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In this issue:
Controlling in-silo moisture levels • Designing yeast derivative 2.0 • Grain testing - full surface image analysis • Control of ergot alkaloids in industrial milling • Beans and aquaculture • EuroTier 2016
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46 - Control of ergot alkaloids in industrial milling
Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 805 7781077 email@example.com Editorial Team Rhiannon White firstname.lastname@example.org Peter Parker email@example.com Andrew Wilkinson firstname.lastname@example.org International Editors Professor Dr M Hikmet Boyacıog ˘ lu email@example.com Dr Roberto Luis Bernardi firstname.lastname@example.org Professor Wenbin Wu email@example.com Design Manager James Taylor firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation & Events Tuti Tan email@example.com Development Manager Antoine Tanguy firstname.lastname@example.org ©Copyright 2016 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service
Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine was rebranded to Milling and Grain in 2015
Managing the risk of ergot and its toxic ergot alkaloids is an ongoing challenge for the grain processing industry.
REGIONAL FOCUS NEWS FEATURES
42 Grain testing - full surface analysis 46 Control of ergot alkaloids in industrial milling
38 Designing Yeast derivative 2.0 56 Beans and aquaculture
108 People news from the global milling industry
62 Effective water management during the milling process
60 Innovative ATEX-certified grinding installation to minimise explosion risk
82 Event listings, reviews and previews
12 Mildred Cookson 18 Clifford Spencer 25 Tom Blacker 26 Christophe Pelletier 32 Chris Jackson
2 GUEST EDITOR Roger Gilbert
76 MARKETS John Buckley
64 Moisture control - Best practice for controlling in-silo moisture levels 70 Inventory Management Software
35 Food Safety Modernisation Act Feed Training Led by IGP Institute
106 INTERVIEW Erich Erber
COVER IMAGE: Sunset at Kalsbøl wheat farm’s silos, Juelsminde, nr Hedensted, Midtjylland region, Denmark - Taken by Tom Blacker on a recent site visit.
Milling and Grain has had a great year celebrating our 125th anniversary This is the last issue of MAG for 2016 and our Christmas edition. I want to wish all our readers a Merry Christmas and goodwill to all. We have had a great year celebrating our 125th anniversary and have achieved two key milestones during 2016. For example, we have consolidated our multilingual publishing base by publishing six editions of each language in a 12-month period (Chinese, Spanish, Arabic and Turkish). Milling and Grain, we are told, is increasingly popular in China. We have also learned that the addition of our French edition earlier this year compliments our Arabic version well and is already being well-received not only in France but by the French-speaking industry throughout North Africa. In 2016 we have also set up an industry charity called ‘Milling4Life’ which aims to serve the industry by encouraging individuals in developing countries to take up best practices and best technologies to meet the growing food demand from their countries that is anticipated as we head towards 2050. Our charity is an industry charity and one that all of us can support and participate in by not only making financial contributions, but identifying projects and activities where a charity such as ours may be able to help our colleagues overcome challenges in their industries. As Stefan Scheiber, the CEO of the Buhler Group, told delegates attending his ’Networking Days’ in August and reported in our September edition, “We take the responsibility of the food and feed industry for a sustainable world very seriously. It is time to step up and make a difference.” Our industry has the tools and the knowledge to bring about the change that is needed to meet this expected demand and I’m hopeful the charity will play its small part in bringing two sides - the developed and the developing - of our industry together. Time is of the essence and Milling4Life can make a difference by helping to bring about change that is needed.
From January 2017 we are planning to progress our editorial coverage for millers with an increase in emphasis on the raw materials they use. In milling for food we will bring more information to you on the raw materials available and their quality and those aspects that must be taken into account when processing. As one writer mentions later on in this edition, that by improving the raw material quality coming into the mill and using improved milling processes we will be able to produce higher quality products for baking and food use without the over-reliance on the inclusion of additives and other enhancing substances. This is also true of the feed milling sector. Maximising the bio-availability of the nutrients in our animal feeds, by using novel additives and specifically-produced feed ingredients to improve gut health and minimise disease challenges for example, we will achieve reduced use of antibiotics without compromising production. Staying profitable is the responsibility of each and every milling company. In turn we also have a responsibility to ensure our bakers and farmers are able to remain profitable as well. The magazine will address issues both on the technology side and the nutrition side of our milling businesses to assist in achieving these objectives.
From all of us
It is my honour – on behalf of all our staff both here in the UK and around the world - to thank our advertisers, all the companies and event organisers we have visited and reported upon, our writers, contributors and guest editors, those who have written their columns for us to contemplate and to the many translators involved. Without all of the above, working together, it would not have been possible to make this magazine the most popular and informative source serving millers globally today. I am proud to be publisher and look forward to serving your industry in 2017! Roger Gilbert - Publisher
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A record-breaking 2,629 exhibitors and 163,000 visitors descended upon Germany’s famous Fairgrounds conference center in Hanover from November 15-18, 2016 for what has been referred to as the world’s leading trade fair for animal production, EuroTier. See the full story on page 90
Designing yeast derivative 2.0
Yeast derivatives (inactivated whole yeasts or yeast cell walls) are well known for their benefits in animal and human nutrition. They are particularly used to help balance the intestinal microflora and help stimulate the host natural defenses. Most yeast derivatives on the market today are by-products of the fermentation industry, such as biofuel production. They are usually characterized according to their biochemical composition: level of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS), yeast β-glucans or protein contents. If such an approach is interesting to evaluate product purity, it does not totally reflect their functionality. See the full story on page 38
EUROPE STATS 126 -– Average dietary energy supply adequacy (%) (3-year average) from 2013-2015 in Sweden compared to 146 in Ireland 95.4% - Urban population of Malta in 2015 511 - Average value of food production (constant 1$ per person) (3-year average) from 2011-2013 in Belgium compared to 390 in Portugal 4 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Results are in for Nutriad’s Polish wheat and triticale mycotoxin survey Poland is one of Europe’s biggest grain producers. Its farming sector has changed dramatically since it joined the European Union (EU) more than 10 years ago. See the full story on page 15
Biomin was established on 1st January 1983. However, Mr Erber was in the industry before this selling pre-mixes, and feed additives to the industry and some large farm integrations. See the full story on page 106
Global Consumers Drive Grain Demand and Push Toward Transparency
o-sponsored by the U.S. Grains Council (USGC) and the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), in October, Export Exchange 2016 hosted more than 200 international buyers and end-users of coarse grains and related products from more than 35 countries. Todd Armstrong, senior director of Global Market Access at Elanco, told the more than 400 attendees of the Export Exchange 2016 conference on Wednesday that food companies, including those supplying animal protein and grains, need to understand consumer expectations to remain successful. He joined other speakers during the conference’s second day of general sessions focused on demand trends and how grain producers and users can meet consumer expectations in a cost-effective manner using U.S. grain products. “When you ask consumers what they expect, the consumer is demanding and expecting increased transparency in what happens to their food,” Armstrong said. “In the animal protein industry, we’re expected to be more transparent about how we raise animals.” Paul Hishmeh, data and technology director for Field to Market, spoke on work in the United States to quantify and communicate farm and food chain sustainability, which is of increasing interest to consumers around the world. Attendees also heard Wednesday from Florentino Lopez, executive director of the United Sorghum Checkoff Program (USCP), on U.S. sorghum availability and new uses and from a panel providing international perspectives on distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) utilization. During the panel, Dr. Budi Tangendjaja, a consultant with USGC, described his work with a Vietnamese feed company that used formulation software but no DDGS database, showing the Export Exchange crowd the calculations he worked through with the customers. After helping the company include DDGS in its calculations, the feed mill realized cost savings, he noted. Dr. Abdellah Ait Boulahsen, a Council consultant in Morocco, also outlined scenarios he has used with companies in that market, showing how they can use U.S. DDGS as part of a lowest-cost feed formulation. U.S. DDGS are sold “consistently” to more than 40 countries, said USGC Manager of Global Trade Alvaro Cordero, who also spoke on the panel, with growth to other regions happening consistently. There are many companies that “are leaving a lot of money on the table” by not taking advantage of U.S. DDGS, he noted, a common theme of conversations between buyers and sellers at the conference. 6 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
‘Build My Feedmill’ A novel and unique ‘Build My Feedmill’ tool for VIV Asia 2017 Have you ever visited a feedmill and wondered how all the equipment you see is connected, what purpose each piece serves and in what order do they operate and why? Despite the visually confusing array of processing equipment connected by a myriad of tubes, feedmills follow a pre-defined configuration which is reflected in a ‘flow diagram’ and which identifies each piece of equipment and how they are connected. But what do those components look like, how big are they and what additional functions do they carry out and how? How do you control grinding, weighing, mixing, pelleting, heating and cooling and transportation around the mill without damaging the ingredients you’re using whilst maximising their nutritional value in the final product for the targeted animal? These, and many other questions like them, must occur to anyone working in our sector of animal husbandry and livestock production when contemplating setting-up a new feedmill or identifying the right equipment to replace or expand an existing operation. The up-coming VIV Asia 2017 aims to address this dilemma for visitors with a unique and novel service called ‘Build My Feedmill’. This is a hands-on application tool that you can use on your tablet or desktop computer prior to coming to VIV Asia in order to locate and review key components that make up a feed milling production process. You can also use a printout available at the exhibition itself or use one of several interactive screens on the expo floor to identify components along with the companies producing them, their stand numbers and their web addresses. If you’re into feed milling, then this will ensure you’re best prepared when visiting the exposition and it will help you make best use of your time. There will be an associated two-hour CropTechFeedTech Conference called ‘Build My Feedmill’ on the afternoon of the second day of the show, where each participating company will have five minutes to explain the principal advantage of just one of their products identified in the flow diagram within the application tool. To register for the conference - space is limited - please pre-register, free-of-charge on the VIV registration website when it goes live from the first week of January 2017. You can link to the registration page via the url: www.viv.net
Russia’s position in the global grain market
eputy Prime Minister of Russia, Arkady Dvorkovich, took part in the business lunch entitled “The World Grain Market and Russia’s Place on it,” within the second World Grain Forum in Sochi. Heads of foreign delegations, international organisations and the international expert community met with Dvorkovich in the format of a business breakfast, under the moderation of Sergey Levin, Deputy Minister of Agriculture of the Russian Federation and was also attended by Alexander Tkachev, Minister of Agriculture of the Russian Federation. Dvorkovich addressed attendees with the welcome speech, stating that Russia is steadily building up production of grain and is returning to the position of the world leader in grain supply. According to Arkady Dvorkovich, the Russian Federation has almost doubled grain production since 2009, when the First World Grain Forum was held in St Petersburg. Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation said, “Today, Russia is not only able to present its forecasts and plans but also to demonstrate its considerable achievements in the agricultural sector. Herewith, the Russian Federation has an enormous potential for development in the field of grain production. The country should improve technologies, raise the quality of management, expand engineering capacities, and supply farming enterprises with advanced technology.” Russia also takes an active part in global humanitarian program of grain supply and assumes responsibility for agricultural sector development in neighbouring countries such as Armenia, Belarus and Kirghizia. The Russian Federation is ready to increase the overall area under crops so to improve the quality of output in order to accomplish the identified target— to increase the grain production from the output of 2016 (117 million tons) to 150 million tons by 2030, declared Arkady Dvorkovich.
Recent achievements of Russia are not the reason to rest on laurels, noted Minister of Agriculture of the Russian Federation Alexander Tkachev. Having vast areas and capacities at its disposal, Russia should be deeply involved in melioration, improving soil fertility, and recoverong millions of cropland into circulation, taking into account the specific nature of national agricultural production, primarily adverse climatic conditions. By 2030 the export of Russian grain may amount to 50 million tons. Herewith, Russia should consider new export opportunities. Grain is our second oil, pointed out Minister of Agriculture. UN FAO’s Senior Economist Abdolreza Abbassian mentioned that the reduction of purchasing prices for grain is the key challenge of the global market. Maintaining of prices at the level acceptable for both manufacturers and consumers will allow increasing the part of high-quality grain in the overall output, considers Minister of Agriculture of Canada in 2007–2015 Gerry Ritz. Government institutions and grain producers should speak about the quality of feedstock along with the output volumes, pointed out Mr. Ritz. In the opinion of the President of the Russian Grain Union Arkady Zlochevsky, volumes of world trade are in direct relation with infrastructure availability, whose development lags behind the grain production. Prospects of the global grain market depend on an extensive use of innovative technologies in the first place, considers the President of the International Grain Coalition Gary Martin. Representatives of countries— main importers of Russian grain, investors, traders, and experts also delivered their speeches at the business breakfast. Participants discussed changes taking place on the global grain market, prospects of Russian export and new vectors of co-operation, as well as the role of the State in regulation of the grain market.
Trouw Nutrition launches global validation programme
rouw Nutrition, Nutreco’s animal nutrition division, has launched a global validation programme to demonstrate the effectiveness of its nutritional solutions in different geographies and market places. Validation centres have been established on five continents, where Trouw Nutrition R&D is collaborating with leading universities and regional science partners. The validation of products in regional markets is important to accelerate the transfer of best practices from one market to the other. The initial focus of the programme
10 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
is on feed additives, animal health supporting products and young animal feed. “We develop new products, models and service tools at our global research centres. But a proof of concept is important. Application knowledge taking into account local conditions, such as climate and farming practices, is a critical success factor of many innovations we develop,” says Leo den Hartog, director Trouw Nutrition R&D. He continues, “A good example is our blended feed additive solutions. Validation studies in different regions have already shown that similar
performance responses can be obtained compared to antimicrobial growth promoters.’’ Global research scope The validation teams are based in Asia-Pacific, Brazil, China, Europe and North America. Research proposals are set up in close collaboration with universities, research institutes and key customers in the respective regions. Based on standardised protocols, the teams will execute validation trials of nutritional solutions that have been developed in the five research centres that Trouw Nutrition operates in the Netherlands, Canada and Spain.
EP Allis & Co Bay State Shops
The American Engineering Works of Messrs Edward P Allis & Co
Milling journals of the past at The Mills Archive by Mildred Cookson, The Mills Archive, UK Research for my article last month on our milling engineers and the milling revolution, led me to discover that during 1885, The Miller published illustrated descriptions of several milling engineering works. The 7 September issue reported on a visit to the Bay State engineering works of the American firm of Messrs Edward P Allis & Co in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Journal underlined the historical and enduring importance of milling engineers; at that time they were revolutionising new machinery and competition between them was ever more intense. The machines of Edward Allis, an eminent firm of engineers and millwrights, not only were to be found in every part of the United States, their reputation had spread worldwide. They manufactured on a scale second to no other American firm, and were among the first makers of roller mills in the USA. In 1885 the firm had been agents for Wegmann porcelain rolls for the previous seven years. They were also fortunate in securing the services of another eminent milling engineer Mr WD Gray, and the inventor of the well-known roller mill bearing his name. It was noted that such was the extent of orders received that all the workshops on the premises were working double time. This in the face of the prevailing depression in American millwrighting speaks volumes for the firm. They had over 30 milling contracts in hand, not only roller mills but other special machines. 12 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Disaster and triumph Many years earlier William Goodnow had started a small machine shop and foundry at the corner of Florida and Clinton Streets. By 1885 that site had been taken over by the Cream city Iron Works. Mr Goodnow had been fairly successful and he was determined that his new Bay State shops would be the best and most perfectly equipped machine shops in the west. Having secured the location at the corner of Lake and Barclay Streets, he put up a three-storey brick building with engine room, blacksmithâ€™s shop and foundry adjoining The whole establishment was supplied with an extensive and complete outfit of tools, patterns etc, and work began on a large scale. In a short time it was found that the works, built in an excess of business rivalry, were far in advance of their legitimate trade requirements and the institution became heavily involved and finally hopelessly bankrupt. After various ineffectual attempts to operate them by receivers and the assignee, they were finally sold, to be purchased as a speculative investment, by Edward P Allis, owner of the Reliance Works already a thriving business. The Bay State works were to remain idle for several years, leased for a period to the Chicago, Milwaukee and St Paul Railway Company and were used as their repair shop. In time business grew and the site was reclaimed. The firm had an excellent write up in The North-Western Miller describing the Bay State premises as occupying the half block fronting on Barclay Street, between Lake and Oregon Streets, Milwaukee. Extra capacity was provided by the firmâ€™s Reliance Works, operating on a separate site but under the same management.
The main site made Grayâ€™s famous noiseless roller mills, with the castings and the woodwork for the machines provided by the foundry and woodworking shops of the Reliance Works. For months at a time their daily output reached eight to ten complete machines. A thriving business The main building of the Bay State Works was built of cream coloured bricks, 200 feet long by 50 feet wide and of three storeys. The first floor held the roller mill frames brought from the foundry and fitted for receiving the wooden hoppers and the minor details of ironwork involved in the construction of the machines. The floor was designed and equipped with special tools, each designed to do the maximum amount of work with a minimum amount of labour. Special lathes, planers, drilling machines were all kept busy, tended by skilled mechanics each specially trained to do his share of completing the building of the machines. The floor also housed the special tools for turning, grinding and corrugating the chilled iron rolls that were the prominent feature of all roller mills. The firm about this time started to manufacture the rolls themselves, with the works fully equipped for this purpose. Even so only a limited number of rolls were produced here, the greater proportion coming from Ansonia and Wilmington. All possible care was taken to insure perfection in workmanship. As a result of their reputation, rolls were sent to the works for refitting from St. Louis, Cincinnati, New York, Cleveland, Minneapolis and other milling points. Ascending an elevator to the second floor, a visitor would see long lines of lathes, planers and drill presses, the
whole room thronging with busy workmen. This floor was devoted entirely to the fashioning of the smaller pieces of iron work required to complete the machines. Hand wheels, bolts, rods, levers, feed rolls, boxes etc., each had their own appropriate machine and all moved together like clockwork. Also on view were the lathes and grinding machines for fitting up the Wegmann porcelain rolls. The third floor was fitted out with pulley lathes and grinding machines and was also used as a storeroom for finished pulleys etc. By 1885 the workforce was averaging over two hundred trained mechanics, working solely on the Gray roller mills. Returning to the first floor, the visitor would enter the finishing room. Machines here were fitted with the woodwork, painted and prepared for shipment. All machines for which orders had come in, and were finished, left the premises immediately. At the time, notwithstanding the low price of wheat and depressed conditions in the milling industry, production was over one hundred machines behind orders. During the years 1880 - 1885 nearly fifteen thousand machines had been built and shipped from these works, going to all parts of America, as well as England, Australia, New Zealand and South America. This firm fairly illustrates the magnitude of the milling industry at that time and was of interest to millers from all parts of the world. My next few articles will examine reports of milling engineers based in other countries. The geographical and historical spread of our holdings at the Mills Archive mean that I can only provide snapshots; if you would like to know more please email me at email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 13
Milling and Grain supports the aims and objectives of the Mills Archive Trust, based in Reading, England. The history of milling no matter where it has taken place - is being archived by the Trust. For well over 100 years milling technology has been global with many magazines serving or having served our industry from flour and food to feed and oilseed processing and now to fish feeds. A most recent contribution to the Trust’s collection is a complete century of past edition of the now out-of-print ‘NorthWestern Miller’ from the United States. We are proud to present here, front cover illustrations from this valued and longserving publication as a visual reminder of the importance contribution past magazines provided to our industry.
