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Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors

Ultracapacitors: Some Perspectives on T h l Technology, M Modeling d li and dA Applications li ti Presentation Title

MCCIA Pune MCCIA,

December 10, 2008

Dr. Uday Deshpande, Dr. John Miller Maxwell Technologies MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY. ENERGY MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.


Presenter Bio Uday Deshpande, Ud D h d Ph.D. Ph D Senior Director, Power Engineering

Contact: udeshpande@maxwell.com 1-858-503-3428

Uday Deshpande joined Maxwell Technologies in early 2007 assuming primary responsibility for electrical and systems development. In this capacity he is responsible for solutions for Maxwell’s ultracapacitor products as well as developing increased understanding in the application and use of ultracapacitors in various industries worldwide. Prior to that he spent over 10 years in technology development/engineering roles where he led development of motor/drive solutions for automotive and power tool industries. He has a Bachelor of Technology (Hons.) degree from the Indian Institute of T h l Technology, Kharagpur Kh and d an MSEE and d Ph.D. Ph D degrees d from f the th University of Kentucky, all in Electrical Engineering. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE, has published several papers and has several patents issued or pending in the field of electric machines and drives. His fields of interest are electric machines and drives, power electronics and energy storage systems.

2


Overview • • • •

IIntroduction d i to Maxwell M ll Ultracapacitor Basics Maxwell Products Applications – Basics – Overview – UPS, AMR, Wind etc. – Specific S ifi Examples E l • Traction • Automotive

• Special Topics for Tata p p • Wrap-up/Q&A 3


Introduction •

Founded in 1965

300 Employees

Revenue $55 M ('07)

Listed on Nasdaq – Symbol: MXWL

Locations in San Diego, CA and Rossens, Switzerland

1992 Maxwell starts development of Ultracapacitors 1995 Maxwell introduces first large Ultracapacitors 1997 Montena starts development of Ultracapacitors 2000 Montena introduces first Ultracapacitors to market 2002 Fusion of Maxwell and Montena 2004 Maxwell produces own, proprietary Electrode 2006 Launch of expanded Ultracapacitors product line 2006 Maxwell becomes supplier of proprietary Electrode 2007 Production start in China 2007 New CEO, David Schramm 2008 HTM Series Production Start 4


Maxwell Presence

Germany: Maxwell Technologies GmbH Automotive HQ g Gilching

5


Production Facilities and Partners Belton Belton Group, China

Rossens Rossens, CH

ISO 9001 ISO 14001 ISO/TS 16949

San Diego, USA ISO 9001, ISO 14001, QS9000

Lishen, China

ISO 9001, ISO/TS 16949

ISO9002

ISO9002, ISO14001 6

YEC, China


Maxwell Business Units

Ultracapacitors High voltage capacitors

Microelectronics for space

7


High Voltage Capacitors R

Three Product Lines

Grading Capacitors Coupling Capacitors CVDs (capacitive voltage dividers)

8


Micro Electronics Advanced Memory Unique A/D & D/A products Single Board Computers Custom Software Radiation Hardening

9


BOOSTCAP® Ultracapacitors Provide products with highest  performance  efficiency  reliability  and long life f to optimize use of energy

10


Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors

Presentation Title

Ultracapacitor Basics

MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY. ENERGY MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.


What is an Ultracapacitor? • Invented in U U.S. S by Robert A A. Rightmire of SOHIO company. – U.S. Patent 3,288,641 , , “ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE APPARATUS: This invention relates generally to the utilization of an electrostatic field across the interphase boundary between an electron conductor and an ion conductor to promote the storage of energy by ionic adsorption at the interphase boundary.” boundary. Nov. 29, 1966

• Electrochemical storage batteries and capacitors have been in existence for over 2000 years (B hd d b (Baghdad battery BC) BC), Volta V l “pile” “ il ” 1800 1800, to B Ben Franklin 1848 who coined the term “battery”. – Batteryy stores energy gy in chemical bonds that follow reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reactions. Mass transfer is involved. – Capacitors store energy in electrostatic fields between ions in solution and a material. No mass transfer involved – hence no electrochemcial wearout. Source: Joel Schindall, “Concept and Status of Nano-sculpted Capacitor Battery,” Presented at 16th Annual Seminar on Double Layer Capacitors and Hybrid Energy Storage Devices December 4-6, Deerfield Beach, Florida 12


Capacitance terminology •

Generic types of electrochemical capacitors (EC’s): – Symmetric design – same carbon material is used in both electrodes. Testing generally imparts a (+) positive or (-) negative polarization. – Asymmetric y design g – electrodes are different materials,, one activated carbon (DLC electrode) and the opposing electrode is a battery type that stores charge via chemical reactions, reduction-oxidation (redox)

Electrolyte type varies for each type of EC: Aqueous (water based) Symmetric carbon-carbon electrodes Asymmetric carbon-battery electrode Electrolyte is alkaline with dissolved salts Current collector is nickel, container is plastic Di ti Distinguished i h db by llow operating ti voltage lt

• •

Organic (carbon or hydrocarbon based) Symmetric carbon-carbon electrodes Asymmetric carbon-battery electrode Electrolyte is organic with dissolved salts Current collector is aluminum, container is aluminum Di i Distinguished i h db by hi high h operating i voltage l

Separator- porous paper, polymer or ceramic that prevents EC electrodes from shorting together. Must be ion conducting (porous) and electron blocking blocking. Current collectors – metal foils used in each electrode to which the carbon electrode films are laminated. Typically aluminum foil. Charge – ionic molecules in solution solution, electrons in conducting medium medium. 13


Energy Storage Technology Options

14


Electrochemical Capacitor • Familyy of Electrochemical Capacitors p ((EC’s)) has two branches: – Double layer capacitors that rely on purely electrostatic accumulation and accumulation, – Asymmetric capacitors or sometimes called pseudocapacitors.

Electrodes

15

Type Device

2 – electrostatic Symmetric carbon

EDLC

Asymmetric 1- redox 1 – electrostatic

Pseudocap (hybrid capacitor)

2 – redox

Battery


The Fundamentals: A Review • Basics of the electronic double layer layer, ii.e., e ultracapacitor – An electronic charge accumulator having extreme capacitor plate specific area and atomic scale charge separation distance.

Graphic: IEEE Spectrum, Jan 2005 16


The Fundamentals: A Review

• E Extreme t capacitance it is i available il bl ffrom th the carbon electrochemical double layer capacitor it – Activated carbon has very high specific area (S) – The compact layer interface between the carbon particles and electrolyte ions, the Helmholtz layer, layer is on the order of 1 atom 3 m2 thickness. S 3 10 ( g ) C  9 d 10 Ultra = Scale * 10 12

The “Ultra” in Ultracapacitor. 17


The Fundamentals: A Review

_

+

Electrical Resistance:

+

_ _ _ _

_

_

_

_

+

_

+

_

+

+ + + + _ + + + + _ + + + + _ + +

_

+

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_

Helmholtz layers Helmholtz layers Separator

+

Collector foil + Foil to Carbon+ C C-particle ti l to t C-particle

Ionic Resistance Separator + electrolyte

+

+ +

The ultracapacitor model commonly applied is that of the series combination of t two DLC’s DLC’ att th the electrode l t d - solvent l t compactt layer. l Ultracapacitor response is very fast in comparison to a battery – no Redox reactions, But, slow in comparison to film or ceramic capacitors.

