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• The benefits of extrusion cooking

In this issue: •

The influence of temperature, humidity and airflow on the grain drying process

• Cut operating

costs! - Energy savings in drying technology for agricultural products

The law of diminishing returns:

- consequences for feed enzyme strategy

An innovative approach to animal diet formulation

Global grain & feed markets

A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891







Protecting valuable grain Mühlenchemie strengthens its presence in Africa and the Middle East Flour milling calibration package for DA7200 Mogensen introduces new website Kiotechagil launches Neutox - a new integrated mycotoxin elimination system General Mills Inc and Insta-Pro International form partnership A myriad of new innovations Product warning issued for UK Feed Mills Bolt ‘n’ Go Chain & Flight System explanation and case Study


Publisher Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace, St James’ Square Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Fax: +44 1242 267701


The benefits of extrusion cooking The law of diminishing returns: consequences for feed enzyme strategy The influence of temperature, humidity and airflow on the grain drying process Cut operating costs! - Energy savings in drying technology for agricultural products An innovative approach to animal diet formulation

Production Editor Nicky Barnes Tel: +44 1242 267707 Design and Page Layout James Taylor Tel: +44 1242 267707


Circulation & Subscriptions Manager Tuti Tan Tel: +44 1242 267707

Book Review

International Marketing Team Caroline Wearn Tel: +44 1242 267707


Raw material outlook, by John Buckley

Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries 2010 - At a glance

4 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 12 16 20 24 28 34


Classified section


Sabby Major Direct: +44 1242 267707

Ev en ts


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More information

Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any


means without prior permission of the copyright owner.

volume: 121 number 5

issn No: 1466-3872


Guest editor - Joel Newman, AFIA


he American Feed Industry Association (AFIA), based near Washington, D.C., USA, is the recognized leader on international industry issues and developments. Members include more than 500 domestic and international companies and state, regional and national associations.

The Future Issues Impacting the US Feed Industry AFIA is particularly proud of the Safe Feed/Safe Food (SF/ SF) Certification Program. The SF/SF program includes more than 380 feed mills and feed-ingredient facilities operated by more than 100 companies in the US and Canada. The SF/SF program is an independent, third-party-certified program that promotes feed safety accountability and leadership at feed facilities. A similar program, the International Safe Feed/Safe Food (I-SF/SF) Certification Program, launched in mid-2010, as a result of an alliance AFIA struck with FEFANA, the Feed Additives and Premixtures Association of the European Union. FEFANA is the developer of the Feed Additives and Premixtures Quality Systems, or FAMI-QS, program. I-SF/SF is designed to help US facilities trade with European customers by illustrating compliance with the EU’s feed hygiene regulation 183/2005. Two US facilities have received certification and many others are in the process. Much of AFIA’s focus is on the US federal government, which includes the US House of Representatives, the US Senate, the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency. The association also works with agencies and legislatures in individual states. A few of the issues AFIA recently addressed include commodity-market regulation, Salmonella, reportable food registry, ingredient approvals and the use of animal-health products in livestock and poultry. AFIA has worked with FDA officials on the Reportable Food Registry in the area of the transfer of products and on the agency’s new Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) on Salmonella. The new CPG on Salmonella will lessen regulatory detentions of imported ingredients at our borders and lower anxiety over Salmonella sampling in feed. However, the new issue of higher liability for finding the rare serotypes referenced in the CPG remains and AFIA will be addressing this through research studies. AFIA’s Pet Food Committee, with review by other committees, will also be issuing a new Salmonella Guidance for Control document shortly to assist the industry on this important matter. The process for defining and approving ingredients used in livestock feed and pet food in the US has received renewed attention from AFIA, and already the effort is showing. Not long after AFIA formed a new committee to focus on issues surrounding ingredient approvals, FDA officials established

2 | September - October 2010

a new ingredient safety unit within its Center for Veterinary Medicine. Members of AFIA’s Ingredient Approval and Definition Committee met with members of the new FDA unit, which will include five scientists when fully staffed, and the experience was quite positive. Further, FDA has started a new system for granting notifications of Generally Recognized As Safe, or GRAS, status for new feed ingredients. This is another mark of success for AFIA, which has urged FDA for some years to allow an additional path for GRAS notification. Regulatory and legislative issues, both domestic and international, will continue to be of utmost Joel Newman, AFIA importance for the association in the coming year. Food safety, in particular, has been the subject of much activity in the US Congress for over a year. AFIA succeeded in persuading key lawmakers to include language in the bill that would establish “firewalls” to separate the regulation of food intended for individuals from the regulation of feed intended for livestock, pets and other animals. This is important because US laws and regulations must clearly distinguish regulatory priorities and systems particular to human food and animal feed. If this does not occur, feed for animals will be inspected and regulated in the same manner as food for families, and the feed industry could be burdened by regulations inappropriate to commercial feed mills and their products. Joel G Newman, president and CEO of AFIA, represented the association at the annual Codex Alimentarius Commission meeting in Geneva, Switzerland in July 2010. At this meeting, the commission agreed to establish a time-limited task force on feed, chaired by Switzerland, to specifically complete the following two items: Development of guidelines for governments on the application of Codex risk-assessment methodologies for various hazards related to contaminants/residues in feed and feed additives used for food-producing animals; and Development of a prioritized list of hazards in feed ingredients and feed additives for governmental use. AFIA was very involved in the process when the US drafted the adopted terms of reference for this task force to ensure it remains specifically focused on these objectives. AFIA will actively participate as part of the US delegation on this task force. Sustainability for the feed industry has increased in importance in recent years. AFIA membership and staff have defined a sustainable feed industry as one that provides a continuous, safe and nutritious feed supply for poultry, livestock, fish and pets in a manner that optimizes environmental quality and the use of natural resources, while positively affecting the social and economic wellbeing of customers, their communities and the industry. In the coming year, the association will work hard to assist its members in meeting these objectives.

&feed milling technology


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How Tapco Buckets Help Maintain a Family Tradition of Quality

For more than 90 years, European Machine Trading has maintained their reputation as a high quality, family-owned business. In 1988, the former feed mill decided to manufacture elevators, transport conveyors, bagging machines and other equipment for feed mills, fertilizer plants and dealers. However, one thing stayed the ® same...quality. STYLE SUPER EUROBUCKET

“Our company has been built on quality,” Gustaaf Zeeman of European Machine Trading says. “And quality is what we want in our products. When you make a machine, the components you select must be the same quality, which is why we chose Tapco buckets.” HEAVY DUTY Polyethylene Elevator Bucket Polyurethane • Nylon

“The polyethylene Tapco Super EuroBuckets are strong, which is important to fertilizer plant managers. They are tough enough to handle heavy loads, yet flexible, so they absorb impact from elevator legs, bypass obstructions and return to their original shape. And, they don’t rust!” With 900,000 buckets in 60 sizes, stocked throughout the world, Tapco can help take a load off of your mind – and elevators, too. Call us at +1-314-739-9191 or visit to find out why 75% design engineers, contractors and FANGED HEAD bucket elevator manufacturers in the Elevator Bolt U.S.A. specify Tapco* with no equal. FLAT COUNTERSUNK HEAD (NO. 1 NORWAY) Elevator Bolt


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September - October 2010



o l l ow i n g a d i f f i c u l t , protracted and sometimes wet har vest , growers should make sure that they keep a close eye on their grain stores and treat with Silico-Sec before grain pests add to the problems and spoil the harvest. This year with excellent wheat and oilseed rape prices, growers must protect their investment in store, as loss of quality will erode potentially promising returns, reminds Interfarm UK Ltd. “This year growers will need to be proactive in preventing insect pest and mite damage. Prevention is better than cure, and this is particularly true with high value grains. Storage pests cause direct damage to grain and also create conditions in which fungal growth can occur, all of which will adversely affect quality and returns,” says Dr David Stormonth, technical manager for Interfarm UK Ltd. Silico-Sec is an ideal preventative treatment to protect harvested grain from infestations. 4 | September - October 2010

Derived from diatomaceous e ar t h ( DE ) , Silico - Sec is a b i o p hy s ic a l t re at m e n t , consisting of highly micronised specif ic amorphous silic a (silicon dioxide), explains Dr Stormonth. “The silica in SilicoSec abrades and damages the cuticles of insects and mites, removing the waterproofing waxes and resulting in desiccation and death of the pests. It is a proven, nonchemical method of controlling a broad range of the common insect grain pests, including grain weevils, saw-toothed grain beetles, red-rust flour beetles, cosmopolitan food mites and flour mites. Being a biophysical product, it will control any pest, including mites, with no issues of resistance, residues or restrictions associated with chemical-based treatments. “As a treatment to stored grain, Silico-Sec is applied to the grain surface, either as a low cost preventative treatment at a rate of 200g/m² or as a localised curative application at the rate of 600g/m², depending on the

extent of the problem. It should be applied to the surface of stored grains after the heat and moisture content have been reduced within the HGCA guidelines and then worked into the top 30 cms with a rake,” advises Dr Stormonth. “Most infestations are found in the surface layers of grain piles, as this is where the insect pests can move more easily and can access oxygen. Surface layer treatments can therefore be highly effective in both prevention and cure of pest infestations, but only if used as part of an integrated strategy for grain store management, together with temperature and moisture control.” Dr St or mont h re mind s growers that Silico-Sec is a natural, non-toxic alternative to OP treatments, which can not leave any chemical residues and can be used in conventional and organic farming systems. Silico-Sec contains up to 96 percent inert silicon dioxide as a diatomaceous earth powder derived by a special process and consisting of highly micronized

amor phous silic a ( silicon dioxide). It can be used either as a store treatment or on stored feed wheat, barley and oilseed rape (but not milling wheat as yet) for the prevention of invertebrate pests such as mites, weevils and beetles as part of an integrated storage management strategy. To treat store fabric, SilicoSec is applied as a dry dust at a rate of 10gms per square metre. It has both protectant and curative activity. It is packed in 15kg bags and is available exclusively from Interfarm distributors.



Dr David Stormonth Technical Manager Interfarm UK Ltd Kingham’s Place, 36 Newgate Street Doddington Cambridgeshire PE15 0SR United Kingdom Tel: +44 1354 741414 Fax: +44 1354 741004 Email: david.stormonth@

&feed milling technology




September - October 2010

Mühlenchemie strengthens its presence in Africa and the Middle East


a qualified employee who will be able to implement our corporate philosophy in far-away markets”, says Mühlenchemie’s managing director Lennart Kutschinski. “His duties will lie mainly in the sales sector and in advising the local mills on how to use our products. In many parts of Africa and the Middle East, more and more flour is being produced and

s the new regional sales manager, Laurent G uérindon will be responsible for extending the activities of Mühlenchemie GmbH & Co KG of Germany in Africa and the Middle East. Born in France, Guérindon has years of professional experience and is already familiar with the region and the industry through his previous post as a Bakery Segment Manager in the food ingredients industry. “We are glad that in Laurent Guérindon we have found

the methods are becoming increasingly professional. The big gest challenges to millers lie in optimizing their processes and enhancing the quality of their products. Individual solutions can only be found through direct contact with the customer,” says Mr Kutschinski. A further task of Mühlenchemie is to support companies and government programmes in their

efforts to fortify flour, as a basic food, with vitamin A, iron, zinc, the B vitamins and folic acid. In this way it is possible to reduce the rate of sickness and mortality caused by malnutrition resulting from an inadequate supply of vitamins and minerals. More


Nicole Schulze Marketing
 Mühlenchemie GmbH & Co KG 
 Kurt-Fischer-Straße 55 
 22926 Ahrensburg, Germany 

Flour milling calibration package for DA7200


erten Instruments releases a flour milling calibration package for the DA7200 NIR Analysis System. It enables flour millers to analyze wheat, flour, ingred i e n t s a n d byproducts in one instrument, with unparalleled accuracy. The DA7200 is already

used extensively in the flour milling industr y and this calibration package further expands its benefits. Its accuracy, speed and flexibility make it especially suited for analysis of the l arge spec trum of produc t s in this industry. This calibration package includes calibrations for a wide range of prod-

&feed milling technology


ucts and parameters and allows flour millers to: test incoming grain and additives against specifications monitor and optimize the milling process test finished flour and byproduct quality Ash, protein, moisture, starch damage, water absorption and a wide range of other quality parameters are available. The DA7200 is built on the same platform as the DA7300 On-line NIR and calibrations are fully transferable between the two

models. This means you will have full agreement between analyses done in-line and in the lab. More


Magnus Lindgren Business Area Manager – Flour Milling Perten Instruments AB PO Box 5101, 41 05 Kungens Kurva, Sweden Tel: +46 8 880990 Fax: +46 8 881210 Email: Website:

September - October 2010 | 5

September - October 2010


Kiotechagil launches Neutox

- a new integrated mycotoxin elimination system


iotechagil, the international supplier of high performance natural feed additives, has launched Neutox, a new broad spectrum toxin binder which has added mould control. Mould growth, which is directly related to moisture content, proliferates under a wide range of conditions and

produces secondary toxigenic fungi known as metabolites. More than 350 types of mycotoxins have been found with many being harmful, even at low levels. Mycotoxins are now widely recognised as being one of the biggest problems associated with feed and raw materials affecting both animal health and performance. “Our new Neutox product comprises four active components which aim not just to control an existing problem but to remove the problem wherever possible,” said M ike Roge r s b u sine s s development director at Kiotechagil. “ We c o n ce i ve d t h e product to be used as a routine in order to avoid animal health problems and to maintain performance.”