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Art in the Archive We are a charity that saves the world’s milling images and documents and makes them freely available for reference. We have more than two million records. We aim to cover the entire history of milling, from its ancient origins up to the present day Find out what we have and how you can help us grow
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Results are in for Nutriad’s Polish wheat and triticale mycotoxin survey
oland is one of Europe’s biggest grain producers. Its farming sector has changed dramatically since it joined the European Union (EU) more than 10 years
ago. According to the Main Statistical Office, Poland, the production of wheat, rye, mixed grains, triticale, barley, corn and oats is forecasted to increase by approximately 6 percent to 29.5 million metric tons in 2016/17. This is because of the better than average yield expectations compared to the lower yields of 2015 which were due to the unfavourable summer weather conditions. The total acreage for grain plantings is estimated to be 3 percent higher than in 2015. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that cause a toxic response (mycotoxicosis) when ingested by farm and companion animals. Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium are the most abundant moulds that produce these toxins and contaminate human foods and animal feeds through fungal growth prior to and during harvest, or during (improper) storage (Bhatnagar et al., 2004). The 2016 Nutriad Mycotoxin Survey included 73 wheat and 32 triticale samples collected across Poland. All samples were collected either directly from the farms or from animal feed production sites. Sample providers followed the principles of good sampling (Richard, 2000). The analytical personnel and laboratory staff were not involved in sampling and, therefore, did not influence any part of this procedure. The survey provided an insight into the incidences of aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) across all regions of Poland. More than 800 analyses were conducted to test for the presence of the eight mycotoxins most frequently found in agricultural commodities that are intended for animal feed production. All eight mycotoxins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS). For the purpose of data analysis, non-detection levels were based on the limits of quantification (LOQ) of the test method for each mycotoxin: AfB1 < 0.5 μg/kg; ZEN < 10 μg/kg; DON < 75 μg/kg; FB1 < 125 μg/kg; FB1 < 50 μg/ kg; OTA < 1 μg/kg; HT2-toxin< 4 μg/kg and T-2 toxin < 4 μg/kg. The results from the Nutriad survey showed that almost 70 percent of the wheat samples were contaminated with DON and 30 percent with ZEN and HT2-toxin. As expected none of the wheat or triticale samples contained AfB1. Surprisingly almost 20 percent of the samples of triticale were contaminated with FB2, a typical maize mycotoxin. Most of the recovered mycotoxins were in concentrations regarded as medium (>LOD but below EU recommendation levels). The highest concentration of DON and ZEN found in the wheat reached 1200 μg/kg and 270 μg/kg respectively. Interestingly, 6 percent of the triticale samples contained OTA while none of the wheat samples were contaminated with OTA, a known typical storage mycotoxin. None of the samples of wheat or triticale were
contaminated with FB1, also a typical maize mycotoxin (Table 1 and Table 2). The wheat and triticale mycotoxin survey conducted by Nutriad in 2016 concluded that this year’s harvest of wheat and triticale in Poland is of concerning quality in terms of mycotoxin contamination. Based on the results of this survey, it is the belief that this year’s wheat and triticale crop should not be considered safe for inclusion into finished feed rations for all animal species. Wheat and triticale in animal feeds originates from many sources and vigilance is always advisable. Wheat, triticale, barley and oats harvested in 2016 across Europe, have been shown to be contaminated with medium concentrations of mycotoxins. The last possible line of defence is the detoxification of mycotoxins in vivo. The addition of proven mycotoxin deactivators to animal feeds is a very common method to prevent mycotoxicosis and is an effective strategy to keep the risk of mycotoxin contamination low under any and all conditions. Nutriad delivers products and services to over 80 countries through a network of sales offices and distributors. These are supported by 4 application laboratories and 5 manufacturing facilities on 3 continents. www.nutriad.com Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 15
Warnings that AMR will overtake cancer as greatest killer by 2050 if we don’t invest now Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to global health, intensified by the need to produce food on an industrial scale. It is a consequence of the overuse of antibiotics, mainly in animal food production. Hygienic measures across the feed production chain contribute significantly to reducing these and hygiene innovations are key to reducing antibiotics in feed. Béatrice Conde-Petit, Food Safety Officer at Bühler, addressed the need for safe and sustainable feed and food value chains on November 4, 2016, at the Swiss Green Economy Symposium in Winterthur, Switzerland. “The emerging threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria is posing a huge challenge for the industry in terms of food safety. Bacteria are changing and acquiring antimicrobial resistance. This is one of the biggest global public health threats,” says food technology expert, Conde-Petit. Two-thirds of the antibiotics worldwide are used for livestock as growth promoters or to prevent and cure infections. A consequence is the emergence of resistance mechanisms, which threaten the treatment of infectious human diseases. The World Health Organisation (WHO) predicts AMR will lead to prolonged illness, disability, and death if measures are not taken globally to address the threat. “AMR is already the cause of 50,000 deaths per year in Europe and the United States,” Conde-Petit explains. Crucially she adds, “If we don’t invest in viable solutions now, more people are likely to be killed by AMR than cancer by 2050.” Hygiene measures across the production chain are central to addressing the issue, though there is no “magic bullet” panacea, she says. Feed is one of the main paths of 16 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
harmful bacteria, such as salmonella, that can infect livestock. Therefore, safe feed is the starting point for reducing antibiotics in animal food production. “At Bühler we have taken up the food safety challenge and are committed to innovations for safe feed and food processing across the value chain,” Conde-Petit explains. “Food safety begins with safeguarding the quality of raw materials with grain drying and cleaning solutions, followed by good hygienic design of plants to control contamination and enable effective cleaning. Lastly, eliminating harmful bacteria are to be eliminated with reliable kill steps in feed processing.” Innovation is at the core of Bühler’s strategy. Each year, the company invests up to five percent of its turnover in research and development to anticipate trends and challenges, and remain at the forefront of creating sustainable solutions across the value chain. To further promote innovation, Bühler fosters a strong knowledgeexchange culture, and partners, including leading industry players, academia, research institutions, policymakers, and start-ups. Investing in innovation and R&D is essential for developing solutions for the AMR issue according to the WHO, which has also called for all countries to develop action plans. “Switzerland is well positioned
thanks to its high standard in feed processing for feed safety. It is considered a benchmark for feed producers worldwide,” Conde-Petit explains. “Bühler technology contributes to Switzerland’s standing in the industry. Bühler strives to be a global leader in safe feed technology solutions to address the AMR challenge. We train professionals from the feed manufacturing industry around the globe through our partnership with the Swiss Institute of Feed Technology (SFT) and other customer workshops.” The Swiss Green Economy Symposium 2016 brings together thought leaders from politics, business, and society to address the need for sustainability in the economy. Conde-Petit was a keynote speaker sharing Bühler’s sustainability agenda within the areas of energy, alternative proteins, antibiotic reduction, and feed safety. Béatrice Conde-Petit joined Bühler in 2008 and heads the Bühler Food Safety Initiative, driving strategic innovation projects in the field of food safety. She is an expert in food science and technology, and also leads Bühler Analytical Services. CondePetit received her Master’s Degree and PhD from the Swiss Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland. Before joining Bühler, she worked 20 years at ETH as a researcher, lecturer, and consultant to the food industry. More information on Antimicrobial resistance: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/ factsheets/fs194/en/ More information on Bühler’s food and feed safety solutions: http://www.buhlergroup. com/global/en/about-buehler/media/ core-topics/food-safety.ht
45 million euros collaboration between Evonik and METEX
vonik Industries AG of Germany and METabolic EXplorer (METEX) of France have agreed that Evonik will acquire a technology package from METEX to strengthen its biotechnology platform for amino acids, following an agreement signed today in Paris. The acquisition will strengthen the Evonik biotechnology platform for amino acids. The move will also enhance the ability of METEX to commercialize other technologies that it has developed as alternatives to chemical processes. Further opportunities for cooperation are being explored; Essen/Clermont-Ferrand. The package includes METEX’s entire technology portfolio for the fermentative production of methionine, as well as patents, essential bacteria strains, and the inoLa™ brand. METEX considers that this agreement will underscore the relevance of METEX’s alternative technologies and will strengthen its ability to commercialize its other technologies. The transaction also includes a back license agreement pertaining to certain patents to be transferred to Evonik; this agreement will allow METEX to continue using these patents for activities other than those relating to methionine. The companies intend to explore the possibility of a research and development cooperation agreement on the development of biotechnologically
Milling News produced amino acids. The total consideration for the transfer of this technology, including a two-year transfer service agreement, amounts to 45 million euros. Amino acids produced by fermentation are an important pillar of Evonik’s product portfolio for sustainable animal nutrition. Production process efficiency for Biolys® (lysine), ThreAMINO® (threonine) and TrypAMINO® (tryptophane) has been continuously improved over the past few years, and the portfolio was recently expanded to include ValAMINO® (valine). “Through its fermentative methionine production process, METEX has demonstrated excellent development work and was able to secure wide-ranging patent protection,” says Dr. Emmanuel Auer, head of Evonik’s Animal Nutrition Business Line. “The acquisition of this technology will expand our technological leadership for amino acids produced both chemically and by fermentation,” he explains. “We have been able to show that the fermentation process for manufacturing methionine is a potential alternative to familiar manufacturing routes. For all of the company’s stakeholders, this is a validation of our technical leadership. Proceeds from the sale will accelerate our ability to further develop and market our other technologies, such as PDO, MPG, or new highvalue-added molecules,” says Benjamin Gonzalez, CEO of METEX. “The technology will be transferred to Evonik immediately after the required approval of Evonik committees. This is expected before mid-December 2016.”
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 17
The strong need for the milling industry in sub-Saharan Africa to advance Clifford Spencer We will soon be settling down to the rigours of the approaching UK winter whilst tucking into tasty bread, pasta, puddings, cakes, biscuits and other various nutritious and filling treats all part of the fantastic range of foods based on the most advanced milling technology that western nations enjoy. The Christmas period will certainly provide a contrast to the Milling4Life team’s recent trip to Ethiopia and our learning of the food system there. In particular the demonstrated strong need for the milling industry in sub-Saharan Africa to advance at a rapid rate of knots so that Ethiopia and other sub-Saharan countries can enjoy the benefit of balanced and nutritious milling products. When we arrived at Addis Ababa airport we were greeted by pictures of a minute ochre-red seed and a billboard with the words: “Teff: the ultimate glutenfree crop!” Ethiopia is indeed the native home of Teff, a highly nutritious ancient grain increasingly finding its way into health-food shops and supermarkets in Europe and America. We ate Teff with traditional meals during our stay and I understand little has changed in its field production over recent decades as the grain is little used outside of Africa. Its tiny seeds – the size of poppy seeds – are high in calcium, iron and protein, and boast an impressive set of amino acids. Naturally gluten-free, the grain can substitute for wheat flour in anything from bread and pasta to waffles and pizza bases. In particular the benefits of the latest milling technology are yet to be provided in all its various glories to leading indigenous African crops such as Teff, Millett and Sorghum. Of course crops like Maize and Rice grown on the African continent can and do benefit from milling technology developed in other areas of the world that grow these crops and which can then be provided for Africa. However there are good agricultural reasons for the growing of various African indigenous grains and I will start to examine this situation and these crops and their milling potential and their needed milling developments in more detail a series of articles starting in the January issue of Milling & Grain. In Ethiopia, Teff is a national obsession and is grown by over six million (yes six million) farmers with fields of the crop covering more than 20% of all land under cultivation in the country. Ground into flour and used to make Injera, the spongy fermented flatbread that is basic to Ethiopian cuisine, the grain is also central to many religious and cultural ceremonies. Across the country, and in neighboring Eritrea, diners gather around large pieces of Injera, which doubles as cutlery, scooping up stews and feeding one another as a sign of loyalty or friendship – a 18 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
tradition known as Gursha. Ethiopia’s growing middle class is also pushing up demand and prices for the crop which over the past decade has sadly put the grain out of reach of the poorest in Ethiopia. Today, most small farmers sell the bulk of what they grow to consumers in the city. As western consumers acquire a taste for Teff the Ethiopian government will need to ensure that Ethiopia and its farmers benefit from new global markets. Government restrictions, instituted in the last decade forbid the export of raw Teff grain, only allowing shipments of Injera and other processed products. But this could change: the goal is to produce enough Teff for domestic consumption and a strong export market, according to the government’s strategy. However growing demand for so-called ancient grains has not always been a straightforward win for poor communities as has been seen with the rise of the consumption of Quinoa from Bolivia and Peru to meet western demand. So great was the interest in the crop that even when I was practically farming in the UK around 15 years ago I was contracted to grow large fields of the crop for the food industry to experiment with and learn the crop. It needs to be remembered that Ethiopia remains on the UN’s list of least-developed countries. Nearly a fifth of Ethiopian children under five are in some way malnourished or suffer stunted growth, and the UN’s World Food Programme estimates the costs of chronic malnutrition takes huge chunk of the countries GDP – some say up to 20% which is staggering when you compare that to a western country. So through this one example think of the good that a well organised, well equipped and vibrant milling industry in sub-Saharan Africa would be able to provide! At the same time as the food side of milling with the bean for aquafeed project I described last month we will need to produce the feed rations and establish the complimentary fish feeding trials in Ethiopia to provide experience and data to allow a successful industrial development. As a result we are also currently in discussions with potential funders for this work and as described in last month’s column already have an Ethiopian miller on board to assist with this development. As part of this effort we will through our sister charity Aquaculture without Frontiers be engaging with the animal nutrition aspects and this effort will be run in parallel to the required milling developments. Indeed we recently met with Michael New O.B.E. the founder of Aquaculture without Frontiers and during our discussions planned to attend a major aquaculture event in Cape Town in the middle of 2017 that might go some way to spreading the benefit of our Ethiopian feed grain milling aims across Africa. There is lots to be done by Milling4Life in this great lifegiving industry.
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Launch of bakery by Limagrain Cereales Ingredients
he bread-making market is at the heart of Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients’ (LCI) strategy, which has marked its presence in the UK by presenting its revamped range, Bakery by Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients. Founded and managed by French farmers, Limagrain is an international agricultural co-operative group, specializing in field seeds, vegetable seeds and cereal products. French bread and patisserie products are world-renowned and Limagrain is at the forefront of this as the second largest industrial baker and the third largest industrial pâtissier maker in France as well as the fourth largest seed company worldwide. As a key subsidiary of Limagrain, Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients shares its expert knowledge and passion with clients, providing quality ingredients and offering tailored solutions to their technical and business needs. From seed to plate Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients manages many plant cultivation programmes for its wheat and maize. It is able to adapt future varieties to the expectations of both consumers and professionals in the industry. This approach enables Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients to manage all of the integrated chains locally: the seeds and grain are produced under contract with Limagrain cooperative farmer members and the grain is processed exclusively in the company’s mills. Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients analyses, tests and reproduces the industrial conditions and constraints that cereals may encounter during the manufacturing process. Development and innovation Aware of the various specificities of the baking industry and set in the context of an innovative working environment, Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients has revamped its wide range of ingredients for professionals
The Mills Archive achieves national accreditation
he Mills Archive has been awarded Archive Service Accreditation, national recognition for the quality of their work caring for the vulnerable records of milling history. Accreditation is the UK standard, which recognises good performance in all areas of caring for historic records and making them available to public. Achieving accredited status demonstrates that the Mills Archive
20 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
working with bread and other types of dough, and launched Bakery by Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients. Whether the end product is pre-packaged, fresh or frozen, the large Bakery by Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients range is suitable for all bread-making technologies and all shelf lives. The range includes bread and Viennese pastry improvers for different types of breads, pastries, brioches, pizza dough and more, which can be customised to suit each client’s requirements. ‘Clean Label’ A pioneer in ‘Clean Label’ ingredients, Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients has not only invested in creating new cereal varieties but has also developed its technological capabilities and cereal processing tools. They offer a distinctive functional ingredient selection, including for instance a unique range of functional flours developed as a response to various needs within the industry offering everything from functional solutions to cost-reduction solutions, nutritional offerings and texture and taste enhancements. Healthy, nutritious and tasty In today’s market, health and nutrition is of paramount importance. The Nutrition range from Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients provides professionals in all areas of the breadmaking industry with a full range of solutions that will improve product nutritional content.
has met clearly defined national standards relating to management and resourcing; the care of its unique collections and what the service offers to its entire range of users. Archivist Nathanael Hodge comments, “We’ve found the accreditation process very rewarding. Comparing our day-to-day work with national standards has challenged us to improve in many areas we might never have thought about. We’re very excited to hear that our application has been successful!” The Mills Archive is a registered charity, whose mission is to care for the records of windmills, watermills,
and all other forms of mill throughout history, and make them freely available to the public for research and learning. The Archive collaborates with existing mills through its partnership schemes, helping them to care for and provide access to their own records. The Archive Service Accreditation Panel “praised the excellent website and the very strong documentation supporting the application, which was a model for a small, specialist service. They also strongly commended the service’s work with the wider mills heritage community and hope to see its support for that community continued and developed.”
Advancements in NIR analysis will mean better feed formulation
ew developments in Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) technology are unlocking greater insights for the feed industry, which should mean improved returns for producers. Whilst NIR has been used in traditional ‘proximate analysis’ for some time to measure components such as fibre, protein and moisture, this has recently been extended to include in vivo metabolisable energy measurements, reactive lysine and phytic P. Dr Sophie Parker-Norman, Global Technical Manager at AB Vista, says this pioneering approach has farreaching implications for the industry.
ANIMAL PROTEINS • Hemoglobin • Plasma
“Any deviation from target feed formulation specification translates directly into economic losses, through higher feed costs or lower animal performance. At a time when feed production makes up 70% of variable animal production costs, utilising NIR to measure metabolisable energy, reactive lysine and the phytic P content of feedstuffs has real potential to better support supplier selection, optimize rations and improve feed efficiency.” Dr Parker-Norman says the comprehensive measurements can bring significant improvements to accuracy, quality and sustainability of feed production. “The use of NIR beyond proximate analysis looks set to benefit the industry as a whole, providing valuable insights for those involved in feed milling and quality control, as well as nutrition and animal production.” Measuring the levels of metabolisable energy, reactive lysine and phytic P will enable more accurate decisions to be made
about feed formulation, particularly because there is significant potential for variation in these components, Dr Parker-Norman says. “The energy value of different cereals can vary by 1.5MJ/kg. With this worth between €5 and €25 per tonne of feed and 500 million tonnes of feed produced per year, measuring metabolisable energy using NIR is economically important. “Heat damage of proteins can also affect the precision and cost effectiveness of feed formulation. NIR can be used to measure the reactive lysine content of protein meals; an assessment of heat damage obtained during processing as well as an indication of the usable protein content of feedstuffs. “Finally, phytic P varies between different feedstuffs and within a single raw material – and it is an important figure to know when deciding how much phytase to add to feeds. NIR technology can analyse that content, giving the nutritionist better control and confidence that there is enough substrate for the enzyme to act on.”
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[ Museum Story No. 8 ]
Highlights and notable moments
GENIUS UNDER THE WIG
Tom Blacker, International Milling and Grain Directory Seasons greetings everyone and a happy Christmas and New Year! This is the final column of the year for the magazine. During the year, there have been some great highlights and notable moments from engaging with the industry for the directory. I particularly enjoyed writing September’s column reviewing the harvest and have thoroughly enjoyed participating as a member of the LSEM committee for 2016. A constant theme I am always aware of is that there is a need for the directory so I know that the 2017 edition, which is taking shape very nicely, will be a wonderful addition to the industry. Also, seven new companies from four different continents joined the directory this month, plus more renewals. The companies joining since the November issue of Milling and Grain are: • CTM Systems – UK, • Injection Moulding Company – USA, • Minh Vi Exhibition & Advertisement Service Co., Ltd. (VEAS Co., Ltd.) – Vietnam • Zhengzhou Double Lion Grain Milling Machinery Co., Ltd. – China • Safe Computing Ltd. – UK • CGrain AB – Sweden • The Berium Group – Kenya
We are happy with the increases of our membership, to connect more of the industry closer together. Organic growth over this year has been exceptional and one of the best measures of progress for the directory. Overall, reviewing the year, a total of 88 companies registered for the first time into the directory. This is growth beyond my initial expectations and has surpassed all previous years. The new International Milling and Grain Directory is due to be published very soon. The quarter-century edition (twenty-five years) would be commonly called the ‘silver’ anniversary. It is something that as we close the book on 2016 and look forward to 2017, to reflect and appreciate the stewardship of this directory for the industry. @IntMD facebook.com/internationalmillingdirectory
“Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart”, portrait by B. Kraft
When Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart gave concerts at the court of Emperor Leopold, or on other ceremonial occasions, he wore his best wig. In the 18th century, wigs with curls arranged horizontally were the latest fashion. Those who wanted to keep up with the trend dusted their hair with powder – or in Mozart’s case with flour, the cheaper alternative. Grain was the beginning With its collection of over 3,000 flour sacks from 130 countries around the globe, the FlourWorld Museum in Wittenburg, near Hamburg (Germany), is unique in the world of grain. It is an initiative and cultural project of Mühlenchemie and a token of thanks to all millers. The museum shows the history of flour and its significance for mankind: FLOUR IS LIFE. Every new sack with an interesting motif is welcome in the Sackotheque and will find a permanent home there.
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 25
The Pelletier Column What food will be Donald Trump be serving?
by Christophe Pelletier After a rather unconventional campaign and an unlikely outcome, the American people have named their next president. The many controversial and vague statements of candidate Trump have left most of the world with perplexity. The presidential election gets the
most attention. The fact that the Republican Party will now control both the House of Representatives and the Senate, next to the White House received much less publicity, yet it will actually shape American policies in the coming years. The Republicans have full latitude to pass any law they want, with little opposition. Is the Trump presidency something to worry about? It is difficult to say at this stage. It is probably a matter of hoping for the best and be prepared for the worst. Since his election, Donald Trump has sent mixed signals. He seems to realise that things are more complex than he presented during the campaign and on a number of issues he put some water in his wine, but at the same time some of his nominations to key positions in his future cabinet and staff raise question marks. It is always tempting to try to predict the future from a subjective angle but considering the show he put on during his entire campaign, it would be easy to jump to wrong conclusions. I prefer to look at his character instead. To me, Donald Trump shows a number of characteristics that I believe will define his presidency more than the controversies of the campaign. As his victory in the election shows, Donald Trump is a fighter who does not give up and who is willing to fight dirty. He will be a tough opponent to deal with. Toughness is an asset but his weakness may lie in his black and white view of the world. For him, you win or you lose. Win-win may be a foreign concept to him and instead he might achieve more lose-lose outcomes. He also appears to be a pragmatic individual, he does not seem to have problems changing his mind if he finds out that some things are better than he initially thought, as he admitted about Obamacare for instance. However, pragmatic does not mean that he will change his agenda, though. Clearly, he is a proud American and he will always put the interests of the USA and of Americans and of American companies first. There is also a bit of an idealist in Donald Trump. His campaign slogan to “Make America Great Again” reflects that. I believe that he has nostalgia of the America in which he grew up and that 26 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
used to be the dominant force and culture in the world. Donald Trump is a smart man. He also appears to be a bit short-fused. The question is will he try to achieve his ideal by turning back at the risk of isolating his country and stagnating or will he create a new momentum and try to achieve a new leadership through excellence? Different approaches deliver different results Regardless of these character traits, he is a hard-nosed businessman. He has clearly indicated that he will create a tax-friendly business environment and he will simplify regulations, which is not quite the same as deregulating, though. He will lead pro-business policies. In food and agriculture, this will probably lead to two consequences. First, the so-called Big Ag will get a push in the back from his policies. Donald Trump made a number of comments that indicate he has a problem with what he calls environmental extremists. The second consequence will be to see how he manages a pro-business stance with his expressed statements of also caring for the American consumers. Food fights have been vivid in the US for a while, in particular because of a distrust of Big Ag by many consumers. At this stage, it is difficult to say how Donald Trump will manage both the interests of corporations with the desires of consumers. I expect food fights to go on with the same determination as they do today. I also expect that the role and the mandate of the Environmental Protection Agency will be revised and weakened. Altogether, for food and agriculture, I expect rather traditional conservative republican policies both in the US and abroad. America will try to get what it wants and will make it difficult for others to compete against them, as usual. The world is a big place and new developments happen everywhere. Depending on America’s stance, the rest of the world will adapt its strategies accordingly. Some projects will be killed, such as the Trans Pacific Partnership. Other agreements and partnerships will be sealed both with and without the US. As I like to say when I have the opportunity: the future will be as bright as our leaders and we have the leaders we deserve. Christophe Pelletier is a food and agriculture strategist and futurist from Canada. He works internationally. He has published two books on feeding the world’s growing population. His blog is called “The Food Futurist”.
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Wheat Growers Urge Congressional Leadership to Allow a Vote on TPP
ine months ago, following the signing of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG) and US Wheat Associates (USW) called on Congress to rapidly consider and ratify the agreement. After a long and disappointing wait for them, a real window of opportunity for a vote on TPP will soon open when the legislative session resumes next week. They call on Congress again, to urge its leadership to allow an implementing bill to be considered as soon as possible. Wheat is the most export-dependent grain commodity grown by US farmers. Since February, many national and state wheat grower association members visited congressional offices to stress their support for the agreement. Since February, however, those same growers have seen their average cash prices drop from an already unprofitable $4.90 per bushel to a devastating $3.50 per bushel. “Wheat growers depend on export
markets like those in South Asia and Latin America that are growing, but highly competitive,” says NAWG President Gordon Stoner, a wheat farmer from Outlook, Mont. “When implemented, TPP will help ease the pain of low prices by expanding demand for our wheat in those markets. Now more than ever, we cannot afford to lose even more momentum in these markets from Congress letting this opportunity to ratify TPP slip by.” Asia is a growing region and TPP has the potential to increase economic opportunity and wheat demand even in countries where we already have duty free access. That is critically important because competitors like Australia are moving ahead with bilateral agreements that eliminate tariffs on wheat imports with countries like Vietnam. US wheat exports face similar tariff disadvantages in several other countries that want to join TPP but cannot apply for membership until after Congress and governments of the other countries ratify the agreement.
“The high standards in the TPP agreement should help us be more competitive and hopefully lead to even more opportunity for our wheat as new countries join TPP in the future,” says USW Chairman Jason Scott, a wheat farmer from Easton, Md. He adds, “The Obama Administration has taken strong actions that show trade agreements, when enforced, work for agriculture. At such a critical time, America’s farmers and ranchers need this agreement as a platform for expanding global markets for years to come.” USW is the industry’s market development organisation working in more than 100 countries. Its mission is to “develop, maintain, and expand international markets to enhance the profitability of U.S. wheat producers and their customers.” NAWG is a federation of 22 state wheat grower associations that works to represent the needs and interests of wheat producers before Congress and federal agencies.
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Better management of animal welfare worldwide
rotecting an animal’s welfare means providing for its physical and mental needs. The farming of animals is no longer just seen as a means of food production but as an ethical concern. Consumers are increasingly concerned about the treatment of animals and the well-being of farmed animals is strongly associated with the quality, and even the safety, of food. As consumer awareness of animal welfare issues continues to rise, the demand for products complying with animal welfare standards is growing, giving producers who maintain these high standards a competitive advantage. Likewise, the food industry is taking more action to better implement animal welfare management. The new ISO technical specification ISO/TS 34700:2016, Animal welfare management – General requirements and guidance for organizations in the food supply chain, will help the food and feed industry to develop an animal welfare plan that is aligned with the principles of the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code (TAHC) and ensure the welfare of farm animals across the supply chain. ISO/TS 34700 represents the culmination of a joint effort between ISO and the OIE following the cooperation agreement signed in 2011 between the two organizations. The new technical specification is intended to support the implementation of relevant practices to ensure animal welfare in livestock production systems. It will be a way for business operators in the food supply chain to demonstrate their commitment to animal welfare management. “The first beneficiaries of ISO/TS 34700 will be the business operators of the animal production food chain, including animal farmers, livestock transport companies and slaughterhouses,” says Dr François Gary, Convenor of working group ISO/TC 34/WG 16 that developed the document. He adds, “By creating a common vocabulary and a common approach to animal welfare management, this ISO technical specification will improve the needed dialogue between suppliers and customers within the food supply chain, especially between primary production and processing operators.” ISO/TS 34700 will serve as a helpful tool for the private sector and competent authorities alike to clear up discrepancies in the regulatory framework, especially in developing countries facilitating public-private partnerships for animal welfare policy.
