canadian awareness of Radon. On-line resources include: www.; a Virtual House Tour; a series of videos on lead, radon, mould and carbon monoxide geared to bloggers; 12 paragraphs developed for use as online content to bloggers who post on environmental health related issues; and an interactive quiz to help users determine how healthy their home is. This quiz will be promoted on facebook and a series of 18 Twitter feeds (Tweets) to raise awareness of key issues in the Hazardcheck Guide. The Radiation Protection Bureau, in partnership with international experts, such as the Canada Mortgage continued on page 10

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< Industry News

continued from page 8

and Housing Corporation (CMHC) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is developing a Radon Mitigation Guide. The product is intended to help radon mitigation service providers reduce the radon levels in Canadian homes to below the guideline of 200Bq/m3 (or as low as practicable). The guide will be made available on the radon section of the Health Canada website. Completed in December 2010, the Radon Educators Tool Kit is an easyto-use DVD providing stakeholders with radon educational resources, including a new radon educational presentation in flash (web ready) format. To obtain a copy of the DVD, e-mail From HRAI

BREAKING NEW GROUND IN GREEN HOUSING The newest EQuilibrium Housing demonstration home recently opened its doors in Winnipeg, MB. Named Urban Ecology, the two-storey duplex is located on an infill site. Energy-efficient and resource-conscious features of Urban Ecology include passive solar heating and a four-panel flat plate solar collector system; a drain water heat recovery system; a photovoltaic (PV) energy system which will be connected to the local power grid; advanced waterconserving features and fixtures; and an air-tight high-performance building envelope to provide a comfortable living environment.

SHOW INTRODUCES EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES CENTRE The 2012 CMX-CIPHEX Show, scheduled for March 22-24, at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, is introducing an Emerging Technologies Centre as part of its exhibits offering. The area, designed to highlight the latest in future-oriented solutions for HVAC/R, incorporating sustainable technologies, is a first for the show. “As technologies like solar and geothermal become more widely accepted and take a stronger hold in the market, CMX-CIPHEX is the place to showcase them”, says HRAI President, Warren Heeley. “We’ve seen from our visitor research that the contractors, engineers, architects and installers are keen for information, data and application news on this entire sector. We want the show to be the place to deliver it.” Show organizers have prepared an exhibitor prospectus and are actively seeking exhibitors for this new feature exhibit area.

TERASEN GROUP RENAMED The Terasen group of companies have been renamed effective March 1, 2011. They are now operating under the common brand name - FortisBC. The ownership structure remains the same.

ORVIL L. DAVIE AWARD RECIPIENT ANNOUNCED The most recent recipient of The Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute's (HRAI) Orvil L. Davie Memorial Fund bursary is David Buckle of Algonquin College in continued on page 12 10

HPAC | april 2011

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Ottawa. He will complete his Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technician certificate in August 2011. Larry Gravelle of Yorkland Controls presented Buckle with his award at the Yorkland Controls Ottawa Branch in March. The Orvil L. Davie Memorial Fund was established in 1987 in honour of HRAI’s first Chair, Orvil L. Davie. The purpose of the fund is to encourage students to seek a career in the HVACR industry by providing bursaries to those requiring financial assistance.



ENERGY STAR will celebrate its 10th anniversary in Canada at its 2011 Participants' Meeting on June 1, 2011 at the new Ottawa Convention Centre. This one-day event will bring Natural Resources Canada's ENERGY STAR team together with Participants to share information and experiences, brainstorm new ideas and build relationships. The Market Transformation Awards Dinner will follow the Participants' Meeting.

The Canadian Institute of Plumbing & Heating and the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada have announced a date change for the second annual Ride for Habitat. It will take place on August 20, 2011. For more information call 416-695-0447. <>


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< chillers

Maintenance Is The Motto BY DAVE DEMMA


f the topic of expensive sporty cars were to come up, particularly elite expensive sporty cars, certainly the name Ferrari would enter the discussion. And while the word expensive can sometimes be a bit ambiguous, depending on one’s financial perspective, in this discussion it could mean somewhere between $200,000 to over $500,000. With this level of investment it would be reasonable to assume that the owner of this valuable asset would perform regularly scheduled maintenance…a preventive measure to ensure that the car performs at its peak performance at all times. In addition, regular maintenance will ensure that the car will be given its best chance for a long trouble-free life. In simple terms, regular maintenance is a form of insurance that will protect the owner’s investment. So, if it is reasonable to assume that the owner of an expensive car would perform the factory recommended maintenance, would it also be reasonable to assume that the typical building owner would also be performing the factory recommended maintenance for the chiller providing the cooling capacity to keep the building’s occupants comfortable during the warmer months of the year? Hopefully this is the case, as regular maintenance on the chiller system will result in trouble-free operation and ultimately a longer life for the chiller. As an added bonus, the huge energy expense in operating the chiller will be kept to a minimum with regular maintenance. However, If the answer to that question is no, that building owner should realize that the old adage will always apply: You can either pay for maintenance now, or at a later date you can pay a lot more for costly repairs. The following are some of the typical tests/checks which should be performed as part of the regularly scheduled maintenance: 1. Annual refrigerant leak check Let’s face it, the refrigerant charge in every piece of equipment is just a leak waiting to happen. At some point in time in every chiller’s life, a leak will occur, and at least a portion of the refrigerant charge will escape. Considering the price of refrigerants, particularly with the large volume of refrigerant required in a chiller, this can be an expensive endeavour. Also, operating with a partial charge will lead 14

HPAC | april 2011

to lower evaporating pressure/temperature with the resultant inefficient operation, leading to an inability to maintain desired comfort cooling. On low pressure chillers (R-11, R-123A), the low side pressure may be below atmospheric pressure. A leak in this circumstance will allow air to enter the system, and become a “non condensable” gas, which gets trapped in the condenser. This will result in an increased discharge pressure, higher compressor motor amperage and inefficient operation. Performing periodic “preventive” leak checks will keep the problem resulting from refrigerant leaks at a minimum while saving money on replacing the costly refrigerant. 2. chemical analysis Annual chemical analysis of the refrigerant and/or oil allows the technician to see trends that might be developing over the course of several years. The technician can then address those issues before they become catastrophic. A typical chemical analysis will reveal levels of moisture, acid and metals that are present in the oil. All of these are simply symptoms of other problems which are occurring. Water on a low pressure chiller is indicative of a low side system leak, or problems with the purge unit. Acid formation is the result of air and/or water in the presence of the refrigerant and oil. Its production is enhanced by elevated discharge temperature. Metal present in the oil is evidence of unusual compressor wear. Oil samples should be obtained while the compressor is running and then sent off to a lab that is capable of performing a spectrometric chemical analysis. Once the analysis is completed, the results may dictate that the oil should be replaced. Yearly replacement of the oil filters is recommended along with oil analysis. 3. Water Treatment Scale, corrosion, and biological growth are a fact of life in systems that use water as a heat transfer fluid. If it is a closed water loop, a simple one-time chemical treatment can prevent these contaminants from becoming problematic. Open systems are another matter. In a typical evaporative condenser, or a cooling tower, makeup water is constantly being added to replace the water that evaporates during the heat transfer process. This results in a constant

Chiller barrel tubes can be cleaned mechanically and/ supply of new contaminants to the existing water in the or chemically. Mechanically cleaning requires removing condenser/tower sump. Additionally, when water evapothe chiller barrel heads, and running brushes through the rates during the heat transfer process, it leaves behind the chiller tubes to separate the contaminants from the tubes. scale and other contaminants which were contained in the This should be followed by a thorough rinsing to completely solution when it was in the liquid phase. Without regular chemical treatment of the water syscontinued on page 49 tem, this scale will attach itself to the condenser tubes (if using an evaporative condenser), causing higher discharge pressures and subsequent inefficient operation. Higher discharge temperatures will also result in oil decomposition, which could eventually lead to compressor failure. In cooling tower applications, this scale will travel through the water cooled condenser at high velocity and lead to the erosion and degradation of the tubes in the condenser. This can lead to inefficient condenser operation, plugged condenser tubes, and ultimately a failed tube, which is catastrophic and expensive. Water cooled condensers should be inspected annually for evidence of corrosion. Eddy current testing will When it comes to refrigerants, Arkema reveal the integrity of the condenser has everything you need. tubes, allowing insufficient tube thickness to be addressed before • Need R-22? We have it—and the EPA allocation rights to supply it. becoming a catastrophic failure. • Need R-22 retrofits? We have great retrofits for AC and refrigeration. • Need to reclaim R-22? We have a comprehensive, easy-to-use 4. chiller barrel reclaim program through our network of distributors. The regular maintenance of the • Need to source product globally? We produce on a global scale. chiller barrel goes hand-in-hand with • Have a complicated technical challenge or a question from good regular chemical treatment the field? Our Technical Services staff is ready to help. of the water system. Chiller effiSo make Arkema’s Forane® “shop” a must stop the next time ciency is reduced when the chiller you need refrigerant. It’s the only stop you’ll need to make! tubes become fouled with sludge, scale, mud, algae, or other contamFor more information call 416-614-3610 or 1-800-567-5726 or visit us on the web at inants which might accumulate in the water system. While the rate of fouling will depend on several facExplore the possibilities. tors (water quality, water temperaArkema Canada Inc. ture, etc), it is still recommended 1100 Burloak Drive, Suite 107 Burlington, ON L7L 6B2 that this be a consistent part of The world is our inspiration the scheduled maintenance.

april 2011 | HPAC


SAVING energy makes sense —business sense. You’re always looking for new ways to control your operating costs. Energy use is no exception. Your local electric utility has a range of energy-efficient solutions tailored to your business. Small businesses can access incentives to upgrade their lighting. Commercial, agricultural and industrial operations Your local electric utility can tap into funding for lighting, process and equipment upgrades, as well as offers incentives for: for energy audits and shifting energy usage away from peak demand times. • Energy-efficient lighting Big or small, every Ontario business can benefit.

Find out more by contacting your local electric utility or visit

Subject to additional terms and conditions found at Subject to change without notice. A mark of the Province of Ontario protected under Canadian trademark law. Used under licence. OM Official Marks of the Ontario Power Authority.

• Shifting energy use • Equipment upgrades • Energy audits



a publication of

1 | APRIL 2011


That’s because at Uponor we offer Simply More.

solutions in the industry. This commitment is reinforced by the people who represent our product. People like Mike Miller, a controls expert who shares his extensive knowledge and experience with our customers. It’s that commitment to customers and innovation that helps to ensure we deliver results that exceed your expectations.

