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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15 March 2015 A report for Cadw by Paul W Huckfield BA (Hons)

GGAT report no. 2015/022 Project no. GGAT 103

The Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd Heathfield House Heathfield Swansea SA1 6EL


GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Contents Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................ 4 Copyright notice ..................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 5 1.1 Project Outline ......................................................................................................................... 5 1.2 Project Background ................................................................................................................. 5 1.3 Aims and Objectives ............................................................................................................... 7 1.4 Methodology ............................................................................................................................ 7 Volunteer Recruitment and Training .............................................................................................. 7 Identification of Coastal Sites (both under threat and new sites) .................................................. 7 2 Main activities undertaken in the course of year 5......................................................................... 8 2.1 Review of baseline data and mapping of study area ............................................................. 8 2.2 Advertising and recruitment .................................................................................................... 8 2.3 Promotion ................................................................................................................................ 8 2.4 Meetings .................................................................................................................................. 9 2.5 Field visits .............................................................................................................................. 10 2.6 Further Training ..................................................................................................................... 10 2.7 Other training events ............................................................................................................. 11 2.8 Requests for Information....................................................................................................... 13 2.9 Use of social media and new technologies .......................................................................... 14 2.10 Data verification and entry .................................................................................................... 14 3 Conclusion and Legacy ................................................................................................................ 15 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................... 17 Appendix I. Excavation of unknown vessel on Llangennith Beach, Gower. ....................................... 18 Project Proposal drawn up by South Gower Group in advance of fieldwork .................................. 18 Results ................................................................................................................................................. 21 Appendix II. Test Pitting at Kenfig Burrows. ........................................................................................ 21 Project Proposal drawn up by Kenfig Archaeological Trust (Arfordir Group) in advance of fieldwork .......................................................................................................................................................... 24 Results ................................................................................................................................................. 28 Appendix III. Report by Year 4 Llantwit Major Group on the NAS Foreshore training day and investigation of the vessel on East Aberthaw beach, Vale of Glamorgan. ......................................... 40

Figures and Plates Plate 1. Margam volunteers recording exposed peat beds. Morfa beach, Port Talbot. .................... 11 Plate 2. Members of the Pastfinders Group recording the searchlight remains. ................................ 11 Plate 3. GGAT staff teaching volunteers learning how to use the resistivity meter............................ 12 Plate 4 The Gower Arfordir Group and Gower Landscape Partnership at Sweynes Howe............... 12 Plate 5. Volunteers being taught how to record using offsets and planning frames. East Aberthaw wreck site. ..................................................................................................................................... 13 Plate 6. Screen shot of the 3D model ................................................................................................. 14 Figure 1 Location map of vessel PRN 05872w on Rhossili Beach (NGR SS4073591858) ............... 18 Plate 7. Remains of vessel PRN 05872w view on 12 ......................................................................... 19 Plate 8. Volunteers excavating and recording the remains of the wreck on Llangennith beach........ 21 Figure 2 Plan of the outline of the vessel showing location of the excavated sondage ..................... 22 1


GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Figure 3 Plan of the vessels ribs ......................................................................................................... 23 Figure 4. Map showing ground water dome on approximately the same site. ................................... 24 Figure 5. General Site Location ........................................................................................................... 29 Plate 9. Screen shot from Google Earth showing location of site....................................................... 30 Figure 6. Plan of Test Pit 1. South West Facing ................................................................................. 32 Figure 7. Test Pit 2............................................................................................................................... 33 Figure 9. Test Pit 4............................................................................................................................... 34 Figure 8. Test Pit 3............................................................................................................................... 34 Plate 10. Test pit 1. South-east facing section .................................................................................... 35 Plate 11. Test pit 1. North-east facing (plan)....................................................................................... 35 Plate 12. Test pit 2. South- west facing section .................................................................................. 36 Plate 13. Test pit 3. South-east facing section .................................................................................... 36 Plate 14. Test pit 4. South-west facing ................................................................................................ 37 Plate 15. Finds ..................................................................................................................................... 37 Plate 16. And a good day was had by all! ........................................................................................... 39 Plate 17. Recording the wreck on East Aberthaw beach.................................................................... 40 Plate 18. Laying out the wreck. Checking that all the vessel had been recorded ............................. 41 Plate 19. Recording the sondage ........................................................................................................ 42

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Summary Climate change is recognised by the Welsh Government as one of the biggest threats facing the planet. Associated sea level rise, increased coastal erosion and increased frequency of severe weather events will have a major impact on heritage and archaeological sites in the coastal zone. This can manifest as destruction of sites, inundation of currently dry sites, or greater deposition of sand and silting of other areas. Human responses to these issues will vary, and it is unlikely that archaeological sites will be made a priority for protection from these threats, while mitigatory measures will also impact on the archaeological resource in the coastal zone, with the creation of new sea defences in some areas, while others will be abandoned under ‘managed change’. Loss of landscape and heritage caused by this will have a negative impact on the quality of life in Wales. The Arfordir project has been funded with grant-aid from Cadw to take advantage of the dynamic environment in the coastal zone to identify new sites and monitor archaeological sites and to engage interested local people. In particular it aims to record and monitor sites under threat of coastal erosion or other forms of damage and to involve interested individuals and community groups in taking an active role in caring for their coastal heritage on an independent and sustainable basis, with minimal professional involvement after initial training and guidance. This final year of the project focused on the study area Llantwit Major to Penarth, though work was also undertaken along almost all of the Glamorgan Coastline. With the initial recruitment and training having been completed during Year 4, groups requested additional training in practical fieldwork, in order to allow them to undertake practical recording on site and to carry out more self-initiated fieldwork. In addition to recording, training was also provided on how to write project proposals providing the volunteers with a greater awareness of the process that professional archaeologists carry out before fieldwork can be undertaken. This training also highlighted to the volunteers the need to publishing their findings, so that the public are informed of the important work that the groups perform. Throughout the sessions the focus was on the preparation of the groups to initiate and carry through fieldwork with reduced support from the Trust. The Project Proposals for two pieces of fieldwork initiated by two individual groups have been included in Appendices I and II. Detailed recording of wrecks at Llangennith and East Aberthaw beach have been undertaken, in addition to recording of the Coastal Artillery battery at Lavernock Point, which is still ongoing, while at Kenfig burrows a program of test pits was begun in order to better understand a feature identified by the group within the dunes. The results of this work are presented within Appendices I and II to this report, as is the report produced by the Nautical Archaeology Society (Appendix III). Data generated by the project has been used, and will continue to be used, to enhance and update the regional HER and to highlight archaeological sites and areas most under threat. Based on this data, management plans can be created, and programmes of regular monitoring, recording and further archaeological investigation implemented, the work to be undertaken by volunteers working independently on the project and in collaboration with professional archaeologists. This report presents the methodologies, results and outcomes of the fifth and final year of the Arfordir project in the Glamorgan-Gwent area, and presents strategies and feedback to aid in maintaining a sustainable legacy for the project with reduced financial aid.

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Acknowledgements The project was grant-aided by Cadw and undertaken by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust (GGAT) in their remit as the regional archaeological body responsible for the understanding and preservation of the archaeological resource in southeast Wales. The report and figures were prepared by Paul W Huckfield, and edited by Edith Evans. The fieldwork has been undertaken by volunteers of the Arfordir project, by Paul W Huckfield and Andrew Sherman of the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust. Thanks are most importantly due to all of the volunteers who have taken part in the project. The assistance of Jonathan Berry, Polly Groom, and Louise Mees at Cadw, Deanne Groom from the RCAHMW, Mark Beattie-Edwards, Nautical Archaeology Society, Ian Cundy, Malvern Archaeological Diving Unit, Claudine Gerrard of the National Trust, Andrew Marvell, Hannah Bowden (Paleoenvironmental), Charlotte James-Martin (Survey and Geophysical Survey), Rowena Hart (Geophysical Survey), Judith Doyle (Archaeological Planning) and Andy Sherman (Wet Wood Specialist), all of the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, are also gratefully acknowledged.

Copyright notice The copyright of this report is held by Cadw: Welsh Historic Monuments and the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd. The maps are based on Ordnance Survey mapping provided by the Welsh Government with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Licence No: 100017916 (2015). The photographs are joint copyright GGAT/Cadw unless otherwise annotated.

