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From Conquering Global Music to Powering Africa

The Latest Updates American University of Sharjah’s New Engineering and Science Building Complex to House World-Class Research Facilities and a State-of-the-Art Learning Environment World’s First Typhoon Turbines Developed in Japan China To Create Rain-Making Network Three Times Bigger Than Spain Ingenious Smartphone Attachment Lets You Check If Your Water Is Contaminated CHINT Layout Overseas Power Market, Power Plant and Production Line to Push Forward

How Engineers Can Be The Best At What They Do: An Engineer’s Guide to Becoming a Quick Learner How Engineers Can Do More In Less Time 4 Things That Engineering Bosses Want to Tell You But Won’t Say Why Engineers Should Make a Personal Development Plan Creative Ways Engineers Can Increase How Much They Earn

MAY 2018 ISSUE NO. 013


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The rewards are great when you are a celebrity, more so an international music icon. But the rewards are greater when you are a celebrity, even not so, who makes an immense impact to the underprivileged communities. That is what American singer-songwriter Akon lives up to until this day. For this month’s Power and Water Leaders, we are featuring Akon, a recording artist with chart-topping hits who became a visionary with a mission to provide access to electricity to millions of Africans. In this special feature story, learn more about his mission and how Akon Lighting Africa can be a solution to the power problems Africa faces today. With a vision to make electricity accessible to the whole world, what has Akon Lighting Africa achieved since their launch in 2014?


We have also included several special features on the magazine such as the following: • • • • • •

American University of Sharjah’s New Engineering and Science Building Complex to House World-Class Research Facilities and a State-of-the-Art Learning Environment World’s First Typhoon Turbines Developed in Japan China To Create Rain-Making Network Three Times Bigger Than Spain Ingenious Smartphone Attachment Lets You Check If Your Water Is Contaminated CHINT Layout Overseas Power Market, Power Plant and Production Line to Push Forward

Lastly, we have prepared special articles to help you be the best at what you do. Read our guide on how to become a quick learner. Find out how you can do more in less time and why engineers should make a personal development plan. Learn what your boss wants to tell you without directly saying it to you and find out which of our suggested creative ways you can apply to earn extra money. So go ahead, scroll through our pages and read the latest stories that put the spotlight on the power and water industries. It’s that time of the month to sit back and relax. Get your monthly dose of engineering and technology news and stories with GineersNow: Power and Water Leaders!

Engr. Alice Hernandez Senior Editor-at-Large

LEADING GLOBAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND INTEGRATED SUPPLIER CHINT is committed to providing the world with safe, reliable and stable electrical equipment and clean energy solutions. After more than 30 years of growth,CHINT has developed from Asia’s largest LV apparatus supplier to leading global electrical equipment and integrated supplier,with strength transformation,distribution to terminal consumpion. To date,with the annual sales revenue exceeding more than 6.7 billion euros and over 30,000 employees around the world,CHINT has provided reliable electrical equipment and solutions for more than 130 countries and regions worldwide as an active player of electric power construction in the global market.

ZHEJIANG CHINT ELECTRICS CO.,LTD. ADD: Office NO.LB182406,P.O.Box:263174,Jebel Ali,Dubai,United Arab Emirates TEL: 00971-48848286 FAX: 00971-48848287 E-mail: Website:

Contents Apple Is Now Completely Running On Renewable Energy


Our Bodies Will Soon Be Able to Power Up Our Gadgets


World’s First Typhoon Turbines Developed in Japan


Creative Ways Engineers Can Increase How Much They Earn


Solar Park Veendam – From Polluted Land to a Sustainable Energy Development


4 Things That Engineering Bosses Want to Tell You But Won’t Say


China To Create Rain-Making Network Three Times Bigger Than Spain


How Engineers Can Do More In Less Time


CHINT Cooperates with the Bangladesh Power Commission Supporting the 300MW IPP HFO Power Plant Project


An Engineer’s Guide to Becoming a Quick Learner


How Engineers Can Be The Best At What They Do 14 American University of Sharjah’s New Engineering and Science Building Complex to House World-Class Research Facilities and a State-of-the-Art Learning Environment


Why Engineers Should Make a Personal Development Plan


Akon’s Mission to Bring Power to Africa


Organic Solar Cells Achieve an Efficiency Rate Never Done by Its Kind Before


Check Your Water Using This Ingenious Smartphone Attachment


The Search for Scalable Negative Emissions Technology is On


Engineering Researchers Develop Hydrogel Water Purification System


Apple Is Now Completely Running On Renewable Energy

Apple announced that all of their offices, data centers, retail outlets, and other facilities are now running on clean energy. Now that the world is being more open to renewable energy, big corporations are trying to get people’s trust by being 100% renewable. One of the biggest names to jump into the renewable wagon is tech giant, Apple. Apple has recently announced that they are now powered by 100% renewable energy. This month, nine stores have announced that they’ve gone fully green, and that was the last step towards Apple’s journey towards clean energy. Apple now boasts that all its retail locations, data centers, offices, and other facilities are now running on clean energy. This encompasses all locations that are scattered along 43 different countries worldwide. “We’re committed to leaving the world better than we found it. After years of hard work we’re proud to have reached this significant milestone,” said Tim Cook, Apple’s CEO. Apple has made this commitment to be more environmentally friendly, ensuring that they help in creating a healthier environment. “We’re going to keep pushing the boundaries of what is possible with the materials in our products, the way we recycle them, our facilities and our work with suppliers to establish

new creative and forward-looking sources of renewable energy because we know the future depends on it,” Cook added. Apple currently has 25 different projects dedicated to providing renewable energy around the globe. These projects are responsible for generating 626 megawatts of energy, with 286 coming from solar sources last 2017. It also has 17 more projects lined up for completion in the near future. Upon reaching completion, the company estimates roughly 1.4 gigawatts in power generation divided across 11 countries. Many have watched Apple’s progress in renewable energy. One of their biggest milestones was in 2014, when all their data centers were announced to be powered purely by renewable energy. Since 2011, the company’s carbon emissions have decreased by 54 percent, which roughly equates to 2.1 million metric tons of CO2 blocked from entering the atmosphere. This move from Apple aims to motivate other companies to do the same. On their example, 23 of Apple’s suppliers have now committed to using only 100% renewable energy.