At Uponor, we believe that our controls offerings provide the most innovative

Uponor Climate C񡑀ntrol Network System

Simply Controls

Mike Miller, Business Development Manager

THE ANSWER IS SIMPLE. A simple change in a swimmer’s stroke can make hard work easier. ITT Bell & Gossett eco-circ domestic hot water, undersink instant hot water and heating circulators deliver the perfect balance of performance and simplicity. • Simple spherical motor design means no shaft and no seal. • Highly efficient, electronically commutated/permanent magnet (EC/PM) motor. • Maintenance-free operation. • Simple to install. • Reliable, affordable and pay for themselves quickly. The answer is simple: if efficiency works harder you don’t have to. ITT Bell & Gossett eco-circ circulators provide the best in efficiency, return on investment, ease of use and reliability. For more information, contact your Bell & Gossett Representative or visit

ITT is the largest pump manufacturer in the world providing system solutions for commercial and residential HVAC, water supply and wastewater applications. ITT maintains one of the industry’s most extensive sales and service organizations to ensure you get the advice and support you need to successfully install, operate and maintain your systems. Bell & Gossett | Goulds Pumps | A-C Fire Pump © 2011 ITT Corporation


MODERN HYDRONICS is a supplement of Heating Plumbing Air Conditioning Magazine

EDITOR Kerry Turner (416) 764-1549 ACCOUNT David Skene (416) 764-1590 MANAGER ACCOUNT John Chiasson (416) 764-1557 MANAGER SALES & MARKETING Kim Rossiter (416) 764-1787 COORDINATOR ART DIRECTOR Franca Romano (On Leave) Clint Rogerson PRODUCTION MANAGER Ajay Masih (416) 764-3914 CIRCULATION MANAGER Bibi Khan (416) 764-1450 PUBLISHER Peter Leonard (416) 764-1510 EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER Tim Dimopoulos ROGERS MEDIA INC. PRESIDENT AND CEO Keith Pelley ROGERS PUBLISHING LTD. PRESIDENT AND CEO Brian Segal SENIOR VICE-PRESIDENT BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL PUBLISHING John Milne SENIOR VICE-PRESIDENTS Michael Fox VICE-PRESIDENTS Immee Chee Wah, Patrick Renard

Cover Istockphoto, Design Lima Kim

HPAC Magazine receives unsolicited materials (including letters to the editor, press releases, promotional items and images) from time to time. HPAC Magazine, its affiliates and assignees may use, reproduce, publish, re-publish, distribute, store and archive such unsolicited submissions in whole or in part in any form or medium whatsoever, without compensation of any sort. NOTICE: HPAC Magazine, Rogers Publishing Limited, their staff, officers, directors and shareholders (hence known as the “Publisher”) assume no liability, obligations, or responsibility for claims arising from advertised products. The Publisher also reserves the right to limit liability for editorial errors, omissions and oversights to a printed correction in a subsequent issue. HPAC Magazine’s editorial is written for management level mechanical industry personnel who have documented training in the mechanical fields in which they work. Manufacturers’ printed instructions, datasheets and notices always take precedence to published editorial statements. Our environmental policy is available at We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Periodical Fund (CPF) for our publishing activities.

Proud member of:

22 System Hydraulics Chiropractic Solutions To Hydronic Problems Robert Bean discusses what it takes to create stability in a system.

42 Boilers Realize The Benefits Of Retrofits Rakesh Zala identifies several ways to improve the efficiency of steam boilers.

26 Valves – Part I Holding The Flow John Siegenthaler provides an introduction to Pressure Independent Balancing Valves (PIBVs).

44 Valves – Part II Staying On The Line PIBVs bring a new era to balancing hydronic systems, according to John Siegenthaler.

30 Technology A Steady Evolution Revolutionary change will be determined by today’s trends, says Steve Goldie. 32 Controls The Terminology Behind The Technology Mike Miller explains some of the lingo you will run into with hydronic controls. 34 Product Showcase 38 Tubing Select The Best Pattern For The Job Michael Gordon discusses the tubing layout options. 40 Sustainability Increased Comfort = Improved Performance Low-temperature heating solutions improve comfort and reduce costs for schools, says Christopher Makarewicz.

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APRIL 2011

| 21

System Hydraulics

Chiropractic Solutions To Hydronic Problems ➤ Remember these words of wisdom…“when you have control over pressure you’ll have control over the flow, when you have control over the flow you’ll have authority over the system.” What does this mean? It means that fluid based heating and cooling systems are based on system hydraulics. Lose control over the hydraulics and you lose control over the sys‐ tem – lose control over the system and there is not a zippy electronic device available that can completely solve the thermal and pressure oscillations in a system that has lost its rhythm and harmony. So what does it take to create stability? It all starts with your knowledge of control components, including the per‐ sonalities or characteristics defining the individual elements in a control loop as shown in Figure 1, and then applying that knowledge appropriately for each application. Figure 1 Typical control loop showing input (settings) and feedback (sensor) and chain of responses. setting







heat terminal unit


Once you get your head around the control loop, then you need to understand that the most stable system is one under full load and fully balanced, i.e. all valves open, circulator run‐ ning at its optimized operating point, temperature adjusted to design conditions and circuits balanced for flow according to required differential pressures. This is not trivial stuff, as it is the closure of valves, which creates the disturbances in the system hydraulics. This leads to over and underflows through‐ out the plant…thus pressure disturbances never occur under full load…meaning (wait for it) valves do not open to provide comfort – they close to prevent discomfort. By default, when plants are not designed, assembled, bal‐ 22 | APRIL 2011

anced and controlled properly; occupants or operators will resort to what I call “chiropractics for hydronics” or the man‐ ual manipulation of the system in an often futile attempt to provide comfort. In my books, balancing and commission‐ ing should be a requirement for every system otherwise why even bother doing a heat loss to head loss calculation (a ther‐ mal to hydraulic process)? Last but not least, stability during the swings between minimum loads to maximum loads comes from using vari‐ able temperatures and if necessary variable flow to compen‐ sate for unsteady state (transient) conditions.


Amongst a number of other control descriptors in the man‐ ufacturer’s data sheets you will find the terms Cv, flow char‐ acteristics, close‐off rating and rangeability. These terms are critical in selecting the proper valve and actuator for the cir‐ cuit as each plays a significant role in the control loop. The control loop in many ways is analogous to the strat‐ egies used in football, for example, where the quarterback and coaches call out a play according to what they think will achieve success. It is a graphical representation of the responsibilities and relationships of the players, but not shown is the personalities or characteristics of each ele‐ ment and how they can either help or destroy the ability to achieve control. First let’s define the difference between “control valves” and “zone valves.” Zone valves typically are on/off devices that open and close in under 45 seconds and whose flow is prevented or permitted with the rotational closing of a ball or gate against an orifice. They are defined appropriately as “quick opening” valves. In contrast, the control valve with a modulating actuator ‐ taking a multitude of signals (three point, 4‐20ma, 0‐10v) sees a vertical stem closing against a single or double seated orifice and whose full stroke (typically three mm for a radia‐ tor style valve) can take from say 120 seconds to as much as nine minutes. Furthermore, the plug of a control valve is an engineered shape that defines its flow characteristic (Figure 2) based on its opening (h) and valve Cv. As shown in Figure 2, con‐


trol valves are described by their linear or equal percentage characteristics and various derivatives proprietary to each manufacturer. FIGURE 2 Valve characteristics based on % of Cv to % of lift (h).

BASIC TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 1) Balancing: a measurement and control process to obtain required flows in circuits (note the “measurement” requirement). 2) Differential pressure: the pressure difference measured between two points (there’s that word ‘measure’ again!). 3) Pressure drop: the loss of pressure determined by friction in pipes, fittings, valves and heat exchangers calculated at full load.

The application for each type of valve is a function of the characteristics of the heat terminal unit (Figure 3), which is defined in part by the logarithmic mean temperature variations, specific heat output coefficients and power factor (n-values). FIGURE 3 Typical flow (q) output (P) characteristics for a heat terminal unit using aggressive temperatures and narrow delta ts.

4) Pump head: differential pressure generated by the circulator to overcome resistance defined by the pressure drop. 5) Valve authority: the differential pressure across the fully open control valve at design flow divided by pressure applied to the valve when it is closed. This ratio in part defines the characteristic distortion of the control valve. 6) Valve Cv: is the valve flow coefficient. It defines the differential pressure required across the valve at a design flow rate. 7) Valve characteristic: is the relation created between the fluid flow through the valve and the valve lift, assuming the differential pressure across the valve remains constant. The flow and the lift are expressed as a percent of their maximum value.

The objective in control design is to achieve linear output (Figure 4) through the proper combination of heat exchanger and valve so that 50 per cent flow delivers 50 per cent output. Due to the “postal” personalities of fan/coils, baseboard, panel and free standing radiators, and based on the traditional aggressive design (ts > 180F and < 20F delta ts), outputs (P) of 65 per cent or more are achieved with as little as 25 per cent flow (q) (Figure 3). This is the number one reason why quick opening “zone valves” should never be used with “postal” heat exchangers based on high fixed temperatures and narrow delta ts. What is needed to balance the highly responsive heat exchanger is a slow opening “laid back” device with an inverse characteristic to the heat terminal unit so that the marriage between crazy and calm is one where each personality balances WWW.HPACMAG.COM

8) Valve rangeability: ratio between the maximum flow obtained with the valve fully open and the minimum controllable flow for the same differential pressure. Rangeability depends on the valve characteristics and the manufacturing tolerances.

out the other where valve lift (U) provides linear equal percentage linear P, output q output (P). You can appreciate the magnitude of this concept given that typically, for 80 per cent of the season less than 20 per cent of the flow is required. Twenty per cent flow is not possible with on/off zone valves nor is it possible with oversized control valves in an unbalanced system. In order for the control valve to have control and provide the above relationship, they must take at least 50 per cent of the circuit differential pressure (Δpcv >= 50% of ΔpH), which they are to control; this in part is the definition of valve authority.


Continued on page 24

APRIL 2011

| 23

System Hydraulics continued from page 23

Figure 4 Linear output from a heat exchanger is accomplished with the correct selection of valve type, rangeability and Cv; linear output comes from marrying the inverse characteristics of the components.

Figure 5 Valve authority principle

When valves have no resistance their personalities become distorted ‐ they take on the characteristics of other valves. For example an oversized equal percentage valve behaves as a linear valve and an oversized linear valve behaves as a quick opening valve. To help you understand this flow/pres‐ sure control concept, it would be like comparing flow con‐ trollability with your thumb over a garden hose or the end of a fire hose. You see it’s the resistance that provides the control. This is also where rangeability comes into consideration. For the audio buffs, rangeability is comparable to “sound fidelity” or for the lighting crowd it would be like rangeabil‐ ity of a dimmer switch. Rangeability is based on the coars‐ est link in the valve/linkage/actuator and control chain with coarse rangeability having less “fidelity” particularly at low loads in comparison to high rangeability. Rangeability of 25:1 to 50:1 are common in HVAC control valves with lower rangeability acceptable for base load heat exchangers where valves operate mid stroke for most of the 24 | APRIL 2011

time. However, for applications where the valve must fre‐ quently operate diversely between minimum and maximum loads greater rangeability is required. This is where the fun in control forensics begins. When you have oversized valves in an unbalanced system with a mis‐ match between control valves to heat exchangers and where the rangeability is coarse – you will undoubtedly have com‐ plaints over comfort and energy use due to distorted valves now behaving as on/off devices contributing to overflows and underflows. Now all of the preceding was to introduce the principles of balancing. When you as a designer convert zone by zone heat losses into flow rates and then flow rates into pipe diameters based on flow velocities leading to pressure drops, you do so in part to assist in selecting a circulator but that in of itself is a very limited “end game” since the real control problem is not yet solved. Under full or partial load how does the water know which way to go and in what quantity? Water molecules do not come with preprogrammed directions nor are they smart enough to divide up into your calculated flow rates and travel in appropriate groups as you would want. You need a director and that director is pressure control. Without the prescribed control over pressure you get overflows and underflows, which distorts the valve and heat terminal characteristics and thus destroys the circuit controllability. Figure 6 Control valve selection with balancing ensures that only the calculated pressure is applied across each circuit so that the control valve retains its authority over the circuit.