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Introduction 1.1 Project Outline Arfordir is a pan-Wales project funded through grant-aid to the Welsh Archaeological Trusts administered by Cadw. In South Wales it has been designed to monitor the condition and the impact of erosion on archaeological sites in the coastal zone. The first two years of work (2010-11 and 2011-12) were focused on the coastline of Gower, extending east as far as the mouth of the Ogmore River, with the study area for Years 3, 4 and 5 (2012-15) been extended to include the stretch of coastline from Ogmore-by-Sea to Penarth. The study area for Year 5 contains a plethora of archaeological sites from prehistoric round barrows and a number of important hillforts and promontory forts to significant Second World War defences. The landscape of the study area shows evidence of dense activity and occupation from the prehistoric period onwards. Within the intertidal zone, prehistoric and later remains are regularly uncovered by tidal action and erosion, while cliff erosion has also revealed a number of previously unknown sites. The coastline has been the subject of previous surveys (e.g. Locock 1996, Locock 1997). Volunteers from the previous study areas continued to be supported in their independent work, while new volunteers continued to be recruited. Following on from the volunteer recruitment stage, training sessions and guided walks were held to equip volunteers with skills for recording sites. Their independent work was also supported by project staff undertaking site visits with groups in the study area, resulting in many new sites being reported. In delivering this project, the Trust has also enabled members of the local community, local interest groups, history groups and university students to learn more about the coastal archaeology in the area. It has also provided them with the information and skills to allow them to take an active role in monitoring and recording sites threatened by erosion, and to identify new sites, with minimal supervision from professional archaeologists. The primary output of the project is data entered into the regional Historic Environment Record (HER), which enhances and updates existing records held, as well as adding new records of previously unrecorded sites. This report details the results of the fifth year of work undertaken on the project and demonstrates its continuing success in generating site data to enhance the HER and inform conservation and management priorities and in community engagement. The project has als o contributed to the Welsh Government’s objectives regarding climate change, and addressed research issues identified in the Welsh Archaeological Research Framework.

1.2 Project Background The impact of coastal erosion on heritage has been recognised in past works, both Cadw-funded projects, (Locock 1996, Nayling 1998) and National Trust commissioned studies (Poucher 2002-3, Poucher 2003, Poucher 2003-4a, Poucher 2003-4b, the Muckle Partnership 2002), which identified stretches of coastline most vulnerable to erosion. Increasing awareness of the issues of global warming and climate change has highlighted their potential effects on the historic environment in coastal areas, and the need for a sustainable programme of monitoring, with contingency to mitigate the impact in certain cases. The rising profile of archaeology in public forums and the popularisation of the subject via a variety of media have led to an increased public awareness of the heritage of local areas, and an associated growing interest in and enthusiasm for that heritage. Increasing numbers of members of the public are taking an active role in the historic environment, and public engagement is becoming an important component in archaeological projects achieving success, which can be measured against several objectives laid out in the Cadw forward plan 2011-16, specifically “Promoting public

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access, appreciation and enjoyment of the historic environment: encouraging public participation and volunteering”. The project is run under the same pan-Wales ‘Arfordir’ identity as those run by Dyfed Archaeological Trust and Gwynedd Archaeological Trust. Its goals are based on those of the award-winning SCAPE (Scottish Coastal Archaeology and the Problem of Erosion) project run by Shorewatch in Scotland, and the Thames Discovery Programme (TPD).

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1.3 Aims and Objectives The aims of the project have been to monitor the condition of archaeological sites in the coastal zone, and the impact of erosion on these sites, as well as to identify new sites in the study area in order to enhance and update information held in the regional HER. The project has also aimed to establish and develop community involvement and engagement with coastal heritage; encourage participation; and facilitating a programme of sustainable and long-term monitoring of sites with minimal input from the professional sector. Creating and developing links with other professional bodies, educational institutions, community and local interest groups has provided interested local individuals and groups with the information, skills and tools they need to undertake monitoring of the condition of, and threats to, archaeological sites. The monitoring work can, in some areas, lead to further mitigatory measures against the impact of climate change and coastal erosion on the historic environment of the coastal zone. The project has also included the updating of information generated by previous survey work undertaken in the study area and added value to previous work undertaken relating to coastal heritage.

1.4 M ethodology The project has adopted a variety of methodologies in different areas of the work programme, with different outcomes, results and feedback. Volunteer Recruitment and Training A major focus of the Arfordir project has been the engagement of members of the public with the coastal heritage of their area, the fostering of their involvement in the monitoring of areas most vulnerable to coastal erosion, the monitoring of the condition of archaeological sites in these areas, and the identification of new sites. The focus of recruitment of volunteers has been on local people who regularly use and visit coastal areas, as they are well-acquainted with an area and will be best-placed to notice changes to a site and to monitor its condition. Volunteers were provided with training in archaeological recording skills to allow them to undertake recording and monitoring of sites independently, with professional input decreasing as the volunteers gained confidence and ability. This has been designed to enable work to continue beyond the supported phase of the project. In both the existing and new study areas, field training was provided to volunteers, and volunteer groups also undertook site visits and monitoring work independently. Identification of Coastal Sites (both under threat and new sites) Previous coastal surveys undertaken within the study area (Locock 1997) were consulted in order to identify areas vulnerable to erosion and combined with HER data of known sites to identify specific priorities for monitoring. Specific areas and stretches of the coastline were then targeted for visits and walkover surveys in order to assess the threat to known sites and to identify previously unrecorded sites. This highlighted the areas to be prioritised for further monitoring work and those which were most suitable to be targeted by volunteer groups; teams of volunteers were then assembled to undertake monitoring work in these areas.

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2 Main activities undertaken in the course of year 5 2.1 Review of baseline data and mapping of study area The study area established in years 3-4 includes the stretch of coastline from Ogmore-by-Sea to Penarth. This area incorporates a 14 mile stretch of coastline which has been recognised and protected by Natural Resources Wales, as the Glamorgan Heritage Coast, which runs from Porthcawl to Aberthaw. For the purposes of the project, the coastal zone has been defined as the intertidal area and a band 500m inland from Mean High Water, but where necessary has been extended to include areas where the Heritage Coast boundary extends inland beyond the anticipated study area and where vulnerable sites lie within this boundary. HER data for the study area has been extracted, and additional data then included from previous coastal surveys, which had identified areas of coastline vulnerable to erosion and new sites and areas with a high archaeological potential.

2.2 Advertising and recruitment As all the proposed groups had been recruited and trained during Year 4, no further active recruitment was carried out during Year 5. However, this did not prevent significant number of potential volunteers from contacting the Trust with a wish to join the project. It was decided that these additional volunteers would be contacted and informed that the project was in its final year and asked if they would consent to having their email addresses forwarded to the group closest to their home location. It was then hoped that the groups would provide basic training to these additional members. Both the Kenfig Archaeological Trust and Porthcawl U3A Archaeology group requested additional recruitment forms, so that new members to each of these organisations would also be enrolled into the Arfordir Project.

2.3 Promotion Though funding for Arfordir was in its final year, interest in the project and the work of the volunteers continued. A series of presentations/lectures as well as guided walks were given on the work of the project. 5th April 2014 - Presentation to CBA Wales Spring Conference, Aberystwyth 28th April 2014 - Arfordir Lecture to Friends of Margam Park 20th May 2014 – Presentation to Llangynidir Local History Society, Llangynidir, Powys 13th July 2014 – Guided walk Vale of Glamorgan Heritage Coast 15th July 2014 - Presentation to Wick & Marcross Church of Wales School, Vale of Glamorgan 29th September 2014 – Presentation to the Swansea Rotary Club 1st November 2014 – Presentation to MOROL (Institute of Welsh Maritime Historical Studies) Annual Conference, Colwyn Bay, Clwyd 12th November 2014 - Presentation Llantwit Major Local History Society, Llantwit Major, VoG 20th November 2014 - Presentation to Cardiff Archaeology Society, Cardiff 5th March 2015 - Cardiff Archaeological Society, Field visit to Swansea Bay

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The Arfordir project was also included in the Trusts annual ‘Discovery & Learning’ booklet (2014, 58), discussing the work the volunteers had carried out during Year 4 in relation to the sites revealed by the storms of 2013/14.