World’s First Typhoon Turbines Developed in Japan One tropical cyclone can power the entire Japan for 50 years. Nothing good comes out from typhoons but the destruction of nature and structures and the helplessness of the people. That may no longer be the case now in typhoon-hit Japan, with a ground-breaking idea from an engineer that aims to utilize typhoons as a source of power. Atsushi Shimizu, a Japanese engineer, has invented the world’s first typhoon turbine that takes the shape of an egg beater. It could withstand powerful tropical cyclones but also harness kinetic energy. The typhoon turbines also serve as the best alternative to Europeanstyle wind turbines being brought to Japan that are not designed for typhoon zones like Japan. Through a company called “Challenergy” founded by Shimizu, he was able to source funds and produce a typhoon turbine. It significantly follows the conventional wind turbine design except for two: the inclusion of an omnidirectional vertical axis susceptible to any wind pattern and the incorporation of the Magnus effect. The engineer said that one typhoon could generate enough kinetic energy to power the entire Japan for 50 years. This claim is supported by the Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, who noted that a single mature typhoon can produce kinetic energy that is “equivalent to about half the world-wide electrical generating capacity.” Nuclear power is Japan’s main contributor of electricity before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster happened in 2011. It became dormant now and the country has been important 84% of its total electricity needs because wind and solar power are not fully utilized. 10

Power & Water Leaders • May 2018

Solar Park Veendam – From Polluted Land to a Sustainable Energy Development Astronergy / Chint Solar officially inaugurates a new 15.5 MW solar park in the municipality of Veendam, Province of Groningen, Netherlands. Astronergy / Chint Solar officially inaugurates a new 15.5 MW solar park in the municipality of Veendam, Province of Groningen, Netherlands. The project, which was the largest solar PV project connected in 2017 in the Netherlands, was acquired end of 2016 from a local developer and was brought to a successful completion and connection in December 2017 by Chint. The polluted land that was found unsuitable for agricultural use found in solar a new purpose. The 15 hectares strip of land located in the heart of the industrial area of Veendam, was vacant for a long time and part of the ground had suffered from contamination during years 12

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of industrial use. Solar presents itself as perfect solution for such cases, where little to no disturbance of the soil is desirable and can convert an otherwise unusable land into an economic and sustainability landmark for the region. The solar park, which will, during its operational lifetime, offset more than 240 kiloton of CO2, will produce enough energy every year to power 5900 homes. “We are proud to have stepped into this project and to have contributed to its full success. It was a team effort which enabled the realization of the project with a strong collaboration and participation from all public stakeholders. We see the Veendam Solar Park as a landmark

and role model that we wish to replicate in the Netherlands in the coming years. Chint is a pioneer in the solar energy sector and is fully committed to contribute to a successful energy transition in the Netherlands and the rest of Europe, away from fossil fuels and into a sustainable and clean energy future.” Dr. Lu, Chuan the CEO of Astronergy/Chint Solar commented. The project was initially developed by local company Powerfield and acquired by Chint in December 2016. From that point onwards Chint was actively engaged with the Municipality of Veendam, the Province of Groningen and other local entities, private companies and advisors to ensure the project’s development would be carried on fulfilling all of the regulatory and legal requirements. During the first half of 2017 all the open technical and development items were concluded, and the project reached financial closure in the summer time. Construction of the solar park, which was carried out by the specialized firm Golbeck Solar, started on the 4th of September and progressed at an impressive rate to mount all 57.288 solar panels and connect by 29th of December to the Enexis

Veendam substation across the canal from the project location. “The end phase of the construction was quite challenging as the bad weather and amount of water on the ground threatened to delay the progress and endanger a timely connection. With the excellent support of the local grid operator Enexis and all involved parties in construction we finally connected the park and achieved first energy export before the last days of 2017.” Dr. Lu, Chuan said What’s next? Chint intends to remain very active in the Netherlands and is already planning the construction of the next solar park with 15.2 MW in Andijk, Municipality of Medemblik, province of Noord-Holland. The medium term goal is ambitious. The company is working on early stage development of additional 500 MW to be built over the course of the next 2 to 3 years. This will be achieved in close collaboration with several municipalities, provinces and many other public entities, and in partnering with local private companies in the industry.

Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


How Engineers Can Be The Best At What They Do Here is a guide to help bring out the best version of yourselves. There are some people with simple dreams. Mostly they just want to live a normal life and earn enough to support themselves. Others dream big, and these people have the most exciting journeys. Then again, dreaming bigger also means having to face bigger obstacles, and in order to overcome these, you have to become a master at what you do, and be the best version of yourself. Doing just that can be difficult. We already have little free time as working engineers, giving us little room to develop our skills. Most people fall into the trap of pushing it aside, or just giving up. There’s just too little time and too much competition. But a simple change in lifestyle can give anyone the strength to push through, and become a better version of themselves in the process. This 14

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is phase 1: and at this point, you’re good enough that you’re in a high position, a boss or manager at a firm or the founder of your own startup. Here, you’re earning enough off of your passion for engineering to support yourself plus a little more, and are closer to your dream than most. But that isn’t enough. Being the best means being in that top 1% at your own game. And getting there requires a total change of your very being. Your habits, your thoughts, and your way of thinking. How do you do that, well here’s where to start:

Start As An Amateur This is where a lot of people get stuck. Some people are just way too much of a perfectionist. They want their first work to immediately become a masterpiece. But that shouldn’t be the case. Instead of worrying about perfection, just do it to finish it– and as you continue on you’ll learn and

improve your way to mastery. There are a lot of online sensations that start of simple like posting random YouTube videos continuously for a few months. Usually they would go unnoticed until eventually, one or more of their content becomes viral.

marathon. Most burn out and quit. It’ll test your commitment and will. Keep doing what you’re doing, no matter how long or exhausted you are. Remind yourself that you’re doing this because you love it, not because you want to be rich or popular.

The goal at first is “finish, not perfect”. If you’re an engineer who loves to design, or maybe invent new gadgets and gizmos, go ahead and plan something out and finish it. Don’t stress too much on additional details. Finish a project first and keep creating more consistently. You’ll soon get to that breakthrough moment.