+

Electrode

Electrolyte

Electrode

Electric conductivity

Ionic conductivity

Electric conductivity

18


Electrochemical Makeup of Ultracap •

The ultracapacitor model commonly applied is that of the series combination of two DLC’s at the electrode - solvent compact layer. Ultracapacitor response is very fast in comparison to a battery – no Redox reactions, But, slow in comparison to film or ceramic capacitors.

• •

Re

Rionic

Uc

Re 19


Ultracapacitors – Perspectives on size

Size

Scaled

Carbon electrode

100 m

10 km

Mt. Everest

Carbon particle

5 m

500 m

Petronas Towers

Micro-pores

2 nm

20 cm

Bucket

Ions

0.7 nm

7 cm

Grapefruit

Inter-atomic dist.

0.2 nm

2 cm

Cherry 20


Capacity, ESR and Internal Pressure • Overcharge at maximum rated temperature – Typically, ultracapacitor cells are shipped as manunfactured – No burn in – initial capacitance drop and ESR increase evident – Accelerated testing under dc life criteria: 2.85V/cell @ +65oC – End of life (EOL) when R2x Rinitial and C0.8 Cinitial BCAP3000 P270 Capacitance & ESR versus Temp

Cell Pressure (bar)

3.5

20 2.0 ESR change

3

2.5

1.0

Crr/ESRr

C, & ESR

2

15

Capacitance drift

1.5

0.8 1

Internal Pressure 0.5

0

0

500

1000 1500 Time in Test (h)

2000

2500

0

-60

-40

-20

20

40

Temp (deg. C) Cr - Normalized to 24 deg.C

21

0

ESRr - Normalized to 24 deg. C

60

80


Fundamentals - Extreme Current Applications High bursts of power power, charging & discharging discharging, impose correspondingly high carbon loading  Current flows from one terminal, through the jelly rollll to t th the other th terminal t i l and out – known  Each interface is affected by the current flow  It is important p to ensure that there is not “bottle necking” – especially due to high rates during operation  Temperature will exacerbate the effects  Vibration can cause mechanical fatigue of components

Lid/Negative Terminal Negative Collector F il/N Foil/Negative ti T Tab b

“Jelly Roll” (Electrode + Electrolyte)

Foil/Positive Tab Positive Collector Can/Positive Terminal

22


Fundamentals – Extreme Current Cell construction must be robust to tolerate high electrical, thermal and mechanical stress Aluminum can Aluminum cover Aluminum collector Laser welded interconnects

Wound Carbon Electrode – Paper separator, two aluminum foil sheets and carbon films bonded to collectors

23


Extreme Current Applications High current cycling eventually leads to reduction in component life.

• At 200A the carbon loading is 3x normal for continuous operation. BCAP650 C% fade during constant curre nt cycling, 2.7V, 15s rest 110 105

% C/C norm minal

100

100A

95 90 85 200A

80 75 70 0

200000

400000

600000

800000

# cycles

24

1000000 1200000


Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors

Presentation Title

Maxwell Products

MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY. ENERGY MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.


Product Range

 From 4F to 10F (PC family)  From 140 – 350F (BC family)  From 650 – 3000F (MC family)

26


Product Line-up Energy and power products available Cells  From 4F to 10F (PC family)  From 140 to 350F (BC family)  From 650 to 3000F (MC family)

Modules  16V and 48V  75V UPS  125 HTM

27


Complete Application Specific Solution Portfolio

 Train, Hybrid Vehicle  Energy Storage

HTM 125V

 Voltage Stabilization  Regenerative Braking  Peak Demand

48V Modules

 Start-stop  Engine Cranking

16V Modules

 Custom  Solutions

MC Cells

 Door Actuators  Accessories

BC Cells

28


Ultracapacitor Parameters Ultracapacitor cells • •

Basic data sheet parameters Trends are for ESR*C = t <1s and PML  10 kW/kg

C= 650 ESRac = 0.6 ESRdc = 0.8 = 0.52 Irms = 105

1200 0.44 0.58 0.696 110

Micro-Hybrid

1500 0.35 0.47 0.705 115

2000 0.26 0.35 0.700 125

Industrial Applications

29

2600 0.21 0.31 0.806 130

3000 F 0.20 m 0.30 m 0.900 s 150 Arms 150+

Heavy Transportation


Ultracapacitor Modules Ultracapacitor Modules –

Thermally: 15°C rise at 150Arms and 600 scfm air flow

BMOD0165-E048 (165F, 48V, 150A, 8.5m) BMOD0063-P125 (63F, 125V, 150A, 17m ESR) Attribute Energy, useable Umx Umx/2, Cont. Amps Peak Amps Mass, kg Power, (kW/kg) Cycles Cells/module

BMOD0165-E048

BMOD0063-P125

40 Wh

102 Wh

282 Wh

150

150 750, 5s 750 58 4 1,000,000 48

150 950, 5s 950 165 3.5 1,000,000 146

14.2 6.6 1,000,000 18

30

BMOD0018-P390


Maxwell Large Cell Development History Design is the key to: performance, robustness, AND COST Early Designs expensive poor performance

Too expensive, improved perf

PC2500 Cell BCAP0010 Gen 1 Gen 3 23 17 Major Mech Components Materials Cost 60 min 30 min Labor Minutes

Cost Effective not sufficiently robust

LCELL proto Gen 4 4

31

Current Cell VERY Robust High Performance Easy to Build

MC Family Gen 5 4

Dual Coll Gen 6 5

15 min

6 min


Application Perspectives – Power & Energy Trends Since iintroduction Si t d ti off P Panasonic’s i ’ power cellll iin 1980’ 1980’s (470F (470F, 2.3V, 3.9m) carbon-carbon cell potential has increased ~20mV/yr y Ultracapacitor P&E Evolution Spe ecific Energy, Power

30 Energy

25 20

Pow er Voltage

15 10 5 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018

Year

Ultracapacitor specific power, Pm (W/kg) can reach 20kW/kg only if cell potential increases and ESR decreases.

32

History of voltage trend: 1988 2.3V ((Panasonic 470F)) 1996 2.5V (MXWL starts prod.) 2002 2.5V (MXWL+Montena) 2005 2.7V 2008+2.85V estimate 2010 3.0V 3 0V projection 2012 3.1V projection


Key Features of Ultracapacitors & Modules  Excellent power density  Highly efficient energy transfer  High durability and lifetime y  1 Mio cycles  10 years lifetime  Cost effective in terms of Wh-cycles  Stable performance over large temperature range  Safety  Designed to withstand harsh environmental conditions

33


Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors

Ultracapacitor Applications

Presentation Title

MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY. ENERGY MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.


Transportation Automotive

Renewable Energy

Industrial

35

Applications


Application Model

36


Application Classification Dynamic

 Static

   

 Steady operation vs. time  Most of the time is spent in a charged state  Charging Ch i requirements i t can be benign  Discharge timing can be quick  Vibration typically not a f factor  DC life/Self Discharge characteristics are critical parameters

Current Cycling Power Cycling Voltage level changes (periodic/cyclic) wide temperature swings  High power/current loading loading.  (Severe) vibration conditions in parallel  Cycle life is a critical parameter – current/power + temperature + vibration 37


Peak Power Shaving

 Ultracapacitors provide peak power ...  … and back-up power Available Power Required Power

Ultracapacitor Peak Power

Ultracapacitor Backup Power

Available Power Required Power

38


Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors

Presentation Title

Maxwell Experience

MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY. ENERGY MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.