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COMPANY UPDATES Keeping the faith as the US Trumps Brexit by Chris Jackson, Export Manager UK TAG This month’s column follows some very unpredictable electoral results in the free world. First the UK decided to turn its back on Europe and voted to leave the EU Brexit, which British politicians did not expect after 50 years within, and as I recall ,a struggle to get Europe to allow us in. I’m sure we all remember President De Gaulle absolutely opposed to UK entry in to what was then the European Economic Community; a far cry from “political union” although that was written in the small print but never clearly explained to the British public. Way back then we had a referendum to take us in, now we have had another referendum the result of which was leave. Something our professional politicians are finding hard to perceive along with those who voted to remain however if you believe in democracy a majority, no matter how small, has to be accepted. Then we saw the American people voting in Donald Trump against all the odds. From my perspective, our professional media driven political elites have not yet woken up to the fact that maybe the people are tired of our politicians who see politics as a career to enhance their own incomes and egos, and not a calling to serve the population. But where does that leave my country now? Unelected bureaucrats, who have been making more and more rules for us to follow, whilst telling us that we must be austere as they increase their own salaries, will no longer govern us. This leaves people under the age of 50 with an inbuilt problem in that they have not known a world not thus ruled. I think that our new status in the world now needs to be addressed and the challenges accepted. Although it is not acceptable that the values of the British pound plummeted, driven by the international money gamblers. Now is the time for all politicians to talk about all of the positives that the UK has to offer. With a low pound inward investment and exports both very attractive as things stand. The UK needs to work actively on 32 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
these positives. Fortunately for us Brits, the country remains well respected throughout the world as a stable honest and reliable partner. The EU will be the poorer for us leaving, as their institutional governing bodies were unable to adapt to a changing world. How is this relevant to our industry? In a world of global trade, education and industrial development are key. Our departure from the EU means that we can better trade with the world, because in reality the UK is a major net importer from the EU so I doubt that their companies are in suicide mode they will want to stay exporting to the UK which by default means that we can continue to supply them. However, on a very positive note, we will be able to trade outside of the EU more easily where counties that rely heavily on their agricultural industries are very keen to embrace the UK, recognising the high quality of our scientific research and development. This in turn will benefit from encouraging entrepreneurs and scientists to base in the UK and further enhance the work currently being undertake. Life is full of exciting challenges and I feel sure that our industry will be able to accept this and in the long-term benefit from it. As it looks now with a new American President who seems to be looking at US protectionism again there will be another void that away from Europe the UK should look to fill. In these initial stages of departing after 50 years, there will be uncertainty but we need to have faith in the UK’s ability and go on to develop fresh new markets. Let our industry set an example as innovative thinkers and developers We have many opportunities and can help companies promote themselves in Kiev In February and Bangkok in March at trade fairs where we will also see the best that our competitors offer and the challenges that we have to meet. I do hope that we can meet our readers at these two events before we move on into the next financial year. Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to wish all of you a very Happy Christmas and a very healthy and profitable 2017. @AgrictecExports
Bloomberg have reported that Olam International Ltd, the Singapore commodity trader controlled by the city’s state investment company, reported a 30 percent drop in third-quarter profit after a one-time gain in the same period a year ago wasn’t replicated sales of food staples declined. Net income was S$31 million ($22 million) compared with S$44.3 million a year earlier, Olam said Friday in a statement. The year earlier result was boosted by one-time gain of S$12.1 million. Operational profit after tax and minority interest rose 6.2 percent to S$34.2 million. Sales in all of the company’s units increased in the quarter excluding the staple and packaged food unit, which dropped 31 percent on lower prices and volumes of grains, sugar and rice. The Uruguayan dairy unit also continued to underperform, with Olam flagging a likely one-time charge on the unit this quarter.
Archer Daniels Midland Company announced today that it has entered into an underwriting agreement to sell its 19.9 percent ownership stake in GrainCorp Limited for a total value of about A$387 million. “As part of our ongoing portfolio management, we carefully considered our equity investment position in GrainCorp and determined that we could better meet our long-term returns objectives by reallocating that capital,” said ADM Chairman and CEO Juan Luciano. “This transaction will allow us to further reduce our invested capital, and it will provide cash that we can redeploy to higher-return investments as we continue to execute our balanced capital-allocation framework. The transaction has been executed by way of an underwritten sale to an underwriter.
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Training New changes in animal feed regulation resulted in thew NGFA-KSU Food Safety Modernisation Act Feed Industry Training course hosted at the IGP Institute Conference
Food Safety Modernisation Act Feed Training Led by Kansas State University’s IGP Institute Centre. Cassie Jones, assistant professor at Kansas State University, along with a team of K-State faculty and alumni joined with the National Grain and Feed Association to offer the training to 55 industry professionals from 14-16 November 2016. The preventative controls for animal food training curriculum was developed by K-State in collaboration with faculty from North Carolina State University, with oversight from industry partners and FDA. Key topics covered in the course included: the applicability of the Preventative Controls for Animal Food rule, the requirements for Current Good Manufacturing Practices, and the items needed in a food safety plan, such as hazard analysis and preventive controls. “We are very pleased with the outcome of the course. The
participants reported the curriculum was helpful for them to understand the Preventive Controls for Animal Food rule of FSMA and applying its requirements to their facilities,” says Jones. This course was unique compared to other courses where the curriculum is only for certification as a Preventive Controls Qualified Individual, because it also included HACCP training. Participants gained two certificates of training – one from the Food Safety Preventative Controls Alliance and one from the International HACCP Alliance. This is just one example of the trainings offered through IGP Institute. In addition to feed manufacturing and grain quality management, IGP offers courses in the areas of grain marketing and risk management and grain processing and flour milling. To register, visit www.igpevents.grains.ksu.edu. More info at: www.grains.k- state.edu/igp.
The training register For a long time the International Milling Directory website has acted as the go-to platform for members of the aquaculture and milling industries in order to stay up-to-date on tradeshow and conference events around the globe, by using it online Events Register. International Milling is promoted on multiple social media streams including Twitter and Facebook, on all Perendale Publisher’s blogs such as ‘The Global Miller’ and ‘The Aquaculturalists’, as well as via its weekly newsletter. On top of this the International Milling application for smart devices has been launched to further extend the content’s reach, allowing members of the industry to stay up-to-date while on the go. This month we have launched our new Training Register. It will operate on the same platform as the Events Register, running side-by-side. Our vision is to produce an easily accessible hub which will list aquaculture- and milling-related training courses, workshops and educational opportunities from around the world, much the same as the Events Register does for conferences and expositions. “We recognise that the only reason the Events Register has reached its current scale is due to the relationships we have built with the industry and the willingness of organisers to supply and update their information for us to promote. It is this that has led to International Milling Directory becoming such a reliable reference for industry events,” says Mr Roger Gilbert, publisher of the International Milling Directory. “If you, your company or organisation is organising a milling or aquaculture course we would like to hear from you. No training course is too big or too small for any of our readers to attend.” This promotion service is currently offered free-of-charge. Please send information on your training or course event to firstname.lastname@example.org.
ONLINE | PRINT | MOBILE T: +44 1242 267703 / F: +44 1242 292017 / email@example.com
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 35
La Meccanica SNF Super Conditioner
PRODUCT FOCUS DECEMBER 2016 In every edition of Milling and Grain, we take a look at the products that will be saving you time and money in the milling process.
Conditioning is the result of the 3 variables; moisture, temperature and time. As moisture and temperature are related, time is the ultimate variable when optimizing nutritional quality of the feed as well as improving pellet quality. The Sanitizer, installed upstream of a press, can increase the production up to 15% and significantly improves the durability of the pellets PDI (Pellet Durability Index). The Sanatizer provides elimination of salmonella, gelatinization of starch and sanitation. Its features include up to 5 minutes of retention time, up to 90C constant temperature (with a tolerance of +/-1C) and large cleaning ports across the entire length that allow for good access to the process area.
Ottevanger GHM 1250 HE Hammer mill The development of our new High Efficiency line (HE) concentrated not only on higher performances and a more hygienic design but also lower energy consumption. This hammer mill features a new ergonomic rotor design (easy to replace hammers), an energy-efficient motor and a screen damage control system. It is designed for dual direction of rotation, has adjustable breaker plates and is built on a heavy base frame with shock absorbers. It also offers an electro pneumatic operated product guide valve, with 6 or 8 rows of hammers.
AS SEEN AT EUROTIER 2016
PLP Liquid Systems Mass spin coater The treatment and coating system, patented as MASS SPIN COATER, is the new and revolutionary system for coating and adding additives onto solid products. Through an integrated torsion transducer and a processor of Coriolis force data, the MSC is capable of identifying the mass delivery rate of solid products (pellets, flours, croquettes…). This permits a proportional control for adding doses of additives for the process. Such as oils, enzymes and antibiotics.
www.plp-liquidsystems.net 36 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
TIETJEN Bespoke Grinder The Bespoke Grinder has the drive power of 11kW to 450kW and boasts a semi-automatic or fully automatic screen change that provides change of grist structure within seconds by running rotor. It has a grinder performance as postgrinder from 3 to 80 t/h and material dosing including continuous foreign body separation. It has optimally designed aspiration and filtration as well as an individually tailored mechanical or pneumatic discharge system. Upon request it offers chamber and rotor manufactured from stainless steel. Tested and certified as pressure shock – and flame resistant – version, due to ATEX category II3D (EC guide line), up to 1,4 bar pressure absoute
Dinnissen Pegasus Mixer
The Pegasus Mixer supplied by Dinnessen Process Technology is an accurate and highly efficient mixer developed to ensure that even the most challenging mixing process can be carried out quickly and effectively. To accomplish this, Pegasus Mixers use an ingenious double shaft mixing mechanism that rotates in opposite directions. This creates a unique fluidized zone, which lies at the core of the entire mixing process. The mixer also works with a sophisticated feeding system which adds ingredients evenly to the mixer in precisely right quantity and at exactly the right time, guaranteeing the desired end result. Each Pegasus Mixer is developed and manufactured in-house in accordance with the individual wishes of the client. In short, the Pegasus Mixer enables you to realize the desired capacity and quality in terms of the mixing result regardless of the operating conditions. As a result of the large number and extraordinary diversity of the
mixing solutions developed by Dinnessen in the past, the Pegasus Mixers have been designed to achieve a homogeneous end result extremely quickly and efficiently. We can mix essential microingredients (0.01% to 2% of batch weight) as well as extra high percentages (30% to 220% of batch weight) with a coefficient of variation of 3% to 5%. Dinnessen also supply precise feeding equipment for adding the right quantities of ingredients, and integrate them into an operational system that is guaranteed to work. Pegasus mixers are built for mixing rates varying from 50kg to 120 tons per hour, which you can endlessly vary the composition, capacity and process technologies used. Dinnessenâ€™s special Energy Control Program makes it possible to realize energy savings of up to 60%, and the new techniques we have developed for continuous and batch mixing make it possible to achieve an increase in capacity of 20% to 30%.
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 37
DESIGNING YEAST DERIVATIVE 2.0 Thanks to innovative yeast screening strategy, a new generation of formulated yeast derivatives could be developed that shows promising results in helping livestock animals face stresses, such as pathogen pressure, weaning or feed transition in a context of lower antibiotic usage.
by Bruno Bertaud, Yeast Derivatives Product Manager Lallemand Animal Nutrition and Sylvie Roquefeuil, Communications and PR Manager, Lallemand Animal Nutrition
sample (yeast fraction in our case) and draw the topography of east derivatives (inactivated whole the binding forces (Figure 1, middle images). yeasts or yeast cell walls) are well In the case of yeast, the force studied was the binding force known for their benefits in animal between yeast surface polysaccharides and Type 1 fimbriae. and human nutrition. They are Type 1 fimbriae are adhesion organelles (pili) expressed by particularly used to help balance many gram-negative bacteria (e.g. Coliform, Salmonella, the intestinal microflora and help Campylobacter) and are responsible for the adhesion of these stimulate the host natural defenses. bacteria to the intestinal epithelial cells. Most yeast derivatives on the market today are by-products of the fermentation industry, such as biofuel production. They are Not all yeasts are equal usually characterized according to their biochemical composition: For the first time, we were able to “visualize” very precisely the level of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS), yeast β-glucans or yeast surface topography in terms of pathogen binding potential. protein contents. If such an approach is interesting to evaluate product purity, it does not totally reflect their functionality. As experts in yeast fermentation, Figure 1: Different Lallemand teams have conducted a yeast strains collaborative research and development exhibit different adhesive capacity. program in partnership with renowned Three steps of research institutes aiming toward a AFM analysis. Left: Microscopic better understanding of yeast fractions. topography of the In particular, the relationship between yeast cell. Middle: composition and function, with a view to representation of adhesion forces design a new generation of specific yeast along the yeast cell fractions with optimal characteristics in (Unit=pNewton). Right: analysis of terms of pathogen binding and modulation binding capacity. of the immune system. Strain 2 shows higher
Looking at yeast fractions at the molecular-level
Cutting-edge techniques such as atomicforce microscopy (AFM) and singlemolecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) were used to study yeast fractions under a totally new light. These techniques represent powerful tools to investigate the forces and motions associated with single molecules. The principle is to use a force sensor (a micrometer-sized bead or a cantilever) to measure the force or tension associated with a biopolymer immobilized on a surface (in our case, the yeast outer cell wall polysaccharides). Hence, the sensor is able to “read” through the surface of the 38 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
F polysaccharide chains: a characteristic linked to the binding capacity (the longer the polysaccharide chain, the better the binding potential). These findings also unveiled differences between yeast strains (see Figure 1 as example). Yeast cell wall properties are linked to the strain, each strain exhibiting specific structure and functionality in terms of binding properties. It was also shown that, for a given strain, binding properties could differ according to the production and inactivation process involved. Hence, for every selected strain, it is Figure 2: Example of yeast fractions pathogen binding properties (agglutination essential to determine the optimal production proportion measured 1 hour after incubation in vitro). The yeast fractions 1, 2 and 3 showing different levels of agglutination, were selected and formulated together. conditions: fermentation, but also the treatment of the live yeast to obtain the yeast fractions (inactivation technique). This cannot be controlled when yeast cell walls are the byproduct of fermentation processes, since in It was shown that binding molecules were arranged differently this case the industrial processes are designed according to depending on the yeast sample. For certain yeast strains, they are the primary production. When producing custom yeast cells, arranged as “sticky patches”, while in others, they are scattered however, the production process for each strain can be adapted to along the surface. In terms of functionality, the sticky patches reach the desired characteristics of the yeast derivative. show higher adhesive properties. This finding clearly shows that, while biochemical parameters are important, they are not sufficient to account for the Specific formulation functionality of a given yeast fraction. The distribution of these Based on this knowledge, the single-molecule techniques molecules along the cell wall is also very important. These were applied to screen different yeast strains and select the best studies demonstrate that all yeast strains do not share the same candidates for optimal pathogen binding potential. Different biophysical structure, or topography. Indeed, ”Sticky patches “ strains from two different yeast species (Saccharomyces on a yeast cell wall surface can be compared to scratch tissue cerevisiae and Cyberlindnera jadinii) were selected for their sticking to pathogens. complementary properties (Figure 2). For each strain, optimal Using SMFS it was possible to measure the length of the production process was then developed.
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Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 39
F Once an optimal formulation had been designed based on in vitro studies, the model was further validated in vivo. For example, a study conducted in piglets confirmed a significant reduction of E. coli contamination in feces after a pathogen challenge (Schothorst Research Center, 2015). Further mechanistic studies also indicated that the different yeast fractions exert a synergistic activity on the immune system. A patent has been filed concerning this immune effect.
Benefits in young livestock
The formula was then tested in animal production in commercial farms and research centers stings. Trials performed in different species have shown that the formula (YANG, for Yeast Association New Generation) is effective in helping animals face stresses, such as pathogen pressure, weaning or feed transition in a context of lower antibiotic usage.
Trials in post-weaning piglets have shown benefits, particularly in the context of antimicrobial withdrawal in feed: improved feces aspect, absence of diarrhea despite challenging conditions (antibiotic and high dose zinc oxide withdrawal). Those benefits were reflected by a reduced feed conversion ratio in the starter phase in absence of zinc oxide (1.66 for the Control vs. 1.59 with YANG), and up to a 4.7% increase in Average Daily Gain during the whole transition period (commercial trial, Hungary, 2015).
Figure 3: Effect of the yeast derivative formula on the growth of Holstein male calves (Spain, 2014).
In young ruminants, commercial trials in calves, goats and lambs have also proven benefits on immunity and performance at the time of digestive challenge, such as weaning. For example, kid goats, which are very sensitive to digestive problems and the challenge of diseases at weaning, have shown higher body weight gain, especially in challenging conditions (diarrhea): average daily gain was improved by 9% in midchallenging conditions and up to 11.9% in high challenging conditions (high diarrhea incidence) (commercial farm, France, 2015). In calves, similar trends were shown: a Spanish trial performed in a commercial farm (2014) showed that the yeast derivative supplementation helped improve average daily gain by about 50 g/day during the pre-weaning adaptation phase and around weaning (Figure 3). This is mainly explained by lower morbidity levels shown during this stressful period. The percentage of animals treated at least once with antibiotics is reduced by 39%, and animals treated for diarrhea reduced by 70%. In addition to better growth performance, investigators measured a decrease of a biomarker of inflammation (haptaglobin). Users repeatedly notice improved pen homogeneity in those young animals.
In recent years, the shrimp industry has paid a heavy toll to early mortality syndrome/acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (EMS/AHPND). Its causative agent was identified in 2013 as a specific pathogenic strain of the bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A trial was conducted in Vietnam in 2015 on juvenile white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) subjected to a pathogen challenge. Survival rate of the shrimps fed the yeast derivatives was 3.9fold higher than in the control group (Figure 4). Such a result is very promising to limit use of antibiotics and lower the impact on the environment. In fish, significant immune and performance benefits were also highlighted at the field level. In seabass for example (Plymouth University, UK, 2014), in conditions of digestive stress (incorporation of high level plant-based raw materials in the diet â€“ 40% soybean meal), zootechnical performance of individuals fed the diet supplemented with the yeast derivatives product are significantly improved, such as weight gain (21.64 g/fish vs. 18.45 in control), daily growth rate (1.39% vs. 1.25% in control group), and feed conversion ratio (1.45 vs. 1.66 in control. This can be linked to a noticeable positive effect on gut morphology: the density of microvilli of the intestinal wall is increased, and a significant difference has also been observed in the length of microvilli and gut perimeter. Hence nutrient absorption is optimized, which could be linked to improved feed utilization. Moreover, in this trial, a strong correlation between the use of the yeast derivatives formulation in feed and the expression of genes involved in the immune response was shown.
Figure 4: Effect of yeast derivative formula in juvenile shrimp feed on survival rate following a Vibrio challenge (Vietnam, 2015).
40 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
In conclusion, the use of an original, single-molecule microscopic-based approach to yeast strain selection and yeast derivatives development has led to new generation of yeast derivatives, with promising applications at a time when increased pressure is put on the feed industry to reduce the use of antibiotics in feeds.
July 2015 | 63
FULL SURFACE IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR ALL KINDS OF GRAIN by Cgrain AB
wedish company, Cgrain AB, has developed a new instrument for visual quality assessment of grain. Grain testing is done at several points during handling. It is done at reception for sorting, for payment to the supplier, for the control of processes, after cleaning, and for research and development. Most quality parameters, such as protein, moisture content and specific weight, can now be tested with the help of instruments, the use of which has been an important development in facilitating testing. Today, in only a few minutes, results may be obtained for many key quality parameters. The ability to obtain results quickly permits grain to be segregated or sorted correctly and according to its quality.
New instrument for visual quality assessment
However, there is one grain test that is still done without the help of instruments, that is, the analysis of visual quality parameters. This analysis includes for instance, foreign grains, broken kernels, fungus-infested grains and other material. Cgrain AB, a Swedish company, has developed an instrument for the assessment of visual grain quality by analysing each kernel in a sample using advanced image analysis. The instrument, Cgrain Value, has a unique design that documents virtually the entire surface of every kernel. This instrument sets a new standard for the assessment of visual grain quality. The development of Cgrain Value was started in 2009 with a collaboration between Cgrain ABâ€™s CEO, Jaan Luup, and LantmĂ¤nnen, Swedenâ€™s largest agricultural cooperative. The objective was to produce an instrument to be used for evaluating visual parameters at the point where grain is received. Jaan Luup has worked for 30 years with sorting instruments to 42 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
analyse foreign grains in seed samples. These instruments are used in several seed laboratories in northern Europe. Since the development started, Cgrain AB has worked continuously in collaboration with end users to develop a tool that can be adapted to customer needs. Cgrain Value is used today at grain reception at mills in the Nordic countries as well as in seed breeding. Cgrain Value currently has programs for analysing wheat, barley, rye, triticale, oats and naked/dehulled oats. Examples of defects that are detected include foreign grains, weeds, broken kernels, green kernels, pink Fusarium in barley, and other material. In addition, the instrument can also be used for size measurements such as screening analysis and thousand-kernel weight.
Time-consuming and subjective manual analysis
Manual analysis of visual quality is time consuming, subjective and dependent on trained personnel. The work is strenuous on the shoulders, back and wrists and grain dust can be irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Using an instrument improves the work environment on all counts. Manual analysis is also labour intensive; the time for each analysis varies depending on sample quality and the importance of accuracy. A commonly assumed time for each analysis of visual quality is about 5-10 minutes for a sample of 50 grams. A sample with a high level of defects or where accuracy is crucial takes longer to analyse, since every kernel must be rotated to spot any defects. However, when using the Cgrain Value instrument, 10-15 kernels are analysed from all sides every second. Manual assessment of visual quality is highly subjective. For example, different people perceive colour variation differently. This means manual analyses will vary significantly among individuals, and even between two analyses by the same person. Cgrain Value has repeatability far superior to manual analysis and gives results that are both more consistent and more reliable.
Development of image-analysis for cereals
Research and development on the use of image analysis for grain quality has been done for many years without discovering a method or an instrument to accurately detect defects in grain. This has been a consequence of a number of factors. First, many techniques are based on models in which the kernels are examined from only one side. As many defects are visible only on part of the kernel, these methods can miss defects on the unexamined side of the kernel. It is therefore important to analyse the entire surface of the kernel in order accurately to assess visual parameters and obtain good repeatability. Many different visible defects can occur in grain. A fully automated instrument requires a quantity of material for
calibration. Atypical things can appear for which the image analysis software is not calibrated, which will give faulty results. Cgrain Value is calibrated with a large amount of samples and it uses a simple method to view and classify a small amount of unknown kernels into the appropriate categories. This is done in Cgrain Value in a very user-friendly way by enlarging the image of the kernels, which also makes it a rapid procedure.
