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WORLD’S FIRST ENGINEERING NEWS FOR YOUNG ENGINEERS

FEBRUARY 2017

CLIMATE CHANGE IS REAL

ISSUE NO. 012

LEONARDO DICAPRIO: Hollywood’s Biggest Hope in Fighting Climate Change

SPECIAL FEATURE ARTICLES BY: REN 21 GWEC / WBA / EESI ISES / RENEWABLES 100 MICROSOLAR / EKOENERGY


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SPONSORED CONTENT

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SPONSORED CONTENT

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WAVE

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WETEX 2016 SPECIAL EDITION

Š Veolia Photo Library

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WATER TECHNOLOGIES

Through its innovative solutions, Veolia Water Technologies enables industry, local authorities and citizens to optimize their use of resources for more efficient, environmentally-friendly and socially responsible outcomes. We understand the importance of increasing the value of water and we do so by supplying high quality water, treating and reusing wastewater, producing and/or recovering energy, extracting raw materials and capitalizing on valuable byproducts. www.veoliawatertechnologies.com Contact us: sales.vwsgulf@veolia.com

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There’s been a lot of debate whether climate change is real or not. But here on GineersNow, we believe climate change is a natural process but the rate of the change is alarming. Because of human activities, we’re facing global warming really fast and it’s bad news to every living thing on this planet. It’s a serious matter everyone needs to focus on. There have been skeptics about this issue but climate change is really happening. Science proves it. It’s affecting everyone and we need to make changes to save ourselves from its destructive effects. We’ve seen natural disasters that were results from global warming and we’ve seen natural habitats of different species being destroyed. If we don’t act now, we will be facing more calamities and we’ll be losing more species in just a blink of the eye. If we continue to ignore its effects, we’ll be in terrible danger. As of this moment, humanity’s fate will depend on what actions we do now!

Editor's Note

Featuring in this month’s issue is one of the world’s famous environmental activists, Leonardo DiCaprio. We’ve seen him in blockbuster movies and we’ve heard of his passionate fight against climate change. The award-winning actor is continuously working with different organizations to combat climate change, protecting the environment and educating people of the effects of global warming. His advocacies have inspired millions to contribute in helping the planet and in our cover story, we’ll explore what got him inspired and what he is up to now. In our pursuit to discuss climate change, we have asked for the help of experts from different companies such as REN21, GWEC, WBA, EESI, ISES, Renewables 100, microSOLAR and EKOenergy to discuss the issue and express their opinions on the crucial fight against climate change. This harmful phenomenon is happening right now. It has already affected different parts of the world - from the droughts countries suffer from to different species losing their homes to global warming. This is why we need to act on it now. We need to come up with solutions to this alarming problem that affects everyone and everything around us. Through science and engineering, we can work together to protect the planet and protect ourselves. You and I can make a difference if we all work on it NOW!

Engr. Alice Hernandez Senior Editor-at-Large

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GINEERSNOW TEAM Ems Bagatsing

Sales & Marketing Director Ems@LincolnMartin.com

Robert Bagatsing

Editor-In-Chief editor@GineersNow.com

Engr. Alice Hernandez Senior Editor-At-Large

John Vauden

Charity Bagatsing

Hina Sapra

Engr. Dion Greg Reyes

Senior Editor Asia-Pacific Senior Editor South Asia

Therese Matheren Senior Editor North America

Senior Editor North America Junior Editor

Engr. Cielo Panda Junior Editor

Raymond Gerard del Valle Junior Editor

Goran Ćulibrk

Marketing and IT Manager

Carl Duffrey Bartolome Video Editor Creative & Layout

GineersNow is a subsidiary of Lincoln Martin Strategic Marketing Level 14, Boulevard Plaza Tower 1 MBR Boulevard, Emaar Square, Downtown Dubai, UAE P.O. Box 334036, Dubai, U.A.E. Mob: +971 50 4289684 www.LincolnMartin.com Disclaimer: The publishers regret that they cannot accept liability for error or omissions contained in this publication, however caused. The opinions and views contained in this publication are not necessarily those of the publishers. Readers are advised to seek specialist advice before acting on information contained in this publication, which is provided for general use and may not be appropriate for the readers' particular circumstances. The Copyright Law of the United States of America, Chapter 1, Subject 107, called the “Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use” states that, “Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include— (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.”

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CONTENTS

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28 Why You Didn’t Get That 10 Here’s Engineering Job Engineers: Guide On How To 11 Future Survive The Year 2035 Jobs And Skills Top Engineering Companies 12 10LookQualities For In An Engineer Engineering Sector Suffers 14 Mechanical Terribly From Lack Of Women Engineering Skills Gap Is Still 15 The Prevalent In Any Industry Guide On Spotting Toxic 16 AnWorkEngineers Environments To Find Out If You’re An Underpaid 17 How Engineer Do You Help An Unmotivated 18 How Engineer At Work? To Deal With Engineering Manager 19 How Who Is A Rumor-Monger To Invest $100B In Wind Power 20 China Projects By 2020 East Electricity And Solar Middle 21 Middle East Show Kicks Off In February Warming: From Scientific Finding 22 Global To Danger Reality Should Civil Engineers Be So 25 Why Concerned About Climate Change? Is A Better Material Than Concrete 26 Steel When Measured On Relative Impacts Dicaprio: Hollywood’s Biggest 28 Leonardo Hope In Fighting Climate Change Climate Change Head-On: 32 Meeting Renewable For Mitigation And Adaptation

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This Spinning Photovoltaic Cone Offers 33 Solar Greater Efficiency Than Conventional Panels

34 Is Climate Change Real? Investments On Renewables And 36 Global Clean Energy Totaled To $329 Billion To Make The World Shift To Clean 37 How Energy Call To Engage With Government On 38 AClimate Change The International Solar Energy Supports 40 Climate 100% Renewable Energy To Mitigate Change Tips To Keep The Millenial Engineer 43 10Motivated To Work Latest Mining Industry Trends: 44 The An Analysis For 2017 Humans Became The Leading 48 How Cause of Climate Change Vertu Introduces Constellation, A Luxury 51 International Performance Smartphone For The Traveller Nations Are Rising Up To The 52 How Climate Change Challenge 54 The Coming Storm Over Bangladesh Future Of Construction Is Here: 56 The Inflatable Concrete Engineer Is Among The Miss 57 This Universe 2016 Contestants 58 Africa’s 8 Most Mineral-Rich Countries

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Source: Pinterest

Here’s Why You Didn’t Get That Engineering Job Take time to consider these mistakes before going to your next interview So you’re currently on the job hunt and you’ve landed some interviews with top engineering companies, unfortunately you haven’t been offered any jobs yet. You’re wondering what you might have done wrong, or how you could’ve done better as a young engineer. Here are some mistakes you might have done that no one will tell you about. YOU MISTOOK FRIENDLINESS AS FRIENDSHIP Interviewers are trained to have a friendly yet professional tone during an interview, so they can make you comfortable. By doing so, you are made to believe that your interviewer truly understands you and that you are on the “same engineering team”. When you enter this zone, you may confide too much personal information than needed, like saying something negative about your previous company and boss, or opening up personal problems, or anything that can negatively affect your candidacy. Always remember that while it is important to have a connection with your interviewer, this is their method to get as much information about you as possible. It is to “test” you on how professional you are in such circumstances. YOU MISTOOK “I CAN DO THAT.” WITH “I’M THE BEST ONE TO DO THAT.” Don’t assert yourself in a particular job listing saying something similar to “I’m uniquely qualified

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to succeed at this engineering job.” When you do this, it’s as if you are assuming the role of the hiring manager by claiming the position. So many job hunters do this, and it becomes a cliché. It’s good to “sell yourself” by justifying your engineering skills, talents and accomplishments, not by saying statements as I mentioned. YOU MISTOOK WHAT THEIR QUESTION WAS REALLY ABOUT Even before your interview, your interviewers have most likely already browsed through your resume. But during your conversation, your interviewer asks you a question that you’re sure you’ve stated the answer already on your resume. So you tell your interviewer, “I’ve already answered that on my resume.” That’s a big no-no. Most likely, the interviewer already has read this in your resume, but is only asking the question to test your communication skills when you are talking about something that you should have in-depth knowledge of. They also ask this to see, if you really did understand what was on your resume, or if you really did “do” the things you stated in your resume. These are only some of the mistakes made by job-hunters, so maybe it’s time for some self-reflection on how you can improve.


Source: Pinterest

Future Engineers: Guide on How to Survive the Year 2035 Jobs and Skills A guide for the future engineers out there. An Australian report predicted that in the next 20 years, a huge chunk of employees will act as remote controls to unmanned vehicles, some will be personalized preventive health helpers, and others as online chaperones due to cyber security.

great people skills, and the ability to interpret and understand health and well-being data. As people around the world age, this kind of jobs will be significant. Online chaperones will be a job title as well in the next 20 years because of the risks imposed by cyber-crime. They will provide protection and support for online activity.

This report, authored by Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, indicates that new skills will be required for the workforce to learn as we move along with the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

Transitions within the workplace due to innovation also mean transition with skills. By 2020, World Economic Forum listed top 10 skills needed in the future workplace, in the following order as listed in their Future of Jobs report: complex problem solving, critical thinking, creativity, people management, coordinating with others, emotional intelligence, judgment and decision making, service orientation, negotiation, and cognitive flexibility.

Unmanned vehicles have started their era and by 2035, all we need are pilots, ship captains and drivers working on their vehicles even a thousand miles apart. Personalized preventive health helpers will emerge as well, who need to have

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Source: Giphy

QUALITIES TOP ENGINEERING COMPANIES LOOK FOR IN AN ENGINEER

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f you want to land your dream job and easily climb your way up the corporate ladder, these qualities will help you succeed.

There are several attributes that top engineering companies are looking for in a candidate during the recruitment phase. There are 10 specific qualities that engineers should mold and develop during the course of their engineering careers. No one is perfect – that is a universal fact. We can never recruit that one person who fits all of the qualities an employer looks for without a flaw or two. However, it still helps that we know what kind of qualities we need to land the job of our dreams and boost our careers. So if you want to land the job of your dreams and start paving your way to a successful career life, here are the top qualities your future employer may need from you:

YOU KNOW YOUR ENGINEERING 1Employers STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES usually ask you what your strengths

and weaknesses are. So our advice is to be honest and tell them what you’re really good at. Then, you can explain what your weaknesses are in a way that you can use it to your advantage. It’s pretty tricky but give this a lot of thought before you head to the interview.

YOU KNOW YOUR ENGINEERING 2 SUCCESS STORIES They would ask you for a success story. Usually, employers would want to know what problems

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you’ve faced in the past and how you were able to overcome it. That’s how they’ll judge you on your ability to handle stress. Don’t give a dramatic effect to it. Keep it professional and don’t shed a tear.

YOU KNOW WHAT KIND OF PATH YOU 3 WANT TO TAKE IN YOUR ENGINEERING CAREER

If you want to work for big engineering companies, recruiters would ask you what kind of path you want to take once you get the job. Would you like to eventually be promoted to a managerial position? They would surely ask you that. They’d want to know if you’re the type who wants to stay in the company for a long time. Companies want loyalty from the people they hire.

YOU CAN WORK UNDER LIGHT 4 SUPERVISION No one needs a burden so they need to hire

someone who can easily understand the job description and knows how to do it. Your supervisors would hate it if you keep bugging them if you’re doing the job right or not. So as much as possible, avoid annoying them.


Source: Pinterest

Source: Pinterest

5YOU LIKE TO SOLVE PROBLEMS

When they ask you about a challenging situation where your problem-solving skills are tested, they’d want to see how you handle those tasks and if you can fix the problem. We all know that our jobs require us to solve problems all the time, so expect that you’ll be asked these kinds of questions all the time. Hey, engineering school trained us very well for this so this shouldn’t be a problem anymore.

YOU ARE ACTIVE IN YOUR WORK 6 As soon as you get the task done for the day, your employers would appreciate it if you offer to

help with other tasks. If you end up as the perky employee who’s always game to get a lot of job done, you’d be one of the most favorite people in the company. Don’t be too perky though. Some employers might think you’re a goody two shoes.

YOU CAN WORK WELL WITH YOUR 7 COLLEAGUES When they check your resume, they would ask

you what kind of organizations you worked with during college. They’d assess how well you perform in group activities. That would play a crucial part on how your boss would assess you.

Source: Trinity House

YOU ARE ALWAYS OPEN TO LEARN 8 NEW TECHNOLOGIES OR ENGINEERING METHODS If you’re the type who hates change, then that would be a disadvantage for you. Being part of a company really requires you to learn new things to improve your skills. Your future boss would appreciate you even more if you show enthusiasm in learning new things.

Share to these people that you like to read a lot of things to widen your knowledge on a certain topic. You can also tell them you’re very willing to learn something new for the job.

YOU’RE A RESPONSIBLE ENGINEER 9 Anybody wants to hang out with the responsible ones inside the company so if you’re that type, there’s a higher chance that your employers would hire you for the job.

So if you’ve had experiences when you’ve proven yourself responsible, go ahead and tell everyone about it. But don’t sound arrogant though.