The world of balancing has made and continues to make improvements in technology starting with (left to right) the traditional manual balancing valve with calibrated flow/ pressure characteristics and measuring ports, valves with integral Cv setters for adaptability, spring loaded pressure bypass valve (middle picture) for maintaining constant flow or preventing overflows, self acting pressure control


Figure 7 Typical balancing devices for fluid based heating and cooling systems.

valves for stabilizing pressure across risers, branches or control valves and pressure independent control valves which integrate several features into a single unit with or without actuators. Basic systems, at the very least, should incorporate References:

ASHRAE Systems and Equipment Handbook, Chapter 12, Hydronic Heating and Cooling System Design, 2000

Petitjean, R., Total Hydronic Balancing, Tour and Andersson, 1994 and 2004 Editions

Siegenthaler, J., Modern Hydronic Heating, 3rd Edition, 2011 NTI_Ad_HPAC_TrinityLx_HP_JBH_Feb0111.pdf



manual and spring-loaded bypass valves or valves in conjunction with variable speed pumps (proportional or constant depending on application). As the system becomes more diverse and complex, designers should incorporate integrated Cv selection with stabilized risers and branches and for optimum integrated control one should use pressure independent control valves (see p. 26 for more on this topic. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ROBERT BEAN

Robert Bean, R.E.T., P.L.(Eng.), is a registered practitioner in building construction engineering technology (ASET) and a professional licensee in mechanical engineering (APEGGA). He has over 30 years experience in the construction industry specializing in energy and indoor environmental quality and is the author and lecturer for professional development programs addressing building science, thermal comfort quality, indoor air quality and radiant based HVAC systems.

2:22 PM


APRIL 2011

| 25


holding the flow – part i An introduction to Pressure Independent Balancing Valves.

26 | APRIL 2011

PIBVs are available in different body designs. Some have a simple cylindrical body, while others combine pressure testing ports, and an isolating ball valve along with the internal compensating mechanism. That mechanism is known as the valve’s “cartridge.” It consists of a cylinder, a spring-loaded piston, and a combination of fixed and variable shape orifices through which flow passes. This cartridge is what gives a PIBV the ability to maintain a relatively stable flow rate over a wide range of differential pressure. A cut-away view (see Figure 2) of the valve shown in Figure 1 shows the internal cartridge assembly. FIGURE 1 Example of a small cylindrical PIBV

Figure 2 PIBV body contains a spring-loaded cartridge assembly that is designed to maintain a specific fixed flow rate over a wide range of differential pressure.


Graphics courtesy Caleffi North America

➤ As Robert Bean discussed on pages 22-25, attaining proper flow rates through all parallel branches of a hydronic distribution system is a vital part of delivering the expected comfort. The usual intent of balancing is for the installer, or perhaps a separate testing and balancing contractor, to adjust the manually-set balancing valves so that the flow rates in each branch of the system are at, or very close to, a listing of flow rates prescribed by the design engineer. The implication is that achieving these listed flow rates, or values close to them, constitutes successful balancing of the system. There are no doubt hundreds of thousands of hydronic heating and cooling systems installed with manually set balancing valves. In most cases these are globe type valves with precision shafts for precise movement of the plug relative to the seat. The shape of the plug in these valves is likely to give them an equal percentage characteristic. As explained previously, this makes the relationship between the valve’s shaft movement and the heat output of the terminal unit through which it regulates flow, approximately proportional. Thus, opening the valve’s shaft 50 per cent of its total travel will yield approximately 50 per cent heat output from the terminal unit, relative to its full heat output when the balancing valve is fully open. One nuance of any hydronic system with manually set balancing valves, with equal percentage characteristics or otherwise, is that a change in the flow rate in any branch of a multi-branch system causes the flow rates in other branches to change. This happens because the differential pressure changes across branches that remain open whenever another branch opens or closes. A relatively new type of hydronic balancing valve has been developed to mitigate this undesirable effect. It is called a pressure independent balancing valve (PIBV). These valves are configured to maintain a preset flow rate over a wide range of differential pressure. They rely on an internal compensating mechanism to adjust a specially tapered flow orifice within the valve so that a calibrated flow rate is maintained, typically within a tolerance of +/- 5 per cent of the flow rating.

“One nuance of any hydronic system with manually set balancing valves, with equal percentage characteristics or otherwise, is that a change in the flow rate in any branch of a multi-branch system causes the flow rates in other branches to change.” Each cartridge used in a PIBV is manufactured to maintain a specific flow rate. Manufacturers can change the internal cartridge within a given body to produce a range of various (fixed) flow rates (e.g. 2.0 gpm, 3.0 gpm, etc). At low differential pressures, (less than 2, 4, or 5 psi depending on the specific valve make and model), the internal compensating mechanism of the cartridge does not move. This allows the maximum free flow passage through the valve. Flow passes through both the fixed- and variable orifices. However, at such low differential pressures the cartridge cannot adjust to maintain a fixed flow rate. Thus, flow rate through the valve increases if differential pressure across the valve increases. The “inactive” position of the internal cartridge is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 Under very low differential pressure the spring does not compress, and the cartridge cannot maintain a fixed flow rate.

internal spring is partially compressed by this action. Under this condition, the piston partially obstructs the tapered slot through which flow must pass. However, the flow passage is now automatically adjusted so that the valve can maintain its calibrated flow rate at the higher differential pressure. The cartridge’s ability to hold its calibrated flow rate remains in effect until the differential pressure across the valve exceeds an upper threshold limit of 14, 32, 34, or 35 psi (depending on the valve make and model). Such high differential pressure is relatively uncommon in most well-designed hydronic systems that include some means of differential pressure control. If the differential pressure across the valve does exceed the upper pressure threshold, the piston and counterbalancing spring can no longer maintain the calibrated flow rate. The piston’s position completely blocks flow through the tapered orifice. All flow must now pass through the fixed orifice. This condition is shown in Figure 4. The result will be an increase Continued on page 28

Figure 4 Cartridge is fully compressed when differential pressure across valve reaches its upper limit. At or above this differential pressure the PIBV cannot maintain its calibrated flow rate.

If the differential pressure across the PIBV exceeds the minimum threshold pressure of 2, 4, or 5 psi (depending on valve make and model), the internal piston assembly begins to move in the direction of flow due to thrust against it. An


APRIL 2011

| 27

Valves continued from page 27

FIGURE 5 Differential pressure versus flow rate curve for a PIBV.

FIGURE 6 With PIBVs installed, the flow rate in each branch holds constant when other branches open or close.

in flow rate if differential pressure increases above the upper pressure threshold. The flow rate versus differential pressure characteristics of a given PIBV is shown in Figure 4. The desired condition is to maintain the differential pressure across the valve between the lower and upper threshold values, (in this case 2 psi to 32 psi), so that the internal cartridge remains active, and the valve maintains its calibrated flow rate. This desirable operating range is represented by the vertical green line in Figure 5. When a PIBV is installed in each parallel branch of a system, flow rates through each active branch will remain at their design values, regardless of the flow status in other

crossovers. This is shown in Figure 6. However, this desirable condition is contingent upon keeping the differential pressure across the PIBV between its lower and upper threshold values. This condition is vitally important to proper application of such valves and will be discussed in Part II of this article (see p. 44). â&#x20AC;&#x201C; JOHN SIEGENTHALER

John Siegenthaler, P.E. is the author of Modern Hydronic Heating. The third edition of this book is now available. Visit his website hydronicpros. com for reference information and software to assist in hydronic system design. Siegenthaler can be reached at


Complete the form on page 36 today to renew your free subscription to HPAC Magazine. 28 | APRIL 2011



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A Steady Evolution A look at trends that will lead to revolutionary change in the coming years. ➤ I recently had the opportunity to attend the International Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration Exposition (AHR Expo), which is held annually in conjunction with the winter ASHRAE conference. The AHR Expo is probably the largest HVAC and Refrigeration trade show in North America and therefore provides an excellent opportunity to see the latest and greatest in tools, equipment, training, controls and more. Considering it is my job to keep on top of everything new and great in our industry I figured it was best that I attend, it honestly had nothing to do with getting away from our horribly long winter for a few days in Las Vegas, the location of this year’s Expo. The last time I attended an AHR Expo was two years ago when it was held in Chicago, so having missed last year’s show I was hoping, but not expecting, that maybe I would see something at this show that would be truly new and revolutionary. After spending two days walking the aisles and checking out displays of the over 1,900 exhibitors, I knew this hope was not to be realized. This is not to say the show was disappointing, I did say I was not expecting revolutionary change. I have learned that I need to look for the emerging trends that will point the way to the revolutionary changes More than 54,000 registered HVAC/R professionals (over 34,000 attendees and 20,000 exhibitor personnel) filled the aisles of the 63rd AHR Expo at the Las Vegas Convention Center, January 31-February 2, to see the latest products and innovations on display from 1,938 exhibiting companies. In addition to being the largest ever Western AHR Expo, this year’s event was also the largest show ever held outside of Chicago or New York. The total attendance surpassed the 2004 Anaheim Show by over 40 per cent while the 379,360 square feet of exhibit space was 16 per cent bigger than the Anaheim Show. The 1,938 exhibiting companies also rank as the second largest number for any show.

30 | APRIL 2011

that will evolve over the coming years. The past few years in our industry the major trend has been a move to better efficiencies. This may be a case of overstating the obvious and this is a trend that is not unique to our industry. Everywhere people are more and more concerned about the impact our daily lives have on our environment. Energy costs are constantly rising, and where and how that energy is produced is of growing concern. You do not need to be a soothsayer or a marketing genius to recognize that any business success in this industry will continue to be closely tied to how successfully a company can address these types of concerns. What I saw at the Expo this year confirms that this trend is continuing. Refrigeration manufacturers are pushing SEER ratings higher; more and more solar and geo thermal options seem to be emerging, and there are definitely a growing number of manufacturers of heat pump water heaters. All of these things represent the steady evolution in the direction of efficiency, but none are revolutionarily new. I did see a couple of new condensing boiler designs, and this is welcome, but again this is more of a refining of what we already have rather than a redefining. With respect to condensing boiler technology the limits of combustion efficiency have already been pushed as far as they can go, so further devel-


opments would be in the direction of improved reliability and durability I would expect.

table 1 Speed





















One segment where I do see some more significant changes emerging on the not so distant horizon is the area of pump design and control. Fellow HPAC contributor, John Siegenthaler, wrote an excellent article in the March issue (available at in which he highlights the emergence of small wet rotor circulators with variable speed “ECM” motors. John refers to this change in pump technology as revolutionary rather than evolutionary and I agree completely. We already see on the market a growing number of these small “smart” pumps which can automatically adjust their speed to account for changes in pressure, or Delta P, as well as others that can adjust their speed to maintain a correct change in temperature, or Delta T. When we can reduce the speed of a pump, the electrical savings can be dramatic. The Pump Affinity Laws are a series of relationships relating, Flow (Q), Head (H), Horsepower (BHP), and Speed (N in units of R.P.M.) The Affinity Laws relating to speed change are as follows: Flow: Q2 = Q1 X (N2/N1) Head: H2 = H1 X (N2/N1)2 Horsepower: BHP2 = BHP1 X (N2/N1)3 Reducing the speed of a pump has a cubed effect on HP 1/2 Speed = 1/8 HP and therefore a cubed reduction in electrical consumption. Table 1 shows how dramatic the savings can be. A pump running at half speed for example would use 87.5 per cent less electricity.