Experience Maxwell Hybrid Bus Drive Trains  Gasoline-electric, since 2003  Vehicles equipped with ultracapacitor systems have over 2,000,000 kilometers in service  Over 200 packs produced per year = 30’000 caps = 78 Million Farads per year

Electric rail  SITRAS installations in operation since 2001  Up to 250k cycles per year  Energy saving and voltage stabilization  1344 Ultracapacitors per installations

Fork lifts  BOOSTCAPs qualified for fuel cell powered fork lifts  Fuel cell combined with Ultracapacitors  Maxwell signed largest supply agreement in ultracapacitors ever: 500k BCAP2600 C in 3 years

40


Experience Maxwell Windmills  Burst power to trim blades, since 2003  Up to 3 x 128 Ultracapacitors per wind mill  More than 1’000’000 BCAP0350 installed  Maxwell received order for 3M BCAP0350 to be supplied in next 2 years Aerospace  Burst power for door opening, 16 x 56 UCs  Useful life 25 years,140.000 flight hours  BOOSTCAPs passed Airbus qualification testing in 2004, in series production now  Almost 100k PC100 delivered  Design chnge to BCAP0140 On-vehicle recuperation  Braking energy recuperation  Up to 30% energy savings allows longer, faster or more trains in the same network  Power up to 300 kW per system (up to 2 systems per train)  In operation since 2004 41


Experience Maxwell Diesel engine starting  Burst power for diesel engine cranking  Power module installed on diesel locomotives since 2003  28V, 6 x 12 BCAP2600  Expected lifetime of 15 years Solar buoys  Hybrid concept using both solar power and conventional batteries  Ultracaps used for short-term surplus solar energy storage while the batteries are used as a backup  BCAP0350 Telecommunication  Battery replacement  Graceful power down and bridge power  Long lifetime and high reliability  500k BCAP0350 in 2006

42


Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors

Traction/Drives Applications

Presentation Title

MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY. ENERGY MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.


Transportation - Buses ISE Hybrid bus drive train  Diesel-electric and gasoline-electric  Operated p by y various TAs Regenerative braking 288 ultracaps/module, 2 modules/bus Gasoline economy 76% Diesel economy 22% Production Over 100 buses per year Over 200 p packs ((78’M F)) 2,000,000 Miles!

44


Buses & Trolleybuses - Europe Trolley Bus - SOP in 2008

Hybrid Bus â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOP in 2010 45


Buses & Trolleybuses - China SOP in 2008

SOP in 2008

SOP in 2008

SOP in 2009 46


Energy Recuperation for Trains Light rail vehicles, metro, DMU  Rapid energy storage through braking energy recapture, re-use re use for acceleration  Stationary and on-vehicle  In operation since 2002

HTM125

Stationary  Energy savings of 320 MWh per year  Cost reduction (operation and energy)  Voltage stabilization On-vehicle  Reduce grid power consumption: 30% energy consumption, 50% peak power  Bridge non-powered sections  Larger, heavier or more vehicles/trains 47


Traction Energy Saving Operation

Energy storage system: Stationnary or on the vehicle

Time t1 Vehicle 1 is braking Energy storage system stores the braking energy

Time t2 Vehicle 2 is acccelerating Energy storage system delivers the energy

Application: Time shifted delivery of the stored braking energy for vehicle reacceleration gy storage g system y Solutions: Possible with either stationaryy or on-vehicle energy Advantage: Cost savings through reduced primary energy consumption 48


Traction Voltage Stabilization Operation  Energy storage system is kept at fully charged state  Energy storage system is only discharged when the network voltage is pulled below a critical level  Energy storage system is rapidly recharged by braking vehicles or slowly through the DC network  Solution: S l ti St Stationary ti energy storage t system t  Advantage: Optimization of the network voltage level Energy storage system

Substation

H

H

H

49


Windmill Applications

Switched S it h d mode power supply

Energy storage Motor Inverter

AC Pitch Motor

Turbine hub showing the three independent pitch systems 50


Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors

Automotive Applications

Presentation Title

MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY. ENERGY MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.


Power on time

Evolution of Electric Loads

Light

EVT Common-rail

EHPS

C t l units Control it

A ti chassis Active h i

Wiper

Radio

Conventional

Radio/Navi/Tel

1h

Traffic mgmt

Actual

Water pump

AC compressor Trend

Seat heater Brake-by-wire

Rear window heater EC cool fan

30s

Catalyst heater Electric defrost

Power window

5s

PTC

EPB

Seat adjuster

EPS

Door and hood actuator

Hybrids / Start-stop Starter

100W

1kW

2kW 52

5kW

Peak power Source: Continental AG


Voltage Profiles Board Net Stabilization Battery Voltage Power steering

Start-stop

Boa ard net quality

Recuperation

15 V

11 V 9V Additional energy storage

Increase of voltage

Battery cycling

g Voltage oscillation Functions

ď&#x192;° Improved stability of the board net ď&#x192;° Less stress of the 12 V battery 53

Source: BMW AG


Automotive Hybrid Functions Ultracapacitors

Battery Systems

Full Hybrid y

Pure El. Driving g

Functiona ality

Enhanced Driving Performance Mild Hybrid

Econ Load Distribution Econ. Launch Assist, Re-Gen Boost

Micro Hybrid

Basic Re-Gen

Start-Stop

Quelle: Siemens VDO, IAV 2007

l

6 12 1-2

l

20 120 60-120 54

80 400 >1’000

l

[kW] [V] [Wh]


Hybrid Systems and Functional Principle System Full hybrid

Mild hybrid

Mini hybrid

Micro hybrid

Principle

Inverter

<400V DC

14V

<120V DC

Inverter

DC

14V

Linear Controller

DC

Inverter

14V

14 - 42V

Steering, Power consumer

Function Start-stop

Recuperation

Passive “boost”

Active “boost”

El. driving

Power assist

 **

* with modified series starter

*

 ** ** with additional power electronics 55

DC DC

14V


StARS +X Starter-alternator Reversible system Control unit

DC

Ultracapacitor

High power electrical loads

12 V Bordnet DC

12V Battery

 In addition to start-stop, p, the system y provides p regenerative g braking functionality (4kW) and light torque assist  Dual voltage architecture with floating voltage between 14 and 24V using EDLC technology  Fuel Economy  10-12% 10 12% on drive cycle

 Improved bord net quality  Ripple pp filtering g with DC/DC  Higher dependability with a split energy storage 56


Micro Hybrids 14 V

GG

Verbraucher Consumer

Generator DC

DC 500/1’000W 200/1’000W A 12V Battery

M

16-40V 20F 16-30V / 26F E steering Ultracapacitor Ultrakondensator Power Dyn.Energy storage . consumer

 Energy management based on a variable board net voltage and recuperation function  Target off the concept:  Ultracapacitor module powers board net during acceleration, resulting in lower demand of generator power and hence higher engine torque at low rpm  Peak power for power consumer  Start-Stop 57


Alcoa System, Functional Principle

70A 14V

14V

C

35V

0A

Power distribution box x

40A

Acceleration: Ultracap powers board net, generator power available for acceleration 40A

40A 14V

14V

C

35V

Power distribution box x

Overrun conditions: Ultracap charging

Ultracap storage system with integrated bidirectional Buck/Boost-DC/DC converter  1’000 W power output  100 A assistance during motor start  Operating temperature -40°C to +75°C  Air convection based cooling design  CAN interface 58


Mild Hybrid - BMW X3 Concept Car BMW Efficient Dynamics  Energy recuperation and boosting  Start/Stop function  15% fuel savings