Mogensen introduces new website


ogensen recently published its new website, which provides a detailed overview of the Mogensen range of vibratory raw materials handling equipment and the industries served by the company. The equipment range includes Mogensen Sizers, conventional vibratory screens, vibratory feeders and conveyors and compacting tables. Industrial applications are to be found under the headings, minerals processing, recycling and waste

6 | September - October 2010

management, chemical industry, animal feeds and human food. The site with its clear section headings and links is very easy to navigate. The equipment range section features short, introductory paragraphs for each type of machine, and offers the option of accessing more detailed information in each case. This time-saving structure avoids the need, sometimes encountered, to scan through text, w h ic h m ay be of no particular interest at a

The four active components of Neutox are hydrated silicates, which specifically binds polar mycotoxins such as aflatoxin, orchratoxin and fumonisin as it is critical to minimise the impact of these toxins which can affect the liver and kidney. The second is purified primary

growth yeast cell wall and is effective against non polar toxins, commonly field mycotoxins, which are predominantly based on Fusarium growth. The third, Kieselguhr compliments the activity of the hydrated silicates and maintains the free flow characteristics of the product and finally propionic acid which, in a safe

given time, before reaching the required data. The section dealing with the Mogensen Sizer explains the important differences between conventional screening and the Sizer approach, which involves the principle of probability screening, whereby sloping screen decks and apertures larger than the aimed-for cut-point are used to reduce significantly the risk of pegging and to improve substantially the

to handle form, inhibits new mould growth and prevents new toxins in feed and raw materials. “All the components of Neutox have been shown not to bind nutrients in the feed and we are very excited about its the prospects,” said Kiotechagil’s Mike Rogers. “Neutox has seen sig ni f ic ant t ake u p in countries where it has been trialed and we are now looking to roll it out across other markets.”



Kiotechagil Hercules 2, Calleva Park Aldermaston Reading, RG7 8DN United Kingdom Tel: +44 1189 813333 Email: Website:

relationship of throughput to occupied floor space. The technique is explained using cle ar diagr ams and straightforward text. The site as a whole details the advantages of the Mogensen Sizer, and also indicates the appropriate range of application. The site will be steadily updated and edited with the addition of news items, press releases and case studies. More


James Hornsey Sales Manager John Taylor - Applications Engineer Mogensen Raw Materials Handling, Harlaxton Road Grantham, Lincolnshire, NG31 7SF, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1476 566301 Fax: +44 1476 590145 Email: Website:

&feed milling technology



September - October 2010

General Mills Inc and Insta-Pro International form partnership


n s t a - P ro I n t e r n a t i o n a l of Des Moines, Iowa and General Mills Inc (GMI ) headquar tered in

Minneapolis, Minnesota both in the USA, have announced their newly formed partnership.

About Insta-Pro International: Insta-Pro International manufactures and promotes extrusion and oilseed processing technologies worldwide. With a presence in over 100 countries, Insta-Pro International’s chemicalfree, environment ally safe technologies provide safe, efficient and effective solutions for the food, feed and biofuel industries. To learn more, visit About General Mills: One of the world’s le ading food companies, General Mills o p e r a t e s i n m o r e t h a n 10 0 countries and markets more than 100 consumer brands, including Cheerios, Häagen-Dazs, Nature Valley, Betty Crocker, Pillsbury, Green Giant , Old El Paso, Progresso, Cascadian Farm, Muir Glen and more. Headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, General Mills had f iscal 20 09 global net sales of US $15.9 billion, including the company’s $1. 2 billion proportionate share of joint venture net sales. In 2008, as part of its larger commitment to Africa, the company launched the General Mills Technology & Business Skills Transfer Initiative, which brings the technical and business expertise of its employees to bear on the challenges and opportunities of small and medium -sized food processing enterprises in Africa. Visit

&feed milling technology


This par t nership suppor ts the work General Mills is doing in Africa that links the technical and business expertise of volunteer employees at General Mills to small- and mediumsized mills and food processors in Africa. General Mills’ goal is to improve the ability of those African companies to produce high-quality, nutritious and safe food at af ford able prices and increase demand for the crops of small farmers w h o s u p p l y t h e se businesses. InstaPro International, a technology leader in low cost, high shear extrusion, has had a presence in Africa for over 20 years creating a tremendous fit with t his G e ner al M ills initiative. With this partnership, Insta-Pro International will encourage clients and prospects to take advantage of General Mills expertise, provide technology consultation, and provide high quality equipment and support.

Kevin Kacere, president and CEO of Insta-Pro International, says “ Inst aPro International has been successful for many years p rov i d i n g f o o d a n d f e e d processing solutions which me e t t he ne ed s of m any producers in these African countries. “We are pleased to partner with General Mills providing the equipment and knowhow to use within General Mills’ volunteer initiative to assist small to medium sized processors in Africa. “In addition, we are happy to provide General Mills with t he a s sis t a nce t o e x p a nd their initiative through the many current relationships we have in Africa and with f u t u r e m a r ke t i n g o f t h i s initiative.” Likewise , Gener al M ills will encourage its African par tners to use Inst a- Pro equipment when appropriate, and is working with Insta-Pro in research and development of new food products focused in Africa. John Mendesh, vice president of research and development and acting A fr ic a proje c t le ad , s ays

“General Mills has a mission to Nourish Lives in Africa, and we are seeing results, but we have so much more we can accomplish. “A key to this grow th is finding the right technology p ar t n e r t o a s si s t u s , a nd our re se arch of t he right supplier of this technolog y b ro u g h t u s t o I n s t a - P ro. We a r e i n t e g r a t i n g t h e experienced Insta-Pro staff with our extrusion team to assist our partner producers with their extrusion and other processing needs.” General Mills and Insta-Pro both share the long term goal to build self-sustaining food capabilities with the people of Africa while improving local economies.



Amanda Scott Assistant Manager Marketing & Sales Insta-Pro International 4043 120th Street Urbandale, IA 50323 USA Tel: +1 515 2541260 Fax: +1 515 2765749 Email: Website:

+1 515-254-1260 • Email: •

September - October 2010 | 7

September - October 2010

A myriad of new

innovations W

ith 23 new innovations and 11 new patents, Wenger Manufacturing is once again living up to its marketing slogan - “Inventing the new original since 1935.” This time, the new originals include an innovative highintensity preconditioner for improved pasteurisation and sanitation ; a new series of thermal twin screw extruders that permit up to four times greater steam injection ; a revolutionary enhanced sanitary dryer that substantially reduces the risk of contamination, and a long list of innovations and systems designed to improve hygiene and food safety. “There are a number of trends, which are currently impacting the food industry, that affected the design process behind each of these new innovations,” says Galen Rokey, process technology manager for Wenger.

8 | September - October 2010

“Among them are higher energy costs, concerns about water availabilit y and the current economic recession, which is impacting consumer buying habits. Consequently, manufacturers desire the ability to react quickly to new market directions. “At the same time, the FDA has told the industry that it is the manufacturers’ responsibility to produce salmonella-free food, and that even pet food is considered ‘adulterated’ if it contains salmonella,” Rokey adds. “So food safety was at the forefront of product design in every case.” As an example, Wenger’s design criteria for the new sanitary dryer stated that no internal horizontal surface could be larger than five by five millimeters unless absolutely necessary. The design also called for a minimum 30-degree slope on all internal ledges, as well as the elimination of cracks and crevices in which fines and material could collect. Likewise, the new highintensity preconditioner (HIP) not only offers adjustable mixing intensities, but it enhances food safety in the process. Part of the design is a new hygienic beater that eliminates all threaded shafts, and a slide gate that reduces discharge of

under-processed material and manages water flow during the sanitation cycle. “A new series of single screw extruders are even based, in part, on hygienic features, including a st ainless-steel frame that has no seams and minimal surfaces for product accumulation,” Rokey adds. “Additionally, the SX Series, which is comprised of models from 6 to 17.5 tonnes per hour, features arcuate screw elements for more positive conveying when compared to traditional single screw extruder designs.” On the other hand, the new thermal twin screw extruders are ideal for manufacturers that want to shift their process to more favorable energy sources. Unique in the industry, the thermal twin not only provides exceptional performance with a broad range of raw materials, b u t of fe r s a t he r m a l t o mechanical energy ratio of 14 to 1 — a level previously unheard of in the industry. Capacities range up to 12 tonnes per hour. “Wenger’s new innovations also address recontamination risks,” he adds. “Knowing that fugitive dust is one of the greatest sources of recontamination, we’ve introduced a full line of hygiene products, including a hygienic pneumatic conveying system, a preconditioner slide gate and dust-tight downspout,

a new hygienic pneumatic hood and more remote control and sensor systems that provide traceability and help decouple personnel from direct product contact. “The ultimate goal in every case is to help our customers meet requirements and regulations while reducing production costs and increasing flexibility,” Rokey concludes. “We look at it as 23 more examples of Wenger’s desire to solve customer challenges.” Wenger Manufacturing, Inc, headquar tered in Sabetha, Kansas, U SA , is a global designer and manufacturer of extrusion processing systems. Wenger offers a full product line inc luding single and twin screw extruders, snack extruders, forming extruders, conical co-rotating twin screw extruders, universal pellet / cookers, dryers and flavor coating and enrobing systems for aquatic feeds, pet foods, textured vegetable proteins, and snack and cereal foods. More


Doug Baldwin Wenger Manufacturing Inc 714 Main Street, Sabetha, KS 66534-0130 USA Tel: +1 785 2842133 Fax: + 1 785 2843771 Email: Website:

&feed milling technology




September - October 2010

Product warning issued

for UK Feed Mills


he exclusive UK-supplier of world-leading component protection lubricants has issued a warning to feed mills across the country that increasing pressure from animal feed companies may mean a move to only H1 approved greases. Industrial Speciality Lubricants, the UK distributor o f W h i t m o re’s r a n ge o f products, has recently introduced a new-generation H1 approved product to meet this demand and is in talks with a number of mills across the UK and Ireland to begin supply. “Many mills have chosen to use non-food-approved greases for their bearings because they feel that the oldgeneration H1 products didn’t provide adequate component protection, but increasing pressure from animal food manufacturers is seeing the market changing” explained Leanne Combrinck from ISL. “The new-generation of products provides even more protection under pressure than non-food-grade lubricants – in fact our Medallion Extreme™ range offers protection under the most severe conditions, tripling the life of bearings even when compared to traditional favourites” she added. As well as being registered with the NSF as food grade H1 for incidental contact with food, the range of greases resist pound-out, provide extra protection, and offer a very significant reduction in product consumption. By providing appropriate protection under pressure, particularly where components are subjected to high load or

shock values, mills can also make significant savings on their bottom line according to the results of an in-depth positive cost analysis project and efficiency audit recently conducted by ISL. “A lack of protection means that bearings ne ed re pl acing f ar more frequently and the amount of product used is often also significantly higher than we’d expect” explained Leanne. “This lack of efficiency has huge cost implications, an impact on production with downtime caused by maintenance and component replacement, and an impact on energy costs  because more is required to work the machinery.” “Taking into account product costs, quantity of use, and the cost of replacing be arings – which our new lubricant reduces from an average of three times per year to just one – our positive cost analysis project has proven that many feed mills could spend just 59 percent of their current budget which is obviously a huge saving” explained Leanne. “Plus they are able to assure their customers that they only use food-grade lubricants which, while a bonus at the moment, may well become mandatory in the near future so it’s a case of acting now and making a change for the better” she added. The Medallion Extreme™ range is water resistant, so stays in place even during frequent wash

&feed milling technology

downs and is suitable for use up to 350˚F (177˚C). “Ideal for lubricating bearings,  bushings and slides, and rollers, Medallion Extreme™ also includes the anti-bacterial agent, Lubristat, to limit the growth of bacteria on, and within, the body of the grease” Leanne explained. Whitmore’s point to a recent test conducted by a major Japanese brewery specifically looking at E-coli, which showed that the Lubristat additive not only controlled the growth of bacteria but can actually exterminate an existing colony. Perfect for use across the

plant, and kosher-pareve for year-round use, the product range is already causing a stir in the feed mill sector and ISL is offering free audits of current provision for anyone interested in a no-obligation cost saving audit. More


Industrial Speciality Lubricants Castle Foregate, Shrewsbury Shropshire SY1 2EL United Kingdom

Simple pushbutton for digital results!

Tel: +44 1782 710012 Email: Wesbite:



R-Biopharm Rhône Ltd. Block 10 Todd Campus West of Scotland Science Park Acre Road, Glasgow Scotland G20 0XA

Phone: +44 (0) 141 945 2924 Fax: +44 (0) 141 945 2925

September - October 2010 | 9


mod.indd 1

06/10/2010 08:50

September - October 2010

Bolt ‘n’ Go Chain & Flight System

explanation and case Study


he Bolt ’n’ Go chain and flight system is a revolutionary assembly method for drop forged and round link conveyor chain systems. The link and flight assembly is made easier by attaching the flight to the chain link using a standard bolt and nut, with a high case hardness and high tensile hollow pin. Traditional chain systems have used pins and circlips. The problem with this system is that during any maintenance repairs on the chain, the whole chain would have to be lifted out of the conveyor to conduct repairs. This results in large down time in production and high maintenance costs. With the Bolt ‘n’ Go system, to conduct repairs such as to change flights or pins can be done inside the conveyor,

10 | September - October 2010

without even taking the tension out of the chain. Instead of welded flights, we are using bolt on flights, and again these can easily be changed without any fuss. A n o t h e r p ro b l e m w i t h traditional systems using pins and circlips, is that circlips can come off in some circumstances, causing the chain to become disconnected,

are secured using a secured lock nut, which securely holds the system together in a consistent manner, but also facilitating easy and safe removal when required. One of the first installations to use this system was in November of 2006 at CHS, Superior, WI. The facility handles several commodities, which include whe at and soybeans at the rate of around 1.0 million tons per annum.

