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SWANSEA CENTRAL

A R C H A EOLOGICAL DESK -BASED A SS ESSM ENT 23 MARCH 2017

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14. ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESK-BASED ASSESSMENT

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 3 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................ 10 REVIEW OF DOCUMENTARY, CARTOGRAPHIC AND AERIAL RESOURCES .... 15 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INTERESTS ........................................................................................ 21 ASSESSMENT .............................................................................................................................. 34 MITIGATION ............................................................................................................................. 41 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................... 44 APPENDIX I: FIGURES ............................................................................................................. 46 APPENDIX II: PLATES .............................................................................................................. 55 APPENDIX III: AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS WITH COVERAGE OF THE ALLOCATION AREA............................................................................................................... 70 APPENDIX IV: GAZETTEER OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL INTERESTS ........................... 72

Table 1: Identified archaeological interests within Study Area ........................................................................................................... 21 Table 2: Direct effects of the development on archaeological interests, showing all sites within or immediately adjacent to the development ........................................................................................................................................................................ 34 Table 3: Indirect effects on the archaeological resource ..................................................................................................................... 39 Table 4: Recommended archaeological mitigation ............................................................................................................................... 42 Figure 1: Location of the development area (red outline) and study area (green outline) with locations of figures 2 to 6. ... 46 Figure 2: Sites of archaeological interest within the development area (red and blue) including the supposed line of the medieval defences (green). ....................................................................................................................................................... 47 Figure 3: Northwest region of the study area (green outline), showing the development area (red outline) and sites of archaeological interest (red). .................................................................................................................................................... 48 Figure 4: Eastern region of the study area (green outline), showing the development area (red outline) and sites of archaeological interest (red). .................................................................................................................................................... 49 Figure 5: Southeast region of the study area (green outline) showing the development area (red outline) and sites of archaeological interest (red). .................................................................................................................................................... 50 Figure 6: Southwest region of the study area (green outline) showing the development area (red outline) and sites of archaeological interest (red). .................................................................................................................................................... 51 Figure 7: First Edition Ordnance Survey map (1879) showing the proposed development area (red outline). ....................... 52 Figure 8: Second Edition Ordnance Survey map (1899) showing the proposed development area (red outline) ................... 53 Figure 9: Third Edition Ordnance Survey map (1919) showing the proposed development area (red outline) ...................... 54 Plate 1: An engraved view of Swansea, from Emmanuel Bowen’s Map of South Wales, 1729. ................................................. 55 Plate 2: Plan of Swansea, 1828, by John Evans. The development area is shown in the top left. ............................................... 56 Plate 3: A detailed view of John Evan’s Plan of 1828, showing the development area. Note ‘White Walls’, and Rutland Place, which follow the supposed line of the defences. ..................................................................................................... 57 Plate 4: A Plan of 1846, showing the development area. St Mary’s Church is at the top right. ................................................... 58 Plate 5: 1941 Plan, showing parts of Swansea which had been destroyed during the ‘Three Night’s Blitz’. ............................. 59 Plate 6: An oblique view of central Swansea, 1939, looking north-northwest, with the proposed development on the far left ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 60 Plate 7: Aerial Photograph of 1945, showing the areas damaged by bombs during the Second World War. Note the shell of Rutland Street School (centre) and St Mary’s Church (centre-left). ................................................................................. 61 Plate 8: 1968 Aerial photograph of central Swansea, showing clearance underway for new development ............................... 62 Plate 9: An original gift of a burgage in Fisher Street, dated to the year 1400. ............................................................................... 62 Plate 10: Great Western Railway revetment Walls (02398w, 34869, LB 11652) ............................................................................. 63 Plate 11: Car Park south of Oystermouth Road, with the Great Western Railway embankment on the far side. ................... 64 Plate 12: The development area from Oystermouth Road, looking northwest. ............................................................................. 64 Plate 13: The development area, looking north from Oystermouth Road towards St Mary’s Church ...................................... 65 Plate 14: St David’s Catholic Church and Presbytery, view to northwest ........................................................................................ 65 Plate 15: View Southeast from Princess Way, along the approximate line of Fisher Street, towards York Place. ................... 66 Plate 16: The Cross Keys Public House (02788w, 18453, LB 11635) from Princess Way, view to Northeast. The Cross Keys Public House is thought to include elements of The Hospital of the Blessed St David (00955w, 00431w, 18453, LB 11635)....................................................................................................................................................................... 66 Plate 17: The County Court and other Early 20th Century buildings on the south side of St Mary’s Street, view to East.... 67 Plate 18: St Mary’s Church, view to North ........................................................................................................................................... 68 Plate 19: Statue of H. H. Vivian (06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634) St Mary’s Square, view to South.................................. 69

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1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 PLANNING HISTORY 1.1.1

The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd have been commissioned by City and County of Swansea to carry out an archaeological desk based assessment in preparation for the redevelopment of the former St David’s Shopping Centre, Central Swansea (NGR SS 65523 92724). The desk based assessment was commissioned following advice from the archaeological advisors to the local planning authority, and reviewed information held by the Regional Historic Environment Record (HER), the National Monuments Record (NMR), Scheduled Ancient Monument and Listed Building information, as well as examining aerial photographs, cartographic and documentary sources.

1.1.2

A total of 303 sites of archaeological interest were identified within the study area, of which 43 were located within or immediately adjacent to the development area. It is considered that the proposed development will have a ‘Severe’ effect on 06453w (St David’s Shopping Centre), and a ‘Minor’ effect on 37 other sites. Indirectly, the development is anticipated to have a ‘Slight’ effect on six sites and a ‘Very Slight’ effect on six others.

1.1.3

The proposed mitigation for the above effects entails an archaeological field evaluation to be undertaken following demolition works east of Rutland Street/Rutland Place, due to the significant possibility of finding remains relating to the medieval town. An archaeological watching brief should also be undertaken on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, again focusing particularly on those areas which could fall within the area of the medieval town. Consultation with Cadw should be sought regarding the indirect effects of the development on the surrounding area, including the relocation of statue 06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634. Reference should also be made to the built heritage report compiled by Edward Holland of Holland Heritage (Holland 2016) which considers these effects in more detail.

1.1.4

The work has been undertaken to the professional standards of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists and is intended to meet the Standards and Guidance For Historic Environment Desk-based Assessments (2014).

1.2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1.2.1

The project has been managed by Martin Tuck MCIfA (Project Manager) and the report was researched and prepared by Thomas Davies MA (Archaeologist) of GGAT Projects. The illustrations were prepared by Paul Jones PCIfA (Senior Illustrator) and Charlotte James-Martin ACIfA (Project Officer). The author is grateful to Vivien Davies (CRAPW), Nigel Davies (Cadw), RCAHMW and The West Glamorgan Archive Service for their assistance with the research into this report.

1.3 COPYRIGHT NOTICE 1.3.1

The copyright of this report is held by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, who have granted an exclusive licence to City and County of Swansea and their agents enabling them to use

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and reproduce the material it contains. Ordnance Survey maps are reproduced under licence (AL10005976), unless otherwise stated. Annotations are GGAT copyright.

1.4 SPECIFICATION AND METHODOLOGY FOR STUDY 1.4.1

The desk-based assessment comprises a review of existing information about the archaeological resource within a study area, which comprises the development area and a 0.5km buffer zone centred on NGR SS 65523 92724 (outlined in green on Figure 1). The assessment is intended to conform to the Chartered Institute for Archaeologist’s Standards in British Archaeology: Archaeological desk-based assessments (1994, amended 1999, 2001, 2008, 2012 and 2014).

1.4.2

Information recorded on the regional Historic Environment Record (HER) (Enquiry Reference: 449) and National Monuments Record (NMR) (Enquiry Reference: RC16-0590) was assessed. Cartographic and documentary sources were studied, along with relevant published information. Current Listed Building data and information on Scheduled Ancient Monuments and Registered landscapes was obtained from Cadw. Collections of aerial photographs held by the Central Register of Aerial Photography for Wales (CRAPW) were also examined (Enquiry Reference: W-AP-PR 16-222).

1.4.3

Detailed advice on archaeology in the planning process is contained in Welsh Office Circular 60/96 Planning and the Historic Environment: Archaeology. Works affecting an ancient monument and its setting are protected through implementation of the Ancient Monument and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 and The Historic Environment (Wales) Act 2016. Detailed advice on Environmental Impact Assessment is contained within Welsh Office Circular 11/99 Environmental Impact Assessment, which forms part of the wider Archaeology Planning Policy Wales (PPW). This document sets out the land use planning policies of the Welsh Assembly Government. Planning Policy Wales is supplemented by a series of TANs, and together with the Welsh Office Circulars comprise the National Planning Policy.

1.4.4

The Ancient Monument and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 and The Historic Environment (Wales) Act 2016 sets out a presumption in favour of preservation in-situ concerning sites and monuments of national importance (scheduled), and there exists in the current Planning Policy Wales (Chapter 6) a presumption in favour of preservation in-situ of all types of archaeological sites and monuments.

1.5 ABBREVIATIONS CRAPW: GGAT: EXXXXXX HER: LB: LPA: NGR: NMR: NPRN: PGW: PRN: RCAHMW:

Central Register of Air Photography for Wales Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Event of archaeological significance recorded in the HER Historic Environment Record (curated by GGAT Curatorial) Listed Building Local Planning Authority National Grid Reference National Monuments Record (curated by RCAHMW) National Primary Record Number (in NMR) Registered Park and Garden in Wales (Cadw and ICOMOS UK 1998) Primary Record Number (in HER - indicated by a letter suffix, in this case ‘w’) Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 4

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SAM: SDXXX:

Scheduled Ancient Monument (prefixed by the letters GM) A new site of archaeological interest discovered during the desk-based assessment

1.6 ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 1.6.1

Direct effects (Monuments) The archaeological sites within the study area are categorised in accordance with the only available criteria that are nationally agreed; these values are set out in the Department of Transport/Welsh Office/Scottish Office Design Manual for Roads and Bridges paragraph 3.4 Vol. 11 Section 3 Part 2 (HA 208/07 Cultural Heritage). Category A: national importance Category B: regional importance Category C: local importance Category D: low importance To these an additional category has been added Category U: unknown

1.6.2

The assessment of the importance of individual sites is essentially a subjective exercise based upon the experience of the project team. The importance of certain sites will be implied by their status within the statutory framework. Scheduled Ancient Monuments will always be of national importance; Listed Buildings will be of at least regional importance. Values assigned to other sites are given both in relation to their individual importance and to their context within the wider landscape.

1.6.3

The condition of individual sites and the general overall condition of surviving remains has bearing on the value of the sites themselves and on the value that they impart within a wider landscape context. The condition of sites is recorded following the system used by the GGAT HER, using the following criteria: Intact: the site is intact Near intact: the site is nearly intact Damaged: the site has been moderately damaged Near destroyed: the site has nearly been destroyed Destroyed: the site has been destroyed Restored: the site has been restored Moved: the site has been moved (usually finds) Not known: the condition of the site is not known

1.6.4

For the purposes of desk-based assessments, rarity is assessed at regional level only. The following criteria are used: High: very few sites of this type are known Medium: the site is not unusual, but cannot be considered common Low: the site is quite common

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1.6.5

Group association is where a connection between sites within the landscape can be demonstrated. These will usually be of the same period, but may include groups where the presence of an earlier site or sites has led to the formation of a later complex, or where an earlier site or sites can be shown to have acquired importance as part of a later complex. The criteria are as follows: High: the site forms part of an interconnected complex occupying a clearly definable landscape where little or no fragmentation has occurred Medium: the site is part of an interconnected complex, which is either limited in scope or badly fragmented Low: there are few or no other sites, which are associated

1.6.6

Historical association is where there is a link between the site and known historical or cultural persons or events. Prehistoric sites, which are by definition before historical evidence, cannot have any contemporary historical association, but they may acquire later associations. For the Roman and Early-medieval periods, where survival of historical evidence is poor and patchy, any contemporary documentation at all will be important. Two classifications are given for historical association, one reflecting the certainty of the identification, and the other its importance. Only sites with certain or possible association can be assessed for importance, and historical association can only increase the importance of a site; the absence of it will never decrease its importance.

1.6.7

Historical association- identification Certain Possible Unknown

1.6.8

Historical association- importance High Medium Low

1.6.9

The assignment of values to identified interests requires consideration of the reliability and accuracy of the source data, ranging from fully-recorded features seen in open excavation to antiquarian comments on finds of note from a poorly-defined location. The confidence with which the values have been assigned is noted, using the following criteria: High: existing information is reliable and detailed Medium: existing information is apparently reliable but limited in detail Low: existing information is too limited to allow its reliability to be assessed

1.6.10 The effect of the proposal on the archaeological resource has been assessed using the following criteria: Severe: total loss Major: significant loss, likely to result in a reduction of value of the surviving site Minor: loss unlikely to result in a reduction of value of the surviving site GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 6

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None: no identifiable effect Beneficial: development will protect, preserve or enhance the site better than if the development did not occur Indirect Effects (Monument and Landscape settings) 1.6.11 Indirect effects identified for the archaeological resource include those of visibility and setting issues. Only monuments of National and Regional importance with a direct visual significance will be assessed for indirect effects. If the development is situated within (or sometimes in close proximity to) a Registered Historic Landscape then an ASIDOHL2 (Assessment of the Significance of the Impact of Development on Historic Landscape) assessment is usually required. Although the current development is not located within a Registered Historic Landscape, it is thus considered important to assess the potential indirect impact of the development upon the archaeological resource of the area. 1.6.12 The following indirect visual assessment does not conform to the full ASIDOHL2 methodology. However, in order to ensure a thorough evaluation, indirect effects have been assessed employing the principles of ASIDOHL2. 1.6.13 Indirect effects to category A and B sites will be measured against criteria for the assessment of indirect, visual impacts based upon the ASIDOHL2 methodology in Guide to Good Practice on Using the Register of Landscapes of Historic Interest in Wales in the Planning and Development Process (2nd Edition 2007). The grading for the assessment is as follows: Very severe: the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument are dominated or obscured by the development. The form, scale and appearance, including motion, of the development, compromise the cultural integrity of the monument and its setting resulting in severance of historical links and/or degradation of an unaltered setting. Severe: the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument are interrupted by the development. The form, scale and appearance, including motion, of the development, largely affects the cultural value of the monument and its setting resulting in possible severance of historical links and/or uncharacteristic change to a largely unaltered setting. Considerable: the development is significantly visible in or interrupts the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument. The form and appearance, including motion of the development results in discordance with the monument and change to a largely unaltered setting. Moderate: the development is visible in key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument and its setting. The form and appearance, including motion of the development results in discordance with the monument and/or alteration to its setting. Slight: the development is noticeable in key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument and its setting. The form and appearance, including motion of the development is noticeable and results in minor alteration to the setting of the monument. Very slight: the development is barely noticeable within the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument. The setting is already largely altered and unsympathetic and/or the form and appearance, including motion of the development is barely noticeable and results in little discernible change to the setting. None: the development is not noticeable within the setting of, key views and/or essential lines of sight to and from the monument. The setting is already altered and unsympathetic and/or the form and appearance, including motion of the development is not noticeable and results in no discernible change to the setting. GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 7

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1.6.14 The assessment of individual sites is essentially a subjective exercise based upon the experience of the project team. The following aspects will be considered when determining the results of the assessment: Any potential impacts that the development may have on the relationships of the monument to its surrounding landscape, including other monuments. The nature, extent and intrinsic value of the monument’s setting, including its role in relation to the monument; the impact to both the immediate, essential setting and the wider setting is considered. Interference with the inter-visibility between the monument and other related monuments or particular landscape elements, impact to key viewpoints, vistas and lines of sight. 1.6.15 The purpose of the monument and significance of views to and from it will be considered in terms of visual intention. Whilst the location, construction and function of some monuments were specifically chosen to afford views of a particular area or monument(s), others may instead have been the targets of observation. The visual impact of the development in terms of form, scale, appearance and the effect of movement of constituent parts as well as the extent of encroachment of the development into the setting (both immediate and wider) of the monument should be considered. 1.6.16 Impacts to the direct lines of sight as well as impacts upon wider views of monuments will be determined and graded using the categories described above (very severe down to very slight). 1.6.17 It should be noted that this a more detailed analysis of the built heritage within the development area has been conducted by Holland Heritage (Holland 2016).

1.7 HEDGEROW REGULATIONS 1.7.1

The Environment Act 1995 (section 95) allowed regulations to be drawn up to protect important hedgerows from activities that were not subject to planning consent. The Environment Act 1995 Hedgerow Regulations 1997 were specifically intended to provide objective criteria of importance which could be applied consistently across England and Wales. Thus although administered by the local planning authorities, the opportunity to develop local criteria for protection was restricted to designation as a key landscape characteristic for development control purposes (Section7b ii) by the relevant date (April 1997). The regulations permit the removal of any hedgerow (including any stretch of hedgerow) for ‘carrying out development for which planning permission has been granted’ on the basis that the development control process provides a framework for weighing up the loss of hedgerows against the benefits of a proposal. Thus in such a context the significance of surviving hedgerows needs to be considered.

1.7.2

The regulations were the subject of a review by the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Review of the Hedgerow Regulations 1997 (1998), which suggested a simplified set of criteria, notably to include all pre-1845 or pre-1800 hedgerows where the field system is substantially complete. The Government noted the proposed changes but has not endorsed them (The Government’s response to the Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Committee’s Report ‘The Protection of Field Boundaries’ 1999). The 1997 criteria therefore remain in force.

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Judicial Review of the application of the regulations (Flintshire County Council v NAW and Mr J T Morris) has clarified the interpretation of some of the criteria. 1.7.3

The criteria of historic importance in The Hedgerow Regulations 1997 can be summarised as: marking a parish or township boundary incorporating or associated with a Scheduled Ancient Monument or site on the SMR at the relevant date marking a pre-1600 AD manor or estate boundary, or related to a building of such a manor or estate part of a field system pre-dating 1845 shown on a map in a Record Office part of a pre-1845 field system that is substantially complete part of a pre-1845 field system where the pattern was identified in 1997 as a key landscape characteristic There are other criteria relating to rights of way and ecology.