2.4 M eetings A number of meetings have been held with other professional bodies and stakeholders involved in the project and with other professionals working in the area. 29th January 2014 – Site visit to Rhossili beach with Claudine Gerrard of the National Trust, to ascertain potential damage to the site of the old church (PRN00150w) assoc iated with the scheduled Deserted Medieval Village (PRN 01862w) after substantial cliff fall. 10th April 2014 - Meeting with Joanne Lane from Swansea Tidal Lagoon project to highlight the vast range of heritage assets within the scope of the project and their potential inclusion. 29th May 2014 - Meeting with Dr. Courtney Nimura (CITiZAN), Polly Groom (Cadw) and James Meek (Dyfed Arfordir) to discuss the success and pitfalls of the Arfordir project within Wales. This meeting was in preparation for the rolling out of a similar coastal heritage project across England. 4th February 2015 – Meeting with Trust of the Llantwit Major Local History Society and members of the Llantwit Arfordir Group to discuss the potential for the development of an Llantwit Major Archaeology Society. The meeting outlined the future direction of the group and the possible future projects it could undertake. A number of meetings were also held for the established groups in order to decide on priorities for fieldwork, answer any queries that had arisen, to hand out additional area maps and documentation and to offer advice. 7th June 2014 – Members of the Porthcawl U3A Arfordir Group. 12th June 2014 - Members of the Gower Arfordir Group.

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9th October 2014 – Members of the Kenfig Arfordir Group. 2nd February 2015 – Members of the Pastfinders Arfordir Group (Barry).

2.5 Field visits 10th April 2014 - Oxwich Bay. Call out by Ranger to see unknown feature on the beach 25th April 2014 - Visit to check condition of the Altmark (PRN 06318m) after possible remains from vessel had been reported by volunteers on Morfa beach, Port Talbot 9th May 2014 - Whitford Point 26th June 2014 - The Salt House, Port Eynon. Visit to view damage to enclosures reported by volunteer 19th September 2014 – Heritage Coast to check possible venues for NAS training course 23rd September 2014 - Whitford Point to view additional damage to the archaeological resource 25th November 2014 – Kenfig Burrows. Visit to view features exposed by CCW dune removal work 15th October 2014 - Barry 22nd January 2015 - East Aberthaw & Sully to check proposed NAS locations after winter storms

2.6 Further Training During Year 5 a number of groups requested additional training in order to carry out requested or self initiated fieldwork. The focus was on the preparation of the groups to initiate and carry through fieldwork with reduced support from the Trust. 8th June 2014 - Friends of Margam Park Arfordir Group. Peat recording forms 15th June 2014 - Pastfinders Arfordir Group. Building Recording/Offset measuring training 16th September 2014 - Meeting with KAT & GGAT Archaeological Planning. How to write a project proposal 18th September 2014 - South Gower Arfordir Group. How to write a project proposal

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Plate 1. Margam volunteers recording exposed peat beds. Morfa beach, Port Talbot.

Plate 2. Members of the Pastfinders Group recording the searchlight remains at Nell’s Point, Barry.

2.7 Other training events In addition to the fieldwork implemented and the training listed above, Arfordir volunteers from the Swansea and Gower groups attend a series of events run by the Gower Landscape Partnership (https://gowerlandscape.wordpress.com/). The first of these were a series of Open Days (30th April and 8th May 2014) organised to promote a geophysical survey undertaken by the Trust at the Paviland and Knave Iron Age promontory forts on Gower. Volunteers who attended were given a brief talk on the history and background of the sites before being given practical hands-on experience on how to use a resistivity meter and learning some of the theoretical background to how a geophysical survey is undertaken.

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Plate 3. GGAT staff teaching volunteers how to use the resistivity meter. The Knave Promontory Fort, Gower.

The second event, a guided walk, was carried out on December 4th 2014 and was intended to allow the volunteers to the newly formed Gower Landscape Partnership project to get used to noticing and recognising archaeological sites. The walk took place on Rhossili Down and a route was chosen to cover a range of site types and periods. Peter Francis from the South Gower Arfordir group attended the walk and his input was invaluable as he was able to detail the work that was undertaken by himself and other volunteers in the area.

Plate 4 The Gower Arfordir Group and Gower Landscape Partnership at Sweynes Howe, Rhossili.

Following the winter storm of 2014 and the exposure of four previously unrecorded wreck sites along the Vale of Glamorgan coastline, Cadw kindly offered to fund a vessel recording training 12


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session organised and delivered by the Nautical Archaeology Society for GGAT and Arfordir volunteers. This ran on the weekend of 7th-8th March 2015. The session ran over two days and covered both the theory of recording and undertaking practical work on the remains of the vessels on the foreshore. As well as providing a lot of specific background and information on wooden boat and ship construction and wrecks, many of the recording skills taught in the course are transferable to traditional landbased archaeological sites which the volunteers who attended are also involved in recording. Though the numbers of volunteers attending the event was extremely disappointing, the feedback was overwhelmingly positive (see appendix III).

Plate 5. Volunteers being taught how to record using offsets and planning frames. East Aberthaw wreck site.

One primary issue identified during the events was that although the volunteers were informed of the project and the event was publicised on our social media outlets, turn-out was disappointing, with a lot of last-minute cancellations. A solution, which has been proposed during the previous NAS training event in 2012 but not undertaken, was to charge for the training. This fee could then be used either be used to pay for refreshments, or as a refundable deposit paid in advance to be returned on attendance.

2.8 Requests for Information Various requests for information concerning the Arfordir project or the data generated by the volunteers were received: 8th September 2014 - Sadie Vida, Cadw. Photographs for Heritage in Wales magazine 15th September 2014 – Osian Griffiths, Aden Productions. Information about the wrecks uncovered along the Glamorgan Heritage Coast for TV program 12th December 2014 - Polly Groom, Cadw. Data and photographs to demonstrate the benefits of the project 3rd February 2015 - Rhiannon Phillips (PhD student), intertidal peat shelves on Gower Peninsula

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2.9 Use of social media and new technologies Throughout the five years that the project has ran it made a conscious decision to make extensive use of social media in order to advertise, recruit, promote, organise and mobilise volunteers and generally raise awareness of the Arfordir project. The results of this have been mixed, though always positive. The Arfordir photo sharing platform on Flickr, intended to allow users to share new sites, never really took off, even after repeated pushes from the Arfordir Co-ordinators. Its deathblow, as also for the Arfordir blog, was the creation of the Arfordir Facebook page, which is going from strength to strength. This platform has been the main voice and social presence of the project since its inception on 27th Feb 2013 and played a vital role in mobilising volunteers and mitigating any loss to the coastal archaeological resource post winter storms of 2014. Year 5 saw the decision to purchase an educational license for the photogrammetric processing software Agisoft Photoscan (http://www.agisoft.com/). This software uses digital images to generate 3D spatial data. The idea to begin recording archaeological sites along the coastline and to create digital 3D models was proposed during the excavation of the vessel on Llangennith beach, as volunteers who would have liked to attend were unable to, due to either ill health, age or physical ability. The exclusion of willing volunteers from fieldwork led to questions on how best to allow volunteers not present to appreciate the archaeology uncovered and recorded. The creation of interrogable 3D models was seen as one solution to this problem. The models are uploaded to Verold (https://www.verold.com/) and can be either viewed through their application or can be embedded onto the Arfordir website.

Plate 6. Screen shot of the 3D model of a section through the East Aberthaw wreck, created during the NAS training day.

2.10 Data verification and entry The data and completed forms which have been returned by volunteers have been verified and entered into the project database by project staff. Some were entered by staff directly into the Historic Environment Record, the rest were prepared for entry, with a database entry for each site, corresponding polygons in a MapInfo table, where mapping of a polygon has been possible, and photographs of each site prepared with a photo catalogue to facilitate HER entry.

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A number of site visits have been undertaken in the course of the project, by project staff, with other professionals in the sector and with volunteer groups, either to specific sites or to areas identified as suffering from erosion.