T h e y h ave s e ve r a l d r a g conveyors, which use dropforged chain, with the traditional pin and circlip assembly. While this has proved a reliable assemble method for them, it has proved time consuming when changing out bent or broken chain flights. B i l l H o f f e r, h e a d o f m a i n t e n a n ce s a i d o f t h e system “ We installed 4B’s new Bolt ‘n’ Go chain, and I am pleased with the results. The Bolt ‘n’ Go chain is very easy and fast to install and

and again downtime. With the Bolt ‘n’ Go system, the pins, chain and flights

&feed milling technology




September - October 2010

Delivering Buckets full of experience The world’s largest range of elevator buckets With the Bolt ‘n’ Go system, to conduct repairs such as to change flights or pins can be done inside the conveyor, without even taking the tension out of the chain

maintain, as you eliminate the need to separate the chain each time while inst alling a new flight . Also there is no need to slacken of the chain or re -tension while changing flights. This alone will save untold hours on the routine maintenance of these conveyors” He goes onto to say “the Bolt ‘n’ Go system has been in service for well over 12 months, is running great and no problems”. The Bolt ‘n’ Go chain system is available for 102, 125, 142, 150, 160 and 200mm heavy metric link ranges. The system uses heavyduty Nylon flights, which bolt straight through the pins, with no need to bolt on or slide over existing steel flights. The Nylon flights also have excellent wear, streng th and resistance capabilities. The Bolt ‘n’ Go pin / bolt assembly system can also be used with the traditional welded flight system, to replace the traditional pin and circlip arrangement.

This like the bolt n go flight system is very easy to change over to for the maintenance team on site. The Bolt ‘n’ Go system is also available for round link chain, whereby the system wo r k s u n d e r a s i m i l a r sys t e m of ny lon f light s being bolted directly to the chain, in this case without pins. The Bolt ‘n’ Go system is all about making life easier for the end user, ease of use, inexpensive and above all low maintenance and down time.

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September - October 2010 | 11


Revised Buckets C2 half page 2.indd 1

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The benefits of

extrusion cooking Extruded ready-to-eat breakfast cereals have all the qualities today’s demanding consumers expect of a convenience food. They offer nutrition, taste, value and variety and are instantly available. Significantly, many breakfast cereals also benefit from a positive reputation in health terms – a growing issue in consumer choice.


he convenience factor, and the straightforward nature of the extrusion process, has been key to the steady growth of the breakfast cereal industry in recent years. For companies considering entry to the market, simple, cost-effective extrusion technology is a logical first production step. It is also a technology widely used by established multi-nationals around the world.

Twin-screw extrusion is a proven and versatile technology for cereal processing: it is the basis for products involving corn, rice, bran, wheat, barley and oats. It is a straightforward process - the extruder cooks the ingredients using a combination of heat, mechanical shear and moisture addition; flavours and colours can be added either directly into the barrel, or afterwards.

Profitable businesses Extrusion gives milling companies the opportunity to widen their business strategy by processing their own grain, adding significant value and escaping the confines of commodity pricing at the mercy of influences that cannot be controlled, including weather and speculators. 12 | September - October 2010

It is possible to enter the breakfast cereal market without the expense of marketing your own brands. The practice of independent cereal manufacturers supplying supermarkets on a contract basis, or ‘copacking’ – acting as a sub-contractor to major producers – is widely accepted. Baker Perkins has helped milling companies develop profitable breakfast cereal businesses in a number of European markets – and in another sector, supplies equipment to major UK bread bakers owned by milling organisations.

The Cereal Master EX concept Baker Perkins’ ability to extend and adapt existing extruder based cereal lines utilising a wide choice of units, with minimal investment, is a key feature of the its service to breakfast cereal producers. The ability to incorporate additional units into a line to extend end product capability is fundamental to the decision of many manufacturers to select the extrusion process – a modular approach to process design allows the system to expand as the producer’s business grows. A Cereal Master EX line producing direct expanded cereals such as corn balls, multigrain rings, alphabet shapes, and cocoa balls

can be extended with additional units and, using Baker Perkins’ process expertise, make a range of high added-value flakes, multigrain flakes and filled pillows. Co-extrusion equipment, flaking rolls, toasters, cereal cookers, syrup coating units, shredders and dryers can be added to form versatile plants suitable for a wide range of high-specification cereals produced in volume. Typical end products include a wide selection of filled pillows and a broad range of flakes, including corn and bran flakes.

Innovation Centre Manufacturers from around the world visit the company’s Food Innovation Centre at Peterborough, UK, which contains a range of production and laboratory scale equipment, including a twin-screw extruder that can be configured for a wide range of products. Customers use these facilities to develop new products and processes, produce samples for test marketing, or conduct feasibility trials – all in a confidential environment. Services include creating complete product portfolios for new producers. Customers can conduct equipment tri-

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als, develop products, train staff and produce samples for test marketing in conditions of complete confidentiality.

Extruded breakfast cereals – a healthy option Extrusion provides the ability to develop a broad spread of cereal products, and the versatility of the twin-screw extrusion process means that new products are continually being added to the portfolio. For example, breakfast cereals are the perfect vehicles for the nutritious whole and multi grain servings recommended as part of a healthy lifestyle. They are established favourites with consumers aware of the implication of diet in a healthy lifestyle.

Wholegrain products retain, after processing, all three parts of the original grain – the germ, bran and endosperm – in their original proportions: refining normally removes the

bran and germ, losing about 25 percent of a grain’s protein along with at least 17 key nutrients. With 48 grams of wholegrain recommended daily by the Whole Grain Council, and 32 grams in a typical serving, breakfast cereals are a key part of a healthy lifestyle. Multigrain products feature a combination of grains such as wheat, rye, corn, barley or rice, and offer the opportunity for cereal manufacturers to develop products with an imaginative appearance featuring new tex-

Breakfast Cereal a low cost market opportunity Multi-nationals around the world use Baker Perkins process technology to produce a vast range of market leading breakfast cereal products. But it also has the technology and expertise that is ideally suited for a business that wants to move into this market - as a small start up, own brand manufacturer for instance. With a low capital cost start that is totally flexible and scaleable Baker Perkins has the equipment and know-how to get you started in this rapidly expanding market. Make the most of this exciting business opportunity.... Call Baker Perkins today +44 1733 283000 or email

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September - October 2010 | 13


tures and colours, with a beneficial nutritional profile. Elsewhere, Baker Perkins development of new, modular dies has led to the introduction of a range of products with a distinctive surface texture. These consist of a number of individual strands, with a sweet centre. Downstream, coating with sugar can provide additional options for added-value product development. These dies can be retrofitted to virtually any make of extruder.

Shaping products Products are shaped by being forced through the die, and Baker Perkins’ ‘library’ of shapes is continually being expanded; it ranges from rings or squares to stars and letters of the alphabet. Retrofitting new dies during the mid-life cycle of an extruder can freshen a product portfolio with new and attractive brands.

14 | September - October 2010

SBX twin-screw extruder The latest generation of twin-screw extruders can produce standard, direct expanded cereals such as fruit rings, corn puffs, alphabet letters, rings, cocoa curls, oat loops and crisp rice with no further processing, except sugar coating and drying. The SBX extruder can respond to market demand for rapid changeover between products and has the inbuilt flexibility to bring new products to market quickly. The modular barrel of the SBX Master enables the length of each machine to be matched precisely to the customer’s process application, and enables extension later as production needs change. To further increase flexibility, the range of end products that can be made has been increased by incorporating a motor and gearbox able to handle twice as much torque as the previous generation of extruder. The flexible Baker Perkins die design and segmented agitator configuration - allowing quick product change-over with few change parts - has been retained, together with the high free volume agitator geometry that enables high outputs to be achieved, even on low density materials such as bran and fine milled flours. A new, high output model has been introduced, to give a capacity range from 225 2000kg/hour of direct expanded product. Cost of ownership is driven


down by design features that cut maintenance. An AC drive system is virtually maintenance free, and innovative open-frame design maximises access for cleaning and maintenance. The newly introduced splined shafts and high torque capacity of the gearbox are designed for optimum reliability and durability. Processes that require a face cutter benefit from a new design of this unit. Changing the cutter blade can be achieved in 15 minutes without stopping production. The SBX extruder is particularly easy to use, with PLC touch-screen control, and timesaving automatic start and stop sequences as standard.

Co-extrusion equipment Co-extrusion is a recent Baker Perkins innovation for the cereal industry, and provides a simple, cost-effective means of extending a product range beyond standard direct expanded cereals. It involves the simultaneous extrusion of a cereal outer shell and a filling, and extends capability through the ability to make addedvalue products with contrasting textures and colours, with innovative flavours and fillings, and with out of the ordinary shapes that catch the eye. The Baker Perkins co-extrusion system can be added to an existing twin-screw line supplied by virtually any manufacturer. The essential elements of the system are a die, pillow crimper and cream feed system. The fillings can be of virtually any colour or flavour – creams, fruit pastes or chocolate praline are typical. The product range is limited only by the imagination.

Co-extrusion die Die design is crucial in controlling shape, expansion and shell structure, and providing end products of differing formulations and shapes from a single extruder. Baker Perkins has a modular die format, which allows shapes to be altered easily and cost-effectively by changing a product-specific insert.

Pilllow-crimper The pillow-crimper provides co-extruded pillow cereals in attractive new patterns such as hexagons, ‘cats face’, chevrons and waves. ‘Standard’ shapes such as squares can also be

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produced, with outline definition much improved compared to previous generation equipment. The pillow-crimper can handle up to 12 lanes of product simultaneously, forming filled tubes into individual pillows. Easily interchangeable cutting roll sets allow pillows to be made in a wide range of shapes and sizes. The pillow crimper can be retrofitted into lines including any make of extruder.

Cream feed system The Baker Perkins cream feed system proWenger_Ad_2010_210x147mm


9:37 AM

vides accurate metering of fillings for products handled on the cutter-crimper. The system features one pump per product stream, allowing each to be adjusted independently for precise weight control. The cutter-crimper and cream feed system were developed to process the higher outputs now available from twin-screw extruders. Baker Perkins has introduced 12-stream dies with an output potential twice the previous maximums, maximising the robust power of the latest solid-barrel extruders.



Keith Graham Baker Perkins Ltd Manor Drive Paston Parkway Peterborough, PE4 7AP United Kingdom Tel: +44 1733 283469 Fax: +44 1733 283004 Email: Website:

Page 1

innovation is our enduring legacy. Since 1935, we've been helping customers solve problems and capitalize on opportunities faced by their businesses. Seventy-five years ago, a key answer was a molasses mixer. Today, the solutions tend to be more technologically complex – but our founding pledge remains unchanged. At Wenger, we innovate to solve customer challenges. And then we do it again.

Inventing the new original since 1935. SABETHA, KANSAS USA

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September - October 2010 | 15



The law of diminishing returns: consequences for feed enzyme strategy

by Dr A J Cowieson and Dr M R Bedford, AB Vista Feed Ingredients, United Kingdom


he diets of pigs and poultry are a complex matrix of nutrients variably contaminated with anti-nutrients and diluents. The digestibility of nutrients, such as fat, starch and protein, is generally high (that is, over 80%) but this can and does vary depending on a host of diet, animal and environmental factors.

fully additive with that of another unless the substrates and, importantly, the corresponding nutrients which are released, do not overlap at all. It is the purpose of the current article to summarise these principles and suggest how they be applied to the strategic selection of feed enzymes, with particular emphasis on admixtures of xylanase and phytase.

Though feed enzymes are purported to improve the digestibility of various dietary nutrients, this response will vary depending largely on the inherent digestibility of the diet prior to enzyme intervention. Thus, in diets with a relatively poor starch, protein, fat or mineral digestibility there is a greater potential for feed enzymes to elicit a beneficial response. A good example of this relationship is the effect of xylanases on ileal amino acid digestibility. Amino acid digestibility averages 80-85 percent but this is highly dependent on the amino acid in question with methionine, arginine and glutamic acid being considerably more readily digested than cysteine, threonine, serine or proline. The consequence of this is that feed enzymes will improve the digestibility of cysteine and threonine to a much greater extent than they will for methionine. So, as with many of life’s principles, the value of feed enzymes follows a distinct law of diminishing return (see Figure 1) as diet nutritional value improves. Thus, when considering mixtures of enzymes, only the first can carry its full matrix and all subsequent additives must have their contributions truncated by the contributions of the incumbents. By definition this suggests that the effect of one feed enzyme is highly unlikely to be

Non-starch polysaccharidedegrading enzymes

16 | September - October 2010

ibility of starch and fat where between 15-20 percent of the undigested fraction is rendered digestible with xylanase. Thus, the magnitude of response is largely dictated by the inherent digestibility prior to xylanase addition but a similar proportion of the undigested fraction is captured regardless of the nutrient in question. Since xylanase improves the digestibility of nutrients based largely on the quantity of the undigested fraction, any additive which improves digestibility (reducing the undigested fraction) will by definition mute xylanase efficacy.

The beneficial effect of carbohydrases on performance and nutrient digestibility is thought to be due to reduced intestinal viscosity, reduced integrity of cell wall architec- Phytase ture, improved microbial balance via removal The mechanism of action of exogenous of fermentable starch and protein and provi- phytases are quite different to xylanases. sion of oligomers from fibre digestion which Phytate represents a significant antinutriprove pre-biotic in their nature. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that a reduced intestinal viscosity may be the most immediately relevant, even in diets based on corn. According to almost 20 peer-reviewed papers (see Figures 2 and 3) which report the effect of xylanase on ileal protein Figure 1: Illustration of the relationship between digestibility, a consistent inherent ileal nutrient digestibility and the 15 percent improvement magnitude of response to feed enzymes in the undigested fraction is apparent. This consistency may only be explained ent in the diets of poultry and this antinutriby a mass average mechanism such as tive effect is expressed through a physiimproved diffusion of nutrients in the lumen ological cascade involving changes in pepsin, as no preference is evident for nutrients of mucin and NaHCO3 production. endogenous or exogenous origin. These As the effect of phytate and phytase is principles also hold true for the ileal digest- quite specific (rather than mass average) the

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general principle that is true for xylanase cannot be transferred to phytase. Thus, when the effect of phytase on ileal amino acid digestibility is plotted as a proportion of the undigested fraction the conclusions are quite different to that of xylanase (see Figure 4). Indeed, those amino acids which benefit most from phytase addition are those amino acids which are present at high concentrations in endogenous proteins such as mucins and pepsin. The net effect of this is that when phytase is present in a diet it improves the digestibility of some nutrients more than others. As the response to xylanase is largely driven by the digestibility of the diet to which it is added the efficacy of xylanase will be reduced in the presence of phytase, but not to the same extent for all nutrients.