Operational safety is important in the development of instruments for grain samples. The instrument should withstand dusty environments and continuous operation. Cgrain Value has been developed for this and has only one moving part. Sample
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22.11.2016 09:53:34 Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 43
F The system enables you to get enlarged images of individual captures
Figure 1. Broken wheat detected using Cgrain Value
monitoring is started easily with the built-in touch screen. The kernels are fed at a speed of 10-15 kernels per second through a patented design of optics, mirrors and camera. Every kernel generates a colour image from three views; from the front and both sides, which means that virtually the entire surface is inspected. The images are analysed in real time using advanced image analysis for more than 20 different properties such as colour, texture, shape, etc. Classification of the kernels is made and defects can be detected on almost the entire surface. The results table will show the complete analysis of the sample and selected defects can also be viewed on a separate monitor with enlarged images. Results can be presented as number of kernels per class as well as volume percentage and weight percentage.
Image analysis yields more results
More data can be obtained when using single kernel image analysis than is possible with current methods. Several characteristics such as colour, length, thickness, width and volume are recorded for each kernel and distribution for the whole sample is recorded, since every kernel is measured separately. Cgrain's unique mirror design allows for several size measurements of each kernel and so it can be used to measure the size distribution within a sample. This means that not only are the visible qualities analysed, but also that screenings and sieving analyses can be replaced by using Cgrain Value. The instruments can be networked allowing simple calibrations among instruments, software updates and simplified support. Pictures and results can be exported or printed to communicate to stakeholders.
Correct quality assessment saves money
Cgrain Value has programs to assess wheat, barley, rye, triticale, oats and naked/dehulled oats, which means that the instrument has a wide range of applications in cereal reception, mills, production of gluten-free oats, the malt industry, grain laboratories and in plant breeding. A rapid and accurate quality assessment of grain is crucial to its correct handling when it is received at a mill or grain silo. Because a full visual manual analysis of grain quality is time consuming and depends on qualified personnel, often a simplified visual evaluation is done instead. This can lead to significant 44 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Figure 2. Example of distribution of thickness and width in an oat sample
misjudgments about cereal quality and costly errors can occur if bad quality grain is not correctly identified. In an oat mill, Cgrain Value can be used at reception to determine the presence of foreign grains and naked/dehulled oats and for sieving analysis. All these results will be available after a single analysis. The quantity of naked oats is an indication of how the oats will behave during dehulling; the oat mill can use this value together with size measurements like sieving to sort the grain and thereby ensure more cost-effective processing. In production of glutenfree oats, Cgrain Value can be used to a very high standard of accuracy to find foreign grains, thus guaranteeing product safety. Grains like barley, that can be difficult to detect manually in oats because they are so similar, are detected far more accurately by Cgrain Value than by manual inspection. It is also possible to analyse oats after dehulling as part of the overall quality control process in order to minimize the risk of customer complaints. In assessing the quality of malting barley, Cgrain Value can be used for screening analysis as well as to find pink Fusarium. In plant breeding, it is essential to assess quality early in the process; the ability to obtain data about each kernel is then extremely important. As Cgrain Value is a non-destructive method of assessment, it is particularly appropriate for these tests. At JTIC 2016 the instrument was, for the first time, on display for the European market. www.cgrain.se
CONTROL OF ERGOT ALKALOIDS IN INDUSTRIAL MILLING THE ROLE OF ADVANCED GRAIN CLEANING Matthias Graeber1, Bärbel Kniel2, Max Moser2, and Peter Striegl3 1 Bühler Sortex, London, UK 2 Biotask AG, Esslingen, Germany 3 Bühler AG, Uzwil, Switzerland Managing the risk of ergot and its toxic ergot alkaloids is an ongoing challenge for the grain processing industry. This article provides an overview on the current situation, including recent amendments of the European Regulation on maximum levels for certain contaminants in food and the resulting requirements for grain cleaning measures. It also presents in detail test results performed in two German rye mills, to show how the level of ergot alkaloids can be influenced by grain cleaning and milling processes. Immediate conclusions can be drawn from this data, on the effectiveness of individual cleaning steps undertaken in the mills to reduce the level of ergot alkaloids in rye flour.
Ergot and its toxic ergot alkaloids (EAs) have been a continuous issue within the grain processing chain, for the last three years, in particular for rye. Fortunately, the mass poisonings of earlier centuries are a thing of the past, thanks to a number of measures, including better quality assurance and optimised cleaning processes in mills. After a lengthy period, with virtually no discussion on this topic, the situation abruptly changed with the extensive health evaluation of EAs by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2012. The consequences for the entire grain processing chain were considerable,1 because two values were established: a TDI (tolerable daily intake) of 0.6 µg/kg body weight (b.w.) and an ARfD (acute reference dose; the amount of a substance that can be consumed with a meal or within a day, without identifiable risk) of 1 µg/kg b.w. Based on the EFSA’s scientific opinion, the German Federal Institute of Risk Assessment (BfR) concluded that the short-term intake of medium to large amounts of rye bread, with an increased EA concentration can, in particular, have a detrimental effect on the health of children age 2 to <52. According to the BfR, children of this age group have the highest exposure, because of the ratio of low body weight and consumption levels. For children age 2 to <5 which are said to be high consumers of rye bread and rye rolls, a daily intake of up to 250 g was assumed. Another consequence of this is that some authorities in Germany classify baked goods, with an EA level greater than 64 µg/kg, as unsafe3. They base their decision on the EFSA opinion and the BfR statement, according to which, children of the above mentioned age group have already reached the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 64 µg/kg, with a daily consumption of 250 g of bread. After this assessment practice became public, some retailers defined their own “limiting values” of less than 64 µg/kg of baked goods for their suppliers. The result is that more and more mills are being requested to deliver flours with EA levels of less than 100 to 150 µg/kg flour, which is derived purely mathematically from the usual dough recipes. Unfortunately, there is currently no consistent evidence available on the factors relevant for the processing of EA-containing milled grain products into food such as bread. According to earlier studies, EAs were assumed to be significantly degraded, in particular in the baking process; but large differences between the degradation rates were reported1. Current studies, however, indicate that no degradation takes place during the baking process4,5.
46 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
F The derived EA levels of 100 to 150 µg/kg in grain products are clearly below the former specifications. For many years, a “good trade custom” has been in place in the German-speaking regions that grain may contain up to 0.05% of ergot sclerotia, at most. This limit has also been specified in the purchasing contracts of the mills and has been accepted by the market partners. Until recently, an average EA concentration of 0.2% was assumed to be present in European ergot sclerotia which corresponds to a maximum level of approximately 1,000 µg ergot alkaloids/kg of grain or flour, at a maximum level of ergot sclerotia of 0.05%. For quite some time, food monitoring authorities used this level as the so-called “orientation value”, in their marketability assessments3. EFSA surveys, however, show that the EA concentration in ergot sclerotia, on average, is just 0.08%, so that a maximum level of 0.05% of ergot sclerotia results in merely 400 µg EA/kg, approximately1,6. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) goes even further; it considers an EA level of approximately 250 µg/kg in rye flour as justifiable6. However, even these reduced values are not compatible with the abovementioned levels, which rely on toxicological observations. Therefore, there is a need for action to clarify the discrepancies described. In October 2015, the EU Commission, with Regulation (EU) No 2015/19407, created a legal framework for regulating the amount of ergot sclerotia and their EAs in grain and food made from grain, as part of the Commission Regulation on maximum levels for certain contaminants in food8. As a first step, a maximum level of 0.5 g of ergot sclerotia per kilogram (corresponding to 0.05%) was established for unprocessed cereals, except corn and rice. This complies with the custom used in the German trade, to date. Furthermore, the Regulation stipulates that appropriate and achievable maximum levels, providing a high level of human health protection, shall be considered for grain, milled grain products, baked goods and other grain-based food before 1 July 2017. For that purpose, further data shall be collected on the presence of EAs in grain and food made from grain. This new Regulation is the result of two years of discussion at EU level. Right from the beginning, the German Federal Government opposed the establishment of a maximum level for ergot sclerotia and proposed a limiting value for EAs6. The concerns expressed by Germany have been considered in the phrasing of Recital 37, which acknowledges that compliance with the maximum level for ergot sclerotia does not necessarily guarantee the safety of food, in regards to the presence of ergot alkaloids. Therefore, the competent authorities can take appropriate measures to impose restrictions on a food being placed on the market or can demand its withdrawal from the market, when there are reasons to suspect that the food is unsafe, according to Article 14 (8) of Regulation (EC) No 178/20029, because of its level of EAs, and even though the specifications for ergot sclerotia are complied with. This makes it clear that the concentration of EAs is decisive for assessing the marketability of cereal products. Therefore it is reasonable that the food authorities should proceed with their assessments, as described above, until maximum levels for EAs have been established. In this context, it should be noted that controls at several stages found, at most, a rather modest relationship between the mass content of ergot sclerotia, as found in the quality control of the raw materials in practice, and the resulting EA levels in grain products4. The reasons for this are not just the presumed influence of EA-containing dust but predominantly the extremely inhomogeneous distribution of ergot sclerotia in the lots of grain and the tendency to segregate (float) during transport and Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 47
F conveying processes. Regulation (EC) No 401/200610 specifies a sampling method that shall ensure that a representative sample is taken during official controls. However, this sampling method cannot be applied in practice in the mills, due to its complexity. This means that there are only limited possibilities for the millers to determine the actual or representative amount of ergot sclerotia impurities and to ensure legal compliance of the grain. Finally, there is only one way to reduce the presence of ergot sclerotia to a minimum and that is to apply effective cleaning processes. Based on this complex background, there is a need to make every effort to keep EA levels in grain and grain products to a minimum. Extensive measures have already been implemented. It was Spring 2014 when the German Federal Ministry for Nutrition, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, as the responsible authority, published its “Recommendations for action for minimising ergot and ergot alkaloids in grain”11. The recommendations request stringent application of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in Agriculture and Technology, along the entire value chain, aimed at minimising EA levels in grain products. Since the Cereal Marketing year of 2013/2014, the mills have had rye, wheat and the resulting milled products analysed for EAs, within the frame of the European Cereal Monitoring project. Data which are currently available from more than 1,000 samples, shows clearly declining EA levels over the past few years; this positive development has been supported by the fact that the last two crops have shown less ergot contamination12. This article introduces the results of a comprehensive study on the reduction of EA levels in the milling process. The tests were performed in two German industrial rye mills, in the period from May 2015 to June 2015 and focused on the following questions: • What cleaning steps are required to effectively reduce EAs in rye flour? • How large is the variability of ergot sclerotia in relation to their size and EA concentration? • Can the transfer of EAs through dust, generated by the handling of grains be measured?
2: MATERIAL AND METHODS 2.1
To ensure practical relevance and a meaningful statistical evaluation, a total of 10 lots of rye, of 12.5 tons each, from the 2014 harvest, were sampled and processed in two mills, following different cleaning schedules. The mills are referred to as “Mill A” (lots 1-5, throughput 4t/h) and “Mill B” (lots 6-10, throughput 1t/h). The EA levels were determined in the raw material (which is the respective lot of rye) and at five positions, during and after cleaning, prior to first-stage processing ,as defined in Regulation (EU) 2015/19407 (position 6 in both mills), as well as in bran and flour. Table 1 provides an overview on the samples received, according to the respective cleaning diagrams of the two mills. The large number of samples made it possible to obtain a systematic overview on the reduction of EA levels in the milling process, in particular during cleaning, prior to firststage processing, and in the final products. A statistical plan for dynamic and manual sampling was drafted, according to the sampling process laid down in Regulation (EC) No 401/200610, to obtain representative samples of the raw materials, the intermediate and final products. To reduce the statistical errors of sampling even further, 48 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Table 1: Overview of the sampling points. Samples taken from positions 1-6 were unmilled whole grains; samples from position 7 and 8 were milled products. 1
After Combi Cleaner
After rotary screen cleaner
After round grain separator
After round and long grain separator
After conditioning and tempering
After SORTEX optical sorter
After optical sorter SORTEX
After crushing roller mill***
*Lots 1-5. **Lots 6-10. *** Samples taken from these positions were exclusively from lots 8-10.
the sampling amount was doubled (200 g instead of 100 g of incremental sample). The number of incremental samples that were combined in an aggregate sample resulted from the total mass of the product, at the respective sampling position; 60 incremental samples were taken, except for bran (20 incremental samples), so that the aggregate samples weighed 12 kilograms each. For all lots, two aggregate samples of the raw material were taken independently, with the second sample being used for counting and determination of mass percentage of the ergot sclerotia. In total, approximately 4,300 incremental samples were taken, within the scope of this study and more than 80 EA analyses performed on the aggregate samples. 2.2
Whole grain and bran aggregate samples were ground in a hammer mill and then homogenised in a drum homogeniser for 40 minutes. Already ground samples were thoroughly mixed. The hammer mill and mixer were carefully cleaned after every trial to exclude a possible carry-over of EAs. The samples were also processed, based on their expected EA concentration, in ascending order. From the aggregate samples, a small sample of 250 g each was taken and subjected to EA analysis.
Method for the determination of the EA concentration
The ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergosine, ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocryptine, ergocristine and their 8S isomers (socalled inines) in the grain kernels and the milled products were analysed by means of solid phase extraction and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD), following the Official Analysis Methods, according to § 64 German Food and Feed Code (LFGB) L 15.01/02-513. The total EA concentration of the samples tested was calculated from the sum of these 12 legally regulated ergot alkaloids7. The EAs were extracted from 20 g of the homogenised sample, with an ammoniacal ethyl acetate/methanol mixture. The centrifuged extract was then purified on an alkaline aluminium oxide solid phase column. The eluate was gently evaporated under nitrogen; the residue was re-suspended with an acetonitrile/ ammonium carbamate mixture and subjected to a membrane filtration process. The EAs were separated through elution, by means of reversed phase HPLC. The selectivity of the methods allows identification of the substances, based on their retention time. An external standard is used for quantitative determination; the level
F Table 2: Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) according to DIN 32645 LOD (µg/kg)
Ergocristine and ergocristinine
Ergotamine and ergotaminine
Ergocryptine and ergocryptinine
Ergometrine and ergometrinine
Ergosine and ergosinine
Ergocornine and ergocorninine
determined was stated in µg/kg. The conditions described ensure linearity of the fluorescence detector, within the measuring range of 0-10,000 µg/kg total alkaloids. This method allows a quantitative determination of the respective EAs from grain and milled grain products, with a recovery rate of >80 percent. Table 2 shows the limits of quantitation (LOQ) and limits of detection (LOD). Moreover, the validity of the method was successfully confirmed through proficiency tests. 2.4
Estimation of the error of determination of EAs
To be able to assess the reduction of EAs throughout the processing chain, it is imperative to estimate the error that can occur in the EA determination. Otherwise, there is the risk of over- or misinterpreting statistically distributed results. The total error of determination of EAs comprises the error of sampling, the error of sample preparation and the error of analytical determination14. The error of sampling was
Figure 1: Error of EA determination with dependence on the analytically determined EA concentration
estimated, based on the statistical sampling error and the mean EA concentration in the ergot sclerotia; the error of sample preparation and the error of chemical analysis were estimated, based on the triple determination of a nominally identical sample. In general, the error is dependent on the EA concentration in the lot tested and on the processing status of the sample (whole grain or ground product). The following estimates refer to the determination of EAs in whole grain kernels; it can be assumed that the error for the milled product is lower. For low concentrations of <130 µg/kg, the error of sampling is dominant. For an EA level of 100 µg/kg for example, the estimated error of sampling for the protocol used here (see section 2.1) and the sclerotia tested is 14 µg/kg, with an estimated total error of determination of 19 µg/kg15. For an EA level of 600 µg/kg (the highest EA concentration measured was 610 µg/kg), the error of sampling is 34 µg/kg, with a total error of analysis of 84 µg/kg. It should be recalled here that the error of sampling is so small,
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 49
F only because a statistical sampling plan was used, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 401/200610. Such a plan cannot be applied in practice in the mills, because of the elaborate effort of the sampling method. For most samples analysed in practice, a clearly larger error of sampling must be assumed, because it scales with 1/√N , with N = the number of samples taken. Figure 1 shows the composition of the estimated mean error, in dependence on the analytically determined EA concentration in the sample.
3: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1
Percentage of sclerotia and concentration of EAs in the raw material
Table 3 provides an overview of the counted percentage of ergot sclerotia present in the ten lots of rye in the test, before cleaning and milling. It also shows the EA concentration of the samples as analysed and the calculated mean EA concentration in the ergot sclerotia. Due to biological factors and environmental influences, the EA levels are subject to high variability. For example, lot 7 has the highest percentage of ergot sclerotia of all lots in the study, with 0.056 percent by weight, at a moderate EA concentration of 141 µg/kg. The highest concentration of EAs of 610 µg/kg was found in lot 9, with a significantly lower percentage of ergot sclerotia of 0.038 percent. For the ergot sclerotia examined, high variability was determined. The average value for the EA concentration of all ten lots was (0.06 ±0.05) percent, which corresponds well with the EFSA reference value of 0.08 percent. The confidence range stated corresponds to the standard deviation of the EA concentration determined. It was also found that lots 1-5 from Mill A showed significantly lower EA concentrations compared to lots 6-10 sampled in Mill B. As can be seen from Figure 2, the percentage of ergot sclerotia, determined by impurity analysis of a lot, is only slightly helpful in estimating the EA concentration of the lot and the resulting (food) safety. Putting this in numbers, based on the data presented here, means that the new EU limiting value of 0.05 percent of ergot sclerotia after cleaning would correspond to an EA concentration of 300 µg/kg. For lot 9, however, which had a higher content of EAs in the ergot sclerotia, this would correspond to 800 µg/kg. Therefore, estimating the EA concentration via the percentage of ergot sclerotia only makes sense if the mean EA concentration in the ergot sclerotia is known accurately. Moreover, based on the test results, it can be assumed that the absolute amount of EAs in ergot sclerotia increases with the size of the sclerotia. This means that largesized ergot sclerotia will contribute significantly more to the total EA concentration of a lot. 3.2
Description of cleaning steps
The removal of ergot sclerotia, during cleaning in the mills, leads to a reduction of the grain’s EA levels. The most important question investigated within the scope of this study was - how much of the EAs can be removed from the raw material at the individual cleaning stages in the mill and what percentages will finally be detectable in the resulting flour and bran. The type and the sequence of the cleaning processes applied, as well as the time of rye conditioning prior to milling, were slightly different in Mill A and Mill B. First of all, in both mills the rye kernels are separated by size. In this process, very large ergot sclerotia are removed from the product stream in the coarse sieve and smaller ergot sclerotia and broken pieces, as they fall through 50 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Table 3: Overview of the ten lots of rye used in the test. Lot
Percentage of ergot sclerotia (wt%)*
EA concentration (µg/kg)
Mean concentration of EAs in ergot sclerotia (wt%)**
*Refers to the mass of the rye sample. **Refers to the mass of the ergot sclerotia
Figure 2: Concentration of EAs and percentage of ergot sclerotia in the ten test lots. There is only a very moderate correlation of EA concentration and percentage of ergot sclerotia with a correlation coefficient of R2=0.23
the sand sieve. Added to that, lightweight particles are removed by an aspirator. Mill A uses a Combi Cleaner, with an additional, integrated, separation-by-density unit. The next cleaning stage involves a mechanical, indented-cylinder separator that removes round-shaped impurities; Mill B uses a different indentedcylinder separator, which can also remove elongated impurities. It is expected that a certain amount of elongated ergot sclerotia is removed here. Next, in Mill A, the rye is conditioned with a tempering time of five hours, followed by an optical sorting step, while in Mill B the grains are first optically-sorted. The SORTEX optical sorter, which is used in both mills, uses high-performance camera systems to recognise particles with deviating colours, which are then ejected from the product stream, by precise, compressed air pulses. Due to the distinct colour difference between ergot sclerotia and healthy rye kernels, this technology is highly effective in the selective removal of ergot sclerotia, in particular for smaller sclerotia that are the same or similar size as the rye kernels. The next step in both mills is a scourer to clean the surfaces of the rye kernels. The dust that is generated in this process is removed by a circulating air aspirator. It can be assumed that EA impurities that adhere to the surface of the grains are removed in this process. Since the percentage of ergot sclerotia has already been reduced in the upstream optical sorter, the dust that is generated during the surface treatment is less contaminated with EA, as there are fewer ergot sclerotia left in the grain. Finally, in Mill A, the product is fed to the first milling stage, while in Mill B the effect of a crusher with a crease dirt cylinder
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1/7/16 2:11 PM
F Figure 3: Reduction of EA levels during cleaning in Mill A, here shown for lot 3. The error bars indicate the confidence range ± double mean error (p=0.05 in case of a normal distribution). The raw materials were subjected to a triple determination in order to obtain a quantitative value for the repetition preciseness of EA determination.
Figure 4: Reduction of EA levels during cleaning in Mill B, here shown for lot 9. The error bars indicate the confidence range ± double mean error (p=0.05 in case of a normal distribution).
was additionally investigated for lots 8-10. As described in the “Recommendations for action for minimising ergot and ergot alkaloids in grain”11, EA dust can be present in the crease of a rye kernel; the dust is detached in the crushing process and separated from the rye in a crease dirt cylinder. After that treatment in Mill B, the product is fed to the first milling stage. 3.3
Measured reduction of EA concentration in Mill A"
Figure 3 shows a typical diagram for EA concentration, after the different treatments in Mill A. Lot 3 was chosen from all five lots examined in Mill A, because this lot had the highest EA concentration, with 114 µg/kg, which is the average of a triple analysis of the EA concentration in the raw material. After the first treatment step in the Combi Cleaner, the EA concentration dropped to 74 µg/kg. However, the EA concentrations measured after processing in the round grain separator (140 µg/kg) and conditioning with tempering (148 µg/kg) suggest that the value measured after the Combi Cleaner is a statistically expected extreme measurement value; this can also be seen from the overlapping error bars of the first EA concentrations. A statistically significant reduction (without overlapping error ranges) takes place in the SORTEX optical sorter, as, after this stage and in all downstream samples including bran and flour, the EA concentration is below the limit of quantitation of 20 µg/ kg. This was found in each of lots 1-5, so that is was not possible to examine how much the EAs would be reduced in the scourer; 52 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
furthermore, it was not possible to determine the EA distribution in bran and flour. Table 4 shows a detailed statistical analysis of all five lots, sampled in Mill A. It was shown that, on average, both the Combi Cleaner as well as the optical sorting with the SORTEX machine reduce EA levels. This confirms the importance of these cleaning steps for an effective reduction of the alkaloids present. The indented-cylinder separator causes an apparent increase in EA concentrations, which is primarily due to the outlier of 74 µg/ kg, after Combi Cleaner in lot 3. Therefore, this apparent increase should not be over-interpreted. As expected, conditioning and subsequent tempering did not contribute to a reduction of EA levels. 3.4
Measured reduction of EA concentration in Mill B
The reductions of alkaloid concentration during the individual cleaning steps in Mill B are shown in Figure 4, on the example of lot 9. The EA levels were significantly reduced by the rotary screen, which removes large ergot sclerotia, clearly reduced by the round grain separator and, in particular, by the long grain separator and, again, significantly reduced by the SORTEX optical sorter. Table 5 shows the EA concentrations measured for all five lots examined in Mill B. Mean reductions can be achieved with the rotary screen (19 percent), the scourer with aspiration (32 percent) and the optical sorting with SORTEX, whereby a mean reduction of 59 percent, with a high significance of p=0.03, was found. The mechanical separator (indented cylinders) provides a differentiated picture: On average of the five lots, there is no reduction of EA levels; however, this neutral value is comprised of lots with clearly reduced levels and lots where the levels increased which, however, is statistically not significant.