Ultracapacitor module  300V, 300V 70kW power  1500F cells, 2.7V 59


Full Hybrid Powertrain System - AFS

 Extreme Hybrid™ system based on Fast Energy Storage™ consisting of  Batteries to provide a slow, steady flow of electricity  Ultracapacitors to provide power for short periods for all all-electric electric acceleration  Control electronics to control power flow cache power

 Conventional, engine-driven front-wheel and fully-electric rear-wheel drive

60


AFS Concept Li Ion battery pack Plug-in Plug in connection Control electronics

Ultracapacitor module

61


Energy Storage Solution for Full Hybrids  Target is to meet energy storage requirements of full hybrids over the full operating temperature range without any sacrifice in performance  Lithium alone cannot meet this challenge due to  Low power performance for temperatures below -10°C  Susceptibility against high power requirements and deep discharges  Ultracapacitors p alone cannot meet this challenge g due to  Low energy density which results in extensive package space

 What is recommended is an active parallel combination of ultracaps with lithium, requiring  Power flows subject to supervisory energy management  Maintain energy component (lithium) within its high efficient range meaning low power stress levels  Maintaining pulse power component within its energy range – meaning without incurring wide SOC swings that shave off efficiency points  Bi-directional DC-DC converter (most efficient power processor) 62


Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors

Application Perspective

Presentation Title

MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY. ENERGY MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.


Ultracaps and Lithium-ion Capability How well does each technology support energy exchange over the full temperature range? â&#x20AC;˘ The reciprocal charge/discharge of ultracapacitors means high power level is maintained across the full temperature range. range â&#x20AC;˘ Lithium-ion, because it relies on redox reactions, slows down when cold and

becomes too reactive when hot. Overheating on charge when hot is a problem. Lithium-ion pack cycle and calendar life are reduced as operation moves outside the normal operating window (or climate control actions must be taken). Lithium-ion chemistries can shift the discharge and charge profiles, but cannot widen them. Cold discharge power and hot charge power levels are significantly reduced from normal temperature range levels. 64


Ultracapacitor Efficiency  It is necessary that the ultracapacitor (plus DC/DC converter) deliver a combined efficiency on the order of 90% or better to build a value proposition  Ultracaps possess very low ESR  high efficiency at relatively high power levels 1.00

 At fixed power demand the ultracap potential decreases internal p  The current must increase  Efficiency curve at constant power drops as power level increases:

CP Efficiency 3000F UC (0.1, 0.25, 0.4Pml)

0.90

Eff

0.80 0.70

This presents a design criterion for the interface DC/DC converter in sizing of the boost switch

0.60 0.50 0.40 0 00 0.00

2 00 2.00

4 00 4.00

6 00 6.00

8 00 8.00 10 00 10.00 Time, s

12 00 12.00

14 00 14.00

16 00 16.00

PML

2 U mx  4 ESRdc

 High efficiency means more compact modules, less cooling system burden  Improved efficiency in energy storage means transportation systems with improved fuel economy, reduced emissions and uncompromised performance 65


Ultracap vs Lithium-Ion: Energy Efficiency ď&#x201A;§ It is an established industry fact that for power demands less than 20 seconds ultracapacitors outperform lithium-ion batteries Speciffic Energy (kJ J/kg)

1000

Li-ion battery 100

At 100s the lithium will capture 5x more energy than the ultracap but at 10s both capture the same energy only the capacitor discharges 95% of this energy whereas the lithium lithium-ion ion can only discharge 50%.

captured ultracap 10

Therefore, for 10s power the ultracapacitor is 2x as effective as the lithium-ion. Hence,, ultracapacitor p applicability extends up to 20s versus lithium-ion.

stored 1 1

Graphic compares 12Ah lithium-ion pack vs. 3000F, 2.7V ultracapacitor pack in ability to capture regen energy in an HEV then discharge it.

10

100

1000

Charging time (s)

10000

John R. Miller,, Alex D. Klementov,"Electrochemical , Capacitor p Performance Compared p with the Performance of Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries, Proc. 17th International Seminar on Double Layer Capacitors and Hybrid Energy Storage Devices,â&#x20AC;? Deerfield Beach, Florida, (Dec. 10-12, 2007). 66


Li-Ion vs. Ultracapacitor - Performance

Characteristic

State of the Art Lithium Ion Battery

Electrochemical Capacitor

*Charge time

~3-5 minutes

~1 second

*Discharge Time

~3-5 minutes

~1 second

*Cycle life

<5,000 @ 1C rate

>500,000

Specific Energy (Wh/kg) Specific power (kW/kg) C l efficiency Cycle ffi i (%) Cost/Wh Cost/kW

50-100 **1-2 <50% 0% to >90% 90% $.5-1/Wh $50-150/kW

5 5-10 <75 to >95% 9 % $10-20/Wh $15-30/kW

Source: John R. Miller, Andy F. Burke, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Electrochemical Capacitors: Challenges and Opportunities for Real-World Applications,â&#x20AC;? VOl. 17, No. 1 Electrochemical Society Interface, Spring 2008 67


Application Perspectives – Power & Energy Trends Since introduction of Panasonic’s power cell in 1980’s (470F, 2.3V, 3.9m) carbon-carbon cell potential has increased ~20mV/yr Ultracapacitor P&E Evolution Specific E Energy, Power

30 Energy

25 20

Pow er Voltage

15 10 5 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018

Year

Ultracapacitor specific power, Pm (W/kg) can reach 20kW/kg only if cell potential increases and ESR decreases.

68


Application Perspectives     

Review of EC’s and attributes q circuit model & simulation Equivalent Safe operating area Ultracapacitor + Lithium ion example Power electronic interface to the ultracap tank for plug-in hybrid vehicle

69


Electrochemical Capacitors Electrochemical Capacitors (EC) - Symmetric EC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Physical energy storage Adsorption of ion Solvated ions Conductivity, ď ł(SOC) E = f(electrode surface) Non-Faradaic Non Faradaic, no mass transfer

Re

Ri

+

+

C(U)

Re C(U)

70


Review of Battery Lithium-ion Chemistry Charge

A

e

e

LiMO2 Structure

x

x x

x

x

e

x x

x

x

x

x x

e

Cathodee (+)

Annode (-)

Graphene Structure

Li+ Ion

-

PF6 Ion

Lithium-ion Battery

electron

x

solvent

Cathode LiMO2   Li 1-x MO2 + xLi+ + xeDischarge   Charge

x Porous Separator p

e

Al Current C Collector

Battery – chemical energy storage Orbital electron exchange Redox Ion intercalation Conductivity: =constant E f(electrode mass) E=f(electrode Faradaic process – mass transfer 71

Anode Cn + xLi Li+ + xe-   CnLix


Ultracap and Li-Ion Battery Models Ultracapacitor model Re

 Series combination of two double layer capacitances p  Resistance elements of equivalent series resistance, ESR: electronic (Re) and ionic (Ri) components

+

Ri

+

C(U)

Re

C(U)

Cdl

Lithium model  Single time constant RC network  Ri (SOC,T): Ionic concentration gradients at the electrodeelectrolyte interface and reaction kinetics  Re(SOC,T): Electronic contribution based on bulk resistance of the electrode terminals terminals, the current collector foils and interfaces to electrode constituents  Capacitance element Cdl across the ionic resistance component to model transient effects (polarization and pseudocapacitance it effects ff t att the th electrode-electrolyte l t d l t l t iinterface t f

72

Ri(SOC,T)

Re(SOC,T)

E(SOC,T,t)

i(t)

ULi(t)


Ultracapacitor Model • Steady St d state t t and d ttransient i t model. d l

Terminal Voltage Terminal_Voltage 2.77 2.70

Rsa1

AM2

2.40 mOhm

A

Rs1

Cs1

VM1.V .