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2 BACKGROUND 2.1 LOCATION, TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY 2.1.1

The proposed development is centred on NGR SS 65523 92724 (Figure 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5), within Swansea City Centre. The area is heavily urbanised, with commercial premises, industrial areas and residential areas within the 0.5km study area. The development area is currently the site of the St David’s Shopping Centre, and the Quadrant. Topographically, the site is on the flat coastal plain, between approximately 6m and 10m AOD.

2.1.2

The underlying geology consists of Mudstone, Siltstone and Sandstone of the South Wales Middle Coal Measures Formation, overlain by Glaciofluvial Ice Contact Deposits of Devensian Sand and Gravel, and windblown sand deposits (BGS 2016).

2.2 HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND 2.2.1

Swansea is thought to have its origins in the early medieval period, although several prehistoric and Roman finds suggest much earlier human activity in the area - notably a Bronze Age flat axe (00441w) from the community of Castle, Roman coins of the late 3rd and early 4th centuries discovered in Castle Street (PRN 00423w) and Roman Pottery (03255w) found at North Dock, just northeast of the study area (Bowden 2009).

2.2.2

It is believed that Swansea originated as a Scandinavian trading port in the 9th or 10th centuries, with ‘Swansea’ deriving from ‘Sveinn’ and ‘ey’, the former element being a personal name and the latter being an island or inlet (Davies 2015). Such activity would likely have been focused around the natural harbour near the mouth of the River Tawe, perhaps with an associated settlement nearby, although whether this was temporary or permanent in nature remains a matter of debate (Gabb, 2006, 441-2; Williams 1990, 1 – 3). However, the only early medieval artefactual evidence recovered is a single 9th century Hiberno-Norse ring pin (Bowden 2009), discovered on Swansea Beach, near Mumbles (Gabb 2006, 410 - 411). Otherwise, no physical archaeological evidence has been found of settlement earlier than the twelfth century, when the first castle was constructed (HER).

2.2.3

Swansea’s first castle (00438w, 275871, GM441), located approximately 230m northeast of the development, probably began life as a wooden motte and bailey, established by Henry de Beaumont, Earl of Warwick (In HER and Jones 1920 – alternatively Henry de Buwick in RCAHMW 2000), who was granted the territory of Gower in 1106. The castle served as the caput of the commote of Gŵyr and a settlement quickly sprang up beside the castle, soon gaining borough status (RCAHMW 2000, 346). In 1116, the Brut y Tywysogyon (Chronicle of the Princes), records that Gruffudd ap Rhys attacked a number of castles in Southwest Wales: ‘he sent his comrades to make an attack and a raid upon a castle that was situated near Swansea. And that belonged to an earl called Henry Beaumont.’ (Jones 1955, 87). Whilst the outer bailey was burned, a tower (probably the motte) held out and the attack failed (ibid.). Contention between the Welsh and English was a feature of Gower and Swansea in the Middle Ages, and the town changed hands several times. Masonry defences were probably constructed by John De Braose in 1221, but the existing structure largely belongs to the ‘New Castle’ (00426w, 94515, LB11568, GM012). This structure, located in the southeast corner of the rectangular outer bailey of the earlier castle, appears

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largely to date from the late 13th century, with additions of the first half of the 14th century (RCAHMW 2000). 2.2.4

Regardless of whether a settlement existed prior to the coming of the Normans, by the twelfth century a town was focused on the outer bailey of the castle, northwards along High Street and south-eastwards along Wind Street, thus forming an ‘L’ shape (City Witness www.medievalswansea.ac.uk/en/): the first charter dates to the time of William de Newburgh, between 1153 and 1184 (Soulsby 1983; 242). In this charter, William, the Earl of Warwick, granted certain customs to the burgesses, including grazing and hunting rights (Jones 1920, 154-55). The town developed further, with murage grants (permission to raise money for town defences) being received in 1317 and 1338 – these defences (00436w, 02769w, 02771w) were at least partly in place by 1332, when St David’s Hospital (00431w, 18453) was founded ‘within the wall’ (Soulsby 1983, 243). The course of the defences remains the subject of scholarly speculation, but the current evidence suggests that it would have passed west of St Mary’s Church, Wassail Place and parallel to Rutland Place (which is thought to mark the line of the town ditch) to the bottom of Wind Street (Soulsby 1983; Evans 1991, 1; Spurgeon 2001, 208; City Witness www.medievalswansea.ac.uk/en/). Elements of the ditch associated with these defences were discovered within the development area in 1980 (Spurgeon 2001, 208). Spurgeon notes that a gatehouse – the Wassail Gate - stood at the west side of Frog Street/ St Mary’s Square, and was maintained by the corporation until the eighteenth century (ibid.).

2.2.5

The Hospital of the Blessed St David (00955w, 00431w, 18453, LB 11635) was founded by Bishop Henry de Gower to care for the sick and infirm: today, the Cross Keys public house (02788w, 18453, LB 11635) stands on the foundations of the hospital, and preserves some of its original medieval fabric, notably fourteenth century windows. The hospital was granted to Sir George Herbert in 1547 and converted to an inn (HER). The hospital was also closely associated with St Mary’s Church (00430w, 400057, LB 11632) – first evidenced in the 1291 Taxatio Ecclesiae, although it is likely that the church was in existence from at least the early thirteenth century (Sell 2011, 3). An Old Rectory (00437w) is also known to have existed on the west side of Fisher Street, and later became the residence of the master of the hospital (HER).

2.2.6

The town seems to have grown only gradually during the later medieval and early Post-medieval period: the Black Death in the 14th century, economic problems associated with the Hundred Years’ War, and the Glyndwr rebellion of the early 15th century are all likely to have stunted the growth of the town at this time. With the Act of Union, which merged the lordships of Gower and Glamorgan into the County of Glamorganshire, Swansea’s caput status vanished, as Cardiff became the administrative centre of the new county (Williams 1990, 12).

2.2.7

Despite the loss of its caput functions, Swansea remained a borough and an important port. Its population has been estimated at 1,000 in the mid 16th century, based on calculations made from a Chantry Certificate of 1545 (Soulsby 1983, 246; Williams 1990, 17). However, it gradually increased into the 17th century – estimates based on the surviving parish registers suggest a population of 1,390 in 1631 and 1,887 in 1639 (Williams 1990, 18), still largely living within the limits of the medieval town.

2.2.8

Swansea, with its location on the River Tawe, had from early in its life had been a port and market town, but from the 16th and 17th centuries onwards it became increasingly important as a centre for exporting coal (3000 tons were exported annually between 1591 and 1600, but this had grown to 12,000 tons between 1631 and 1640 (Williams 1990, 16). Later, Swansea also became a centre for the production and export of non-ferrous metals, especially copper, with the first copper works in the Lower Swansea Valley opening in 1716 (ibid.). Thence, Swansea rapidly expanded, to become perhaps the most important copper exporting port in the world: in its heyday perhaps 90% of all GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 11

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Britain’s copper smelting capacity was located within 20 miles of Swansea (Hughes 2000, 16). This economic boom further facilitated rapid population growth, from 1,792 inhabitants in 1707 to 10,117 in 1801, and 94,537 by 1901 (Bowden 2009, 12), and as such, the town rapidly outgrew its medieval boundaries. 2.2.9

Swansea was also home to the world’s oldest passenger carrying railway, the Mumbles Railway (or Oystermouth Tramroad as it is sometimes known) (02811.0w), which opened in 1804 using horse drawn carriages. The course of the railway followed Oystermouth Road. The tramway later converted to steam locomotives in 1877, was electrified in 1929, and finally closed in 1960 (HER).

2.2.10 During the 20th century, the copper and coal industries gradually fell into decline following the advent of cheaper coal and copper overseas (Hughes 2000). However, Swansea remained a significant port and major centre of industry within South Wales, with a population of 167,000 people by the outbreak of the Second World War (Alban 1994, 1). The most drastic change to the character of central Swansea in recent times was undoubtedly the Second World War. Between June 1940 and February 1943, no fewer than 40 air raids occurred on the city and the surrounding area. The most severe raids were on three consecutive nights 19th, 20th and 21st February 1941. This, the ‘Three Night’s Blitz’, caused 639 casualties: 230 people were killed. Additionally, no less than 41 acres of central Swansea were completely destroyed - including 282 houses and 575 business premises, with a further 11,084 structures damaged (Alban 1994). The destruction was concentrated in the section of the city centre immediately northeast of the development area, while some structures on the edge of the development area were also destroyed, particularly on the eastern side. The most noticeable of these buildings was St Mary’s Church, (which had been totally rebuilt between 1895 and 1899), which was destroyed by fire. 2.2.11 The destruction resulted in the almost total rebuilding of the city centre in the post-war years, although Swansea recovered only slowly – St Mary’s Church was only rebuilt between 1956 and 1959, and the final vacant plots were only filled in the 1960’s. Despite escaping the worst of the bombing, the streets within the proposed development area were flattened for redevelopment, including the construction of St David’s Shopping Centre (06453w) from the 1960’s. The destruction and reconstruction of Swansea city centre fundamentally changed the character of the city and damaged the later Post-medieval structures. This is further discussed in the aerial photography section below. 2.2.12 A search of the regional Historic Environment Record (Enquiry No. 449) revealed 225 sites of interest within the Study Area. Those within or close to the development area are included in a gazetteer in Appendix IV, along with sites identified by the RCAHMW and Cadw (sites represented in all three datasets have been combined in the gazetteer).

2.3 PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS 2.3.1

No fewer than 69 events of archaeological significance have taken place within the study area. However, the majority have been located to the northeast of the development in the area of the medieval town, particularly in the vicinity of the Castle. Of the 69 events, 6 have taken place within the development area.

2.3.2

These events include two excavations: the first (E000637) was conducted in 1980, at Wassail Place, by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust. Construction work between St Mary’s Church, Princess Way and Oystermouth Road, discovered a Post-medieval kiln, used for the production of pottery (PRN 01103w). This find is unique in Swansea, and a group of intact vessels near the mouth

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of the kiln suggest that it dates to the first half of the 18th century (Parkhouse and Sell 1980). The site is located approximately at NGR SS 6554 9279. 2.3.3

The second excavation (E001090) was also carried out by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust in 1991, between Rutland Street and Princess Way. No archaeological features were discovered relating to the medieval period during the course of the watching brief, suggesting that the area excavated, while within the supposed line of the town defences, was probably put to agricultural or horticultural use in the medieval period, although it notes that this does not preclude other activity nearby (Evans 1991, 8).

2.3.4

An archaeological watching brief was carried out (E000670) in 1980, which may have observed some parts of the town ditch. Evans (1991) and Soulsby (2001), noted the possible presence of the defensive ditch, at NGR SS 6562 9282 and SS 6570 9279), although this could in fact be related to a natural watercourse which once existed in the area, called the Cadle.

2.3.5

Other events include a photographic survey of the St David’s Shopping Centre conducted in 2012 (E003560), again by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, which recorded some of the Post-war buildings prior to demolition and conversion into a car park.

2.3.6

Another watching brief was conducted at St Mary’s Church in 2011 (E003379). This found burials, relocated during reconstruction of the church, either in the 1890’s or the 1950’s. Demolition deposits were also discovered, thought to be associated with housing also destroyed during the late Victorian church reconstruction (See SD002 below) (Sell 2011, 118).

2.3.7

A previous desk-based assessment (E003696) was carried out by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust in 1992, focused on the proposed redevelopment of Swansea Gasworks, as well as the St David’s centre. The study identified the potential of remains associated with the medieval town, together with the town defences, along the line of the former Rutland Street, the possible site of the Wassail Gate (See SD001 below) and to the east. It also identified the potential for late medieval and Post-medieval activity immediately outside the Wassail Gate on Wassail Place (including the pottery kiln described above), and possible peat deposits in the area of the gasworks. It recommended a programme of archaeological evaluation to determine the nature and extent of these features and further archaeological work during the course of the development.

2.3.8

Another significant excavation was that at Whitewalls in 1978-9 (E000669). This excavation, again carried out by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, discovered the remains of the medieval town wall. In this part of the town, the defences were found to consist of a sandstone wall bonded with clay, originally 1.4m wide, but later with an additional 0.5m thick ‘sleeve’ of masonry constructed against the interior face, giving a final width of 1.9m wide. Outside the wall, an irregularly shaped ditch was found, c.1.9m deep and 6m wide. A medieval building was discovered within the town defences – the surviving remains of this consisted of a masonry foundation, several floor layers and a hearth (Lightfoot, 1979).

2.3.9

An excavation at the Cross Keys Inn, east of the development, was undertaken in 1976-77, and discovered medieval and Post-medieval remains, presumably relating to the Hospital of the Blessed St David (E000624) – the earliest material included a 12th century arrowhead, but continuous occupation was evidenced from the 13th century onwards, although the extent of the hospital remains unclear (Sell 1993, 10 - 11).

2.3.10 A field evaluation (E004324), located at 14 – 17 St Mary’s Street, found no evidence of medieval structures, although a number of sherds of medieval pottery were recovered during the evaluation. GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 13

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An 18th century stable building, which appeared to survive until the Second World War, was also discovered (Maynard 1995).

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3 REVIEW

OF DOCUMENTARY, CARTOGRAPHIC AND AERIAL RESOURCES

3.1 CARTOGRAPHIC (APPENDIX I) 3.1.1

1682 ‘Street Map of Swansea. Taken from the Bishop Gore Handbook’

3.1.2

A newspaper cutting of a street map of Swansea, apparently taken from the Bishop Gore School Handbook and showing the location of the school which was set up in 1682. The map is very rudimentary, and may be a modern map based on earlier evidence: thus it cannot be relied upon for detailed information. It shows the location of the Old Castle, apparently as a square enclosure with a smaller structure within, atop a motte. The New Castle is depicted much as today to the South.

3.1.3

At this date, it suggests that the settlement was clustered around the castle, north along High Street, south along Wind Street, and Butter Street (location of St David’s Hospital/The Cross Keys). Houses were also depicted, however, on the east side of Fisher Street, the west side of Goat Street, on Market Lane and Cross Street, immediately north of St Mary’s Church. The Wassail Gate (SD001) and a gate on Goat St (later College Street) are also shown. The houses appear closely packed, perhaps representing the burgage plots, but stop short of the gates, with open space suggested immediately inside the defences. The walls themselves are not shown, although immediately inside the gates, a road labelled ‘whitewalls’ follows on the inside of the expected line of the wall.

3.1.4

The map also suggests that, prior to this date, only limited settlement could be expected outside the town gates to the west.

3.1.5

1729 – View of the port of Swansea, taken from Emmanuel Bowen’s map of South Wales (Plate 1)

3.1.6

A view of the port on Swansea, taken from Emmanuel Bowen’s map of South Wales. The document is an engraving, providing an oblique view of Swansea from the east bank of the Tawe. The town is shown clustered around the River Tawe, with the main concentration of buildings around the castle and immediately to the south: the tower of St Mary’s Church is visible. However, beyond a group of buildings to the north, presumably along High Street, and to the south right against the river (presumably Wind Street), nothing is shown further southwest – it appears to be open ground. It remains unclear, however, whether any houses existed northwest of the church, as the church tower appears on the skyline with no suggestion of what lay beyond it. Town walls appear to be shown to the north of the Castle, but it is unclear whether the walls survived on the west and south sides of the town at this time.