3 Conclusion and Legacy The fifth and final year of work on the project has reaffirmed the valuable contributions it makes to our understanding of the coastal heritage of Glamorgan and the enthusiasm, dedication and commitment of its volunteers. Year 5 saw a greater eagerness from the groups to organise and undertake fieldwork independently, demonstrating a confidence in their own skills and abilities and the techniques that the project has taught them. Work carried out by the a number of the Arfordir groups this year clearly demonstrates a growing professionalism, with the groups not only choosing to undertake their own fieldwork, but also wanting to understand the correct procedures that they need to complete before this can be carried out, obtaining landowner permissions, learning how to write project proposals to ultimately publishing their findings (see Appendix I and II). This growing sense of ‘empowerment’ can clearly be viewed in the newly created Llantwit Major Archaeology Society. This group, formed from members of the Llantwit Arfordir group and the Local History Society, developed out of a strong appetite amongst the volunteers to make use of the knowledge and methodology derived from the project and to transpose it from the coastal region to the whole of the Llantwit Major area. The society is currently in the process of carrying out an audit of all the known sites recorded on the HER. Training workshops have been held to demonstrate how to use the GPS and how to use the scale in photographs. They have also adapted the Arfordir forms in order to suit their needs. All of the above activity can be viewed as a clear demonstration of the success of the project and its methodology. Another measure of the success of the project is the network of volunteers who are actively visiting the coastline and monitoring its heritage. Recent reports of damage to sites at Paviland, the Salt House at Port Eynon, Pennard Castle, all came from Arfordir volunteers. Volunteers have also provided information to NRW, recording the large amount of coastal erosion that occurred before Christmas 2014 along the Vale of Glamorgan Heritage Coast and are monitoring the undercut to the east of Cwm Nash prior to its eventual collapse. There nevertheless have also been problems. Year 5 saw a dramatic fall-off of data being returned by the groups. Feedback listed various causes, these range from groups pursuing their own individual projects and therefore not visiting the section of coastline allotted to them, volunteers feeling that they had previously covered the archaeological resource and saw no reason to go back to report on these sites again, to matters concerning the demographic make up of the groups, with volunteers no longer able to actively visit the coastal zone. Issues were also raised around the emphasis in the project design on recruiting new volunteers/groups whilst assuming that existing groups would be entirely self-sufficient after the first year. Certain volunteers and groups felt that GGAT had created them, provided initial support and training and then abandoned them, as the project moved on along the coastline. Feelings that were strengthened if groups saw the training/fieldwork that the new Arfordir groups were being provided with and it did not mirror their own experience. What, therefore, is the best way to tackle these issues and nurture the project legacy? Would better use of social media, emails and most importantly face-to-face contact help? What has emerged from the feedback sessions with the groups is that it is not enough to continually engage new members and volunteers and encouraged involvement in the project. The volunteers currently working on the project have a significant body of local knowledge on the history and archaeology of the area. If this goodwill and knowledge is not to be lost there must be systems set in place and greater time set aside to continually interact with and provide support to existing groups. Better use

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of social media and most importantly face-to-face contact are essential if the work of monitoring and recording coastal archaeology is to continue. We have applied to Cadw for a small increase in the Trust Outreach Project that will allow us to continue to support the groups for the coming year. This will help to ensure the legacy of the project is a skilled and engaged volunteer force, who can work independently on monitoring the archaeology of the coast continuing to be supported by engagement and monitoring from professional archaeologists.

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Bibliography Bell, M., Cobb, H., Fitch, S., Long, A.J., Momber, G., Schulting, R.J., Spikins, P. and Warren, G.M. (2010) Maritime and Marine Historic Environment Research Framework: Draft Mesolithic Resource Assessment. http://www.soton.ac.uk/archaeology/docs/Mesolithic%20Resource%20Assess ment%20DRAFT%20%20March%202010.pdf Davidson, A 2002 The Coastal Archaeology of Wales CBA Res Rep 131 Dunning, R and Bowen, F, 2012, GGAT 115: Cwm Nash, Monknash, Vale of Glamorgan, Archaeological excavation. GGAT Report No.2012/028 HMSO, 1988, British Vessels Lost at Sea 1914 - 1918 and 1939 – 1945, Patrick Stephens Ltd. Locock, M, 1996, GGAT 50: Coastal Survey (Glamorgan) Loughor, West Glamorgan to Sker Point, Mid Glamorgan. GGAT Report No. 96/015 Locock, M 1997 GGAT 50 Coastal Survey (Glamorgan) Sker Point, Mid Glamorgan to the River Rhymney, South Glamorgan GGAT Report No 97/011 Poucher, P, 2003, The National Trust Archaeological Survey: North Gower Properties: Whiteford Burrows, Llanrhidian Marsh, The Bulwark, Ryer’s Down & Welsh Moor Poucher, P, 2003-4a, The National Trust Archaeological Survey: South-west Gower properties: Rhossili-Mewslade Poucher, P, 2003-4b, The National Trust Archaeological Survey: South Gower coastal properties: Mewslade-Port Eynon, Pilton Green, Pilton Cross and Oxwich The Muckle Partnership, 2002, Archaeological Survey of Rhossili Down, Gower, West Glamorgan. For the National Trust Tovey, R, Nd, A Chronology of Bristol Channel Shipwrecks. 1687-1983.

Websites British Newspaper Archives http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/ Marine History. St. Brides Major, Southerndown and Ogmore-by-Sea Community Website http://www.stbridesmajor.co.uk/Shared_pages/history/pages_history/history_marine.htm Nautical Archaeology Society http://www.nauticalarchaeologysociety.org/ Tom Clemett’s History of Barry http://www.barrywales.co.uk/tomclemett/shipwrecks.asp Wikipedia: List of shipwrecks in the Bristol Channel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_the_Bristol_Channel

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Appendix I. Excavation of unknown vessel on Llangennith Beach, Gower. Project Proposal drawn up by South Gower Group in advance of fieldwork Location The wreck (PRN 05872w) is located on Rhossili beach, lying between Burry Holmes and Dyles Lane (NGR SS 4073591858), and sits at the high water mark. The existence of this wreck, possibly a wooden coastal vessel used for transporting coal, has been known since the 1990's. At this time small pieces of coal were visible in the timber hull as verified by Peter Francis (per comm). Since then it has been periodically exposed, notably in 2001 when a site visit was undertaken by Sue Hill (GGAT Heritage Management Officer). The HER also holds photographs of the site in 2007, in these a level of besandment had taken place and so less of the structure is visible. Mrs Lyn Richards (GGAT Arfordir Volunteer), noted that it re-emergence during the spring of 2014, following the winter storms, and alerted the Arfordir Co-ordinator.

L Figure 1 Location map of vessel PRN 05872w on Rhossili Beach (NGR SS4073591858)

Description of site/s, area, material etc and assessment of archaeological importance On June 12th 2014 Arfordir volunteers led by Paul W Huckfield (GGAT Arfordir Co-ordinator) visited the vessel and carried out a Level 3 recording of the site, which included a detailed sketch, measurements and photographs. It was agreed that the site would make an ideal training project for the group and that a more detailed survey looking at both condition and construction should be considered. Preliminary research has ascertained that it is an unidentified wreck and that further work needs to be carried out to identify the vessel type, date of construction and use. Was it part of the fleet of coal ships that ran aground in the Burry Estuary on January 22nd 1868 whilst carrying a cargo of coal out of Llanelli or is it from another time and place further afield?

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Plate 7. Remains of vessel PRN 05872w view on 12

Nature of threat, the likely extent and timing of destruction The vessel’s remains were originally exposed by the action of coastal erosion, which is ongoing, and is recognised by the Welsh Government who state that ‘without intervention our distinctive historic environment will degrade’ (Environment Strategy of Wales, Welsh Assembly Government 2006). Should there be seasonal storms again this winter there is a likelihood that further destruction could occur particularly as the site is located at the high water mark. Tourism could also pose a threat, as timber is often used for fires on the beach. Although the site may have been protected by the re-disposition of sand it is still vulnerable. Objectives The primary aim of the project is to undertake a partial survey of the vessel along with species and C14 dating. Therefore the aims are to ascertain:  the type of vessel  date of construction,  timber, through species analysis,  use of vessel  home port,  and if coal is found within the vessel could that be identified and help to identify the mining area of its last cargo. The long-term aim is to complete a dig of the whole site. This small-scale investigation will, in the first instance, enable the group to monitor any changes to the site and alert GGAT of any changes to the site. Outreach Objectives As part of the Arfordir project this work would fulfil a number of educational and outreach objectives: • •

To give participants an understanding of basic excavation and recording techniques To provide training in survey techniques