YOU HAVE AN AMBITION 10 Employers look for someone who has the drive and determination to succeed with their job. In short, they want someone with ambition.

So go ahead, show them that you are that engineer.

So if you’re the type who can easily work well with other people, this is no problem for you.

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Source: The Engineer

Mechanical Engineering Sector Suffers Terribly from Lack of Women Why does this sexism prevail in the mechanical engineering sector? Why do few women get interested – if they do, stay – in this field?

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n a field like mechanical engineering where men are still considered dominant, it’s difficult for women to be on level ground despite the efforts of institutions to close the gender gap. The misconception deep-rooted from childhood observations that ‘engineering is only for men’ lingers around the industry, which lost great contributions from talented female supposedto-be engineers. Why does this sexism prevail in the mechanical engineering sector? Why do few women get interested – if they do, stay – in this field? Here are four reasons:

MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

As previously said, it is the misconceptions that hinder women to join mechanical engineering. For most of us, mechanical engineering sounds something like repairing old greasy machines. But that truth is that lubricants and grease are only a small part of the vast scope of the mechanical engineering work. This old-fashioned thinking is propagated naturally without stop, which is why there are lesser women signing up for a mechanical engineering degree.

FEAR OF THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT

Other than the work that is falsely thought to be of mechanical engineers, there is one more critical issue to be addressed about mechanical engineering: it is a world of men.

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“I don’t want to work in an exclusively male environment,” some women would say. They are put off by the course because they are surrounded by men and men alone. Women like to talk about their stuff at work too, and want to be comfortable around their kind, but they don’t get that opportunity at all because of the false thought of the working environment.

STEREOTYPING

What hurts the mechanical engineering more is the stereotype of most people about the course. They say that there is not a single woman in the field anyway or someone who makes waves in the industry. Or that the field requires manual strength. That’s where they are wrong. The work of mechanical engineers is not limited to only that. The scope is so wide that these engineers could enter the design sector, product development, or testing, among others.

MORE BRAWN THAN BRAINS

It’s true that the mechanical engineering sector was more brawn than brains. But that was before. The industry has evolved to be more welcoming to women. Mechanical engineer is not only a man’s job. Stereotypically, it may not come naturally to women because it deals with machines, but they sure can do what men can do no matter what it is.


The Engineering Skills Gap is Still Prevalent in Any Industry

Source: The Engineer

Engineering Students Urged by Employers to Get Experience & Training

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here are engineering jobs available, but engineering graduates just do not qualify. The engineering skills gap is the main reason for sluggish industries. This is what the 2016 Skills and Demand in Industry report published by the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) aimed to say with their statistics gathered. After interviewing over 400 UK engineering employers, the report found that 62% of these employers believe that the graduates do not have the right skills for today’s workplace. In addition, 68% of the employers asked are concerned about the struggle of the educational system to keep up with the skills required for technological change.

The skills gap is not a new issue in the engineering industry. There have been efforts to answer this problem through educational institutions, by updating engineering curricula to match with the industry’s demands. But among the employers involved in the survey, 91% of them agreed that work experience will help students and trainees to improve the supply of engineers and technicians. Other critical aspects that the report covered about engineering are diversity issues, the role of education and a lack of experienced engineering staff. Here are key findings from the report:

EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT AND SKILLS GAPS

Source: InfoPaathShaala

• 52% of employers are currently seeking new engineering and technology recruits • 57% are currently, or have recently, experienced problems recruiting senior engineers with 5-10 years’ experience • 50% find that a typical new engineering and technology recruit does not meet their reasonable expectations

Source: College of Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison

ENGINEERING WORK EXPERIENCE

• 76% of employers agree that compelling all engineering and technology companies to provide work experience would improve the pool of engineering talent • 53% don’t know how the apprentice levy can benefit their organisation Source: University of Memphis, Department of Civil Engineering

DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION

• 9% of the UK engineering and technology workforce are female • 63% of businesses don’t have gender diversity initiatives in place (increased from 57% in 2015) • 73% don’t have LGBT or ethnic diversity initiatives in place • 40% of employers agree that their organisation could do more to recruit people from diverse backgrounds

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An Engineer’s Guide On Spotting

Toxic Work Environments Before you decide to join a certain company, how about checking these warning signs from the people working in that company.

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ere’s an engineer’s guide so you won’t have to experience these toxic situations… but we know you’ll do it anyway. The environment you’re working in is very crucial to your job as an engineer. Being in a company that allows you to grow and be better in your profession is a dream come true for most of us. However, we can’t deny the possibilities of working in companies that could have been good for us but only look good on the outside. These companies may look good on paper but the people we’ll be working with there may offer us a toxic environment that could be detrimental not only to our career but also to our wellbeing. A toxic company culture must be avoided by any engineer at all cost. Would you want to work in a company where you dread walking in the office everyday because the energy inside it is too negative for you to get some work done? Nope, nobody wants that. So before you decide to join a certain company, how about checking these warning signs from the people working in that company.

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LEADERS WHO DON’T “WALK THE WALK” The engineering bosses who say one thing but do the opposite are the worst. Observe their honesty, integrity and transparency before you consider working for them. It would be hard for you to trust them to lead you if you don’t trust them to enough to work with. A good leader says the right things and does them as well. EMPLOYEES WHO ARE ALWAYS TIRED OF THEIR JOBS It should be an obvious sign for anyone if the people who work in a certain company often find themselves unmotivated to get tasks done. They waste their time doing unproductive work or wandering around the office (drinking coffee for an hour or gossiping). If you don’t want them to drain off the energy that you have, better avoid working with them. LACK OF COMMUNICATION When all the communication employees are getting inside wok are through meetings and memos, isn’t it alarming that the management is keeping something from them? A healthy environment involves employees knowing what is going on, where the company is headed and other important stuff necessary for their jobs. Employees want to know if the company they’re working in is doing well or not.

PEOPLE PLAY GAMES Mean people exist. Bullies are still found in offices. The work politics can be dirty and you don’t want to get involved in playing games with these people. Instead of finding time to be productive at work, these people would just waste it on complaining and sabotaging a colleague’s career. Not only is it bad for you, it’s bad for the company as well. THE RED TAPE When the rules are too strict and you have to conform to what the company wants you to do, it could lead you to suffer in your career growth. You have so many great ideas for the projects yet you couldn’t push through with them because of the regulations that interrupt you. So go ahead, we advise you to do your research first. Learn more about the companies you want to be part of. Ask a lot of questions and think about your options. Better to be in a healthy environment despite the relatively low income than a high-paying one that’s toxic. Being in a toxic culture may affect your health, your personal life and your capabilities as an engineer.


How To Find Out If You’re An Underpaid Engineer Before you start contemplating if you should start looking for a higher-paying job, you should find out if you’re paid fairly for the work you do.

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n an ideal world, we’re all paid fairly with the work we do for the company we’re part of. We put in the time and effort and in return, we expect to get the right amount of money for our service. But have you ever thought that maybe you are just underpaid with everything that you;re doing? Do you feel like you’re not getting the salary that you think you deserve? Before you start complaining and contemplating if you should start looking for a higher-paying job, you should find out if you’re paid fairly for the work you do. According to GOBankingRates, a personal finance site, you should consider these questions first to find out if you truly are an underpaid professional.

can find a way to find out if they earn more for doing the same things that you would help you assess salary matters.If someone does earn higher with the same work that you have, do not demand your boss to increase your salary. It is better if you come up with a rationale on why you need a raise. HOW MUCH DO PEOPLE IN OTHER COMPANIES EARN FOR DOING THE JOB THAT YOU HAVE? Ask around and you can find out if how much others are earning for the same amount of work that you do. If you think that your salary is too low for you, you may even consider looking at ads and find one that suits you.

DID YOU LEARN A NEW SKILL RECENTLY? Have you done anything to increase your skill set lately? Did you attend an on-the-job training, taken a new course to new responsibilities to improve or learn new skills? If you’ve answered yes to any of these questions, that makes you more valuable to your company and it should reflect in your paycheck. If you want to ask for a raise to your boss, you may have to come up with ways you can suggest that will help the company save money or increase revenues with your new set skills.

Some people get some job offers from other companies to use it for salary negotiations with their current jobs.

DO YOUR COLLEAGUES GET PAID MORE FOR DOING SIMILAR WORK? It’s not really a conversation you want to have with the people you work with. However, if you

Once you get an idea whether you are paid fairly or not, it’s a good opportunity to discuss it with your boss.

HOW MUCH DO NEWLY-HIRED PEOPLE EARN IN YOUR COMPANY FOR DOING JOBS SIMILAR TO YOURS? Consider how long you’ve been staying at the company and the type of jobs given to you at work. Now, when your employer offers an open position to other people, check their job description and their salary range.

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Source: Digital Trends

HOW DO YOU HELP AN UNMOTIVATED ENGINEER AT WORK? There are different reasons why the engineers at your workplace don’t show up to work with a goal to accomplish great things for the day.

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here are days when you observe the people you work with are not motivated enough to do their tasks at hand. You see them feeling uninspired to achieve good results at work. Then, you find yourself asking if the problem comes from the people they work with, the specific work assigned to them or that the company is failing. There are different reasons why the engineers at your workplace don’t show up to work with a goal to accomplish great things for the day. As a leader in your team, you must properly identify what the problems are and find the best possible solution to fix these problems. Here are some ways to help unmotivated engineers have better work performances at work: YOUR ENGINEERS DON’T SEE THE VALUE IN WHAT THEY ARE DOING. In most cases, unmotivated engineers often feel that way because they don’t see the point in what they are doing. This is why you have to explain your vision for your company. It is important that they know what and why they are doing these things. Let them know the value of their jobs and how they can help achieve the goals of your company. Give them something to believe in and involve them in things that will get everyone excited about when achieving certain tasks for your company’s vision. GIVE YOUR ENGINEERS AN OPPORTUNITY TO DISCOVER. Most often than not, engineers do not like jobs that are boring. They hate taking jobs that doesn’t allow them the opportunities to improve and grow as a professional.

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As a company, provide time for each of your engineers to explore new things and give them new tasks every now and then. For a profession that taught them to practice critical thinking in the field, it is best if you give them challenged that will help them apply what they learned in engineering school and actually have the chance to discover more about their work. MAKE THEM FEEL THEY’RE PART OF THE SUCCESS OF THE COMPANY. This is probably the hardest thing to do. One success of the company doesn’t necessarily mean everyone can be happy about it, especially for those who are not personally involved in the project. You have to find a way to let the people at work know that each one contributes to the success of the company. It is better to even give them validation every now and then. Help them understand what kind of impact they can have on the company. While it is always challenging to keep your engineers motivated at work, as the leader, you have to come up with ways to keep them inspired. If you don’t want to have internal problems at work, it is best to keep them motivated and feel valued at work. As Sir Richard Branson once said, “Clients do not come first. Employees come first. If you take care of your employees, they will take care of the clients.” Keep them motivated. Keep them inspired.


Source: Pinterest

How To Deal with Engineering Manager Who is a Rumor-MongeR Here’s a story from a friend who has experienced being at the receiving end of the gossip. What’s worse is that, it usually comes from his boss.

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ver since we landed high school until we stepped foot into the college of engineering, gossip has always been there. Unfortunately, gossip happens even in the workplace. Here’s a story from a friend who has experienced being at the receiving end of the gossip. What’s worse is that, it usually comes from his engineering manager. ‘Almost everyday, my boss would call me into his office for extreme conversations about my other co-workers. It would’ve been okay if he praised them—wherein sometimes he would—but more often than not, he would speak ill about some of them then try to ask my opinion on the matter. “A is so lazy, look at him just staring at his computer, why can’t he be just like B?” Sometimes he would even try to push me into his game by saying “What do you think? Isn’t it better that Y was fired?”’ My friend was a newbie engineer at work and he couldn’t afford to be fired, so he was afraid to tell his boss that he really wasn’t the type who likes to gossip. Everyone wants to have friends in the workplace, we’re a team after all - that includes the boss. There are bosses who have difficulty fitting into their workplace that’s why sometimes they make up stories to be able to connect with

their group. Just like this example, from an episode from the series ‘The Office’. But bosses who are rumor mongers should understand that by doing this, they could ruin the reputation of their team - sometimes even permanently. Bosses should be professional, pleasant, kind and concerned about the welfare of their team members. Gossiping encourages an unpleasant environment, which may not only affect the team’s personal lives, but it may affect the work they do as well. If bosses have a problem with a certain employee, it’s best to talk to them personally and hit them straight with the facts. Healthy confrontation is a good way to clear things up with a team member, rather than going around the office, asking people around if team member X really was partying yesterday, but called in sick. If it is absolutely necessary to ask another person about a team member’s performance, a boss should ask them this way “How is Y doing with the new action plan?” not “Y must be slacking off again, the action plan presentation sucks! What a loser.” A good boss thinks about the welfare of his/her team and absolutely doesn’t gossip! So, if ever you end up being a boss in the future, learn to be a leader, not a gossip monger.

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Source: tessant.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com

China to Invest $100B in Wind Power Projects by 2020 #2 The economic efficiency remains the main restraint on the development of the sector. The cost of power generation that is associated with wind power projects are higher than that of traditional fossil energies to generate power.