I have been involved in many boiler room efficiency retrofits over the years, and have seen properly sized and operated

condensing boilers reduce gas consumption in apartment buildings by upwards of 40 per cent, but I think we can expect to see even more dramatic reductions in electrical consumption as we see these newer technologies developed and properly applied. Granted the gas bill is proportionally much higher than the electrical bill, but with electrical costs going ever higher, this kind of development of technology is inevitable. In addition to being more efficient, this type of pump technology will help us to achieve better overall system efficiency as well. No matter how much we move towards better efficiency, the most common error I continue to see involves over-sized equipment, especially when it comes to pumps. Oversized equipment is the enemy of efficiency. Modulating boiler technology helped mitigate, but not eliminate over-sizing of boilers, I expect as we see smart pump technology emerge this will help us to see far better and more efficient pump application as well. The 2012 AHR Expo is happening January 23-25 once again in Chicago. It won’t allow us to escape winter this time, but I hope to see some of you there, and who knows, maybe we will get to see the next great thing. - STEVE GOLDIE

Steve Goldie worked as a plumbing and heating contractor for almost 20 years before joining Noble as manager of the heating department. In his current position Goldie focuses on product specification and system design solutions. He can be reached at


Photo Oscar Einzig

APRIL 2011

| 31


The Terminology Behind The Technology Actual Supply Return Average is the current real-time average of the supply and return temperature sensors for the water channel. Average = Supply Temp. + Return Temp. 2

Design Day refers to the coldest day of the heating season.

Design Delta T is the expected Delta T (change in temperature) of the water being supplied to and returning from the service area of a water channel on Design Day. Design Indoor Temperature is the indoor target temperature to be met on Design Day.

Design Mix Supply Temperature is the required temperature of the water supplied to the service area of a water channel on Design Day needed to meet the heating load for that area.

Design Outdoor Temperature is the outdoor temperature e60 Promo HPAC 1/4 Apr11:3.375x4.875 3/31/11 on FLIR the Design Day (coldest daytime temperature).


Idle Enable enables the idle function of the system.

Idle Slab Target is the minimum temperature that the system will maintain the snow melt slab if idle is enabled.

Max Delta T is the maximum change in temperature between the supply and return water temperatures that the system will allow. Maximum Supply Fluid Temperature is the maximum supply fluid temperature that the system will allow to enter the snow melt slab.

Maximum Supply Water Temperature is the high protection limit for the fluid or water serving a system or subsystem.

Melting Slab Target is when the snow melt zone receives a melting call, either automatic or semiautomatic, it will heat to and stay at this temperature until the snow is melted (auto3:25 matic call) or until the semi-auto runtime expires.


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Untitled-2 1

3/17/11 2:58:09 PM

Mix Channel is a numeric reference for individual mixing devices.

Semi-automatic Runtime is the length of time the snow melt system will run if a “semi-auto call” has been initiated.

Port is a term for the RJ45 or Cat5 connectors on the right hand side of the control.

WWMT: Warm Weather Mix Temperature is the temperature of the water channel required to meet the heat demand at the Warm Weather Outdoor Temperature.

Minimum Supply Water Temperature is the minimum water temperature that this channel will produce (other than at cold start). Primary Loop is a segment or portion of the mechanical piping in the mechanical system connected to the boiler(s). This is often considered the “high temperature” side of the system.

Secondary Loop is a segment or portion of the mechanical piping of the mechanical system connected to the primary loop. These loops have lower temperature requirements than the primary loop. A mixing device (modulating valve or injection pump) is required.

Target Supply Return Average is the average of the supply and return temperature sensors for a water channel at the targeted average temperature.

WWODT: Warm Weather Outdoor Temperature is the outdoor temperature at the Warm Weather point of the temperature graph of the water channel. WWWT: Warm Weather Water Temperature is the water temperature needed at the WWODT. – Mike Miller

Secondary Pump refers to a single pump that is used after a mixing device. It circulates water to RFH manifolds or snow melt. 25753_Combi2_HalfPage_CAN.qxd 3/16/11 10:15 AM Page 1

Mike Miller is a controls specialist with experience in the manufacturing, distribution and contracting sectors of the industry. He can be reached at

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HeatLinkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s SOL080 integrates the control components of a solar system into a compact appliance. Features include stainless steel piping, a heat exchanger to isolate the glycol in the solar collector circuit from the domestic water, and separate pumps for each circuit. The secondary pump is activated once every 24 hours, for 15 minutes, to ensure that potable water in the piping or heat exchanger is not stagnant.

The Peerless Purefire Series stainless steel condensing boilers are available from 50 to 399mbh inputs for natural and LP gas use. Features include ASME stainless steel heat exchanger and modulating burner; front mounted LCD controls capable of cascading up to 16 boilers; DHW Priority; built in condensate neutralizer; wall mount kits and more.

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Available in both standard and high velocity, with or without a removable cover, Tacoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 4900AD Series air and dirt separators have a scrubber system with stainless steel PALL rings and basket assembly. The PALL ring technology removes system water micro-bubbles and separates out dirt particles. Dirt is then removed through a factory provided blowdown valve. Suited to pipe sizes ranging from two to 36 inches, the 4900 Series helps to reduce system pressure drop so that smaller pumps can be used.

Industrial Glycol Make-Up packages from HG Spec Inc. monitor and maintain the set minimum pressure in the system by automatically adding make-up glycol solution as it is required. Design enhancements include: a plug; simpler piping; and the low water cut off sensor is in the tank to allow a visual check. Skirts are available as an option. The Light Commercial GMP is now available in 37 and 85 gallon formats.

Uponor has launched an online engineering resource centre, which provides a one-stop portal for engineers to access specifications, submittals, CAD details, Revit files, design guidelines and other tools for designing sustainable, costeffective structures.

Bell & Gossett has introduced the Optiflo Pressure Independent Control Valve, which combines an externally adjustable automatic balance valve and a full modulating control valve to provide full modulating control with 100 per cent valve authority. Providing a desired flow (+/- 5 per cent of setting) regardless of fluctuations in system pressure, the valve is available in sizes between 1/2" to 1 1/4". It also features flow rates from .3 GPM through 13.2 GPM.

Offered for cascade or parallel applications Tamas VFD pump stations feature Variable Frequency Drive, three contactor bypass, manual and auto select switch, triple duty valves and skid-mounted setup. The stations can run up to five pumps.


The Envision Water-to-Water Series from WaterFurnace offers a range of operating temperatures, compact size and reversible control box. The hydronic heat pump can be used for heating only, cooling only (field converted for chilled water applications), or heating/cooling. A microprocessor controls the pumps and compressor by sampling the entering water temperature. The controller enables the user to view all modes of operation and easily adjust temperatures. The unitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cabinet is fabricated from heavy-gauge steel and finished with a corrosion-resistant polyester coating.

The wall-mounted, condensing Mascot II boiler by Laars is a low NOx, sealed-combustion, fullymodulating system. It is available as a 125 MBH input boiler or combination boiler and water heater. The boiler has a built-in condensate trap and auto air-elimination vent. The gas valve is accessible directly behind the front lower panel that rotates down via a hinged connection. While the lower panel is open, the centre console that houses the control display remains closed and fully visible. Also included is a sealed condensate trap that does not need to be primed at startup.

Rinnai Corporation has introduced four new hydronic furnace models, which work in conjunction with its tankless water heating system. The units feature electronically commutated motor (ECM) technology and accommodate standard cased evaporator coils. A lower speed range supports continuous fan operation, resulting in improved filtration and reduced temperature swings throughout the conditioned space. An intelligent microprocessor controller regulates the pump and fan sequence according to available hot water flow and stops operation to ensure that domestic hot water needs are satisfied.

Hydronic radiant heating manifold stations from Hydronic Panel Systems Inc. are customized, preassembled and tested units. Options include, but are not limited to, a single zone manifold with or without constant circulation, and multiple zones on one manifold. A manifold station with a built in heat exchanger covers an array of special applications when the supply fluid must be isolated from the heating liquid.

The Magna 32-100 variable-speed wet rotor circulator from Grundfos has a permanent magnet motor design to reduce power consumption. An Autoadapt feature controls pump performance automatically within a defined performance range. To simplify installation, a 10' cord connects the circulator to a wall outlet, with no wiring required. The integrated frequency converter allows built-in intelligence, analyzes current conditions and adjusts performance accordingly. When in operation the noise level of the MAGNA is less then 35 db.

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The REHAU Smart Controls System allows users to set distinct comfort settings for each controlled zone. Service contractors can access the system and diagnose potential issues before arriving at the site. Settings are stored and maintained in a database accessible worldwide via the web. Specific on/off events may be defined in the settings. The point-and-click interface is accessed through a standard web browser.

tekmarNet2 house controls and thermostats utilize two-way communication to provide benefits that surpass basic thermostats and outdoor reset controls. Communication benefits include zoning with indoor feedback, heating and cooling interlocking, shared schedules and outdoor temperature display on any thermostat. The thermostats only require two wires for communication and power. The product line also offers home automation and/or web access capabilities.

Slant/Fin offers the LYNX 150 modulating, condensing gas boiler. Three models are available to suit most residential applications: 90/120/150 MBH max input. Features include long life cast aluminum silicon alloy heat exchanger, natural or L.P. gas, and digital electronic control with outdoor reset (sensor included). The boilers are compact and lightweight for easier handling.

PSS-6R (Primary/Secondary Control Station) from HPS Controls consists of a pre-piped primary loop and one to six secondary zones. Stations have left or right side supply and return to a condensing boiler. All field settings can be adjusted using jumpers. They can be upgraded to UPS26-99FC/BFC, UPS15-55SFC or Alpha 15-55F/LC pumps.

The Challenger Combination boiler from Triangle Tube combines a high efficiency modulating, condensing boiler with on-demand domestic hot water production. The instant hot water feature eliminates the need for a separate hot water tank while still providing up to 3 GPM of hot water. Offered in three models from 84,000 to 124,000 Btuh, the boiler will accept either natural gas or propane, and has a turndown ratio of nearly 4 to 1. The dual function heat exchanger features dual copper waterways that provide both space heat and domestic hot water directly in the primary heat exchanger. The compact size and lightweight design make the Challenger easy to handle. Concentric venting is available to minimize wall penetrations.

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APRIL 2011

| 37


SELECT THE BEST PATTERN FOR THE JOB There are a number of possible patterns with which the tubing in a radiant system can be laid out within a room or zone. Selecting a pattern that best suits the heat loss of the room will greatly enhance the ef�iciency and performance of the system. ➤ We know that heat loss is not always even within a room. Areas near windows or outside walls will need more heat energy than interior areas. Also, more energy is available at the beginning of a loop than towards the end. Therefore, it makes good sense to route the beginning of a loop along walls with high heat losses. The single wall serpentine tubing layout pattern is used when the major heat loss factor of the room comes from a single outside wall. As shown in Figure 1, the beginning of the loop is routed against the wall and then, in a serpentine pattern, is routed inward to �inish off the room. FIGURE 1 Single Wall Serpentine Pattern

TIME SAVER WHEN INSTALLING TUBING IN JOIST AREAS A great deal of time and effort can be saved when installing radiant tubing within the joist or rafters if the following method is used. First, drill the holes through the structure and feed the tubing out and back to the manifold. Then, beginning at the furthest joist cavity, carefully pull the loop into position while feeding the tubing off the coil. Be extremely careful not to kink the tubing. With a little practice this method can save a lot of aggravation.