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

• To enhance recognition of archaeological feature • to enhance recognition of archaeological find • to provide training in post excavation work • To give participants an understanding of the principles of dating techniques The primary aim of the project is to monitor the condition and the impact of erosion on archaeological sites in the southeast Wales coastal zone and to develop community support and participation to sustain monitoring in the long-term. In delivering this the Trust also intends to enable members of the local community, community groups, history groups and local university students to learn more about the coastal archaeology in the area and to provide them with the tools to take an active role monitoring and recording sites threatened by erosion, and to identify new sites. They will be provided with continued support from archaeologists. The data gathered in the course of the project will be used to enhance the regional Historic Environment Record. The works proposed would also assist in delivering the following objectives in the Cadw forward plan 2011-2016  Promoting public access, appreciation and enjoyment of the historic environment  Making heritage sites enjoyable, relevant and stimulating to visit.  Understanding and tackling barriers to access.  Encouraging public participation and volunteering.  Promoting distinctive regeneration and sustainable development through heritage o Tackling heritage at risk. The work of this project will also contribute to the aims of the Welsh “Programme for Government” to widen access to culture and heritage and encourage greater participation and public engagement. Proposed work programme On-site training of volunteers in excavation, recording and survey techniques as required. To spend ½ a day putting in an initial trench across the mid-section of the hull – two to three ribs width - after careful removal of the infill of sand. Then to spend the second half of the day recording the shape of the ship, patterning of the ribs, keel plate and hull planking in order to help ascertain its method of construction i.e. clinker built. To also produce photographic evidence and detailed scale drawings of exposed features linking to OS grid. Samples will be taken for species analysis, dendrochronology and C14 dating (These will be stored until additional funding has been gained). Infill of excavated sand to protect the remains of the wreck. Fieldwork  Manual clearing of sand infill  Photographic survey of site  Detailed scale plan of the site  Written records of site  Recovery of wood samples (core samplings) for dating, species, construction and tool mark analysis.  Infill of all sand removed Post excavation  Research of document ‘The maritime Archaeology of the Welsh Coal Trade’ produced by Wessex Archaeology in the hope of identifying the specific ship. Possibly consult Lloyds of London register too with the aim of discovering more of its history.  Reporting ( including internal wood report) See presentation of results section  Procurement of specialist dating and analysis  Post excavation publication  Archiving

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Specialist requirements Dendrochronology, wood species analysis and Radiocarbon Conservation of material – All material recovered will be stored in the Trust Offices under correct guidelines. Proposed timing of work programme Fieldwork is scheduled for the second week in October 2014, with possible contingence days also scheduled for that period Data verification – ongoing throughout the project Reporting – 4th quarter Presentation of results As the work is part of the Arfordir project it will form part of the Year 5 report. The aims of the project include increasing public awareness of and engagement with archaeology; the results will be presented in a similar way to those of the other project work with a strong emphasis on outreach. Depending on the results articles would be produced for the both the Gower Journal and Archaeology in Wales.

Results (Report drawn up by South Gower Group as a gazetteer entry for inclusion in Archaeology in Wales) SWANSEA, Rhossili between Burry Holmes and Dyles Lake SS 40735 BNG 91858 To conclude the Arfordir project excavation of a post mediaeval sailing wreck (PRN 05872w) at the high water mark (8m) was undertaken by GGAT staff and volunteers. The wreck had been reexposed following the winter storms of 2013/14. It had been periodically exposed and noted since 1990 with a SMR report and photographic evidence submitted to GGAT in 2001. There are further photographs from 2007. A metre wide sectional trench was excavated in its midsection revealing well preserved timber ribs, through which the hull planking could be seen. The cross section was measured and recorded, while two samples were taken for dendrochronological dating (results pending). A large piece of coal, possibly anthracite, was discovered near the keel supporting the postulated theory that this was a coal vessel run aground from either Pembrokeshire or the Gwendraeth valley. Volunteers are continuing to carry out archival research in an attempt to identify the wreck whilst awaiting definitive dating and confirmation of coal type. 3D models of the vessel and recorded timbers can be viewed at https://www.verold.com/glamorgangwentarchaeologicaltrustweb/projects

Plate 8. Volunteers excavating and recording the remains of the wreck on Llangennith beach

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Appendix II. Test Pitting at Kenfig Burrows. Project Proposal drawn up by Kenfig Archaeological Trust (Arfordir Group) in advance of fieldwork Non Technical Summary This written Scheme of Investigation outlays a proposal for The Kenfig Archaeological Trust to carry out a field study exercise to confirm the possible existence, using a limited number of augured extractions, the hitherto unrecorded site of a potential feature located within the boundaries of the Kenfig National Nature Reserve (SAC). The site is located within the following OS coordinates SS79944 82089 to SS79718 82100 to SS79664 82402 and SS79909 82440 The location of the feature within the site has been corroborated by a number of aerial infrared photographs taken of the Kenfig Pool area during the 1940s / 1960s. These photos appear to show the shadow of a square feature of substantial dimensions adjacent and near to the North side of Kenfig Pool.

Figure 4. Map showing ground water dome on approximately the same site. From Environment Agency Surveys. Site position is between the following coordinates: SS79944 82089 to SS79718 82100 to SS79664 82402 and SS79909 82440

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Introduction The site is located within the Kenfig Sand Dune eco system and the proposed work area will inevitably be covered by an over burden of sand which will be of a varying depth. We have held preliminary discussions with the Kenfig Corporation Trust who are the site owners and have made them aware of our findings and they have given us their permission to go on site and to contact all other interested parties with the aim to further investigate this feature. We have spoken with the site leaseholders Bridgend County Borough Council and also with Natural Resources Wales who oversee the ecological management of the site .We have made all of these groups aware of our initial findings and also of our proposal to use a hand powered auger to auger a series of holes across the line of the potential feature in order to define the depth of sand over burden which covers the natural ground surface level. By using this method we hope to be able to identify the existence and potential profile of any boundary ditch, which may be present surrounding the “feature”, that appears to be present within the photographs. Historical Background The Romans in their conquest of South Wales built a number of military and trade roads during their occupation. Of these the fairly well documented route that concerns us is that of the Via Julia Maritima which traces a westerly direction between Cardiff and Neath at one point passing Kenfig at Maudlam where the road turns over the river Kenfig at Pont Newydd Felin to Margam. Theories for the marching distances between camps throughout the Roman Empire have been fairly accurately confirmed. It is the results of this confirmation that has caused puzzlement among experts, for the traditional equation indicates that there is a missing encampment along the above section of road. Reference to the possible location of a Roman Fort at Kenfig is made in the GGAT report no 2004/073, which was published, by Andy Sherman BA and Dr. Edith Evans BA, MIfA. The aerial photos for their part in this investigation appear to indicate a large square typical of Roman encampments with dimensions of 400m x 400m. There is no known documented evidence of such a construction on the site of Kenfig though there are hypotheses that the Norman Castle c 1140 was built on a Roman Encampment site. It is also clear that there was a Roman building constructed in the proximity as tiles and concrete from the Roman era have been identified within the construction of the walls of Kenfig Castle. There is ample documentary evidence, which would appear to indicate that Kenfig was a thriving port town during the early medieval period yet the exact on site location of the Port has never been confirmed. Various GGAT documents and reports also make reference to the existence of a port at Kenfig including the following quote “ This original topography made the castle of Kenfig and its attendant borough strategically and militarily significant as they were placed on a port and river of some consequence. “ This quote can be found in the GGAT document on The Historic Landscape Characterisation of Merthyr Mawr, Kenfig and Margam Burrows. These excavations may well produce some physical evidence to confirm the location of the port facility which may have been in use from the Roman era up until the final encroachment of the sand which has already been well documented. Objectives of Search The project has for its key objectives, 1. To understand the sub surface physical landscape of the site in an attempt to identify the potential location of any rampart or boundary ditch which may be present on site as identified by the shadow show within the photographs.

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

2. To understand and record the position and composition of the feature for further future investigation. 3. To identify the depth of the sand overburden which covers this section of the site. Methodology The project will be supervised by GGAT Arfordir Project Co-ordinator, Paul W Huckfield BA (Hons). Mr Keith Edger has over 30 years experience working as a volunteer archaeologist on a number of projects including the Kenfig Society dig which took place at Kenfig in the early 1990's and most recently Keith has spent time volunteering at The Ham Hill dig in Somerset. The project managers in charge of the works will satisfy themselves that all constraints to ground works have been satisfied including the site regulations covering the SAC designation of the site and the public access to the site given the fact that the site is located within a designated area of open common land. The excavation will be undertaken to meet the requirements of the Institute of Field Archaeologists ' Standard and guidance for archaeological excavation (1995 revised 2001) A number of augured holes will be made on a straight line, which transects at 90 degrees the shadow line feature, which is indicated within the infrared aerial photos. The line of the auger trench will be between points SS 78845 82427 and SS 79845 82461. Prior to any auger survey work or the excavation of any test trench we intend to sweep the intended work area with a metal detector to identify the presence of any metal items. If any metal items are identified by the metal detector then they will be left in situ and the survey work will only be carried out within an area which has been confirmed to be clear of any metallic signals. Aside from the fact that we do not intend to excavate any metal signals which are identified through the use of a metal detector, should any metal finds be located as a part of the general excavation then these finds will be reported to Cardiff Museum under the provisions of the portable antiquities scheme, these finds will also be subject to the provisions of the Treasure Act. The auger survey will be carried out to determine any variation in the underlying surface of the natural ground level present below the sand overburden. We intend to use a 70mm diameter hand driven auger, which with the use of various extension rods, the auger can be used to sample the ground down to a depth of 4m. We also propose to open up a window sample trench of a maximum size of 1m x 2m at location SS 79807 82308 in order to positively identify and record the structure of the natural ground surface, which is present under the sand over burden. This window trench will also help identify any variation in the composition and relative height of the ground surface in relation to any potential ditch feature, which may be present on site. The sample trench will be excavated using hand tools and all excavated material will be sieved through a fine 5mm mesh sieve and all finds from the excavated material will be recorded and identified. All excavations will be refilled at the end of the day and the site returned to a natural and safe condition before the group leave site. All site reference points will be recorded by GPS and a main reference point maker will be placed on site and surveyed back into co ordination with the ordnance survey grid via adjacent water borehole survey points which already exist on site and which are already recorded within the Ordnance Survey Grid.