3.1.7

1814 – Ordnance Survey Map of Swansea Bay, from the River Tawe to Mumbles Head

3.1.8

This is a copy of a manuscript original of the Ordnance Survey Surveyor’s drawing of 1814, held in the British Library. Although the copy is of poor quality, the map itself is more detailed than the previous views. It shows that Swansea, by this date, was starting to expand beyond the limits of the medieval town defences, of which there appeared to be no sign by 1814. Houses were visible

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along Orange Street, Nelson Street, Nelson Terrace, Wassail Place, Greenfield Street and possibly Wellington Street, by this date. The areas further west appeared to remain open ground. 3.1.9

1828 – Plan of Swansea (Plates 2 and 3)

3.1.10 A photocopy of a plan of Swansea, dating to 1828. This again is of more detail than the preceding documents. It confirms the existence of Orange Street (named Lower Calvert Street), Nelson Street (labelled Nelson Place), Nelson Terrace, Greenfield Street (Greenfield Row), Wassail Street, and houses along the future Thomas Street, although Wellington Street is not shown. Rutland Place is also shown. The buildings appear to be terraced and confined to the streets – no gardens are shown behind, although in the city centre solid blocks are shown. Terraces of houses are also visible along three sides of St Mary’s Churchyard (SD002): to the north along Calvert Street, to the east along Cross Street, and to the South along Frog Street (St Mary’s Street): it is possible that these existed prior to 1828, but were not visible on the earlier, less detailed plan or engraving. 3.1.11 1843 - Tithe Map for the Parish of Swansea 3.1.12 The Tithe Map shows further incremental expansion when compared with the 1828 plan. A number of further streets had been constructed: Wellington Street and Garden Street were by this time in evidence, as far west as Meysydd Street. South of Oystermouth Road, and west of the development area, the land largely remained open. This is shown more clearly on a slightly later plan of 1846 (below). 3.1.13 1846 – ‘A Plan of the Town of Swansea, Glamorganshire, including the Harbour and Port Tennant’ (Plate 4) 3.1.14 This map is largely based on the Tithe Map, and shows that very little change had occurred in the intervening years. Alongside Oystermouth Road, the Oystermouth Tramroad or Mumbles Railway (02811.0w) is depicted. South of the road, an open sewer is shown (also depicted on the tithe), skirting an area with terraced housing called Goose Island (SD003) which had largely appeared since the Tithe. Houses had also appeared further west of Meysydd Street, and a Chapel had appeared on Nelson Terrace (SD004). To the west of this, the land is largely open, probably with an agricultural use, apart from the Gaol, infirmary and baths. One difference with the Tithe Map is the inclusion of the ‘New Gas Works’, with a single gasometer, immediately to the west of the development, which would in one form or another, survive until the 1990’s (02761w, 85432). 3.1.15 1852 – Swansea Local Board of Health 1852 Survey of the Borough of Swansea 3.1.16 The 1852 Local Board of Health maps show significantly more detail than the earlier 1843 Tithe and 1846 plans. A marble yard, shown but not specified on the Tithe and 1846 plans, is shown north of Wassail Street (SD005), and St David’s Roman Catholic Chapel (02368w, 123563, LB 11615) had by this time been built, with a school (SD006) constructed to the rear. Another Chapel – Bethania – had been constructed fronting onto Rutland Place (SD007). 3.1.17 1879 - First Edition Ordnance Survey Map 3.1.18 By the time of the First Edition Ordnance Survey map, the urban area had developed well beyond the western boundary of the development area. The map labels some of the significant structures and industries: notable examples include a foundry on the corner of Wellington Street and Thomas Street (03261w), timber yards between the gasworks and Thomas Street (03263w) and Sawmills GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 16

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between St David’s Street and Oystermouth Road (SD008). The Presbytery of St David’s Church (02369w, 409601, LB 11616) had also been constructed on the southeast corner of the church. The marble yard (SD005), may have gone by this time, to be replaced by a brewery (408486). A training college (labelled ‘female’) is also evident at the south end of Nelson Terrace (SD009). A tram station was also evident at the southeast end of Rutland Street (SD010), with a hotel adjoining it to the east. 3.1.19 To the south of Oystermouth Road, houses had been constructed on the former Goose Island, and the Great Western Railway South Dock Branch had been constructed to serve the eponymous, newly created, South Dock. This consisted of many separate lines right against the wharf, along with a number of associated goods and engine sheds. The main branch of the Mumbles railway passed between these lines and Oystermouth Road, from Victoria Station westwards. The gasworks had also expanded with two gasometers now evident. 3.1.20 1899 – Second Edition Ordnance Survey Map 3.1.21 The Second Edition Ordnance Survey map showed only a minor change when compared with the First Edition Ordnance Survey map. The gasworks had expanded to the east on the area where the timber yards and foundry had stood, and a new school was evident just south of St Mary’s Church, on Rutland Street. The houses immediately south and east of St Mary’s Church on Frog Street (SD002) had also disappeared by this time. A few other large buildings – probably chapels – had also appeared, including a school on the north side of Rutland Street (SD011), and a structure later labelled as a technical institute, on Nelson Terrace (SD012). A tramroad had also been constructed by this time, its course entering the development area from beside the New Market, running south and east through Greenfield Street, Wassail Street and Rutland Street (SD013). South of Oystermouth Road, the houses on the former Goose Island (SD003) had been replaced by more railway lines, goods sheds and other ancillary buildings (SD014). 3.1.22 1919 – Third Edition Ordnance Survey Map 3.1.23 The Third Edition Ordnance Survey Map (1919), shows very little change when compared with the second edition map. In particular, the Sawmill (SD008) had disappeared and been replaced by railway lines. 3.1.24 1941 – Plans Showing Damaged and Destroyed Buildings Following the Air Raids in 1941 (Plate 5) 3.1.25 This collection entails a series of plans, showing a specific area of Swansea on the eastern side of the proposed development area, showing houses which had been damaged and destroyed during the bombing in the Second World War. The plans are very detailed, showing the state of each structure and the use of each: for example, on Rutland Street, Rutland Street School (SD011) is shown as a shell, a former Morgan Jenkins store and the Welsh Glass Works had been demolished, the Church Army Hostel and No. 17 Clyne Valley Hotel and No.5 were all demolished or shells. War damage is also shown to a lesser extent elsewhere in the development area, 11 – 13 Garden Street, 18 – 23 Wellington St and others. 3.1.26 The absence of certain features on this map – notably tramroad SD013 and Tram Station SD010 – suggest that they had already been removed prior to the start of the war (other tram related features, such as the Oystermouth Tramroad, are depicted). Bethania Chapel (SD007), had been

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replaced by an expanded St David’s School (SD006), by this date (see ‘Documentary’ section below).

3.2 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY (APPENDIX III) 3.2.1

A large selection of aerial photographs were available to view at the Central Register for Aerial Photography for Wales.

3.2.2

The earliest examined photographic coverage for the area dates to November 1939 (4226 A-Z Aerial Obliques A337) of the Medenham collection. This indicates that, much as on the third edition OS mapping, the development area consists of tightly packed terraced housing along the north side of Oystermouth Road, while to the south are the railway lines and goods sheds, serving the docks and the Swansea to Mumbles Railway (Plate 6).

3.2.3

Later wartime photographs tend to be taken at a high altitude and show little detail. However, they do show the area of central Swansea destroyed by bombing in February 1941 (for example 4405 US 7 LOC 212 1041), mainly located northeast of the development area. Immediate post war photographs (4537 106G UK 624 6137), show the wartime damage more clearly (Plate 7). The most severe devastation was located northeast of St Mary’s Church, (which was itself bombed out and remained an empty shell), and the city centre had been largely cleared of rubble, and flattened. However, a number of houses were also destroyed or damaged to the southwest, within the development area. Most notably, the school on Rutland Street identified on the second edition OS map, several smaller houses on Frog Street, Church Street, Wassail Street and Fisher Street, as well as several other houses on Rutland Street. South of Oystermouth Road, the railway and goods sheds appeared to remain intact and in use. Little rebuilding was evident at this stage, although a number of small huts in rows had been set up amid the ruins of Swansea Market (the façade of the market appeared to survive).

3.2.4

The houses north of St Mary’s Church (SD002), visible on the earlier Ordnance Survey mapping, had been removed by this date. However, unlike the rest of the city centre, there was no evidence to suggest that they had been bombed out: the churchyard appears much tidier than the rest of the city centre with a neat masonry boundary wall – it is likely therefore that the houses were removed pre-war.

3.2.5

Other post war photographs show little change until 1952 (5210 540 RAF 699 6093), which indicates rebuilding work ongoing opposite the New Castle, and a greater concentration of huts in the ruins of Swansea Market. St Mary’s Church and some of the bombed out houses within the development area remained an empty shell. The training college on Nelson Terrace, identified on the earlier historic mapping, had also disappeared by this time (it is unclear whether it remained on the earlier aerial photographs).

3.2.6

The later aerial photographs (5428 MAL 86/54 10179; 6202 OS 62 014 89; 6810 Meridian 54/68 028), show a steady progression of rebuilding in the city centre. By 1962, a new market building had been constructed, which survives today, and St Mary’s Church had been restored. Within the proposed development area, several new buildings had been constructed in gaps left by the bombing. More significant changes within the development area had also occurred by 1968, when the majority of houses south of Swansea Market, including Wassail Street, Thomas Street, and Kynaston Place had been demolished for new development, and houses on Garden Street and Wellington Street were in the process of being demolished. Also by this time, the railway lines and

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goods sheds south of Oystermouth Road had fallen into disuse and been removed, although the main structure of the viaduct largely survived (Plate 8). 3.2.7

By 1978 (7827 OS 78 085 126 and 127), a large sprawling complex of buildings – the modern Shopping centre – was in the process of construction. Further additions to this were apparent on the 1981 (8104 Meridian 6/81 120 – 122) aerial photographs. The only buildings that survived the redevelopment were the Roman Catholic Church on Rutland Street and a neighbouring house.

3.3 DOCUMENTARY 3.3.1

A number of documents survive at the West Glamorgan Archive Service pertaining to the development area and its immediate surroundings. Three of particular interest relate to the former Fisher Street, on the eastern side of the development area, and all date to the fifteenth century. The first (Ref. RISW/GGF 3 22) is a gift, dated 31st October 1400, from William de Lamar of Swansea and Alicia his wife, assigning one burgage ‘unius burgagii….iacentis in Vico Piscatorium’ (‘lying in Fisher Street’) to John Dyar, Chaplain. The burgage is described as lying between St David’s Hospital on the North and the lands of the said John on the south (Plate 9). The second is a quitclaim of April 21st 1422, (Red. RISW/GGF 3 29) from David Hopkyn and John ap David to William Clement and Matilda Marle, his wife, again assigning one burgage ‘in a place called Piscator’. The third (Ref RISW/GGF 3 36) is another gift dated 19th March 1460, of one tenement in Fisher Street from Thomas Jacob of Swansea to Hugh John, knight, and Matilda ferch Rhys, his wife. Together, the three documents attest to the existence of Fisher Street (04609w) from at least the beginning of the fifteenth century, and probably earlier.

3.3.2

The original deeds had been collected in 1862 into a volume held by West Glamorgan Archives entitled Material and Illustrations For a History of Swansea; collected by Geo. Grant Francis, Esq.

3.3.3

Also in the documentary evidence is a set of building plans, discussing the reconstruction of the St David’s Roman Catholic School (SD006) – located on the corner between St David’s Place, Edward Street and Rutland Place, immediately behind the Roman Catholic Church. The documents include plans and elevational drawings. The plan dates to 1938. Prior to this, it appears that the Roman Catholic School was housed next door, to the west, while this plot of land was occupied by a Chapel. The structure is later shown on the 1941 map.

3.3.4

A document dating to the Second World War notes the existence of a surface type air raid shelter (SD015) on Wassail Square (BE 1/2/18). This shelter had a nominal accommodation of 63 people. The shelter was authorised (and commenced) in October 1939 and was completed in January 1940. The shelter was strengthened in 1942. It originally cost £270.10s.4d.

3.4 WALKOVER SURVEY 3.4.1

A walkover survey was conducted on 14/11/2016, during which the development area was photographed along with key sites from the surrounding study area. The survey was conducted

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during drizzly weather conditions. A short follow up visit was made on 24/11/2016 during cloudy conditions. 3.4.2

Although the survey discovered no new sites of archaeological interest, sites previously identified from a search of the regional Historic Environment Record (HER) and National Monuments Record (NMR) were visited in order to assess their current condition.

3.4.3

The area is largely urbanised and few of the identified sites were visible, these being confined to the identified listed buildings: St Mary’s Church (00430w, 400057, LB 11632), the Statue of H. Hussey Vivian (06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634), St David’s Catholic Church (02368w, 123563, LB 11615) and Presbytery (02369w, 409601, LB 11616), and the Great Western Railway revetment walls, south of Oystermouth Road (02398w, 34869, LB 11652).

3.4.4

A sample of photographs (Plates 10 - 19) illustrating the current condition of the sites of archaeological interest can be seen in Appendix II).

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4 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INTERESTS 4.1.1

A total of 303 sites of archaeological interest have been identified within the study area (see Figure 1 and Table 1).

4.1.2

A total of 43 sites are located either within the development area for immediately adjacent to it, and thus may be directly affected by the development.

4.1.3

The sites within or close to the development area are included in the gazetteer in Appendix IV.

4.1.4

Five digit numbers with a letter suffix (w) are Primary Record Numbers (PRNs) recorded in the regional HER. Five or six figure numbers without a letter suffix are National Primary Record Numbers (NPRNs) of the NMR, as supplied to the HER under the ENDEX agreement. Numbers preceded by the letters ‘LB’ are Listed Building numbers, whilst those prefixed by the letters ‘GM’ are Scheduled Ancient Monuments. Numbers with a ‘SD’ prefix were identified during the present assessment.

Table 1: Identified archaeological interests within Study Area ID

Site Name

NGR

Type

Period

Status

02200w, 03530w, 11807, 19557, LB 11631 00415w

Quaker / Society of Friends Meeting House, Page Street, Swansea 144 Rodney Street, Castle

SS65069299

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

SS6489092425

Wall

Unknown

-

00423w

Castle Bailey Street Roman Coin Hoard

SS65639310

Coin hoard

Roman

-

00425w, 19507

Plas House; New Place

SS65649306

Manor house

Medieval

-

00426w,94515, LB 11568, GM012

Swansea New Castle

SS65719306

Castle

Medieval

00430w, 400057, LB 11632

St Mary's Church

SS65609293

Church

Medieval

SAM GM012, Grade I Listed building II

00436w

Swansea Town Defences

SS65709295

Town defences

Medieval

-

00437w

Old Rectory, Swansea

SS65649290

Rectory

Medieval

-

00438w, 275871, SAM GM441

Original Swansea Castle

SS65699314

Castle

Medieval

SAM GM441

00439w

The Mount

SS65959291

Motte

Medieval

-

00440w

Coin find site, Goat St. Swansea.

SS65599313

Coin hoard

Post-medieval

-

00441w

Findspot, Castle

SS6593

Findspot

Bronze Age

-

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00445w

Coin, Castle Community

SS65479316

Coin

Medieval

-

00446w

Swansea Tithe Barn

SS65549292

Tithe barn

Medieval

-

00450w

Flemish Paving Tile Find

SS65679326

Tile

Medieval

-

00453w, 03122w

Site of Medieval Ferry, Swansea

SS662929

Ferry

Medieval

-

00454w

Wind Street demijohn/medieval pottery

SS65839292

Vessel

Medieval

-

00455w

Chapel, Castle

SS656934

Chapel

Medieval

-

00457w

Findspot, Wind Street

SS65809296

Findspot

Unknown

-

00458w

Medieval Quay, Strand, Swansea

SS65749310

Quay

Medieval

-

00459w

Pottery Find, Orange Street ,Swansea.

SS65469292

Findspot

Post-medieval

-

00460w

Find spot at Calvert Street, Swansea

SS65569297

Jug

Medieval

-

00461w

Swansea Grammar School

SS6593

School

Post-medieval

-

00832w, 31755, LB 11602, LB 11603 00833w, 146, LB 11653

Carlton Cinema/ Restaurant. 18b and c Oxford Street Royal Institution of South Wales (Swansea Museum)

SS6534392945

Cinema

Unknown

II

SS65899279

Museum

Post-medieval

II*

00835w, 31925

Workhouse, Castle Community

SS65129237

Workhouse

Post-medieval

-

00836w, 34813

Swansea Junction Viaduct/Victoria Road Viaduct

SS65889283

Railway viaduct

Unknown

-

00935w

Quarry, Swansea

SS659928

Quarry

Post-medieval

-

00942w, 18216, LB 11563

9 Cambrian Place

SS6608992807

House

Post-medieval

II

00943w, 18216, 301149, LB 11560, LB 11561, LB 11562, LB 11564, LB 11565, LB 11566, LB 11567 00954w

6-13 Cambrian Place

SS66119282

House

Post-medieval

II

Medieval Settlement - Wind Street GGAT 1976

SS65859282

Settlement

Medieval

-

00955w, 18453, LB 11635

Cross Keys Inn (Hospital of the Blessed St David).

SS65659297

Hospital

Medieval

II

00958w

Town ditch, 27-29 High Street, Swansea

SS656934

Ditch

Medieval

-

00959w

32-34 Princess Way

SS656932

Ditch

Medieval

-

01103w

Wassail Place Kiln

SS65549279

Kiln

Post-medieval

-

01201w, 33322

Weaver and Company's Flour Mill

SS660930

Mill

Post-medieval

-

01351w

Island House

SS65739298

Market

Medieval

-

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01352w

Swansea Market Hall

SS65689308

Market

Post-medieval

-

01354w

Findspot, Swansea Town Ditch

SS656931

Findspot

Medieval

-

01391w

Castle Hotel

SS65709302

Inn

Post-medieval

-

01392w

Theatre Royal

SS65659303

Theatre

Post-medieval

-

01393w

Synagogue, Castle

SS65609310

Synagogue

Post-medieval

-

01394w

Swansea Market

SS65459295

Market

Post-medieval

-

01395w, 9013, LB 11590

Mount Pleasant Baptist Chapel

SS65439317

Chapel

Post-medieval

II*

01396w, 19773

5-14 Princess St

SS65309275

House

Post-medieval

-

01420w

Findspot, Castle Community

SS65939292

Findspot

Post-medieval

-

01473w, 145, LB 11643

Old Guildhall

SS662929

Town hall

Post-medieval

II*

01474w, 28080, LB 11665, LB 11666 01479w 18800, LB 11576, LB 11577, LB 11578, LB 11579, LB 11580, LB 11581 01480w

53-54 Wind Street

SS6578092945

Building

Post-medieval

II

1 - 6 Gloucester Place, Swansea

SS6598492709

Houses

Post-medieval

II

Mount Pleasant Chapel (Mount Zion Chapel)

SS653933

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

01481w, 19023, LB 11586

The Bush Inn

SS65679331

Inn

Post-medieval

II

01482w, 03517w, 9070, LB 11587

Unitarian Church

SS65679326

Chapel

Post-medieval

II

01483w, 28080, LB 11667

55 Wind Street

SS657930

Building

Post-medieval

II

01499w, 31736, LB 11559

5 Cambrian Place (Former assembly Rooms)

SS6607092801

House

Post-medieval

II

01500w, 19776, 308072, LB 11637, LB 11638, LB 11639, LB 11640, LB 11641, LB 11642 01567w

1-7 Prospect Place (Somerset Place)

SS6599292913

Terrace

Post-medieval

II

Swansea Glassworks

SS65749310

Glass works

Post-medieval

-

01794.0w

Swansea-Morriston Street Passenger Tramway

SS6693

Tramway

Post-medieval

-

01852w

Swansea Town Wall, Wind Street

SS6582792985

Town defences

Medieval

-

01873w,703, LB 11582

Arts WorkShop, St Nicholas' Seaman's Church

SS66009268

Chapel

Post-medieval

II

01946w

Inhumations at Swansea New Castle

SS65719308

Inhumation

Medieval

-

01976w

Findspot - Coins

SS656930

Coin

Medieval

-

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017 23


02004w

The Strand Viaduct

SS65779328

Viaduct

Post-medieval

-

02008w, 300024

County Hall

SS65059235

County Hall

Post-medieval

-

02022w

Fulling Mill, Castle Community

SS6693

Fulling mill

Medieval

-

02136w, 31758, LB 11673

Castle Cinema

SS65709310

Cinema

Modern

II

02180w, 31899, LB 11604, LB 11605 02185w, 34285

Swansea Prison (Main A and B Blocks)