F EA concentrations in the rather low range of 64-104 µg/kg, which ensures the required food safety. It is noticeable that, in all cases, the EA Mill A Position EA concentration (µg/kg) Mean Significance concentration in the bran is lower than in reduction of reduction the flour; on average bran contains 2.7 times (%) P fewer EAs than flour. This result seems to be L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 surprising at first sight, because, typically, bran contains more mycotoxins, such as 1: Raw material 48 36 114 39 54 deoxynivalenol (DON), than flour. From the 2: After Combi Cleaner 37 20 74 52 30 -22.7 0.07 miller’s point of view, however, this result 3: After round grain separator 37 38 140 20 42 (31.5) makes sense because ergot sclerotia are more 4: After conditioning and tempering 45 20 148 30 29 -0.2 fragile than rye kernels, so that those not 5: After optical sorter 20 20 20 20 20 -41.3 0.11 removed from the product stream earlier will 6: After scourer and aspiration 20 20 20 20 20 break into many small fragments. 7: Bran 20 20 20 20 20 Due to their small particle size, they will remain in the finer fractions and cannot be 8: Flour 20 20 20 20 20 removed by sieving, as larger bran particles can. In the study presented here, this leads to the effect that, in four out of the five lots, the EA level of rye after Further investigations would be desirable because a carry-over cleaning, prior to first-stage processing, is lower than in rye flour. of ergot sclerotia in the cylinder separator could not be excluded. A further reduction of the EA concentration in a crusher with 3.5 a crease dirt cylinder could not be verified. The data shows an Transfer of dust increase in EA concentration of 20 percent but not significant In light of the low EA levels in rye flour, currently requested and which can be attributed to the expected statistical deviations, from the mills, the issue of a possible transfer of EAs through caused by the total error of the determination of the EAs. dust arises. For example, the situation when grain lots are Moreover, it was possible to obtain more insightful analysis transported and filled into another storage location, is of results of EA levels in flour and bran, of lots 6-10. This was not particular interest, because this dust may additionally contaminate possible for lots 1-5, because their levels were below the limit of the final products with EAs. To shed light on this question, quantitation of 20 µg/kg. It is positive that, even for higher EA an additional trial was performed. One lot of rye with an EA levels in the raw material, the cleaning measures applied result in concentration of 542 µg/kg was divided into two parts; one part Table 4: EA concentrations measured, mean reductions and their statistical significance for lots 1-5, Mill A. The limit of quantitation of 20 µg/kg is stated for EA concentrations that could not be determined. The significance states the t-quantile P of the one-sided Student’s t-distribution for the EA concentration before and after the respective processing stage.
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Table 5: EA concentrations measured, mean reductions and their statistical significance for lots 6-10, Mill B. . The significance states the t-quantile P of the one-sided Student’s t-distribution for the EA concentration before and after the respective processing stage. *Lots 8-10 only EA concentration (µg/kg)
Mean reduction Significance (%) of reduction P
Mill B Position
2:After rotary screen
3: After round grain and long grain separator
4: After SORTEX
5: After scourer and aspiration
was moved from one storage 6: After crushing roller mill* 56 36 41 (19.9) bin to another several times. 7: Bran 31 31 29 28 35 Next, both batches were 8: Flour 104 96 68 64 87 sampled as described above. The ergot sclerotia tested. Therefore, another cleaning step should always follow the were manually sorted out mechanical separation to ensure a reliable reduction of EA levels. from the samples and the samples then analysed for their EA Regarding the new Regulation (EU) 2015/19407, the data concentration. The particle size distribution in both batches revealed that repeated manual moving and handling causes presented shows that the determination of the percentage of ergot breakage of the sclerotia. It was assumed that the transfer of sclerotia contamination is of only limited relevance in terms of EA dust that is formed during the handling process onto the rye EA levels in the grain because ergot sclerotia vary greatly in their would cause a measurable contamination of the sample, even if EA concentration. all ergot sclerotia had been previously removed. Considering the planned introduction of legally binding However, the test did not confirm this assumption. The EA maximum EA levels in grain, the mills are in a difficult situation, concentration of the batch that had been relocated several times specifically when implementing practical solutions for their was below the limit of quantitation of 20 µg/kg after removal of quality control. A commercially available rapid test for EA would the ergot sclerotia. When considering these test results, it can be be desirable. Nevertheless, there is still the issue of sampling excluded that a measurable amount of dust will be transferred errors that could be minimised in the tests presented here, thanks during grain transporting activities. to the elaborate statistical sampling method applied. Such laborious sampling is very difficult to implement in practice. New and practicable solutions for improved sampling of 4. Summary and outlook received goods, after cleaning and of the final product are of central Extensive studies regarding the reduction of EA levels in significance. It can be expected that the new legislation will result rye cleaning and milling processes were carried out, and the in further appreciation of cleaning processes in the mills because, results statistically evaluated. For all ten lots in the test, the ultimately, it is the reliable removal of ergot sclerotia that ensures EA concentration in the rye flour was within the safe range of the safety of food products produced for all consumer groups. between 20 and 104 µg/kg which proves the effectiveness of modern cleaning measures in the mill. Effective reductions of EA concentrations were found for the For further information on this case study please contact processing steps: separation by size (Combi Cleaner, rotary email@example.com screen), optical sorting (SORTEX) and surface treatment References for this article are available on request from (scourer with aspirator). By far the highest reduction rates firstname.lastname@example.org and the highest statistical significance of EA reduction could be obtained by optical sorting. This confirms the central The authors would like to thank the staff in the participating importance of optical sorting in the cleaning process. It is mills who supported these trials, especially Norman Krug, recommended that optical sorting is carried out before surface Manja Pätzold, Felix Hollocher, Andreas Graf and Michael treatment. Haag as well as Sabine Dünsel, Corinna Hammerschmidt and Simon Kastenhuber for the planning and execution of Mechanical separators for round and long grain kernels did not sampling and sample preparation. yield any effective average reduction of EA levels in the ten lots 54 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Beans and aquaculture a partnership for more sustainable foods systems
Dr. Pietro Iannetta, Agroecologist,
do not usually start articles with personal notes. However, I do like breaking from the constraints of protocol. I do this as I think it may be worthwhile to share what directs and motivates scientists such as I, those who study agricultural ecology which is to examine the relationships between the exploitation of natural (and unnatural) resources for food. For example, recently I have listened to Sir David Attenborough’s Scars of Evolution (BBC, Radio 4), a fascinating exploration of two conflicting theories of human evolution as being from either that of aquatic ape, as opposed to the earlier savanna based theory. Until recently, the savanna hypothesis had largely been accepted with significant ramifications upon the relative importance Western society places on meat as protein source, as opposed to that obtained from the marine food chain. Yet, the evidence now seems irrefutable that evolution of the humans, or more correctly their defining feature, their brain, was dependent upon essential fatty acids and nutrients that can only be sourced in the marine food chain. And evidence from modern day nutrition studies show that the same essential fatty acids and nutrients still help maintain good human brain function. Yet, just this week a friend, seemingly intelligent argued that “we have evolved to eat meat, not vegetables”. In response, I shared my opinion on his version of reality (results not shown here), and I share this short conversation as just one personal and recent example which highlights the societal challenge: the cultural stereotyping of diet reinforced my popular dogma. So, we face global food systems which have become preoccupied with intensive meat production, and its associated nutrient use inefficiencies and devastating negative environmental impacts. This preoccupation is underpinned by our dependency on man-made inorganic nitrogenous fertiliser which is exploited to cultivate the feed-crops for intensive meat production (See ‘Livestock’s Long Shadow,’ 2006).
56 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
The polarisation of our food production systems seems inextricably linked to the polarisation of diets with additional negative impacts on well-being and the associated costs of impaired health. This cascade of dependencies, upon meat production plus the nitrogen fertiliser and the non-renewable energy (fossil fuels) required to manufacture that fertiliser, is not sustainable, or sensible. Even if it were possible to manufacture nitrogen fertiliser from renewable energy sources, say wind power, this would still not encourage natural chemical cycling in-field. Evidence has shown that legume-dependant organic production in rain fed agricultural systems on near-pH neutral soils is only 5 percent less productive than conventional intensive production (Seufert et al., 2012). This success is achieved despite the use of crop varieties bred for high inorganic fertiliser (and pesticide) inputs. Such data has the power to influence a step-change towards more-sustainable legume-based food production systems, which encourage natural chemical cycling. However, here again I must digress since I have used the work legume, and it has also become clear to me that many members of the public are unaware of legumes. For example, consider that most people have some appreciation that a balanced meal might consist of a plate on which rests three main food types - protein, vegetables and carbohydrates. However, the source of the nitrogen (fertiliser) to produce all three is rarely considered. Further, it is not taught that this essential nitrogen could be provided naturally via a process called biological nitrogen fixation. This process exists in terrestrial and aquatic systems and is the means by which legumes may convert inert atmospheric nitrogen into biologically accessible forms, ammonia initially and so to proteins.
The use of Faba beans for farmed salmon prioduction
So, with this foundation established I shall return to my original objective which is to share the findings of the £2.6 million
WHOLE FABA BEANS (100%)
Dehulling KERNELLS 80% of whole bean
HULLS 18% of whole bean Milling & Air Classification
Protein Concentrate 20% of whole bean (11:1, protein; starch)
Starch Concentrate 60% of whole bean (1:3, protein; starch)
PIGS & POULTRY
Figure 1: Whole faba bean classsification
Innovate UK-Industry funded project “Beans4feeds”, which ended in early 2016. The project's formal title, “Development of protein-rich and starch-rich fractions from faba beans for salmon and terrestrial animal production, respectively”, disguises its largely commercial aim. This was to encourage the production of home grown legumes in the form of faba- or field-beans (Vicia faba L.), for farmed
salmon production. Faba bean kernels, beans with their skins removed, may be ground to a meal, which has been used successfully in farmed salmon feeds for more than 20 years. Furthermore, the bean inclusion rate could be doubled were it possible to isolate the kernel protein from its starch component. Demand is high for farmed salmon feed in the UK with 200,000 tonnes used every year, and as they have been bred to have an
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 57
F challenges still remain for successful commercialisation of the approach. Then there is the Lack of UK processing capability. Bean dehullers, millers and air classification facilities are not common, co-localised or co-owned so centralising processing would improve commercial efficiency. Also, a commercial scale air (or wet) protein-starch classification plant for beans remains to be established in the UK. The bean starch concentrate is also too expensive. Generally, animal feeds must be inexpensive, and the air classified starch concentrate is too expensive and estimated as approximately £300/tonne, at current bean qualities and processing efficiency. This is a serious shortcoming as the starch concentrate is the bulk of the by-product, 80 percent of the material or 60 percent of the whole bean. That is, high volume users are required for the co-product.
Possible commercial solutions
excellent feed conversion ratio of 1.25, or 0.8 kg of fish produced for every kg fed. Thus, 160,000 tonnes of fish are produced annually with a fish-farm gate value of £600m and this represents Scotland’s second largest export - since most of the UKs farmed salmon production units are based there.
The beans4feeds approach centred on a technology called Air Classification. Here an air cyclone is used to separate the milled bean kernel flour into lighter protein bodies as an upper fraction from heavier starch granules in the lower fraction. The resultant products are bean protein and starch concentrates, respectively. The former was trialled for salmon production, and the latter as a pig and poultry feed.
Bean protein concentrate as a fish feed
The project results showed that air classified protein concentrate used salmon feed with inclusion rates of up to 20 percent presented no disease challenges, there were no obvious effects of bean anti-nutritionals, and feeding and growth was equal or faster than fish fed conventionally - and whether fish were raised as juveniles (in freshwater), or mature fish (in salt water). Fish fed bean protein concentrate also showed normal yields, with good colour and no ‘gaping’, which is separation of the muscle blocks. Fillets from bean concentrate fed fish also appeared 15-20 percent firmer, and this is expected to help extend shelf life.
UsingBean starch concentrate as a fish feed
Results were obtained for the starch concentrate fed to pigs and poultry similar, and soya could be completely replaced by beans in feeds for these animals. However, this process was certainly not plain sailing, and key technical and commercial 58 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Higher protein beans. As the protein content of individual beans increases the minimum costs of the starch concentrate decreases. Therefore, breeding beans for higher protein content increases the commercial efficacy of air classification, and the James Hutton institute has identified key germplasm with protein levels of almost 40 percent protein. These are now being used to develop a high protein specifically for air classification. Develop higher value products from the bean starch concentrate, and hulls: the use of the air classified starch for making healthy breads, ales and for distilling has been trailed successfully in collaboration with Barney’s Beer (Edinburgh), Prof. Graeme Walker (Abertay University, Dundee), and Arbikie Distillery (Manger, Kirsty Black). Also, these brewing and distilling approaches are now being extended to the use of whole beans: removing the starch from milled whole beans by fermentation and production of high value beer and neutral spirits is proving successful, with high protein co-products currently being assessed for exploitation as an aquaculture feed.
About the Author
Pietro (Pete) Iannetta is an Agroecologist based at the James Hutton Institute. His PhD, supervised by Emeritus Professor Prof. Janet Sprent MBE, was on the ‘Regulation of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes’. Much of his research career has been spent, ‘waiting for Western society to realise that biological nitrogen fixation by legumes must be recognised as a critical component of any attempt to realise more sustainable food systems’
VAN AARSEN INTRODUCES NEW FEEDING DEVICE FOR ITS GD HAMMER MILL
60 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
INNOVATIVE ATEX-CERTIFIED GRINDING INSTALLATION TO MINIMISE EXPLOSION RISK IN THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS
mployees, production equipment, and buildings are all incredibly valuable assets. By minimising the required maintenance and maximising the service life of expensive grinding installations, it’s also possible to ensure that they are much more cost-effective. In order to further minimise explosion risk, Van Aarsen has introduced an innovative feeding device with an integrated heavy parts separator (also known as a “stone catcher”) for its GD hammer mill. The GD hammer mill with feeding device from Van Aarsen will be ATEX-certified.
Innovative feeding device with integrated heavy parts separator
When dust comes into contact with an ignition source, such as sparks, in an oxygen rich environment, there is a risk of explosion, and that is exactly what happens when the grinding process for grains and organic materials is started or stopped in a hammer mill. Van Aarsen develops and manufactures machines for the production of compound feeds and premixes for the animal feed industry. It is also a leader in developing new techniques for minimising explosion risk without compromising the efficiency and quality of the grinding process. As such, Van Aarsen has now introduced an innovative feeding device with an integrated heavy parts separator for metal objects, stones, and other heavy objects. The heavy parts separator detects such objects and removes them to prevent them from being fed into the hammer mill and causing sparks. Van Aarsen has optimised its heavy parts separator by automating the removal of metal objects and stones and by the combination of this removal with the screen exchange process. By ensuring that the automated removal of heavy objects and the exchange of the screens take place at the same time, the downtime of
the hammer mill is reduced and its capacity is increased. In order to provide a controlled release of pressure in case of an explosion, van Aarsen has also fitted the bin beneath the hammer mill with a pressure relief valve.
Maximising the life of screens and reducing maintenance and downtime
The new feeding device has a compact design and can easily be integrated into the GD hammer mill and the automated screen exchanger. Besides minimising the risk of explosion, Van Aarsen’s new feeding device with integrated heavy parts separator also prevents damage to the screens. This greatly increases the service life of the screens and significantly reduces machine downtime and maintenance. The GD hammer mill from Van Aarsen will be ATEX-certified and therefore complies with the strict European guidelines for the prevention of explosions. Van Aarsen also offers a range of other options for further minimising the explosion risk associated with the grinding process, including temperature monitoring and spark detection. www.aarsen.com
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 61
H2O THE IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT DURING THE MILLING PROCESS
by Eloisa Martino, communications manager at OCRIM
n November 4, 2016 OCRIM S.p.A. organised an important technical meeting, at the Il Cicalino estate in Massa Marittima (Grosseto), to discuss about the importance of water and its management in the milling process. Addressing the audience, Alberto Antolini, CEO of OCRIM, stated that “the aim of congressional events is to create a unified spirit and therefore to share skill and knowledge”. The purpose of the event, explained by Antolini, was to bring together, in a single location and for an entire weekend, mill owners, technologists and experts in the milling sector from across Italy. It was not, therefore, simply a four-hour conference on a specific topic, rather, the meeting of ideas belonging to people who do not normally cross paths in their day-to-day lives or at least not frequently, each one with his/her specific background of experience and points of view to share with the others. In his opening speech at the convention, Stefano Mazzini, commercial director at OCRIM, referred to the concept, mentioned several times at the previous edition “Grano, Farina e…” (Wheat, Flour and...), of the importance of the raw material, wheat. Heexplained that OCRIM no longer intends to be a plantengineering/mechanical company but, thanks to its partnership with Bonifiche Ferraresi S.p.A., to actually set the standards in terms of the entire production chain as well, confirming a new forward-looking trend. This is a challenge that OCRIM has recently taken on, and that it strongly believes in. Marco Galli, technological director at OCRIM and Maurizio Monti, founder of Miller’s Mastery, were the two expert speakers of the technical day. Both presented theories and arguments based on their personal instruction and experience. Marco Galli focused particularly on grain preparation before processing, how to manage it in the conditioning phase, which, as per the procedure, changes depending on the type of wheat. Galli states that “the entire conditioning phase is extremely important because, once the grain is being processed there is no turning back”. Therefore the wheat will retain any errors made during conditioning. On the other hand, correct conditioning can balance and correct any limits over the course of grinding. The technology being used is of primary importance, states OCRIM’s technology director, since mechanical solutions, together with a careful study and analysis of how grain behaves during pre-soaking and conditioning, are crucial for achieving the right results. Automatic soaking with OCRIM’s “MGA” system makes it possible to monitor, correct and change the amount of water that is delivered. The real technological revolution of this system consists in the 62 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
possibility of its installation and use in the second conditioning phase (on top of the first). This is possible thanks to its unique reading technology. The “MGA” “NIR” system also detects the protein content of the grain, upstream, thereby also making it possible to automatically manage wheat mixes based on protein, thereby achieving complete traceability of the conditioning phases. It nonetheless remains necessary to set the final humidity of the wheat beforehand, depending on the needs and values that you wish to obtain with grinding. Marco Galli gave an extensive presentation of both problems and solutions, also replying to questions from the various mill owners in the audience. With his presentation, Maurizio Monti focused on the importance of grain hardness and the impact this has on the absorption of water in the flours. As one can imagine, grain hardness depends on many factors: the soil and therefore the geographical area as well, climatic conditions and type of crop. Monti also spoke about the issue of moulds in flours, due to the addition of water. He stated that controls need to be conducted to offer suitable prevention to avoid the formation and/or future occurrences of contamination. This entails a sampling logic, as well as correct monitoring of the incoming product so as to observe the parameters required by law. Indications were also provided on what to do if the legal limits are exceeded. Maurizio Monti is a technologist/miller with a long-standing and considerable experience in the national milling industry. He is known far and wide for his professional skills and pragmatic approach to his job, but also for his people skills and charisma. In fact his book “Appunti Di Un Mugnaio – La macinazione non è arte, ma scienza e tecnologia” (Notes from a Miller - Grinding is not an art, it is science and technology) was published this year. Over the course of the convention Marino Scarlino, former professor at the Istituto Arte Bianca in Turin (Institute for the Art of Baking), felt compelled to express his opinion on Maurizio Monti’s book, considering the work not only a container of information, but “a book that offers knowledge to millers but also to the entire second converting category: companies and tradesmen”. Scarlino, thanking OCRIM for this highly productive opportunity to gather the industry together, underlined the importance and strong suits of the company’s milling school, a project that has done and given a lot for/to the industry for many years, and for the creation and consolidation of the skills of those who attend/have attended it. Initiatives such as this provide the awareness of how important it is to share concepts because this experience can only lead to the development of great projects.
Best practice for controlling in-silo moisture levels by Bentall Rowlands
ith the capabilities to design, manufacture, supply, and install storage systems from an extensive range of products, Bentall Rowlands Storage Systems Limited is a leading UK manufacturer in complete storage and processing equipment solutions for the agricultural and industrial markets. They offer a wide range of galvanized steel silos and hoppers, water tanks, catwalks and platforms, material handling equipment, cleaning and grading and weighing and drying systems that are assembled worldwide. Providing a comprehensive end to end solution which can be designed to any specific clients’ requirements, Bentall Rowlands have designed and installed silos worldwide in countries that include the UK, Kenya, Thailand, Holland, France, Germany, Ukraine, Malawi, New Zealand and many more. Technical Director, Kevin Groom says, “Our storage systems are individually designed for all clients. Each project has a bespoke design that is sure to match, if not exceed clients’ expectations. We are extremely proud of the projects that we have undertaken in these geographically challenged areas, proving
64 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
that whatever the specification, we are sure to provide the most suitable design necessary.”