The law of diminishing return Due to upwards pressure on the price of many commonly used feed ingredients such as corn, fat and protein sources, the use of several feed additives can be, at least at face value, attractive for poultry producers.

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The difficulty with simply adding various supplements to a ration and ascribing them the suppliers recommendations is that in most instances the magnitude of effect on for example, energetic efficiency has been assessed independent from other Figure 2: The effect of xylanase on ileal amino additives. The matrix acid digestibility (IAAD) coefficients from 19 peervalues for phytases and reviewed papers published between 1998 and 2009 xylanases (see Table 1), for example, are gener Total lysine = 1.23% ally established by feeding diets containing these Digestible lysine = 1.15% enzymes independent of other feed additives Undigested lysine = 0.08% and measuring some response criteria such as Phytase: 0.017% weight gain, conversion, bone ash, or digestibility Xylanase: 0.024% (total tract or ileal). Protease: 0.048% One practical illustration of this is in the Using phytase, xylanase and protease application of amino acid matrices for feed in combination = 0.089% improvement in enzymes used in combination. Taking lysine as an example and applying digestible lysine (i.e. from 1.15% to 1.24%). In the above example the use of supreal published nutrient release values for variplier’s recommendations for lysine results in ous commercially available products:

September - October 2010 | 17


Total lysine = 1.23% Digestible lysine = 1.15% Undigested lysine = 0.08% Phytase: 0.017% New undigested lysine = 0.063% New xylanase effect: (16% of 0.063%) = 0.010 New undigested lysine = 0.053% New protease effect: (max 30% of remaining undigested) = 0.016% Using phytase, xylanase and protease in combination = 0.043% improvement in digestible lysine (i.e. from 1.15% to 1.19%). In this second example some acknowledgement of the improved digestibility of Table 1: Example* phytase1, xylanase2 and the diet is made when phytase+xylanase nutrient release values demonstrating sub-additivity in response considering the likely effect of the next addiEconase Quantum Quantum tive. (16,000 + Nutrient (500FTU) The author submits U/Kg) Econase that this process is more logical than simply adding AvP, % 0.130 0.000 0.130 supplier’s recommendaCa, % 0.130 0.000 0.130 tions together and takes ME Kcal/Kg 45.000 100.000 116.000 into account that the opportunity for further Protein, % 0.365 0.374 0.592 improvement in digestCys, % 0.027 0.027 0.043 ibility declines as each Met, % 0.006 0.011 0.014 new product is added. Thr, % 0.029 0.025 0.043 The order in which prodLys, % 0.015 0.019 0.027 ucts are added to the Ile, % 0.022 0.019 0.033 diet will to an extent dictate their value (the first product Val, % 0.020 0.018 0.030 being more valuable than Gly, % 0.023 0.027 0.041 subsequent). Asp, % 0.024 0.024 0.038 However, this approach Ser, % 0.026 0.018 0.036 reduces the likelihood of Ala, % 0.017 0.020 0.030 overvaluing combinations of additives whose indiPro, % 0.016 0.023 0.032 vidual contributions have His, % 0.021 0.024 0.036 been assessed independent Tyr, % 0.013 0.017 0.024 of one another but whose Trp, % 0.017 0.015 0.026 combined effect is less than Phe, % 0.018 0.018 0.028 the sum of the various parts.

a new digestible lysine which is in excess of total lysine. Clearly this cannot possibly be the case and the error is in assumed additivity of matrix values across all additives. In truth only the first additive will carry its full matrix and subsequent products will have their effect muted as a consequence of the improvements conferred by the current incumbent. Thus, it is more appropriate to assign nutrient matrices as a proportion of the undigested fraction as this automatically accounts for any reduction in the undigested fraction associated with the use of other feed additives. For example, in the above example:

Leu, %




Glu, %




Arg, %




Na, %




Note that phytase and xylanase matrices are not constant and will vary depending on the nature of the diet which is fed including e.g. dietary phytate-P concentration and the quality of the corn. Thus these matrices are for illustrative purposes only and should not be considered to be absolute for all diets.


1 Quantum phytase (500 FTU/kg) 2 Econase XT xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg)

18 | September - October 2010


Conclusion Substantial confusion persists regarding the additivity of matrix values for feed additives. As there is a law of diminishing return for the incremental addition of each new additive it is prudent to calculate the undigested fraction of the diet at the level of the terminal ileum and ensure

Figure 3: The effect of exogenous xylanase on ileal amino acid digestibility expressed as a proportion of the undigested fraction. The undigested fraction ranges from 12% for methionine to 28% for cysteine but xylanase delivers around 15-16% of this fraction regardless

Figure 4: The effect of exogenous phytase on ileal amino acid digestibility expressed as a proportion of the undigested fraction. The undigested fraction ranges from 12% for methionine to 28% for cysteine. Unlike xylanase, phytase delivers between 7 and 17% improvement in this fraction, depending on the amino acid that realistic assumptions are made about the extent of improved digestibility of this fraction. Achieving ileal starch, protein and fat digestibility of 100 percent is extremely unlikely and the literature would suggest that only up to around 30 percent of the undigested fraction may be rendered digestible by enzyme intervention. With these principals in mind it is possible to assign enzyme matrices that are dynamic and consider both the sub-additive incremental advantage of each new additive as well as the quantity of substrate remaining. Further research is warranted to explore the less tangible effects of the ingestion of enzymes such as physiological changes, secretory and absorptive function differences and ultimately the effect of enzymes on nutrient requirement and the net value of energy and other nutrients. More


Dr A J Cowieson and Dr M R Bedford AB Vista Feed Ingredients 3 Woodstock Court, Blenheim Road Marlborough Business Park Marlborough, Wiltshire, SN8 4AN United Kingdom

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The influence of temperature, humidity and airflow on the

grain drying process by Joseph Shulfer, Mathews Company, Crystal Lake IL USA


rain drying is a process that is influenced by a number of different factors, some of which are more significant than others.

These include: 1) the operating plenum temperature within the grain dryer 2) the volumetric airflow rate delivered by the dryer's fan and 3) the relative humidity of the ambient air. Additionally, there are other less significant factors such as the barometric pressure influenced by weather conditions, the elevation above sea level of the dryer site, and the percentage of fines present in the batch of grain to be dried. This article focuses on the three primary factors of plenum temperature, airflow rate and relative humidity and presents some quantitative data depicting their significance.

Plenum temperature effect on drying rate The most influential factor that affects the rate of grain drying is the operating plenum temperature. The operating plenum temperature is significant because it directly impacts the Figure 1

20 | September - October 2010

drying constant and the equilibrium moisture content, two properties that heavily influence the overall drying rate of a given grain. The drying constant primarily governs how quickly the moisture within the grain will be released to the surrounding air. As the temperature of the grain increase during the drying process, the drying constant increases as well, which put simply means it will take less time to remove a point of moisture. Similarly, plenum temperature influences the equilibrium moisture content of the grain. By definition, a grain's equilibrium moisture content is the moisture that a sample of grain will eventually reach for a given grain temperature and the surrounding air's relative humidity. Because the conditions of the grain in the dryer are continuously changing during the drying process, the equilibrium moisture content of the grain will continuously change within a grain dryer as well. Furthermore, the rate at which the grain reaches the target moisture content at the exit of the dryer changes. This is represented by the slope of the grain drying curve which often times is steeper at the start of the drying process and less steep towards the end. The grain becomes ‘harder’ to dry because

the actual grain's moisture content is closer to the equilibrium moisture. This reaffirms the concept that the final point of moisture removed from a sample of grain is more difficult than the first point of moisture removed. The equilibrium moisture content of grain is dependent on the temperature of the grain. By increasing the plenum air temperature and transferring that heat to the grain, the equilibrium moisture content of the grain decreases. This means that there is a change in the driving force to dry the grain to a target moisture content. Figure 1 shows how the rate of drying changes based on four different plenum temperature scenarios. This case clearly shows that the operating plenum temperature definitely influences the rate at which the grain releases moisture in the dryer. The incoming moisture to the dryer was established at 22 percent (wet basis) for each of the four scenarios with the ultimate goal of discharging the grain from the dryer at a new moisture content of approximately 18 precent (wet basis). Each of the four operating conditions require more drying time because of the lower plenum temperature and subsequently lower grain temperature.

Figure 2

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Fan airflow effect on drying capacity As previously stated, the most influential factor that affects the rate of grain drying is the operating plenum temperature, however, another significant factor is the rate at which the heat in the plenum air is transferred to the grain to be dried. As the heated air passes over the grain in the column of the dryer, convective heat transfer is taking place between the hot air and the relatively cold grain. The rate of heat transfer is governed primarily by the volumetric airflow rate and the temperature difference between the grain and air. Because the rate of grain drying depends on the drying constant and the equilibrium moisture content of the grain (both of which are heavily influenced by the plenum air temperature), the faster the heat can be transferred to the grain, the faster the grain will give up its moisture to the air and ultimately reach the target moisture content. Therefore, the grain drying rate is influenced by the airflow rate delivered by

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Quality grain handling the dryer's fan because it directly impacts the rate at which the plenum heat is transferred to the grain. Typically, a grain dryer's fan airflow performance is based on the volume of airflow that crosses the grain column in a given period of time. This is measured in airflow per volume of grain or CFM/bushel. Calculations based on grain drying principles of airflow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and ther-

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modynamics predict the influence of fan airflow on grain drying rate for a typical allheat dryer operating with incoming moisture content of 25 percent as shown in figure 2.

Ambient air humidity effect on drying rate Of the top three factors that influence the rate at which grain will dry in a continuous flow grain dryer, the ambient air's relative humidity is the least significant. Furthermore, unlike the operating plenum temperature and the fan airflow rate, a dryer operator really has no control over the humidity. Certainly, the relative humidity of the ambient air is heavily influenced by geographic location, but it can also change over the course of the year depending on what season the dryer is operating. Operationally, there is not much that can be done to avoid the effects of humidity on the performance of a dryer because the higher humidity conditions equate to a higher amount of water vapor mixed with dry air. It is important to understand that although the relative humid-

ity of the air being used to dry grain will adversely affect the drying rate of grain, what matters more is the humidity of the air when it passes over the grain. Fundamentally, a dryer works because the incoming air is heated to an elevated temperature and subsequently increases the temperature of the grain which makes the moisture removal process of the grain easier. Unfortunately, this increase in air temperature does not help with the air-water transfer phenomenon that takes place during the drying process. Based on psychrometric principles, as humid air is heated up (in the case of a grain dryer) the relative humidity will decrease because the difference between the wet bulb and dry bulb temperature changes, however, the amount of water vapor relative to the amount of dry air will not change. Since the driving force of water being transferred from the grain to the surrounding air depends on the humidity ratio (ratio of water vapor to dry air) which remains unchanged as the air is heated up, the temperature increase of the air/grain will not alleviate the effects of humidity on grain drying. Furthermore, as the air travels through the column of grain and water is transferred from the grain to the air, the relative humidity and humidity ratio will increase making it more difficult to dry grain on the outer edges of the dryer because the temperature of the air is lower and the moisture of the air is higher.

Other considerations The three primary factors influencing the rate at which grain dries in a continuous flow grain dryer have been presented with the


idea that two of the three can be adjusted for optimal performance, plenum temperature and airflow rate. Humidity is the only factor that is outside of a user's ability to control, however adjustment of temperature and fan airflow rate may offset the humidity effect on drying. When selecting the optimal point for grain dryer operations, consideration needs to be given to the plenum operating temperature. Although the data would suggest that higher plenum temperatures will result in higher drying rates, grain quality, the potential of a fire and operating costs need to be considered. Nearly all modern grain dryers will have some means to adjust plenum temperature either manually or automatically and even more precise controls such as digital temperature control are available as in the case of all Mathews Company dryers. Fan airflow is usually established by the grain dryer manufacturer and remains fixed unless the control system utilizes a variable frequency drive (VFD) to increase or decrease the fan's speed, which will increase or decrease the fan's airflow rate. Also, in the case of a vacuum cooled dryer in which the free air flow on the suction cooled side is adjustable, varying drying rates may be achieved at the expense of elevated grain temperatures. The information presented here is by no means a recommendation on how best to operate a grain dryer, yet it is important to understand the influences that different operational and environmental factors have on the ability of a grain dryer to do its job. Grain drying and the science behind it has been around for many years. New advances in control systems which leverage the information contained within this article, are helping grain dryer manufacturers like Mathews Company design, build, and deliver the most state-of-the-art grain dryer for the industry.