SS652925

Prison

Post-medieval

II

South Dock Swing Bridge

SS65999261

Bridge

Post-medieval

II

02191w, LB 11668

No Sign Wine Bar

SS657929

Merchants house

Post-medieval

II

02192w

Ben Evans and Co

SS65659305

Shop

Unknown

-

02198w, 19774, LB 11611, LB 11612, LB 11613 02346w, 31897, LB 11548

2, 3 and 4 Princess Way

SS6573192866

Office

Post-medieval

II

Associated British Ports Offices

SS6599992878

Office

Modern

II

02347w, 31764, LB 11549

Swansea Central Police Station

SS6556993418

Police station

Unknown

II

02348w, 31763, LB11550, LB 11551 02349w, 31791, LB 11553

Central Library and School of Art

SS6553593428

Library

Post-medieval

II

Glynn Vivian Art Gallery

SS655934

Art gallery

Post-medieval

II*

02351w, 31781, LB 11555, LB 11556 02352w, 19610, LB 11557, LB 11558 02354w, 31731, 8950, LB 11573

Exchange Chambers (including restaurant)

SS6599692779

Exchange

Unknown

II

Pembroke Buildings

SS6605092794

Assembly rooms

Post-medieval

II

Albert Hall (Former Albert Hall Chapel)

SS6530793187

Cinema

Post-medieval

II

02356w, 19022, LB 11583

Inn, (King's Arms) Castle Community

SS6563193377

Inn

Post-medieval

II

02357w, 31927, LB 11588, LB 11589 02359w, 19368, LB 11594

YMCA Building and Llewelyn Hall

SS6504592987

Unknown, Modern

II

Mount Pleasant Hotel

SS6527593336

Storehouse,Christian association hostel House

Post-medieval

II

02361w, 05320w, 183, 405898, LB 11598 02364w, 13620, LB 11608

National Waterfront Museum/ Industrial Museum

SS6587292618

Museum

Post-medieval

II

Garrison Church (Christ Church), Swansea

SS6497692415

Church

Post-medieval

II

02366w, 19728, LB 11610

No. 1a Pier Street

SS6601092854

Building

Post-medieval

II

02367w, 33644, LB 11614

The Pumphouse

SS6600892649

Engine house

Post-medieval

II

02368w, 13563, LB 11615

St David's Priory RC Church

SS6564592794

Church

Post-medieval

II

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017 24


02369w, 409601, LB 11616

St Davids Presbytery

SS65669279

Presbytery

Post-medieval

II

02370w, 03511w, 9039, LB 11617

Argyle Presbyterian Church

SS64829276

Chapel

Post-medieval

II

02373w, 9037, 11630

St Andrew's United Reformed Church

SS64909290

Church

Post-medieval

II

02374w, 31895, LB 11633

County Court

SS6564292901

County court

Post-medieval

II

02375w, 19941, LB 11636

No. 17 St Mary's Street

SS65679297

House

Post-medieval

II

02376w, 32835, LB 11644

Statue, Sir John H. Vivian

SS6556892861

Statue

Post-medieval

II

02377w, 20000, LB 11645

Colonial Building; The Strand, No. 4, Swansea

SS6589092964

Dwelling

Post-medieval

II

02379w,20252, LB 11647

No. 10 Union St Tavern

SS6535092996

Inn/ Public House

Unknown

II

02380w, 19354, LB 11648, LB 11649, LB 11650, LB 11651 02398w, 34869, LB 11652

Mond Buildings

SS6535493072

Shop, Public Buildings

Modern

II

Great Western Railway Revetment Walls

SS657926

Wall

Post-medieval

II

02400w, 28074, LB 11656

No. 6 Wind Street

SS657929

Shop

Post-medieval

II

02401w, 28075, LB 11657

No. 7 Wind Street (Liverpool Victoria Insurance Offices) National Bank, 8 - 9 Wind Street

SS657929

Commercial office

Post-medieval

II

SS657929

Bank (financial)

Post-medieval

II

Old Post Office, Wind Street

SS657929

Post office

Unknown

II

02404w,28077, LB 11662

11 and 12 Wind Street, Telecom Building

SS658929

Office

Modern

II

02405w, 19209, LB 11663

Lloyds Bank, Wind Street

SS658929

Bank (financial)

Unknown

II

02406w, 28079, LB 11664

Nat West Bank, 51 - 2 Wind Street

SS657929

Bank (financial)

Modern

II

02407w, 17993, LB 11669

Barclays Bank, Wind Street

SS657929

Bank (financial)

Modern

II

02408w, 28082, LB 11670

Coach House, 59 - 60 Wind Street

SS657929

Inn

Post-medieval

II

02409w, 28083, LB 11671

61 Wind Street

SS657929

Building

Post-medieval

II

02410w,28084, LB 11672

62 Wind Street

SS657929

Building

Post-medieval

II

02411w, 9025, LB 11674, LB 11675 02562w

York Place Baptist Church, York Place, Swansea

SS65809280

Chapel

Post-medieval

II

Timber recovered at BT Tower Site, Swansea

SS6580093060

Findspot

Unknown

-

02563w

Brick and Tile Works, Rodney Street

SS64899242

Brickworks

Post-medieval

-

02671w

Pottery recovered during excavation, 1 - 7 Princess Way

SS65659285

-

-

-

02402w, 28076, LB 11658, LB 11659 02403w, 19526, LB 11660

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017 25


02761w, 85432

Swansea Gasworks

SS6546892662

Gas works

Post-medieval

-

02768w, 33145

Swansea/Abertawe

SS657931

Settlement

Medieval

-

02769w

Swansea Town Defences, Whitewalls

SS65569294

Town defences

Medieval

-

02770w

Swansea Town Wall

SS65699329

Town defences

Medieval

-

02771w

Rutland Street, Swansea

SS65619281

Ditch

Medieval

-

02775w

Borough Arms, Swansea

SS65909293

Ditch

Medieval

-

02788w, 18453, LB 11635

Cross Keys Public House

SS65659297

Inn

Post-medieval

II

02795w

Tower; Swansea Town Defences, Worcester Place

SS65719319

Tower

Medieval

-

02796w, 403220

Vetch Field

SS65109265

Football ground

Unknown

-

02811.0w

Mumbles railway

SS63058742

Railway

Post-medieval

-

02819.0w

Vale of Neath Railway - Swansea Neath Extension

SS675925

Railway

Post-medieval

-

02844.0w

Goat Street

SS65609310

Road

Post-medieval

-

02845.0w

West Street

SS65509310

Road

Post-medieval

-

02846.0w

Castle Street

SS65609310

Road

Post-medieval

-

02847.0w

Gower Street

SS65509310

Road

Post-medieval

-

02848.0w

Heathfield Street

SS65209300

Road

Post-medieval

-

02849.0w

The Kingsway

SS65309300

Road

Post-medieval

-

02866.0w

College Street

SS65609320

Road

Post-medieval

-

03003w

Forester's Wharf Warehouse, Ferryside

SS66029296

Warehouse

Post-medieval

-

03100w

Worcester Place, Swansea

SS65709310

Road

Post-medieval

-

03110w, 300028

SS69SE 2 South Dock and Half Tide Basin

SS655925

Dock

Post-medieval

-

03111w

SS69SE 3 Globe Dry Dock

SS662926

Dry dock

Post-medieval

-

03115.0w

Cambrian Dry Dock

SS6618492812

Dry dock

Post-medieval

-

03176.0w

Temple Street

SS65609300

Road

Post-medieval

-

03177.0w

Princess Way

SS65609300

Road

Post-medieval

-

03178.0w

Portland Street

SS65409300

Road

Post-medieval

-

03179.0w

Park Street

SS65509300

Road

Post-medieval

-

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017 26


03180.0w

Oxford Street

SS65309290

Road

Post-medieval

-

03214.0w

Waterloo Street

SS65509300

Road

Post-medieval

-

03254w

ARP Shelter

SS65719321

Air raid shelter

Modern

-

03255w

Duplicate PRN (Roman Pottery find)

SS65739340

Findspot

Roman

-

03259w

Swansea Gasworks - Dwelling

SS65509282

Dwelling

Unknown

-

03260w, 309408

Rolls's Brewery

SS65279286

Brewery

Unknown

-

03261w

Swansea Gasworks - Smithy/Foundry

SS65509275

Foundry

Unknown

-

03262w

Couch's Ropewalk ('New Ropewalk')

SS65409268

Ropewalk

Post-medieval

-

03263w

Timber Yard East of Swansea Gas works

SS65559270

Timber yard

Unknown

-

03264w

Peat Deposits at Swansea Gasworks site

SS65579267

Peat deposit

Unknown

-

03329w

Walls associated with Swansea Castle

SS65729316

Wall

Medieval

-

03486w, 8961

Castle Street Chapel

SS65689327

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

03488w, 8971

SS64869288

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

03498w, 9003

Henrietta St (Now Ebeneser Newydd), Henrietta St, Swansea Capel Gomer

SS65249327

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

03560w, 14428

Salvation Army Citadel

SS65009263

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

03562w, 91203

Capel y Triniti (Holy Trinity Chapel)

SS65509339

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

03563w, 91204

Wesleyan Chapel

SS65609319

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

03570w

Bethany (Church)

SS65889300

Church

Unknown

-

03571w

Capel Gomer

SS65649342

Chapel

Unknown

-

03572w

Elim Church

SS6560093370

Chapel

Unknown

-

03576w, 9069

Jubilee Chapel

SS6535093140

Chapel

Unknown

-

03580w

Swansea Castle, Worcester Place

SS65739316

Building

Medieval

-

03831.0w

L and NWR line

SS6549492556

Railway

Post-medieval

-

03837s

Findspot, Worcester Place, Swansea

SS65709316

Findspot

Medieval

-

04607w

Nos. 17 and 18 The Strand

SS65769306

Building

Post-medieval

-

04608w

19 The Strand

SS65779307

Building

Post-medieval

-

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017 27


04609w

Fisher Street

SS6567192896

Road

Medieval

-

04610w

Brewery - Site Name Not Known

SS658929

Brewery

Post-medieval

-

04611w

Little Wind Street

SS65899286

Road

Post-medieval

-

04634w

Brewery Quay

SS65709304

Bridge

Medieval

-

04635w

Landore Brewery Quay

SS660930

Quay

Post-medieval

-

04637w

Baths - Site Name Not Known

SS661928

Baths

Post-medieval

-

04638w

Wharf - Site Name Not Known

SS660930

Wharf

Post-medieval

-

04641w, 04660w

Paddington Wharf

SS660930

Building

Post-medieval

-

04643w

Foundry Quay

SS660930

Quay

Post-medieval

-

04649w

Morfa Quay

SS650930

Quay

Post-medieval

-

04651w

Former Birmingham Copper Works

SS660930

Copper works

Post-medieval

-

04779.0w

Swansea - Morriston Railway

SS65809320

Railway

Post-medieval

-

05123w

Hancock's Time Capsule, Wind Street

SS65909288

Findspot

Post-medieval

-

05253w

Church Yard of St Mary's Church, Swansea

SS65609290

Churchyard

Medieval

-

05660w, LB 11607

SS6520992478

Wall

Modern

II

05661w, 31900, LB 11606

Prison Perimeter Walls, H.M. Prison, Oystermouth Road HM Prison Gatehouse, Oystermouth Road

SS65189248

Gatehouse

Modern

II

05775w

Rubbish Pit, Worcester Place, Swansea

SS65929318

Rubbish pit

Post-medieval

-

05922w, LB 11591

Mount Pleasant Baptist Church Hall

SS6543093180

Church Hall

Post-medieval

II*

05923w, LB 11592

SS6540093100

Schoolroom

Post-medieval

II*

06260w

Mount Pleasant Baptist Church School Rooms, Kingsway Vaults

SS6568993283

Vault

Post-medieval

-

06302w, 412236

Castle Square, Swansea

SS6562893056

Square

Modern

-

06303w

Post Office, Swansea City Centre

SS6569593085

Post office

Post-medieval

-

06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634

Statue, Swansea City Centre (H Hussey Vivian)

SS6570793011

Statue

Post-medieval

-

06305w

Foundry, Swansea City Centre

SS6576893017

Foundry

Post-medieval

-

06306w

Foundry, Swansea City Centre

SS6575493135

Foundry

Post-medieval

-

06307w

Dock, Swansea

SS6578993202

Dock

Post-medieval

-

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017 28


06308w

Independent Chapel, Swansea City Centre

SS6562193141

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

06309w

Free Library, Swansea City Centre

SS6560293100

Public library

Post-medieval

-

06310w

Bank of England, Swansea City Centre

SS6562693083

Bank (financial)

Post-medieval

-

06453w

St David Shopping Centre, Swansea

SS6559592819

Shopping centre

Modern

-

06621w

Medieval building at Whitewalls, Swansea

SS6555992938

Building

Medieval

-

06887w

Garden Street Brewhouses

SS6543692767

public house

Post-medieval

-

06888w

Margam Inn Brewhouse

SS6525092790

public house

Post-medieval

-

06889w

Rutland Arms Brewhouse

SS6557092830

public house

Post-medieval

-

06899w

Windmill

SS6560092700

windmill

Unknown

-

07108w

SS658930

Multiple dwelling

Modern

-

07117w

David Vaughan's Lodging House, The Strand, Swansea 20 Dynevor Place, Swansea

SS654932

House

Modern

-

07123w

13-16 and 18 de la Beche Street, Swansea

SS6534493220

House

Modern

-

07174w

Drill Hall, Neath Road, Swansea

SS6593

Drill hall

Modern

-

07221w

Gridiron

SS6621392824

gridiron

Post-medieval

-

07412w

Drill Hall, Swansea Castle, Swansea

SS6572393061

Drill hall

Modern

-

07415w

SS6503592574

Drill hall

Modern

-

SS652928

Drill hall

Modern

-

07422w

Drill Hall/armoury, Royal Arsenal, Glamorgan Street, Swansea Singleton Street Drill Hall, Swansea aka The Prince of Wales Hall 7 Rutland Street, Swansea

SS656928

Drill hall

Modern

-

07806w

Outer Retaining Wall, The Strand

SS6568593285

Wall

Multiperiod

-

07965w

Peat Deposit

SS6592392683

Peat deposit

Unknown

-

08080w

Projected line of Town Ditch, Swansea

SS65709337

Boundary ditch

Medieval

-

08081w

Bovetown Settlement, Swansea

SS65709340

Settlement

Medieval

-

08250w

Wall, St Mary Street

SS6570892939

Wall

Post-medieval

-

17956

Powell Dyffryn House, Adelaide Street, 9 and 10, Swansea Brynsyfi

SS6595892807

Building

Post-medieval

-

SS6593

House

Post-medieval

-

07417w

18136

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017 29


18252

1 - 4 Castle Square, Swansea

SS6571393027

Building

Post-medieval

-

18376

Coleridge House, Somerset Place, Swansea

SS6596492886

House

Post-medieval

-

18600

Dynevor Place Nos. 1 - 7, Swansea

SS6543293210

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

18858

Great House, High Street

SS6593

House

Post-medieval

-

18932

Heathfield Lodge; Heathfield House

SS6587393238

House

Post-medieval

-

18961, LB 11570

Midland Bank, HSBC Bank, Castle Square, Swansea

SS6569192997

Bank (Financial)

Modern

-

19024

Dwelling, High Street

SS6593

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

19507

Old Manor House, New Place, Swansea

SS6564893054

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

19553

Oxford Buildings, Oxford Street

SS6536392973

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

20020

Sydney Heath Building

SS6568593024

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

20253

15 Union Street, Swansea

SS6534993027

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

274169

Pelerin

SS6579992502

Wreck

Modern

-

28078

42 - 50 Wind Street

SS6584492919

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

28081

56 Wind Street, Swansea

SS6576692949

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

28097

Worcester House

SS6593

House

Post-medieval

-

301087, 11595

SS6533393306

Office

Post-medieval

-

301148

Offices of Community Industry; 10 Mount Pleasant, Swansea Cambrian Place, No. 18, Swansea

SS6610592811

House

Post-medieval

-

301714

North Dock Basin Lock, Swansea Dock

SS6597293058

Lock

Post-medieval

-

309219

Victoria Quay, Swansea

SS6567492554

Quay

Post-medieval

-

309398

SS64999272

Brewery

Post-medieval

-

SS65029273

Brewery

Post-medieval

-

SS6507592819

Brewery

Post-medieval

-

309565

West End Brewery, Western Street, Formerly Madoc Street, Swansea Glamorgan Brewery, Madoc Street, Formerly Little Madoc Street, Swansea Wellington Brewery, Singleton Brewery, Little Gam Street, Swansea Old Market Place Brewery, Waterloo Street, Swansea

SS65529301

Brewery

Post-medieval

-

309582

Oxford Brewery, Oxford Street, Swansea

SS6531692997

Brewery

Post-medieval

-

33146

Swansea (Mount Pleasant Area)

SS6593

Settlement

Unknown

-

309407 309512

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017 30


33322

Weavers Flour Mill, Victoria Wharf, Swansea

SS6607093096

Flour Mill

Post-medieval

-

33644, LB 11614

SS66009265

Pump House

Post-medieval

-

34239

Pump House, Pumphouse Quay, Swansea (Power Station); The Pumphouse Warehouse at 5 and 6 Broadquay, Swansea

SS658931

Warehouse

Post-medieval

-

34270

North Dock Swansea Bollard

SS6588393222

Mooring Bollard

Post-medieval

-

34280

Swansea Docks Coal Hoists

SS6693

Hoist

Post-medieval

-

34836

North Dock Bridge

SS6598193054

Bridge

Post-medieval

-

34871

North Dock Branch, South Wales Railway; Great Western Railway, Swansea Swansea Harbour Trust Railway, Swansea