Moisture levels and unwanted consequences
Getting the moisture levels right in a silo can be challenging but it is essential that the target level be reached within the shortest possible time. If this does not occur, the results would be the formation of mycotoxin and quality degradation. The main causes of spoilage in stored grain are fungi, insects and mites. Fungi are one of the main consequences of a variety of different moisture contents and temperatures stored in grain. In order to control this, a principal method known as drying and cooling needs to be put in place. No storage fungi will grow below a moisture content of 14.5 percent but they do continue to grow slowly at near 0°C. This means that cooling alone is not sufficient but the lower the temperature, the slower the rate of growth. Another nuisance are storage mites, which breed rapidly under favourable conditions and will cause direct damage to the grain by hollowing out oilseeds or eating the germ. Physical control methods are used for mites. If the grain is dried to 14.5 percent moisture content then the mites are unable to breed. If you cool the grain to 5°C, this can also help to prevent the build up of them. However, if you are storing oilseed rape, this is less susceptible to insect attack than cereals. This will protect the grain bulk, but during winter, the moisture
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F content on the surface of the grain may increase, meaning that mites can become a problem in the surface layer. A final problem relating to moisture control is insect presence and infestation problems. These can occur where bad hygiene is present. Good store hygiene is therefore an important first step in eliminating these pests. Both the building structure and the stored grain should be monitored using traps. Traps within the grain bulk should be positioned approximately 5 – 10cm below the surface to monitor any insect species with different behaviours. Stores should be thoroughly cleaned prior to the intake of product. It is extremely important for eliminating any sources of contamination from storage fungi, insects and mites. Store preparation is a key stage in ensuring the safe storage of grain. Whether the grain is being stored temporarily, or for a longer period of time, this is a necessary step that needs to be followed. Good store preparation needs to work in conjunction with obtaining and maintaining the target temperature and moisture content in order to ensure the safe storage of grain. There are a number of key features of a good grain store, including: • Clean • Dry • Well ventilated • Correctly functioning equipment • Proofed against rodent and bird entry • Watertight roof • No physical contaminants • Secure
How best to store your grain
A steel grain storage silo is a fully bolted vessel and while not being airtight they are watertight. On all the joints, sidewall and roof, a sealing mastic is used to prevent against the ingress of water. The roof sheets overhang the eaves to ensure snow and rain cannot gain access. At the peak of the silo the roof sheets fit under the collar or petal and are sealed with blanking plates. As a manufacturer of silos, we will give advice on how to seal the silo at base level. All of these design features, tried and tested, over many years of product development are in place to stop the external moisture from reaching the grain. The level of moisture and temperature of grain in a storage silo comes from good housekeeping. It is very important that the operators of storage systems, both on-farm and industrial stores understand the levels required to maintain the quality of the grain being stored. There are a number of good technical papers available and it is good working practice to re-view. As the grain comes into the system, it is important to know the level of moisture because from this, the operator will know if the grain will require drying. There are many forms of grain dryers such as in-bin systems or continues mixed flow. The in-bin systems tend to use gas as a fuel and can be limited on the hourly capacity whereas the mixed flow dryer can run on gas, fuel oil and solid fuels. It is important to remember that different types of fungi live at different moisture contents and temperatures in stored grain. Storage fungi can grow on cereals from about 14.5 percent moisture content upwards and may cause heating and loss of germination. Once the grain enters the storage silo or flat floor storage system, it is important that the checking of grain does not stop. Most modern silos are supplied with ventilation systems. The concept of these systems is very simple and has been used for thousands of years. 66 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Controlling moisture and temperature
By passing air through grain it is possible to not only reduce the temperature of grain but also to reduce the moisture content. There are two main types of ventilation systems in silos; either a trench system or full floor. These systems allow low volumes of air to be pushed into the silo with a ventilation fan either Axial or Centrifugal. The fans are connected to either the silo base for a trench system or to the silo sidewall for a full floor system. The pressurized air then moves up through the grain and thus lowers the temperature of the grain. This action will also cool air dry the grain and lower its moisture content. It is also worth noting that even within the silo it is possible to have a number of temperature monitoring cables. These cables have a series of sensors, which will measure the temperature of the grain in a given area. The system will allow the operator to see what is happening within the silo. As the air moves through the grain it will evaporate water from the grain, helping to reduce the moisture content of the grain. The moisture, which has been absorbed by the air, then passes into the open roof area of the silo. As we have seen, it is important with silos to ensure that there is good free air movement around this area because it allows the moisture-laden air to simply vent into the atmosphere. In addition, the design of the roof vent is also very important not only should it allow good airflow, it must simultaneously stop birds, rodents, snow and rain getting in. As you can see from the photograph, this vent is designed for free movement of air whilst its triangular design works to prevent rubbish collecting around its face. This is a common problem with roof vents and you can see areas of rust building up in this area. Another way to ensure good airflow around the internal open area is to use roof exhaust fans. These are used to equalize the temperature of the air within the internal area and atmosphere. By using the design shown in the photograph they can easily be reached for maintenance or to be closed when using a fumigation system. On our range of silos, we use a dimpled eave-retaining clip which gives a 2mm gap between the roof sheets and the sidewall sheets. Tucked well under the eaves, it is designed not only to help with air movement around the internal area but also to allow any beads of condensation which may have formed on the inside of the roof structure to simply run off. www.bentallrowlands.com
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Storage project Bunge and AGD announce US$100 million joint venture in Argentina Bunge and Aceitera General Deheza S.A. (AGD) announced recently that they will jointly invest US$100 million into the T6 industrial complex and port terminal in Puerto General San Martin; an inland port in Argentina that sits on the banks of the Paraná River. Back in October, the T6 Industrial Complex and Port Terminal in Puerto General San Martin received a party of dignitaries that included the Chief of Staff, Marcos Peña, together with the Minister of Transport of the Nation, William Dietrich and the Governor of the province of Santa Fe, Miguel Lifschitz. The guest were warmly welcomed by Alberto Urquía, Director of AGD and Enrique Humanes, CEO of Bunge Cono Sur; who are all partners in the management of T6. During the meeting, the two executives announced a projected three-year plan, which aims to increase the operational capacity of the complex through the investment of US$100 million. The visit’s itinerary also allowed time for a tour of the facility and a presentation of the Company, with different production processes carried out there amongst the many port terminals. Currently, the terminal is capable of unloading 600 railway cars and more than 1,200 trucks per day. It is used to loading seafaring ships with dry bulk and vegetable oils, and, according to AGD, it handled in excess of 13 million tonnes of last year, with both Bunge and AGD jointly responsible for ensuring that the process is managed as smoothly as possible. Bunge Argentina is a subsidiary of Bunge Ltd., a global agribusiness company, which includes fertilizers, food and energy, among other businesses, with global operations and strategically distributed assets, addressing the whole agricultural-food industry chain spectrum. Whilst AG, founded in 1948, is a privately-owned Argentina based oilseed crushing company; whose 2,500 employees crush more than 20,000 tonnes of oilseed. “For more than 100 years that accompany national development, we believe that the key to achieving a sustainable and harmonious development at community, regional and national level, lies in providing solutions between all the actors who are a part, after the achievement of objectives and joint benefits.” The investment of T6 terminal with AGD is the latest in a series of large investments for Bunge, who have been forging relationships with companies across the world as they seeks to extend their global influence.
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68 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
imeco ABP120UR High speed bag filling line for pre-made open mouth bags. FOUR SPOUTS CAROUSEL DESIGN
FOUR BAG SHAKING DEVICES FOR A QUICK PRODUCT SETTLING CAPACITY UP 16 BPM (capacity depends on product, line configuration, bag size, etc.) CAN HANDLE FLAT OR GUSSET BAGS
DESIGNED TO HANDLE PP WOVEN, PP LAMINATED, PP WOVEN WITH PE LINER, PE, MULTIWALL PAPER, COATED PAPER, ETC. MAINTENANCE FREE BAG DETECTION SYSTEM ON EACH FILLING SPOUT, TO AVOID WRONG PRODUCT DISCHARGE SEVERAL BAG CLOSING SYSTEM AVAILABLE (sewing, heat sealing, pinch, gluing, etc.)
complete packaging solutions for flourY products Palletizing
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Inventory Management Software for All Your Sensors BINVENTORY for Solid & Liquid Levels Are you hassled by opening multiple programs or going to a PLC or HMI to get all the data you need to manage inventory? Would your job be easier if all your data was in one place for all your level sensors? Now, you can get all of your level data from one program with BINVENTORYTM – a new inventory management software from BinMaster. You will be able to monitor the level of both solids and liquids in bins, tanks, or silos from one platform. You can even configure complex vessels of different shapes and sizes, such as horizontal tanks, split silos, and non-linear tanks using a simple wizard. BinMaster is a US manufacturer of point and continuous level indicators and inventory management systems used for monitoring the level of bulk solids or liquids in bins, tanks, silos and hoppers. Material management solutions include all digital grain monitoring systems, flow detection sensors, and complete solutions using wireless devices & web applications to send data to a control room, console, SmartPhone, tablet, or PC. Robust, custom systems can be developed for a single site or networked for every bin, tank, and silo across a multi-national operation. BINVENTORYTM works with many BinMaster sensors including SmartBob cable-based sensors, noncontact-radar, guided wave radar, 3D scanners, ultrasonic, magnetostrictive,
Pre - Cleaner
and pressure transducers used for level measurement. Plus, it is compatible with just about any sensor that has a Modbus RTU output made by any manufacturer. When you want even more inventory accuracy, bulk densities and strapping tables can be entered for solids. Similarly, entering specific gravity for liquid tanks ensures spot on volumes. ￼ Imagine getting automated alerts, inventory levels, and historical reports from up to 256 vessels on your PC or tablet. This new innovative technology allows you to share access to BINVENTORY with your vendors for VMI and authorized users in production, purchasing, and finance. It requires no special training or support, so it eliminates emailing reports and reduces interruptions to your workday. BINVENTORYTM can be used at one location or across an entire company using its multi-site feature. All you need is access to your company LAN, WAN or VPN. If someone needs a current reading from a vessel, they can simply click on the ‘get reading’ button. Everyone saves time and stops climbing silos to measure each bin, making it safer while optimizing inventory levels and storage capacity. You will find that BINVENTORY is a highly affordable, one-time purchase of inventory tracking for any size operation. www.binmaster.com
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70 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
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2016/17 OCRIM was founded in 1945 by the Member of the Order of Merit for Labour Guido Grassi, with his brother Ettore and his cousin Luigi Grassi, an expert miller. The company in a short time became one of the most important and widely known names in the flour-milling sector. OCRIM supplies its service all over the world and specializes in milling plants, feed mills and general cereals processing, including - and especially – turnkey formula systems. In addition, the company invests heavily in research, training, customer services and communication. From the outset, OCRIM has specialized in turnkey projects, and this is why its clients regard the company as a reliable and comprehensive partner. The company therefore offers oversight of the entire process. Throughout 2016 OCRIM has successfully concluded many projects all over the world and started others confirming the trust of both the new and loyal customers. OCRIM is an irreplaceable and expert partner also in the supply of machines and in milling plants modernization/upgrade. The company’s aim is to supply its clients with long-lasting machinery and highquality, efficient services. Innovative solutions have been introduced in order to reduce energy use and minimizing operating and maintenance costs. During 2016, OCRIM has also strengthened its partnership with some important universities in order to enrich and improve R&D department studies and projects. In recent years OCRIM has succeeded in giving tangible form to the Italian Made project: the production process takes place exclusively within the company, which believes wholeheartedly in Italian Made quality. The partnership between the futuristic approach of the engineers and the expertise of the workers provides the winning key for creating excellent, high quality products to meet the demands of the milling sector market. The “Italian Made” approach is also witnessed by the several events OCRIM organizes every year. “Wheat, Flour and…” is surely the most important OCRIM annual event attended by important personalities, friends and customers coming from all over the world. This 2016 it has had a different “cut” since OCRIM has shown its new behavior and vision: its greater attention of the raw material, wheat. OCRIM no longer intends only to be a plant-engineering/ mechanical company but, thanks to its partnership with Bonifiche Ferraresi S.p.A., the largest agricultural company in Italy, to actually set the standards in terms of the entire production chain as well, confirming a new forward-looking trend. This is a challenge that OCRIM has recently taken on, and that it strongly believes in. OCRIM is known all over the world also for its International School of Milling Technology that was founded in 1965. Theoretical courses are accompanied by practical experience, thanks to a pilot mill with capacity of 24 T/D and a well-equipped laboratory. This year, as in previous ones, a lot of students from all over the world have come to Cremona in order to attend OCRIM’s courses. www.ocrim.com
Company profile The Brabender® company from Duisburg (Germany) develops, manufactures and distributes instruments and equipment for the testing of material quality and physical properties in all areas of research, development and production. As a leading supplier for the food and chemical industries worldwide, Brabender® offers a broad range of solutions for sample preparation, quality control and process simulation on a laboratory scale. One of the company’s core markets is the milling and baking industry. In this area, it is famous for its three-phase-system, consisting of three standard instruments worldwide for measuring the product quality of flour and dough – Farinograph®, Extensograph® and Amylograph®. New developments like the GlutoPeak® for quick gluten quality checks or the Brabender® MetaBridge® cross-platform and cross-location software stand for the company’s innovative spirit.
Since its foundation in 1923, Brabender® has generated a steady growth in recent years. The family-run Brabender® group today employs around 450 people and has a presence in over 116 countries with 80 distributors. However, all Brabender® instruments, equipment and application software are developed and produced in-house. Customer orientation is a crucial part of the Brabender® corporate philosophy. Hence, the company provides its customers with an ongoing and comprehensive advice and support. At the company’s headquarters, they can carry out measurements with their own material at the technical applications laboratory. Over the course of the instruments’ long lifetime, customers can also benefit from a number of services to maintain functionality and reliability.
Brabender® GmbH & Co. KG · www.brabender.com
72 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
(formerly Henry Simon Ltd.) since 1991. Satake adopted its rice milling technology to Robinson’s/ Simon’s wheat processing systems and launched its “PeriTec” wheat debranning system in 1996, much earlier than others. Today, Satake’s capabilities include the ability to design, manufacture and install Since the foundation of the company in 1896, Satake has been working for mankind’s three staple foods – rice, wheat and maize. Today, Satake serves
complete flourmills. In the field of Maize, Satake also adopted its rice
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also in industrial applications such as
focuses on the value-added
plastic pellet polishing and sorting and car bumper recycling. In 2008,
functionality of rice to
Satake opened the Sorting and Processing Integrated Centre to
increase the profitability from
help our customers find solutions to all of their sorting and processing
problems. At the centre, Satake performs sorting and processing tests
In the field of Wheat, Satake has developed the spirit and technology of
on a wide variety of materials, from rice and wheat to food products and industrial plastics. When you think something new, Think Satake. www.satake-group.com
Robinson Milling Systems
Established in December 2009, GMP+
compound feed. By the end of November 2016, there were over 15,900
International continued the management
GMP+ certificates in 80 countries. Most of them are in Europe, but also a
of the GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance
growing number in Asia and North & Latin America.
Certification, which was previously
Since 2015, besides feed safety assurance certification, the GMP+ Feed
managed by the former Dutch Product
Responsibility Assurance certification module has been added to the scheme.
Board Animal Feed.
Currently, it is based on the use of responsible soybean meal in dairy, pig and
The GMP+ FC scheme started almost 25 years ago as a Code of Practice for the compound feed industry,
poultry feed. The market demand for that is mainly occurring in the Netherlands. GMP+ International is a private company with limited liability under Dutch
and GMP was chosen as its brand name. Over the years, several control,
law. It is a non-profit organization and is managed by an executive board,
quality and management system conditions according ISO 9001/22000
consisting of a Managing (General) Director and a Director Operations. The
were added, and in 2000 after the HACCP-principles were implemented,
total turnover in 2016 is € 3.7 million.
the code became a standard. GMP was changed into GMP+. GMP+ is a
The goal of GMP+ International is to safeguard safe food in every home
brand name, which stands for a standard with conditions and requirements
worldwide by ensuring safe animal feed. GMP+ International aims to be
for a feed safety management system that goes far beyond the original
the thought leader for every company active in the feed and food chain
code of practice. An ISO 9001 or 22000 certificate can easily be combined
of livestock and aqua farming. Providing a reliable certification scheme
with a GMP+ certificate.
for the whole feed supply chain internationally is the company mission.
Since 2000, the international participation increased rapidly. That was the main reason to establish GMP+ International; to be able to act on an international level and to get the stakeholders even more involved in the organization.
Enabling companies to comply with their own wishes or demands in the market about feed safety assurance. www.gmpplus.org
GMP+ International involves the stakeholders in the feed and food chain (multi-stakeholders’ participation) via partnership of trade (sector-) associations and international operating food companies, of which there are currently 33. These partners are allowed to nominate candidates in the International Expert Committee (IEC) in charge of defining the content of the GMP+ Feed Certification scheme. This way, the scheme is created not only on behalf of but with the stakeholders of GMP+ International. The GMP+ Feed Certification scheme is mainly focused on feed safety assurance in the whole feed supply chain. All types of companies participate: traders, producers of feed ingredients, transport, storage & transshipment and production of premixtures (concentrates) and
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 73
F Industry profile
F CASE STUDY
The bagging carousel MWPM with its automatic bag attacher MWAP can be combined with a bag closing station as part of the integrated, modular bagging line
Open-mouth bags vurses Valve bags The decision of whether to use open-mouth bags or valve bags when bagging product in the grain processing or feed industries is influenced by diverse factors. The trend is toward open-mouth bags.
by Thomas Ziolko, Product Manager Grain Milling, BĂźhler AG, Switzerland
n Europe, North America and Australia, grain milling products are mostly filled into tank trucks in bulk. In Latin America, Africa and Asia, in contrast, bagging into open-mouth or valve bags is predominant. However, in the recent past, there is a clear trend away from valve bags towards open ones. This is driven above all by the international availability of less expensive open-mouth bags, an easier filling process and the option of dust-tight closures which parallel the trend to greater food safety.
Not all bags are alike
Compared to the open-mouth bags, the upper part of the valve bags is almost completely closed. The valve bags have just one small opening; the â€˜valveâ€™ in which to fill the bag. As soon as the bag is full, the interior pressure of the bag closes the valve to stop product from spilling over. Open-mouth bags are closed along the lengthwise side and on the bag bottom. They can be made of paper or plastic. They are easily filled and can be sealed by welding, sewing or gluing so nothing trickles out. A big variety of bag types can be used. The side fold bags fill out in the shape of a block thanks to the inserted side fold that makes them very easy to stack. The cross bottom bags are particularly easy to stand alone or stack after filling because of their bottoms. They are also effective for advertising because the bottom and sides of the bag can be printed. Laminated bags of woven polypropylene can also be printed in good quality and are available as a pinch bag. 74 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Valve bags have been used for bagging milling products since the middle of the 1920s. Even back then they were more expensive than open-mouth bags. There was a perception that they could not be sealed well and that a lot of dust resulted during packing, which is why open-mouth bags were always more popular. Even if the quality of the valve bags has improved over the past years, many grain processing companies still prefer open-mouth bags compared to valve ones. A survey of some large grain processing operations confirmed this trend towards open-mouth bags. One of the largest flour mill in the United States gave multiple reasons for this: Open-mouth bags are largely available in the various production countries The sealing for open-mouth bags, whether made of paper or woven poly-propylene, is very tight and can be reproduced even at high throughput Ultimately, open-mouth bags win out because they are easy to handle in bagging stations as well as in the downstream closing station
Sanitation and costs
Open-mouth bags ensure compliance with the high safety requirements in the food and chemicals industries through the various sealing options. Depending on the product requirements, open-mouth bags can be sealed by being sewn, glued, heated or a combination of these methods. In addition, a resealable closure can be used which is a big benefit for the customers of the bagged product. The cost of valve bags compared to open-mouth bags depends on the region. Feed producers in Chile have emphasised that polypropylene valve bags can really only be permanently sealed with
CASE STUDY F ultrasonically welded principle. This increases the price of the investment and the purchasing costs of each bag by about 50 percent. If a valve bag is not welded, the risk of the content leaking out increases because the bag is not completely sealed. This company prefers openmouth bags for sanitation and safety reasons.
Downstream product stages
The new pinch closing station
fulfilled the requirements of the Today’s bagging stations flour milling family Molino Quaglia are characterised by higher of Vighizzolo D’este PD in Italy capacity and lower bag weight. Palletisers are used for optimum stacking of bags and containers. For palletisers, openmouth bags were often considered to be harder to stack. However, a leading processor of agricultural products in South America finds the opposite to be true. Thanks to the pinch bottoms, open-mouth bags are very stable when stacked on pallets: and, it’s possible to bleed the air out and seal the bags very well. This guarantees good stacking quality and safe transport. Furthermore, open-mouth bags can vary in terms of protrusion while valve bags are less flexible on this issue.
A plus for open-mouth bags
The choice of the right bag finally depends on various factors such as: product properties; packaging rate and speed; food safety requirements; the costs of the system and the individual bag. For information, my company has decided to go exclusively with the trend towards open-mouth bags for its bagging stations. The main reasons for this decision to favour open-mouth bags are: they are easy to open; they are internationally available without problems; they come in both paper and woven PP and both can be handled in the same bagging station.
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www.allstatetower.com 01/08/2016 Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 75
MARKETS OUTLOOK Have grain prices finally bottomed out?
by John Buckley
Strong demand is also helping to prop maize prices in the face of rapid production and stock growth. World consumption this season is expected to exceed 1bn tonnes for the first time (1,009m) putting it about 140m over the 2012/13 total. Over the same period about a quarter of that increased consumption (37m tonnes) has been import fed, resulting in world maize trade rising last year to a new record 138m tonnes, if dipping by about 2m in the current 2016/17 season.
The biggest slump in world cereal prices in years seemed to be bottoming out in the last quarter of 2016 on a combination of factors. Weather issues have played a big part, raising doubts about the adequacy of quality milling wheat supplies, causing winter wheat sowing and germination problems in several regions (for next year’s harvests). Earlier weather events had already slashed last spring’s South American coarse grain and soybean production, thereby diverting millions of tonnes of windfall orders to their, often lesscompetitive, US export rivals. No less importantly, in all markets, demand for grains and feedstuffs is running at record levels – maybe not enough to mop up all the crop surpluses that have weighed on markets in the past year or two but still a reminder to the trade that, without current big crops, prices might be looking much firmer than we have seen recently. In fact, low prices – in both nominal and real, inflation-weighted terms - are probably contributing to this surge in demand, making it easier for developing countries to satisfy their growing taste for western-style diets with their higher grain and meat content. The fly in the ointment has been the strong US dollar, recently running at eight-month highs against major currencies (and record highs versus those of the more cash-strapped developing countries). Freight costs have also risen recently to a two-year high. Nonetheless, the penalties added to importers’ landed commodity costs are still outweighed by the fact that most items are historically cheap – certainly when compared with costs seen earlier in this decade. Looking at the main commodities, for wheat, a predicted fourth year of fairly robust consumption growth puts the global total about 82m tonnes or 12.5 percent up since the start of this decade. World stocks over the same period are up by about 50m tonnes. Even so, more demand is being fed by the imports that generate the international value of grain – to which EU markets nowadays are, of course, increasingly responsive. This is the second season running of larger than usual wheat imports, which have recently reached almost 171m tonnes against last year’s 169m and just 159m in 2014/15. Going back another two years, the total for world wheat trade was only 145m tonnes. Growth in recent seasons has been focused on more than one region. North Africa has been growing at about 5.3 percent per annum, East Asia by as much as 9.6 percent and South Asia by 20.7percent. Most regions outside of the grain-exporting Americas have shown significant import growth, even the EU, where last year’s record wheat harvest was in big exportable surplus yet still in need of supplementing imports of quality milling wheat (as well as being open to ongoing cheap feed wheat imports from eastern Europe). Maize trade up too Strong demand is also helping to prop maize prices in the face of rapid production and stock growth. World consumption this season is expected to exceed 1bn tonnes for the first time (1,009m) putting it about 140m over the 2012/13 total. Over the same period about a quarter of that increased consumption (37m tonnes) has been import fed, resulting in world maize trade rising last year to a new record 138m tonnes, if dipping by about 2m in the current 2016/17 season. Growth in world maize trade has been strongest in recent years to Latin America, Mexico, North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately for these consumers, the USA, with its large stocks and a recent run of record large crops (in 2014 and 2016) has been more than able to fill in for Brazil’s crop shortfalls without hoisting the cost to the end-user much. Much the same has process has been seen in the soybean market where consumers led by China have been rescued from higher costs by a series of record US harvests to offset Brazilian and Argentine crop shortfalls.
