• New dimension in
the production of hygienised feed meal
• Low-cost Near Infrared Transmission grain analysers for farmers
resistant packaging: - The last line of defense
In this issue: • ‘Profiling’ Flours And Their Value To End Users •
Global grain & feed markets
Company profiles 2010/11
A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891
EDITORS OBSERVATIONS -
New technology of the particle size determination Particle Sizer Analysette 22 MicroTec plus NKS speed up transport operations with RDS on-board weighing Animal feed manufacturer bucks UK’s automation trend Dosing unit provides highest plant efficiency The UK Flour & Grain Milling industry – A review of 2010 New product - RLI ‘Shaker’ rotary level indicator Employee & Product Transportation Safety Webinar scheduled for end of November New investments made at UK’s first dedicated organic mill New effervescent product restores electrolyte balance in heat-stressed poultry Top safety accreditation for Game
New dimension in the production of hygienised feed meal ‘Profiling’ flours and their value to end users Low-cost Near Infrared Transmission grain analysers for farmers Insect-resistant packaging - The last line of defense
Production Editor Nicky Barnes Tel: +44 1242 267707 firstname.lastname@example.org Design and Page Layout James Taylor Tel: +44 1242 267707 email@example.com
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Raw material outlook, by John Buckley
Biofuels prospects, risk and opportunities Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals
4 5 6 8 9 10 10 12 12 13 14 18 22 30 34
Ev en ts
More information www.gfmt.co.uk
Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any
means without prior permission of the copyright owner.
volume: 121 number 6
issn No: 1466-3872
A TRIBUTE TO A GLOBAL MILLIER
t was with heavy heart that GFMT learnt – in mid-September this year - of the untimely death of Jonathan Bradshaw after a long illness. Jonathan was one of GFMT’s key feature writers. This is the first opportunity, as a bi-monthly magazine, we have had to properly recognise his contribution to the milling industry and we are honoured to record this in the pages of the industry’s oldest and foremost milling magazine!
Jonathan Bradshaw 1953 - 2010 Jonathan lived for milling and even his house in Driffield, East Yorkshire, UK, is called ‘Mill View’. Jonathan was a highly-respected consultant and expert in the milling, agribusiness and food processing industries and became a globally-respected authority on all things milling. In particular his speciality was project management from inception through to commissioning. He had extensive experience of flour, maize, rice and feed milling, building mills and establishing new commercial entrants into the industry in many parts of the world. He established significant new milling facilities and directed several educational and quality control programs in companies and institutions around the world. He worked extensively in Africa, the Americas, Europe and the Caribbean. The staff of GFMT together with all our contributors and readers extend their sympathy to Jonathan’s family and acknowledge on behalf of industry the significant contribution he made over his lifetime. To demonstrate that contribution we publish here an abridged report of his work: From 1971 when he joined Henry Simon Limited in Stockport, England - where he rose from Mill Starter to qualify as Master Miller - before working with a wide range of companies project managing, commissioning, refurbishing mills. The list included: R H Clarke, Great Yarmouth, UK; Read Woodrow, Norwich, UK; Chancelot Mills, Leith, Edinburgh, Scotland; Unga Flour Mills, Nakuru, Kenya; Howson & Howson, Blyth, Ontario, Canada; Maple Leaf Mills, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; National Flour Mills, Port of Spain, Trinidad; Hills & Partridge, Aylesbury, National Flour Mills, Kabwe, Zambia, Flour Mills of Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, Jamaica Flour Mills, Jinja Flour Mills, Jinja, Uganda Wessanen Mills, Wormerveer, The Netherlands and R H Clarke, Gt Yarmouth, UK From 1975 until 1990 he work for E B Bradshaw & Sons Ltd, Driffield, UK and in addition the City & Guilds of London Institute From 1990 until 1996 Jonathan was in Grenada, West Indies with Continental Grain looking after their interests in the Caribbean and latterly in South America as well. From 1997 onward his work took him to the following companies in a range of countries including: Northern Foods, Smiths Flour Mills, UK • Plus Milling, Johannesburg, South Africa • Edme, Mistley, Manningtree, Essex, UK • T W Barfoot Ltd, Egypt • Grenada • STAF Co-operative, St Lucia • Mussons Ltd, Dominica • St Kitts & Nevis, Anguilla, Carriacou, Union and Palm Antigua • Jamaica Livestock