SS65789338

Railway

Post-medieval

-

SS65789320

Railway

Post-medieval

-

SS6580792735

Railway Station

Post-medieval

-

SS6591192915

Railway Station

Post-medieval

-

SS6583493208

Shopping Centre

Modern

-

403403, LB 83278

Swansea Victoria Railway Station, Victoria Road, Swansea Wind Street Railway Station, Great Western Railway, South Dock Branch Parc Tawe Complex, and 'Plantaisia' Glasshouse Swansea City Centre Ragged School, Swansea

SS6553293379

School

Modern

-

406014

18 Union Street, Swansea

SS65349302

Terraced Housing

Post-medieval

-

408485

Brewery, Orange Street, Swansea

SS65499293

Brewery

Post-medieval

-

408486

Brewery, Wassail Street, Swansea

SS65489287

Brewery

Post-medieval

-

408487

Llanelly Brewery, Gower Street, Swansea

SS65459313

Brewery

Post-medieval

-

408529

Swansea Observatory; Tower of the Ecliptic

SS66009235

Observatory

Modern

-

408663

Market Hall, Swansea

SS6544992955

Market Hall

Modern

-

409727

Meridian Quay Development, Swansea

SS65589232

Housing Estate

Modern

-

412246

Lewis Lewis Drapery Store, 27 - 31 High Street, Swansea Centre Hotel, Somerset Place, Swansea

SS6564493393

Shop

Post-medieval

-

SS6602792890

Hotel

Post-medieval

-

SS6540593204

-

SS65739268

Christian Association Hostel Swimming Pool

19th Century

416761

Young Men's Christian Association YMCA, Dynevor Place, Swansea Swansea Leisure Centre

20th Century

-

416762

St Helen's Primary School, Swansea

SS64819257

School

20th Century

-

34873 34874 34894 402924

412265 413392

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017 31


416874

Picture House Cinema, Swansea

SS6569593295

Cinema

20th Century

-

416875

Plaza Cinema, Swansea

SS6528593024

Cinema

20th Century

-

419286

SS6517492890

School

19th Century

-

420781

Site of Former National School, Oxford Street, Swansea Former Chapel; Potter's Engineers, St Thomas's

SS6693

Chapel

19th Century

-

54087

5 Castle Square, Swansea

SS6571593021

Shop

Post-medieval

-

54088

6 Castle Square, Swansea

SS6571893016

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

54089

7 Castle Square, Swansea

SS6572293010

Shop

Post-medieval

-

54091

14 and 15 St Mary's Street, Swansea

SS6567492968

Shop

Post-medieval

-

54092

16 St Mary's Street, Swansea

SS6567992974

Dwelling

Post-medieval

-

54093

1 Wind Street, Swansea

SS6572493005

Shop

Post-medieval

-

54094

SS6573193000

Inn

Post-medieval

-

54095

2 and 3 Wind Street, Swansea (The Duke Public House) 4 and 5 Wind Street, Swansea

SS6573892993

Shop

Post-medieval

-

85433

Shop, 22 Clarence Street, Swansea

SS6524692674

Shop

Post-medieval

-

8955

Sailor's Chapel

SS6593

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

8962

SS65029292

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

8988

Countess of Huntingdon (Burrows, Herbert Place, Swansea Sidney Street Chapel, Swansea

SS6593

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

9018

St Helen's Baptist Chapel, Swansea

SS6491492660

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

9028

Oxford Street Chapel, Oxford Street, Swansea

SS6500892820

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

9029

Gospel Hall, George Street, Swansea

SS64919292

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

9034

Bellevue Street Chapel, Bellevue Street

SS6593

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

9049

Grove Place Methodist Chapel, Swansea

SS65429328

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

90541

Wall, Mount Pleasant

SS65569220

Wall

Post-medieval

-

9059

Strand Mission, The Strand, Swansea

SS6593

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

9065

Wassail Square Mission, Wassail Sqaure, Swansea

SS65439284

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

9077

Goat Street (Bunker's Hill) Chapel, Goat Street, Swansea

SS65599318

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

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SD001

Wassail Gate

SS65579286

Gatehouse

Medieval

-

SD002

Houses, St Mary’s Churchyard

SS65579295

Dwellings

Post-medieval

-

SD003

Goose Island

SS6570092700

Placename/Houses

Post-medieval

-

SD004

Chapel, Nelson Terrace

SS6538692863

Chapel

Post-medieval

-

SD005

Marble Yard

SS6548292870

Marble Yard

Post-medieval

-

SD006

St David's School, Edward Street/Rutland Place

SS6561092777

School

-

SD007

Bethania Chapel, Rutland Place

SS65608 92762

Chapel

Postmedieval/Modern Post-medieval

SD008

Sawmills

SS6565792728

Sawmill

Post-medieval

-

SD009

Training College (Female), Nelson Terrace

SS6541892809

College

Post-medieval

-

SD010

Tram Station

SS6570792768

Tram Station

Post-medieval

-

SD011

Rutland Street School

SS6561592840

School

Post-medieval

-

SD012

Technical Institute, Nelson Terrace

SS6537292816

Post-medieval

-

SD013

Tram road

SS6550892837

Technical Institute/School Tram road

Post-medieval

-

SD014

Goods sheds

SS6570492697

Goods sheds

Post-medieval

-

SD015

Air Raid Shelter

SS6551092833

Air Raid Shelter

Modern

-

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-


5 ASSESSMENT 5.1 EFFECT OF THE DEVELOPMENT ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES 5.1.1

Of the 43 sites within or close to the development, it is considered that the proposed development will have a ‘Severe’ effect on one site: 06453w (St David’s Shopping Centre), a ‘Minor’ effect on 36 further sites (outlined in the table below), and have no direct effects on the remaining six sites. These effects are further considered below.

Table 2: Direct effects of the development on archaeological interests, showing all sites within or immediately adjacent to the development ID

Site Name

Type

Period

Condition

Status

Value

Rarity

Group Association

00430w, 400057, LB 11632

St Mary’s Church

Medieval

B

Low

Medium

Swansea Town Defences

Medieval

Restored Near Destroyed

II

00436w

Church Town Defences

-

B

Medium

Medium

00437w

Old Rectory, Swansea

Rectory

Medieval

Not known

-

B

Medium

Medium

Certain Medium Possible Medium Possible Medium

00446w

Swansea Tithe Barn Pottery find, orange street, Swansea

Tithe barn

Medieval

-

B

Medium

Medium

Findspot

Post-medieval

Not known Intact (Moved)

-

C

Medium

Wassail Place Kiln

Kiln

Post-medieval

Excavated

-

B

St David's Priory RC Church

Church

Post-medieval

Intact

II

St David’s Presbytery

Presbytery

Post-medieval

Intact

County Court

County court

Modern

Statue – Sir H. H. Vivian

Statue

Post-medieval

00459w 01103w 02368w, 13563, LB 11615 02369w, 409601, LB 11616 02374w, 31895, LB 11633 06304w, 32831,

Confidence

Effect

High

None

Medium

Minor

Medium

Minor

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Low

Unknown

Medium

None

Medium

Low

Unknown

High

Minor

B

Low

Medium

Possible - Low

High

None

II

B

Low

Medium

Unknown

Medium

None

Intact

II

B

Medium

Low

Medium

None

Intact

II

B

Low

Low

Unknown Certain Medium

High

Minor

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Historical Association


412234, LB 11634 02398w, 34869, LB 11652

02769w

Great Western Railway Revetment Walls Pottery recovered during excavation, 1 - 7 Princess Way Swansea Town Defences, Whitewalls

02771w

Rutland Street, Swansea

Ditch

Medieval

Not known

-

C

Low

Medium

Unknown Certain Medium Possible Medium

02811.0w

Mumbles railway

Railway

Post-medieval

Destroyed

-

A

Low

Low

Certain - High

High

Minor

Dwelling

Post-medieval

Destroyed

-

C

Low

Low

Unknown

Low

Minor

Foundry

Post-medieval

Not known

-

C

Low

Low

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Ropewalk

Post-medieval

Not known

-

C

Low

Low

Possible - Low

Medium

Minor

Medium

Minor

Medium

Minor

02671w

Wall Pottery Sherd Town defences

Post-medieval

Near intact

II

B

Low

Medium

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Post-medieval

Moved

-

D

Low

Low

Low

None

Medieval

Destroyed

-

B

Medium

Medium

High

Minor

Low

Minor

03262w

Swansea Gasworks Dwelling Swansea Gasworks Smithy/Foundry Couch's Ropewalk ('New Ropewalk')

03831.0w

L and NWR line

Railway

Post-medieval

Damaged

-

C

Low

Medium

04609w

Fisher Street Church Yard of St Mary’s Church St David Shopping Centre, Swansea Garden Street Brewhouses Rutland Arms Brewhouse 7 Rutland Street, Swansea Brewery, Orange Street, Swansea Brewery, Wassail Street, Swansea Wassail Square Mission, Wassail Sqaure, Swansea

Road

Medieval

Damaged

-

B

Low

Medium

Unknown Certain Medium

Churchyard shopping centre

Medieval

Destroyed

-

C

Low

Medium

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Modern

Intact

-

D

Low

Low

Unknown

Medium

Severe

public house

Post-medieval

Destroyed

-

C

Low

Medium

Unknown

Medium

Minor

public house

Post-medieval

Destroyed

-

C

Low

Medium

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Drill hall

Modern

Destroyed

-

C

Low

Low

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Brewery

Post-medieval

Not Known

-

C

Low

Medium

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Brewery

Post-medieval

Not Known

-

C

Low

Medium

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Chapel

Post-medieval

Not Known

-

D

Low

Low

Unknown

Low

Minor

03259w 03261w

05253w 06453w 06887w 06889w 07422w 408485 408486 9065

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SD001

Gatehouse

Medieval

Not Known

-

B

Medium

Medium

Possible Medium

Medium

Minor

Post-medieval

Not Known

-

D

Low

Low

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Post-medieval

Not known

-

D

Low

Low

Unknown

Medium

Minor

SD002

Wassail Gate Houses, St Mary’s Churchyard

SD003

Goose Island

Dwellings Placename/ Houses

SD004

Chapel, Nelson Terrace

Chapel

Post-medieval

Unknown

-

D

Low

Low

Unknown

Low

Minor

SD005

Marble Yard St David's School, Edward Street/Rutland Place Bethania Chapel, Rutland Place

Marble Yard

Post-medieval

Not Known

-

D

Medium

Low

Unknown

Medium

Minor

School

Postmedieval/Modern

Not Known

-

C

Low

Medium

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Chapel

Post-medieval

Not Known

-

C

Low

Low

Unknown

Medium

Minor

Sawmill

Post-medieval

Not Known

-

D

Low

Low

Unknown

Low

Minor

SD009

Sawmills Training College (Female), Nelson Terrace

College

Post-medieval

Not Known

-

C

Low

Low

Low

Minor

SD010

Tram Station

Tram Station

Post-medieval

Unknown

-

C

Medium

Medium

Unknown Possible Medium

Medium

Minor

SD011

Rutland Street School

Post-medieval

Unknown

-

C

Low

Low

Possible - Low

Medium

Minor

SD012

Technical Institute, Nelson Terrace

School Technical Institute/ School

Post-medieval

Unknown

-

D

Low

Low

Unknown

Low

Minor

SD013

Tramroad

Tramroad

Post-medieval

Unknown

-

D

Low

Low

Unknown

Medium

Minor

SD014

Goods sheds

Post-medieval

Unknown

-

D

Low

Low

Unknown

Medium

Minor

SD015

Air Raid Shelter

Goods sheds Air Raid Shelter

Modern

Unknown

-

C

Low

Low

Certain - Low

Medium

Minor

SD006 SD007 SD008

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5.2 JUSTIFICATION OF ASSESSMENT 5.2.1

The assessment has been made on the information provided by City and County of Swansea, which envisages the foundations for the new development entailing maximum excavations to a depth of 1.925m beneath the existing ground surface, (for the insertion of piles). However, between these piles, the general excavation depth is currently envisaged to be only 0.8m beneath the existing ground surface. Based on the information provided, the assessment assumes that the majority of the existing structures, with the exception of the Listed Buildings and the Quadrant, will be demolished during the course of the development.

5.2.2

It is considered that the proposed development will have a ‘Severe’ effect on 06453w (St David’s Shopping Centre). For the purposes of the assessment, it has been assumed that the whole of the existing shopping centre (within the bounds of the development area), will be removed in preparation for redevelopment. However, the structure itself is modern, of category ‘D’ importance, and sections of the structure have already been subject to photographic survey in 2012 (See E003560 in the Historic Background Section above).

5.2.3

The development has been assessed as having a ‘Minor’ effect on 37 other sites within or close to the development area. Several reasons exist for this designation: in all cases, the proposed methodology of construction and the previous disturbance of the ground suggest that only a ‘Minor’ impact is envisaged. These include 06887w (Garden Street Brewhouses), 06889w (Rutland Arms Brewhouse), 07422w (7 Rutland Street), 03259w (Swansea Gasworks – Dwellings), 408486 (Brewery, Wassail Street), 9065 (Wassail Square Mission), SD003 (Marble Yard), SD004 (St David’s School), SD005 (Bethania Chapel), SD007 (Training College), SD007 (Tram Station), SD009 (Rutland Street School) and SD013 (Air Raid Shelter).

5.2.4

The development proposes to move the statue of H.H. Vivian (06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634), from its current location southwest of St Mary’s Church to a site further northwest. However, the statue has already been moved twice from its original location: from Castle Square to Victoria Park (1936), thence to St Mary’s Square (1982). Hence the ‘Minor’ impact on this structure.

5.2.5

The development also proposes to partially cut back some of the soil around 02398w, 34869, LB 11652 (Great Western Railway Revetment Walls), and it is possible that one archway may be opened at the eastern end of the structure – therefore a ‘Minor’ effect is also envisaged on this site. A more detailed consideration of the effects of the development on the built heritage is included in the submitted Heritage Impact Assessment Report by Holland Heritage (2016).

5.2.6

In some cases, existing excavation or partial exclusion from the development area reinforce the envisaged ‘Minor’ impact. For example, Wassail Place Kiln (01103w), has already undergone excavation, which has dated the structure to the 18th century, while the site has subsequently been redeveloped. However, 18th century references suggest that it was part of a wider pottery making industry in the vicinity of Wassail Street from at least the 18th century. It is unclear exactly where this pottery making industry was located, or how much of it has already been destroyed by subsequent development, therefore, the potential exists for encountering deposits or structures relating to the industry.

5.2.7

Other sites are known to be partially excluded from the development area, and thus the development will impact only part of these sites. For example, it is considered a possibility that remains relating to the medieval town defences (00436w, 02769w and 02771w) could be found in the eastern part of the development area. However, the town defences have already been discovered to the south, on Wind Street, and to the north, on Whitewalls. Therefore, the majority GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 37

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of the defences lie outside the development area: any discovered remains would likely be part of a larger structure, and thus disturbance would likely be limited – hence the ‘Minor’ effect envisaged. The same is considered for other linear features which pass through the development - such as the railways and tramways (03831.0w, 02811.0w, SD011). 5.2.8

Similarly, in other cases, a ‘Minor’ effect is envisaged due to the location of the site on the edge of the development, where it is considered likely that only part of the structure encroaches upon the development area. These include, 00437w (Old Rectory), 03261w (Swansea Gasworks Smithy/Foundry), 03262w (Couch’s Ropewalk), 04609w (Fisher Street), 408485 (Brewery, Orange Street), SD001 (Goose Island), SD002 (Chapel, Nelson Terrace), SD006 (Sawmill), SD010 (Technical Institute) and SD0012 (Goods Sheds).

5.2.9

No direct effect is envisaged on structures 00430w, 400057, LB 11632 (St Mary’s Church), 02368w, 13563, B 11615 (St David’s Priory RC Church), 02369w, 409601, LB 11616 (St David’s Presbytery) or 02374w, 31895, LB 11652 (County Court): Minor landscaping works are envisaged around the first, while the others are either excluded from the development or located on the edge of the development. Indirect effects on these structures are considered below. No effect is considered on 00459w (Pottery Find, Orange Street), or 02671w (Pottery recovered during excavation), as these finds have been moved.

5.2.10 Should amendments be made to the area under development, the effects on the archaeological resource may also change. Mitigation for the above effects is considered in the ‘Mitigation’ section of the report.

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5.3 INDIRECT EFFECT OF THE DEVELOPMENT ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AND LANDSCAPES 5.3.1

It is also necessary to consider the potential indirect effects on the nearby Scheduled Ancient Monuments and Listed Buildings. For the purposes of this assessment, only buildings within 80m of the development will be considered. Twelve of these sites (all Listed Buildings) are located within an 80m radius of the development. These have been included Appendix IV. However, the effects on the built heritage is dealt with in more detail in the submitted Heritage Impact Assessment Report by Holland Heritage (2016).

5.3.2

The development is considered to have a ‘Slight’ impact on 00430w, 400057 LB11632 (St Mary’s Church), 02368w, 13563, LB 11615 (St David’s Priory RC Church), 02369w, 409601, LB 11616 (St David’s Presbytery), 02374w, 31895, LB 11652 (County Court), 02398w, 34869, LB 11652 (Great Western Railway Revetment Walls) and 06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634 (Statue – H. Hussey Vivian). These sites are all either within the development or immediately adjacent to it: therefore the development will be very visible. However, the area has already altered significantly since these structures were built and the surrounding buildings of the St David’s centre are largely unsympathetic: hence none can be considered to exist in an unaltered setting, although noise and vibration in close proximity may adversely impact these structures. The effect of the development is therefore considered to be ‘Slight’. Should any work be considered to the structures, however, the impact would be greater.