The tubing layout pattern shown in Figure 2 is used when the major heat loss factor of the room comes from two adjacent outside walls. The beginning of the loop is routed against the walls and then, in a double serpentine pattern, is routed to �inish off the room.


When heat loss is distributed evenly throughout the room a counter�low spiral layout pattern may be used. The beginning of the loop is routed from 38 | APRIL 2011



FIGURE 3 Counterflow Spiral Layout Pattern

FIGURE 4 Single Wall Joist Pattern

the outside perimeter to the interior of the room at double spacing and then returned alongside the supply.

FIGURE 5 Double Wall Joist Pattern

sive drilling. Instead the beginning of the loop is concentrated along the high heat loss wall by the use of intermediate loops.



When installing radiant tubing between joists or rafters, this pattern becomes somewhat limited by the orientation of the joists or rafters. Even so, it is possible to keep the beginning of the runs near the walls with high heat losses by the creative use of looping.

In Figure 5 the intermediate loops have been shortened. This method is appropriate when the orientation of the joists will not permit a double wall serpentine pattern without excessive drilling. Shortening the loops allows installers to concentrate the beginning of the loop along each of the high heat loss walls. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; MICHAEL GORDON


In the pattern shown in Figure 4 the orientation of the joists will not permit a single wall serpentine pattern without exces-

Michael Gordon is vice president of engineering with Bradford White Corp.


Modern Hydronic Heating 3



he full colour, 744-page edition by John Siegenthaler includes the latest information on solar thermal systems, geothermal heat pumps, variable speed pumping, hydraulic separation, thermal accumulators, web-enabled controls, Btu metering and system balancing. From simple applications to multi-load/multi-temperature systems, learn how to use the newest and




most appropriate hydronic heating methods and hardware to create systems that deliver the ultimate in heating comfort, reliability and energy efďŹ ciency. Engineeringlevel design information is transformed into practical tools that can be used by technical students and heating professional alike.

APRIL 2011

| 39


Increased Comfort = Improved Performance Solution delivers "triple bottom line" of people, planet and profit. â&#x17E;¤ Many reading this article can likely remember days sitting in a classroom that never seemed to be the right temperature. As the clanking iron radiators heated up, the room was cold for hours, later becoming too hot in the middle of the day, forcing the teacher to open a window even if it was snowing outside. Other times, the opposite held true and students sat attentively listening to the teacher, teeth chattering from the chill. With the developments in heating technology and the prevalence of alternative energy sources and high-condensing boilers, more school administrators are looking at maximum energy efficient solutions that not only heat the building more effectively, but more economically as well. It has been found that sustainable heating solutions such as low-temperature heating reduces costs and can improve student and teacher comfort, also improving productivity and student performance. Long gone are the days when energy and heat literally go out the window.


One particular challenge of heating schools is hours of operation. Because schools are vacant for approximately the FIGURE 1 Causes of Burns

Low temperature radiator

40 | APRIL 2011

same amount of time they are in operation, buildings do not require ongoing heat during evening hours. This has long been a challenge for school boards and administrators. Due to the inherent inefficiencies of older boilers and castiron radiator systems, there was no way to avoid heating the building during hours when it was not in operation. Today, low-temperature heating (95F EWT) systems incorporating low-temperature radiators, high-performing condensing boilers, are able to react quickly and efficiently, promoting energy efficiency. For example, rather than requiring start up several hours before teachers and students arrive for the day, the system provides output within minutes, generating enough energy to heat the space. On warmer days the school is able to take advantage of the natural solar loads and internal loads (see figure 2). This results in energy savings because the thermostat can be set to cooler temperatures for the evening hours when the school is unoccupied. Technology today can allow advanced radiators to function down to 95F entering wet-bulb (EWT). This is common in most European markets allowing maximum operational efficiencies with maximum outputs and maintaining minimum product sizing too. Realizing these benefits, more low-temperature heating systems are typically being installed in both new build and retrofit applications where coal and oil-fired boiler systems have been providing heat. School boards are realizing energy savings of up to 30 to 40 per cent above ASHRAE 90.1 and ROI of less than five years with low temperature systems. In addition to the financial and environmental benefits of these new heating technologies, schools are also starting to realize improvements in student and teacher comfort, and enhanced safety (see Figure 1). Studies have shown that improved comfort can also impact occupant productivity. According to David Pogue, national director of sustainability at CB Richard Ellis, worker performance increases with tem-


FIGURE 2 Free Heating Sources

peratures up to 72F, and decreases with temperatures above 73 to75F.1 With the increasing focus on high-performing building envelopes and the prevalence of well-insulated buildings, installing a heating system that reacts quickly helps improve the overall performance of both the building and students (see Figure 3).



It has been said that low temperature heating can work in a number of applications, including retro�its and new build scenarios. For any heating system that operates using a low-temperature heating source, such as a condensing boiler, solar or geothermal application, low-temperature radiators get the most energy ef�iciency from the system. While proper use of the new technology requires some training, it is nominal. Teachers and students tend to operate by the traditional "hotter is better" mentality when setting the thermostat, meaning that if they want to quickly increase the temperature, they tend to set it to a temperature setting hotter than the desired �inal output. As a result, the room quickly overheats and occupants become uncomfortable. This issue is quickly resolved WWW.HPACMAG.COM


with basic education and training. Due to its numerous bene�its and return on investment, low-temperature heating (95F EWT) is a system more schools are starting to explore. For a solution that delivers the "triple bottom line" of people, planet and pro�it, it is a sustainable solution that makes sense for both today and tomorrow's heating needs. – CHRISTOPHER MAKAREWICZ

Christopher Makarewicz, Dipl.T, B. Eng, is an engineering advisor for Jaga Climate Systems. 1

Structure: Single-storey school building Locale: Kingston, ON Age: Approximately 50 years Occupants: 324 students plus staff Engineer: David W. Downey Engineering, Ltd Original System: Condensing boiler system; finned tube radiators located throughout the school Replacement System: Natural gasfired, wall mounted condensing boilers. Each unit serves as a fully modulating condensing boiler. Solar panels mounted on the roof provide an offloaded energy source from the new boiler plant. 107 low-temperature radiators, installed in classrooms, corridors and offices, operate at water temperatures of 130F and 20F dT. Individual classroom thermostats. Radiators linked to timed schedule. Result: Boiler firing rate reduced by 30 per cent Estimated cost savings: $15,000 to $20,000 per year with $100,000 expected in the first five years. Comments: "Since installing the new system, we have substantially reduced the firing rates for each of the boilers," said David Downey. "In fact, it is not uncommon for all five boilers to be operating in condensing mode during peak times. During the spring or fall, only one or two boilers may be operating. This has resulted in substantially less natural gas consumption, as much as 25 to 30 per cent over what was previously used."

FIGURE 3 Reaction Time - Comfort


APRIL 2011

| 41


Realize The Benefits Of Retrofits ➤ As a contractor, you know how critical steam can be to a building’s power, process heat and indoor climate control needs. Additionally, one-third of a facility’s energy bill stems from the boiler room and system inefficiency leads to higher energy costs. Replacing an older boiler is one way to achieve significant energy savings, but it is not the only option. There are other ways to improve efficiency. Retrofitting an old boiler is one way to bring it nearly up to par with today’s new systems. The main cause of energy inefficiency is system heat loss. The average level of efficiency for industrial boilers is only 75 to 77 per cent.


The first place to look for improvements is in the control system. The following new control developments produce measurable efficiency increases and fuel-cost reductions and they can be retrofitted into an existing system. 1. Parallel Positioning -- Many boiler burners are controlled by a single modulating motor with jackshafts to the fuel valve and air damper. This arrangement, set during startup, fixes the air-to-fuel ratio over the firing range. Unfortunately, environmental changes such as temperature, pressure and relative humidity alter the fixed air-to-fuel ratio, making combustion inefficient. To account for these conditions, boilers with jackshaft systems are typically set up with a high amount of excess air. This higher excess air level reduces boiler efficiency and, over time, linkages wear -- making repeatability impossible. To solve this problem, consider incorporating parallel positioning into the control system. It is a process using dedicated actuators for the fuel and air valves. Burners that incorporate parallel positioning can be set with lower excess air levels. Energy savings of up to five per cent can be realized by introducing a parallel positioning system. 2. O2 trim - Another way to ensure peak efficiency is to use an oxygen sensor/transmitter in the exhaust gas. The sensor/transmitter continuously senses oxygen content 42 | APRIL 2011

and provides a signal to the controller that “trims” the air damper and/or fuel valve, maintaining a consistent oxygen concentration. This minimizes excess air while optimizing the air-to-fuel ratio. 3. Variable speed drive - Variable speed drives enable a motor to operate only at the speed needed at a given moment, rather than a constant 3,600 RPM as a drive runs. This speed variance results in the elimination of unnecessary electrical energy consumption. A variable speed drive can be used on any motor but is most common on pumps and combustion air motors of greater than five HP. These drives also produce quieter operation compared to a standard motor and they reduce maintenance costs by decreasing the stress on the impeller and bearings. 4. Lead lag – Lead lag sequences the operation of multiple boilers, matching system load. Lead lag enables the boilers to operate at peak efficiency, reduces cycling and decreases maintenance and downtime.


Another way to please budget scrutinizers, while improving energy efficiency, is to incorporate heat recovery retrofits into the boiler system. 1. Economizers -- Economizers transfer energy from the boiler exhaust gas to the boiler feed water in the form of “sensible heat.” Sensible heat is created by the transfer of the heat energy of one body, in this case exhaust gas, to another, cooler body -- the boiler feed water. This reduces the boiler exhaust temperature while preheating the boiler feed water, increasing overall efficiency. Economizers typically increase energy savings by 2.5 percent to 4 per cent. 2. Two-stage condensing economizers -- This type of economizer combines the functions of both a standard noncondensing economizer and a condensing economizer. The first section of the economizer recovers energy by preheating boiler feed water. The second section recovers energy by preheating a cool liquid stream such as make-up water. Sensible and latent energy is captured from the flue gases


that leave the boiler. Condensing economizers can increase energy savings by up to 10 per cent, depending on design and operating conditions. 3. High turndown burner -- Increasing burner turndown rate will increase energy savings and reduce maintenance. Energy savings is realized due to a reduction in on-off cycles. Each on-off cycle is followed by purge cycles. During a purge cycle, large volumes of room air pass through the boiler, resulting in heat being blown out the stack. 4. Blowdown heat recovery -- All boilers must remove dissolved solids from the boiler to maintain water purity and ensure a long boiler life. Many boiler rooms route blowdown to a flash tank that allows safe discharge of the steam by reducing (flashing) the steam pressure in an enclosed tank. Low-pressure steam is vented from the tank and condensate is discharged to the drain. In many cases, these tanks are not insulated nor do they allow recovery of the lost heat. A blowdown heat recovery system transfers the blowdown steam energy to the boiler feed water, recuperating about 90 per cent of this energy. - RAKESH ZALA

Adding a standard economizer to a boiler can increase energy savings by 2.5 to four per cent on average.