76 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
The outlook for 2017: Firmer wheat prices? By the time this issue is in print we shall be on the cusp of another year. What might that hold for supply and costs of grains and feedstuffs? For the US (mainly the CBOT) markets, windfall demand has been a key factor in recent price ‘consolidation.’ So has the fact that speculative funds have already factored in the global grain and oilseed surpluses by selling the futures markets for them heavily short. In wheat’s case especially, that has left the funds rather exposed to any unforeseen bullish news and is probably allowing a moderate degree of over-reaction to the crop weather issues mentioned in our intro. It’s interesting to note that of the ‘big three’ traded grain and feed commodities, wheat is currently showing more strength on the futures markets than maize and soyabeans – a 14 percent-plus premium for deliveries a year hence on the Chicago Exchange. That compares with less than 10 percent for forward maize and a mere 2.4 percent for soybeans. Does this suggest that more traders than not see wheat supplies tightening – or at least being less loose – in later 2017? Coincidentally, a poll of analysts by news agency Bloomberg at the end of October found more bulls (six) than bears (three) albeit another nine hedging their bets as ‘neutrals’. Why should wheat prices rise going forward with such large stocks to cushion any crop shortfalls next year? At this stage, bodies like the International Grains Council and others see no
firm pointers to farmers cutting back much globally on their 2017 wheat sowings in response to the past year’s 10-year low prices. Given ‘normal’ weather in enough of the major producing countries that should mean another adequate crop ahead. However, in the US and elsewhere a recurrent theme has been the much worse returns farmers are getting for their current wheat (and maize) crops in the real physical markets as opposed to frisky (where the price has recently rallied by about 15 percent off its summer lows). Consequently, some analysts think US sowings will drop for the 2017 crop to their lowest level in years. Yet, on the other hand, the US crop is in far better shape than last year, when it still jumped by 12 percent to its highest
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 77
Despite supposedly having less high quality wheat than expected from its huge 2016 crop, Russia is currently making all the running on world export markets with cheapest offers to Egypt and the other most heavily contested MENA region (when its low freight is included). Its 2017 winter wheat crop sowing has meanwhile been mostly completed without serious weather problems. Canada’s current wheat crop quality and final harvest have been hit by rains that will mean more of the lower and less of the best grade wheats for export customers. Exports for the season to date are already down. As the lion’s share of Canada’s wheat crop is spring-sown, it is too early to guess yet what farmers plan for next year. Much will depend on weather at planting time and on what prices are offered by competing crops like rapeseed (The harvesting of which has not gone smoothly this year). In the later-harvesting southern hemisphere, parts of Australia, Argentina and Brazil have suffered the same problem from untimely downpours that may compromise their wheat quality. Australia has also had some problems with frost damage, helping to drive premiums for its best quality wheat sharply high (just as happened over the last few months with US breadwheat premiums). However, Australia and Argentina still both expected bigger crops than last year which, depending on their quality, may mean more export competition from these suppliers in the middling/ lower quality area.. Overall there is not much on the wheat market horizon to justify much higher prices. Markets have already off their summer lows (CBOT wheat is up by about 15 percent), which may adequately reflect the known supply/demand fundamentals. Yet the same fundamentals – and the need to sustain next year’s sowings might suggest prices have now gone low enough,
level for several years. So implied higher yields next year could compensate for lower acreage. On top of that the US is expected to carry forward a massive 31m tonnes of surplus stocks into 2017/18 season. That compares with 26.6m last year and an (already ample) 16m tonnes two years prior to that. Markets are also closely watching events in Ukraine where a long dry period followed by too much rain seems to be preventing fulfillment of winter sowing plans. What has gone into the ground has often developed more slowly, leaving it at greater risk of ‘winterkill’. That could mean a smaller 2017 crop there than the 27m tonnes of this season and last, offset to some extent by probable increases in spring cereal planting in these areas. . The other current weather issues mainly concern current crop wheat. The EU’s well-documented problems with wet harvests and lower quality in France, parts of Germany, Poland and some other member states are beginning to tell in a slower pace of export trade (though the season-to date total is still ahead of last year’s as we go to press) and a higher price premium for adequate quality wheat on futures and physical markets. There have also been murmurs about poor crop establishment in several member state, although actual sown area for the main winter crops is not expected to have changed much for 2017. 78 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Maize/other coarse grain Key factors affecting the maize market in the year ahead will be the size of recently planted Latin American crops, what the US decides to plant next spring and whether Europe manages to pull out of two extremely unlucky crop years weather-wise. Current estimates suggest Argentina will respond to a freer maize export regime with larger sowings that, with average yields, may deliver a 36.5m tonne crop versus the past year’s 28m. Brazil may do even better as it recovers from its last, dismal, 67m tonnes harvest – some recent forecasts looking for 83.5m. That should bring these large exporters back to the world market in a big way although in Brazil’s case, the impact will not be fully seen until the following (2017/18) season – i.e. probably not until well into second-half 2017. US farmers in contrast, are expected to cut back on their maize sowings In the past year planted area rose by 6.5m acres. Next year it could drop by 3m – perhaps by as much as 6m acres – as growers switch to soyabeans that cost less to grow and have held their price up surprisingly well. That implies a return from the current 386.7m tonne crop to something closer to 340/350m. With larger stocks carried over from this season, that would still imply robust export supplies. Among the other major suppliers, Ukraine this year partially recovered from last year’s crop setback (up to 27m from 23.3m
but below the 28/31m tonnes of the previous two seasons. Some possible problems with its winter crops might see it expand spring sowings of maize and sunflowers for harvest 2017. Russia will probably continue maize crop expansion too after securing a post-Soviet record output of 14.5m tonnes this year (13.2m last year and between 8m and 11m tonnes prior to that). Between them, the CIS countries will probably be aiming to increase their export market share again next year and, as lower cost producers will doubtless be continuing to give US and LatinAmerican maize suppliers keen competition. South Africa, which suffered major drought losses this season, actually requiring sizeable imports, is also expected to see some sort of crop recovery for the season ahead, enabling it to return as an exporter. For Europe itself, there are hopes that less disruptive weather will finally allow production to return to the levels prior to the past two years – closer to 65/70m than this year’s 60m tonnes, requiring less imports. Overall, then, global maize production might turn out similar, perhaps a bit lower than this season’s but backed by large stocks, mainly held in the US and China. China has been much in the news recently as it starts to tackle its maize surplus – equal to almost half the world stock – after it over-stimulated production with high producer prices. Although what China does internally is usually considered somewhat ‘off-market’ its attempts to push this into domestic consumption – maybe even exports – could have implications for maize value overseas. It was only a few years ago that US ‘experts’ saw a voracious Chinese feed market as the great hope for future maize demand, gobbling up the West’s surpluses. How things have changed. World demand for maize is meanwhile estimated to grown by about 6.3 percent or just over 60m tonnes this season. Most of that demand expansion is within the US and China where larger crops and those huge stocks respectively can easily cope with that growth and still leave large domestic and global total surpluses as cushion against any crop problems in 2017. That outlook does not offer justification for price rises for maize on international markets barring a real weather upset in Latin America or, from next spring onward, in North America or Europe. Soya again boosts protein supplies Oilmeal costs have been fairly stable overall in the past two
months as strong demand continues to eat into rising supplies of the market leader, soya meal. The biggest change since our last review has been the upward revision to this year’s US soybean crop – two increments by the USDA boosting it from 114.3m to a new record 118.7m tonnes. The USDA estimate for Brazil’s crop, still being planted as this issue goes to press, has also been raised by 1m tonnes to 102m, also a record high. The other big soybean supplier, Argentina, is still forecast at 57m tonnes, close to the past year’s level, despite earlier ideas that it might lose some ground to maize. Overall soybean output is forecast at 336.1m tonnes for the 2016/17 season that started on September 1st. That compares with 330.4m forecast two months earlier and the previous season’s 313m – so a lot more beans to crush this season for meal and oil. While demand is also expected to rise, the current forecast for that is only 7m tonnes higher than last season’s, so soyabean stocks will accumulate to a new record peak of 81.5m versus last season’s 77m and the 55/62m tonne level of recent previous years. The biggest increase in soya crush and meal usage is, as usual, expected to take place within China. Thanks to the jump in soya meal supplies, world production of protein meals in total increases by about 10m to some 318m tonnes. Elsewhere in the protein sector, sunflower meal output is seen rising with this year’s bigger harvest – neatly offsetting a decline in rapeseed meal supplies caused by a second year of disappointing EU production of this oilseed and a consequent run-down in stocks of the raw material. Futures markets indicate forward soybean prices, up to a year hence, are unlikely to rise by much, in dollar terms at least. That seems a reasonable assumption, given another year of record output and further stock buildup – always depending on the weather behaving normally for the Latin American crops (harvested in first quarter 2017) and the US planting and growing season which mainly begins around April. As the dominant oilmeal (accounting for over 70 percent of world total meal consumption) and the quality leader, where soya meal goes, other proteins generally have to follow, so the outlook for costs of these is fairly steady too. For European and some other big users dependent upon imports, the main risk is currency weakness that will drive up prices despite a stable or weaker trend in US and Latin American markets.
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Industry events 2016 n 13-14 December 2016
Biomass Handling, Feeding and Storage Kent, UK http://www.gre.ac.uk
n 13-14 December 2016
International Production & Processing Expo 2017 Georgia World Congress Center, USA http://www.ippexpo.org
n 31 January - 02 February 2017
International Production & Processing Expo 2017 Georgia World Congress Center, USA http://www.ippexpo.org
n 23 - 25 February 2017
Feed Tech Expo New Grain Market, Karnal, India http://www.feedtechexpo.com
n 25-28 February 2017
GEAPS Exchange 2017 Kansas City Convention Center, USA http://www.geaps.com
n 04-07 May 2017
IDMA 2017 Istanbul CNR Expo Center, Turkey http://www.idma.com.tr
n 24-26 May 2017
Livestock Philippines 2017 SMX Convention Center Seashell Ln, Pasay, 1300 Metro Manila, Philippines http://www.livestockphilippines.com
n 19-21 September 2017
Livestock Asia 2017 Expo & Forum Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre http://www.livestockasia.com
n 18-20 October 2017
ILDEX Indonesia 2017 Jakarta International Expo (JIExpo) Gedung Pusat Niaga (Trade Mart Building) Arena http://www.vnuexhibitionsap.com
n 14-16 March 2018
ILDEX VIETNAM 2018 Saigon Exhibition and Convention Center, Vietnam http://www.ildex-vietnam.com
THE EVENT REGISTER Get comprehensive event information with our events register Visit millingandgrain.com for more information
82 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
XXVIII Fefac Congress / V Animal Nutrition Congress
t is with great pleasure that FEFAC and AFACA, representing the European and Andalusian Animal Feed Industry respectively, announce the XXVIII FEFAC Congress and the V Animal Nutrition Congress in Cordoba, Spain, on 8‑9 June 2017 with the key conference theme “Facing the future together – Unlocking the potential of animal nutrition”. FEFAC and AFACA are delighted to welcome European Commissioner for Agriculture & Rural Development Mr Phil Hogan who kindly agreed to deliver a key note speech on how to improve the competitiveness of the European livestock & feed sector, with a view to the mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy. FEFAC and AFACA are proud to announce that the King of Spain, Don Felipe VI, accepted to be the Honorary President to the organisational committee of the joint congress. On the programme, FEFAC and AFACA aim to include expert sessions dedicated to the role of animal nutrition in key societal challenges including fighting antimicrobial resistance and stimulating circular economies in the feed and livestock sector. The importance of better public communication seeking to improve the sector’s image will also feature highly in the joint congress. FEFAC and AFACA expect about 550 congress delegates from EU and international feed & food chain partners as well as representatives from national and EU public administrations.
Global Miller’s Symposium he concentrated know-how of the international milling industry will be represented in Hamburg (Germany) on 20th and 21st April 2017. The ICC and the flour improvement and fortification experts from Mühlenchemie will hold the first joint Global Miller’s Symposium. The ICC (International Association for Cereal Science and Technology) and the flour specialists from Mühlenchemie invite millers to take part in an exchange of knowledge on the diverse challenges to flour, our global staple food International experts on cereals and flour from the realms of science and industry will discuss innovations and trends whilst Drew Lerner will describe the impact of climate change on grain, and Fred Brouns will challenge the apologists of “wheat as a health risk” Hamburg, 29. November 2016. Research scientists and practitioners from the worldwide milling industry will come together to share their latest information and conclusions as to how the milling industry can meet the challenges of the future. “We regard ourselves as a forum for all cereal technologists and cereal scientists the world over, and hope the symposium will network them on the global, national and regional levels”, says Michaela Pichler, Secretary General of the ICC. During the two-day meeting, 27 internationally acknowledged speakers will hold papers at the Hamburg Campus of the Bucerius Law School; their main topics will be “The Market”, “Grain Research & Quality”, “Quality Determination Tools” and “Health & Fortification”.
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12/18/14 6:11 PM
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 83
IBIE 2016 IS LARGEST IN EVENT’S HISTORY
by Prof. Dr. M. Hikmet Boyacıog ˘ lu, International Editor
ponsored by the American Bakers Association (ABA), the Baking Equipment Manufacturers and Allieds (BEMA) and the Retail Bakers of America (RBA), IBIE is recognized worldwide as the grain-based food industry’s premier trade event. IBIE brings the entire professional baking community together, offering the complete range of equipment, supply and ingredient solutions and showcasing the newest baking technology in over 700,000 square feet. IBIE is a not-for-profit organization, where proceeds are invested back into the industry. Attendees include employees of: wholesale bakeries, suppliers and distributors; supermarket chains, central bakeries and commissaries; supermarket in-store bakeries; multi-store and single unit retail bakeries; intermediate wholesale bakeries; donut, pie and cookie retailers; cake and cupcake shops; foodservice operators; tortilla producers; snack food producers; biscuit & cracker producers. Exhibitors include manufacturers and suppliers of: baking/food equipment and systems; ingredients, flavorings, spices & fillings; ingredient handling systems; packaging materials & systems; technology; sanitation equipment; transportation & distribution equipment; refrigeration equipment; business services.
The 2016 International Baking Industry Exposition (IBIE) held between 8-11 October in Las Vegas Convention Center, USA, wrapped up its largest show to date with more than 1,000 exhibitors—340 new to IBIE and a 28 percent increase over 2013—in more than 700,000 square feet of exhibit space. Attendance also continued its upward trend with more than 23,000 registered attendees—a nine percent increase over 2013 and a 65 percent increase over the last decade. Much of the growth has come from international markets with attendees hailing from more than 100 countries and making up 30 percent of the total attendance. “The quality and depth of IBIE’s attendees, exhibitors and education sessions was incredible,” said Michael J. Cornelis, Chair of IBIE. “IBIE is continually evolving and growing to meet the needs of baking industry professionals, as well as the trends in the industry, and this year we saw a record-breaking show with the largest show floor, number of exhibitors, innovation showcase and education program in IBIE’s history.” Ancient grains, sugar reduction, gluten free, clean-label and functional ingredients continue to be baking industry’s priority, according to IBIE in Las Vegas, Nevada this year. A host of thought-provoking new and returning features created an even more engaging experience for attendees and exhibitors. Highlights included the Innovation Showcase which was prominently featured in the Central Lobby for attendees to shop and see what’s new before entering the Expo Hall. In addition, the Innovation Spotlight Theater, located in IBIE’s new Idea LAB on the show floor, provided a forum for exhibitors to conduct live presentations of their top innovations. New to the show were Fresh Take Talks, presented by Grain Foods Foundation, a series of brief, informative presentations featuring influential thought leaders sharing perspectives on 84 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
consumer, nutrition and industry trends. On top of this, an expanded educational program, with 90+ sessions designed for professionals of all levels and backgrounds, highlighted the latest techniques and proven strategies for streamlining wholesale operations, improving product quality and increasing profits. More than 20 new seminars focused on the most relevant issues facing the industry today, featuring expanded content for upper management. The enhanced educational program was popular with attendees, as many sessions sold out. This year’s speakers were well-known subject-matter experts, including retail insights thought leader and former Nielsen Vice President Todd Hale, American Bakers Association’s Senior Vice President of Government Relations Lee Sanders, as well as business moguls who run the largest bakeries in the world, including Bimbo Bakeries’ Senior Vice President of Operations, Ramon Rivera. The education program began with RPIA’s Business of Baking for Beginners seminar and the Tortilla Industry Association’s two-day Technical Conference, which addressed operation skills, safety regulations, quality control, plant efficiency and best practices for the baking industry’s fastest growing market segment. Seminars at IBIE 2016 were organized into targeted tracks: AIB Technical, Retail, Bread Bakers Guild of America, International, Management, Sales & Marketing, Ingredients & Processes, Food Safety & Sanitation, and Retail Hands-on (Cake & Pastry Decorating). IBIE, together with Snack Food & Wholesale Bakery magazine, honored 50 industry suppliers and bakeries that have made a positive impact on the environment with its third annual B.E.S.T. in Baking award. The following companies took top honors in each of six categories for their products or services that foster energy conservation, a reduction in water usage, a decrease in landfill waste, healthy living and/or a reduction of the overall impact on the environment: • Equipment • Heuft Thermo-Oel GmbH & Co. • Ingredients • Palsgaard • Packaging • Citamel Packaging • Logistics • FlexiBake ERP • Wholesale Bakery • Pepperidge Farm • Retail Bakery • O&H Danish Bakery The products, innovations and education only found at IBIE are all key reasons that baking professionals continue returning to the show every three years. Overall, ancient grains, sugar reduction, gluten-free, clean-label and functional ingredients in addition to novel technologies used in baking equipment were hot topics presented and discussed during IBIE in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA this year. The next IBIE will be held in 2019 and dates will be announced in early 2017.
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SUCCESS AT FIRST POULTRY & EGG SUMMIT LATIN AMERICA
he first Latin American Poultry and Egg Summit organized by VIV Worldwide, in cooperation with the International Egg Commission (IEC) and the International Poultry Council (IPC), took place in the grand San Miguel Palace in Buenos Aires on 26-27 October 2016 after staging a successful inaugural Poultry Summit Europe in the Netherlands in May. This event attracted more tan 200 delegates from the poultry and egg industry. The two-day conference brought together regional and global poultry experts to share knowledge and experiences. The program, whose general theme was “trade perspectives for Latin America”, was divided into three chapters: Export and investment strategies, eggs and value chain and export strategies. The conference also addressed challenges involved in the prevention and management of poultry disease and its implications for trade.
Export and Investment Strategies
The first part of the conference was focused on the poultry industry situation in Argentina. Roberto Domenech, President of the Poultry Processing Enterprises Center (CEPA), spoke on the potential role of this country in the world’s broiler industry and highlighted the importance of continuing to work towards continuous improvement through RESPONSIBLE intensive productions. Javier Prida, President of the Argentinian Chamber of Commerce for Poultry Producers (CAPIA), gave a presentation on the advances of the Argentinian egg market. This country is the fifth in global egg consumption per capita (following Mexico, Japan, Ucrania and China). He spoke about the financial problems that producers are facing nowadays especially due to global oversupply and increased costs. On the other hand, International speakers such as Nan-Dirk Mulder, analyst at Rabobank International and Paul Aho, economist at Poultry Perspective, gave an overview on the opportunities for the Latin American poultry industry market from a worldwide perspective and highlighted the growth of the industry globally, especially in the East of Europe and South East of Asia. Paul Aho also spoke about the volatility of commodity prices and their effect on chicken trade. Mário Penz, Director of Strategic Accounts at Cargill Animal Nutrition, spoke about the future of poultry nutrition. Not only about costs but also about sustainability. He pointed out that in the next 25 years, poultry production would be mainly focused on biosecurity, environmental protection, welfare and food safety. He also mentioned the importance of ensuring the quality of feed ingredients (differentiating between phase and gender, particle size and pellet quality) and efficient use of additives, especially enzymes. Hans Mulder, Managing Director of the Dutch-Brazilian Chamber of Commerce, followed up with a presentation on opportunities, pitfalls and tendencies in trade and investments between Brazil and The Netherlands and the influence on neighboring countries. Ma Chuang, Vice General Manager at, Boyar, gave an overview on China trade and investment perspectives.
Egg Marketing & Consumption
The second part of the conference opened with Julian Madeley,
General Director at the International Egg Commission speaking about the world egg market. Industry representatives from Latin America shared their case studies of successful egg marketing in Colombia and Brazil and how they promote egg consumption through campaigns coordinated by the IEC. The last segment of the conference was focused on “Preparing your business to survive HPAI”. Julian Madeley discussed the importance of reducing the threat of avian influenza to the commercial laying industry and gave an update on the IEC Avian Influenza Global Expert Group composed by industry members, breeders, OIE, chief veterinary officers and leading scientists whose focus is mainly on surveillance of low pathogenic AI and biosecurity. Ben Dellaert, Chairman of the IEC, shared measures of disease control taken in the Netherlands. Dr. Travis Schaal, Internal Technical Services Manager for Hy-Line, presented the keys to surviving AI- systems and management to prevent AI. He highlighted the importance of strengthening biosecurity measures and providing continuing education for all staff in a “new normal” life where threat outside the barn door is present at all times.
Value Chain Strategies & Export
The third part of the conference took place during the second day. The first segment was focused on Food Safety. Béatrice Conde-Petit, Food Safety Officer at Bühler highlighted the importance of feed and food safety for global trade. She pointed out that the 25 percent of the world’s food crops are contaminated with mycotoxins and that 40 percent of Salmonella from laying hens carry AMR. She concluded that hygiene measures contribute to reduce antibiotics. Bouke Hamminga, Pas Reform’s international sales and business development director gave a perspective on “the sustainable hatchery,” focusing on an efficient management to ensure sustainability, food safety and animal health and welfare. Another segment of the conference, sponsored by World Poultry, was focused on responsible nutrition and challenges and new insights to profit Latin America. Nan-Dirk Mulder spoke about the dynamics of the global and Latin American grains and oilseeds market. He also explained how high grains and oilseed prices has triggered more investments in new agricultural land. Mário Penz gave a presentation on how to optimize the gut’s performance for the most efficient usage of feed ingredients. He said that it is pivotal to understand the intestinal micro biota to provide a better utilization of the nutrients. Regarding the discussion around AGP removal, Penz said that there isn´t only one solution. Producers also need to take into account biosecurity, feed quality and good management practices (density, depopulation, chick quality, environmental conditions) in order to ensure a successful poultry operation. The business vision must be holistic. The last segment was focused on Disease management, ensuring a profitable poultry supply chain in Latin America. Ben Dellaert, Avined, shared best practices implemented in the Netherlands to reduce antibiotic usage. Finally, drawing a close on the very successful first Latin American Poultry and Egg Summit, Paulo Rigolin from Alltech spoke about black head management and their antibiotic-free program whilst Paulo Raffi, Cobb shared cases of Infectious Bronchitis in Brazil. Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 87
IDMA is everywhere from Paris to China
BALANCE IS EVERYTHING!
articipating in various events at four places - Ethiopia, Cyprus, China and France - in a month, Parantez Fair team further strengthened IDMA - 7th International Flour, Semolina, Rice, Corn, Bulghur, Feed Milling Machinery & Pulse, Pasta, Biscuit Technologies Exhibition in the international market. The organizer of IDMA which is the only international technology exhibition gathering the flour, feed, rice, pulses, pasta and biscuit industries, continues to increase promotional activities around the world for 7th IDMA which will be held in Istanbul Expo Center in Yesilkoy between 4-7 May, 2017. Participating in significant events in four different countries last month, Parantez Fair team is pleased with the interest for IDMA.
First step Ethiopia
Firstly participating in IAOM 27th Middle East and Africa Region Conference organized in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia, 24-27 October 2016, Parantez Fair team met with the millers from Middle East and Africa for committee level participation to IDMA Exhibition. Considering IDMA Fair as the top issue, the millers are looking forward to be in Istanbul in May.
Power of IDMA expanded to China
Another international meeting platform of IDMA was in China. IDMA met with the industry representatives in the region during the CICFOGrain/ CICFOFeed which was organized in China 4-6 November 2016 and is one of the greatest and most effective exhibitions gathering the grain and feed industry in Asia. During the exhibition, China agency of Parantez Fair presented IDMA to the visitors and exhibitors in their own language.
Cyprus meeting with Turkish flour millers
Participating in “Government Policies and Flour Industry through 2023” Expanded Sectoral Meeting that was organized by Anatolia Flour Industrialists’ Association (AUSD) in Cyprus between 4 and 6 November 2016, Parantez Fair invited more than 200 Turkish flour millers once again to IDMA.
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Meeting with European millers in Paris
Having a booth at 67th JTIC Meeting, Parantez Fair negotiated with European millers and grain industry representatives about the visitor participation, and made participation agreements with European based technology and equipment producers.