5.3.3

The only site to which any alterations are proposed is 06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634 (Statue – H. Hussey Vivian), which would be removed from its current location to a new site west of St Mary’s Church, approximately 50m north of its current location. However, the statue was previously moved from its original location in Castle Square to Victoria Park (in 1936), and then to its current location in 1982: as it has been removed from its original setting, therefore, a further short distance move would likely have only a limited effect on its setting: hence the ‘Slight’ impact envisaged.

5.3.4

A ‘Very Slight’ impact is envisaged on 02788w, 18453, LB 11635 (Cross Keys Public House), 02375w, 19941, LB 11636 (17 St Mary’s Street), 18961, LB 11570 (Midland Bank), 02198w, 19774, LB 11611, LB 11612, LB 11613 (2, 3 and 4 Princess Way), 02411w, 9025, LB 11674, LB 11675 (York Place Baptist Church and Schoolroom), 00832w, 31755, LB 11602, LB 11603 (Carlton Cinema/Restaurant, 18b and c Oxford Street). Again, these structures, although further away, exist in a largely altered setting and the St David’s centre which currently occupies the site, is unsympathetic. From the distance of these structures, and taking into account the buildings excluded from the development that would be retained, only a limited view of the development is available. Hence the ‘Very Slight’ impact envisaged.

Table 3: Indirect effects on the archaeological resource ID

Name

NGR

Period

Value

Effect

00430w, 400057, LB 11632

St Mary’s Church

SS65609293

Medieval

B

Slight

0m

02368w, 13563, LB 11615

St David’s Priory RC Church

SS6564592794

Post-medieval

B

Slight

0m

02369w, 409601, LB 11616

St David’s Presbytery

SS65669279

Post-medieval

B

Slight

0m

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 39

Distance from Development

MARCH 2017


02374w, 31895, LB 11652

County Court

SS6564292901

Modern

B

Slight

0m

02398w, 34860, LB 11652

Great Western Railway Revetment Walls

SS6571492582

Post-medieval

B

Slight

0m

06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634

Statue – H. Hussey Vivian

SS6556892861

Post-medieval

B

Slight

0m

02788w, 18453, LB 11635

Cross Keys Public House

SS65659297

Medieval/Postmedieval

B

Very Slight

25m

02375w, 19941, LB 11636

17 St Mary’s Street

SS65679297

Post-medieval

B

Very Slight

c.60m

18961, 11570

Midland Bank

SS6569192997

Post-medieval

B

Very Slight

73m

02198w, 19774, LB 11611, LB 11612, LB 11613

2, 3 and 4 Princess Way

SS6573192866

Post-medieval

B

Very Slight

30m

02411w, 9025, LB 11674, LB 11675

York Place Baptist Church and Schoolroom

SS65809280

Post-medieval

B

Very Slight

62m

00832w, 31755, LB 11602

Carlton Cinema/ Restaurant. 18b and c Oxford Street

SS6534392945

Modern

B

Very Slight

40m

LB

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6 MITIGATION 6.1.1

The proposed development is envisaged as having a ‘Severe’ effect on 06453w (St David’s Shopping Centre). The development has been assessed as having a ‘Minor’ effect on 36 further sites (Listed in the table above). The postulated indirect effects include a ‘Slight’ impact on six further sites: 02368w, 13563, LB 11615 (St David’s Priory RC Church), 02369w, 409601, LB 11616 (St David’s Presbytery), 02374w, 31895, LB 11652 (County Court), 02398w, 34869, LB 11652 (Great Western Railway Revetment Walls) and 06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634 (Statue – H. Hussey Vivian), and a ‘Very Slight’ impact on six further sites: 02788w, 18453, LB 11635 (Cross Keys Public House), 02375w, 19941, LB 11636 (17 St Mary’s Street), 18961, LB 11570 (Midland Bank), 02198w, 19774, LB 11611, LB 11612, LB 11613 (2, 3 and 4 Princess Way), 02411w, 9025, LB 11674, LB 11675 (York Place Baptist Church and Schoolroom), 00832w, 31755, LB 11602, LB 11603 (Carlton Cinema/Restaurant, 18b and c Oxford Street).

6.1.2

The majority of directly affected sites are Post-medieval or Modern sites of Category ‘C’ or ‘D’ interest, which are well evidenced on historic mapping and in documentary sources, and which are already likely to have undergone significant disturbance. Of greater interest, however, is the possibility of encountering remains associated with the medieval town, including the town defences (00436w), burgages and potentially structures (such as the Old Rectory (00437w)) relating to the Hospital of the Blessed St David. The documentary and cartographic sources suggest that medieval activity was concentrated east of Rutland Street and in the area of St Mary’s Church, and therefore it is in this area that the greatest opportunity of encountering remains exists. It is therefore recommended that an archaeological evaluation should be made, following the demolition of any structures east of Rutland Street/Place. Although it is likely that any medieval structures will have been significantly disturbed by later development, an evaluation would be useful in determining the exact nature of any surviving medieval remains and has the potential to significantly advance our knowledge of this part of Medieval Swansea.

6.1.3

It is also recommended that an archaeological watching brief be undertaken on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, although again its focus is likely to be on the eastern area of the site. An archaeological watching brief would also be useful in establishing whether any further remains relating to the Post-medieval pottery industry may survive. An archaeological watching brief would also mitigate any impact on any surviving remains relating to the other Postmedieval or Modern structures, although previous work on the west of the site suggests that the possibility of finding remains in this area is limited: hence it is suggested that the focus of the watching brief be concentrated on the eastern side of the site.

6.1.4

The envisaged indirect effects of the development on the upstanding historic structures, should be mitigated by consultation with Cadw, particularly in the case of those Listed Buildings within the development or immediately adjacent to it. Listed Building Consent would be required for the removal of Statue 06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634 and for any proposed alterations to the Great Western Railway Revetment Walls 02398w, 34860, LB 11652 or alterations to any other Listed Building. A more detailed assessment of the built heritage, to include the effects on Listed Buildings, is being conducted contemporaneously with this archaeological assessment by Edward Holland of Holland Heritage (Holland 2016) and should be consulted to mitigate the impacts on these sites.

6.1.5

The intensive history of human activity in the area highlights the possibility of discovering previously unknown sites of archaeological interest within the development area. The provision of an archaeological watching brief during all intrusive groundworks would mitigate the impact on the archaeological resource. GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 41

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Table 4: Recommended archaeological mitigation ID

Site Name

Effect

00436w

Swansea Town Defences

Minor

00437w

Old Rectory, Swansea

Minor

00446w

Swansea Tithe Barn

Minor

01103w

Wassail Place Kiln

Minor

02769w

Swansea Town Defences, Whitewalls

Minor

02771w

Rutland Street, Swansea

Minor

02811.0w

Minor

03262w

Mumbles railway Swansea Gasworks Dwelling Swansea Gasworks Smithy/Foundry Couch's Ropewalk ('New Ropewalk')

03831.0w

L and NWR line

Minor

04609w

Fisher Street St David Shopping Centre, Swansea Garden Street Brewhouses Rutland Arms Brewhouse 7 Rutland Street, Swansea Brewery, Orange Street, Swansea Brewery, Wassail Street, Swansea Wassail Square Mission, Wassail Sqaure, Swansea

Minor

Wassail Gate Houses, St Mary’s Churchyard

Minor

Goose Island Chapel, Nelson Terrace

Minor

Marble Yard St David's School, Edward Street/Rutland Place Bethania Chapel, Rutland Place

Minor

03259w 03261w

06453w 06887w 06889w 07422w 408485 408486 9065 SD001 SD002 SD003 SD004 SD005 SD006 SD007

Minor Minor Minor

Severe Minor Minor Minor Minor Minor

Mitigation Archaeological Field Evaluation, Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Field Evaluation, Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Field Evaluation, Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Field Evaluation, Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Field Evaluation, Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development

Minor

Minor

Minor

Minor Minor

Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 42

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SD008

Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development

Minor

SD009

Sawmills Training College (Female), Nelson Terrace

SD010

Tram Station

Minor

SD011

Minor

SD012

Rutland Street School Technical Institute, Nelson Terrace

SD013

Tram road

Minor

SD014

Goods sheds

Minor

SD015

Air Raid Shelter

Minor

06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634 02398w, 34860, LB 11652

Statue – Sir H. H. Vivian Great Western Railway Revetment Walls

Minor/Slight Minor/Slight

00430w, LB11632

St Mary’s Church

Slight

02368w, 13563, LB 11615

St David’s Priory RC Church

Slight

02369w, 409601, LB 11616

St David’s Presbytery

Slight

02374w, 31895, LB 11652

County Court

Slight

02788w, 18453, LB 11635

Cross Keys House

02375w, 19941, LB 11636

17 St Mary’s Street

Very Slight

18961, LB 11570

Midland Bank

Very Slight

02198w, 19774, LB 11611, LB 11612, LB 11613

2, 3 and 4 Princess Way

Very Slight

02411w, 9025, LB 11674, LB 11675

York Place Church Schoolroom

Baptist and

Very Slight

Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016

00832w, 31755, LB 11602

Carlton Cinema/ Restaurant. 18b and c Oxford Street

Very Slight

Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016

-

Previously unknown sites of archaeological importance

Minor

Archaeological watching brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development.

400057,

Public

Minor

Minor

Very Slight

Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016. Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016 Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016 Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016 Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016 Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016 Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016 Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016 Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016 Archaeological Watching Brief on all ground intrusive works associated with the development, consultation with Cadw, reference to Holland 2016

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7 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alban, J.R. 1994. The Three Night’s Blitz: Select Contemporary Reports relating to Swansea’s Air Raids of February 1941. Swansea: Swansea City Council. Bowden, R. 2009. Castle Square, Swansea: archaeological desk-based assessment. GGAT Report 2009/051. Evans, E. 1991. 1 – 7 Princess Way, Swansea: an Archaeological Assessment. GGAT Report 187. Gabb, G. 2006. Swansea and its History: Volume 1. Holland, E. 2016. Swansea Central Redevelopment Heritage Impact Assessment. Holland Heritage, November 2016. Hughes, S. 2000. Copperopolis: Landscapes of the Early Industrial Period in Swansea. Aberystwyth; RCAHMW. Jones, T. 1955. Brut y Tywysogyon or The Chronicle of the Princes: Red Book of Hergest Version. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Jones, W.H. 1920. History of Swansea and the Lordship of Gower, from the earliest times to the XIV century. Carmarthen; W. Spurrell and Son. Lightfoot, K. 1979. ‘The Medieval Town Defences of Swansea: The Whitewalls Excavation, 1978 – 9’, Gower Vol.XXX pp.76-79. Gower Society. Maynard, D. 1995. Archaeological Field Evaluation 14 – 17 St Mary’s Street, Swansea, West Glamorgan. GGAT Report 95/067, Parkhouse J. and Sell S. 1980. A note on the discovery of a Post-medieval Pottery Kiln in Swansea. (Preliminary report for Medieval and Later Pottery in Wales RCAHMW 2000. An Inventory of the Ancient Monuments in Glamorgan. Volume III – Part 1b: Medieval Secular Monuments, The Later Castles From 1217 to the Present. RCAHMW. Sell, S. H. 1993. ‘Excavations at St Mary’s Swansea 1976-77’, Archaeology in Wales. Vol. 33. Pp. 1 – 16. Council for British Archaeology Wales. Soulsby, I. 1983. The Towns of Medieval Wales. Chichester; Phillimore Spurgeon, C.J. 2001. ‘The Medieval Town Defences of Glamorgan’, Studia Celtica XXXV. 161 – 212. Williams, G (ed.). 1990. Swansea: An Illustrated History. Swansea: Christopher Davies Publishers Ltd. Websites British Geological Survey Interactive Map http://www.bgs.ac.uk/ (Accessed November 2016) City Witness (Place and Perspective in Medieval Swansea): www.medievalswansea.ac.uk/en/ Cartographic sources 1682 - Street Map of Swansea. Taken from the Bishop Gore Handbook. West Glamorgan Archives Reference: D 39/1/77 1728 - View of the port of Swansea, taken from Emmanuel Bowen’s map of South Wales. West Glamorgan Archives Reference: D/D Xgc 119 1814 - Ordnance Survey Map of Swansea Bay, from the River Tawe to Mumbles Head. West Glamorgan Archives Reference: D/D Z 207/19/1 1828 - Plan of Swansea. West Glamorgan Archives Reference: D 39/6/7 1843 – Swansea Tithe Map (cynefin.archiveswales.org.uk) 1846 - A Plan of the Town of Swansea, Glamorganshire, including the Harbour and Port Tennant. West Glamorgan Archives Reference: D 39/27 GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 44

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1852 – Swansea Local Board of Health 1852 Survey of the Borough of Swansea 1879 – First Edition Ordnance Survey Map. Glamorganshire Sheet XIV NW 1899 – Second Edition Ordnance Survey Map. Glamorganshire Sheet XIV NW 1919 – Third Edition Ordnance Survey Map. Glamorganshire Sheet XIV NW 1941 – Plans Showing Damaged and Destroyed Buildings Following the Air Raids in 1941 Oystermouth Road, Fisher Street, Rutland Street and Victoria Road – WGCC/PS 6/35 Singleton Street, Greenfield Street, Wellington Street and James Street – WGCC/PS 6/27 Documentary Sources ‘Gift, dated 31 Oct. 1400’. In: Material and Illustrations For a History of Swansea; collected by Geo. Grant Francis, Esq. – Compiled in 1862. West Glamorgan Archives Refererence: RISW/GGF 3 p.22 ‘Quitclaim, dated 21 April 1422’’. In: Material and Illustrations For a History of Swansea; collected by Geo. Grant Francis, Esq. – Compiled in 1862. West Glamorgan Archives Refererence: RISW/GGF 3 p.29 ‘Gift, dated 19 March 1460’. In: Material and Illustrations For a History of Swansea; collected by Geo. Grant Francis, Esq. – Compiled in 1862. West Glamorgan Archives Refererence: RISW/GGF 3 p.36 Other sources consulted but not cited Arthur, N. 1988. Swansea at War: A Pictorial Account, 1939 – 45. Swansea: South Wales Evening Post. Jones, W.H. 1995. History of the Port of Swansea: Facsimile Edition. Swansea; West Glamorgan County Archive Service. Rogers, W.C. 2005. Historic Swansea. Ed. Morris, B. Swansea: West Glamorgan Archive Service. South Wales Evening Post.1988. Memories of Swansea at War. Swansea: South Wales Evening Post.

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Based on the Ordnance Survey 1:10000 Landplan with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

Area shown in Figure 3 Area shown in Figure 4

Area shown in Figure 2

Area shown in Figure 6

Area shown in Figure 5 0

250.00

GRID N

500.00metres

Figure 1. Location of the development area (red outline) and study area (green outline) with locations of figures 2 - 6.

City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe

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Known Course of Medieval Defences (00436w)

Wassail Gate

Possible Courses of Medieval Defences

02811.0w

Based on the Ordnance Survey 1:10000 Landplan with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

0

100.00

GRID N

200.00metres

Figure 2. Sites of archaeological interest (red and blue) within the development area (red outline) including the supposed line of the Medieval defences (green).

City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe

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GRID N

0

Based on the Ordnance Survey 1:10000 Landplan with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

100.00

200.00metres

Figure 3. Northwest region of the study area (green outline), showing the development area (red outline) and sites of archaeological interest (red).

City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe

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Based on the Ordnance Survey 1:10000 Landplan with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

0

100.00

GRID N

200.00metres

Figure 4. Eastern region of study area (green outline), showing the development area (red outline) and sites of archaeological interest (red).

City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe

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Based on the Ordnance Survey 1:10000 Landplan with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

0

100.00

GRID N

200.00metres

Figure 5. Southeast region of the study area (green outline), showing the development area (red outline) and sites of archaeological interest (red).

City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe

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Based on the Ordnance Survey 1:10000 Landplan with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

0

100.00

GRID N

200.00metres

Figure 6. Southwest region of the study area (green outline), showing the development area (red outline) and sites of archaeological interest (red).

City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe

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Based on the Ordnance Survey First Edition 1879 map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, GlamorganGwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

0

50.00

GRID N

100.00metres

Figure 7. First Edition Ordnance Survey Map (1879) showing the development area (red outline).

City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe

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Based on the Ordnance Survey First Edition 1899 map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, GlamorganGwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

0

50.00

GRID N

100.00metres

Figure 8. Second Edition Ordnance Survey Map (1899) showing the development area (red outline).

City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe

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Based on the Ordnance Survey First Edition 1919 map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright, GlamorganGwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Licence number AL10005976

0

50.00

GRID N

100.00metres

Figure 9. Third Edition Ordnance Survey Map (1919) showing the development area (red outline).

City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe

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9 APPENDIX II: PLATES

Plate 1: An engraved view of Swansea, from Emmanuel Bowen’s Map of South Wales, 1729.

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Plate 2: Plan of Swansea, 1828, by John Evans. The development area is shown in the top left.

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Plate 3: A detailed view of John Evan’s Plan of 1828, showing the development area. Note ‘White Walls’, and Rutland Place, which follow the supposed line of the defences.

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Plate 4: A Plan of 1846, showing the development area. St Mary’s Church is at the top right.

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Plate 5: 1941 Plan, showing parts of Swansea which had been destroyed during the ‘Three Night’s Blitz’.

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Plate 6: An oblique view of central Swansea, 1939, looking north-northwest, with the proposed development on the far left

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Plate 7: Aerial Photograph of 1945, showing the areas damaged by bombs during the Second World War. Note the shell of Rutland Street School (centre) and St Mary’s Church (centre-left).

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Plate 8: 1968 Aerial photograph of central Swansea, showing clearance underway for new development

Plate 9: An original gift of a burgage in Fisher Street, dated to the year 1400.

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Plate 10: Great Western Railway revetment Walls (02398w, 34869, LB 11652)

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Plate 11: Car Park south of Oystermouth Road, with the Great Western Railway embankment on the far side.