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Recording The recording of depths and coordinates of auger boreholes will be entered onto a standardised recording sheet which will be available to the community and any archaeological organisations that can further improve their knowledge of the area and subject matter. A full report on the excavation will be made. All material which will be excavated from the auger holes will be sieved through a fine 5mm mesh sieve to collect and identify any small finds which may be present within the augured material. Any and all finds made within the window sample trenches will also be recorded on standard recording sheets. An example of our standard recording sheet has been included with this document. Any finds made during the excavation work will be retained, cleaned, bagged up and recorded pending positive identification by either Dr Alice Forward or Dr Mark Lodwig at Cardiff Museum. All test pit excavations will be scale drawn (1:20) in plan and where appropriate in section. All excavations will be photographed with high quality12mega pixel digital photos and recorded. The techniques used will conform to best current professional practice. Archaeological deposits will be recorded with a single continuous context numbering system, in accordance with GGAT's Manual of Excavation Recording Techniques .All results will be included within the interim and final written reports of the excavation work that has been carried out on site. Post Fieldwork As auguring requires the minimal amount of site disturbance it is envisaged that virtually no fauna will be disturbed during this activity and the Kenfig Reserve staff have also agreed that they will provide knowledge of any rare species which may be located within the vicinity. In regard to the potential window trench, all turf will be removed prior to excavation and will be replaced back into its original position and all ground level will be restored to its original position post excavation. Within 6 months of the completion of the work that we carried out on site, we aim to issue an interim report relating to the excavation findings. Pending the results found during the excavations a final report will be issued when all the results have been studied and confirmed. Time Table During the winter months the site has a habit of flooding and during the spring and summer months the site is a sensitive ecological area that has a rich population of fauna and various species of nesting birds. Conveniently during the months of September and October not only is the site dry but there is also an ecological time window where the site is clear of any nesting birds or sensitive plant species that would otherwise be in full bloom earlier in the season. Therefore due to the sensitive ecological status of the site the work involved in carrying out this project would need to take place during late September or early October. Insurance The Kenfig Archaeological Trust holds an insurance policy with Towergate Insurance Ltd, Funtley Hill, Funtley, and Fareham, PO16 7UY, who are specialists in these endeavours. Our policy covers us for £2,000,000 public liability and £10,000,000 employers’ liability. Our insurance policy number is SO / 005059. Our policy covers us for up to 21 people on site. Health and Safety Volunteers will be instructed in the safe use of augers and a standard operational procedure will be established before work is safely carried out. In addition the safe handling of the tools in close proximity to other people, as well as safe ground surface etiquette and the possibility of injury will be highlighted and signed off by the volunteers present. Preparations will be carried out to ensure that

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

the auger holes do not constitute hazards both during and subsequent to the project. On completion of the works all augur holes and test window trench excavations will be filled in and returned to their natural state before the site is shut down and left at the end of each day's activities.

Results (Report drawn up by Kenfig Archaeological Trust) 1. Introduction 1. 1. This report documents the results of an archaeological evaluation undertaken by Kenfig Archaeological Trust and presents the results of the work. 1. 2. Kenfig Nature Reserve (burrows) an area of 526.1 hectares of land, a site of special scientific interest and a special area of conservation; consisting mainly of sand dunes on the shoreline of Swansea Bay, between Sker Point near the seaside resort of Porthcawl to the River Kenfig; next to the industrial town of Port Talbot an area that is crossed by the M4 Motorway. (Figure 1) 1. 3. The Kenfig Corporation Trust who are the owners of the land were approached as well as Bridgend County Borough Council who lease the land with Natural Resources Wales who are responsible for the ecological management of the site, for permission to carry out a archaeological evaluation within Kenfig Nature Reserve, in close proximity to an areas already known to contain buried archaeological deposits. 2. Historical Background 2. 1. The Roman road between Cardiff and Neath is believed to have passed near to Kenfig. A number of Roman artefacts have been found in the immediate area, with Roman building materials found in construction of the castle. 2. 2. Reference to the possible location of a Roman fort at Kenfig is made in the GGAT report no 2004/073 which was published by Andy Sherman BA and Edith Evans BA, PhD, MIFA. 2. 3. Robert, Earl of Gloucester Lord of Glamorgan (1114-1147) is believed to have built the Kenfig castle in around 1140 with the town and church of St James being established later, the strategic position of the castle on the south bank of the river Afon Cynffig made it an important centre of trade. 2. 4. From the 14th century a slow encroachment of sand forces the inhabitancy to abandon the town with its castle and move their church of St James to Pyle. 2. 5. In the 1920s Aberavon and Margam District Historical Society partly excavated the medieval castle, no full report was published. In the 1990s the Kenfig Society excavated a building on the outer edge of the medieval town (Robins?) followed by an Archaeological evaluation and Assessment by Wessex Archaeology of the town of Kenfig in March 2012. 2. 6. The area was used during the Second World War for military training, evidence of the military occupation still lays scattered across Kenfig common. 3. Aims and Objectives 3. 1. To understand the sub-surface physical landscape of the site in an attempt to identify any potential location of archaeology which may be present on the site as identified by the aerial photograph. (Google Earth) Plate1. 3. 2. To investigate and record the position and composition of any feature for further research.

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

3. 3. To identify the depth of the overburden sand covering this section of the site. 4. Methods 4. 1. During the late winter months the site has a habit of flooding and during spring and summer months the site is a sensitive ecological area which has a rich population of fauna and various species of nesting birds. Therefore due to the sensitive ecological status of the site, November was chosen for the excavations of the four test pits. 4. 2. Four test pits were excavated 1m x 1m in a northeast direction 20m apart, all archaeological deposits were cleaned by hand to an accepted professional standard to determine the presence or absence of surviving archaeology. Excavated material was sieved through a fine 5mm mesh to collect and identify small finds present, all test pits were excavated to natural layer. 4. 3. All archaeological contexts were recorded using a single continuous context numbering system, with section drawings recorded to a scale of 1:10. Digital photographs of each test pit were recorded. 4. 4. On completion of the work all test pits were filled and returned to their natural state at the end of each day. 4. 5. Finds were bagged with test pit number and context number/date then taken to the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff to be analysed, all finds remain the property of the Kenfig Corporation Trust. 4. 6. The excavation followed the requirements of the Institute of Archaeologists’ standard and guidance for archaeological excavation (1995, revised 2001).

Figure 5. General Site Location 1:250 00 Scale Colour Raster-GB Ordnance Survey OpenData Ref 267574 Š Crown copyright 2015

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Plate 9. Screen shot from Google Earth showing location of site

5. Location of Site 5. 1 The difficulty of the terrain and county byelaws related to Kenfig Nature Reserve prevented any access by motor vehicles to the site; all hand tools and recording equipment were wheel barrowed to site and back at the end of each day 5. 2 The majority of the dunes are mature with dune heights of 10-30 m. A characteristic of the dune structure is a series of slacks and ridges running roughly east-west, the majority of which in normal winter weather tend to become waterlogged with many only partially drying out during the summer. In the base of some slacks, there may be only a few cm of sand and it is only in such areas excavations can be considered, this being a major undertaking to remove the sand associated with even the smallest dune. Extensive surveys combined with an aerial photo and local knowledge, resulted in the present site being identified essentially as a flat sand area covered by grass with patches of marshland enclosed by high dunes. 5. 3 The geology of the area comprises of Mercia mudstone group with areas of alluvial and stone gravel beach deposits overlaid with varying depths of windblown sand (North 1964).