2.60

130 F 0V

2.50 2.44 28.91

0.8 mOhm VM2

DATAPAIRS2 I2 tY

+ V

XY1

Co1

XY

35.00

39.16

Improves transient performance

2.7 V

Rp1

Ny quPlotSel1 Im

0.60m

0. 80m

28. 99m 26. 36m

XY1.VAL F

10m

28.99m 26.36m

2.27 kOhm 20m

40m 79m

0.00 -2.63m

10 53

1

0.63

0.16

0.32

0. 00 -2.63m

0.60m

0. 80m

Re

Agrees with Nyquist results, ESRdc; ESRac Cel l_T emperat 45.40

H1 H

CTH1

RTH1 6.8 K/W

40.00

188.57 Ws/K

SUM1

299 K

30.00

Tamb

26.00 0

5.00k

9.60k

Consistent thermal test results, I=90Arms 73


Ultracapacitor Cell Model – Collaboration with Ansoft Electrical equivalent q circuit model in SimplorerV8 p employs p y the Maxwell’s reduced order model technique Equivalent Circuit

Component Interface

Component Parameters

Models will be available from Maxwell Technologies and will be posted on Ansoft website for download into Simplorer V8 library 74


Ultracapacitor SOA The Ragone relationship for the ultracapacitor ultracapacitor, over its Umx to Umx/2 range and characteristic time define its SOA. • Operation to 0.25PML can be viewed as continuous SOA • Operation beyond this is intermittent SOA • Operation below the characteristic time is Abuse Tolerance Tolerance.

75


Fordâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Escape and Mariner Hybrids Vehicles such as this are opportunities for comboâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s combo s

NiMH pack 330Vdc 5.5 Ah 39 kW

76


Ultracapacitor and Battery Combinations Standalone systems y • Battery has the energy but not the cycling performance • Ultracapacitor has cycling and power capacity but insufficient energy Battery plus capacitor combination is technically attractive but must make a business case case.

GM says it best in a single chart…

M.Verbrugge, et al, “Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems And Range Extended Electric Vehicles,” The 25th I International i l Battery B Seminar S i & Exhibit, Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 2008 77


Ultracapacitor and Battery Combinations

M.Verbrugge, et al, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems And Range Extended Electric Vehicles,â&#x20AC;? The 25th I International i l Battery B Seminar S i & Exhibit, Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 2008 78


Ultracaps and Lithium-Ion Combination • Today HEV battery packs are oversized to meet EOL performance requirements. Ultracaps could meet EOL performance without g oversizing • Ultracapacitor de-stresses the lithium under charge conditions, all high rate burdens and during cold weather operation • Limiting battery peak currents may – allow use of energy optimized lithium-ion pack of >10kWh dedicated to meeting vehicle range requirements, requirements thus optimizing battery costs – reduce wear, prolong cycling and enable longer warranty of the battery

• I2R losses in batteries can be relocated to losses in power p electronics and ultracaps, where they may be lower magnitude, easier to remove, far less harmful to battery wear and tear Ultracap and lithium-ion battery combination for improved performance and longer life at lower net energy storage cost 79


UC + Li-Ion Solution: • Energy optimized lithium-ion pack of >10kWh dedicated to meeting vehicle range requirements • Ultracaps de-stresses the lithium battery under charge h conditions, diti allll hi high h rate t b burdens d and d during cold weather operation • Growing G i iinterest t t ffrom other th customers t ffor ultracapacitor + lithium-ion “ultra-battery”, especially for Plug-in and Battery-EV applications. applications

80


Combination of Ultracap and Li-Ion Battery Cell Potential (V)

Different potential behavior:  Batteries store and deliver their energy via redox reactions and th b h thereby hold ld near constant t t potential t ti l until the reactant mass is consumed  Ultracapacitors are energy accumulators and require a potential change to absorb or deliver their charge

4.4 4.2 40 4.0

Spinel LiCoO2 Li(NMC)O2

3.8 3.6

LiFePO4

3.4 3.2 3.0

Ultracap

 Direct parallel configuration (used in UPS) reveals unsufficient efficiency  Because of different voltage-current voltage current behaviors an active parallel configuration having a DC/DC converter interface the ultracapacitor to th lithium-ion the lithi i b battery tt is i used d

Li Ion Battery

81

20

40

60

Ulltracapacitor

0

80

100

120

140

160

Power Electronic Converter

180 Ah/kg


Ultracapacitor and Battery Combinations

• Take a close look at the most common configurations – Tandem – direct paralleling of ultracacitor with battery – Active parallel – reliance on power electronic converter & controls. controls

82


Ultracapacitor and Battery Combinations Easiest is the direct parallel parallel, or tandem connection connection.

For this investigation a representative Li-ion chemistry (LiFePO4) in large format (40Ah) is paralleled by a small ultracapacitor string: 24S x 1P x BMOD0058-P15 D Cell size (350F (350F, 2.5V), 2 5V) 144 cells in 24 modules of 6 6.

83


Ultracapacitor and Battery Combination

Obt i performance Obtain f d data t on ttandem d connection ti

Software switch S1=0

S1 =1

84


Tandem (Direct) Ultracapacitor & Battery Combination Thermall stress Th t off th the combination bi ti iis reduced d d overallll (l (low ESR off ultracapacitor) lt it ) and partially shifted to ultracap for tandem connection. Switch S1 = 0

S1 = 1

85


Active Parallel HESS  Ultracap model connected by half-bridge converter (buck-boost) to the Li-Ion model  Key aspect of this configuration is the control of the DC/DC converter through the supervisory EMS controller Ib

Ub

IL Cdl

Energy Management Supervisory C t ll Controller Ri(SOC,T) Uc

H1

Ic

Re(SOC,T) Ruc3 +Uo

+Uo Cuc3(U)

Rsd

Ruc2

Ruc1

Lbb E(SOC,T,t)

+Uo Cuc2(U)

H2 Cuc1(U)

Buck-boost d d converter dc-dc

Ultracapacitor Pack

Ac-Drive Motor Load

Lithium-ion Pack

Maxwell has released the ultracapacitor model through Ansoft as a library model in Simplorer. The description is also available in Battery Design Studio software used for lithium-ion battery modeling. 86


Active Parallel Ultracapacitor and Battery Combination Ult Ultracapacitor it and d Lithi Lithium-ion i iin A Active ti P Parallel ll l

87


Active Parallel Ultracapacitor and Battery Combination Model M d l th the lithi lithium-ion, i ultracapacitor, lt it d dc-dc d converter t (Half-H) (H lf H) and controller

88


Ultracapacitor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Battery Combinations Ultracapacitor and Lithium-ion in Active P ll l Parallel Energy gy lithium 8kWh to 30 kWh 280V to 400V 80 Wh to 150 Wh 90V to 150V

Dc-dc converter Inductor Phase leg semiconductor Mototron controller

89


Ultracapacitor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Battery in Active Parallel Simulation Si l ti model d l ffor 335 V lithi lithium-ion i pack, k pair i off 48V ultracap lt modules d l and d dc-dc converter (half-H) with input current limits of 225A R term