Rakesh Zala is director of product engineering, with Cleaver-Brooks. www.cleaver

Comfort without Compromise




Runtal Radiators Comfort, style, versatility, durability and energy efficiency are engineered into every radiator that Runtal builds. It’s exactly what you’d expect from the world leader and exactly what we’ve been delivering since we invented panel radiators some fifty years ago. One look at our craftsman’s meticulous welds, precision bends and flawless colours and you’ll know why hundreds-of-thousands of installs worldwide bear the Runtal name. Give your customers the quality they desire, and your business the reputation it deserves. Specify and install Runtal radiators today. Visit us at SHOWROOM LOCATION: 21 - 2861 Sherwood Heights Drive, Oakville, ON L6J 7K1 Tel: 905-829-4943 or 888-829-4901 Runtal North America Inc.


APRIL 2011

| 43


staying on the line â&#x20AC;&#x201C; part ii Applying Pressure Independent Balancing Valves

FIGURE 1 Differential pressure versus flow rate curve for a PIBV.

44 | APRIL 2011

Consider the situation shown in Figure 2. It consists of six parallel branches, each with a terminal unit, zone valve, and a PIBV. The latter have been selected for the different design flow rates required for each crossover. Figure 2 Each branch with a PIBV selected for a specific flow rate.

For proper operation, the PIBV in the flow path having the highest hydraulic resistance must have a differential pressure across it that is at least as high as its minimum activation threshold of the PIBV, which we will assume is two psi (based on the characteristic curve shown in Figure 1). If the terminal units are similar or identical, and thus all operate at approximately the same flow rate, it is likely that the flow path through the crossover furthest from the circulator will have the highest hydraulic resistance. If the terminal units are significantly different, and operate at significantly different flow rates, the flow path of greatest hydraulic resistance must be determined by calculating the head loss along the flow path through each crossover at its design flow rate, and comparing the results to find the path with the highest total head loss. The circulator should be sized to provide the design flow rate when all zones are open, with a head equal to the head loss of the most restrictive flow path. The latter must include the head loss of the supply and return mains, the branch piping, terminal unit, and the minimum operating differential pressure of the PIBV. The calculation for head loss will typically require the


Figure 1 Courtesy Caleffi North America

â&#x17E;¤ The pressure-independent balancing valves (PIBV) discussed in the earlier article (Holding the Flow, p.26) make it easy to achieve and maintain fixed flow rates within each crossover and branch of a system. When properly applied, PIBV also minimize variations in flow rates as zone valves or thermostatic radiator valves begin closing within the system. Holding the Flow discussed how PIBVs use a specially shaped, spring-loaded cartridge to maintain their factory set flow rate over a wide range of differential pressure. Most currently-available PIBVs can maintain their factory set flow rate within a relatively narrow (+/- 5 per cent) tolerance provided that the differential pressure across them remains between a specific minimum and maximum value. This characteristic is depicted by the green line in Figure 1, where a valve with a minimum differential pressure of two psi, and a maximum differential pressure of 32 psi is assumed. These minimum and maximum differential pressure thresholds vary with the manufacturer, type and size of the PIBV.

head loss of each segment of the supply and return mains, out to and back from the most restrictive crossover, to be individually calculated and then added together. This head loss could also be estimated by assuming a typical mainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s piping sizing criteria of three to five feet of head loss per hundred feet of pipe. For example: Assume the piping mains in the system shown in Figure 3 have been sized for a head loss of five feet per 100 feet of pipe. Also assume that all terminal units and associated branch piping are identical, and require four gpm each while operating. The minimum operating pressure differential of the PIBV is two psi. The system operates with water at an average temperature of 140F. Based on this description, you then determine the minimum circulator flow/head requirement for this system. Figure 3 System assumed for the example calculations.

The total head loss through the most restrictive flow path can now be found by adding these individual head losses together:

The minimum operating requirement for the circulator is therefore the total flow rate of all crossovers (e.g. 6 x 4 gpm = 24 gpm), at 23.7 feet of head, as shown by the yellow dot in Figure 4. The pump curve shown slightly exceeds the minimum operating point, and thus would be an acceptable choice. Figure 4 The yellow dot is the calculated operating point of this system when all zone valves are open.

Solution: The total head loss of the flow path through the most remote heat emitter is the head loss of the mains, plus the head loss of the heat emitter and branch piping, plus the minimum operating head loss of the PBV. These can be determined separately and then added. The graph on the right side of Figure 3 shows that each heat emitter creates six feet of head loss at the desired operating flow rate of four gpm. The total estimated head loss of the supply and return piping mains, out to and back from the farthest branch is:

The PIBV minimum required head loss needs to be calculated from its minimum required pressure drop. This requires the density of water at an average temperature of 140F, which is 61.3 lb/ft3. The head loss across the PIBV is then calculated as follows:

When one or more of the zone valves in the system close, the operating point shifts left and upward along the pump curve. This increases the head available across the supply and return mains. The PIBVs in the active branches immediately react to absorb the extra head, and therefore maintain the same differential pressure across the active crossovers. This reaction, depicted in Figure 5, allows the flow rates in the active crossovers to remain unchanged. Continued on page 46


APRIL 2011

| 45

Valves continued from page 45

FIGURE 5 When some zones close, the system head loss curve steepens, and PIBVs in active branches adjust to absorb the increased head. This preserves the same differential pressure across these active branches, and thus preserves the flow rates in these branches.

In most systems, there is no need to use a differential pressure bypass valve in a system equipped with PIBVs on each crossover. The PIBVs directly absorb the excess circulator head under partial load conditions. In summary, PIBVs bring a new era to balancing hydronic systems. Each PIBV is selected for a specific flow rate. Provided the system maintains the differential pressure across each PIBV within a fairly wide range, (as shown by the green line in Figure 1), the cartridge inside each PIBV will automatically adjust to hold the flow rate constant within its branch. – JOHN SIEGENTHALER

John Siegenthaler, P.E. is the author of Modern Hydronic Heating. The third edition of this book is now available. Visit for reference information and software to assist in hydronic system design. Siegenthaler can be reached at



1:56 PM

Page 1

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46 | APRIL 2011



Look at tankless hot water in a


Now the ultra-high efficiency (up to 97% thermal efficiency) of a Rinnai Tankless Water Heater can be teamed up with our high-velocity hydronic furnace, to deliver total home heat as well. Designed to work with standard or high-velocity ducts, this matched system makes an excellent choice for either retro-fitting to standard ducting or new home construction, where builders can take advantage of 3” mini ducting, for really economical installations. No extra bulkheads are necessary because the small duct work fits into standard wall and floor cavities. Installation is simple, with the tankless water heater requiring only one concentric vent to the outside, while the hydronic furnace needs none at all. Both are super compact and can be fitted virtually anywhere space is an issue – together or apart! An ECM programmable brushless DC motor allows for constant circulation of the air, reducing humidity levels and lowering the thermostat setting – while costing little to run.


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New dirt barrier and impeller design with central filter

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Our all-time favourite star has recently been given a real workout. Now the famous ‘007’ circulator is leaner, stronger and more refined than ever. We reduced the motor’s power slightly while increasing efficiency - to save energy dollars. Plus new metallurgy means castings are thinner and lighter, yet stronger.

We’ve even redesigned the impeller for maximum performance and better dirt protection. It all adds up to the best circulator pump we’ve ever built. And for maximum flexibility, there’s also a 3-speed model. The all-new and improved 007, coming soon to a hydronic system near you.

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< chillers

continued from page 15

other measures 1 Simply operating at the design condition required to maintain a comfortable environment for the occupants. While there might be a tendency to reduce the chilled water temperature to maintain comfort cooling, it might come in place of optimizing the equipment for peak performance. 2 Upgrade to an energy management system which will allow the chiller to better respond to changes in the building load, offer varying set-points for times when there is reduced or no occupancy, and so on.

remove the contaminants from the chiller barrel. To avoid unnecessary damage, the chiller manufacturer should always be consulted for their recommended procedure. Chemical cleaning will also remove this problematic scale, and should be done under consultation of a water treatment supplier. After chemical cleaning, it is recommended that a thorough mechanical cleaning should follow. In addition to performing regularly scheduled maintenance, the progressive building owner (at the suggestion of his contractor) might also consider other measures (noted on the left) for optimizing the efficiency of his equipment, further reducing electrical consumption. While there might be the tendency in the current economy to reduce expenditures, building owners would be wise to carefully consider which ones should hit the chopping block. Eliminating equipment maintenance might provide a very short-term reduction to expenses, but history has proven that this is always more costly in the long- term. <>

3 Consider upgrading to variable frequency drives (VFD) for pumps, fan motors and compressor drive motors. This will allow the equipment to operate at the level determined by the building load and not at peak capacity year around.

Dave Demma holds a degree in refrigeration engineering and worked as a journeyman refrigeration technician before moving into the manufacturing sector where he regularly trains contractor and engineering groups. He can be reached at

These two fully loaded kits are the fastest and easiest way to find all leaks in any size AC&R system!

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Features the super-high intensity OPTIMAX™ 3000 rechargeable LED leak detection flashlight. Power comparable to 150W lamps! Inspection range of up to 20 feet! Treats up to 16 gallons of lubricant, 400 lbs of refrigerant or 150 tons of cooling.

Each kit features universal fluorescent dye cartridges that are OEM-approved and co-solvent free, along with an easy-to-use dye injector for precision dosing. In addition, both kits include an 8 oz spray bottle of GLO-AWAY™ dye cleaner, 3 drip plugs for the hose/coupler, fluorescence-enhancing glasses and a rugged plastic carrying case. The OPK-300BEZ/E kit also comes with AC and DC chargers.

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plumbing PRODUCTS Rheem’s SolPak line

The NR83-DVC concen-

of active solar wa-

tric-vented tankless wa-

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ter heater from Noritz

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less gas products

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sumption and is made

The INVU portable pipe camera system from

thon storage tanks.

from easily-recyclable

Advanced Inspection Technologies (AIT) is

The company’s tankless products can be



designed for industrial and commercial appli-

used as secondary water heaters. As an al-

range from 18,000 to

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ternative to secondary tankless water heat-

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cable for inspection of pipes with multiple an-

ers, Rheem’s Marathon tanks can be used for

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gles, a high resolution CMOS and a minimum-

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bending radius of three inches. It weighs sev-

en pounds and can snake through accesses as small as 1 inch.

Apollo Valves has introduced multi-turn cast bronze gate, globe and check valves. The line of bronze multi-turn valves is offered in Class FloodMaster offers a wireless total water

125 and 150 with threaded or solder ends. Also included are Lead-Free varieties.

The French Trilogy of baths by MTI Whirlpools

main shut-off system that, when a leak is

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detected, automatically shuts off the water

and the Versailles; and the Normandy, which

supply line. Model FM-180 is suited to leak

SharkBite Toilet and Faucet Kits are

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larly in commercial applications. All units offer

Kits include push-fit chrome stops,

soaking tub or air bath. The Versailles comes

an optional connection to a security system or

1/4” (3/8” OD) PEX tubing and toilet

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control room panel. The system includes an

or faucet connectors. Risers can be

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audible alarm and an indicator for low battery.

made as needed from the 5’ of sup-

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as a soaking tub, whirlpool, air bath or com-

alarm system, and there are a variety of valve


sizes for the unit.

Symmons Industries TempControl 6-Series thermostatic master mixer valves feature a Thermal Motor with Turbulator to provide water mixing at low flow rates. When adjusting the outlet temperature, the 6-Series can accommodate a temperature range from 70F to 150F with an approach temperature of 5F. The valves are available in A.Y. McDonald Full Port Water Heater Drain

outlet sizes from ½” to 2”, as part of Symmons’

Valve Kits can be used to replace factory-in-

Hi-Low Systems, as well as pre-assembled with

stalled drain valves that may drain slowly and

piping, with or without cabinets. TempControl 6-Se-

become clogged with sediment when flushing the water heater. 50

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ries valves are certified to ASSE 1017-2003 and CSA Standard B-125.3.