2 | November - December 2010
Association, Kingston • Bahamas • Havana & Cienfuegos, Cuba • USAID • Organisation of East Caribbean States • Guyana • Comina, Willemstad, Curacao • Grands Moulins des Antilles, Guadeloupe • Haiti • Barbados Flour and Feed Mills (Maple Leaf Mills) • Caribbean Basin Initiative • ContiLatin, Aguascalientes, Mexico • Molinca and Nicolini Hermanos, Peru From 1998 - 2002 his work involved the introduction of written quality programmes and establishing a management structure to administer quality programmes such as the UKASTA Code of Practice for the manufacture of safe feedingstuffs. In 2002 he worked with the Turnaround Management team of the European Redevelopment Bank and spent time in Mongolia rejuvenating a flourmill and enabling it to manufacture flour satisfactory for the local bread market, using local wheat. From 2003 he commissioned several small classified flour milling projects in the UK in addition to work with the Middle & West Delta Flour Mills in Damanhur, Egypt where he rejuvenated milling and wheat cleaning operations and trained millers to maximise milling potential of the plant Between 1996 and 2010 Jonathan operated as a consultant cum project manager and registered his own company (J B Bradshaw Limited which he set up in 1996) before going on to carry out a number of small design and installation projects in the UK, some training schemes and a sizeable feasibility project for a Middle Eastern consortium. Not long before his death he stated: “I have recently concluded a year’s work establishing a new entrant into the flour milling industry in Nigeria. I was responsible for establishing two 500-tonne-per-day flourmills in Lagos and Kano; a 250-tonne-per-hour marine intake and 35,000 tonnes storage facility with road transfer facilities to the mill in Kano. “As well as establishing the physical installation of the facilities I implemented, employed and trained the managerial and operational staff and prepared the business systems and protocols associated with establishing the company from its inception.” Jonathan Bradshaw made many personal friends and found himself in some not so friendly situations: • Jonathan was personally told by Idi Amin of Uganda that he would be shot at dawn– but he managed to lead an escape party from jail the night before and drove many refugees over the border to Tanzania. • Condoleezza Rice accompanied Jonathan when he surveyed the Cuban milling industry and Fidel Castro invited him to set up offices in the Cuban Presidential palace • Dame Eugenia Charles recognised Jonathan as ‘Caribbean Businessman of the Year’ in 1994 • Whenever he was cruising in the Caribbean, Henry Kissinger always made a point of stopping by to chat and have a cup of tea or stroll on the beach with Jonathan in Grenada • Jonathan was personal friends with Prime Ministers John Compton of St Lucia, Vere Bird of Antigua and Dame Eugenia Charles of Domenica and played tennis regularly with Kenneth Kaunda
Jonathan was 56 years old and was married. He leaves two sons, two daughters and a grandson. Jonathan was truly a global miller and will be greatly missed by our food and feed milling industries worldwide - The Publisher
&feed milling technology
“The quality of the machinery we
manufacture is only as good as the buckets in them – which is why we choose Tapco.
Gustaaf Zeeman Managing Director EUROPEAN MACHINE TRADING ’t Zand, Noord-Holland, The Netherlands Janco Zeeman Technical Director
How Tapco Buckets Help Maintain a Family Tradition of Quality
For more than 90 years, European Machine Trading has maintained their reputation as a high quality, family-owned business. In 1988, the former feed mill decided to manufacture elevators, transport conveyors, bagging machines and other equipment for feed ® mills, fertilizer plants and dealers. STYLE SUPER EUROBUCKET However, one thing stayed the HEAVY DUTY Polyethylene Elevator Bucket Polyurethane • Nylon same...quality.