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6. Data/Results Site Name/Code

Date

KAT 2014

TEST PIT 1

Type:

Dimensions: 1 m x 1 m Context 100

14/11/2014 Hand Excavated

Max depth: 43cm

NGR

Description Dark Brown / Black, Sandy Loam Topsoil. No visible inclusions Topsoil Loose and Friable, under turf. 90% Sieved, Overlies 101

101

Depth

Yellow, Sandy Overburden. Snail shells & Mollusc shells,

Layer

102

SS7980682357

Loose and Friable, 90% Sieved, Overlies 102 Red, Sandy, with small pebbles at intermittent instances.

Layer

Iron Slag, Possible burnt Stone, and Loose. Overlies 103 103

Red, Sandy loam with Large well rounded cobbles, and

Layer

43cm

Smaller pebbles Throughout. Very Compact. Site Name/Code

KAT 2014

TEST PIT 02

Date Type:

Dimensions: 1 m x 1 m Context 200

14/11/2014 Hand Excavated

Max depth: 44cm

NGR

Description Dark Brown / Black, Sandy Loam Topsoil. No visible inclusions Topsoil Loose and Friable, under turf. Overlies 201.

SS7982282368 Depth

Yellow, Sandy Overburden. Snail shells & Mollusc shells, 201

Layer

202

rounded cobbles Loose and Friable, Overlies 202. Red, Sandy, with small pebbles at intermittent instances.

Layer

44cm

Loose. Data/Results Site Name/Code

Date

KAT 2014

TEST PIT 03

Type:

Dimensions: 1 m x 1 m Context 300

Hand Excavated Max depth: 66cm

NGR

Description Dark Brown / Black, Sandy Loam Topsoil, No visible inclusions. Topsoil Loose and Friable, under turf, Overlies 301.

301

302

Layer

Layer

15/11/2014 SS7983682383 Depth

Yellow, Sandy Overburden. Snail shells & Mollusc shells, Loose and Friable, 90% Sieved, Overlies 302 Red, Sandy, with small pebbles at intermittent instances.

66cm

Fleck of Charcoal and flake of Flint

Site Name/Code TEST PIT 04

Date

KAT 2014 Type:

15/11/2014 Hand Excavated

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15 Dimensions: 1 m x 1 m Context 400

401

402

Max.depth: 64cm

Description Dark Brown / Black, Sandy Loam Topsoil. No visible inclusions. Topsoil Loose and Friable, under turf, Overlies 401. Layer

Layer

NGR

SS7985282397 Depth

Yellow, Sandy Overburden. Snail shells & Mollusc shells, Loose and Friable, Overlies 402 Red, Sandy, with small pebbles at intermittent instances. Fleck of Charcoal and flake of Flint, Overlies 403.

403

Layer

Red, Sandy loam with Large well rounded cobbles, and Smaller pebbles Throughout. Very Compact.

Figure 6. Plan of Test Pit 1. South West Facing

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64cm


GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Figure 7. Test Pit 2

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Figure 9. Test Pit 3

Figure 8. Test Pit 4

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Plate 10. Test pit 1. South-east facing section

Plate 11. Test pit 1. North-east facing (plan)

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Plate 12. Test pit 2. South- west facing section

Plate 13. Test pit 3. South-east facing section

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Plate 14. Test pit 4. South-west facing

Plate 15. Finds

6. Site level 6. 1. During the excavation levels were taken to determine the ground level in relationship to each test pit, to identify both high and low points due to the geology.

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8. Discussion and Conclusion 8. 1. All 4 tests pits revealed overburden sand deposits at various depths below topsoil confirming documented evidence of an encroachment of sand in the late 14th Century (Grey 1909). The natural layer of each pit consisted of a mixture of compacted small pebbles and large rounded cobbles suggesting the possibility of a river bed (RCAHMW 1991 Figure 232) a map showing the old course of the river Afon Cynffig in the area of the test pits. “The effect of moving sand upon the detail of the coast is not confined to the building of sand dunes and the be-sanding of land, for the dunes often impede the drainage of the land behind them by hindering the access of the river to the sea; this gives rise to stretches of alluvial marshland which, at first useless because of liability to flooding,” (North 1964) 8. 2. The discovery of iron slag and fired stones points to further evidence of metal working in the immediate area of Kenfig conferring with iron slag found by Kenfig Society (Robbins 2002) and (Wessex Archaeology 2012), an industry which would have been located away from any settlement due to the risk of fire. 8. 3. The unearthing of one small flake of flint in test pit 3 suggests a Prehistoric connection in the area, a similar find of one flake of flint was also recorded (Wessex Archaeology 2012). A fragment of a stone axe was found on Kenfig Common (Arch. Camb 1929, pp 147-50). “…with certain reservation is the only flint readily available to shore dwellers in Wales is the small beach-rubble distributed coast wise by glacial action; hence at any period small flake-implements are liable to be predominate” (Wheeler 1925 p44) 8. 4. Evidence suggests Kenfig had a long history, its shoreline and river would have provided a rich source of food and material through the seasons, much still lays buried below the sands. Bibliography Grey, T, (1909). The Buried City of Kenfig; London, T Fisher Unwin. North, F, J, (1964), The Evolution of the Bristol Channel, with special reference to the coast of South Wales, Third Edition, National Museum of Wales. RCAHMW, 1991, The Glamorgan Inventory vol III 1a The Earlier Castles 314-325. Robbins, T., 2002, Digging Up Kenfig, The Kenfig Society, Monograph No. 22 Wheeler R.E.M. 1925, Prehistoric and Roman Wales, Oxford Press. Wessex Archaeology Ltd, Report No 77509, March 2012 Kenfig, Bridgend, South Wales.

Websites © Google Earth 2003 earth.google co.uk/ Ordnance Survey OpenData Ref 267574 © Crown copyright 2013 Ordnancesurvey.co.uk/b...ducts/os-opendata.html Sherman, A and Evans, E, 2004, GGAT report no. 2004/073, Roman roads in Southeast Wales. Desk-based assessment with recommendations for fieldwork www.ggat.org.uk/cadw/.../GGAT%2075%20Yr3%20Roads%20final.pdf

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Plate 16. And a good day was had by all! Members of the Kenfig Group carry out fieldwork at Kenfig Burrows

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Appendix III. Report by Year 4 Llantwit Major Group on the NAS Foreshore training day and investigation of the vessel on East Aberthaw beach, Vale of Glamorgan. Over the weekend of 7th-8th March 2015 the Nautical Archaeological Society and the GGAT Arfordir Coastal Heritage Project ran a hulk recording training event. This was based in the Old School Community Centre in Llantwit Major and funded with grant aid from Cadw. Mark Beattie-Edwards, NAS programme director, opened the event by proposing that we survey a wreck on pebble section of Leys Beach just east of Aberthaw power station on the Saturday, and then possibly work on the wreck on the north side of Sully Island on the Sunday. As far as we know, the Leys Beach wreck has not been previously recorded, although the Sully Island wreck has been surveyed and appears in the literature and on websites, such as Coflein. Ian Cundy of MADU gave a talk on ship and boat construction with particular reference to mainly wooden coastal vessels of the nineteenth century, which the Leys Beach wreck is likely to be an example of. Ian is a builder of traditional wooden boats as well as a nautical archaeologist and his knowledge and experience of how they are put together was invaluable as we did the survey. Mark then outlined the basically two dimensional technique we would use to survey the wreck. A base line in the form of a tape measure is fixed to two posts outside the extent of the remains, roughly down the centre line of the vessel. Labelled datum pins are nailed into the timbers and their positions plotted on graph paper by measuring their distance at right angles from the baseline. Square planning frames with a grid of nylon line are then laid over the remains, and the timbers and other artefacts are sketched. If the datum points are sufficiently close together then each planning frame drawing includes at least two, so fixing its position. The sketches, which are all on tracing film, can then be assembled over a master plan and combined into a complete scale drawing.

40 Plate 17. Recording the wreck on East Aberthaw beach


GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

After lunch, in glorious spring-like weather, we walked to the Leys Beach wreck from Gileston Beach car park and put the theory into practice. The first job was to remove as many loose pebbles as possible from around the timbers. Then even this volunteer, with no drawing experience at all, was able to make usable sketches through the planning frame. The act of drawing requires you to observe, and notice the grain of the wood, and how the different components are fixed together. Sunday morning was drizzly as we reconvened in the Community Centre to review the previous day's results. As we laid the drawings over the master plan it became clear that there were a couple of areas that had been missed out in the planning frame drawings. For this reason, and because the Leys Beach vessel has not been surveyed before, it was decided to return there in the afternoon rather than working on the Sully boat. However, Ian had researched the latter and found an account in a book of Bristol Channel wrecks of an old trow that carried coal from Newport to Somerset in the 1920's. On one trip it had started taking on water soon after leaving Newport and had drifted down the coast. The circumstances of this incident are sufficiently promising that it may be worth researching in newspapers of the time to see if the vessel ended up on Sully Island.