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ccording to the National Energy Administration of China’s latest wind power development plan, the country will be investing more than 700 billion Yuan, or approximately 100 billion USD in wind power facilities from 2016 to 2020. These wind power facilities are planned to have an accumulated on-grid installation capacity of wind power facilities that will reach 210 million kW by the end of 2020. China’s goal is to increase their on-grid installation capacity of offshore wind power facilities to more than 5 million kW. They also aim to make sure that the country’s annual wind power generation volume will reach 420 billion kWh, which accounts for 6 percent of the country’s total power generation volume. Based on the expected power generation volume of wind power facilities by the year 2020, China will expect savings of 150 million tons of standard coal as well as a reduction in emissions of 380 million tons of carbon dioxide, 1.30 million tons of sulfur dioxide and 1.10 million tons of nitrogen oxide annually. The wind power sector of China is expected to create around 300,000 new jobs during this period, raising the number of employees in the sector to 800,000 by 2020. However, the country is challenged with three major factors in growing their wind power section. #1 The existing power operation and management system cannot meet all the requirements of large scale, on-grid wind power generation. 20

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#3 Policies and the market environment to support the development of the country’s wind power sector need to be optimized further. In line with these factors, the country has an outlined plan that contains the priorities for the five year plan period. #1 To increase the efficiency by matching the supply and demand. In addition to this, they plan to restructure the distribution network so that wind power will be available in regions where the supply doesn’t meet the demand, through better optimization of the grid when new sections of the grid will be built. They will also improve the ability to regulate as well as adjust peak loads and optimize interprovincial and interregional supply networks. #2 To improve the wind power development and utilization capabilities in the eastern and southern regions of the country. #3 To drive independent innovation in technologies and in the building of utility-grade systems. To create world-class wind power technology R&D and equipment manufacturing facilities through promotion and support of independent innovative efforts, to enhance the building of utility-grade service systems, drive industry-grade technological advancements and to improve the overall quality of wind power development. China’s wind power sector plans to focus on improving their management system, promoting competition to remove the weakest players, enhancing international cooperation as well as taking advantage of support from the financial sector. Source: www.renewableenergyworld.com


Source: Solar Middle East

Middle East Electricity and Solar Middle East Show Kicks Off in February

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he Middle East Electricity and Solar Middle East Show, which is hosted by the UAE Ministry of Energy will take place from February 14 (Tuesday), to February 16 (Thursday) at the Dubai World Trade Center, UAE. The 3 day event is considered as the largest international trade event for the power industry, as it covers the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, as well as the renewable and nuclear energy sectors and the lighting industry.

Visitors will be able to meet different leading international suppliers as there are numerous leading solar product manufacturers who will be exhibiting their different products in this event. The visitors can also expect to meet the speakers and understand more about the topics for this 2017’s conferences: “Energising the Smart City”, and the 2nd Annual “The Solar Agenda”.

According to their website, the exhibition “provides the ideal platform for international companies and decision makers from across the Middle East, North Africa and the rest of the world to conduct business, network and learn about the industry’s latest innovations.”

ENERGISING THE SMART CITY This conference is in association with Dubai Municipality and the Environmental Centre for Arab Towns (ECAT). This is a high-level conference by Middle East Electricity that will feature discussions on how to provide innovative energy solutions to modern cities. This topic will is scheduled on the 15th of February.

This 3-day event is hosted by the UAE Ministry of Energy and is so-located with the world’s largest power event, Middle East Electricity, Solar Middle East is MENA’s leading trade focused event for the solar industry.

THE SOLAR AGENDA This is MEE & Solar Middle East’s 2nd annual ‘Solar Agenda’. This is a one day conference, wherein this year, will focus on all the aspects of financing solar projects in the Middle East.

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Global warming:

from scientific finding to danger reality

E

KOenergy is a not-for-profit initiative launched by 45 environmental organisations. The company sees climate change as the biggest threat to mankind, and considers renewable energy as the best available solution to keep climate change under control.

up, and got the idea that maybe something should be done about it, the setting changed dramatically. Immediately the fossil fuel industry started to spend millions to rescue its own business. Creating doubt was their main strategy. And with success, 40 years have been lost.

We asked Steven Vanholme, Elyem Chej and Christiane Lösel from the EKOenergy Secretariat about their views on this matter.

The same scientists who predicted the heating say that an average temperature increase of 1.5° could have disastrous effects and even trigger an uncontrollable warming. The bad news is that we are almost there. It has also been argued that the current amount of emissions already exceed the point of no return. It always takes some time for masses to heat up.

Steven Vanholme, EKOenergy Program Manager, 20 years involved in climate and energy campaigns. If people want to know why their lungs hurt, I’d obviously recommend them to go the doctor. If somebody asks me about climate change, I refer, of course, to what climate scientists say. Physicists have known for a long time that the climate on earth is largely influenced by the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In the 1890s, the clever Svante Arrhenius even calculated quite precisely how burning coal would influence the global temperature. But until the 1940s, with about 2 billion people on the planet and hardly any cars and airplanes, the danger zone seemed to be in the far future. After the Second World War, this really became a well-studied topic and increasingly a matter of concern. Scientists noticed that things were changing fast. But when politicians started to wake

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So who wants to spend time on discussing whether climate change is real, when scientific evidence tells us that we must act now? Luckily, more and more are moving to action. One of the very few means we have to win the fight against climate change is a drastic shift towards 100% renewable energy. This, combined with reforestation and carbon sequestration technology, may still leave a chance to keep the planet more or less in a shape which can support societies as we know them now. And there is one lucky thing: even people who don’t care about the planet can be motivated to join the renewable revolution. The time of fossil fuels is over. Renewable energy is the cheapest


Steven Vanholme

Elyem Chej

way to produce energy and becomes cheaper every year. It’s a technology. The more people use it, the better it becomes. And there is more: it generates jobs and brings clean air, on top of being able to use everywhere, including places where neither coal nor nuclear have been able to bring energy. This is also where EKOenergy is playing a role. We are actively promoting renewable energy. It is important not to wait for politicians but to take action ourselves. We tell about the advantages of renewable energy ‘as if our life depends on it.’ Our ecolabel, which can be used worldwide, plays an important role in our campaigns. It helps consumers actively choose climate friendly products and communicate about it. We encourage companies and individuals to join strengths with us. Together, we are unstoppable. Elyem Chej, from Western Sahara and Spain, studied Political Science with a focus on International Relations. She felt it was her duty to get involved in active Climate Change action by joining EKOenergy due to the extreme weather events that are driving communities to starvation worldwide.

Christiane Lösel We asked her what worries her most. “Earth’s surface temperature has been increasing to record high temperatures for 3 years in a row. If the levels of greenhouse gas emissions are not dramatically reduced, many areas of the planet will become unlivable. According to recent scientific studies, the temperature in the Arabian Gulf could reach and exceed the limits of human adaptability, rendering many parts of the region uninhabitable. Climate change also leads to to food shortages as a consequence of droughts and extreme weather events. According to the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, food systems are at risk of breaking down due to warming, drought, flooding and precipitation. Eighty percent of the additional heat trapped by greenhouse gases is absorbed by the oceans, which leads to the expansion of the water. Along with the melting of ice sheets, this leads to increased sea levels. Scientists predict an increase of many meters in the coming centuries. We’ll see coastal flooding, saltwater intrusion into aquifers and surface waters, destruction of coastal ecosystems.

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Illustration: Spatial distributions of extreme temperatures. Source: Future temperature in southwest Asia projected to exceed a threshold for human adaptability, Jeremy S. Pal & Elfatih A. B. Eltahir Nature Climate Change 6, 197–200 (2016)

I believe that we are the last generation that can act to protect our planet. And that’s why I want to contribute to this cause.” Well aware of the challenges, we also see many evolutions that help us stay positive and optimistic. Christiane Lösel, a German who joined EKOenergy as part of the EU’s EVS-program, doesn’t have to think long when we ask why renewables are the future. “The costs of wind, solar, and other renewables have gone down drastically in the last 5 years. New wind farms and solar power plants are on average cheaper than new coal, natural gas, or nuclear power plants — even without any governmental support. As solar and wind are technologies, not scarce resources, further cost reductions can be expected. About 500,000 solar panels were installed every day last year. We are sure that this is only the beginning of a solar revolution. Storage technologies, such as batteries and gasification, are getting better each year, and they are getting cheaper too. This is important to allow intermittent power sources (like wind and solar) to play an even larger role in delivering power to the grid.

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The falling cost of solar power and battery storage, rising sales of electric vehicles, increasingly “smart” buildings and cheap hydrogen are all weighing on the fossil fuel industry. It’s not only us saying that, but many people from the industry. In the end, clean power will win out based on simple dollars and cents – regardless of the fact they will also help save the world. An increasing number of companies, like Google and IKEA belonging to the RE100 network promise to only use renewable electricity. This is a clear sign. We at EKOenergy are helping many smaller companies to follow these examples. After the Paris Agreement, there is finally hope that the world is switching from words to deeds. No wonder the oil industry is so scared, and angry about it. If reason prevails and if we all work on this together, there is still a possibility, maybe not to stop climate change, but at least to slow it down. Someday, when my kids will ask me what I have done to save their future on this planet, I want to be able to answer truthfully. I want to answer, that I did everything I could. And for that I am not willing to give up!


Why Should Civil Engineers Be So Concerned AbouT

CLIMATE CHANGE?

Part of the mandate of civil engineers is to provide infrastructures.

We’ve reached that age of the human race wherein climate change is already causing irreversible damage. A century or so ago, it might be acceptable that environmental experts are the only ones holding critical knowledge about this phenomenon, its status and its growing effects; but now that the problem is affecting communities on larger scales and at an uncontrollable rate, climate change should already pose as a public concern. And civil engineers, among other engineering professionals, have a critical role mandated to us as catalysts in mitigating, if not preventing, the growing and worsening impacts of climate change. Also called global warming, climate change is essentially the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. Data from different organizations like the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration suggest that climate change exists due primarily to the human use of fossil fuels, releasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. Such gases get trapped as heat within the atmosphere which causes summers to be longer and hotter, rains to be heavier in downpour, sea levels to rise, ecosystems to receive a range of harmful effects, and drought to cause massive wildfires, among others. Other than the visible consequences, a cause of alarm about climate change is the growing of the Earth’s average temperature: it has climbed up to 1.4° F over the past century and is expected to rise as much as 11.5° F over the next. But why should civil engineers care about this phenomenon the most? What kind of role do civil engineers hold in dealing with this crisis? The events that are results of climate change like flooding, precipitation, drought, fires, et cetera are all affecting infrastructures. And who designs and builds these infrastructures? The civil engineers.

It is now critical for civil engineers upon their mandate in developing structures and systems to integrate the global warming problem in planning. It already serves as an important factor in the construction of future highways, bridges, water or wastewater plants, buildings, and ports and harbors. There is discretion on civil engineers to find ways in improving the resiliency of infrastructures and developing systems that are bound to be affected by activities brought about by climate change. Not only do civil engineers have a role in combating climate change through new projects, but also in the rehabilitation of existing infrastructures. The technical knowledge that comes with profession will be put to better use if the element of the said phenomenon is considered in making engineering decisions. Civil engineers can very well anticipate, mitigate and adapt on the impacts of climate change. It will take a lot of convincing the general public, the government, and the contractors to include this critical factor in infrastructure projects; which is why it is a need that the climate change problem has to be understood by all. The field of civil engineering will have to make necessary adjustments and stay away from most conventional methods, practices and standards since a revamp in design and systems with global warming included as a factor draws massive changes. One of the premiere organizations in civil engineering, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), is already tapped by environmental organizations concerned with climate change to have an adaptation planning and implementation framework, with some of its policies already aligned. It’s a start that the ASCE leads the path in the civil engineering initiative about climate change, with the rest of the civil engineers around the world to take the challenge and contribute through their own ways.

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Steel is a Better Material Than Concrete When Measured on Relative Impacts Minus the cost and aesthetic criteria, steel is the preferable choice over concrete. By Dion Greg Reyes As soon as civilizations in various parts of the world emerged, people started to build and use structures made out of concrete and steel. Such materials placed wood, adobe and thatch off the map of towns and cities marking the dawn of construction innovation and flourishing of an engineering age. Ever since, designers, engineers and tradesmen get to manipulate concrete and steel to form brilliant structures in the service of mankind which are evident in developed areas. Civil engineers study the technicalities of both materials – concrete and steel – especially those who major in structural engineering. Only these kinds of engineers can say objectively which material reigns supreme over the other through the study of reinforced concrete and steel structures. It is in the judgment of structural engineers to say which material is suited for a specific project with both having diverse positives. There are several factors considered to weigh relative impacts of both materials. Massachusetts Institute of Technology for its Greening East Campus Project Building looked at the input, output and production worker health and safety of concrete and steel as these three find common ground for efficient comparison.