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Pre-Install Pointers


s with any other gravity drainage system, standing liquid left in the warefree urinal piping system could result in future clogs. Prior to installing waterfree urinals it is crucial to ensure that drain pipes are free of obstructions and mineral buildup. Drain pipes should also have proper slope, to allow complete drainage of liquid through the piping system after each use. Use a drain machine to remove build up inside pipes. Clean 25-35 feet deep, to the main stack if possible, and then flush with water to remove cutting debris.

NOTES • Over-Aggressive Cleaning As with any other drain cleaning procedure, care must be taken not to cause damage to fragile piping systems. • Every Drain Cleaning Operation Is Unique It is up to the technician performing the job to choose the proper equipment.

Figure 2

EQUIPMENT, CABLES AND CUTTERS • Floor model drain machine with 75' of 3/8" cable, drop head fitting and 2" pipe side cutter blades. • Larger cables and cutters are preferred to remove mineral buildup in 2" piping, but tight turns in drain lines may prevent their use in some cases. • In case of severe buildup, smaller cables and cutters may need to be used first, to open up the drain lines before moving on to larger cables and cutters. Figure 1 Drain Cleaning



Figure 3


Figure 4 Adjust Pitch/Slope 1 If necessary, cut away a small area of the wall above nipple. 2 Raise the nipple enough to achieve proper pitch, then brace with a mending plate.* 3 Re-check for pitch/slope to verify if the adjustment is sufficient. 4 Use a building code approved caulking to seal around the drain nipple.

Cut away wall

Lift drain line and brace with a mending plate*

* Mending plates are a common solution for bracing drain lines. You should use whatever method provides the best and most stable results for your application.

DRAIN LINE PITCH/SLOPE To check the drain line pitch/slope clean the face of the existing wall flange before installing the brass flange with a clear inspection disk. Slowly pour water into the drain as shown in Figure 2. There should be no water present in the inspection disk or nipple when you inspect it (Figure 3). If the pitch is correct, remove the inspection disk and continue with the urinal installation. If an adjustment is necessary follow the steps shown in Figure 4. Installation information provided by Falcon Waterfree Technologies. HPACMAG.COM



cooling PRODUCTS HVAC Airtec Products Corp. has introduced EZT-180 a waterless and freeze-resistant in-line condensate line trap by EZ-Trap. Designed to increase the efficiency of gravitydrained minisplit air conditioners, the 2.75”-long EZT-180  features a rubber check valve to prevent unconditioned and unfiltered  out-

The AGZ-D family of compact air cooled scroll

Tjernlund Products, Inc. offers the XCHANG-

door air infiltration into the minis-

chillers from McQuay International are avail-

ER, a fan that is installed in an outside wall

plit airstream. It also prevents in-

able in 25-190 ton capacity and are designed

and features two reversible 90 CFM fans.

sect access and ambient outdoor

for use in small to mid-sized building retro-

The user has three options: exhaust air from


fits and new construction applications. They

the interior; draw outside air into the home;

have a sound pressure rating as low as 60

or reverse one fan for balanced air exchange

dBA without attenuation. The AGZ-D fam-

with no bypass from either airstream. The

ily utilizes R-410A refrigerant and exceeds

dual fans use 35 watts of electricity. Perfor-

the performance requirements of ASHRAE

mance complies with ASHRAE 62.2-2007 for

Standard 90.1 for efficiency. The dual circuit

homes up to 7,500 sq. ft. and seven bed-

models can qualify for LEED Energy and At-

rooms. Optional accessories include a timer

mosphere Credit 4 for Enhanced Refrigerant

control and fan speed control plus a duct



The AC6B single-stage A/C Echelon from Coleman features a control board that allows the unit to be paired with the new communicating control system and Micro Channel coil technology. 2.5 ton and 3.5 ton units are available to the residential market.

The Daikin Quaternity ductless system conFriedrich Air Conditioning is offering a re-

tains an advanced air cleaning and purifica-

Belt Drive Series fan coil units from IEC are

engineered PTAC with separate indoor and

tion system. A built-in dehumidifier allows

available in single or double wall construction.

outdoor motors. Designed for lodging, se-

users to set and monitor relative humidity,

The inner lining of the unit can be either solid

nior care, dormitories, military housing and

enabling the humidity to be lowered without

or perforated. Double wall construction pro-

some residential applications, the PTACs are

reducing the temperature. The unit comes

tects the insulation from moisture and dam-

42-inches-wide and are through-the-wall air

with an indoor wall-mounted unit, which is

age while also dampening sound in ducted ap-

conditioners and heat pumps. They install

operated by a wireless remote controller

plications. Blower coils are suited to a variety

flush with exterior walls and feature a slide-

that regulates air flow in rooms, and an

of ducted applications that require an airflow

out chassis design, three fan speeds in cool-

outdoor condensing unit that connects to

range of 300 to 5000 CFM and capacities be-

ing and heating modes, and soft start/stop

the indoor unit via small, insulated lines.

tween one and 10 tons. The units can be floor

fan delay.

or ceiling mounted.


HPAC | April 2011

PRODUCTS HVAC/R White-Rodgers offers Emerson Blue Easy Set Thermostats. The non-programmable thermostats feature easy-to-use Home, Sleep and Away pre-set buttons, simplifying temperature control for consumers.

Count on Lennox PartsPlus ™ for the most recognized and quality brands for universal service and replacement parts. All contactors welcome! The EcoSmart Product Suite from Telkonet, Inc. includes the EcoInsight Programmable Controllable Thermostat (PCT), a fully wireless thermostat, EcoWave and a plug load controller branded the EcoGuard. Key enhancements to the EcoInsight product include mul-

tiple backlight color options, integrated PIR motion sensor, operational voltage range from 12-40VDC and 12-277VAC without reconfiguration, variable outputs for VAV/proportional control, current transducer inputs, and both Zigbee and Ethernet network options. The Acclimate Communicating Control from Luxaire communicates with every smart Luxaire device in a home comfort system. The control has an easy-to-use, high-definition touch screen that ensures precise comfort control, displays maintenance reminders and allows custom programming. It has a four-wire plug-and-play design and the control’s auto configuration capability recognizes and configures the components based on the comfort settings and operation requirements of the system. Venstar’s ColorTouch commercial touch screen thermostat lets businesses display logos, ads or promotions on the thermostat screen. Features include a 365-day holiday programmer; automatically updatable firmware; and added security for public display. An intuitive Time Period Scheduler automatically changes the temperature and mode for up to three periods per day, plus an energy savings mode for unoccupied periods. Up to three occupied periods that nest inside of the unoccupied schedule may be selected. A preoccupancy purge feature allows the fan to be turned on in programmable 15-minute increments (up to three hours) before the room is occupied to create fresh air for when people arrive.


GET 10% OFF* Your First Order! *Must present coupon in store at time of purchase. Not valid on copper, flex or refrigerant. Coupon code: ZA00

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continued from page 55

The ERC 102 electronic refrigeration controllers from Danfoss is designed to operate between 50 and 300V at 50 to 60Hz. The 0.5W controller uses four inputs and four outputs, powerful algorithms and input from multiple sensors to regulate energy-consuming parts in glass door merchandisers and vending machines. An easy-to-use interface enables individual setting of more than 500 parameters. When fitted on a standard one-door glass door merchandiser with a mechanical thermostat, a fan and a 0.5HP compressor, the controller is designed to reduce the refrigerator’s energy consumption by up to 52 per cent.

Panasonic has introduced ENERGY STAR rated WhisperWelcome ventilation fans, specifically designed for the lodging industry. Features of the low profile fan include a motion sensor with delay off timer, dual duct rating (4” or 3”) and noise levels as low as 0.3 sones. It fits in a 2”x6” joist cavity. Two models are offered, one operating at 50 CFM and one operating at 80 CFM. The fan is powered by an enclosed AC motor rate for continuous run.

Suited to continuous ventilation requirements, Broan-NuTone’s Select-Air twospeed ventilation fan generates 40 CFM at <0.3 sone and provides an optional boost to high speed at 80 CFM at 0.8 sone. ENERGY STAR qualified with a permanently lubricated motor engineered for continuous operation, the fan is available in continuous low speed with a boost to high speed using a standard one-function switch; or manual selection of high speed, low speed or off using a twofunction switch.

(905) 660-3460 Access Doors and much more... With 40 years of manufacturing experience, Marfab offers precision metal fabrication and a continually expanding line of sheet metal products. Along with manufacturing parts for leading H.V.A.C. equipment manufacturers in North America, Marfab also makes a variety of custom, made-to-order products used in plumbing and mechanical installations. Some products include: Drywall Extension Sleeves Shearwall Extension Sleeves Ceiling/HRV Access Panels Pipe Shields Saddles Fire Hose Cabinets Grilles

Find out more! Call or visit our website today! Mention this ad and get 10% off your first order. New Customers Only. Minimum order $500.00. ad.indd| 1april 2011 56Marfab HPAC 3/11/11 9:23:23 AM

Up to 7' roof height for easy walk-in loading and unloading

Class-leading fuel economy via the BlueTEC clean diesel engine

600 cubic feet of cargo capacity can ďŹ t over 100 sheets of drywall

Works hard, even in park. The 2011 Mercedes-Benz Sprinter. Starting from



MANUFACTURERS • distributors • wholesalers • associations

Solar Manufacturer Expands To U.S.

A Reprieve For Big Shower Flows

Enerconcept Technologies of Magog, QC, a manufacturer of solar air heaters, is entering the HVAC and solar market in the U.S. The move comes after marketing in Canada for 12 years. All products are manufactured, warehoused and shipped from Enerconcept’s Thetford Mines, QC, production facility. “With the continued challenges of carbon-based fuels and increasing concerns with nuclear energy safety, we see 2011 as an opportunity to enter the U.S. market with our solar air heating technologies that offer proven higher efficiencies and shorter paybacks than any other solar products,” said Christian Vachon, president, Enerconcept Technologies. In addition to its product line, the company offers optional turnkey design and installation services. In preparation for the U.S. market, the company has invested heavily in the facility’s production capacity and inventory to assure product availability.

After months of negotiations with stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has withdrawn a controversial draft interpretative rule setting out the Department’s views on the definition of a “showerhead.” Instead DOE has provided an enforcement guideline, which explains how the Department intends to enforce the water conservation standard enacted by Congress in 1992. It provides manufacturers a two-year grace period before enforcement action is taken and notes that “…to determine whether a manufacturer’s showerhead complies with the 2.5 gpm standard set by Congress, the Department will measure a showerhead’s water use by turning all of a unit’s sprays and nozzles to their maximum flow settings.”

Redmond/Williams Distributing’s 10th Anniversary Redmond/Williams’ 10th Anniversary celebration coincides with the official grand opening of its 50,000 square foot distribution centre at 5190 Timberlea Blvd. in Mississauga, ON. The facility includes a training centre, a state-of-the-art fireplace showroom featuring our Redmond Hearth products. The head office remains at 5605 Timberlea Blvd.