Plate 18. Laying out the wreck. Checking that all the vessel had been recorded

Returning to Leys Beach we found that the tide had re-covered the wreck with pebbles, in spite of the very light seas, which had to be removed again. There was also a fair bit more sand around the timbers. The base line was re-laid over two datum pins left the previous afternoon and the missing sections sketched. Paul Huckfield the Arfordir Co-ordinator suggested a one metre wide trench across the beam of the boat, and pebbles, sand and clay be cleared to reveal what might be a bit of

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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15

Image courtesy of Ian Cundy MADU 2015

keel, and curving frames near what Ian now suspected was the stern of the vessel. This was done. While cleaning the bottom of the boat we found pieces of pottery, slag and possible ballast, which may tell us more about the boat when analysed.

Plate 19. Recording the sondage

All in all this was a fascinating and enjoyable weekend, and I'm only sorry there were not more volunteers to enjoy the generosity of the five professional archaeologists. Nick Pollock, 9 March 15

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Report on an Intertidal Wreck Recording Weekend for the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust (G-GAT) Diary: Over the weekend of 7th - 8th March 2015, Mark Beattie-Edwards (Nautical Archaeology Society, Programme Director) and Ian Cundy (Nautical Archaeology Society, Regional Coordinator for Wales) visited Llantwit Major in South Glamorgan to provide an Intertidal Wreck Recording Weekend for volunteers from the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust. Saturday commenced at the Old School Community Centre in Llantwit Major (Fig 1.) with a talk on Wooden Ship & Boat Construction followed by an introduction to 2D Offset Surveying, the use of Planning Frames and recording sites using a Plane Table. The group then moved along the coast to inspect and record the remains of an unknown wooden vessel that lies between groynes on Leys Beach. Upon arrival, the wreck was found to be almost completely obscured by Fig 1. The Old School Community Centre, stones (Fig 2.), however after a short period Llantwit Major the site had been cleared of the larger stones together a small amount of weed growth and the wooden structural elements of the vessel that remain had been revealed (Fig 3.).

Fig 2. The Wreck on Leys Beach buried by stones

Fig 3. The Wreck after removal of the larger stones

A control point was placed at either end of the site and a datum run the length of the wreck. Two recording exercises were then carried out by the group. The first involved measuring along the datum and recording the offset distances to the end of the wreck’s main frames (Fig 4.). The second entailed placing planning frames over the remains of the wreck, recording the position of the frames, and then freehand drawing the timber features that could be observed in each of the planning frame squares onto prepared proformas (Fig 5.). 1


Fig 4. Recording the Wreck using Offset Survey

Fig 5. Recording the Wreck using Planning Frames

Sunday morning saw the group again meet up at the Old School Community Centre where the Offset Data collected on Saturday was transcribed onto a large sheet of transparent paper (Fig 6.) under which the Planning Frame drawings were arranged (Fig 7.).

Fig 6. Transcribing the Offset Survey Data

Fig 7. The Planning Frame Drawings

The group then returned to the site to fill in a couple of areas where full coverage by the Planning Frame drawings had revealed some gaps. Deanna Groom (Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales, Maritime Officer) arrived and very kindly took on the Planning Frame exercise (Fig 8.) while the rest of the group undertook the excavation of a shallow inspection trench across the site (Fig 9.).

Fig 8. Deanna Groom using a Planning Frame

Fig 9. Paul Huckfield recording the Trench

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During the course of Sunday afternoon a disarticulated section of timber was observed a few metres to the seaward side of the site (Fig 10. & 11.), and as it could possibly be associated with the wreck, it was recorded and surveyed into the rest of the site.

Fig 10. Location of the disarticulated timber with respect to the site

Fig 11. Detail of the disarticulated timber

Over the course of the weekend a photographic and video record was carried out in order to capture both the site details and the work being carried out. In addition a 2D Photomosaic and 3D Photogrammetry Modelling exercise were also attempted. The results from the Photomosaic exercise can be seen in Fig 12, and a couple of captured screen shots of the excavated trench from the Photogrammetry exercise can be seen in Fig 13. Position of the trench across the site

Fig 12. Photomosaic of the Wreck Site indicating the location where the trench was excavated

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Fig 13. Screen shots from the Photogrammetry exercise showing details of the excavated trench that was opened up across the site

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Location: The wreck lies between a pair of groynes approximately 360m east of the channelled outfall from the River Thaw and 50m below mean high watermark on Leys Beach to the east of the Aberthaw Power Station on the south coast of South Glamorgan. The centre of the site is at:

ST 03296 65793 51deg 22’ 58.51” N 03deg 23’ 27.59” W

(51.382922 N) (-3.390997 W)

Site Description & Interpretation: The exposed section of the wreck was observed to be approximately 8.5m long x 3.5m wide with its centre line lying on a northeast / southwest axis. To the northeast, the vessels main frames come together to meet at possibly a rising keelson which connect to a bow or stern post (Fig 14.), while at the southwest end of the site, the wreck terminates before the main frames come together (Fig 15.), however this end of the wreck may be more complete beneath the current level of the beach.

Fig 14. The northeast end of the site.

Fig 15. The southwest end of the site

The remains appear to consist entirely of structural timber members including the lower portions of both port and starboard frames together with some inner (ceiling), and outer (carvel) planking all held together with treenails. In addition, inboard from the exposed frames and running longitudinally on top of, and in line with the ceiling planks, two significant structural timber members were observed (possibly forming part of a keelson) which protruded out from the beach, and it was at this location that the inspection trench was excavated across the site (Fig 12.). The only indication of any ironwork having been present on the wreck was a large tell-tale orange stain on a timber member (possibly the rising keelson) on the centre line of the vessel at the northeast end of the site. A possibility for this could be the location where an iron stern crutch or breasthook may have been fitted.

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Inspection of the trench revealed that the exposed inner (ceiling) planking on the south side of the site continued on down into the trench, while on the north side no ceiling planks were observed. As such the wreck would appear to be lying slightly angled to seaward, with the south side consisting of some ceiling planks over frames that may possibly extend into a third futtock, while on the north side the observed frames are likely to only extend as far as the Fig 16. The wreck lying at an angle consistent with slope of the beach second futtock (Fig 16.). With the vessel lying more across the beach than in line with the beach, this angle of tilt on the wreck would be consistent with the current inclination of the beach. Prior to excavating, the frames on both sides on the wreck looked to be at very similar shallow angles to the beach, giving the impression that they were possibly floor frames that would meet at the keel just below the surface. Following excavation however, the frames uncovered on the north side of the site revealed that their angles increased as they went further into the trench revealing a double curvature, typically as observed in fashion frames with the classic wine glass shape configuration commonly found towards the stern of a vessel (Fig 17 - 20.).

Fig 17. The trench viewed from the north

Fig 18. The excavated frames viewed from the east

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Fig 19. The excavated trench viewed from the southwest

Fig 20 The frames viewed from the north

At the end of the weekend, the trench was back filled and the site left clear. Thanks must go to Cadw who funded the weekend through grant aid. Mark Beattie-Edwards & Ian Cundy Nautical Archaeology Society (March 2015)

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Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd (Projects Division)

QUALITY CONTROL Report Title: GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2014-15 Report Date: March 2015 Report Number: 2015/022

Report prepared by:

Paul W Huckfield

Position:

Arfordir Coordinator

Date:

25/03/2015

Illustrations checked and authorised by: Position: Date:

Senior Illustrator

25/03/2015

Report checked by:

Andrew Marvell

Position:

Chief Executive

Date:

25/03/2015

Report checked and authorised by: Position: Date:

Paul Jones

Andrew Marvell

Chief Executive

25/03/2015

As part of our desire to provide a quality service we would welcome any comments you may wish to make on the content or presentation of this report.

Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd. Heathfield House, Heathfield, Swansea, SA1 6LE Tel. 01792 655208; Fax. 01792 474469 Registered Charity no. 505609 Web: www.ggat.org.uk e-mail: projects@ggat.org.uk

Arfordir Coastal Survey 2014-15  

Annual report on the Arfordir Coastal survey project. The project was set up to monitor and survey archaeology in the coastal zone and to en...

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