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After using a generalized methodology for assessing the non-cost factors of building design, the following analysis were derived. When it comes to inputs, concrete is a more disadvantageous material compared to steel. A concrete superstructure would consume over three times as much energy and six times as much natural resources as a steel one. Production of a concrete building also would use more toxic substances compared to its steel equivalent. Both concrete and steel do not have significant differences when it comes to materials transportation. However, when outputs are measured, there is an imbalance between the two with concrete still in a worse light. Upon building a concrete structure, it will produce almost four times as much solid waste as a steel one. A steel superstructure offers more recyclability of materials, but can damage the water almost three times as a concrete superstructure. When it comes to air pollution emissions, concrete buildings appear to be more destructive, which is five times polluting the air more than steel buildings. The biggest takeaway for concrete structures when it comes to output is that it is almost seven times to contribute to global warming than its steel equivalent.


Source: Arch 5541

Being production worker health and safety also a factor of consideration, buildings of steel do not have much of a significant edge over buildings of concrete. Production of a concrete superstructure involves roughly the same rate of fatal occupational injuries as production of a steel one. But when non-fatal injuries and illnesses are taken into account, steel structure production poses a higher rate of 12% than concrete structure production. Source: Havit Steel Structure

It can be concluded via these three relative measures of impact that concrete is a relatively poorer material compared to steel for the construction of the Greening East Campus Project Building. This is primarily caused by the large amount of material that goes into concrete structural elements. According to the Athena EIE model used in evaluating the impact categories, over six times as much material (by mass) is required to produce the concrete superstructure than is required for the steel superstructure. The modelled concrete superstructure requires approximately 21,000 cubic meters of concrete (46,000 standard tons assuming a density of 2,000 kg per cubic meter) and about 1,500 tons of iron and steel for wire and rebar. A steel superstructure for the East Campus Project building would require approximately 3,000 cubic meter of concrete (7,000 standard tons) and about 1,000 standard tons of iron and steel. This evaluation doesn’t consider the aesthetics, but by the potential impacts and tradeoffs at stake in deciding to use steel or reinforced concrete to build one identified structure.

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Source: Esquire

“Climate change is real, it is happening right now. It is the most urgent threat facing our entire species, and we need to work collectively together and stop procrastinating”

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Leonardo DiCaprio:

Hollywood’s Biggest Hope in Fighting The Climate Change I f you’ve been living under a rock, it still wouldn’t be acceptable if you haven’t heard about Leonardo DiCaprio. He happens to be one of the biggest stars in the world and he is proving himself to be a modern day hero. While people in Hollywood come off as superficial and ignorant, DiCaprio shows the world how his fame can be used to save the environment.

Little did everyone know that he had been exposed to the concept of species loss when he was still young. In an interview, he shared that a reproduction of Bosch’s Garden of Earthly Delights was hung above his crib. But it was when he met Al Gore back in 1998 at the White House that really sparked his interest in climate activism.

But before he became a climate change activist, how did he exactly become who he is now? From turning into the Hollywood heartthrob girls obsessed with during his Titanic days to becoming a respectable personality to both the general public and heads of states, we can all agree that he is the man everyone needs to start making changes.

This led him to establish his own foundation, the Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation, which focuses on wildland conservation, climate change, public advocacy, indigenous rights, marine conservation and innovative solutions. Working with several partners, his foundation has already awarded grants worth $61.1 million and supported more than 65 organizations. Some of the foundation’s donations included $3 million to stop overfishing and $3 million to protect tigers in Nepal.

Born in Los Angeles, California, Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio came from a rich mixture of different cultures in his blood. His father is of Italian and German descent. This is why DiCaprio knows how to converse in Italian and German while his maternal grandparents were Russians. When his parents separated a year after he was born, he and his mother lived in Los Angeles neighborhoods.

Source: Instagram

His career started during the 90s when he first appeared in different educational films and commercials. He got his break on television when he was cast on Parenthood, which eventually earned him a nomination for the Young Artist Award for Best Young Actor. His movie break was on the sci-fi film, Critters 3 and went on to join the casts of Growing Pains (tv), This Boy’s Life and What’s Eating Gilbert Grape. After his success on the film Titanic, DiCaprio became a household name and starred in several movies with very interesting roles. Even up until now, his star still shines bright in Hollywood and he has no plans of retiring from acting. With a career full of demanding roles, where did his environmental activism fit in? When did DiCaprio become involved in finding ways to be part of the climate change revolution? Climate Change Revolution • February 2017

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DiCaprio has been very supportive of several foundations and charities (some of these foundations focused on films) as well. See the list below to check which ones he supported through the years: • African Wildlife Foundation • Cinema For Peace • Declare Yourself • Feeding America • Film Foundation • Global Cool • Global Green • Green Cross International

• Indigenous Environmental Network • Motion Picture and Television Fund Foundation • Onyx and Breezy Foundation • Pediatric Epilepsy Project • Reef Check Foundation • Save the Elephants • SOS Children’s Villages

What makes DiCaprio so admirable is how passionate and dedicated he is in working with different organizations and leaders to improve policies involving the environment. He became part of the board of the International Fund for Animal Welfare, the World Wildlife Fun and the National Resources Defense Council. His foundation has also been raising money in its annual gala that involves several celebrities. In its third annual gala, the event was held in Saint-Tropez last year and successfully raised $45 million. The money went to causes that protected vulnerable wildlife and stopped climate change. Some of the money raised also went to GiveForFrance.org. The event were full of high profile personalities such as Bono, Mariah Carey, Cate Blanchett, Naomi Campbell and Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Source:Getty Images

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• Stop Global Warming • The Gorilla Organization • The Solutions Project • TreePeople • United Nations Environment Program • Unite for Japan • WildAid

In 2007, DiCaprio produced the 11th Hour, which he wrote and narrated as well. The documentary film tackles different crucial issues, mainly exploring how we arrived as a human race to where we are now, how it affects the environment and how we can change the course. Last year, DiCaprio released another documentary called Beyond The Flood on the National Geographic Channel. He raised more pressing issues where he discussed the dangers of climate change with scientists, activists and several world leaders. The film featured prominent figures such as Barack Obama, Elon Musk and Pope Francis. DiCaprio worked with Martin Scorsese and it distributed worldwide for free as part of NatGeo’s commitment to covering climate change.


Source: Instagram

Source: Instagram

DiCaprio has been using his popularity to reach out and educate people about the harmful and deadly effects of climate change not only to people, but to animals. One of the most important highlights of his campaign and even in his career was when he finally won the Best Actor award in 2016’s Academy Awards. Millions have always rooted for him to win the award for his role in the movie, The Revenant. During his acceptance speech, he used it as an opportunity to reach out to millions who watched the show and informed them of his fight against climate change. In his moving speech, he said:

“… And lastly, I just want to say this: Making The Revenant was about man’s relationship to the natural world. A world that we collectively felt in 2015 as the hottest year in recorded history. Our production needed to move to the southern tip of this planet just to be able to find snow. Climate change is real, it is happening right now. It is the most urgent threat facing our entire species, and we need to work collectively together and stop procrastinating. We need to support leaders around the world who do not speak for the big polluters, but who speak for all of humanity, for the indigenous people of the world, for the billions and billions of underprivileged people out there who would be most affected by this. For our children’s children, and for those people out there whose voices have been drowned out by the politics of greed. I thank you all for this amazing award tonight. Let us not take this planet for granted. I do not take tonight for granted. Thank you so very much.”

Source: Variety

Source: Hollywood Reporter

Unfortunately, not everyone believes in climate change. This is a serious matter especially when skeptics include world leaders such as the President of the United States of America. Last year, DiCaprio, together with the head of his foundation, met with Donald Trump to give a presentation to the President, his daughter and the President’s team on how jobs that center around preserving the environment can boost the economy. By putting the government’s focus on renewable, clean energy, it could create millions of jobs for the country. While we have to see if DiCaprio influenced Trump’s government or not, we know that he will always be involved in his advocacies. As of this moment, DiCaprio remains to have a busy acting career ahead of him. The public seems to know only a little about his private life but if there’s one thing admirable about the award-winning actor is his dedication to the environment. While most celebrities promote themselves on their social media accounts, DiCaprio likes to use his Instagram, Facebook and Twitter to express his opinions and inform the public of different issues concerning the environment. His actions have become admirable and inspiring, making him one of the most respected personalities in the whole world.

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Although renewable energy systems are also vulnerable to climate change, e.g. extreme water levels, high temperatures and wind speeds, they have unique qualities that make them suitable both for reinforcing the resilience of the wider energy infrastructure and for ensuring the provision of energy services under changing climatic conditions. System modularity, distributed deployment, and local availability and diversity of fuel sources—central components of energy system resilience— are key characteristics of most renewable energy systems. Ultimately, renewable energy systems improve the resilience of conventional power systems, both individually and by their collective contribution to a more diversified and distributed asset pool.

Meeting Climate Change Head-On: Renewable for mitigation and adaptation Is climate change real? Yes! The December 2015 adoption of the Paris Agreement by 195 countries to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and its ratification less than a year later sent a clear signal that countries acknowledge that climate change and its effects are real. In parallel actions to reduce emissions were embodied in highprofile agreements by G7 and G20 governments to accelerate access to renewable energy and to advance energy efficiency. The United Nations General Assembly adopted a dedicated Sustainable Development Goal on Sustainable Energy for All (SDG 7). The world also saw the largest global capacity additions from renewables to date despite a dramatic decline in global fossil fuel prices. Energy plays a central role in economic development and in the overall functioning of society. However, in order to increase energy access while at the same time meeting the target of limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, remaining fossil fuel reserves will have to be kept in the ground. Both renewable energy and energy efficiency will have to be scaled-up dramatically. It is widely recognised that the use of renewable energy is critical in mitigation, i.e. efforts to reduce the scale and rate of climate change. However, renewable energy is also an important component of climate change adaptation: 1) in improving the resilience of existing energy systems in the face of the impacts of a changing climate; and 2) in ensuring the delivery of energy services—including lighting, heating, and cooling— under changing climatic conditions.

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There is increasing awareness that in order to provide needed energy services in a climate-constrained environment, future energy systems need to be resilient and to maintain service even under extreme, changing, or unpredictable conditions by being robust, yet flexible and adaptive. The role of renewables has been proven in climate mitigation. As the effects of extreme weather are felt increasingly, more attention will need to be paid to how renewable energy can support adaptation activities so that energy services can be assured. Mitigation and adaptation responses to climate change cannot remain independent of each other. Rather, both responses need to occur simultaneously, illustrating their complementary nature and their collective role in meeting climate change challenges. While uncertainty remains about the precise extent of climate change and its effects, it is real and here to stay. Is climate change real? The answer is “yes”. The more pressing question is, “what are prepared to do?”. Renewables coupled with energy efficiency provide both the means to reduce energy consumption’s effect on the climate while also ensuring the provision of energy services. The solution is there: it only takes courage to change.

For more information about the status of renewables visit www.ren21.net. Here you can get the latest information on the global renewable energy market, industry and policy landscape. All references are linked. Text can be easily translated via the web browser into other languages. Learn how renewables and energy efficiency together are advancing the energy transition.


This Spinning Photovoltaic Cone Offers Greater Efficiency Than Conventional Solar Panels The technology is packed in a one meter-diameter cone.

Source: V3 Solar

The conventional solar panel is flat, covering a vast, open space may it be on land or roof. Its shape actually doesn’t matter as long as it is efficient in absorbing solar energy. But it turns out that an unorthodox solar cell design by V3Solar is capable of generating more electricity. A third party has verified that the elegant Spin Cell cones of V3Solar can produce over 20 times more electricity than a static flat panel with the same area of photovoltaic cells. The technology is packed in a one meter-diameter cone embedded with a layer of hundreds of triangular photovoltaic cells positioned at an angle of 56 degrees, encased in a “static hermetically-sealed outer lens concentrator”. Solar power generation is done by the photovoltaic cone through spinning, run by a solar-generated power which is also feeds a Maglev system in order to reduce the noise and for maintenance. “The spin is powered by a small amount of electricity that comes from the sun,” V3Solar’s Chief Marketing Officer Robert Styler tells. “It only requires one amp because the unit

floats on magnets, there is almost no resistance, and the magnets are arranged to push the spin forward. The rate of spin is controlled by electronic feedback loops to maximize production.” Industrial design team Nectar Design helped V3 Solar in developing the device. Its makers believe that the Spin Cell could be a game-changer in the market. According to V3, there is a difference of response when the conventional solar panel and the Spin Cell are placed in a 20x solar concentration. For a flat, static solar panel, the temperature quickly reaches 260 degrees F, and the solder melts within ten seconds, and the PV fails. With the same concentration on the Spin Cell, the temperature never exceeds 95 degrees F, V3 explains in their website. Spin Cells can also be used in another form called Power Pole, which is aimed to save space compared to conventional flat panels. As the name suggests, it is a pole, which holds 10 Spin Cells, or 10KWp, in a footprint of 10 SF. That’s a greater solar power generation in a small space. In this setup, much attention is given to the Spin Cells not to shade another. This is done by placing them with utmost mathematical precision. V3Solar had already secured its first licensing agreement to supply 800,000 Spin Cell units for a large solar farm.