About the Author Joseph Shulfer joined Mathews Company in 2009 and is responsible for all engineering and field service activities. Under the direction of Joe, his team of engineers and field service technicians design, test, and service the latest technology of grain drying equipment that Mathews Company has to offer. Prior to joining the Mathews Company, Joe held the role of engineering product manager for Eisenmann Corporation where he successfully developed and managed a product line which encompassed environmental and renewable energy solutions for the first generation corn-based ethanol plants throughout the Midwestern United States. Joe is a licensed professional engineer, holds a BS in Mechanical Engineering, and an MBA from the Webster School of Business and Technology. Mr Shulfer can be contacted by email: Mathews Company ( is a leading, family-owned manufacturer with nearly 60 years experience building grain drying products and is based in Crystal Lake, IL. The mission of Mathews Company is to design and build innovative, high quality equipment by way of engineering excellence and world class manufacturing. Our goal is building relationships that last with our dealers, customers and employees. 22 | September - October 2010

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Eco Dry at a site in Mironovka/ Ukraine, output 60 tonnes/hour (maize, 35 percent moisture reduced to 15 percent), total storage capacity 300 tonnes, installed heating capacity 16 MW

CUT OPERATING COSTS! Energy savings in drying technology for agricultural products by Franz Wiesmeier and Andreas Wolf


he proper conservation of grain safeguards its quality and therefore its value for the producer. In addition to the cleaning and actual storage of the grain, drying plays a key role. In many parts of the world, including Central Europe, the harvest moisture level lies at around 30 percent and above, so the costs incurred for drying represent a major criterion for a producer's competitiveness. With energy consumption developing more and more into a critical factor, the need to examine the efficiency of the drying plants from the point of view of profitability is also growing.

Functional principle of the continuous flow drier The functional principle (Figure 2) of 24 | September - October 2010

One disadvantage of the conventional the so-called ‘continuous flow drier’ has long been known. The first driers of this driers with turned modules is the nontype went into operation in around about uniform air velocity (mininum 2.5m/s; maximum 10m/s). This can result in the 1930. The driers normally available on the entrainment of fine seeds (rapeseed, linmarket have the supply air roofs and the seed) and small grains and therefore has a exhaust air roofs arranged in each case negative effect on performance. vertically one above the other. This means that the drying air is always directed to the product to be dried from the same side, a situation which results in non-uniform drying of the product sub-flow (see Figure 3). A far more uniform drying effect has been achieved by turning the modules and with them Figure 1 shows that the raw energy prices continue to the direction of the air grow in spite of the ‘bank crisis’ in 2008 (see Figure 4).

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Figure 2: Functional principle of the roof design - The roof ducts are open in downwards direction - On the side of the hot air hood the hot air flows over the opened roofs (red) into the product - The product is heated and transfers its moisture to the hot air - The air cools and absorbs moisture up to its saturation limit - The moist air escapes through the neighboring exhaust air roofs (blue) into the exhaust air hood and is drawn off via the exhaust air fan

The Eco Dry drier Drying with absolute uniformity and maximum saturation of the exhaust air were the goals set for the engineers of Schmidt-Seeger GmbH in Beilngries, Germany. The Schmidt-Seeger continuous-flow drier (patent pending) is the result of on-going research and development aimed at an even more efficient solution for drying grain, maize, rapeseed, rise, sunflowers and other cereals. Uniformity of aeration is achieved by dividing the product flow and rearranging the supply air roofs and exhaust air roofs. At the same time the diagonal arrangement of the roof rows ensures an absolutely uniform distribution of the air over the product to be dried (see Figure 5). Maximum absorption of moisture, that is, maximum saturation of the exhaust air, combined with

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efficient heat insulation of the grain column add up to substantial savings in the generation of air used for the drying. Less air needs

to be heated and conveyed, and the heat losses through the housing are also lower. Eco Dry thus solves all the previously mentioned problems associated with conventional roof column driers.

Eco Dry and Eco Cool An even bigger saving in energy compared to conventional driers is possible when the

September - October 2010 | 25

Eco Dry drier is

equipped in addition with the Eco Cool continuous-flow cooler, likewise from Schmidt-Seeger. In this case the savings potential lies at up to 20 percent. The idea is based on the ‘dry aeration principle’. The pre-dried product is transferred (in an uncooled state) from the drier to the cooler with a moisture content of 17 percent.

Figure 3: Continuous flow drier, technology as per 1930

26 | September - October 2010

Here the maize is slowly tempered, using the stored heat to expel the water. Through subsequent aeration in the cooling zone the Eco Cool then removes the residual moisture from the product (see Figure 6). Eco Dry and Eco Cool have been used successfully over the past three years under working conditions. Examples are shown by the following pictures of an Eco

Dry plant and an Eco Dry plus Eco Cool combination. Other innovations introduced over the past few years include the concave form of the roofs, which ensures that the same amount of air flows around each grain, and the pneumatic drier discharge. During discharge it is important above all to prevent bridging in the product flow, which in the worst case scenario can cause

Figure 5: Roof arrangement on the ‘Eco Dry’ from SchmidtSeeger

Figure 4: Conventional Schmidt-Seeger continuous flow drier

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Eco Dry plus Eco Cool at a site in Kirchham, Germany, output 11 tonnes/hour (maize, 35 percent moisture reduced to 15 percent); total storage capacity 60 tonnes, installed heating capacity 3.5MW – performance improved by Eco Cool to 13 tonnes/hour, additional storage capacity of the continuous-flow cooler 55 tonnes


the product to overheat. It must be certain that every grain spends the same amount of time in the drier regardless of whether it passes through along the edge or in the center.

All the innovations incorporated in the Eco Dry and the Eco Cool have contributed to achieving the following main goals: – Lower energy requirement – Uniform final moisture level in all product sub-flows

– Thermal loading cut by half – Reduced grain damage for all types of grain, including paddy rice – No loss of germination properties among seeds and malting barley – No loss of baking properties among bread grains Following Schmidt-Seeger's commitment to lower operating costs as one of its main goals, even grain producers in areas with high levels of harvest moisture are now able to compete on the market

Eco Dry – The new Generation of Cereal Dryers

Your benefits: ● Energy saving potential of up to 20 % (drying maize using our continuous cooling column)

● gentle drying process ● uniform drying temperatures reducing hotspots ● minimized discharge of fines (canola, flax) Contact us. We would like to discuss our dryer innovations and new developments with you.

Schmidt-Seeger GmbH Eichstaetter Strasse 49, 92339 Beilngries – Germany Telephone: +49 8461 701-0, Fax: +49 8461 701-133,

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September - October 2010 | 27


Animal feed

An innovative approach to

animal diet formulation Research into nutrition has been underway for more than 100 years

by Dr Pratiksha Saxena, Gautam Buddha University, India

A tion

nimal diet can be formulated by taking into account the properties and composiof feed ingredients.

A diet should supply all essential nutrients and energy to maintain vital physiological functions of growth, reproduction and health of animals. A quality diet should supply all the necessary nutrients in adequate quantity with high digestibility. Another important aspect is ensuring

“A diet should supply all essential nutrients and energy to maintain vital physiological functions of growth, reproduction and health of animals� good environmental conditions and animal yield based on nutrition of animal. Animals are fed with quality rations, not only to remain healthy but to be productive and efficient. Diet should be in a form that is easily acceptable to animals and have very less adverse environmental effect. All essential nutrients should be included in animal diet in adequate quantity with consideration of cost. To formulate a quality diet for animals, 28 | September - October 2010

it is necessary to analyze the feed compositions thoroughly.

Nutritional requirements

adequate rations, or of feed mixtures with well-defined nutritive properties. Relation between the nutrient ingredients was approximated by linear relationship. The data available depict linear relations between the yield and the nutrient ingredients individually, but complexity of different nutrient ingredients would possibly better described by nonlinear relations between them. Most of the previous studies show the linear relationship between the animal yields, weight gain with nutrient ingredients taking one by one. These studies do not represent the relation taking the variables all together. The present study is carried out to fulfill this motive and to extend this work to nonlinear extent. Leading to the same guideline a ration can be formulated using all its nutrient ingredients simultaneously at the optimum level. This concept of non-linear programming

Different species or classes of animals have different requirements for energy, proteins, minerals and vitamins in order to maintain its various functions like maintenance, reproduction, egg production, lactation and growth.  Selection of feed ingredients and the extent of their inclusion in mixtures will obviously depend on what nutrients they contain, and what we need to provide the animal. A number of methods have been defined for the formulation of animal diet; square method, two by two matrix methods, simultaneous equation method, trial and error method and linear programFigure 1ming method to formulate least cost diet. Every method has its own specification and limitations. Linear programming is widely used for Table1: Percentage of crude protein and the purpose of diet dry matter in feedstuffs formulation. Crude Dry Crude Basically, linear Feed Ingredient Protein Matter fat programming is a method of determining the least cost combination of ingredients, which will meet the necessary requirements. It is a mathematical procedure involving the solution of a series of equations. The fact, figures and philosophy can be integrated into ultimate objective-the formulation of nutritionally

Peanut Meal




Soyabean Meal




Cottonsead Meal



2.1 8.5

Meat and Bone Meal



Fish Meal




Canola Meal



Poultry Byproducts





Blood Meal



Catfish Offal Meal





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Animal feed

may be used to maximize the weight gain of the animal or animal yields approximately. Introduction of nonlinear programming to optimize yield and minimize feed cost in animal feed formulation may lead to better approximation as compared to those of linear cases.

Figure 1

Crude Protein True protein

Non-protein Nitrogen Degradable Undegradable

Consolidation A number of components have considerable effect on diet of animal. Before formulating the diet, it is very important to consolidate it. No one feed ingredient can supply all of the nutrients and energy for best growth. The amount of each feed ingredient depends on several factors including nutrient requirements, ingredient cost, availability of each ingredient, and processing characteristics. Feed formulation puts mixtures of feedstuffs and feed additives into a usable form. The main goal in making feedstuffs is to increase profits of animal production by increasing the nutritional value of the feedstuff or a mixture of feedstuffs. In this study three main feed ingredients are used to formulate animal diet by using non-linear programming. One of the important factors to be included in animal diet is protein. Providing adequate protein in animal diet is important for animal health and productivity as well as ranch profitability. Crude protein is determined by taking the Kjeldahl nitrogen times (100/16 or 6.25) as proteins contain 16 percent nitrogen on average. To determine the crude protein content of a forage or feedstuff, first measure the

nitrogen content of the feed. Then multiply the nitrogen value by 6.25, because proteins typically contain 16 percent nitrogen (1/.16 = 6.25). Information about actual protein and non-protein content of a feed is not given by crude protein. Crude protein is included in diet more than diegestible protein because of the large contribution of body protein to the apparent protein in the feces. Digestible protein can be calculated from the CP content of the ration fed to cattle or sheep by the following equation: where % DP and % CP are the ration values on a dry matter basis.

Degradable and undegradable protein Protein can be classified as either degradable or undegradable in the rumen. Degradable can be broken down further and is used to meet the nitrogen requirements of rumen micro-organisms. Undegradable protein can not be broken down further and is used to meet the nitrogen requirements of rumen microorganisms. Balancing DIP and UIP sources provides a more accurate way of meeting the metabolizable protein needs of rumi-

nants. Classification of protein composition of feed is shown in Figure 1. Feedstuffs containing 20 percent crude protein or more are considered protein supplements. Protein supplements are classified as animal and plant proteins. Marine fishmeals, catfish offal meal, meat and bone meal and poultry byproduct meal are main sources of animal proteins. Oilseed meals, such as soybean meal, cottonseed meal and peanut meal are main plant protein sources. Animal proteins are generally considered to be higher quality than plant proteins. A brief description of various animal and plant protein sources that can be used in catfish feeds is given in the table1. Energy supplements are feedstuffs that contain less than 20 percent crude protein. This includes grain and grain byproducts and animal fat or vegetable oil, corn, corn screenings, wheat grain, wheat middlings, rice bran, milo, animal fat and fish oil. According to size of animal, stage of production and performance, requirement of protein varies for animals. During lactation, larger animal typically require more pounds of crude protein per

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September - October 2010 | 29

Animal feed

day than smaller animal but as a lesser percentage of their total dry matter intake. Cattle requirements for crude protein increase with increasing lactation and rate of gain. Protein is required for milk production and reproductive tract reconditioning after calving. Limiting dry matter intake on poor quality forages is another concern with regard to the crude protein content of the diet. Generally, forage dry matter intake as a percent of body weight increases until forage crude protein content as a percentage of dry matter decreases below a threshold of about eight percent. Thus, if a minimum of eight percent crude

attributes of feeds on dry matter (DM) basis. Dry matter of food includes fats, proteins, vitamins, mineral and carbohydrates and all its constitutes excluding water. Considering nutrient levels in different feeds on a dry matter basis makes a comparison easier because feeds contain different percentages of water. This also allows a comparison between the level of a given nutrient in dry matter and the level needed in an animal’s diet. Changes in the weight of a feed due to changes in moisture alter the nutrient concentrations supplied to the animal if appropriate adjustments are not made to accurately reflect the actual nutrient concentration of the feed ingredient. Determining the DM content “The present work represents of feed provides a measure of the amount of a particular feed that is the application of nonlinear required to supply a set amount of nutrients to the animal. programming to maximize the The amount of dry matter in a feed is simply: % dry matter = body weight of buffalo under the 100 - % moisture

given experimental conditions and

There are various methods to determine the DM of a feed. One of these is by sample and the sample collected must be representative of the feed. The sample size needed to determine DM is dependent on the drying equipment that will be used, and can range from around 100 to 500 g (approximately ¼ to 1 lb). An accurate scale that reads in grams or tenths of an ounce is important to insure accuracy in the calculations. A formula for this purpose, (Nutrient content (% as fed basis) x 100) ÷ Dry matter content (%) = Nutrient Content (% dry matter basis).

satisfying NRC feeding standards” protein is not maintained in forage crops, cattle will decrease consumption of these poor quality forages. Second important factor is moisture content of feeds, it can vary greatly. It is important to express feedstuff composition on a dry matter basis because dry matter content can be the biggest reason for variation in the composition of feedstuffs. This is the reason to show composition of chemical constituents and biological 30 | September - October 2010

Dry matter


All the nutrients contained in the dry portion of the feed consumed by animals. Dry matter intake can be measured in feeding studies by weighing the total ration fed and the amount of feed left by the animal. Feeding studies have shown that as the percent of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) increases in forages, animals consume less. Therefore, the percent NDF can be used to estimate dry matter intake (DMI (as a per cent of body weight) equals relative feed value as per cent of body weight divided by per cent NDF). DMI (% of body weight)=120/NDF (% of DM). The third important factor to be included in the diet is Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN). It is related to available energy of feeds and energy requirements of animals involving a complex formula of measured nutrients. TDN values are usually quoted as percentages for feeds and as amounts per day for requirements. The values are usually calculated on feed analysis reports. The simplest and most commonly used formula for estimating TDN is TDN = DE/0.044. One kilogram of TDN is equivalent to 4.4 megacalories of DE. Another formula to calculate is: %TDN={{DCP+DCF+DNFE+(DEE\ times2.25)} \over {feed\ consumed\times100}} where DCP = digestible crude protein, DCF = digestible crude fat, DNFE = digestible nitrogen-free extract, DEE = digestible ether extract. One pound of TDN = 2000 kcal of digestible energy.