Allow Time For Recovery

Get Coaching/Education Next is that you have to take your dreams seriously. That means getting a mentor, because there’s always more to learn to improve your craft. Get a teacher. Go to graduate school. Take an online course. Get a few business courses. Whatever it takes, you need to learn from the best to become the best.

Stop Living The Broken Rules Everyone Else Is Living Most people play by the rules- it’s the normal thing to do. But you know what? Sometimes to get something you’ve never had, you have to do something you’ve never done. So go ahead, think outside of the box. Take calculated risks. When everyone else is zigging, you zag. Do the opposite of what everyone else is doing, it’ll help you stand out. “The day before something is a breakthrough, it’s a crazy idea,” says Peter Diamandis. A crazy idea to some means it’s the right path for you. C’mon, Bill Gates didn’t say “I’ll just optimize the performance of this blue-screened textonly machinery.” He wanted to create a digital revolution, and he did.

Be Consistent Until You Have A Break Through Waiting for that breakthrough moment can be tough, since we never know how long it’ll take. While you’re waiting for it to happen, make sure to be consistent. Remember, life is a

Learn to be 100% on when you’re working, and 100% off when you’re not. While it’s great to work hard, doing too much will burn you out and bring you towards a downward spiral of fatigue and procrastination. So give yourself a break from time to time. Hang out with friends. Take a vacation. Party. Do whatever makes you feel great and you’ll have much more energy to jump back into work.

Get in the zone You need to warm up before the marathon. The same goes for working. Before you start, you need to ease yourself into the zone before you obtain that optimal performance. Give yourself 20-60 minutes to do any routine that’ll help alter your emotional state. Get rid off all that fear and anxiety and negativity before you work. Gear your mind. Begin to focus. This can be yoga, exercise, doing a simple part of your work and progressively working towards harder stuff.

Embrace the anxiety Let’s face it, fearlessness doesn’t exist. We all have fear, it’s part of our biology. So instead of learning how not to be afraid, learn to deal with it. The moment before euphoria is a moment of pain. When most people hit this block, they quit. Remind yourself that getting through this will put you ahead of them. Charge on. Push yourself beyond what you think your limits are.

Do it because you love it Finally, remind yourself this is all because of what you love. If you live for the fame and the fortune, you’re doing it wrong, and you’re more likely to quit when a mountain is in your way. Your passion for engineering is what drives you towards success. It’s this passion that makes you want to become the best.

American University of Sharjah’s New Engineering and Science Building Complex to House World-Class Research Facilities and a State-of-the-Art Learning Environment Faculty and students in the College of Engineering (CEN) at American University of Sharjah (AUS) are set to benefit from a stateof-the-art building currently being constructed on campus, and full renovation of the existing engineering building complex. The new, two-story Engineering and Science Building will cover close to 30,000 square metres, and contain 25 classrooms and 33 new laboratories, equipped with the most upto-date facilities. The renovated engineering buildings will house a modern project-based learning environment with makerspace and fabrication facilities, along with research laboratories for faculty that will contribute to four new research institutes being established 16

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at AUS: the Biosciences and Bioengineering Research Institute, the Materials Science and Engineering Research Institute, the Gulf Environments Research Institute, and the Smart Cities Research Institute. The new building will assign a substaintial area as collaborative work space (“makerspace”). The area will house equipment and supplies where CEN’s engineers-in-training can put their skills together to come up with ideas, and refine and perfect them to design an amazing range of projects. The space will also be used for the design aspect of the college’s Introduction to Engineering course where students are asked to design bridges, catapults, domes, planes, and cars using simple daily-used material.

With the recent launch of CEN’s first PhD program, Dean Dr. Richard Schoephoerster believes the new building will set the standard for engineering studies in the region, at both the undergraduate, and graduate level. He says: “We are witnessing impressive developments in engineering and science here at AUS, in large part thanks to the outstanding resources and facilities made available to faculty and students. Increasingly, students undertaking a bachelor’s or master’s degree expect that laboratories and other university resources will meet the highest international specifications and afford them the opportunity to participate in research and learning that has a meaningful impact in their field of interest. The new Engineering and Science Building at AUS will exceed these expectations, providing our students and faculty with the same level of resources that can be found in the world’s very best engineering schools. As we launch our new PhD in Engineering – Engineering Systems Management, our doctoral students will also benefit from the world-class facilities housed by the new building.”

The construction is setting new standards for environmental sustainability, with a comprehensive waste and recycling management plan underpinning the new build. The building’s design has been awarded a “2 Pearl” rating by Estidama, the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council’s sustainable development initiative. The Pearl Rating System, or PRS, functions as a way of assessing the sustainability of a building, rating a building on a scale of one to five against four criteria; environmental, economic, social and cultural. The Engineering and Science Building is the first to achieve a “2 Pearl” rating outside of Abu Dhabi. Dean Schoephoerster says of the building’s environmental achievements; “From the very earliest design phase of the new building, we wanted to ensure that we were setting an example for sustainable construction. Engineers are at the forefront of developing solutions that will overcome challenges associated with global warming, renewable energy and waste management. We, therefore, Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


needed to be confident that this new building utilizes the latest technology in energy and water use, and that it sets the benchmark for other new buildings, not just at the university, but throughout the UAE, and even further afield.” As one of the largest engineering schools in the region, the College of Engineering at AUS currently has 2,438 students enrolled at the undergraduate level, and 254 students enrolled at the master’s level. With demand for places at the college high, the new building will be able to accommodate a growing number of engineering students at the university without compromising the quality of education for which AUS is well known. The new facility will also allow AUS to expand the number of programs it offers through the College of Engineering, with plans to expand the number of graduate programs, and enhance the university’s research impact. Dr. Schoephoerster says: “We are currently developing a Strategic Plan for the College of Engineering, with one of the main objectives of this plan to expand the scope of programs we offer, particularly at a master’s and doctoral level. With seven bachelor’s programs and eight master’s programs currently available (and the first PhD program offered this coming Fall), we have one of the Middle East’s most


Power & Water Leaders • May 2018

extensive engineering offerings. However, with a growing youth population in the Middle East, and more and more school students seeking a university place, demand continues to grow. We, therefore, need to be taking action that will address this need and provide those students with the capability to undertake an engineering degree, the opportunity to do so “It is also of importance to us that we make a real contribution to research outcomes in the engineering and science fields. Part of our mission is to deliver research results that promote the UAE’ s aims of becoming an advanced, knowledge-based economy. This new Engineering and Science Building Complex will, therefore, help us deliver upon two of our key goals: opening up more places for talented engineering students, and giving these students and our faculty the sort of facilities that will allow for impressive research outcomes to be realized.” With approximately 20 percent of the building now finished, the expected completion date for the new building is June 2019. To find out more about the College of Engineering at American University of Sharjah, please visit:

Why Engineers Should Make a Personal Development Plan This tool can have a great impact in your career. More often than not, the career plans of engineers are only made inside their minds. They are almost never written or stated explicitly, which lacks the opportunity and convenience in checking if the current status of employment is in line with the career goals. For engineers to be able to plan effectively for their future, establish a direction for career growth, and take responsibility for their career paths, they need to have a Personal Development Plan or PDP.