Application Specific Tool Coming To Canada Al Tshanz (l) of Adair Enterprises is tested on his socket fusion skills while Stephen Marco, GeoSmart Energy operations manager, holds the PipeFuser TK200 at GeoSmart’s recent Tropical Training event in Jamaica.

GeoSmart Energy is formalizing a partnership with New Jersey-based GeoThermal Tools, Inc. making it the exclusive distributor of a line of geothermal socket fusion tools in the Canadian market. “All too often, Canadian geothermal installers find themselves using socket fusion tools made for the natural gas industry, which uses smaller pipes,” says Stephen Marco, operations manager, GeoSmart Energy. “Their tools aren’t made for fusing the larger 1 1/4" and 2" geothermal pipes in our industry, often making pipe fusion a two-person job.”

Cleaver-Brooks Acquires Cheminée Lining ON THE MOVE Uponor recently moved to a larger, more operationally efficient distribution centre in Brampton, ON. The location at Unit 2, 5 Resolution Dr., features 24,000 sq. ft. with 28' of clear-height warehouse space. The telephone number is 905-458-4698.

Cleaver-Brooks has acquired Cheminée Lining of Terrebonne, QC. Cheminée has enjoyed steady growth for 20 years, concentrating its efforts primarily in Quebec and the Maritimes. Cheminée manufactures a standard line of stainless steel and AL294C pre-fabricated, insulated breeching and stack system from six inches to 48 inches while Cleaver-Brooks’ offers a line of condensing boilers, package hot water and continued on page 60

april 2011 | HPAC



continued from page 59

steam boilers. Cleaver-Brooks will retain Cheminée’s management team and staff and will merge its Quebec operation into Cheminée’s facility this year.

Kudos To BCIT Student Fluke Corporation has recognized Brian Dixon, student in the Joint Apprentice Refrigeration Training School (JARTS) at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT), for outstanding achievement in the HVAC field of study. The HVAC and Refrigeration Technician program at BCIT is two years in duration and combines classroom and shop instruction with cooperative education experience in industry.

Distribution News Canadian Reps Honoured Dahl has launched its Canadian Rep of the Year awards program. Dahl will present two awards each year, one for the highest percentage sales increase by unit and the other for the

Dahl announced the Canadian Rep of the Year program at its Canadian National Sales Meeting at the company’s headquarters in Mississauga, ON. All of Dahl’s Canadian sales representative organizations attended the event.

“Highest Impact” rep agency. The “Highest Impact” rep award is based on an exceptional contribution to Dahl’s business in any or all of the following categories: broadest product mix sales in their territory, best new product idea, most new customers, best new merchandising concept and/or the most counter day events. <>

people The Master Group recently named Tonya Beaton branch manager at its Dartmouth location. Beaton worked for a large commercial HVAC contractor in Halifax for 11 years and for three years as an operations manager with a geothermal contractor. Also at Master, Rolland and Louis Grenier recently joined the company’s heating department team. Grenier is the product director, hydronic heating and Grenier joins the company in a sales capacity. UltraViolet Devices, Inc. (UVDI) recently announced that Richard Hayes, formerly vice president of sales and marketing, was promoted to president of the company. Carlo Gavazzi has appointed Jason Bellar Bellar to the position of account manager, responsible for the sales in the Western Greater Toronto Area, including Mississauga, Brampton, TorontoWest, Downsview and Woodbridge. He has 15 years experience within the automation and controls industry. Abbas Khan has been named president and general manager of Carrier Sales and Distribution Khan Canada. Khan began his career with


HPAC | april 2011

Siemens Canada, and was most recently president of Osram Sylvania Ltd., a division of the Siemens AG global organization. Jeff Rainville has been named director of sales and marketing for Polygon, formerly the MCS division of Munters. In his new position, Rainville is responsible for strategic planning and implementation of all Polygon Rainville sales and marketing strategies in North America and will report directly to Elvir Kolak, president of U.S. and Canadian operations for Polygon. Brad Cornelissen has assumed the position of sales manager for Ceralux Industries, an OS&B partner company. He was most recently comCornelissen mercial products manager for Novanni Stainless. His focus will initially be in the Eastern Canadian market. Patrice Lavoie has been named national sales director with Pro Kontrol in Laval, QC. Lavoie


EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES ACROSS CANADA CMCEF National Seminar Program The Canadian Mechanical Contracting Education Foundation program includes: commissioning, dispatcher training, change out and project management.

Hydronics Training Information on the Canadian Hydronics Council two-day Introduction to Hydronic Heating Installations course is available at www. or tel. 416-695-0447.

HRAI SkillTech Academy Through in class training, training resources, worksheets and certification programs, industry members can acquire the technical competence required to design and install quality indoor environment systems that meet the appropriate code require-

ments. CFC/HCFC/HFC Control in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry is also offered. www.

COHA Boiler and Efficiency Training The Canadian Oil Heat Association (COHA) is offering burner and efficiency training courtesy of R.W. Beckett Canada Ltd. with trainer Steve Lamoureux. Visit www. or tel. 905-946-0264.

LEED Canada Training Sign up for one of the Canada Green Building Councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (CaGBC) LEED workshops at www. or tel. 613-241-1184.


Advertisers in this issue

Adrian Steel.................................(800) 677-2726..................... page 10 Apollo Valves................................(905) 761-6161..................... page 13 Arkema........................................(800) 567-5726..................... page 15 Beckett Canada...........................(800) 665-6972..................... page 32 Bradford White-Canada.................(866) 690-0961..................... page 33 Bradley Corp................................(800) 272-3539..................... page 53 Cash Acme...................................(888) 820-0120..................... page 5 Delta Faucet Canada....................(800) 567-3300..................... page 7 Flir Systems.................................(800) 613-0507 x24.............. page 32 Fujitsu.........................................(888) 888-3424..................... page 29 GeoSmart Energy.........................(866) 310-6690..................... page 35,37 Hood Chemical.............................(800) 567-9791..................... page 43 Hydronic Parts Group....................(877) 633-0334..................... page 46 ITT...............................................(847) 966-3700..................... page 20 Keeprite.......................................(800) 463-9517..................... page 8 Lennox Parts Plus........................(877) 726-0024..................... page 55 Liberty Pumps..............................(800) 543-2550..................... page 51 Marfab Metal Products.................(905) 660-3460..................... page 56 Matrix Energy...............................(866) 630-5630..................... page 12,46 Mercedes Benz......................................................................... page 57 Mitsubishi Electric.......................(905) 475-7728..................... page 11 NTI..............................................(506) 432-1130..................... page 25 Ontario Power Authority................(877) 797-9473..................... page 16 Ontor...........................................(800) 567-1631 .................. page 49 Redmond/Williams.......................(888) 571-2627..................... page 47 Runtal North America...................(888) 829-4901..................... page 43 Selkirk Corp.................................(888) 735-5175..................... page 3 Taco Canada................................(905) 564-9422..................... page 48 Testo...........................................(800) 227-0729..................... page 2 Thermo Mfg..................................(888) 678-3709..................... page 58 Uponor.........................................(888) 994-7726..................... page 18 Victaulic......................................(905) 884-7444..................... page 9 Watco Mfg...................................(816) 796-3900..................... page 6 Watts Canada..............................(888) 208-8927..................... page 21,64 Woodford Mfg...............................(800) 621-6032..................... page 63 Zurn.............................................(905) 405-8272..................... page 12

april 2011 | HPAC


Calendar 2011


Canadian Conference on Building Science and Technology May 10-13

IEA Heat Pump Conference May 16-19

RETScreen 2011 June 20-22

The 10th International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Conference will be held at Chinzan-so in Tokyo, Japan.

The RETScreen Annual Conference & Training Institute will be held at the Scotiabank Convention Centre in Niagara Falls, ON.

Oilheat 2011 June 21-22

ABC 2011 June 26-29

Intersolar North America July 12-14

The Canadian Oil Heat Association will hold its symposium at White Oaks Conference Resort & Spa in Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON.

The Canadian Institute of Plumbing and Heating is heading to the Fairmont Empress in Victoria, BC for its annual meeting.

The premier platform for the solar industry in North America will be held at the Moscone Center in San Franciso, CA.

HRAI 43rd Annual Meeting August 25-27

World Plumbing Conference September 7-11

MCAC National Conference September 14-17

The Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada will meet at the White Oaks Conference Resort & Spa in Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON.

The 9th World Plumbing Conference will take place in Edinburgh, Scotland.

MCA Canada will hold its National Conference in Quebec City, QC at the Fairmont Le Ch창teau Frontenac.

COHA Ontario Chapter Education Day September 15-16

Greenbuild International Conference & Expo October 5-7

RSES Annual Conference November 2-5

The Canadian Oil Heat Association Ontario Chapter will hold its 2nd Annual Education Day at the Scotiabank Convention Centre and Niagara Falls Hilton Fallsview Hotel in Niagara Falls, ON.

Thousands of building professionals will come together at Greenbuild in Toronto, ON.

The 74th RSES Annual Conference and HVACR Technology Expo will be held at the Sheraton Norfolk Waterside Hotel in Norfolk, VA.

CanGEA Geothermal Power Forum and Networking Event November 9

Construct Canada November 30-December 2

Solar Canada December 5-6

Construct Canada will be held in the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. The National GreenBuilding Conference will be held in the same venue, Nov. 30-Dec. 1.

The Canadian Solar Industries Association will hold its 2011 conference at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, North Building.

Hosted by the Manitoba Building Envelop Council, the 13th Conference On Building Science and Technology will be held at the Fort Garry Hotel in Winnipeg.


The Canadian Geothermal Energy Association (CanGEA) invites geothermal developers, investors, energy companies and policy makers to explore advances and opportunities in the industry at this Calgary, AB event. www.


AHR EXPO January 23-25

CMX-CIPHEX March 22-24

The International Air-Conditioning, Heating, Refrigerating Exposition will be held at McCormick Place Convention Center in Chicago, IL.

The National Trade Show and Forum will be held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, North Building.

HPAC | april 2011

Think of it as a 50-storey hose. Get a convenient and reliable rooftop water source when you specify the Woodford RHY2-MS roof hydrant.

Engineered for quality and durability, the Woodford RHY2-MS is perfect for washing down cooling towers, cleaning condenser coils or providing water for window washers and other types of roof equipment. The hydrant support allows for installation flexibility, while its unique mounting system secures above and below the roof deck, providing exceptional strength and security. It also comes with a 2-degree shim for pitch adjustment. Featuring ASSE 1052 backflow prevention and Woodford’s freezeless technology, the RHY2-MS makes getting water on the roof easier than ever before. For more information, visit

The choice of professionals.

Safety Isn't Just Skin Deep...

Corrosion Resistant Check Valve Construction

Single Access Cover


Top Mounted Straight Tube Check Stainless Steel Retainer Body

Patented Linkage Design

Stainless Steel Piston and Stem Investment Cast Stainless Steel Body

Torsion Spring Design

Uniquely Contoured Check Valve Opening

Stainless Steel Relief Valve Cover Screws

Slotted Pivot Point

Replaceable Check Disc Rubber

Specify Superior Backflow Protection from Watts When it comes to protecting the health and safety of people, why choose anything but the best ? The Watts SilverEagleTM Series backflow assemblies incorporate the latest design features to protect against contamination at health hazard cross-connections. The SilverEagle series is the most compact, the lightest and offers the most flexibility of any backflow assembly in the industry. Specify the valve with safety at its core! For additional information and to view the latest SilverEagle approvals, visit our website at or call 1-888-208-8927.



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