Linear programming Total digestible nutrients report the percentage of digestible material in forage. Total digestible nutrients are calculated from acid detergent fiber and express differences in digestible material between forages. The fact, figures and philosophy can be integrated into ultimate objective-the formulation of nutritionally adequate rations, or of feed mixtures with well-defined nutritive properties. Their selection and the extent of their inclusion in mixtures will obviously depend, in part, on what nutrients they contain,

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Animal feed

and, in part, what we need to provide the animal. Basically, linear programming is a method of determining the least cost combination of ingredients, which will meet the necessary requirements. It is a mathematical procedure involving the solution of a series of equations. Leading to the same guideline a ration can be formulated using all its nutrient ingredients simultaneously at the optimum level. This concept of linear programming may

which the nutrients are utilized mainly depend on three factors, which may be used to maximize it. Accounting all these facts, weight gain of an animal depends upon: • Digestible crude protein, • Total digestible nutrient and; • Digestible dry matter. Metabolic weight is used as a base for whole of the calculations. Studying the intake in growing animals, had earlier reported that a level between 200 and 300 K. Cal. DE per Kg0.75 is generally encountered.


be used to maximize the weight gain of the animal or animal yields only approximately. Introduction of nonlinear programming to optimize yield and minimize feed cost in broiler feed formulation may lead to better approximation as compared to those of linear cases. Now we are extending this work to maximize the weight gain of buffalo. The weight gain and the efficiency with 32 | September - October 2010

Assuming a linear relationship between weight gain of animal and dry matter, crude protein and total digestible nutrient, we decide the weightage of these variables. By using least square method we establish the relation between y and x1, y and x2, y and x3 of different degrees and then by using F-test we decide the relation of best fit. Now we combine these individual relations between the variables according to the weightage as prescribed earlier. Now we establish objective function by using the appropriate relations of the variables x1, x2, x3 according to their weightage on weight gain of the animal. Now we apply the constraints according to feeding standards on the abovementioned variables according to feeding standards of NRC. Three models have been derived which maximize the weight gain of buffalo, weight gain of sheep and milk yield of cow.

Conclusion Mathematical models integrate our scientific knowledge of feeds and feed-


ing, intake, and digestion and passage rates upon feed energy values, escape of dietary protein, and microbial growth efficiency to estimate energy, nutrient supply, requirements and feed utilization in each unique farm production scenario. Therefore, they have an important role in assisting the improvement of feeding systems. These models can be used to further improve animal production systems by accounting for more of the variation in predicting requirements and supply of nutrients while minimizing the environmental impacts through reduced nutrient excretion in an economically feasible fashion. For the coming decades, producing meat and milk will become more efficient in the use of nutrients by using mathematical models to accurately predict requirements and feed utilization in each unique production setting. These mathematical models must allow inputs from each situation to be adjusted in a logical way until the cattle and feeds are accurately described. Depending upon the objectives, a number of different approaches may be used, including classical algebraic equations, predictive empirical relationships, and dynamic, mechanistic models. The latter offer the best opportunity to make full use of the growing body of knowledge regarding animal biology. Continuing development of these types of models and computer technology and software for their implementation holds great promise for improvements in the effectiveness with which fundamental knowledge of animal function can be applied to improve animal agriculture and reduce its impact on the environment. The present work represents the application of nonlinear programming to maximize the body weight of buffalo under the given experimental conditions and satisfying NRC feeding standards. To sum up, an effort has been made in this work to give a new dimension to the already existing multidimensional nonlinear models and its use to formulate a real world problem of optimizing the feed in terms of weight gain of the animal and to solve it as well. This objective supports the all over effect of nutrient ingredients simultaneously on the animal yield and weight gain of an animal.

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GLOBAL GRAIN Hotel President Wilson The 8th Annual Global Grain Conference in Geneva 16th-18th November 2010 The world’s premier trading event in the grain calendar, GlobalGrain attracts over 900 delegates from 50 countries. Geneva is the prime location for the leading trading companies in grain, oilseeds, soft commodities and energy markets.

GLOBAL GRAIN & FEED MARKETS Every issue GFMT’s market analyst John Buckley reviews world trading conditions which are impacting the full range of commodities used in food and feed production. His observations will influence your decision-making.

How long will the wheat boom last?

Two key factors caused a shift of emphasis in the maize market during the last month. One was an official update of US planted area which came in well below trade expectations. The other was a lower than expected US quarterly stock estimate at June


HAT a difference one summer can make ! Six months ago the key issue for the world wheat market was how low prices might go amid the rise and rise of cut-price exports from Russia and other ‘Black Sea’ countries, the erosion of more traditional supplier’s market shares and the ensuing threat of major planting cuts for winter-sown 2011 crops outside of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This autumn, Russia and its neighbours are still the top talking point but for the reverse reason as savage drought slashes their contribution to world export supplies and sends world wheat prices scuttling back to their highest level in two years. It’s doubly unfortunate for consumers that this should occur in a year when European and Canadian crops have also suffered unusual weather problems. But the situation is nowhere near as dire as in 2007/08, when crop failures, much tighter starting stocks, the first big boom in bio-fuel demand for feedgrains and ballooning commodity investments by speculators helped drive prices to record highs of over $450 per tonne for soft wheat and twice that for hard milling varieties.

The main difference this time is the massive stock left over from the past two bumper seasons. This will go a long way to supplement export supplies in 2010/11. Much of the surplus is held in the largest exporting country, the USA, where good crops this year can keep the world market well-supplied. Even with a smaller crop this year, the EU remains a big player in the export league – though at potential risk of leaving its internal market finely balanced and thus at risk of continuing high prices. High quality supplier Australia meanwhile seems to have a good crop and will also be keen to cash in on a world market hungry for alternatives to FSU supplies. Another major supplier, Argentina’s crop is bouncing back from last year’s drought affected lows while India is sitting on record crops and turning from sometime importer to exporter . But inevitably, the floor price of internationallytraded soft milling wheat, as formerly set by the Russians and co, has risen sharply from the $160’s of this summer closer to $280/300 recently while hard North American spring wheats for beldnign up flour quality are back in the mid-$300’s (from a summer low of $270). Even amply-supplied US hard red winter grades – the top exporter’s most widely-sold wheat – have more than doubled in price to over $300 per tonne.

1, the result of feeders and ethanol consumers having to use more of last year’s lower quality crop to get the same end result.

34 | September - October 2010

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Will these prices stick, increase further or eventually fall back? The answer to this lies largely in the extent to which the 2011 world wheat crop can bounce back, especially in the still-dry areas of Russia and Ukraine where the threat of contracting area and/or poor crop germination is causing considerable unease in the markets as we go to press. If rain does spread over these areas by early October, then these crops are in with a chance of fairly normal development, if at risk of late establishment ahead of the often harsh Russian winter. Forward wheat prices

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will also be influenced by how much other farmers in the northern hemisphere expand their 2010/11 sowings. US winter wheat is already expected cover 10/15% more land. With the promise of €200/tonne plus prices for some time yet, European producers must also have been tempted to sow more. The same applies to countries, like Canada, where spring plantings dominate wheat production. Many of our readers may remember that after the last supply squeeze, world wheat sowings rose and crops bounced back by an incredible 70m tonnes in just one year

– far exceeding consumption needs and in the process setting the stage for the past season’s depressed wheat prices. Remarkably, this took the Chicago wheat futures prices (closely followed by Europe then and now) back from a February 2008 high of over $13/bushel to the $4.50’s by December of that year. A repeat can’t be assumed for the coming year. No two seasons are ever the same and there is too much uncertainty at the moment over the FSU situation, as well as some lingering weather issues in other parts of the

September - October 2010 | 35

be required by the world market, mainly in China’s growing feed industry (mn tonnes) 2010/11 2009/10 2008/9 and in other countries substituting it for tighter, USA 61.6 60.3 68 more expensive feedwheat. EU 135.1 138.3 151.1 This will leave world end Canada 22.5 26.5 28.6 stocks of maize at 136m tonnes at the end of the Australia 23/25 22.5 21.4 2010/11 season. It sounds Argentina 12 9.6 10.1 a lot but is uncomfortably Russia 42.5 61.7 63.7 low in relation to demand Ukraine 17 20.9 25.9 that has grown by a Kazakhstan 11.5 17 12.6 staggering 100m tonnes in WORLD output 643/5 680 683 just four years! Thanks to the FSU & Consumption 661 650 642 and EU crop problems, the world barley market is in EU wheat production by country even tighter supply, output dropping by 16% or 24m (mn tonnes) 2010/11 2009/10 2008/9 tonnes this year to just 126m tonnes – its lowest France 37.8 38.3 39.5 level in decades. Despite Germany 23.5 25.1 26.0 expected stock drawdowns and a reduction in global UK 14/15.5 14.4 17.3 usage, this has already Poland 8.1 9.8 9.3 pushed EU feed barley Italy 7.2 7.0 9.0 prices up by as much as Rumania 6.0 4.8 7.8 136% at one stage, turning Spain 5.4 4.8 6.7 barley’s normal discount to maize and feed wheat into big price premiums. Clearly globe. But that experience is, nonetheless, one good reason why the speculators and bigger barley crops will also be needed next the grain trade alike should be treating this year to bring this market under control. current ‘wheat boom’ with some caution. The good news is all on the oilmeal side of the feed markets, thanks largely to a surge in world soyabe an production. In a year of disappointing EU / FSU rapeseed and sunflower production, this has been a huge restraining inf luence across the protein sector and, on current crop pointers, may continue to anchor Maize prices have also risen sharply in the prices in the months ahead. However, last two months to nudge two-year highs the oilseed raw materials cannot divorce amid lower than expected US, CIS and EU themselves from what is happening on the production, partially offset by better than cereal markets. Feedgrain shortages will expected Chinese output. Speculators see some extra demand for oilmeals. Even have helped push prices up through the more importantly, when next spring comes US markets, still focusing on the growth of around, the all-important US soyabean world demand. Although US consumption crop will need to be priced at a level that growth has slowed (less feed use offsetting can compete for farmland with the cereal more into ethanol) another 10m tonnes will crops. World wheat supply snapshot

36 | September - October 2010

Commodity highlights Wheat - some of the facts and figures… With more than a little help from the trigger-happy speculative community, wheat prices that, as recently as June, seemed likely to test four-year lows, have instead heading back toward the highs that followed the last big crop shortfall in 2007/08. European markets have been no exception, soft milling wheat recently trading as much as 80% higher than in June. Steep increases have also been seen in higher protein hard wheat prices, especially US hard red winter wheat which has enjoyed an export boom on the back of short FSU supplies. But just how short is world ‘exportable’ wheat supply in reality and what are the longer implications for prices? The short answer is that this is not yet a repeat of 2007/08. For even with all the downward revisions to the world wheat crop (about 25m tonnes since June), current season’s world supplies are still adequate to meet demand - without taking next year’s global carryover stocks down to risky low levels. Indeed, the stock foreseen at the close of this season on June 30 2011 is currently just 18m tonnes lower than this year’s massive 196m, making it the second highest of the past nine years. (chart1). After the first burst of strength in world wheat prices in early August – as the full extent of Russian and other ‘Black Sea’ countries’ problems began to break – this message of restraint appeared to be making an impact, sending prices partway back as August wore on. However, the persistence of drought well into Russia’s planting season for winter-sown 2011 crops, its decision to pull out of the export market (initially until end-2010, then until after its 2011 harvest has been counted) have recently put wheat prices back on the boil again. De facto export halts by Ukraine and Kazakhstan and the likelihood that any surpluses they have will flow to Russia added to the bullish mood, along with recent threat of frost cutting the quality of the weather-delayed Canadian harvest. The volume of attention wheat has received in the broader media has probably contributed too by encouraging already excited hedge funds and other speculators to bet on prices rising and making them a profit. As mentioned in this column before, the sums

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required to gamble on commodity markets are almost pocket money to some of these operators, compared with the trillions of dollars funds invest in equity, money markets and other financial instruments. This gives them immense power to exaggerate price movements and to sometimes create selffuelling trends.