What is this exactly? A Personal Development Plan is a structured tool in creating an action plan based on an individual’s learning, performance & achievements, to plan for his or her personal, professional and educational development. Its primary purpose is to help employees, like engineers, to reach shortand long-term career goals as well as improve current job performance. It has be written in print or stored digitally, whichever is convenient. Because the PDP has to be constantly reviewed and updated since it is a lifelong process of guiding the engineers’ career. There are four critical areas of

importance that can be found in a PDP. Here are those listed below:

What goals are you aiming for? The most basic aspect of all PDPs is the statement of goals, which is the first step. Without this, it’s fairly difficult to have a strategic plan and make career decisions along the way. Goal statement requires an honest analysis of oneself. For engineers, this means that they should have a vision of what they want to do in the future, and which goals are considered short, medium, and long term.

choosing employers, looking for other sources of income, and even planning family life, among others, are done in this stage. A concrete action plan should come with a reasonable timescale depending on objectives.

Review your progress After a considerable time, engineers should go back to their PDPs and check whether the goals have been met and action plans have been executed. The PDP has to be reviewed constantly if engineers want a much more secure career in the future.

Weigh in on your current situation Where are you now as an engineering professional? This question asks engineers to identify their key competencies, skills to develop, and resources available. To be able to establish the current situation helps in strategizing.

A concrete actionable plan This step is where engineers are needed to put into details what needs to be done to achieve career goals. Activities like completing trainings, Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


Akon’s Mission to Bring Power to Africa The rewards are great when you are a celebrity, more so an international music icon. By producing hits that are repeatedly played on the radio and watched by millions on YouTube, you spread happiness and good vibes to the world, and that is on top of the personal gains like fame and riches.

Photo Source: Akon via Facebook

Opening remarks GES 2015 w/ AKON Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

AKON speaking at The Powering Africa Summit Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

But the rewards are greater when you are a celebrity, even not so, who makes an immense impact to the underprivileged communities. It provides a different level of personal fulfillment and more importantly leaves a lasting legacy that can be taken to the grave. That is what American singer-songwriter Akon lives up to until this day. When he was met with an opportunity to give help to those who need it the most, especially to people who lack a basic need such as electricity, he welcomed it with open arms.

Photo Source: Akon via Facebook


Power & Water Leaders • May 2018

In February 2014, Akon Lighting Africa was launched to help millions of Africans who still do not have access to electricity. Akon joined forces with leader Thione Niang and entrepreneur Samba Bathily to develop innovative solarpowered solutions that will provide African villages with access to a clean and affordable source of electricity.

AKON and Ghida Fakhry at the Reenergizing The Future Conference Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

Much of Africa Still Powerless A report by the World Bank in 2017 revealed that the efforts towards achieving the universal electricity access goal by 2030 are not enough. It stated that while nearly 1 billion people in SubSaharan Africa alone may gain electricity access by 2040, an estimated 530 million will still not have electricity access due to population growth. Currently, there are approximately 70% of the African population who live without electricity especially in the rural areas. Many locals in countries like Liberia and Senegal experience darkness when the night falls. During power cuts, they depend on alternatives like generators which can be costly. It goes without saying that the lack of electricity affects the overall development of Africa, including education, health and economy.

Bamako Water Tower in Mali Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

A Shared Vision Two-thirds of the founding group of Akon Lighting Africa grew up in a town without electricity. Both Akon and Thione Niang have roots in Kaolack, Senegal, spending their childhood there and living a life without light. That makes this project a lot more personal to them. The two talked in Washington D.C. in September 2013 and focused on how to actively help drive 24

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Africa’s transformation. They saw that energy is the best investment overall. Samba Bathily was the best partner for their grand plan as he provided the engineering solutions and energy expertise. Being an entrepreneur from Mali specializing in solar energy with his own company called Solektra INT, he believes that using the energy from the sun is the way to go. This is in sync with Akon and Thione Niang’s goals.

Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

Akon at ALA ADWS media briefin Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

The trio shares the same vision even from their first meeting: a world where electricity is accessible to all. They had to start with Africa, particularly in rural and semi-urban areas.

Akon Lighting Africa as a Solution Now backed with extensive networks and international experience and expertise, Akon Lighting Africa only needed to execute a plan that advocates access to electricity through solar projects.

Since their launch in 2014, it has already helped millions of African people with its three types of solar initiatives: public street lighting, solar micro-generators for use by communities and household connection kits. Akon also created a Solar Academy based in Bamako, Mali which aims to help engineers produce solar power in the continent. The founders have allowed their project to grow and spread its impact after negotiating partnerships with African States and Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


Benin Microcentrale Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

Solar Academy in Mali Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

AKON in Pahou Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

manufacturers and continuing to extend this initiative across Africa. Among the partners of Akon Lightning Africa are Nanjing, China-based power equipment makers Sumec Group and Nari Group. Only 3 years after the company was born, Akon Lighting Africa has completed more than 200,000 small-scale solar projects which have reached areas that have been connected to electricity for the first time ever, powering

households, villages, community houses, schools and health centers. According to its website, Akon Lighting Africa currently operates in 15 countries covering 480 communities with 100,000 solar street lamps and 1,200 solar micro-grids installed and 102,000 solar domestic kits being utilized. It still looks to expand in China, India, and the United States after its current plans in Brazil.

Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


Group photo Akon at Student Exclusive at ADSW 2016 Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

At the World Energy Innovation Forum Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa

From a Recording Artist to a Visionary Akon has received various awards as a rapper with chart-topping songs to his name. A Grammy-nominated, twotime multi-platinum selling musical artist and producer, he has turned into an entrepreneur and philanthropist who wants to make a difference in Africa and to the rest of the world with the help of solar energy.

Getting ready for the presentation at the Powering Africa Summit Photo Source: Akon Lighting Africa


Power & Water Leaders • May 2018

“Power to empower people: that is our objective,” Akon said in reference to the company. To make access to electricity a need rather than want is his dream, and that is slowly turning into a reality one African household at a time.

Organic Solar Cells Achieve an Efficiency Rate Never Done by Its Kind Before For this, its commercial value has increased. Solar panels in the market today are composed mostly of silicon, which is inorganic, often formed into thick, rigid sheets that require fixed installation points. But it appears that this quality of solar panels can be improved with the help of organic solar cells. Carbon-based organic solar cells can be thin enough to bend and curve around structures or even within clothing. Plus, they can be manufactured to be of any color including transparent, allowing flexibility in aesthetic design. Amid these advantages, there is one problem with organic solar cells: efficiency. For this, they cannot compete with conventional energy sources. 32

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But that is all in the past now. Researchers at University of Michigan made it possible to make organic solar cells that can achieve 15% efficiency. This level of efficiency is enough to make organic solar cells a viable option in photovoltaics systems as it is in the range of many solar panels today. “For the last couple of years, efficiency for organic photovoltaics was stuck around 11 to 12 percent,� said Xiaozhou Che, a doctoral candidate in the Applied Physics Program and a member of the research team. The researchers had to develop a way to solve the problem on efficiency. That required inventing

a process of stacking the organic solar cells, which allows interconnection of layers to prevent damage to the first cell but allows light and electrical charges to pass through. This new system can absorb light from the visible spectrum starting at 350 nanometers in wavelength as well as near-infrared light up to 950 nanometers in wavelength. “When we stack them together, we increase light absorption and efficiency improves to 15 percent with an antireflection coating. That’s considered a difficult process because there’s a chance the liquid used in processing the top cell will dissolve the layers already deposited underneath,” Che said. Leader of the research, Stephen Forrest, the Peter A. Franken Distinguished University Professor of Engineering and Paul G. Goebel Professor of Engineering, said that organic

photovoltaics can potentially cut way down on the total solar energy system cost, making solar “a truly ubiquitous clean energy source.” With a 20-year lifetime and at 15% efficiency, the researchers calculate that the organic cells they developed have the capacity to produce electricity at a much lower cost. When the average cost of electricity in the U.S. was 10.5 cents per kilowatt-hour in 2017, it could be reduced to less than 7 cents per kilowatt-hour. Despite this recent development, the team still wants to improve the efficiency further. “We can improve the light absorption to increase electric current, and minimize the energy loss to increase voltage,” Che said. “Based on calculations, an 18-percent efficiency is expected in the near future for this type of multijunction device.”

The Search for Scalable Negative Emissions Technology is On Aside from limiting our carbon footprint, we need to absorb the emissions. It doesn’t matter if there are doubters about the reality of climate change. Much has been said about the frightening status of the Earth’s temperatures but some just continue to dishonor facts of science. What matters most now is that we act on it before it is too late, regardless of 34

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public opinion. This is the reason why ministers coming from different parts of the world convened in the Paris climate conference (COP21) December 2015. Two weeks of strenuous negotiations were made

One of the main men in that Michigan lab is systems engineer Sarang Supekar. He is currently working on a research and has a rather alarming conclusion with what he has studied so far: countries may only have until 2026 to begin retiring most old coal-fired power plants and replace them with purely renewable power source. If this is not done, we will exceed the 2°C threshold. This powerful foresight comes with a suggestion: remove the CO2 from the atmosphere, called “negative emissions” and stabilize the climate. But Supekar, who is now working to find the solution to this, is yet to be sure if such is possible on a mass scale. He is now under the Beyond Carbon Neutral program of the University of Michigan as one of the country’s investigators of potential ways to eliminate negative emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recognized in their Fifth Assessment Report in 2014 that negative emissions is crucial in stabilizing the climate rather than just slashing on carbon dioxide emissions. The National Center for Atmosphere Research also agreed through a study in July, saying that halting global warming at 2°C is likely to require carbon dioxide to be removed from the atmosphere on a large scale by the second half of this century.

before arriving to a climate deal that urges countries, at least to the 196 in attendance, to control the carbon emissions to relatively safe levels of 2°C, or if possible, 1.5°C. While this is what is happening in the macro, there are lots of laboratories in the academe and in the industry finding all sorts of solutions to contribute in curbing climate change. And among them is the University of Michigan, which is now on a roll in developing a computer model that estimates how countries can stay within their carbon budgets.

But a climate change mitigation researcher at the Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change in Berlin named Sabine Fuss thought that we should not make the mistake to only look at the second half of the century. She said, “We’re talking about a huge infrastructure that needs to be developed in time and we need to be in a position to make use of it, too, because if we continue to emit as much (carbon dioxide) as we do currently, then negative emissions won’t help us either to achieve ambitious climate targets.”

Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


There have been efforts towards forwarding the negative emissions technology. One of which is to grow trees for biomass electric power production, and capturing and storing the resulting emissions. Some also think of planting large forests across the globe and altering soil management to increase the amount of carbon it can store.

quadrillions of dollars, especially when the world needs thousands of these negative power plants.

Perhaps one of the greatest challenges now, according to Mark Barteau, director of the University of Michigan Energy Institute and cofounder of Beyond Carbon Neutral, is the overall lack of research funding and the just recent acknowledgement of the problem.

Notwithstanding that design, Beyond Carbon Neutral engineers and scientists are looking at forests to store more carbon dioxide.

While there are right avenues to find funding, Barteu, through the Beyond Carbon Neutral, wants to generate more interest in negative emissions so the technology can be developed sooner. They can only do this while continuing to exhaust all ideas about the technology. Supekar actually has one in mind. His model focuses on what seems to be large “negative power plants”, which will directly remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it somewhere else. However, there’s a huge problem with this design: it requires a massive new electric power and carbon storage infrastructure whose cost could range into the 36

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He said, “Removing emissions using direct air capture as a large-scale mitigation approach is likely to be more expensive by at least two to three orders of magnitude relative to preventing our emissions in the next 10 years.”