Plate 12: The development area from Oystermouth Road, looking northwest. GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 64

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Plate 13: The development area, looking north from Oystermouth Road towards St Mary’s Church

Plate 14: St David’s Catholic Church and Presbytery, view to northwest

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Plate 15: View Southeast from Princess Way, along the approximate line of Fisher Street, towards York Place.

Plate 16: The Cross Keys Public House (02788w, 18453, LB 11635) from Princess Way, view to Northeast. The Cross Keys Public House is thought to include elements of The Hospital of the Blessed St David (00955w, 00431w, 18453, LB 11635) GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 66

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Plate 17: The County Court and other Early 20th Century buildings on the south side of St Mary’s Street, view to East.

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Plate 18: St Mary’s Church, view to North

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Plate 19: Statue of H. H. Vivian (06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634) St Mary’s Square, view to South.

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10 APPENDIX III: AERIAL ALLOCATION AREA

PHOTOGRAPHS

WITH

COVERAGE

OF

THE

10.1.1 The following is a list of the aerial photographs with coverage of the study area held by the Central Registry of Air Photography for Wales (CRAPW). Not all of the below photographs were available to view at the time of the assessment, with some now located elsewhere – notably the RCAHMW. Several of the photographs, whilst showing the Study Area, did not show the development area. Although no new sites were identified during the interrogation of these aerial photographs, changes to existing sites were noted. 10.1.2 Table a: Aerial Ref

Sortie

Date Flown

Scale

Air Survey Org

Photo Type

Frame

4226 4405 4537 4559 4604 4622 4645 4649 4705 5111 5210 5211 5213 5216 5217 5428 6001 6202 6317 6710 6810 6857 6863 6908 6954

A – Z Obliques US 7 LOC 212 106G UK 624 106G UK 242 106G UK 1625 106G UK 1419 106G UK 1275 CPE UK 1815 CPE UK 2264 59 RAF 675 540 RAF 699 58 RAF 863 540 RAF 748 540 RAF 781 58 RAF 922 MAL 86/54 58 RAF 3506 OS 62 014 OS 63 069 Meridian 70/67 Meridian 54/68 Meridian 53/68 Meridian 55/68 Meridian 3/69 58 RAF 9412

22/11/1939 08/03/1944 10/08/1945 21/04/1945 07/07/1946 15/04/1946 23/03/1946 30/10/1946 27/08/1947 12/05/1951 27/03/1952 25/04/1952 21/05/1952 23/06/1952 22/07/1952 29/04/1954 21/04/1960 14/04/1962 24/05/1963 20/07/1967 27/07/1968 25/07/1968 27/07/1968 19/01/1969 07/03/1969

Oblique Various 1:2500 1: 10 000 Various 1:9900 1:4800 1:4800 1:26900 1;4970 1:5000 1:500 1:6000 1:4997 1:5000 1: 19999 1:24000 1:25000 1:3000 Various 1:5000 Various Various 1:60000

Medenham Medenham RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF RAF Meridian RAF Ordnance Survey Ordnance Survey Meridian Meridian Meridian Meridian Meridian RAF

B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W

A337 1041 6137 – 6139 3129 6273 - 6275 3232 – 3233 5330 – 5332, 5295 – 5297 5132 – 5135 5016 1 – 18 6090 – 6092 5424 – 5426 5386 – 5388 5050 – 5054 5056 – 5058 10179 F22; 104 – 106 89 4-5 69, 4 2 – 29, 34 – 37, 172 60 – 63 24 – 25, 74 – 78, 208 – 209 196 – 199 51

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7026 7032 7536 7827 7919 8104 8156 8159 8161 8737 9102 9141 9201 9213 9258 9610 94130 99122 200029 200503 200601 200901 201401

Meridian 49/70 Meridian 75/70 Meridian 22/75 OS 78 085 Meridian 37/79 Meridian 6/81 13 RAF 5821 39 RAF 5697 39 RAF 5690 1 PRU RAF 1179 OS 91 051 1 PRU RAF 2301 OS 92 039 1 PRU RAF 2470 OS 96 066 OS 94 360 OS 99 398 Getmapping Geoinformation COWI Nextperspectives Nextperspectives

21/06/1970 23/09/1970 25/04/1975 11/06/1978 10/09/1979 16/04/1981 22/06/1981 27/08/1981 17/08/1981 06/05/1987 16/04/1991 10/09/1991 01/05/1992 04/04/1992 06/07/1996 03/05/1996 15/10/1994 14/10/1999 01/01/2000 06/06/2006 01/01/2009 01/01/2014

1:6000 1:10000 1:6000 1:23000? Various 1:10000 1:50000 1:50000 1:50000 1:25000 1:5200 1:35000 1:5000 1:5500 1:25150 1:5100 1:8300 1:7700 1:10000 Digital 1:10000

Meridian Meridian Meridian Ordnance Survey Meridian Meridian RAF RAF RAF RAF Ordnance Survey RAF Geonex (NRSC) Ordnance Survey RAF Ordnance Survey Ordnance Survey Ordnance Survey Getmapping Geoinformation COWI Getmapping Nextperspectives

Digital

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B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W Colour B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W Colour Colour Colour Colour Colour

71 – 73 147 - 149 179 – 182 126 – 127 100 – 101 120 – 122 156 009 269 7–8 124 – 127, 79 – 82 39 – 40 6592: 123. 15392: 98-99 61 – 65, 114 – 116 212 5–7 41 – 43, 90 – 93 128 - 129 -


11 APPENDIX IV: GAZETTEER OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL INTERESTS ID

Site

00430w, 400057, LB 11632

St Mary's Church

NGR

Period

SS65609293

Medieval

Full Description The first direct reference to Swansea parish church occurs in the 1291 Taxatio Ecclesiae although it is possible that a church stood on the site from at least the early thirteenth century. The church underwent restoration in the 1890’s, but the last vestiges of the medieval church were destroyed in the Second World War, when the church was hit by incendiary bombs in February 1941. The earliest parts of the present structure date to the rebuild of 1895-99 by Sir Arthur Blomfield. It was extensively reconstructed in 1954-59 by L T Moore and Sir Percy Thomas, essentially to the late Victorian design with some modification, and reusing part of the Victorian building. It is a cruciform structure with a SE tower, having nave and two aisles, transepts, chancel with a chapel beyond, two porches, a suite of vestries, and an attached hall. Type

Condition

Status

Church

Not known

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Certain - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

High

B

Slight

00436w

Swansea Town Defences

NGR

Period

SS65709295

Medieval

Full Description Swansea Town Defences. This PRN acts as the master for a number of others which mark specific, identified, features of the Swansea town defences. The town defences are thought to have surrounded the town from perhaps King’s Lane to the North, along the line of the Post-medieval Whitewalls or Waterloo Street, west of St Mary’s church, along Rutland Street, to Wind Street. GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 72

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Type

Condition

Status

Town defences

Near destroyed

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Medium

Possible - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Minor

ID

Site

00437w

Old Rectory, Swansea

NGR

Period

SS65649290

Medieval

Full Description The site of the possible Medieval Rectory mentioned in several ancient deeds. This later became the Master of St. David's Hospital's House and stood on the west side of Fisher Street. It is thus associated with the Blessed Hospital of St David (PRN 00955w, 00431w, 18453, LB 11635). Type

Condition

Status

Rectory

Not known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Medium

Possible - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Minor

ID

Site

00446w

Swansea Tithe Barn

NGR

Period GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 73

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SS65549292

Medieval

Full Description Tithe barn supposedly stood at the NW corner of Swansea churchyard. Type

Condition

Status

Tithe barn

Not known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Minor

ID

Site

00459w

Pottery Find, Orange Street, Swansea

NGR

Period

SS65469292

Post-medieval

Full Description A complete 15th or 16th century earthenware jug found about 20 feet below the surface in Orange Street, Swansea, opposite the Lord Nelson Inn. Type

Condition

Status

Findspot

Intact (moved)

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

None

ID

Site

00832w, 31755, LB 11602, LB 11603

Carlton Cinema/ Restaurant (18b and c Oxford Street)

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NGR

Period

SS6534392945

Modern

Full Description This site comprises the Carlton Cinema situated within the community of Castle. Cadw describe the listed building as dating to 1913-14, designed by C T Ruthen (architect of Swansea for Swansea Electric Cinema Co Ltd; Henry Billings of Swansea, contractors) and costing approximately £15,000. The Cinema closed on the 29th October 1977 (Cadw Listed Building Description). Type

Condition

Status

Cinema

Intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Low

Possible - Low

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Very Slight

ID

Site

01103w

Wassail Place Kiln

NGR

Period

SS65549279

Post-Medieval

Full Description An 18th century kiln was uncovered with a collection of pottery placed within. The kiln is said to be the only one of its kind in Swansea. Documentary evidence, however, attests to pottery production in the area from the early 18th century, including digging for clay in the Burrows. For example, in 1754 David High was paid 1s 8d for cleaning the watercourse 'by the potters in Wassail Street (Morris 1977). The full extent of the pottery activity in this area remains unclear, however. Type

Condition

Status

Kiln

Excavated

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

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High

B

Minor

ID

Site

02198w, 19774, LB 11611, LB 11612, LB 11613

2, 3 and 4 Princess Way

NGR

Period

SS6573192866

Post-Medieval

Full Description 3 storey office block, snecked rubble facings with (badly eroded) freestone dressings. Steep slate roofs with large gable forward on left, parapets with finials, stems of chimneys to left and centre removed above sloping seatings. 3 slits to banded gable, wide relieving arch over cusped tripartite window, blind heads with disc ornament and punched spandrel rosettes; plain chamfered openings on right; sill bands. 7 windows to 1st floor, paired under relieving arches with shouldered heads, roll-moulded arches and detailing as before, sash windows with some glazing bars. Shouldered windows to ground floor with decaye colonnettes etc, 2 modern doors, rendered gable end. Type

Condition

Status

Office

Intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

D

Very slight

ID

Site

02368w, 13563, LB 11615

St David's Priory RC Church

NGR

Period

SS6564592794

Post-Medieval

Full Description St David’s Priory RC Church, built in 1847. The church was designed by C. Hansom and is oriented approximately north-south. The building was enlarged in 1864, when the nave was lengthened and the north aisle added. Further renovations were carried out in 1894 and 1907 when the Lady Chapel was added. In layout, the church has a short chancel with side aisles, a 5 bay aisled nave, with a dormer clerestory, porches, GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 76

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vestry and confessionals. On the southern corner is the Presbytery, which adjoins the main church. The church itself is in a gothic revival style – in a mock late 13th century style. (adapted from the Cadw Listed Building Description). Type

Condition

Status

Church

Intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Possible - Low

Confidence

Value

Effect

High

B

Slight

ID

Site

02369w, 409601, LB 11616

St David’s Presbytery

NGR

Period

SS65669279

Post-Medieval

Full Description Adjoining the southern corner of St David’s church, with the link building overlapping 2 bays of the south aisle. The structure was added sometime between the 1852 Local Board of Health Plan and the 1879 First Edition Ordnance Survey map - probably during the renovations of 1864. Type

Condition

Status

Presbytery

Intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Slight

ID

Site

02374w, 31895, LB 11633

County Court GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 77

MARCH 2017


NGR

Period

SS6564292901

Modern

Full Description The County court, situated within the community of Castle. The Cadw Listed Building Description is as follows: 'Dated 1908. Queen Anne Revival. 2 storey and attics, red brick with Bath stone dressings including banding. Slate roof with ridge stack to right and front stack on splayed angle to left; moulded corbel with elaborate cartouche, diagonal pilasters, volute supports and moulded cornice' (Cadw Listed Building Description). Type

Condition

Status

County court

Intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Slight

ID

Site

02375w, 19941, LB 11636

No. 17 St Mary's Street

NGR

Period

SS65679297

Post-Medieval

Full Description Three-storey two-window late Georgian cemented front with later additions. Slate roof; plain upper windows; tripartites in arched recesses to first floor. Shop front with paired brackets to cornice and doorway on left. Two evaluations carried out as part of GGAT Assessment 14-17 St Mary's St. A279, entailed two trenches at the rear of 16 and 17 revealed remains of stables and a previously unrecorded cellar at the rear of no. 16. Type

Condition

Status

House

Intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 78

MARCH 2017


Medium

B

Very Slight

ID

Site

02398w, 34869, LB 11652

Great Western Railway Revetment Walls

NGR

Period

SS657926

Post-Medieval

Full Description This site comprises the Post-Medieval Great Western Railway Revetment Walls situated within the community of Castle. The Cadw Listed Building Description is as follows: 'Between ca 1859 (when S Dock opened) and 1876-7. S Dock line was originally built by Harbour Trustees and leased to South Wales Railway in 1862 and absorbed by Great Western Railway in 1865. Long section of snecked rubble revetment wall with six multiarched bastions at irregular intervals (formerly the abutments for elevated rail decks to coaling towers at dock edge)' (Cadw Listed Building Description). Associated with the nearby railways. Type

Condition

Status

Wall

Near intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Minor/Slight

ID

Site

02411w, 9025, LB 11674, LB 11675

York Place Baptist Church, York Place, Swansea

NGR

Period

SS65809280

Post-Medieval

Full Description Dated 1830; an inscription on the schoolroom wing states that it was rebuilt in 1903. The architecture is vernacular Georgian. In three sections: church (nearly square), hall (rectangular across back of church) and schoolroom wing (trapezoidal, to north/right of church); all these are contiguous but with separate roofs; the church and schoolroom wing also have porches, possibly additions, since that to the church in particular is illassorted. The hall and ground floor of the schoolroom wing were gutted in a fire in the 1970s and have been GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 79

MARCH 2017


completely refitted in late 20th style with plain plastered walls. Exterior: Rendered throughout with slate roofs. Church has pyramidal roof with modillions under the eaves, and a one storey lean-to porch extending across the whole front. Central main door with semi-circular head embellished by keystone interrupting a hoodmould with square stops, framed by engaged Ionic columns supporting a triangular pediment. Between two windows with depressed arch heads. Upper storey has two round-headed windows over the door, flanked on either side by a similar window in a section of walling which projects slightly from the plane of the rest of the facade. There are ashlar quoins at the outer angles of the facade. The schoolroom wing is set back from plane of church facade, with a gable fronting the street. Two storeys, with a circular window in the gable; the upper floor has three flat-headed windows with moulded dripstones, which interrupt a cornice approximately twothirds of the way up their height. Two similar windows on the ground floor; the position of the third is occupied by the lean-to porch. Interior: The porch forms a lobby, from which a staircase rises at either side to the gallery, and a door on either side of the back wall leads into the church. The pulpit is panelled, with one row of panels fretted, and has a balustraded entrance on either side. The rail surrounding the sedd fawr is supported on painted wrought-iron supports embellished with flowers and balls; baptistery under. It faces the main entrance, with a semi-circular headed door on either side into the hall area. Above the pulpit is a shallow chamfered recess rising the full height of the room, containing the organ, above which is a pair of semi-circular headed windows. It is flanked by similar, single windows which light the gallery on either side, matched by windows in the facade wall and two in the side walls. Two windows (with depressed arches on the outside) directly underneath those in the latter light the ground floor, rise to the underside of the gallery. The remaining wall has a single stained-glass window of stylised design; the other windows are filled with clear glass embellished with stylised flowers. The gallery has diagonal corners and raked pews, open and panelled as on the ground floor. It is supported on eight slender painted iron Corinthian columns, and the panelled and fretted rail matches the pulpit. Hall runs across the back of the church and has an open roof in five bays with iron ties between the couples. The schoolroom is upstairs and is plastered above a panelled wainscot. It is now partitioned into a series of small rooms. Small graveyard front and side; has been cleared and some of gravestones used for paving. Type

Condition

Status

Chapel

Intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Low

ID

Site

02671w

Pottery recovered during excavation, 1 - 7 Princess Way

NGR

Period

SS65659285

Post-medieval

Full Description

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 80

MARCH 2017


A sherd of glazed earthenware found during an excavation at 1 - 7 Princess Way, during 1991. Thought to belong to the earlier part of the Cambrian Pottery Production (18th century). Type

Condition

Status

Pottery Sherd

Moved

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Low

D

None

ID

Site

02769w

Swansea Town Defences, Whitewalls

NGR

Period

SS65569294

Medieval

Full Description Part of the Swansea town wall and contemporary ditch, an earlier ditch and a medieval building within the town, revealed during excavation in November 1978 on the car park site in Whitewalls, prior to construction of the C&A store. Associated with PRNs 00436w and 06621w Type

Condition

Status

Town defences

Destroyed

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Medium

Certain - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

High

B

Minor

ID

Site

02771w

Rutland Street, Swansea

NGR

Period GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 81

MARCH 2017


SS65619281

Medieval

Full Description Inner and outer edges of a ditch observed in sewer trenches, presumably associated with Swansea Town Defences, observed in 1980. The town defences were constructed following Murage grants in the early 14th Century. Type

Condition

Status

Ditch

Not known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Possible - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

Low

C

Minor

ID

Site

02788w, 18453, LB 11635

Cross Keys Public House

NGR

Period

SS65659297

Post-Medieval

Full Description The Old Cross Keys public house was formerly situated in the middle of a long street, however it is now an isolated building across from St Mary's Church. Key features of the structure, which was originally a first floor hall-house of an 'L' shaped plan dating to the 14th century and altered in the 17th century, include 1950/1959 restorations, chamfered timber beams and chamfered uprights to bar interiors, some remaining parts of the early roof structure including two early hall trusses of false arch-base type (or crucks), remains of stone chimney-piece, and a two storey frontage with a twin three-storey gables (Cadw Listed Building Description). Type

Condition

Status

Inn

Near intact

II

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Possible - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Very Slight