In mid-September, the key factor influencing current and forward world wheat prices remained whether the Russians could put their crop and get it established before the usually harsh winter set in. As we went to press, much of the Black Sea region, including the Ukraine (often the world’s sixth largest wheat exporter) was still waiting for normalizing rains with perhaps only 30/40% of crops in the ground. The prospect of two back-to-back crop problems in the former Soviet region would certainly be bullish for world prices. This year’s decline of almost 30m tonnes in regional wheat output was cushioned by larger than usual carryover stocks from the previous year which – even

will be nail-biting period for many months to come as farmers pray for a mild winter and more normal weather next spring and summer. That said, other wheat producers will definitely respond to this challenge. In the USA, where exporters are suddenly enjoying the sort of bonzana sales they’d almost written off for good, there will be a surge in winter wheat sowings – perhaps as much as 10-15% . At the sort of prices persisting on futures mar.kets as we go to press we can expect a similar reaction across the Northern Hemisphere. But will this mean a lot more wheat next summer or more drawdowns on those still comfortable surplus stocks? Only time will tell. In the meantime, the futures markets for wheat are showing a relatively modest premium for mid-2011, eroding into the autumn months on the hope of a world crop rebound but still up in the region of $7.50/bushel (about $276/tonne) on the bellwether Chicago exchange. My hunch is that this over-rates the forward cost of wheat and that medium/longer term prices in the $5.50/6.50/bu range are more likely – a level at which wheat may at least have a better chance of defending its acreage further down the road. However, a ‘back-to-back Russian crop failure could scuttle that prediction, drag in speculative buying and send prices through the roof.

Points to watch

with a halt to exports – will likely fall by a third now, possibly by as much as a half, leaving no leeway next year. It is not only wheat that has suffered. FSU coarse grain is also estimated to have dropped from 68m to 51m tonnes, largely in the barley sector, forcing a 10m tonne cut in consumption and greater demand for any available feedwheat. Even if the Russians do finally get their autumn sowings in with a chance, there

38 | September - October 2010

*Wheat quality is an emerging issue - On the face if it, recent official reports out of Canada have been encouraging. Government officials have found more stocks at July 31 than expected, pointing to either an underrated 2009 crop or over-rated demand. The crop forecast has also drifted up to about 22.5m from 20.5m tonnes. However, a late-planted crop is now facing threats from incessant rains and the first hard frosts of the season which could have a big impact on quality. Canadian hard spring wheat for export has recently risen to about $325/

tonne fob from a low of $250 in June – an unwelcome cost increase for millers but a world away yet from the $800 reached during the 2008 shortages. Canada’s Ontario province could sow a record winter wheat area amid firm world prices – although a more important issue may be whether wheat prices offer as much encouragement for Canada’s mainly spring sown wheat crop. Winter sown crops on the other hand usually comprise almost 70% of the US national wheat harvest and are bound to grab larger area this autumn. Even before that potential large crop starts arriving from May onwards, the US is expected to carry forward 26m tonnes of old crop stocks for the second year running. The biggest share of these will be hard wheats as most sought by the world’s importers to blend with cheaper, lower quality soft wheat supplies. A good Australian crop and a bigger breadwheat crop in Argentine will also help keep quality wheat consumers supplied. Although Germany’s normally high quality wheat crop may be less than 50% milling, rather than the usual 80/90%, the top EU wheat producer, France, has surmounted summer droughts and wet harvests to produce a higher quality crop than last year which will go some way to meeting EU and foreign customers needs

Maize crops smaller than expected MAIZE prices have risen close to two-year highs on the US and world markets in recent weeks, partly due to a reduction in world crop prospects and partly dragged up by the rocketing cost of wheat for the feed sector. Three months ago, world maize output was expected to reach 836m tonnes, of which the US would supply 340m. Recently, however, the world total has shrunk to 826m after reductions for the US (now 334m, though still a record high), Europe and the Ukraine. Trade analysts expect world consumption to increase by only 10m tonnes this season, compared with almost 39m in 2009/10, despite some shifting of global demand from tight and expensive feed wheat and barley into maize. The biggest increase is in China (+4m tonnes at 160m) but this should be easily catered for by domestic output if the crop rises, as officials expect, to a new record 166m (from 155m). Earlier this year, US markets were abuzz with forecasts of massive Chinese corn imports as domestic

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China Factory Farming & Animal Health Summit 2010 11-12 November, 2010︱Swissôtel Beijing Hong Kong Macau Center, Beijing, China


demand outpaced production. Yet at this stage, the USDA actually sees China building its reserve stocks from 53 to 60m tonnes. This would put China in charge of 44% of the world stock compared with between 25%

and 33% normally and in China’s controlled system that would effectively keep them out of the world market. Demand in the USA is actually lower than last year’s as much slower growth in ethanol use (just 4m versus the previous year’s 21m tonnes) is outweighed by a 6m tonne slump in the feed sector. Still, even under this scenario, the US market will have to draw on stocks to meet a 7.3m tonne shortfall against total domestic and export needs, reducing seasonal ending stocks to 28.4m tonnes, their lowest since 2003/04 and equal to just four weeks supply. Some analysts think that balance could be even tighter if disappointing yields from early harvests prove typical, potentially propelling the US price to as much as $6/bu (about $236/tonne). The EU is expected to produce just under 55m tonnes – about 2m less than last year and to consume 59.5m. That will be managed partly by cutting down exports and partly by importing as much as 5m compared with

last year’s 2.5m tonnes. Clearly the import cost will be far higher than last season with US export prices recently running about 25% higher on the fob market than at this time last year.

40 | September - October 2010

Demand for maize could be boosted further by a still-tightening supply of alternative coarse/ feed grains. World barley output is now seen at its lowest level in decades, at 126m tonnes, 2m less than last month, 24m below last year and 15m below estimated consumption needs. In recent years barley has supplied about 13% of world feed grain consumption compared with wheat’s 15% and 64% for maize. Oilmeals – no shortage but a firm undertow from cereals THE good news in the feed sector is an abundance of soyabeans, normally accounting for 55/60% of world oilseeds and well over two third of oilmeal supply. With recent upward revisions for Brazi, the world crop in 2009/10 is now estimated to have reached a new record 260m tonnes – 48m more than in 2008 /9. World oilseed production has also been boosted by bigger rapeseed and palm kernel crop supplies, enabling total oilmeal production to jump from 229m to 242m tonnes while building up a mammoth world carryover stocks of oilseeds totalling some 74m tonnes (about 16m more than last year). Easy supplies and a stellar outlook for the next US crop, just starting harvest, may not be enough to keep oilseed supplies growing in 2010 /11 if, as USDA and other observers think, soyabean production backtracks next spring in Brazil and Argentina amid slightly lower sowings and an expected turn to less favourable dry weather during an El Nino phase. Certainly the Brazilian planting season, which starts next month, is making traders uneasy with one leading soya state, Mato Grosso, current experiencing its worst drought in 40 years. The lack of water is starkly

illustrated by unusually low levels on the river Amazon, disrupting vessel traffic to export ports. South American production now accounts for over half the world’s soya output. However, the expected decline in acreage looks more questionable with some origin consultants still of the opinion that plantings will be stable or higher while soyabean prices stay over $10 on the Chicago market. Big supplies, and the prospect of still high world soyabean/oilseed ending stocks at the end of this season, have kept soyabean prices remarkably stable in recent months while soyameal, in dollar terms has also flucuated in a fairly narrow band (if rising in the third quarter of 2010 on the European market during to the ongoing weakness of the euro). However, if maize and wheat prices continue to firm, soyabean prices could soon be forced to join the fray, partly due to the extra demand

flowing in from tight cereal markets but more because of the need to defend soya’s share of the US crop acreage next spring. Maize alone is said to nee an additional 3m to 4m acres next spring to get supply back into line with demand. Soya could also be under threat in the southern States from cotton, trading at its highest level in decades on tight supplies. Still, as current predictions stand, bigger cottonseed and groundnut crops could still be enough this season to keep world oilseed production at simiular levels if not larger than last year’s 440m tonnes. That would be enough to supply an expected 16/17m tonne rise in crush without even drawing on those large carryover stocks. Globally oilseed meal demand is also expected to increase by 5% or 12m tonnes in the coming season, about half of which will take place in China, through increased soya meal consumption. Most of that, in turn will be supplied by imported soyabeans from the Americas, making a good soya crop vital next year.

&feed milling technology


The world´s top event for animal production

Your Business Driven by Innovations FOCUS AREA

Assocom-India to present 2nd National Seminar on ‘Food Inflation, Security and Price Outlook’ on December 1-2, 2010 New Delhi

1. India’s macro-economy and food market dynamics 2. Challenges of Indian agriculture and the way forward 3. How effective have been government inflation control measures 4. How to support the poor in times of food inflation 5. Role of technology in promoting food security (biotech and infotech) 6. Domestic production, demand and supply outlook for - Wheat - Coarse grains - Pulses - Rice - Edible Oil - Sugar 7. How to utilize pulses and edible oil to fight protein and calorie deficiency 8. Global agriculture market dynamics and Indian response 9. Planning Commission projections – how reliable are they? 10. 12th FYP – more of the same or out of the box thinking? 11. Global and domestic market price outlook (fundamental and technical analysis) for wheat, sugar, edible oil and pulses.

Over 130,000 visitors from 96 countries All the innovations for breeding and keeping cattle, pigs, poultry, fish Leading technologies for the use of renewable energies

Exhibition Grounds Hanover / Germany 16 – 19 November 2010

Who should attend: Target Participants: Agribusiness Corporates, Trading and Export House Executives, Food Processing Companies (covering sugar mills, grain processors, edible oil mills etc), Input Suppliers (seeds, fertilizers, agrochemicals), Commodity Exchanges, Brokers and Intermediaries, Financial Institutions including banks . . . . . .

More than 1,800 international manufacturers on 170,000 m2 exhibition floor space

Event Produced By Assocom-India R

#601, 6th Floor, DDA

Building District Centre, Laxmi Nagar, Vikas Marg, Delhi - 110092. Tel.: +91-11-47675200 Fax.: +91-11-47675201 Mob.: +91-99103 75200 / 02 / 04 Email:

Decentral including


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September - October 2010 | 41


RZ_105x297_Anzeigen_ET_Opt_EN Kopie.indd 1

20.04.2010 14:30:58 Uhr

Book review Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries 2010 - At a glance


arm support is becoming increasingly ‘conditional’ as governments pursue broader policy objectives, says the latest report from OECD ‘Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries 2010 - At a Glance’.

The report ‘At a Glance’ is published every second year, and looks at agricultural policies within OECD member countries in response to request to monitor and evaluate the implementation of the key agricultural policy reforms. In 2009 the estimated cost to support producers was US$253 billion or Euro182 billion. This was equivalent to 22 percent of the aggregate farm receipts. Prior to this there had been a steady decline in the support levels from 2004, higher prices on commodities in 2007/08 were the reason for this decline in the measured support during those years.

In Chapter 1 the report looks at the evaluation of support and policy development for countries under the OECD umbrella. Looking at the general macroeconomic and market context the policies of agriculture operated in. Recent changes and initiatives in policies of the OECD countries are highlighted. Conclusions in Chapter 1 are derived about the progress in the OECD countries of reforms being implemented. In Chapter 2 of the publication looks at the support for each individual OECD member country (where the European Union is viewed as one country), with descriptions for the main policy developments/ evaluations in tables and graph form. Chapter 3 summarises the information showing the estimates of support for OECD countries in table form for each country. This report is an important up-to-date source of information about agriculture support with in the OECD area. Even though the support levels are slowly being decreased in some of the OECD countries due to the steps being taken. The support that farmers are receiving is now becoming increasingly conditional as their governments pursue the broader policy objectives. This is an interesting report that shows all OECD member countries in details and the support levels that each has in place. This is a valuable asset to governments and policy makers, but also would be helpful as a guide to students of agriculture who are interested in the policy of support throughout the OECD area.

ISBN 978-92-64-08379-0

M lling 2010/11 International


19th PRINT EDITION - OUT NOW! • Industry Terminology • Products & Services section > including thousands of products and services from across the industry • A-Z of milling suppliers > Every entry in this years directory has been checked and verified, over 25% of our existing contact information has changed since last years edition. We have also added over 150 new companies to the IMD. • International Organisations > We have added more organisation data, that will help any company operating within the global industry • Commodities data > Completely updated section, produced in association with IGC (International Grains Council) • Equipment guides section > now including: - NEW! Elevator buckets guide - Extruder & Expander guide > additional charts added! - Hammermills guide > additional charts added! - NEW! Pellet press guide

What ever you are looking for

- find it with IMD! IMD_AD190x132.indd 1

42 | September - October 2010

01/06/2010 09:07 &feed milling technology


Shangdong Yingchun


“With over 50 years of experience in the industry, we have built a solid reputation for “Yingchun”. This reputation is based on our scientific management, advanced processing, strict quality control and excellent after sales service. We will stick to our tenet of “Quality first, credit uppermost, customer guided, common development” and provide the best products and services for you”

Shandong Yingchun Steel Silo Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Address: No.101, Beiyi Road, Dongying City, Shandong Province Tel: +86 546 8313068 Email:

Shangdong.indd 1

01/06/2010 11:35

VIVAsia 2011 BITEC Bangkok, Thailand

adv viv asia 210x147_aV2.indd 1

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Visit www.viv .net for more infor mation!