Bidire c tion al dc -d c C o n v e 3 35 V to 92 V w ith los s e s

2 mOhm A M2 R Li

C filter 22 mF

A

IGB T

B uck

TP _H 1 L1

R ind

335 V

A M3

A M1

R uc A

+

0.3 Ohm

S1

D1

A

W

W M1

+ V M1

E1

S2

V

22 mOhm

+ IGB T2

I1

Equ iv Ba tte ry Pa

110 mH

C dl

R filter 150POhm D2

335 V

4.5 mOhm B oost

V

TP _H 2

D A TA P A IRS

GAIN

ICA:

H ys:=12 B uck:=0 B oost: oost:=0 0 N ame := I_lim_neg:=-225

GS 2

GA IN 3 3

G( s )

LIMIT2 L I MIT

N ame := I_lim_pos:=225

d igital filter G( s ) to s mo o the n dc -d c c o nv o utp u t c ur ren t u s ing 1 /ta u =5 ra d /s c u toff

D riv e Pr ofi

I_lim_pos I_lim_neg

GS 1

C on s tra in U C c u rre n t t le s s th a n 2 25 A at U mn Sele c t State 1 o r Sta te 2 d ep en d ing o n d riv e p r

G( s )

V M1.V

GA IN 6

MUL1_C onvP wr GA IN 7

GAI N GAI N

FML1

EQU

GA IN 1 P li:=V M1.V * R Li

S UM2

S TA TE TH R E S 1 := -H ys TH R E S 2 := Hys Y 0 := 0

GA IN4 GAIN

GA IN 2 B att_Losse

TP _H 1

GAIN

P uc:=V M2.V * Ruc.

S UM3

I GAIN

TR A NS 1

B uck:=0 B oost:=1

S TA TE

I1 I>4 I1.I>4

Ene rg y Ma na g eme nt Str ateg y State ma c h in e for mod e c o ntro l H y s te re s is PW M c u rr en t b a nd c

TH R E S 1 := -H TH R E S 2 := H Y 0 := 0

UC_Losse P duc

I

U C_Conv_Lo P dac

H y s te re s is c omp ar ator s for PW M c on tr ol of the p ha s e leg : o n SU MMER ou tp ut ne g ativ e s lop e the c omp ar ator tra n s ition s fro m A2 to A1 lev el w he n inp u t SU MMER ou tpu t p o s itiv e s lo pe tr igg er s a tra ns itio n fro m A1 to A2 w h e n the in pu t r ea c h e s thr e

I

90

TR A NS 2

B uck:=1 B oost:=0

TP _H 2

GAIN

GA IN 5 P dl

82 F 74 V

Equ iv U ltra c a p Pa c k 2 S x 1 P x BMOD 0 16 5 -P

Yt

FML_IN IT1

V M2

I1 I< 4 I1.I<-4

MUL_LiP w


Drive Cycle Influence on Energy Storage System The drive Th d i cycle l statistics t ti ti h heavily il iinfluence fl ESS performance f • Consider three drive schedules having very different dynamics • •

NYCC low speed, UDDS mid-speed and US06 high speeds Corresponding power shown for each cycle is for the Chevy Volt PHEV Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, UDDS

NYCC Generic Cycle

30

Speed (mph)

15 10 5

40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 0.00 -10.00

0 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Time (s)

400

450

500

550

600

EV Propulsion Power NYCC Cycle 30000.00

20000 0 20000.0

20000 00 20000.00

10000.0 0.0 200

300

400

-20000.0

500

600

700

P ower (W)

30000.0

100

600.00

800.00 1000.00 1200.00 1400.00 1600.00

10000.00 0.00 0.00 -10000.00

200.00 400.00 600.00 800.00 1000.00 1200.00 1400.00 1600.00

-20000.00

-30000.0

Time (s)

-30000.00

Ti Time (s) ()

91

90.00 80 00 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 0 00 -10.00 10 000.00

100 00 100.00

200 00 200.00

300 00 300.00

400 00 400.00

500 00 500.00

600 00 600.00

700 00 700.00

Time, s

EV Propulsion Power US06 Cycle

EV Propulsion Power UDDS Cycle 40000.00

0

400.00

time (s)

40000.0

-10000.0

200.00

650

Power (W)

Speed (mph)

20

Vehicle speed, mph

50 00 50.00

25

Power (W)

US06 Drive Cycle

60.00

100000.00 90000.00 80000.00 70000.00 60000.00 50000.00 50000 00 40000.00 30000.00 20000.00 10000.00 0.00 -10000.000.00 50.00 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0 500.0 550.0 600.0 650.0 -20000.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -30000.00 -40000.00 -50000.00 -60000.00 -70000.00 Tim e (s)


Drive Cycle Influence on Energy Storage System The drive cycle statistics heavily influence ESS performance • And there can be some surprises in these cycles: • •

Consider the propulsion only component at the vehicle tire patch(s). Assumed vehicle is the Chevy Volt PHEV

Veh Spec Mass Drag coef Roll res Frt area Wh radius

Parameter Vmx Vavg Dist Pavg Regen Energy/mi

kg # kg/kg m2 m

units mph mph miles kW # Wh/mi

Chevy Volt PHEV, 40mi AER 1588 air density kg/m3 0 29 0.29 gravity m/s2 0.0075 Pack volts V 2.293 Pack energy kWh 0.36 Batt Ppk kW

1.2 9 81 9.81 335 16 136

Drive Cycles and Volt PHEV Results NYCC UDDS US06 27.2 56.7 80.3 7.09 19.6 48 1.18 7.44 7.99 0.81 2.1 9.88 0.6 0.45 0.3 282.6 193.6 293.6

92

In one case inertial power dominates (NYCC) and in the second case aero g dominates. But in both cases loading the tractive energy per mile is nearly identical.


Drive Cycle Influence on Energy Storage System Drive schedule propulsion power P(V) is imposed on the vehicle energy storage system. • Ultracapacitor in combination with battery makes most sense when dynamics having the highest recoverable energy dominate the propulsion power equation equation. • P(V) = aero loss + roll resistance loss + inertial power + road grade

P (V )  0.5  air C d A f V 3  g gC rr M vV  M vVV  ggM v ZV Pk accel Pk decel E t Emot Egen Pmot Pgen Ub

Units "g's" "g's" MJ MJ kW kW V

Drive Cycles and Volt PHEV Results NYCC UDDS US06 0.273 0.15 0.38 -0.269 -0.15 -0.31 1 198 1.198 5 187 5.187 8 448 8.448 -0.714 -2.309 -2.508 32.1 34.98 85.46 -21.7 -25.8 -54.05 335 335 335

Ich_pk

A

-64.8

-77

-161.35

Idch_pk

A

95.8

104.4

255.1

C_bal Cch Cdch

Ah Ah Ah

0.401 -0.592 0.993

2.39 -1.91 4.3

4.93 -2.08 7.01

Cbal  C ch  C dch

Graphic from DOE NREL 93


Active Parallel Ultracapacitor and Battery Combination For the same applied load profile the SOC of the tandem and active parallel combinations are dramatically different. Tandem Battery and Ultracap SO

SOC.VAL SOC_UC.VAL S

1.00

950.00m SOC.... SOC_... 900.00m

850.00m 0

50.00

115.00

Active ct e parallel pa a e Ultracap_SOC

SOCuc

1.12

SOCuc

500.00m

Architecture

SOCo

SOCmn

SOCmx

SOCf

delSOC

Tandem

0.945

0.887

0.965

0.934

7.8%

Active

0.59

0.4

1.09

0.61

69%

0 0

50.00

120.00

94


Ultracap and Lithium-Ion Combination: Current Profile â&#x20AC;˘

Battery current histograms reveal that ultracaps can lower the peak currents significantly under charge/discharge conditions Battery Current Slew Rate Magnitude Histogram