John DeCicco, a climate mitigation researcher at the same university and co-founder of Beyond Carbon Neutral, said that forests can only create negative emissions if they increase the rate at which they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and keep it locked up in the ecosystem’s roots, tree trunks and soil. This is what is being studied now on private forestlands in Northern Michigan. They are finding ways to enhance the rate at which forests absorb carbon. Meanwhile, DiCicco urged the public to “grow more trees better and keep them parked longer,” to add to the more than 500 million acres of federal public lands that the U.S. now has.

Our Bodies Will Soon Be Able to Power Up Our Gadgets Soon, we won’t need to look for power outlets to charge our drained gadgets. We’ve all had our smartphones die on us once in our lives while we’re outdoors. If we don’t have a portable charging device, we would look for the nearest outlet to charge our phones until we are satisfied with the battery percentage. This will soon be a thing of the past thanks to a team of electrical engineers and nanotechnicians who created a tiny metallic tab, that when attached to the body, is capable of generating electricity from simple movements. “No one likes being tethered to a power outlet or lugging around a portable charger. The human body is an abundant source of energy. We thought: ‘Why not harness it to produce our own power?’” said lead author Qiaoqiang Gan, PhD, associate professor of electrical engineering in University of Buffalo’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. The team made use of an effect called the triboelectric effect. Triboelectric charging occurs after one material comes into contact with a different material, this in turn would cause a loss and exchange of electrons. A common example of triboelectric effect that everyone must have already experienced is static electricity. To be able to harness the triboelectric effect, the engineers from the University of Buffalo and Institute of Semiconductors (IoP) at Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) had to look into the nano-scale rather than capture large quantities of the triboelectric power.

The device looks similar to a Band-Aid that is placed on the knuckle. It is composed of two thin layers of gold with a silicon-based polymer called polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). When the user bends bends their finger while wearing the nanogenerator, a layer of the gold will stretch and crumples after being released into what the researchers call a mini mountain range. Force will then be reapplied to the “mountain range” which will create friction between the gold layers and the PDMS. According to another lead author, Yun Xu, PhD, professor of IoP at CAS, “This causes electrons to flow back and forth between the gold layers. The more friction, the greater the amount of power is produced,” According to the study, the tab is very small, with a length of 1.5 cm long, and a width of 1 cm. At its maximum, it was able to generate 124 volts and a maximum current of 10 microamps. Its maximum power density was .22 milliwatts per square cm. As of now, this capacity is still not enough to power a smartphone, but it could safely charge 48 LED lights simultaneously. One of the greatest problems with the nanogenerator, is that it is extremely difficult to manufacture at its current state. The team is currently looking for ways to improve their study, and are working on an additional portable battery to store the energy that has been produced by the the triboelectric tab. Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


Creative Ways Engineers Can Increase How Much They Earn

How can you increase your value at work to be able to earn more? Everyone wants to earn more. However, most of the time working hard has little effect on how much you earn. It may seem harsh, but most of the time it’s true. No matter how much overtime hours you render at work, will have little or no effect on your current salary. In our society, what you earn is usually based on the value of what it is you do. 38

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Dollar amounts are placed on everyday tasks, and payment is offered based on who can give the desired outcome. Payment is also related to supply and demand. For example, lots of people are capable of scrubbing toilets, but not everyone can manage a construction project.

you to earn more for yourself. Do some research and look for different parties that are willing to pay for that role.

Choose long term jackpots Learn to be patient. No one becomes an instant expert at something overnight. Even those who are innately talented still have a lot to learn through experience. Once you’ve chosen a role don’t just focus on short term raises, focus on long term jackpots instead. As you are still in the lower end of the learning curve, continue to prove yourself and improve your abilities. Forget asking for extra pay for the extra 2 hours you’ve spent at a certain task. When you’re still starting, it’s better to focus on quality, as well as connections. Instead of asking for that extra 2 hours pay, ask your client to introduce you to someone that you could add to your connections. This will help you ladder up your success to your next projects. Master your craft while making connections.

Don’t tell people why they should pay you more. Show them.

So, as engineers who want to improve in their field and earn more, what can you do? How can you increase your value to the point where you are earning more than what is considered average for your responsibilities?

Research and Absorb Do some research and learn what is most valuable about your role. You can try rereading your job description that was given to you when you first started your job, and from the list of responsibilities find out which one is of most value. Or if you currently don’t have a job, find a strong characteristic that you have that can help

Action speaks louder than words. We all know this. If you’re an engineer who is currently employed, then show everyone (especially your bosses) that you deserve to be paid more or be given a promotion. If you have a business on the side, show your clients that what they are paying for is so worth it that they will want to come back again. Stop telling. Start showing.

Ask Not everything will be served on a silver platter for you. While there are bosses who suddenly call you up and give you that raise you deserve, most aren’t like that. If you feel that you deserve to be paid more, in whatever you are working in, it’s your responsibility to ask. Talk to your boss. You may need to be prepared for a “no”, but don’t be disheartened. Explain to them what value you provide that makes you believe you deserve those earnings. Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


4 Things That Engineering Bosses Want to Tell You But Won’t Say

Your engineering manager will not spoon-feed you all the stuff you need to know. There will be times that you will need to figure them out on your own.

When you are an engineer who is new to the field, you are most likely to work for a boss in a company. He or she will give you commands, guide you on how to do your work, and share some advice that could help you in your 8-to-5 job. But your engineering manager will not spoonfeed you all the stuff you need to know. There will be times that you will need to figure them out on your own, and your boss will refuse to say it on your face. Here are 4 things that could help you on your engineering job but your boss will never tell you:

Ask questions

It’s a common newbie mistake to be afraid to ask questions. Don’t be. Bosses actually appreciate engineers who do not hold back when it comes to reaching out to others. Inquiry doesn’t make you vulnerable, it only says that you are paying attention, avoiding confusion, and thinking critically.

Invest in relationships 40

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This include every single one of your coworkers not only engineers and your boss but also the janitor and the security guard. Having quality work relationships tend to enhance work productivity, efficiency, engagement, and communications. This is critical especially when engineers work with different departments in various levels of the company.

Use those vacation days

Only good engineering managers actually promote this one, so be careful about this advice. Nonetheless, engineering managers also want you to maintain a work-life balance. They want you to take vacation leaves to take a break. They understand that doing so avoids work burnout.