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Is Climate Change Real? by Steve Sawyer, GWEC Secretary General It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends upon his not understanding it.” - Upton Sinclair I’m not going to spend time on the physics or the evidence of climate change. To be clear, we’re talking about a) the measurement of the physical changes in the biosphere, cryosphere and the oceans over the past 150 years or so; and b) the thesis, overwhelmingly supported by national and international scientific bodies, that the majority of these changes are a result of human activity, primarily the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (and the oceans) as a result burning fossil carbon in the form of oil coal and gas. The global response to the threat of anthropogenic climate change, which began in 1988, has focused on defining tolerable limits to the changes which will take place, and changing our behavior to try and remain within these limits. Since 1992, with the adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, this has been defined broadly by the Convention’s Article 2, i.e., to avoid ‘dangerous’ climate change . Up until recently this was defined as keeping global mean temperature rise below 2°C above the pre-industrial average; this was readopted in the recently concluded Paris Agreement, with an additional proviso that countries should be “pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change”. So why all the hullaballoo? Why are we continually subjected to this denialist rhetoric which is for the most part utter nonsense spewed over the airways and even worse on social media; including most recently by the newly elected President of the United States and most of his cabinet? The answer to these questions are the subject of a great number of academic papers, polling, studies and other interpretations. For me, there are three main reasons:

MONEY The fossil fuel industry is arguably the most powerful vested interest in the history of human civilization. After all, it was on the back of steampowered cotton gins and trains powered by coal that started the industrial revolution, not to mention the steel and cement industries. Later it was fossil fuel powered power plants, factories, automobiles, ships and trains that have been the driver for modern industrial society. And the accumulation of almost unimaginable wealth held by governments, corporations, and concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. Ever since the climate issue first came to public and political prominence in the late 1980s, elements within the fossil industry have used their considerable wealth and influence to undermine climate science and sow doubt in the general public. Exxon Mobil is currently being sued by a number of US States on that basis, and the Koch brothers have been fighting against renewables in state legislatures across the country. Furthermore, these same elements have been funding so-called ‘institutes’ to add confusion to the political debate for many years . They have been quite successful, especially in the Anglo-Saxon world. MEDIA AND EDUCATION Why in the Anglo-Saxon world particularly? Two reasons come to mind: first and foremost is the increasing corporate ownership of main print, radio and television media by a few wealthy individuals whose wealth is at least in part due to the fossil fuel industry. The classic example is the cranky old Australian climate sceptic Rupert Murdoch, who not only controls a large portion of the Australian press, but also everything ‘Fox’ in the US, Dow Jones (including the Wall Street Journal, the last major newspaper in the world to have a climate-sceptic editorial stance); and the Times and The Sun in the UK, along with BSkyB broadcasting . While he is certainly not the only one, he may be the most influential, and you can see that influence reflected in the chart below:

To what extent do you agree or disagree? The climate change we are currently seeing is largely the result of human activity

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Secondly, the quality of education, science education in particular, has been slipping in the Anglo-Saxon world for some time, most notably in the United States; which also has a history of turning scientific advances into political/religious/ideological debates, dating back to the so-called Scopes Monkey Trial in 1925 when a Tennessee high school teacher was put on trial for teaching evolution in the school which had been specifically prohibited by the State Legislature. He was convicted, and strongly supported by three time Presidential candidate and later Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan, who ran anti-evolution campaigns across the country for much of his career. So the intrusion of ideological/theological arguments into the public arena in the US is nothing new, and is reflected in the decreasing global rank of the US in terms of quality of education in recent years , as well as the new Administration in Washington erasing ‘climate change’ from its web pages within hours of taking office. FEAR OF CHANGE As the rate of change in the world continues to increase, long held beliefs are continuously challenged, and, especially when they’re ‘inconvenient’, can be easily ignored or set aside. This is especially true in the case of climate, as the threat of climate change can be overwhelming indeed, and the scale and rate of change required to

fight it can be disorienting and upsetting. So when a web page or a blog comes along and presents a view that it’s nothing really to worry about, it can be easily adopted and the threat put to one side. Unfortunately this is not reality, as we are seeing increasingly clearly, as 2016 has just been recorded as the warmest year on record, beating 2015’s record; which itself beat 2014’s record. And so it goes... Fortunately, given that most of the world is responding in some way to the climate issue, we now have the technology to solve most of the problem, led by the rapid advances in wind, solar and energy efficiency technology, which are now not only getting to be very large scale, but very competitive as well. As a result of their rapid uptake, emissions seem to have plateaued in the past couple of years. But the political/ideological/theological debate continues to sap energy from our efforts. To have any hope to meet the targets set out in the Paris Agreement, emissions need to peak now and begin to decline rapidly for the rest of the decade and beyond. Let us hope that science and good sense prevail. Otherwise, the ‘climate change’ issue will be taken out of the hands of elected politicians and into the hands of the emergency services and ultimately the military. Let us hope it doesn’t come to that.

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Global Investments On Renewables and Clean Energy Totaled To $329 Billion Last year was a record for a whopping $329 billion global investment for clean energy, to expect for a better yield. By Robert Bagatsing

A

ccording to Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), the total investment on clean energy hit $329 billion accounting 50 percent of investment from the Asia-Pacific Region. BNEF Chairman of Advisory Board Michael Liebreich said that the figures are a stunning riposte to all those who expected sustainable energy investment to stall on failing oil and gas prices. He even added that they highlight the improving cost-competitiveness of solar and wind power, driven in part by the move by many countries to reverse-auction new capacity rather than providing advantageous tariffs, a shift that has put producers under continuing price pressure. China was said to remain the largest clean energy investor amounting to $111 billion with solar energy as its largest funding. China is likely to propel towards less pollution actions and less coal powered energy sources as a part of its 13th five year plan (2016-2020) to be implemented in March 2016. It’s National Carbon Emission Trading Program, the world’s largest carbon emission control project, will cover 10,000 companies emitting 3-4 billion tons of CO2. Also, Solar and Wind tariffs for new plants were reduced starting on January 1, 2016, according to BNEF. Iran was also noted to develop high-growth in the renewables as it has already a feed-in tariff programme and line-up of projects on solar, wind and non-hyrdo renewables. The European Investment Bank also allowed lending all over €100 billion for climate action for the next five years. China National Building Materials recently signed a €1.6 billion agreement with Hong Kong-based Welink Global in the United Kingdom for solar power projects and energy saving housing in the United Kingdom. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Clean Technology Fund formed a programme to lend $125 million in developing geothermal in Turkey. The plan consists of constructing five geothermal power plants. In Japan, the Development Bank of Japan and Japan Wind Development implemented the creation of the country’s first wind power funding at $423 million.

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BNEF Chairman of Advisory Board Michael Liebreich (Screencap from Youtube)

Source: Pinterest

Source: Pinterest

Meanwhile in South Korea, LG Electronics plans to invest $435 million in building solar manufacturing plants. Yingli Green Energy was also said to build its first overseas factory in Thailand aside from its clean projects in China. With continuous growth of awareness in environmental conservation and sustainability, it is expected that these investments would yield positive results in addressing global issues on pollution and energy sources. From a well invested year, may 2017 be a better year for all nations.


Source: Pinterest

HOW TO MAKE THE WORLD SHIFT TO

CLEAN ENERGY While there are countries who uses solar and wind energies as their source, the world as a whole is still far from embracing it.

W

ho wants clean energy for everyone? We all do! Who in their right minds wouldn’t want renewable energy that’s good for the environment and cheaper for our consumption? With climate change taking over our lives, governments and private companies have invested billions of dollars in order to shift from fossil fuels into clean renewable sources of energy. According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, everybody invested a whopping $329 billion last year. Unfortunately, that amount is not enough for total clean energy consumption. Ceres, a sustainability advocacy group, says that the world needs $1 trillion in new investments every year!

Where in the world can we get $1 trillion? Don’t forget that’s $1 trillion for new investments. We also need money to sustain the amount we pay for shifting our energy from non-renewable to renewable sources of energy! One way to get that money is to have institutions like the World Bank to invest on renewable energy.

While renewable clean energy is supposed to be cheap, what makes it expensive is the infrastructure spending. Solar panels and wind mills are expensive to install but once it’s there, life should be a breeze (so to speak). That’s where institutions like the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, play a crucial role in our energy shift. According to representatives from New Climate Economy:

Source: Carnegie

“Development banks can take on the risks that no other actors are willing to take. … For every $1 [development banks] invest, they can leverage up to $20 in private finance… The markets are working. The cost of renewables are dropping. People are seeing the promise to energy efficiency.” If governments and major key players in renewable energy start focusing on implementing clean energy in our daily lives, it will give us a huge relief when we see our bills and we get to save the planet, too!

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A Call to Engage with Government on Climate Change

C

ommunication is an essential, yet often overlooked, aspect of confronting the challenge of global climate change. One obstacle is the sheer scope of the problem, in that greenhouse gases and their impacts are not constrained by geographical borders and they certainly do not recognize political affiliations. Climate change is a threat to everyone on the planet, but because it impacts all of us in different ways, its effects are not always easily understood. Engineers, scientists, and other savvy professionals are a vital resource to help ensure policymakers and the general public see the big picture on climate. Strong, knowledgeable voices are needed to convey the consequences of apathy and the need for innovation in the fields of climate mitigation and adaptation. Some may argue engineers and scientists should stay far away from today’s political discourse, but in order to promote fact-based decision making and facilitate the breakthroughs needed to achieve a sustainable future, an open dialogue between those who design climate solutions and those who implement them through government institutions is essential. As a policy associate at the Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) in Washington, DC, I engage in these types of discussions every day, playing the role of “translator” for a varied audience in the public and private sectors. Part of EESI’s mission is to deliver non-partisan,

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fact-based information and solutions to legislators and staff in the U. S. federal government through briefings, white papers, and outreach. I work to distill issues, including climate change and renewable energy development, into straightforward policy recommendations that hopefully lead to thoughtful and effective legislation. I also frequently defend existing programs and regulations by highlighting their benefits across industries and locales in an effort to build broad coalitions of support. Unfortunately, the issue of climate change and how best to address it has become a lightning rod in certain countries, especially at the national level in the United States. While this trend has made my job as a communicator of climate and energy concepts more arduous, it has also forced me to adjust my approach to better understand and connect with a more diverse audience. Today, many elected officials seem to be too wedded to their political party’s ideology and are failing to grasp the long-term vision required when considering climate mitigation and adaptation measures that could be extremely important to their constituents. Even with the growing deployment of clean energy resources around the globe and diplomatic milestones like the Paris Climate Agreement, bold action is still needed to blunt the worst effects of a warming world.


Engineers and scientists are going to be crucial players in devising and implementing solutions to help humanity overcome the threat and impacts of climate change, from improving energy efficiency to ensuring cities are able to cope with sea level rise. Yet, even if these groundbreaking technologies and systems come to pass, they will still require funding, permits, incentives to drive adoption, and other forms of support that will require government resources and political will to scale up. Going forward, it will be increasingly important for engineering and science practitioners to build bridges between their communities and the government. Knowledgeable, respected voices are needed more than ever to cut through the political noise obscuring the dire reality that climate change is happening and every nation must take collective action to address their own historical liability and assist those who are most vulnerable to climate impacts. There are many ways to get involved in efforts to convince skeptics that combating climate change should be a priority and that the world has the tools to do so.

The simple act of contacting an elected representative or writing an editorial can be powerful first steps. Oftentimes, public officials are not fully aware they have the political backing to tackle a complex issue until a critical mass of their constituents makes it impossible for them to ignore. Taking to the street in protest may draw visibility to climate issues and can be effective in jumpstarting the process, but private conversations to educate decision makers can yield more powerful results in the long-run. Striving to better understand the perspective of those seemingly opposed to climate policy can open doors and illuminate a potential middle ground to enact positive change through technology and governance. Whether as a citizen lobbyist or as a representative of a professional society, making your voice heard and presenting compelling cases for progress to those in power can construct much-needed bridges between engineering and science practitioners and policymakers.

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The International Solar Energy Society (ISES) supports

100% RENEWABLE ENERGY TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE T

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he Paris Climate Agreement accord of 2015 includes commitments by signatory countries to reduce carbon emissions to specified targets, known as INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions). Based on current projections, if all INDCs were adopted as specified, global temperature warming would be limited to 2.7 to 3.0 °C above pre-industrial levels (currently global warming is approximately 1 °C above preindustrial levels). Without the INDCs, warming could be expected to be as much as 4.5 to 6 0C by the end of this century, which could have catastrophic impacts on our society. Even the current targets established by the submitted INDCs leave us well above the desired UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 to 2 °C. As shown by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in order to cap global warming to 2 °C by the end of this century, greenhouse gas emissions must peak within the next 10 to 20 years, then drop to near zero well before 2100. Achieving these reductions will require a substantial increase in the use of renewable energy technologies.

This is despite the ever-increasing demands these technologies place on the quality of our energy supply, and the variable nature of our more prominent renewable energy technologies. Advances in energy storage capacity, improved efficiency of end-use energy devices, and grid management strategies all lead to the prospect that 100% of our electricity supply could come from renewable energy sources well before the end of this century.