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 82

MARCH 2017


ID

Site

02811.0w

Mumbles railway

NGR

Period

SS63058742

Post-medieval

Full Description The first passenger-carrying railway in the world, opened in 1804 using horse drawn carriages, until steam locomotion was introduced in 1877. The 13 mile line was electrified in 1929, and closed in 1960. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway began life as a horse-drawn carriage which ran along a line built to transport limestone from Mumbles to Swansea. Entrepreneur Benjamin French launched the service for passengers who wished to explore the romantic scenery of the Mumbles area. The original route ran from the Brewery Bank by the Swansea Canal around Swansea Bay to Castle Hill - today known as Clements Quarry in the village of Oystermouth. The first, four-wheel carriage was built mainly of iron and was pulled by one horse. But by 1830 the service was withdrawn because of competition from horse-drawn buses and was out of action until the 1860s, when horse-drawn and steam trains began running alongside each other. Type

Condition

Status

Railway

Destroyed

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Certain - High

Confidence

Value

Effect

High

A

Minor

ID

Site

03259w

Swansea Gasworks - Dwelling

NGR

Period

SS65509282

Post-medieval

Full Description An Archaeological Desk-based assessment of the Swansea Gasworks Site in 1992 identified Medieval or postGLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 83

MARCH 2017


medieval dwellings in Wassail Street. It would appear that there were already buildings in existence at the eastern end of the south side of Wassail Street in the 16th century. Type

Condition

Status

Dwelling

Destroyed

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Low

C

Minor

ID

Site

03261w

Swansea Gasworks - Smithy/Foundry

NGR

Period

SS65509275

Post-medieval

Full Description An Archaeological Desk-based assessment of the Swansea Gasworks Site in 1992 identified a smithy on the corner between Wellington Street and Albert Row, first visible on the 1852 Local Board of Health Plan. A foundry existed on this site by 1869. However, the gasworks had expanded into this area by the 1899 OS map, and the foundry had gone. Type

Condition

Status

Foundry

Not known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

03262w

Couch's Ropewalk ('New Ropewalk') GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 84

MARCH 2017


NGR

Period

SS65409268

Post-Medieval

Full Description An Archaeological Desk-based assessment of the Swansea Gasworks Site in 1992 identified Couch's Ropewalk ("New Ropewalk"). The first record of this business appears to be in 1724, when a 99 year lease was granted to Walter and Gamaliel Hughes to set up a ropewalk with associated buildings. Type

Condition

Status

Ropewalk

Not known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Possible - Low

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

03831.0w

L and NWR line

NGR

Period

SS6549492556

Post-medieval

Full Description This is the route of the L & NWR line Swansea branch including the extension to Penclawdd 03831.4w, Penclawdd Railway station 03831.1w, Gowerton south Railway station 03831.2w and Gorseinon station 03831.3w formerly Loughor Station. This route, or part thereof was formerly known as the Pontarddulais to Swansea line. Type

Condition

Status

Railway

Damaged

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 85

MARCH 2017


ID

Site

04609w

Fisher Street

NGR

Period

SS6567192896

Medieval

Full Description The medieval Fisher Street existed inside the town wall, probably along the line of modern York Street towards St Mary's Church. Fisher Street is visible on 19th century historic mapping. The street is known to exist from at least the start of the 15th century, with at least three deeds preserved at West Glamorgan Archives relating to burgages: the earliest, dated 1400, refers to a gift of one burgage on Fisher Street (unius burgagii….iacentis in Vico Piscatorium). It is possible that parts of the Hospital of the Blessed St David were located on both sides of the Street, with the Old Rectory and the Cross Keys Inn. Type

Condition

Status

Road

Damaged

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Certain - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Minor

ID

Site

05253w

Church Yard of St Mary's Church, Swansea

NGR

Period

SS65609290

Medieval

Full Description The churchyard appears on the tithe plan as quadrangular, surrounded by other buildings (SD002); it is flat and slightly raised above surrounding level. Type

Condition

Status

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 86

MARCH 2017


Churchyard

Destroyed

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

06304w, 32831, 412234, LB 11634

Statue, Swansea City Centre (H Hussey Vivian)

NGR

Period

SS6556892861

Post-Medieval

Full Description A statue visible on 2nd and 3rd edition Ordnance Survey mapping but not named on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map. The statue has been moved: first from Castle Square to Victoria Park in 1936, and thence to St Mary's Square in 1982 - it is now situated near St. Mary's Church. The statue has two inscriptions one reads 'This statue was erected by the citizens of Swansea and unveiled March13th 1886 by Lord Aberdare in recognition of the eminent service rendered to this port and town by Sir H Hussey Vivian Bart M.P. First Baron Swansea of Singleton. Born 6 July 1821, died 28 November 1894. M.P. for Truro 1852-7, Glamorgan 1857-85, Swansea District 1885 and until his peerage in 1893.' the other inscription details the history of the statue and reads 'A brief history of Hussey Vivian's statue. 1886 unveiled by Lord Aberdare on the site of Island House Castle Square, moved to Victoria Park 1982 this plaque was unveiled 21st May by the Lord Mayor Councillor Tyssul Lewis.' (Bowden 2009) Type

Condition

Status

Statue

Moved

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Certain - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

High

B

Minor

ID

Site

06453w

St David’s Shopping Centre, Swansea GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 87

MARCH 2017


NGR

Period

SS6559592819

Modern

Full Description St David’s Shopping centre in Swansea town centre. Although the area suffered some damage during the Second World War, this area was only substantially cleared of Post-medieval housing and developed from the later 1960's, most of the buildings dating from the 1970's and 1980's. Type

Condition

Status

Shopping centre

Intact

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

D

Severe

ID

Site

06887w

Garden Street Brewhouses

NGR

Period

SS6543692767

Post-Medieval

Full Description Garden Street brewhouses, the Gardner's Arms and Aberdeen Arms (no.s 1 and 42 respectively), on Garden Street. Visible from the 1852 Local Board of Health Plans onward. A number of breweries were once located in this part of Swansea. Type

Condition

Status

Public house

Destroyed

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 88

MARCH 2017


ID

Site

06889w

Rutland Arms Brewhouse

NGR

Period

SS6557092830

Post-Medieval

Full Description Rutland Arms brewhouse, on the corner of Wassail Street and Rutland Street. A number of breweries and Public Houses were located in this part of Swansea. Type

Condition

Status

Public house

Destroyed

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

07422w

7 Rutland Street, Swansea

NGR

Period

SS656928

Modern

Full Description One of a number of Drill Halls in Swansea. Rutland Street was close to St Mary's Church but was destroyed in the 1970's by the construction of the St David's Centre. It was home to South Wales Mounted Brigade Company Army Service Corps, HQ A,B,C Sections 3rg Welsh Field Ambulance RAMC, and A Squadron Glamorganshire Yeomanry (Drill Halls Project). No Drill Hall is visible on cartographic sources, which is unusual for a collection of units of the size listed in the Drill Hall Project. Type

Condition

Status

Drill hall

Destroyed

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 89

MARCH 2017


Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

18961, LB 11570

Midland Bank, HSBC Bank, Castle Square, Swansea

NGR

Period

SS6569192997

Modern

Full Description Dating from 1908 and enlarged in 1914. Architect not known. Edwardian Baroque (influenced by Sir Edwin Lutyens). Portland stone with yellow brick facings. Three storeys and basement. Five-bay symmetrical facades with emphasised end bays, banded rustication, curved corner treatment with Lutyens-inspired openwork dome (RAJ, RCAHMW, 25/9/03; based on listing description). Type

Condition

Status

Bank (Financial)

Not Known

II*

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Very slight

ID

Site

408485

Brewery, Orange Street, Swansea

NGR

Period

SS65499293

Post Medieval

Full Description A small brewery is shown on the north side of Orange Street on the Ordnance Survey 1:500 Town Plan of Swansea of 1879-80. A number of breweries and brewhouses are known from this part of Swansea. GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 90

MARCH 2017


Type

Condition

Status

Brewery

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

408486

Brewery, Wassail Street, Swansea

NGR

Period

SS65489287

Post Medieval

Full Description A large brewery is shown between Orange Street and Wassail Street on the Ordnance Survey 1:500 Town Plan of Swansea of 1879-80. A smaller brewery was visible northeast of this on the 1852 Board of Health Plan. One of a number of breweries known to have existed in the area. Type

Condition

Status

Brewery

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

9065

Wassail Square Mission, Wassail Sqaure, Swansea

NGR

Period

SS65439284

Post Medieval GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 91

MARCH 2017


Full Description Wassail Square Mission. Type

Condition

Status

Chapel

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Low

D

Minor

ID

Site

SD001

Wassail Gate

NGR

Period

SS65579286

Medieval

Full Description The Wassail Gate, one of the western entrances to Medieval Swansea. The precise location of the gatehouse is uncertain, although it seems likely that it may have been at the western end of Frog Street (later St Mary's Street), at the southwest corner of the churchyard. Defences may have existed prior to the murage grants in 1317 and 1338, although if so they were probably reconstructed of stone in the early 14th century. The Wassail Gate was in existence until at least the eighteenth century: it was maintained by the corporation. Type

Condition

Status

Gatehouse

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Medium

Possible - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

B

Minor

ID

Site GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 92

MARCH 2017


SD002

Houses, St Mary's Churchyard

NGR

Period

SS65579295

Post-medieval

Full Description A group of terraced houses evident on the historic mapping on the north, east and south sides of the churchyard of St Mary's. First evident on an 1828 plan, they could well have been constructed earlier. They appear on subsequent First Edition Ordnance Survey Map of 1879. However, by the Second (1899) edition, the houses along the south and east sides of the churchyard had been demolished, leaving only those on the north side (fronting onto Calvert Street). Although these houses also appear on the 1919 Ordnance Survey map, they had disappeared by the time of the 1945 aerial photographs. These photographs show a neat wall around the churchyard in this area and no signs of demolished buildings, suggesting they may have been removed prior to the Second World War rather than destroyed during the bombing. Type

Condition

Status

Dwellings

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

D

Minor

ID

Site

SD003

Goose Island

NGR

Period

SS6570092700

Post-medieval

Full Description An area labelled 'Goose Island', first evident in a lease held at West Glamorgan Archives (Ref. B/S Cop/C10 p.21), dated 1730, and in another, (D 82/5), dated 1818: in both it appears to be a plot of land. It first appears on the cartographic record on the 1843 Tithe map, where it is a small area of land south of Oystermouth Road, and surrounded on the south, west and east by an open sewer, which appears to have been a natural watercourse. At this time, two buildings were constructed on the island where it fronted Oystermouth Road. However, by 1846, a set of terraced houses had appeared. These were still evident on the 1879 Ordnance Survey map, although the open sewer had vanished and been replaced by railway lines. By the time of the Second Edition in 1899, this terrace had also been replaced by railway lines, goods sheds and other ancillary buildings. GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 93

MARCH 2017


Type

Condition

Status

Placename/Houses

Not known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

D

Minor

ID

Site

SD004

Chapel, Nelson Terrace

NGR

Period

SS6538692863

Post-medieval

Full Description A chapel, which first appears on the 1846 Plan of Swansea, although it had disappeared by the First Edition Ordnance Survey Map. Type

Condition

Status

Chapel

Unknown

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Low

D

Minor

ID

Site

SD005

Marble Yard

NGR

Period

SS6548292870

Post-medieval

Full Description GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 94

MARCH 2017


Although not visible on the 1843 Tithe Map, by the 1846 plan, a building had appeared, which on the 1852 Board of Health Plan, is shown to be a marble yard, with a 'T' shaped building, which included a shed and an engine house, for a marble sawing machine. It was not evident on the First Edition Ordnance Survey Map, and may have been replaced by a brewery (408486). Type

Condition

Status

Marble Yard

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

D

Minor

ID

Site

SD006

St David's School, Edward Street/Rutland Place

NGR

Period

SS6561092777

Post-medieval/Modern

Full Description St David's Roman Catholic School, which first appears on the 1852 Swansea Local Board of Health Plans to the rear of the Catholic Church, partly fronting onto Edward Street. By 1938, however, plans were put in place to reconstruct the school on the site of the former Bethania Chapel, which was sited in the adjacent plot to the west. Thence, the structure is visible on Post-war aerial photographs until at least 1978 - one of the few structures in this area to escape destruction by development, although it has since been demolished and replaced with a new structure. Type

Condition

Status

School

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Medium

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 95

MARCH 2017


ID

Site

SD007

Bethania Chapel, Rutland Place

NGR

Period

SS65608 92762

Post-medieval

Full Description A chapel, first evident on the 1852 Swansea Local Board of Health Plans. It was evident on all subsequent Ordnance Survey Maps up until and including the Third Edition. In 1938, the chapel was demolished and replaced with an expanded Roman Catholic School which lay to the northeast. Type

Condition

Status

Chapel

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

SD008

Sawmills

NGR

Period

SS6565792728

Post-medieval

Full Description A Sawmill, first visible on the 1879 First Edition Ordnance Survey Map. Although visible on the Second Edition, it had been replaced by further railway sidings by 1919 (Third Edition). Type

Condition

Status

Sawmill

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 96

MARCH 2017


Low

D

Minor

ID

Site

SD009

Training College (Female), Nelson Terrace

NGR

Period

SS6541892809

Post-medieval

Full Description A training college for females marked on the First Edition Ordnance Survey Map, and on subsequent editions up until 1919. The structure does not, however, appear on subsequent aerial photographs, suggesting it had already been demolished by the Second World War. Type

Condition

Status

College

Not Known

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Low

C

Minor

ID

Site

SD010

Tram Station

NGR

Period

SS6570792768

Post-medieval

Full Description A tram station for the Oystermouth Tramroad, visible on the First Edition Ordnance Survey Map. Visible on subsequent 1899 and 1919 editions, it had disappeared by the time of the 1941 plan. Adjoining the tramroad was the Clyne Valley Hotel, which likewise was visible on all subsequent editions until the Second World War. A 1941 plan showing the areas of Swansea destroyed during the bombing indicates this as a demolished structure, along with other structures in the vicinity of the former station, although the absence of tramlines to the area suggest that the station had been out of use some time (tramlines on Oystermouth Road continue to be depicted).

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 97

MARCH 2017


Type

Condition

Status

Tram Station

Unknown

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Medium

Medium

Possible - Medium

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

SD011

Rutland Street School

NGR

Period

SS6561592840

Post-medieval

Full Description A school on the north side of Rutland Street, first evident on the Second Edition (1899) Ordnance Survey Map. The school survived until 1941, when it was destroyed by bombing, presumably in the Three Night's Blitz in February 1941: on the 1941 plan, the school is shown as a shell. The shadows on the aerial photographs indicate that it was a two storey structure, with only the façade intact. The survival of the façade may indicate destruction by an incendiary rather than a high explosive bomb. Type

Condition

Status

School

Unknown

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Possible - Low

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

ID

Site

SD012

Technical Institute, Nelson Terrace

NGR

Period GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 98

MARCH 2017


SS6537292816

Post-medieval

Full Description A large building which first appears on the Second Edition Ordnance Survey Map of 1899. On the Third Edition, the building is labelled as a technical institute. The structure survived until the redevelopment of the area, post 1968. Type

Condition

Status

Technical Institute/School

Unknown

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Low

D

Minor

ID

Site

SD013

Tram road

NGR

Period

SS6550892837

Post-medieval

Full Description A tram road visible on the Second Edition (1899), Ordnance Survey Map (The NGR given above is its location on Wassail Street. Whilst still visible on the Third Edition (1919), it does not appear on subsequent wartime aerial photographs or plans, suggesting that it had been removed prior to the Second World War. Type

Condition

Status

Tram road

Unknown

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

D

Minor

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 99

MARCH 2017


ID

Site

SD014

Goods sheds

NGR

Period

SS6570492697

Post-medieval

Full Description Goods sheds first visible on the 1899 (Second Edition) Ordnance Survey Map, and visible on the 1919 (Third Edition), and on aerial photographs until 1962. By 1968, they had been removed, along with most of the railway lines in the vicinity. Type

Condition

Status

Goods sheds

Unknown

-

Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Unknown

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

D

Minor

ID

Site

SD015

Air Raid Shelter

NGR

Period

SS6551092833

Modern

Full Description A Second World War Air Raid Shelter, identified on documents at West Glamorgan Archive Servide (BE 1/2/18). Known to exist on Wassail Square, it was a surface type shelter (an above ground structure, usually brick and concrete), with a nominal accommodation of 63 people. It was authorised (and commenced) in October 1939, and was completed in January 1940, but was further strengthened in 1942. It originally cost £270.10s.4d. Unfortunately its exact location on Wassail Square remains uncertain. Type

Condition

Status

Air Raid Shelter

Unknown

-

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 100

MARCH 2017


Rarity

Group association

Historical association

Low

Low

Certain - Low

Confidence

Value

Effect

Medium

C

Minor

GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT 101

MARCH 2017


Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd

QUALITY CONTROL Report Title: Swansea Central: archaeological desk-based assessment Report Date: March 2017 Report Number: 2016/076 Report prepared by:

Thomas Davies

Position:

Archaeologist

Date:

05/12/2016

Illustrations prepared by:

Paul Jones

Position:

Senior Illustrator

Date:

05/12/2016

Illustrations checked and authorised by:

Paul Jones

Position:

Senior Illustrator

Date:

30/01/17

Report checked and authorised by: Position: Date:

Richard Lewis Head of Projects

21/03/17

As part of our desire to provide a quality service we would welcome any comments you may wish to make on the content or presentation of this report.

Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd. Heathfield House, Heathfield, Swansea, SA1 6LE Tel. 01792 655208; Fax. 01792 474469 Registered Charity no. 505609 Web: www.ggat.org.uk e-mail: projects@ggat.org.uk GLAMORGAN-GWENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST SWANSEA CENTRAL – ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKBASED ASSESSMENT

MARCH 2017

Profile for The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd

Swansea Central Archaeological Desk-based Assessment  

GGAT Projects were commissioned by City and County of Swansea to carry out an archaeological desk based assessment in preparation for the re...

Swansea Central Archaeological Desk-based Assessment  

GGAT Projects were commissioned by City and County of Swansea to carry out an archaeological desk based assessment in preparation for the re...

Profile for ggat
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