Plan beyond your next paycheck

Your boss is also concerned about how you handle your money. This is one of the great sources of stress of which affects the quality of work of engineers. Engineering managers want its employees to have a financial security, so better develop smart habits early on and maximize your options.

China To Create Rain-Making Network Three Times Bigger Than Spain This giant rain-making network aims to generate 10 billion cubic meters of rain per year. Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, a state-owned company from China, developed the system for the mountainous terrain.

Over the years, China has been struggling in keeping up the freshwater reserves at the Tibetan Plateau. This year, the country has announced its plan to implement a large-scale weather manipulating system to make rainfall more consistent. It uses an array of solid fuel burning chambers that creates an output of silver iodide for cloud seeding. The system hopes to create a sustainable amount of rain that could possibly trump Spain’s current rain-making network. The system plans to increase rainfall by an astounding 10 billion cubic meters a year. The burning chambers will be assembled and installed across the plateau which spans 620,000 miles; three times bigger than that of Spain’s. The location is very ideal since the particles can be easily swept up through the mountains and directly into the sky to form rain clouds.

The challenge that the team is currently facing is finding a way to burn the high-density fuel in high altitudes that are not oxygen-abundant. Currently, the system can operate in near-vacuum conditions emitting only vapors and carbon dioxide, making it viable for environmentally sensitive areas. Lei Fanpei, president of the Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, says that the system is important in tackling China’s current water shortage problem. “It will make an important contribution not only to China’s development and world prosperity, but also the well being of the entire human race,” Fanpei added. This step could potentially eradicate China’s problem by increasing rainfall by about 5 to 10 billion cubic meters. Although the project seems very promising, it still hasn’t been approved by Beijing. Ma Weiqiang, Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research team member, said he’s “sceptical about the amount of rainfall they can produce. A weather system can be huge. It can make all human efforts look vain.” Beijing says increased rainfall in the Tibetan area could mean lesser rainfall in the surrounding provinces.

How Engineers Can Do More In Less Time

Get things done in the least amount of time possible

Studies show that most people are unproductive at work. And when you’re an engineer trying to get to the top, that can be a very dangerous trap to fall in. But if there’s just so much to do in so little time, how do you handle it without the burnout? Well luckily, Science has given us a few ways to help: Some people are more energized in the morning, some in the afternoon, and some at night. Try to find out where you stand in the spectrum. If you tend to wake up early and do fine with the standard work hour, you’re likely to be a morning person. If you’re tired during the first half and get into full work mode on the second half, you’re an afternoon person. If you’re eternally exhausted throughout the workday but tend to stay up at night, you’re most likely a night owl. Find out when you’re at your peak and try to adjust your work schedule to it.

Get enough sleep

Research has shown that sleep allows the body to rest and repair itself for the grind the following day. So despite our culture’s tendency to pull allnighters, just sleep in and set that work aside for tomorrow. Your body will thank you for it.

Take a break

Our bodies aren’t exactly designed to keep working and working for 8 hours straight. We get tired for a reason. Remember, Productivity is about excelling at the tasks that generate the highest value, not doing the most number of tasks. Our body can only focus for 90-120 minutes at a time. To help you through this, you need to take the “basic rest-activity cycle”, where after every 1-2 hours you take a 15-20 minute break throughout the day. It gives you enough time to rest and refocus and still get stuff done.

Get an office plant

Yes, I know, this is a bit odd. But science says it helps. Apparently, houseplants in the office helps workers become 15% more productive. Maybe it’s the fresh air and reconnection to nature where we belong. Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


CHINT Cooperates with the Bangladesh Power Commission Supporting the 300MW IPP HFO Power Plant Project CHINT Cooperates with the Bangladesh Power Commission Supporting the 300MW IPP HFO Power Plant Project In February, 2018, CHINT began collaboration on the IPP project of the Bangladesh Power Development Commission in Jessore and Comilla. The HFO power plant’s total capacity of electricity is about 400MW and installed capacity is more than 300MW. When finished, the electricity supplied by the plant will be incorporated directly into the National grid of Bangladesh, which will provide electricity throughout the local areas of that region. Bangladesh is one of the most important countries in the one belt, one road and maritime Silk Road. Because of this important initiative, CHINT has expanded investment and has begun cooperation on projects of the governments of Pilipinas, Malaysia, Indonesia, Russia, Turkey. The Bangladesh economy has poised for great things most recently. When this project goes into operation, it will greatly relieve

the local demand and promote local economic development and social development within the country. CHINT can offer the one-stop solutions for our customers with a complete product line portfolio that provides solid power protection and complete global certification standards. Although this construction project has aggressive timetables, CHINT can be expected to complete its part on budget, on time, and also delivering top product quality. The Bangladesh Power Development Commission’s tough evaluation of CHINT’s capabilities resulted finally in beating out all other competitors through a determined and sustained effort by the CHINT team. The installation and construction of the substation is currently under way and is

expected to be completed in April. CHINT is providing 132 kV primary equipment, complete integration covering three product lines for high voltage transmission and distribution: power transformers, high-voltage switch (isolation switch, circuit breaker), high-voltage components (current Transformer, voltage transformer, lightning arrester), 35kV and below power cable. This project is perfectly aligned with CHINT’s market positioning. The end result will be a thriving, growing economy in Bangladesh as a result of this project.

CHINT’s Product Line will Launch in Algeria From Feb 12-15th, CHINT attended the 2018 SEER fair in Algeria. During the exhibition, multiple products and systems were presented to many professional participants on site, such as House building, solar power supply system, Industrial control, Industrial inverter and softstarter solution, and the NEXT series. Even though it was the first appearance at this event,

CHINT’s booth attracted much attention from more than 200 participants. Because the event was held during the China Spring Festival, CHINT staffers all wore Chinese traditional costume to celebrate! The 2018 SEER fair is the first event dedicated exclusively to electricity and renewable energies in Algeria. This fair was held from February 12th through the 15th, 2018 in Alger, and exhibitors included most of the local equipment manufacturers, distributors, design institute, panel builders etc. The stable growth of international trade in CHINTAlgeria market, is a result of CHINT’s strategy of local events and Marketing focus within the region to boost sales. Participation at the SEER fair demonstrates CHINT’s determination in following through on this marketing strategy. Later this year in 2018, the first overseas CHINT assembly line will begin production in Algeria, further accelerating CHINT’s regional development in the Algeria market.