Battery Current Magnitude Histogram

70

50 With UltraCap System Without UltraCap System

45

With UltraCap System Without UltraCap System

60 50

35

Perccent of time [%]

Perrcent of time [%]

40

Max w/ UC = 54.25 A Max w/o UC = 82.43 A

30 25 20 15

Max w/ UC = 57 A/s Max w/o UC = 478 A/s

40 30 20

10

10

5 0

0

10

20

30 Current [A]

40

50

0

60

95

0

20

40 60 Slew Rate [A/s]

80

100


Active Parallel Ultracapacitor and Battery Combination Active A ti parallel ll l results lt for f 330V, 330V 40Ah, 40Ah 13 kWh lithium lithi pack k and d 2S x 1P x 48V ultracapacitor modules. Tandem & Active Parallel. Param Unit Batt only Batt+UC % change

Irms

dIb/dt

Ipp

Wdb

SOCuc

(Arms) 42.87 35.96 -16

(A/s) 153,000 350 -99.8

(Apk-pk) 200 187 -6.5

(kJ) 67.5 45.73 -32

(%) 7.73 7.73

Batt C Combo

Param

Currents

Power-Energy Loss

Imot

Igen

Irms

Pmot

Pgen

Wdisp

(Apk) (A k) 100

(Apk) (A k) 100

(Arms)) (A 42.3

(kW) 35.7

(kW) 36.5

(Wh) 17.92

39.3

64

11.5

14.7

26.7

11.35

UC + Conv

237

238

112

22.1

-

% change

-60.7

-36

-73

-27

-37

Unit U it Batt only Batt part

96

29.8 -59


Active Parallel Ultracapacitor and Battery Combination Argonne g National Laboratory y Hardware-in-Loop p Evaluation Battery HIL allows a ‘virtual vehicle’ to be reconfigured easily, while running ‘real’, full scale battery loads on standard drive cycles 3 Phase AC Grid Connection

Velocity command; UDDS, HWY, US06, etc

AC Bus

Inputs

Vehicle Controller (contains control strategy and operating point parameters)

Plant Output cmd

(virtual vehicle contains parameters for mass, drag….)

Output cmd

ABC-150 Bidirectional power source

DC Bus CAN message feedback

Environmental Chamber

97

Battery pack under d test t t


Ultracap and Li-Ion Combination: Current Profile  ANL and d Maxwell M ll h have partnered d to iinvestigate i combination bi i off lilithium-ion hi i batteries with a dynamically coupled ultracap pack Component Currents during US06

Blue line is road load (battery current w/o ultracaps) Green line is U-cap current (dynamic)

Cu urrent [A]

100

Red line is new battery current- more averaged

Total UC Power Converter Battery

50 0 -50 50

60

70

80

90

100

90

100

Time e [s] Ultracap SOC 70

SOC is maintained over this ‘real world’ Prius current trace, on US06 segment

SOC [% %]

60 50 40 30 20 50

60

70

80 Time [s]

98


Press Releases – Mass Transit & Automotive • Trends T d in i energy storage t ttechnologies h l i for f mobile bil applications. li ti – GM Saturn Vue PHEV is a parallel arch., engine dominant design – GM eFLEX,, Chevyy Volt is a series arch,, batteryy dominant design g Application Transit Bus T Transit i Bus B Transit Bus Transit Bus Propulsion System Passenger Car Passenger Car Passenger Car Passenger Car Passenger Car Passenger Car Passenger Car Passenger Car Shuttle van Passenger Car

Manufacturer Daimler-Orion N Fl New Flyer New Flyer Golden Dragon Zytek Toyota Mitsubushi Nissan General Motors General Motors General Motors General Motors General Motors Ford Motor Volvo Car Co Co.

Integrator BAE Systems Alli Allison (Carlyle (C l l Group G + Onex) O ) ISE KAM Lithium Technology Corp + GAIA Panasonic GS Yuasa NEC Corp A123Systems Cobasys + A123Systems Continental + A123Systems Compact Power Inc + LG Chem Johnson Controls Inc + Saft Azure Dynamics Volvo

99

Comments Lithium-ion hybrid bus 2 2-mode d transmission i i Ultracapacitor hybrid Ultracapacitor hybrid Electric drive subsystem Battery and ultracapacitor Lithium-ion plug-in hybrid Lithium-ion plug-in hybrid eFlex Series plug-in hybrid Parallel PHEV 2-mode Vue eFlex Series plug-in hybrid Parallel PHEV 2-mode Vue Parallel PHEV 2-mode Vue Class 3-4 shuttle vans ReCharge Concept 62mi AER


Recent press announcements: Ultracap + Lithium

AFS Trinity's XH-150 plug-in hybrid electric car at Altamont Pass near AFS Trinity Engineering Center in Livermore, CA

Pininfarina B0 at Paris Auto Show 2008 Th B0 uses a h The hybrid b id energy storage t solution consisting of a 30 kWh lithiumpolymer battery and a bank of supercapacitors. • Limited Li it d production d ti 4Q09 • Estimated 153 mile range • Battery life estimated at 125,000 miles • Maximum speed 80 mph

100


Ultracapacitor & Lithium-ion Combination â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Why? S where So h iis allll off thi this combination bi ti ttechnology h l lleading? di ? To lay the foundation for combination energy storage systems for: Strong hybrid electric vehicles Plug-in hybrid electrics Battery-electric vehicles A d other And th iindustrial d t i l and d ttransportation t ti applications li ti

101


UC + Li-Ion Combinations - Value Proposition Elements

For ultracapacitors p to make business sense in PHEV, or Battery y EV it is necessary to identify the critical attributes of a lithium-ion ultracapacitor combination: – Value of reduced stress on lithium-ion – Improvement of calendar and cycle life – Reliable performance at cold temperature – Improved energy management & PowerNet stability 102


GM’s Volt PHEV Traction drive e-motor and center tunnel battery tray are EV1 (GM all electric car cica 1990’s) derived

GM focus on high energy Lithium-ion Lithium ion technology from: •Cobasys + A123Systems •JCI – Saft JCS 16 kWh kWh; 136 kW P/E P/E=8.5 85 103


EMS Functions  Continuous monitoring of load power flows  Continuous monitoring of lithium cell (pack) power flows  Continuous monitoring of ultracapacitor cell (pack) power flows  Generating buck-boost converter gating signals, necessary to effect bi-directional power flows in proportion to accumulated SOC information on both the lithium cell (pack)) and ultracapacitor (p p cell (p (pack))  Determine, based on SOC information, and connected load power demand (e.g. acdrive electric machine load) the relative contributions of dynamic (ultracapacitor) and sustained (lithium) power levels  At a vehicle system level, and in cooperation with a higher level executive controller, manage the long term trend in relative SOC of the two components so that overall vehicle objectives such as fuel economy and performance can be optimized

104


Summary In the news – Ultracapacitors in combination with lithium-ion lithium ion

• Digital age cell phones • Plug-in hybrid vehicles • Battery electric vehicles • Emerging applications for energy recuperators, micro-hybrid, engine cold starting… the list is growing!

Technical rationale – the concept p of decoupled p power p and energy, gy, combined with flexible energy management, admits new and more aggressive strategies for vehicle designers.

Value proposition – is really all about the converter converter.