The International Solar Energy Society supports how the ongoing energy transformation can and should lead to an energy system supplied 100% by renewable technologies. Reports from research institutions and actual real-world case studies indicate more and more that the technological challenges towards achieving 100% renewable energy can be addressed. For example, within the power sector, it has already been demonstrated in communities and regions that a 100% renewable-driven electricity sector is feasible (for further information, see http:// www.go100percent.org/cms/index.php?id=17).

Future transportation systems can be driven entirely by a combination of electricity and biofuels. Even so, energy efficiency and storage technologies will continue to gain in importance to achieve a 100% renewable energy supply.

Climate Change Revolution • February 2017

Despite the continued growth of the electricity sector as our preferred energy source, more than half of our end-use energy consumption, including the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors, comes from non-electricity sources. This means that for a future energy supply to be totally 100%, the energy consumed in these non-electric sectors must also come from renewables rather than traditional sources. Much of the process heat required by the industrial sector, as well as residential heating and cooling, can be met by solar heating and cooling technologies, along with secondgeneration biomass and geothermal sources.

Overcoming the technology barriers will not necessarily guarantee a 100% renewable energy future. Mobilizing the financial capital to achieve these goals is perhaps among the most important constraint that must be addressed both by national governments providing public finance and by the private capital markets themselves.


Here the public and private sectors need to work together to stimulate the private capital flows required to finance the energy transformation. Programs such as the Green Climate Fund, a pool of public capital made available through recent climate agreements, if used properly, can stimulate this flow of private capital by helping create enabling environments for renewable energy business growth, especially with small and medium enterprises. Recent estimates show that current investment in renewable energy, although exceeding USD $300B, must double by the year 2020 and reach $900B/year within ten years just to keep up with the climate mitigation goals that were established at the COP21 in Paris in December 2015. Most of this financing will be covered by private capital. Governments, however, play a key role, not only in supporting the high-risk R&D that is still required to further reduce the costs and improve the reliability of renewable energy systems. An energy transformation to a low-carbon economy is now underway, and the Paris accord is a signal for national governments to create policies to accelerate this transformation. The three legs of the energy transformation “stool”: technology innovations, mobilization of private capital, and the establishment of enabling policies, are all coming together, but more work and many challenges still stand in the way of a realization towards a 100% renewable energy future. The political will is not always there, and governments do not always sustain the kind of critical R&D necessary to move innovation technology into the marketplace.

The fossil fuel interests are mobilizing their base to thwart or at least delay the transformation, arguing (falsely) that the transformation is creating global financial chaos and disruption. ISES is playing a key role to ensure that the renewable energy transformation is not derailed by fossil fuel interests, or by reluctance of national governments to create favorable policies. This role is to continue to advocate for and report on ongoing and growing support in critical R&D to advance clean energy technologies from the laboratory to the marketplace, and to communicate the viability of a 100% renewable energy future broadly in ways that stimulate favorable policies and attract low-cost private capital. COP22: RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES READY TO DELIVER ON THE PARIS AGREEMENT AT ALL LEVELS OF DEPLOYMENT The REN Alliance, a coalition of five renewable energy associations, joined forces at COP22 in Marrakech to demonstrate how renewable technologies working together can meet energy needs at island, rural, city, regional and national levels. Among the most significant challenges facing society today is the impacts that global climate change can have on our economies, livelihoods, and lifestyles. The COP21 Agreement coming out of Paris in 2015 calls for all countries to work together towards greenhouse gas reduction commitments that ultimately result in no more than 2 °C, and ideally 1.5 °C warming above preindustrial levels by the end of this century.

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REN Alliance partners hold a side event at COP22 in Marrakech entitled “Renewable Working Together”, December 2016.

The REN Alliance partners at COP22 in Marrakech, December 2016 A decarbonized energy sector must be achieved within the next few decades in order to meet this climate challenge. The REN Alliance underlines that a renewable energy supply is not only good for the climate, but offers manifold economic and social benefits, for developing and for industrialized countries alike. Renewable energy technologies are today’s cheapest options when comparing new investment – this has been stated by independent organizations like IRENA. Hence the global transition to a renewable energy future is not any more a financial burden but will enhance economic growth and prosperity in addition to mitigation of climate change.

THE INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ENERGY SOCIETY (ISES) ISES is a leader in the transformation to a 100% renewable energy future through its events, webinars, publications and collaboration with global partners. The ISES Solar World Congresses, held biennially since the 1950’s, as well as regional events such as the EuroSun, embody the spirit of international renewable energy networking and exchange of ideas advanced by the Society. Its objective is to maintain communication between the research community, industrial and political players.

The next ISES Solar World Congress takes place from 29 October to 02 November 2017 in Abu Dhabi. The theme of the congress is “Innovation for the 100% renewable energy transformation”. The call for papers is now open! Submit your abstract online at www.swc2017.org.

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Article Source: Hufftington Post

10 Tips To Keep The Millennial Engineer Motivated to Work “Nothing will work unless you do.” - Maya Angelou by Cielo Santos I bet every millennial has had this feeling. It’s not just a simple feeling wherein you don’t want to go to work, it’s the kind wherein you feel partly depressed, and mostly unmotivated to go to work anymore due to a number of circumstances. That’s why some of us need that occasional “vacation” leave so we can charge ourselves up and go back to work refreshed and recharged. But what if you don’t have any leaves left, and you’ve called in sick too many times. Here are some things you can do.

1

Treat yourself. Go buy yourself you favorite coffee on your way to work. Schedule lunch plans with friends or even alone if you prefer to, like a workout, a get-together with friends, movie time at home. Remind yourself that these things are better than being guilty because you called in sick, and giving awkward excuses in the process.

unmotivated days. Running at a slower pace is fine, as long as you get your job done properly.

6

Fly under the radar. If you’re in your low motivation days, it isn’t the best time to be having long interactions with your boss or team. Do everything you can to limit interactions. Keep your interactions brief and cordial so your day will be more manageable.

7

Do the work that is easiest for you. Maybe today isn’t the day you’re going to finish big project, but keep in mind, doing just a bit–no matter how small– is better than staying at home and calling in sick. Remember, baby steps.

8

Use a mantra. Choose a mantra that you can continuously repeat to yourself when you’re in a pinch, like “I can do this!” or Dory’s “Just keep swimming” from Finding Nemo.

Be of service to somebody else. When you’re in the dumps, it sometimes helps to help other people. Like helping a colleague who can’t figure out that excel formula, or maybe giving your team some tips to make their job easier. It’ll keep your woes away from your head, even just for a bit. By helping other people, you will feel that you have a purpose and will feel more motivated.

3

Take it one step at a time. Don’t rush things. Take baby steps. Wake up, get out of bed, go take a shower, get dressed, eat breakfast, get out of the door, etc. When you do the little little things that move you forward, you will slowly gain momentum for the day.

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4

10

2

Make things easier for yourself. Go get a cab instead of the bus, wear something you’re comfortable with, lighten your load by crossing things off your “To Do List”. Ask help from your partner, friends and family.

5

Shift into cruise control. We can’t be 100% productive all the time. There will be those days wherein you just can’t give it your best even if you want to. So, at times like these, remember that it’s alright to give what you can during these

Practice gratitude. Usually, we focus on the reasons why we don’t want to go to work. So it’s better if we focus on the good parts. Think positive. Be thankful that you are alive, that you have a job, that you aren’t actually sick. Gratitude attracts good energy. Practice self-care. Every morning and before you go to bed, do a few minutes of deep breathing or meditation to revitalize yourself. If you can, take breaks whenever you can at work. Clear your mind by walking around the block at work. Eat healthy, and exercise. If your budget allows you, go get a massage, manicure or pedicure. If you’re into reading, go read a good book, prepare a relaxing bubble bath or do some yoga. Refuel yourself, so you’ll be prepared to take on the next day.

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The Latest Mining Industry Trends: An Analysis for 2017 Mining will not recover; it will evolve

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eing cyclical, the revival of the mining industry was never a question of ‘if’, but rather of ‘when’ and, more importantly, of ‘what’. When will the industry emerge from the downturn in the face of lengthening cycle times? What kind of mining industry will resurface from the ruins of the recession? In an exclusive interview, Majid Zahid, Chief Commercial Officer of Altaaqa Global, discusses the crucial role that electricity and technology played in the industry’s observed gradual resurgence. This is mining industry trends 2017. The mining industry is enduring a period of great uncertainty. In the face of extreme market volatility, stagnant commodity prices, weak demand for products, and suppressed levels of economic growth in established markets, many mining companies around the world are striving to remain buoyant. In their quest to victoriously emerge from the recession, many miners have implemented cost-cutting initiatives aimed at maximizing customer value with fewer resources. Others have chosen to be cautiously proactive and embarked on exploration programs in a bid to boost longterm profitability. Some have turned to technology to optimize processes and facilitate existing methods.

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PART 1: STREAMLINING OPERATIONS

Going lean has now become one of the central trends in the industry, as mining companies seek to concurrently reduce manpower, capital and energy intensity; exploit growth opportunities and maximize the value of their products and services. “In a highly volatile market”, says Majid Zahid, Chief Commercial Officer at Altaaqa Global Caterpillar Rental Power, a global provider of multi-megawatt temporary power solutions, “it is essential for mining companies to strike a balance between controlling costs and capitalizing on growth prospects and profitable opportunities. It is, therefore, imperative for them to ensure the efficient utilization of their working capital.” Zahid is of the view that power generation and supply represents an area where mining operations can make significant adjustments to their capital expenditure. “Electricity,” he says, “remains to be the life-blood of mine sites anywhere in the world. However, with the present economic situation, mine operators cannot afford to devote, rather strap, a large portion of their scarce capital to a major expenditure, like a permanent power plant. Considering this, mine operators can instead choose to hire multimegawatt temporary power solutions.”


“It is essential for mining companies to strike a balance between controlling costs and capitalizing on growth prospects” Source: Agnico Eagle Finland

Source: Washington TImes

A consistent, dependable and sufficient supply of electricity is vital throughout the life-cycle of a mine operation. “Temporary power plants,” says Zahid, “can adequately provide for the electricity needs of a mine site. They can power camp sites during pre-feasibility, feasibility and exploratory stages, and support the establishment of the mine operation after a successful exploration. They can provide power to the machinery and the processing plants, and also to the temperaturecontrol equipment. Obviously, they can also provide the necessary power for expansion.” “Multi-megawatt temporary power plants could not be more relevant to the mining industry than in these times,” says Zahid, and adds that renting power is a logical decision for any miner looking to effectively streamline its operations.

Temporary power plants can also assist in reducing the energy intensity of mine operations. “Hiring power plants will preclude the chances of generators being under-utilized, because the capacity of rental power generation equipment can be increased or decreased with respect to the demand of specific mine processes.” Zahid says that as conventional power plants are usually specified to meet the peak demand of a particular site, they are left under-utilised when the power requirement decreases. “When a power plant is running at part-load, it consumes fuel less efficiently. This will no longer be the case with rental power plants on board, thanks to their flexibility and scalability.”

PART 2: REFOCUSING ON EXPLORATION

“For instance, in this economic climate, one cannot overstate the importance of precise allocation of funds and of better management of financial resources. A key benefit of renting power is that payment schedules are fixed and regular over a contracted term. This can help mine operators formulate accurate financial forecasts.”

At the peak of the industry recession, many mining companies dramatically slashed their exploration budgets in the interest of making quick cost savings. SNL Metals and Mining, a global provider of mining information and analysis, supports this observation as it reports that global exploration spend declined by 26% in 2014, while exploration budgets nosedived to USD 11.4 billion from USD 22 billion in 2012.

“Along this line, mining companies should also be mindful of associated costs that come with building or purchasing a permanent power plant.” He calls to mind the cost of spare parts and ancillary, which, he says, are indispensable to the continuous operation of a permanent power plants. “When a mine operator goes for the rental option, all spares and ancillary will be provided by the temporary power company.” Zahid says that renting multi-megawatt power plants can also prove beneficial for mining companies seeking to optimize their manpower resources. “Mine operators will be happy to know that in hiring power plants, they will no longer need to employ new operators or allocate or re-train existing staff members to manage the plant. Temporary power providers will provide the necessary expert engineering services to ensure the faultless operation of the power station.”

However, industry insiders, like Deloitte, a global provider of financial advisory services, caution that huge cuts in growth capex and exploration budgets may have extensive adverse consequences for the miners and the industry at large. Sustained exploration, they say, position mining companies for growth once the market turns. Thus, they warn that foregoing the opportunity to stake early claims may be counter-productive to long-term profitability. And the industry appears to have heeded their advice, as mining companies and governments have gradually re-focused on exploration activities and identification of new potential assets. “Exploration”, says Zahid, “is the growth stimulus of the resources sector. Hence, having sufficient power to sustain this crucial activity is fundamental.” Zahid says that renting power during the exploration stage of a mining operation yields myriad advantages. Climate Change Revolution • February 2017

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Source: Workers 101

“By hiring temporary power plants, mining companies will have the freedom to start with a small power plant, and then grow as operations expand. When the long-term prospect of a project is still uncertain, it may not make sense to invest in permanent facilities. Renting power, therefore, protects companies from the unsecure future of mining projects at the exploration stage.” He also speaks about the latest temporary power technologies which make rental power plants operable anywhere in the world. “Rental power plants are highly suitable for exploration activities in remote areas, because they are containerized and modular, so they are easily transported and installed. The latest-generation temporary power plants have state-of-the-art switching and transformation systems that give them the ability to connect to any location’s grid, regardless of its age, quality or condition. This is possible even without a sub-station, as the same systems allow the power plants to assume the role of a substation and connect to available overhead lines or transformers.” “Temporary power plants also have cutting-edge electric power control and protection systems, which allow them to switch operational mode, from grid, to island, to base load or to standby at a push of a button in mere minutes. This is particularly useful for mining companies whose exploration activities take place in areas unconnected to the grid.”