An Engineer’s Guide to Becoming a Quick Learner Picking up on things quicker than other people is not really a ‘gift’. Simple practices allows young engineers to be quick learners themselves. 46

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a knack for learning things faster. Here are some ways on how you can improve your speed of learning.

You have to learn how to fail If you want to develop a skill or to learn something new, you have to be prepared for everything. Failure is a step that’s bound to be inevitable, especially to people who are just starting out. You don’t get good at one things by just being successful all the time. Newbies become experts through constant practice, and constant practice means undergoing multiple failures. Quick learners are people who are the first to fall and the first ones to try again. They don’t wallow on failure, they accept it.

Practice makes perfect

People often think that being a quick learner is not something everyone can do. Do you often wonder how some people learn quicker than others? What practices do they do to absorb information quickly? If you’ve asked these questions before, you’re in for a surprise. With these strategies and processes, almost everyone can acquire

You’ve thought of it before and you might still think it today — people who “pick up” faster are generally “smarter”. Well, that’s not completely true. In some cases, people who perform better may have practiced more. In order to learn efficiently, you have to put time and effort in. The more practice you put, the better results you’ll get.

Try out some memory tricks You don’t need a high IQ to be able to memorize certain things. There are numerous mnemonic devices that you can use to remember things

easier. This removes the creepiness of having to sit in a corner murmuring something to yourself repeatedly. For example, if you’re trying to remember which months have a 31st, line your knuckles together and count your knuckles and the spaces in between from left to right. All the months that line on a knuckle have a 31st while those that land in between only have 30 or less days.

Make it a habit Rome didn’t get built in a day, and learning also doesn’t get done in a day. If you do things constantly you’ll find it easier to absorb anything related to it faster. Writing on a daily basis helps keep your brain active, allowing it to retain information faster. This also applies to things like learning an instrument or a sport. If you continuously do it and set your mind to it, you’ll learn different principles such as patience, discipline, and other things that would help you grow.

Find yourself a good mentor The quickest way to learning things quickly is to have someone each you. Learning from someone who knows what they’re talking about is the best way to speed up your growth. They’ll be able to tell you about their experiences, how they overcame hurdles, and why they had to do specific things to tackle those hurdles. They’ve seen it, all you’ll have to do is listen, and listen well.

Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


Check Your Water Using This Ingenious Smartphone Attachment

Never be scared of water again using this ingenious smartphone attachment from the astronomers at the University of Leiden. could quench your thirst, that was not its original intended purpose. Water pollution can be very helpful towards making advancements in science, especially if it’s taken quickly and precisely.

Imagine yourself under the dreadful heat. You see a body of water spanning miles right in front of you. The animals around you partake in this glistening, clear, and cool water and you just can’t help but get in there yourself. But what if the water you so desperately crave was contaminated? Worry no longer since this smartphone attachment can detect whether the water is clean with a simple tap on your screen. Astronomers at the University of Leiden developed an add-on for your phone that can tell you the quality of the water in front of you by simply pointing at it. No need to buy any fancy apparatus or techy equipment, just point your smartphone at it and let it rip. Although it might be a useful tool to check where you

With this new development, anyone with a proper phone could help in gathering data to aid against water pollution. Last 2013, the same team of astronomers along with skilled toxicologists developed iSPEX (Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration) another phone attachment, but instead of checking water, this one checked the air. The Dutch community, along with people from Athens to London helped take readings all around. The result was a detailed map of the Netherlands area of precise dust particle readings. The technology for the water quality checker is a spinoff of what astronomers use to see if oxygen is present on planets. They operate in such a way that samples no longer need to be taken back home, thus removing wasteful efforts. For water, it might be a little different due to multiple factors. Color can be influenced by the weather, sediments can be blown in by the wind, and lack of sunlight can make it look darker. That’s why participants would also need to take a picture of the sky in order to get accurate readings. This could lead to potential advancements in detecting causes of water pollution and could help better the environment in the future.

Power & Water Leaders • May 2018


Engineering Researchers Develop Hydrogel Water Purification System Researchers from the University of Texas develop a new type of material that will change the future of water purification. Water is necessary for communities to live. According to the United Nations, there are around 30,000 people who die each week due to consumption of poor quality water. Although these numbers come from underdeveloped countries, there are still some victims of water shortages from hurricane victims and other victims of natural disasters. Nature could very well deprive us of fresh water and damage our supplies entirely. This is why a team of researchers from the University of Texas Austin’s Cockrell School of Engineering is now developing a new water purification system unlike any other. The team is led by Guihua Yu, associate professor of material science and mechanical engineering. They’re using materials made of gel-polymer hybrids in order to be cost-effective and compact. The material has both hydrophilic qualities as well as semiconducting properties. These allow them to both attract water while adsorbing sunlight. The hydrogels are a network of polymer chains that absorb water very well. They allow clean water production from any supply of water, even those that’s riddled with contamination. The engineering researchers are creating a new hydrogel-based generator that relies on solar vapor. “We have essentially rewritten the

entire approach to conventional solar water evaporation,” Yu said. This new approach will lead to lesser costs while providing an answer to increasing water pollution problems around the world. “Water desalination through distillation is a common method for mass production of freshwater”said Fei Zhao, a postdoctoral researcher working under Yu’s supervision. “However, current distillation technologies, such as multi-stage flash and multi-effect distillation, require significant infrastructures and are quite energy-intensive,” he added. The hydrogel system allows for water vapor to be generated with the help of sunlight. This vapor is then pumped into a condensation system to produce freshwater. The hydrogels also provide a desalination process and have been tested on water samples from the Dead Sea. Not only were the researchers able to reduce the salinity of on of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth, they were able to make it so that the water passes the standards given by the World Health Organization when it comes to drinking water. Given that salt is the most difficult substance to separate from water, Yu’s research team proved that their hydrogel is capable of removing any form of contaminants that they come in contact with.

May 2018 Power and Water Leaders Issue 013  

GineersNow Power and Water Leaders Issue 013

May 2018 Power and Water Leaders Issue 013  

GineersNow Power and Water Leaders Issue 013