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About IDMA fair
In IDMA Exhibition where companies developing technologies, products and services for grain and pulses industry take part as exhibitors, the latest technologies developed for flour, semolina, corn and feed mills and pulses cleaning, packaging, pasta and biscuit plants are exhibited. Besides, the latest innovations in grain storing silos, filling, conveying and unloading systems, laboratory equipment, additives, packaging machinery and equipment, spare parts and sub-industry products are presented to the taste of the visitors in IDMA. The fact that all kinds of solutions for grain and pulses processing industry are presented with all the alternatives in IDMA Exhibition enables processors from 144 countries to come together in IDMA in order to plan their investments and have necessary contacts. firstname.lastname@example.org
Prebiotic effects on the microflora in the intestine
88 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
oduktanzeige Biolex 90 x 270 International Aquafeed 06/16.indd 1
record-breaking 2,629 exhibitors and 163,000 visitors descended upon Germany’s famous Fairgrounds conference center in Hanover from November 15-18, 2016 for what has been referred to as the world’s leading trade fair for animal production, EuroTier. Covering 240,000m2 in floor space, the four-day trade show attracted an impressive 36,000 visitors from over 100 countries outside of Germany and certainly lived up to its past success. Highlighting the social, political and economic influences upon the marketplace, EuroTier’s attendees included several members of German parliament from both federal and state government, as well as high-ranking delegations from all over the world. In fact, more visitors than ever before came from North and South America, as well as from the Middle and Far East. The EnergyDecentral exhibition ran alongside EuroTier, which has established itself as the international meeting place for the innovative energy supply industry. Driving innovation and excellence, with this year’s theme of ‘animal health and welfare’ in mind, exhibitors presented product developments for a vast array of agricultural practices worldwide including breeding animals, feed storage and climate control and environmental technology. 90 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Industry events Organized by the DLG (German Agricultural Society), the trade show spanned almost 30 halls, with each offering great food, great company and most importantly of all, concrete evidence of sustainable and efficient innovation. Indeed, the interactive nature of the show once again proved to be its greatest asset with companies able to demonstrate live versions of their products in the flesh. All the stops were pulled and the companies’ efforts really couldn’t have looked any better. To give an idea of the sheer size and scale of the show and what was being shown, the majority of halls offered their own niche within the agricultural industry, ranging from breeding/hatching technology in hall 2, to compound feed, feed components and additives in halls 18, 20, 22 and 23. In hall 4 ‘poultry slaughtering and processing, egg grading and processing, special indoor emission control and poultry forum’, there was even an abundance of livestock present. Split into seven sections, the halls also included four specialist forums in cattle, swine, poultry and aquaculture. Lectures, talks and presentations were presented everyday on topical themes such as animal health, bio-safety and feeding. Now accounting for more than half of the aquatic organisms consumed worldwide (FAO 2014), Aquaculture has been an important part of EuroTier for more than 10 years and exhibitors used this as a platform to promote their latest advancements in the
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 91
Industry events fields of fish production, environmental engineering and water management. Indeed, 79 percent of exhibitors who were surveyed reported to make contact with new customers during the show, with 85 percent assessing the professional quality as very good, good or satisfactory.
Feed and nutrition at EuroTier 2016
Row upon row, there were compound feed, feed components and additives companies each offering unique products for improved animal health and welfare such as Liptosa who were showcasing their METHPLUS product as an effective and profitable substitution for synthetic Methionine in all feeds. Delacon were also present and displaying their world-leading phytogenic product lines for poultry, cattle and swine. AB Vista was in attendance and was showcasing their advanced products such as the quantumblue, which is an enhanced E.coli phytase, developed for use in monogastric feeds. Animal nutrition experts Perstorp, Nutrex, Olmix and Nutriad could also be found displaying their range of miscellaneous feed products.
92 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Industry events Feed machinery and storage at EuroTier 2016
There was also an abundance of companies that produce the machines involved with feed production and storage such as Starmax who were presenting their Turnkey Pellet Feed Factories. Zheng Chang could also be found exhibiting their high-efficiency SFSP138*60E hammer mill, whilst KAHL were showing their extruder OEE with hydraulically adjustable die. Van Aarsen, PTN and Buhler were also present, offering their own unique ranges of feed machinery products. Alternatively, Sukup were displaying their high-quality model silo for grain storage alongside Bentall Rowlands who were also offering a range of hopper bottom, smooth wall and flat bottom silos. MYSiLO and CSi were also showcasing their respective world-leading grain storage systems. Also present at EuroTier 2016 were a number of companies specializing in agricultural software, consultancy and feed management systems, as well as biomass storage, barn and shed construction and loading equipment to name but a few! Overall, I think it is safe to conclude that EuroTier 2016 offered something for every visitor amidst an inquisitive and welcoming vibe, with every hall bustling with innovation and discussion on the common goal of feeding the world sufficiently, safely and sustainably through ensuring optimum animal health and welfare. See the January 2017 edition of Milling and Grain for the second half of our EuroTier report
Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 93
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French milling industry celebrates in Paris
by Andrew Wilkinson, Milling&Grain Magazine
uch has happened in France over the past year or so that has brought international sympathy and support to the country. It almost goes without saying that some of these events, and the depth of the ensuing media coverage, may have tinged one’s perception of the country, with many visitors now approaching France with slight apprehension. But then you arrive in Paris. The looming first anniversary of the Bataclan atrocity is consigned to memory as the shear opulence of the city really puts things into perspective. Paris is a city of history, of beauty – for every one bad memory there are a million good ones and it was against this back drop that this year’s edition of Journées Techniques des Industries Cérèalières (JTIC) took place. Set within Porte de la Villette, a bustling rich industrial tapestry woven from roadways and railway lines, the Paris Event Centre’s appearance was what could best be described as functional, but not ugly by any means. However, the building and its location served to further demarcate between the work and pleasure aspect of Milling and Grain’s media partnership, all with a great exhibition stand.
Paris Event Center - JTIC's venue for the second consecutive year
Bustling first day
JTIC was held from November 9-10, 2016. The first day of the show was bustling, but not overly busy. This simmering of interaction allowed for exhibitors and visitors to converse at a not too brisk pace or volume. Inside the main hall, some 2500m2 of space was reserved for all 130 exhibitors. The show ‘furniture’ was by no means imposing and the various avenues and thoroughfares afforded were adequate to allow typical continental European-style, close-quarters mingling. As for the people, well the exhibitors were all very well informed, friendly and helpful. I am able to say first hand that compared to some others I have visited, those in attendance at JTIC 2016 were more than happy to answer all of my questions – with my more seasoned colleagues also feeling adequately enriched by those that they had the pleasure of encountering. Milling and Grain’s recent Business Development Manager in France, Antoine Tanguy, was present for both days of JTIC, along with two translated versions of Milling 96 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
Xavier Bourbon, President of AEMIC delivering the official opening keynote speech for JTIC 2016 LeSaffre's traditional brioche
(L-R)Caterina Novi, General Manager Field Sales and Laura De Grandis, Sales & Marketing Specialist from Generon (L-R): Marco Mantovani - General Manager and Marco Faggioli - Technical manager from ASM
and Grain. This JTIC was different with a new version for Milling and Grain; its sixth language edition, launching Milling and Grain for the French, North African and other French-speaking regions of the world. The reaction and feedback was fantastic for both Antoine and the French versions of the magazines. Meeting with millers, suppliers, academics, students, consultants, industry organisations and others allowed all copies of the French edition to be distributed. Its popularity was impressive. Antoine was able to network with the industry and bolster an international aspect to Milling and Grain. Milling and Grain magazine in French is proudly here to stay and it was established with the industry endorsing it from the French capital city itself. (The online edition in French can be viewed at: www.millingandgrain.fr)
About the visitors
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According to Bertrand Bouchut, Golfetto Sangati’s agent in France, although the volume of visitors was lower than he expected, those who did make the effort to battle through the wind and torrential rain to get to the Paris Event Centre were
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of ‘good quality’ and were there to do business. Set amongst the exhibitor stands, next to the champagne bar was a small café that sold a choice of either generously portioned pre-packed lunches or large snack trays within whose recesses a bounty of nutritious items could be found. Outside one could also find a small trailer selling gallettes and crepes which were delicious and provided a little bit of warm comfort, which was a huge relief owing much to the fact that there was little available within walking distance of the Paris Event Centre itself – with the scope of the term ‘walking distance’ limited vastly by the inclement November weather.
On the other side of the main exhibition hall from the outside catering was a large indoor theatre where a very busy programme of conferences was executed. Boasting four half-days of technical, economic and scientific conferences, the conference schedule was laid on by the Board of AEMIC, the association of cereal industry professionals, which is the event’s
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organising association. The programme of this year’s harvesting conference has been modified to reflect the specificities of the 2016 wheat harvest. ARVALIS-Institut du Végétal, a partner of AEMIC, shared their experiences from every segment of the supply chain, including a very informative discussion of the difficulties encountered over the past 12 months and how these issues were overcome.
Sylvia Graef, CEO, Vibronet
A dedicated application
(L-R): Sergio Antolini - MD of Paglierani, Darren Parris - Global President - Milling and Grain magazine, Andrea Nicolini Area Manager, Ocrim Paolo Carrain, Mill Service
(L) Abdulhamid Ecevicti - Marketing and Sales - Genç Degirmen
Régis Labrue, Director General, Cetec Industrie
To optimise their visit, AEMIC provided a free smartphone application dedicated to the event for download by the professionals attending, which allowed them know which other professionals are present and facilitates their scheduling of meetings. It also brings together all of the practical information on the event: a showroom map, a list of the exhibitors, a conference program and the highlights of the two days (workshops, award ceremonies, etc.). The tool was also intended to increase interactivity during talks, as
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users could ask questions of presenters via the application.
Featuring innovation, the workshops allowed cereal industry suppliers and service providers to present their latest products and services developed for producers, processors and users of cereals and cereal products. AEMIC offered visitors the ability to run a 30-minute conference with a potential audience of 50 customers and prospects. In one workshop, on Thursday November 10, a new product from Chopin Technologies, Amylab FN was featured. This product is to measure the Hagberg number for wheat, rye and barley. This product is safer than other products that can determinate Hagberg number, because there is no boiling water or glass tubes, indeed the product has an aluminum tube, plus it is patented. It also uses no tap or cooler, only a 220V electrical power source. The heating process is through a patented induction system. But the major asset of this product is that it allows the user to save time, a very useful need when
(L) Ricardo Pereira, President of Sangati Berga
Daniel Kreissel, sales manager, Agromatic
Jan Luup, CEO and Nina Lindstrรถm, Sales & Customer Relations from CGrain
Petkus team with Darren Parris
The Erkaya family
Alapala: Cagdas Ingin
L-R, Martin Gallot, Sales and Product Engineer and Rita Teixerira, Product Manager - QualySense Golfetto Sangati
100 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
The FOSS team Buisine and Sefar with Darren and Antoine
there have a lot of different tests to run at once in a laboratory. The new test method only take 90 seconds and is called the Testogram. It measures the Hagberg number by measuring the viscosity of the product when it is shaked. The user can also save time with the cleaning part, compared to other products in the market.
Charles Loubersac D'Hôtel (L-R): Benoit Declemy - Business Manager and Claire Thomas - Southern Region Sales Manager from R Biopharm France
(L-R) Stéphanie Urraca - Commercial and Technical Engineer at Böcker France and Fabien Varagnac Technical Sales Manager -Mühlenchemie
The research carried out by schools, laboratories, institutes and firms in the cereals world was presented in the form of posters. Two prizes, jointly awarded by the technical, economic and scientific journal, Industrie des Céréales and Chopin Technologies, were presented to the most promising work with short- and long-term potential. This year’s edition of the show intended to consolidate its 2015 successes, which crowned JTIC’s return to Paris. Last year, the event attracted more than 120 exhibitors and 2600 visitors over two days, a 30 percent increase in footfall; of whom, 18 percent were international. We are sure there was an increase on this in 2016 and another resounding approval of the high standard of visitors, products and level of conferences and workshops.
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Milling and Grain - December 2016 | 101
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102 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
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103 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
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+44 1242 267703
International Milling Directory
+44 1473 829188
+44 844 583 2134
+34 957 325 165
Fundiciones Balaguer, S.A.
Nawrocki Pelleting Technology
+90 332 2391016
+90 (364) 235 00 26
+48 52 303 40 20
+44 115 9813700
DSL Systems Ltd
Silo Construction Engineers
Training Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11
Chief Industries UK Ltd
+44 1621 868944 Fundiciones Balaguer, S.A.
+90 322 428 3350
+1 913 338 3377 www.iaom.info
+49 271 3758 0
IFF +495307 92220 www.iff-braunschweig.de
+90 444 0894
+1 519 627 8228
Kansas State University +1 785 532 6161 www.grains.k-state.edu nabim
Roller mills Alapala
+90 212 465 60 40
+90 382 266 2245
IMAS - Milleral
+90 332 2390141
+90 382 2662120
+44 2074 932521 www.nabim.org.uk Ocrim +39 0372 4011 www.ocrim.com
Valves +1 785 825 7177 email@example.com
The print edition, the world’s premier directory for flour, feed, seed, rice and grain milling and handling industries
www.vortexvalves.com Rota Val Ltd +44 1249 651138 www.rotaval.co.uk
Weighing equipment Imeco +39 0372 496826 www.imeco.org Parkerfarm Weighing Systems
www.internationalmilling.com T: +44 1242 267703 / F: +44 1242 292017 / firstname.lastname@example.org
+44 1246 456729 www.parkerfarm.com
Yeast products Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030
104 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
The career hub Milling and Grain recognises that both milling companies and those
- Research Program Director - Enzymes
supplying the milling industry with both equipment and services are
finding it increasingly difficult to recruit staff from within the industry
internationally. The shortage of the right people in our industry being
- Research Program Director - Gut
aware of jobs on offer is likely to slow the development of milling and its
related sectors globally. Therefore,Â Milling and Grain is devoting a page
to this important subject - alerting readers to job opportunities. This is not a recruitment page, this is simply an attempt to bring to readers attention the job opportunities they might not otherwise be aware of. Contact email@example.com for more information about listing a job vacancy. To make it easy to identify the type of job you are looking for, we have the following colour coding: Junior Specialist / Manager Senior
- Master Data Coordinator (m/f) Austria #9543 - Masterarbeit Zellkultur (m/f) Austria #9641 - Product Manager - Microbials (m/f) Austria #7081 - Quality Associate (m/w) Austria #9801
- Sales Manager for Poultry Nutrition (m/f) Poland #3141
- Sales Manager for Swine Nutrition (m/f) Poland #8541
- Technical Sales Manager Ruminants (m/f) Asia #7481
- Sales Manager for Poultry Nutrition (m/f) Poland #3141
- Sales Manager (m/f) Hungary #8361 - Sales Manager for Swine Nutritition (m/f) Poland #8541
To find out more about Biomin jobs simply scan the QR code and enter the job number - or visit bit.ly/biominjobs - Technical Support Specialist - RapidChek (m/f)
- Produktionsassitstent (m/w)
Austria #8861 - Food Safety Key Account Manager (m/f) - Feeding Trial Coordinator (m/f)
Austria #9061 - Production Associate (m/w) - Product Manager Phytogenics (m/f)
Austria #9161 - Regional Marketing Manager (m/f) USA #9222 - Ruminant Key Account Manager (m/f) USA #9302 - Technical Manager Swine (m/f) USA #5001
- Regional Marketing Manager (m/f) USA #9222 - Sales Manager (m/f) Germany #9701 To find out more about Romer Labs jobs simply scan the QR code and enter the job number or visit bit.ly/romerlabsjobs
- Senior Product Manager - Strategic Projects (m/f) Austria #9321 - Senior Expert Foresight (m/f) Austria #9322
- Senior Internal Auditor (m/f) Austria #9281 - Project Manager Business Applications Schwerpunkt ERP (m/f) Austria #9661
- Labortechniker QualitĂ¤tskontrolle (m/f) Austria #9401 - Scientist - Gas Chromatography (m/f) Austria #9462 - Scientist - LC Validation (m/f) Austria #9463
- Quality Specialist (m/w) Austria #9721 To find out more about Erber jobs simply scan the QR code and enter the job number - or visit bit.ly/erberjobs
Biomin was established on 1st January 1983. However, Mr Erber was in the industry before this, selling pre-mixes and feed additives to the industry and some large farm integrations. He started to develop a vision to have something that could replace anti-biotic growth promoter. This is where Biomin came from. In the beginning, it was an anti-biotic or pro-biotic containing premix range, the success rate of this pre-mix range was limited, simply because the sophistication of the pro-biotic production at that time was not there. “But it was an early start” imparted Me Erber, adding that, “so we learnt our lessons and committed our failures.” In 1985 Mr Erber bought a small company from Professor Halimut and in this pre-mix production facility, Professor Halimut produced a product which was the first of its kind to de-activate mycotoxins. Relatively speaking, mycotoxins was at that time was a very general term, and so the Taiwanese came in 1988 and asked Mr Erber to join him in Taiwan to see if the Erber Group could improve the product version, and to conduct more trials and so on.He says he thought, "okay why not, I had never been to Asia so I flew there, to Singapore, Malaysia and Taiwan at that time". The Taiwanese company were “very happy” with the product, with customers paying large sums of money for it. “It wasn’t really making sense,” stated Mr Erber, “Then I started to think, there must be a reason for this; if you look at the range of mycotoxins and their chemical structure, they are all different.” Together with Professor Libensayer, the Erber Group then conducted a study into the efficacy of Anti-Tox, using a stomach fluid model, they took stomach or intestine fluid from slaughtered pigs, put the Anti-Tox+ in with different doses and the result was very clear. Aflotoxin had a binding rate of 99.9 percent but does nothing. So when we look at the mode of action, we can begin to understand how the binders work, and that Aflotoxin is a polar mycotoxin.
Do you believe that there is an issue relating to human health that we need to address with regards to mycotoxins? Absolutely, there is an impact on human health. Look at Aflatoxin, it is the most carcinogenic, it is the first to regress as far as human nutrition and health go. Unfortunately these things happen where the population is the poorest, and anything you want to do always requires money and an infrastructure. To add in binders for example, that you might be selling in South Africa, someone on a higher level like the UN need to be looking for some program to run, and if they say that aflatoxin is the highest, then you can do something about it. We have technical solutions, but I cannot go into Africa and sell something to each and every person. The product must enter the supply chain before it hits the customer.
You talk a lot about the importance of science, with science coming first in your three S’s. On behalf of the industry, how are you communicating these messages across to the consumers? If science is so important to us, then what should we be doing to bring consumers along on the journey?
This has always been a big question. We were just discussing it yesterday, how to get the message across to the consumer. At the end of the day, if you are against something, it is easier to communicate than if you are for something. This is a big issue that I do not understand in our society. If you are against anti-biotics, you are against caged eggs, or some form of abuse, it is easy to communicate, but if you are for something it becomes much harder to communicate. I am not a psychologist but it seems to be a human phenomena. For us to bring the information to the consumers, it is difficult as we are B to B (business to business),
106 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
for us to communicate with the consumer, it is a long way down the chain for us to move. I feel an advantage we have is choosing the name Biomin, let’s say I’m sitting next to someone and they ask what I do, I say Biomin, we take care of health and nutrition. And that’s it, it is positive, right?
Mr Erber, would you say based on your own experiences, that you think you already have the attention of millers? And would you say that they are convinced that mycotoxins are in fact a serious issue?
Millers are the most difficult to convince, because as long as they don’t have a mycotoxin problem, then they have no problem. I remember a very long time ago I was visiting a feed mill in Singapore. I made my appointment, and introduced what was Anti-tox+ at that time. After my presentation the guy said to me “Eric, this is very nice, but we don’t have any need for your product because we have a lab testing our mycotoxin occurrence”. I was shocked to hear this, so I saw their lab and there were just a few test kits on the table. I thought if it is this easy to test, then perhaps my business model will not fly. Following this I learnt that in America, every flour mill must test for the UN, where one ppm is the cut off range, and anything over that goes somewhere else.
What is Biomin’s long term vision?
The long term vision is to create something that can make a difference, and the difference at that time was simply a good relationship with a long-standing friend Dr Edgar who was the first pro-biotic producer in 1977, I was using his products in my previous company and I thought that we together could make something that was different.
PEOPLE THE INDUSTRY FACES Named 2014 Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum, Devry Boughner Vorwerk to lead corporate affairs for Cargill
s Vorwerk was with Cargill for nearly 12 years before leaving in early 2016 to join Akin Gump, a Washington D.C.-based law firm, where she was a senior policy advisor in the firm’s public law and policy practice.
In her new role as Corporate Vice President, Ms Vorwerk will oversee Cargill’s global branding, communications, corporate responsibility and government relations efforts.
Devry Boughner Vorwerk
Cargill Chairman and CEO David MacLennan says, “Devry is a leader in global food, agriculture and nutrition, with a great mix of education in agriculture, work experience in government, leadership in non-profits, and management experience at Cargill. Not only is Devry highly qualified to lead Corporate Affairs, she is passionate about advancing the company’s vision and purpose to be the leader in nourishing the world in a safe, responsible and sustainable way.”
While at Cargill previously, Ms Vorwerk specialized in Cargill’s Asia Pacific trade and investment policy strategies. She also managed Cargill’s international government relations in Washington, D.C. and oversaw Corporate Affairs for Latin America. Prior to joining Cargill, Ms Vorwerk worked at the US International Trade Commission in the Office of Industries and as economic advisor to the chairman. She also served as senior economist in agricultural affairs at the Office of the US Trade Representatives, which is part of the Executive Office of the President. “I am honoured to rejoin Cargill at this important time in our company’s history,” said Ms Vorwerk.
“We have more than 150 years of experience in advancing food and agriculture development, and the successes of the past are strong indicators of our ability to lead in important areas going forward. Cargill’s commitment to sustainability, nutrition and food security is what drew me back to the company. I am eager to work with Cargill’s businesses to address the root causes of undernutrition and obesity.”
Vince Peterson voted upon unanimously to follow Alan Tracy as US Wheat Associates President in 2017
t their fall meeting November 5, 2016 in Denver, CO, the US Wheat Associates (USW) Board of Directors unanimously selected Vince Peterson as the next President of the organisation replacing Alan T. Tracy, who plans to retire in July 2017. Peterson currently serves as USW Vice President of Overseas Operations.
USW is the industry’s export market development organisation, representing the interests of US wheat farmers in more than 100 countries. “First I want to thank the board for their confidence in me following the great work that Alan has done leading this organisation for the last 20 years,” Peterson told the farmer directors. “This day would not be possible for me without the work and support of all the overseas staff and my colleagues here in our US offices. I want all of them and the board to know that I will do all I can to continue this organisation’s strong service to American wheat farmers and their overseas customers.”
USW Chairman Jason Scott, a wheat farmer from Easton, MD commented, “The entire board believes that Vince Peterson is the right person at the right time to fill the President’s position after Alan retires. He has spent his entire career in the grain trade and has been a steady hand directing overseas marketing efforts for USW over the last 31 years. This also represents a very practical way to make this transition.” Alan T. Tracy
Tracy has commented, “Vince has been one of my senior staff colleagues from the time I accepted this position in 1997 and I had no hesitation recommending him as my replacement. We will have plenty of time to look back at my work here, but for now I offer my sincere congratulations to Vince and I look forward to working with him and the board to make sure this organisation doesn’t miss a beat.”
Mills Archive appoints first qualified archivist
he Mills Archive has appointed Nathanael Hodge as its first qualified archivist. The Archive exists to preserve the history of milling from its earliest origins to the present day. Its collections are growing rapidly and Nathanael will be responsible for ensuring they are cared for to the best professional standards.
Nathanael holds a BA in English Language from the University of Manchester and has been gaining experience at the Archive while completing his qualification in Archives Management from the University of Aberystwyth, South Wales.
108 | December 2016 - Milling and Grain
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