PART 3: EMBRACING INNOVATION

In recent years, the mining industry has seen a slew of technological innovations. Technologies once regarded as tangential to the industry are now being tailored to respond to the needs of mining companies. Many of these innovations revolve around automation and the technological

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optimisation of established processes, primarily in response to the industry’s need to reduce costs and ramp up operational efficiency. And while some mining companies have opted to remain conservative in terms of uptake, many miners are gradually embracing the available technologies in a bid to future-proof their operations. In a recent exclusive interview with GineersNow, a global engineering magazine, Jean Savage, Chief Technology Officer and Vice President for Innovation and Technology Development at Caterpillar, affirms the crucial role that equipment manufacturers play in shaping the future of mining operations: “Caterpillar has spent over 90 years committed to innovation and technology that help our customers succeed. Most of this innovation has been “in the iron”. Now, our focus has to be on making the iron ‘smart’.” “Making the iron ‘smart’ means bringing digital solutions designed to improve productivity, efficiency, safety and profitability to our customers. This is not technology for technology’s sake. It is technology that’s focused on solving, and even anticipating, customer problems. We are taking the machines, locomotives, engines and parts we’re so well known for and making them smarter, while also equipping the people who operate them with data that makes them more productive, enhances their safety and improves sustainability.” Zahid concurs: “Caterpillar believes that be an innovator, a company must be working directly in the service of its customers. As part of the Caterpillar family, we at Altaaqa Global are proud to be well positioned to offer our clients in the mining industry the latest technologies in temporary power generation.” “For example, it is now possible for our engineers to monitor the status and performance of our engines from any location through Cat Connect.


Source: Solidariteit Wêreld

This gives us temporary power providers relevant insights on the go, so we can better manage our equipment, optimize their performance or perform preventive maintenance, if necessary.” “There is also the Cat MicroGrid Solutions, which now allows renewable solar and wind power systems of any size to be delivered to and installed in literally any location on earth. In tandem with our temporary power plants, the solution guarantees a reliable, sufficient and sustainable power supply to any mining operation anywhere in the world.” “There are also allied technologies gaining traction within the industry. Among these are drones, which can now be used to survey mining sites before breaking ground; 3-D printers, which can now print replacement parts; and augmented reality, which can now be used by technicians to simulate repair cycles. As these technologies are developed in the coming years, we at Altaaqa Global will definitely look into possible ways of integrating them into our systems and processes to further improve our products and enhance the service we deliver to our customers.” “The list of technologies on offer goes on. And as equipment manufacturers and service providers continue to closely work with their customers to learn more about what they need to drive the growth of their businesses, the number of available technologies will continuously increase.” The Bigger Picture Just as the industry went tumbling down on the heels of the boom, industry insiders believe that it is poised for a gradual recovery in the coming months. The green shoots are emerging: Commodity prices are strengthening across the board, commodities has returned to a bull market, and many mining companies are seeing a consistent recovery in value. While the market remains cautious, it welcomes the early signs of the industry’s revival.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Majid Zahid is the President of the Energy Group of the Saudi-conglomerate Zahid Group, and the Chief Commercial Officer of global multi-megawatt temporary power provider Altaaqa Global Caterpillar Rental Power. Majid holds an MBA from the European Business School in London, and has attended prestigious educational institutions, including INSEAD in Paris, the Art Institute of

THE BIGGER PICTURE

Just as the industry went tumbling down on the heels of the boom, industry insiders believe that it is poised for a gradual recovery in the coming months. The green shoots are emerging: Commodity prices are strengthening across the board, commodities has returned to a bull market, and many mining companies are seeing a consistent recovery in value. While the market remains cautious, it welcomes the early signs of the industry’s revival. But perhaps, ‘recovery’ does not aptly define mining’s next cycle. The recent downturn pushed the industry to redefine itself. In the face of adversity, many mining companies adopted a fresh take on how they operate, allocate resources, engage with technology and seize growth opportunities. What were originally corporate strategies implemented to survive the so-called winter have disrupted the industry and, to a large extent catalyzed its transformation. With miners rising from the downturn stronger and smarter, the next cycle of the mining industry will not only be a recovery – it will be an evolution.

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How Humans Became The Leading Cause of Climate Change by Bharadwaj Kummamuru, Project Officer, World Bioenergy Association

INTRODUCTION

T

he question ‘Is climate change real?’ is misleading. The planet has been undergoing varying degrees of climate change predominantly due to natural causes. However, there is one major factor in comparison to previous climate changes. In contrast to those previous changes millions of years ago, currently, humans have upset the delicate climate balance. Hence, the question should be ‘How and why are humans the leading cause of climate change and what can we do to stop it?’

CLIMATE CHANGE

The leading cause of climate change is increasing concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in the atmosphere – predominantly carbon dioxide (CO2). There is a direct correlation between rise in carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and the increase in average temperatures globally. The past few decades witnessed an unnatural increase in concentrations predominantly due to burning of fossil fuels – coal, oil and gas. Recently, for the first time ever, the atmospheric CO2 concentrations crossed 400 ppm (Source). This has already increased the global temperatures by approx. 1°C. There is a consensus among climate scientists that the temperatures have to be limited to well below 2°C to prevent catastrophic climate change effects.

CARBON CYCLE

It is clear that rising emissions lead to increasing temperatures. However, the earth has an inbuilt natural carbon cycle which has remained stable for many millennia. The earth’s ecosystem

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releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere while the oceans and vegetation take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The carbon balance has remained stable. Fossil emissions disturbed this fine carbon balance. The rate at which the emissions are released to the atmosphere is not compensated by the rate of absorption by vegetation and oceans – thereby increasing the concentrations in the atmosphere.

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS

The rise in global warming has an adverse effect on the climate. The increase in temperatures is already leading to loss of sea ice. The extent of the arctic sea ice is the lowest in recorded history (Source). The melting of ice is leading to rising sea levels. Recently, it was reported that some islands disappeared due to the rising sea levels (Source). However, the melting polar ice caps is only one of the problems. Climate change is leading to increased instances of devastating weather – increasing intensity of hurricanes, increasing drought conditions and species becoming extinct (Source).

ROLE OF FOSSIL FUELS

Climate change is the most important challenge of this century. The next decades will decide whether we can stop or even reduce the effects of global warming. The main culprit is the use of fossil fuels – coal, oil and gas. The use of fossil fuels from extraction to utilization contributes 76% of all greenhouse gas emissions globally (Source). Fossil fuels share in the global energy mix is more than 85% and it has remained stable for the past few decades. The current energy mix is unsustainable and a rapid transformation of the energy sector is imperative.


PARIS AGREEMENT

A silver lining among all the gloom is the Paris Agreement. The Paris agreement came into legal force on 04th November 2016. All countries agreed to reduce emissions (fossil fuel use), increase energy efficiency and increase the share of renewables. Renewables (solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, bioenergy) are getting economically feasible and are the most cost effective way in the energy transition of the future. Production and use of renewables does not add emissions or disturb the carbon balance. This has gained support among governments, institutions, companies, investors, researchers and the general public.

BIOENERGY

Currently, the largest renewable energy source is bioenergy. Bioenergy is energy from organic matter (biomass), i.e. all materials of biological origin that is not embedded in geological formations (fossilized). Biomass can be used in its original form as fuel, or be refined to different kinds of solid, gaseous or liquid biofuels. These fuels can be used in all sectors of society, for production of electricity, for transport, for heating and cooling, and for industrial processes. One of the actors promoting bioenergy in the global scenario is World Bioenergy Association (WBA).

WBA

WBA is a global organization dedicated to supporting various actors in the bioenergy sector. WBA is a member driven organization representing companies, associations and individuals with a mission to promote the increasing utilization of bioenergy globally in a

sustainable way and to support the business environment for bioenergy. Our work has put bioenergy on the global map. Our presence increased awareness about opportunities in biomass as a renewable fuel for replacing fossil fuels and combating climate change. One of the core activities of WBA is statistics: accurate, reliable and updated data on the global supply and use of biomass to bioenergy. The WBA Global Bioenergy Statistics reports helps to inform governments, companies, investors and other stakeholders of the importance of bioenergy in the fight against climate change (Source). Using a network of experts, WBA informs policy makers by preparing position papers. Recently, WBA promoted a Fossil Exit Strategy (FES). FES calls for a step by step and year by year reduction of fossil fuel use globally and nationally (Source). It is not enough to just increase the share of renewables when at the same time, fossil fuel use is increasing. Also, WBA opinion is that the key instrument for such a transition is a carbon tax (Source) – a simple and efficient way to reduce the use of fossil fuels, improve energy efficiency, and make renewables competitive. Another important activity is capacity building. WBA is dedicated to starting and developing national biomass associations. These national bodies are ideal in gauging the ground reality of each community, region and country. They provide a basis for improving the national energy policies, remove barriers and create opportunities. In this regard, WBA developed a guidebook on starting biomass associations (Source).

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The most significant activity of WBA is knowledge transfer via publishing factsheets. The objective is to increase the knowledge and understanding of how sustainable bioenergy benefit regions where opportunities exist (Source). The objective of drafting and publishing factsheets is to bring rational arguments in the public discussion to support the development of bioenergy. In the area of technology transfer, WBA started an initiative called bioenergy equipment directory (Source). The objective is to develop a website as a premier resource site to facilitate companies and clients to find and share information about biomass equipment and support leading to bioenergy development worldwide. To facilitate global knowledge transfer among renewables, WBA joined a Renewable Energy Alliance (REN Alliance) and is also a founding partner of Go100% campaign aimed at 100% renewable energy society.

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CONCLUSION

Each nation and region has a specific responsibility to lead the way into a fossil fuel free society in the fight against climate change. Technologies, experience, finance and public acceptance is available globally. There are numerous success stories around the world. A successful global climate agreement coupled with ambitious national climate plans is the best solution to control the rapid increase in global warming. Coming back to the question: Is climate change real – Yes, and we need to stop it by reducing fossil fuel use, increasing energy efficiency and getting all renewables to work together for a 100% renewable energy society.


Vertu Introduces Constellation, A Luxury Performance Smartphone For The International Traveller Vertu introduces Constellation, which will be exclusively sold in the US, Europe, Singapore and Russia.

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hen you think of luxury mobile phones, there’s only one brand that comes into mind. Known for developing cutting-edge technology using exquisite materials, Vertu has put itself in the number one stop on the map for its high-end mobile phones that gave an emphasis on style, craftsmanship and service. This February, Vertu is releasing a new premium phone designed for the international traveller! Vertu introduces Constellation, which will be exclusively sold in the US, Europe, Singapore and Russia. Offering the public only the best of English design and marketleading technology, the Constellation is exactly what the classy traveller needs. Its features include a dual SIM functionality, anyone can easily switch networks whenever one wants to.

It also provides support for 34 international bands and protocols for a global connectivity. Expect high quality photos as well! Featuring a 12 MP camera with its light sensitivity maximized via a large 1.55 micro pixels, one can show off their pictures on social media. It also has a high resolution 5.5” WOHD AMOLED display with over 3.6 million pixels. The Constellation will give you extraordinary color and detail, which is protected by a 6th Generation sapphire crystal screen. You can choose from three different leather colors: Walnut, Octane and Berry. It will be available in stores this February. For a price of 4100 euros, expect a high quality phone wit Vertu’s Constellation! Want to learn more about Vertu? Read our exclusive interview with the company here!

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How Nations Are Rising Up To The Climate Change Challenge by Diane Moss, Founding Director, Renewables 100 Policy Institute, and Angelina Galiteva, Founding Board Chair, Renewables 100 Policy Institute

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ising to the climate change challenge requires us to rapidly transition to renewable resources to meet our energy demands. The opportunities for leadership in this new energy transformation are not just for the privileged, but can and should be for everyone. With policies, market structures and financing mechanisms that support distributed renewable energy and local ownership and control, renewables truly can bring power to the people. Massive changes to our energy system are already underway. Renewable energy is consistently surpassing conventional energy as a new source of power across the globe. Furthermore, government bodies representing hundreds of millions of people around the world, along with numerous global corporations, institutions, and other businesses are committed to reaching 100% renewable energy in at least the electricity sector over the next few decades, and more are regularly joining this list. While policies will continue to impact the pace of this trend, the fact is that economics is becoming a primary driver. In 2016, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, solar became the cheapest source of new power on a global level. Even if coal and gas prices remain low, they report that this “will fail to prevent a fundamental transformation of the world electricity system over coming decades towards renewable sources such as wind and solar, and towards balancing options such as batteries.”