March 9 - 11, 2011

Presenting worldwide innovations and numerous technical best practices

17-09-10 15:39

September - October 2010 | 43

Classified section Analysis

Bulk Handling

• Automation Products, Inc. • Brabender® GmbH & Co KG • CHOPIN Technologies • Diversified Laboratories, Inc. • Evergreen Analytical Services, Inc. • Farmertronic Industries A/S • Foss Analytical AS • FOSS UK • Lancaster Laboratories • NDC Infrared Engineering Ltd • Neogen Corporation • Pfeuffer GmbH

AquafeedClassified40_2x40mFINALrevsd 2/23/10 12:35 AM Elevator Buckets Feed processing

• Croston Engineering Ltd

Bulk Storage ®

Silo Construction & Engineering



Polyethylene Elevator Bucket



St. Louis, Missouri USA

T:+1 314 739 9191• F:+1 314 739 5880



Maximum bulk storage


Block 10 Todd Campus West of Scotland Science Park Acre Road, Glasgow Scotland G20 0XA

+32(0)51 723128

Almex b.v., Verlengde Ooyerhoekseweg 29 7207 BJ Zutphen, Netherlands, tel.: +31 (0)575 572666 e-mail:, internet:

• Schmidt-Seeger GmbH • Silos Cordoba S.L

Tel: +44 141 945 2924 R-Biopharm Rhône Ltd, Unit 3.06 Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Maryhill Road, Glasgow, G20 0SP Scotland Tel: +44 (0) 141 9452924 Fax: +44 (0) 141 9452925,

Competence in Food and Feed Analysis

• Seedburo Equipment Company • Systech Instruments Ltd

BiopharmRhoneClass.indd 1

Commercial Grain Silos Bulk Feed Silos

31/03/2010 15:36

Animal Health & Nutrition • Alicorp SA

CENZONE TECH INC. 2110 Low Chaparral Drive San Marcos CA92069 USA Tel: 760 736 9901 Fax: 760 736 9958 Web:

Caleruega 12, 1OC 28033 Madrid, Spain Contact Antonio Benitez Phone +34 91 767 00 74 Fax: +34 91 767 02 38 E-mail:

• Teta Engineering Inc.


• Danisco Animal Nutrition • Frank Wright Trouw Nutrition International • Noack - Group of Companies • Papillon Agricultural Products, Inc

• • • •

Anderson International Corp Amandus Kahl Anderson International Andritz Feed & Biofuel

Flour improver • Alicorp SA • Doves Farm Foods • Dr Eckel GmbH

Buhler AG CH – 9240 Uzwil, Switzerland T: +41 71 955 11 11 F: +41 71 955 66 11 E: • Brabender • Clextral Buhler Class ad_GFMT10.indd 1 11/12/2009 • Dinnissen BV • EEC-Eder • Extru-Tech Inc • Jiangsu Muyang Group Co Ltd.


• • • •

Flour improvers Enzymes Baking premixes Advice on applications

Kurt-Fischer-Strasse 55, D-22926 Ahrensburg Tel.: + 49 (0) 4102 / 202 001, Fax: -010 A member of the Stern-Wywiol Gruppe

Ein Unternehmen der Stern-Wywiol Gruppe

• Prima Ltd • Smiths Flour Mills

To advertise in our low-cost classified section, please contact Caroline Wearn Email:

44 | September - October 2010

For more company information, visit:

&feed milling technology



Classified section Level measurement



• Arodo BVBA

A Clondalkin Company


CB Packaging is a market leader of multi-walled paper sacks. With over 50 years of experience, we offer solutions for a wide range of industries, including animal feeds, pet food, seeds, milk powder, flour and root crops.

Mill Design & Installation • Bratney Companies • Croston Engineering Ltd

• • • • • • •

Andritz Feed & Biofuel BV Andritz Feed & Biofuel Compton Enterprises Condex (UK) Ltd Jiangsu Muyang Group Co., Ltd. Kay Jay Chill Rolls Pvt Ltd La Meccanica srl di Reffo

• • • •

• Millson Engineering Limited • Muench-Edelstahl GmbH


Converteam UK Ltd Datastor Systems Ltd KSE Protech BV RED-BERG s.r.l.

• Agora Services Ltd

Supply Chain

Analysis & Control PALM VIEW TRADE “Your Reliable Supply Chain Manager”

Intake and Inline measurement of moisture, protein, temperature, structure, ash, fat, fibre, starch and colour. Recipe management and traceability records.

• TekPro Ltd

Mill design construction

Products we produce and Export:


• Wallace & Associates Inc. • Columbian TecTank

For maximum control and efficiency call:

01473 829188

Croston Engineering Ltd Tarvin Mill Barrow Lane, Tarvin Chester CH3 8JF Tel: 01829 741119 Fax: 01829 741169 E-mail: Website: BULK STORAGE, HANDLING, AND PROCESS ENGINEERS FOR THE ANIMAL FEED, GRAIN, FLOUR, BAKERY, HUMAN AND PET FOODS INDUSTRIES

Recruitment • AGRI-Associates • Agribusiness Recruiters

• Interstates • Lurgi PSI Inc • Younglove Construction LLC To be listed in the classified section, call +44 1242 267707

&feed milling technology


The International Milling Directory

AT LAST .... low-cost classified advertising that  really works!

For more information, please call Tim Stallard: +44 (0) 7805 092067

Process control


• • • • • • •

Banana Meal Banana Powder Crude Tuna Fish Oil Crude Sardine Fish Oil Tuna Fish Meal Sardine Fish Meal Tapioca Chips & Tapioca Powder

Email: Website:

Equipment for sale A Foeth BV Condex (UK) Ltd

From 2010, whether your business is a blue chip multi-national or a sole trader ... GFMT has changed the rules of classified advertising. From early 2010 all GFMT Classified Advertisements will now appear on the websites our TWO online distribution channels: DocStoc and Scribd. Both these high traffic channels specialise in the targeted positioning of industry, government and  academic documents and information. Each document is accompanied by independent, unsolicited reader statistics, recording the number of visitors to each document. All future GFMT Classified Advertisements will now appear in these sites with their own traffic records. In addition, all Classified Advertisements will now be accompanied by a 250 word (maximum) profile of your company or service ... at no extra cost! You will also be able to update your profiles twice a year to help you showcase new products and services. All profile content will be ‘keyword  compliant’ to guarantee maximum exposure to the major search engines. Classified Advertising rates for 2010 will remain the same as those for 2009 ... but with all the extra exposure.

Milling Industry Recruitment Specialist +44(0)161 427 2402

CHECK OUT THE RATES AND AVAILABILITY NOW! Filter Screen Supply Ltd Wirtech AG, Process Engineering September - October 2010 | 45

Events 2010

16th - 19th October 10 Oilseeds&Oils-2010, Swissotel The Bosphorus, Istanbul, Turkey Contact: Irina Ozip, Chicherina str. 21, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine

SEPTEMBER 29th September 10 - 1st October Animal Farming Ukraine 2010, IEC, Kiev, Ukraine Contact: Kuno Jacobs, CIS Exhibitions BV, Eemnesserweg 27a, 3743 AD Baarn, The Netherlands



7th - 8th October GLOBALGAP Summit 2010, HILTON London Metropole Hotel, London, United Kingdom Contact: Nina Kretschmer, c/o GLOBALGAP Foodplus GmbH, Spichernstr 55, D-50672 Cologne, Germany Tel: +49 2215 7993693 Fax: +49 2215 799389 Email: Web:

Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich at Medway, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK Tel: +44 2083 318646 Fax: +44 2083 318647 Email: Web:


Tel: +65 63455701 Fax: +65 63455928 Email: Web:

13th - 15th October 10 61es JTIC & 5e IAOM Eurasia meeting, Reims Congress Center, France Contact: AEMIC, 268 rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75012 Paris, France

* See our magazine at this show • More information available

46 | September - October 2010


21st - 22nd October 10 French Food Market, Paris, France Contact: Marjolijn Cohen, Bridge2Food, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2252060 Fax: +31 30 2252060 Email: Web:

21st - 23rd October 10 VIV America Latina 2010, Guadelajara, Mexico Contact: Renate Wiendels, P.O. Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2952788 Fax: +31 30 2952809 Email: figap-vivamericalatina Web:

9th - 10th November 10 1st Pulses Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Marjolijn Cohen, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands


Tel: +91 999 1705003 Fax: +91 184 2231050 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 208 8924821 Fax: +44 208 8925972 Email: conferences Web:


22nd - 25th November 10 21st Annual IAOM Mideast & Africa District Conference and Expo, Cape Town, South Africa Contact: Eva Mulyana, IAOM MEA PO Box 566 , P.C. 112 , Muscat , Sultanate of Oman

16th - 17th February 11 3rd World Grains Trade summit, Singapore Contact: Angelia Lim, Centre for Management Technology, 80 Marine Parade Road, #13-02 Parkway Parade, 449269 Singapore


Tel: +65 6345 5701 Fax: +65 6345 5701 Email: Web:

Tel: +968 24712338 Fax: +968 24711340 Email: Web:

9th - 11th March 11 VIV Asia 2011, BITEC, Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre, Bangkok, Thailand Contact: Anneke van Rooijen, P.O. Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The Netherlands

23rd - 24th November 10 Pneumatic Conveying of Bulk Solids, Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich at Medway, Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom Contact: Caroline Chapman, Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich at Medway, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK



11th - 12th November 10 China Factory Farming & Animal Health Summit 2010, Swissôtel Beijing Hong Kong Macau Center, Beijing, China Contact: Ms. Ciel Qi, 14F, 390 Panyu Road, Shanghai, China 200052


Tel: +31 30 295 2772 Fax: +31 30 295 2809 Email: Web:

The Protein Summit

2010 Global insights into the full value chain (consumers, retailers, ingredients companies, manufacturers and research institutions) in segments such as dairy, meat, fish, meat alternatives and feed.


25th - 26th November 10 Future of Protein Summit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Annelies Osinga, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2252060 Fax: +31 84 8327225 Email: Web:

Tel: +31 30 2252060 Fax: +31 84 8327225 Email: Fax:

Tel: +86 21 52588005 Email: Web:


10th - 12th February 11 ISRMAX India 2011, NDRI Karnal, Haryana, ndia Contact: Geetika Malhotra, #923/9, Urban Estate, Karnal, Haryana, India

Tel: +44 2083 318646 Fax: +44 2083 318647 Email: Web:

Tel: +31 30 2252060 Fax: +31 84 8327225 Email: Web:

11th - 12th November 10 Buying Soy, Developing Soy, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Marjolijn Cohen, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands


16th - 18th November 10 Global Grain 2010, President Wilson Hotel, Geneva, Switzerland Contact: Frankie, Suites A & B, 52 – 64 Heath Rd, Twickenham, London, TW1 4BX, UK, 72 blvd. De Saint Georges, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland



12th - 13th October Overview of Particulate Handling Technology, Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich at Medway, Kent, United Kingdom Contact: Caroline Chapman

Tel: +33 47 072069 Fax: +33 14 4245625


Tel: +91 9582 709491 Fax: Web:


12th - 13th October 10 Agribiotech & Seed Markets, Jakarta, Indonesia Contact: Angelia Lim, CMT

Tel: +38 0562 320795 Fax: +38 0562 320795 Email: Web:

20th - 22nd October 10 AVIANA 2010, Accra, Ghana Contact: Dr.Inderjit Singh, 13/29 Subhash Nagar, New Delhi-110027, India

Tel: +31 35 5426515 Fax: +31 35 5426517 Email: Web:


Business opportunities: Learn how to create sustainable opportunities through first-hand accounts and business cases from over 26+ CEOs, directors and researchers.


30th November 10 - 1st December 10 2nd Large Scale Farm Forum, Siem Reap, Cambodia Contact: Hafizah Adam, 80 Marine Parade Road, #13-02 Parkway Parade, Singapore 449269

Sustainability challenges: Gain understanding of new, sustainable protein sources and processes.

Tel: +65 63469218 Fax: +65 63455928 Email: Web:

Research and innovation developments: Meet new business partners at the Innovation Plaza.


1st - 2nd December 10 Food Inflation, Security and Price Outlook, NASC Complex New Delhi India Contact: Raj Kapoor, Assocom-India Pvt. Ltd., Flat No. 601, DDA Building District Center, Plot No.4, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi - 110 092, India

Keynote contributions include: Tegut, VION Food Group, Rabobank, Premier Foods, Nutreco, DSM, GfK, Wageningen University and TNO. To view the program please visit: FutureProteinSummitProgramme.asp

Tel: +91 11 47675218 Fax: +91 11 47675201 Email: Web:

&feed milling technology



2010 related links

In every issue of GFMT, we will be providing a list of companies and web links related to key stories and topics within each specific issue. If you would like information on how your company can get involved, please contact our Marketing Manager, Caroline Wearn. Email: | Tel: +44 1242 267707

AFIA = Baker Perkins Inc = Baker Perkins Ltd. = BDC Systems Limited = Biomin Holding GmbH = Braime Elevator Components Ltd = Buhler AG = CargoTec Sweden AB = Charm Sciences Inc. = Consergra s.l = ConveyorTek Ltd = Duxes Business Consulting Inc. = Extru-Tech Inc = Garner Industries = Herbold Meckesheim GmbH =

Muyang Group = Nexus Communications Group = nv SCE = Obial = Ottevanger Milling Engineers B.V. = Palm View Trade = Perten Instruments AB = Retsch GmbH = Satake Corporation = Satake Europe Ltd = Schmidt-Seeger GmbH = Schmidt-Seeger GmbH =

Hydronix Ltd =

Shandong Yingchun Steel & Silo Manufacturing Co Ltd =

Insta-Pro International =

Silos Cordoba =

Interfarm UK Ltd =

Suffolk Automation Ltd =

JEFO Nutrition Inc. =

Tapco Inc =

Kemin Industries =

Texas A&M University System =

Kiotechagil =

Victam International =

Leonhard Breitenbach GmbH =

Wenger Manufacturing Inc. =

Mathews Company =

Wynveen International B.V. =

Meriden Animal Health Ltd =

Zhengchang Group (ZCME) =

Mogensen Raw Materials Handling = Muhlenchemie GmbH & Co KG =

Fatten up your bottom line. Buhler high-performance animal and aqua feed production systems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know they can rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. A service combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operating costs and increases capacity utilization. So the question is not whether you can afford to choose Buhler – it’s how a solution from Buhler will feed your profits. To find out more, visit

Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96,

The solution behind the solution.

Sep | Oct 10 - Grain & Feed Milling Technology