Need to drive down the cost of non-isolated, bidirectional, buck-boost converters capable of 70-144V, 450A input to 400V output. Experimental program must answer these concerns quantitatively and convincingly Value of reduced stress on lithium-ion Improvement of calendar and cycle life Reliable performance at cold and hot temperature Improved energy management & PowerNet stability 105


Summary  E Energy managementt in i vehicles hi l iis kkey tto h handle dl iincreasing i power demands  Due to their high g p power performance, p long g cycle y life, and high g efficiency ultracapacitors are ideally suited to meet power demands of future vehicles electrical architectures  Ultracapacitors are being designed into the next generations vehicles  Focus is on board net stabilization, engine starting as well as micro h b id applications hybrid li ti  Further development of ultracapacitor technology will help to boost introduction for mild hybrid applications  Combination of Lithium battery and ultracapacitors as an option to meet the energy and power requirements of full hybrids

106


Summary • Ultracapacitors are a viable energy source for the right applications • Their ability to deliver power fast and repeatedly allow them to be standalone or enablers for “green solutions” in various industries. • The interests and applications are g worldwide. increasing

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References [1] Uday Deshpande Deshpande, John M M. Miller Miller, Linda Zhong, Zhong Xiaomei Xi, Xi Mike Everett, Everett “Ultracapacitors in High Demand Applications,” AABC 2008, Tampa, FL, 12-16 May 2008 [2] John M. Miller, “Trends in Vehicle Energy Storage Systems: Batteries and Ultracapacitors to Unite,” IEEE Vehicle Power & Propulsion Conference, VPPC2008, Harbin, China, 3-5 Sept. 2008 [3] John M. Miller, Uday Deshpande, Ted Bohn, “Dc-dc Converter Buffered Ultracapacitor in Active Parallel Combination with Lithium Batteryy for Plug-in g Hybrid y Electric Vehicle Energy gy Storage g ,,” SAE World Congress, g , Cobo Center,, Detroit,, MI, 17 April 2008 [4] John M. Miller, Michael Liedtke, Bobby Maher, Juergen Auer, “Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems of Heavy Hybrids: A Sustainable Solution,” The 23rd International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exposition,” Long Beach, CA, 3 Dec 2007 [5] Robert D. King, et.al., “Development and System Test of High Efficiency Ultracapacitor- Battery Electronic Interface,” EVS15 1993 EVS15, [6] Godfrey Sikha, Branko Popov, “ Performance Optimization of a Battery-Capacitor Hybrid System,” Journal of Power Sources, 2004 [7] Lijun Gao, Roger A. Dougal, Shengyi Liu, “Power Enhancement of an Actively Controlled Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrid,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics [8] Lijun Gao, Gao Roger A A. Dougal Dougal, Shengyi Liu Liu, “Active Power Sharing in Hybrid Battery-Capacitor Power Sources,” IEEE 2003 [9] Dave L. Cheng, Margaret Wismer, “Active Control of Power Sharing in a Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrid Source,” IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2007 [10] John Wohlgemuth, John R. Miller, Lewis B. Sibley, “Investigations of Synergy Between Electrochemcial Capacitor, Flywheel y and Batteryy in Hybrid y Energy gy Storage g for Photovoltaic Systems,” y DOE Sandia Contractor Report, p Sandia National Laboratory, 24 June 1999 [11] Ted Bohn, John M. Miller, “Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Methods for PHEVs,” SAE Hybrid Symposium, San Diego, CA Feb 14, 2008 [12] John M. Miller, Michaela Prummer, Adrian Schneuwly: ”Power Electronic Interface for an Ultracapacitor as the Power Buffer in a Hybrid Electric Energy Storage System”, Power system Design Europe, July 2007 [13] Juergen J A Auer, Gi Giannii S Sartorelli, t lli JJohn h M M. Mill Miller: “Ultracapacitors Ult it – improving i i energy storage t ffor h hybrid b id vehicles hi l “, “ EETEET 2007 European Ele-Drive Conference Brussels, Belgium, 2007

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References [14] Jun Furukawa Furukawa, Toru Mangahara Mangahara, Lan T T. Lam Lam, “Development of the UltraBattery for Micro and Medium Medium-HEV HEV Applications,” 237th meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Hawaii, 13- Oct. 2008 [15] Sun Zechang, Wei Xuezhe, Dai Haifeng, “Technology of Powertrain Control and BMS in Fuel Cell Car Developed by Tongji University,” Presented to MIT-Industry Consortium, Shanghai, China, 10-11June 2008 [16] U.S. Department of Energy 2007 Annual Progress on Energy Storage Research and Development, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, g , January y 2008 [17] Juan Dixon, Ian Nakashima, Fabian Arcos, Micah Ortuzar, “Test Results in an Electric Vehicle using a combination of Ultracapacitors and Zebra Battery,” 22nd International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exposition, Yokohama, Japan, 23-25 Oct. 2006 [18] Ahmad Pesaran, Tony Markel, Matthew Zolot, Sam Sprik, “Ultracapacitors and Batteries in Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Advanced Capacitor World Summit, Hilton San Diego Resort, 11-13 July 2005 [19] John J h M M. Mill Miller, “Energy E Storage St Technology T h l M k t and Markets d Applications A li ti ’s: Ultracapacitors Ult it in i Combination C bi ti with ith Lithium-ion,” The 7th International Conference on Power Electronics, ICPE’07, EXCO Daegu Conference & Exhibition Center, Daegu, Korea, 22-27 Oct. 2007 [20] T. Bohn, “Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: Decoupling Battery Load Transients with Ultracapacitor Storage,” Advanced Capacitor World Summit, San Diego, CA., 25 July 2007 [21] John M M. Miller Miller, Theodore Bohn Bohn, “Dc-dc Converter Buffered Ultracapacitor in Active Parallel Combination with Lithium Battery for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Storage,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1501, Cobo Center, Detroit, MI., 14-17 April 2008 [22] John M. Miller, Theodore Bohn, “DC-DC Converter Buffered Ultracapacitor in Active Parallel Combination with Lithium Ion Battery for PHEV Energy Storage,” presentation only, SAE Hybrid Vehicle Technologies Symposium, Omni Hotel, San Diego, g CA, 14 Feb. 2008 [23] Mark Verbrugge, Ping Liu, Souren Soukiazian, Ramona Ying, “Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems and RangeExtended Electric Vehicles,” The 25th International Battery Seminar and Exhibit, Fort Lauderdale, FL. 24-26 March, 2008 [24] M. W. Verbrugge, P. Liu, “Analytic Solutions and Experimental Data for Cyclic Voltammetry and Constant Power Operation of Capacitors Consistent with HEV Applications,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 153_6_A1237A1245 2006 A1245_2006

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References [25] John R R. Miller Miller, Andy F. F Burke, Burke “Electrochemical Capacitors: Challenges and Opportunities for Real Real-World World Applications,” The Electrochemical Society Interface, Vol. 17, Nr. 1, Spring 2008. [26] J.R. Miller, A.D. Klementov, "Electrochemical Capacitor Performance Compared with the Performance of Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries,” Proc. 17th International Seminar on Double Layer Capacitors and Hybrid Energy Storage Devices,” Deerfield Beach, Florida, Dec. 10-12, 2007 [[27]] Tonyy Markel,, Andrew Simpson, p , “Plug-in g Hybrid y Electric Vehicle Energy gy Storage g System y Design g ,,” AABC,, 9 Mayy 2006 [28] YouTube video of AFS Trinity Extreme Hybrid, XH, Fast Energy Storage™ PHEV: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ujp1f4vXJ5U

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Maxwell Rooted in Energy gy Efficiency y

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Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors

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MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY. ENERGY MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.


Uday Deshpande-Maxwell