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Meanwhile, industry analysts widely agree that coal’s decline is global, long-term and irreversible. Renewable energy jobs are also outpacing those in the conventional energy industries in the United States and Europe. This kind of momentum can and should bring the benefits of renewables beyond the industrially advantaged and allow all, including developing countries that are building up their power sectors, to increasingly turn to renewables for a significant portion of electricity generated right from the start. As we saw in the telecommunications sector with cell phones, there is an opportunity in the energy sector for developing regions to step directly into the renewable energy industry. At the COP 22 last November, developing nations marked a milestone in their prominence as drivers of the energy transition, when forty-eight of them, most for the first time, pledged to transition to 100% local renewable sources for all their electricity and to adopt clean technologies for transportation and other industry. Although these countries emit smaller amounts of greenhouse gases per capita than developed nations, they have stepped up to the challenge of leadership. In the face of being the most vulnerable to climate change impacts, they are setting an example.


A significant number of those who signed the pledge are island nations, which are especially exposed to the threats of sea level rise caused by the changing climate, as well as to high prices of fossil fuel imports. Underscoring the importance of island regions in the global transition to renewables, UNESCO chose the island of El Hierro off the coast of Spain as the site to issue its formal RENISLA declaration in 2014 that 100% renewable energy is a prerequisite for successful greenhouse gas mitigation and empowering local communities. El Hierro is one of the global pioneers in transitioning to 100% renewable electricity. Also highlighting the visionary initiative of island regions is the fact that the first state in the U.S. to mandate a 100% renewable portfolio standard for electric utilities was Hawaii, which is on track to achieve its goal by, or possibly even before, its 2045 deadline. In keeping with this trend, among the first formal bilateral collaborations to result from perhaps the most prominent subnational initiative coming out of COP 21 will also focus on transforming an island in a developing region to 100% renewable energy for their electricity generation, transportation, and other energy needs. The island of Fernando de Noronha, a UNESCO World Heritage site off the coast of Pernambuco, Brazil, is on its way to becoming a learning laboratory for transitioning to 100% renewable as part of the Under2MOU, a subnational climate and clean energy agreement that the Renewables 100 Policy Institute initiated and which the states of California in the U.S. and Baden-Wuerttemberg in Germany led in advance of COP21. This agreement commits subnational – e.g. state and municipal - signatories to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions 80-95% below 1990 levels or two tonnes per capita by 2050 using a range of clean energy programs. 167 jurisdictions have so far signed on and represent

more than a billion people and more than a trillion dollars in GDP. Among them is the state of Pernambuco, who is now partnering with California on helping Fernando de Noronha become completely renewable energy reliant. This project, which is being led by the Renewables 100 Policy Institute, will formally begin in April with a gathering of U.S. and Brazilian experts who will establish a program and practical steps to accomplish a 100% renewable energy supply on the island of Fernando de Noronha. If successful, the initiative will showcase collaboration between the U.S. and Brazil on renewable energy solutions, combine California’s and Brazil’s ingenuity on clean energy technologies, and transfer lessons learned on Fernando de Noronha to the mainland of Brazil and beyond, including to those island nations who pledged to go 100% renewable at COP22. Such sharing of technologies, expertise, and institutional knowledge across the globe, between both developed and developing regions, to create location-specific practical solutions will be essential to accelerating the scale up of renewable energy, as well as complimentary technologies like energy storage and zero emissions vehicles. The more successful test cases there are, and the more widespread the environmental benefits and economic opportunities, the faster we will make progress and the more likely we will be to prevent the worst case scenarios of climate change. This is imperative because while national politics on climate may be fickle, the fundamental science is not. The Renewables 100 Policy Institute is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization founded in 2007 with a mission to study and accelerate the global transition to 100% renewable energy in ways that are most efficient, sustainable, and economically beneficial to the most people.

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THE COMING STORM OVER

BANGLADESH by Nancy Wimmer • photos by Subrin Al Azad

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ooking down from a plane flying high over Bangladesh you will see a vast floodplain stretching between the Himalayas and the Bay of Bengal. That shimming green expanse is the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta - the largest river delta on the planet. The delta is huge because almost all water running off the highest mountain range on earth has to pass through it. It has more waterways than roads and is transformed into a fertile plain when its great rivers overflow their banks and replenish the delta with rich alluvial soil.

Fact is the country once dubbed as a basket case – is on its way to becoming a middle income economy by its 50th birthday in 2021. The reality is that the average Bangladeshi lives longer, girls’ education has soared, per capita food intake has increased and poverty has dropped by nearly a third during the last decade. Bangladesh is one of the few low-income countries on target to achieve its Millennium Development Goals. Roads have been much improved and telecommunications have undergone a mobile-phone revolution.

On the fertile delta rice can be grown three times a year, making Bangladesh the fourth largest rice producing country in the world. Just before the harvest the rice fields turn to a brilliant yellow covering the countryside like a carpet of gold. Amar Sonar Bangla, My Golden Bangladesh – begins the national anthem.

Bangladesh is the renowned founder of microfinance, which created a worldwide movement. Hundreds of MFIs provide microcredit, insurance and health services to the poor – more than in any country in the world. Now many are bringing solar electricity to the villages and have made Bangladesh the largest off-grid solar home system provider in the world.

But vast stretches of golden rice fields are not usually what come to mind when you think of Bangladesh. Instead hunger, poverty and 160 million people crammed into a silted delta swept by cyclones and devastating floods dominate the scene. And this is in part reality in the country of Bengal. But there is more.

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No other developing country has achieved this on a national scale. Over four million solar systems light up the villages, reducing carbon dioxide (CO²) emissions by more than 500,000 metric tons per year.


But the reality is that with two-thirds of its land at less than five meters above sea level, Bangladesh is the country most vulnerable to climate change. The World Bank’s Turn Down the Heat report reveals long-term implications for Bangladesh and its people from probable catastrophic impacts of climate change. It paints a very dismal scenario of the delta’s future as climate change continues to take its toll - causing flash floods, cyclones, storm surges, extreme temperatures and drought. True, river deltas around the globe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of rising seas, and wealthier cities like London, Venice and New Orleans also face uncertain futures. But they can’t compare with the Ganges Delta made up of 230 major rivers and streams where 160 million people live in a place the size of England and Wales combined.

Already, signs of erosion are everywhere on the delta. Palm trees grow out of rivers, cattle graze on slowly disappearing land, parched soil, fields near the Bay of Bengal are dusted white with salt. Estimates state that rising sea levels alone will displace 18 million Bangladeshis within the next 40 years. But surveys also show that residents of the delta do not want to migrate to other countries, but rather to the already crowded cities: as many as 1.5 million of the five million slum inhabitants in Dhaka, the capital, moved from villages near the Bay of Bengal. Climate change is reality in Bangladesh. It’s already happening. And the people of Bangladesh cannot slow it down – alone.

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The Future of Construction is Here: Inflatable Concrete The Vienna University of Technology has developed a new construction method that doesn’t require any timber structures at all!

Have you ever wondered why large shell-shaped structures are rarely built? It’s because the construction of such structures require large and expensive supporting structures. This is what The Vienna University of Technology has been working on. They have developed a new construction method that doesn’t require any timber structures at all! An overview of this method is as follows: First, a flat concrete slab will be allowed to harden on the ground, then an air cushion below the plate will be inflated, and therefore bending the concrete and completely forming a sustainable shell. Even large event halls can be built using this method. In Vienna, a first experimental structure has now been built by using this method. The Pneumatic Wedge Method First, a flat slab will be created using standard concrete, while making sure to get the geometic shape exactly right. The slab will consist of several segments. Wedge-shaped spaces will be left between these segments, so that they will fit together perfectly once the structure is bent.

Once the slab hardens, and air cushion below is inflated. The cushion is made up of two plastic sheets that are welded together. At the same time, a steel cable is tightened around the concrete segments so that the concrete will be lifted up at the center, and pushed together from the outside. To make sure that all the concrete segments are moving synchronously, they are connected with metal beams. In the experiment, the whole process was finished after two hours and the final height of the concrete structure was 2.9 meters. When the concrete is bent, there are many tiny cracks that appear, but this isn’t a problem for the stability of the structure. We can see that in old stone arches,” Johann Kollegger said. “If the shape is right, each stone holds the others in place and the construction is stable.” At the end of the process, the structure can be plastered and will have just the same properties as stable as a concrete shell that is constructed the conventional way.

Source: Science Daily / TU Wein 56

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This Engineer is Among the

Miss Universe 2016 Contestants

When she is not wearing heels in beauty pageants, the 21-year-old beauty queen wears boots with steel toes in farms doing her engineering job. By Dion Greg Reyes

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hen watching the world’s most prestigious beauty pageant, one would never think that any of the gorgeous contestants owning the stage can be an engineer. One would normally regard them as fashion models, or any job related to glamour for that matter, because of the damn sexy bodies they flaunt. But perhaps that thinking should already perish in this century. Women are becoming engaged in science and engineering fields more than ever, while still keeping their interests in contests like Miss Universe. The ‘beauty and brains’ formula has become common that it should no longer surprise pageant followers. In the 65th Miss Universe pageant held in Manila, Philippines, there is one engineer among the 86 beautiful contestants who proudly represented their nations. Although she did not win the crown, her participation in the world’s most celebrated beauty contest is enough to prove something on behalf of engineers. She is Connie Jiménez, Miss Universe Ecuador 2016 and an agribusiness engineer. Connie, born in Ventanas, Los Rios, has a one-of-a-kind engineering job. Also known as an engineer agronomist, an agribusiness engineer is a challenging work especially for women, Connie tells over a Missosology interview.

When she is not wearing heels in beauty pageants, the 21-year-old beauty queen wears boots with steel toes in farms doing her job. There, she feeds farm animals like pigs, cows and fishes, and uses “Machete”, pickaxes and other tools that often make her hands bleed. “Those responsibilities made me value the work of many women around the world that with their strong hands produce food for their family and [the] world,” she says.

“Those responsibilities made me value the work of many women around the world that with their strong hands produce food for their family and [the] world,”

Behind the long gowns and swim suits she wears on stage, Connie believes that her being an engineer is an edge for she fights to break stereotypes. She feels that this quality makes her winnable. “It shows I can become [whoever] I want,” citing that she is a strong woman with a man’s profession, and even able to lead an agribusiness company. Miss Ecuador had great following in the pageant considering her exceptional beauty. Too bad the judges haven’t seen that and the fact that she’s placing the name of engineers on a different pedestal. If she could have won, she tells the Miss Universe Organization that among her advocacies is to work on projects that teach people how to keep producing food in an eco-friendly way.

Source: Miss Universe

Article Source: Missosology Climate Change Revolution • February 2017

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AFRICA’S 8 MOST MINERAL-RICH COUNTRIES by Dion Greg Reyes

If there is only one word that is to be associated with Africa, it has got to be minerals. Its soils are so rich in mineral deposits spanning the entire continent. But which countries have the most abundant mineral resources? Here are the top 8 countries:

Source: Chege Publishing

BOTSWANA Being the world’s leading producer of diamonds by value, Botswana holds 35% of Africa’s diamonds majority of which are gem quality. Diamonds count as the country’s main industry and hold the huge chunk of its gross domestic product. But other than diamonds, Botswana also has bounty of copper, gold, nickel, and soda ash.

ZAMBIA Holding about 65 to 77 % of Africa’s copper supply, Zambia holds the title of being the leading copper producer in the continent. This material is often used in the area for electrical wiring in the building and construction industries. Source: Mine Web

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO Congo, or the Democratic Republic of Congo, produces 34% and 13% of the Africa’s diamond and copper respectively. It is estimated to have more than $24 trillion worth of untapped raw mineral ore deposits. Source: Mining

Source: CNBC

Source: Market Watch

GHANA Second to South Africa, Ghana is also one of the largest producer of gold in South Africa. Of the country’s mineral exports, gold contributes more than 90% and 37% in total exports.

SOUTH AFRICA Among the many countries comprising Africa, this one from the south is hailed the richest economy in the continent thanks mostly to its mining industry. South Africa is home to many minerals like diamonds and gold, while being the world’s largest producer of chrome, manganese, platinum, vanadium, and vermiculite, and world’s second largest when it comes to ilmenite, palladium, rutile, and zirconium.

NIGER Niger has about 44% of Africa’s uranium supply. But other than that mineral, it also mines for cement, coal, goal, gypsum, limestone, salt, silver, and tin. Source: Clean Technica

NAMIBIA Namibia has an economy dependent on uranium, which accounts to nearly a quarter of the country’s annual income. That’s because it’s so rich in uranium that 46% of the continent’s deposit can be found there. Source: World Atlas

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GUINEA This has the most unique mineral deposits: bauxite and alumina. Guinea holds more than 95% of Africa’s bauxite production while it is the only African produce of alumina. Source: Ramu Mine


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BACK COVER

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February 2017 Issue No 012  

GineersNow February 2017 Issue No 012