“Our company has been built on quality,” Gustaaf Zeeman of European Machine Trading says. “And quality is what we want in
our products. When you make a machine, the components you select must be the same quality, which is why we chose Tapco buckets.” “The polyethylene Tapco Super EuroBuckets are strong, which is important to fertilizer plant managers. They are tough enough to handle heavy loads, yet flexible – so they absorb impact, bypass obstructions and return to their original shape. And, they don’t rust!” With 900,000 buckets in 92 sizes – stocked throughout the world – Tapco has what you want, when you need it. Find out why 75% design engineers, contractors and bucket elevator manufacturers in the U.S.A. specify Tapco*.
ELEVATOR BUCKETS - ELEVATOR BOLTS
+1 800 288 2726 • +1 314 739 9191
*Grain Journal, Country Journal Publishing Co., Inc., Decatur, Illinois, U.S.A. The color blue, when used in connection with elevator buckets, is a U.S. registered trademark owned by Tapco Inc. © 2010 Tapco Inc.® All rights reserved.
FANGED HEAD Elevator Bolt
November - December 2010
New technology of the particle size determination Particle Sizer Analysette 22 MicroTec plus
he sieve analysis is due to good reason no ICC-standard method, because it cannot be standardized. Especially since the moisture fluctuations of the sievings cause a substantial degree of errors, equally the different flow characteristics. The quality of the sievings depend on it and never achieve 100 percent, here an endless long sieving period would be required, especially if several sieves are below one another. Two steps are processed in trying to improve the reproducibility of a sieve analysis of flour. First, with only one sieve the finest material for example below 90µm is sieved off and in a second step, the now better flowing throughput is sieved with the remaining sieve set. A better reproducibility is achieved with the new Laser Particle Sizer, which can be universally used to determine the particle size distribution of all intermediate and final milling products. It is suitable for the use in quality control and process control. Through the flexible programmability of the entire dispersion and measuring process it is very well suitable in the areas of research and development.
Characteristics of the instrument: • Measurement of powdery samples in an accelerated airflow • For s am ple volume s of below 1cm 3 up to approximately 100cm3 • D e g r a d a t i o n of agglomerates with special annular gap Venturi nozzle • High-frequency feeder for continuous and residuefree sample feeding • Au t om at ic com pu ter controlled adjustment of the dispersion pressure • Freely programmable fully 4 | November - December 2010
automatic measurement process • Measuring range 0.08 – 2000µm • Especially fast and easy to clean • Multifunctional exhaust system for automatic sample exhaustion during the measurement and for cleaning (for example, of surplus sample material) after the measurement The included Fritsch MaS control Software for simple operation, free programmability for maximum flexibility and efficient cleaning, simplifies tasks and secure the quality of the measurement results. Advantages compared with the conventional sieve analysis • Substantially quicker, entire needed time including evaluation approximately one minute. Therefore, double and mult iple analyses are feasible which are sometimes beneficial • Reproducibility substantially better • Higher resolution of the measuring results up into the low particle range, which can no longer be achieved with sieves
How does laser measurement work? In order to measure the size of a particle, a laser beam is directed at it. The partial deflection of the laser light results in a characteristic, ring-shaped intensity distribution behind the sample, which is measured with a specially shaped detector. The particle size is calculated with a suitable scattering theory based on the spacing of these rings. Large particles produce closely situated rings small particles produce more widely spaced rings. Since 25 years Fritsch has been building Laser Particle Sizers with a special patented optical set up. A convergent laser beam
shines through the measuring cell, and its distance from the detector can be adjusted depending on the sample material. Is it spaced far from the detector the only slightly directly prior to the measurement. scattered light waves cover the Ensuing, the software MaS entire detector and use all the control calculates automatically channels for the measurement. the particle size distribution and Large particles are measured a summarized report can be perfectly in this manner. Is the generated. The duration of the measuring cell positioned close entire measurement process, to the detector, the heavily Optical set up scattered light beams of the small particles are measured with the full resolution of the detector.
Implementation of a measurement Basically two different types of measurement are possible. With wet measuring, the sample Example of a measurement material is dispersed result of flour in a suitable liquid and continuously transported through a closed circuit through the measuring cell. Whereas during the dry measurement powder is blown through the measurement cell and then vacuumed off. During such a dry measurement, including the calculation after the selection of the standard depending on each individual operating procedure (SOP) sample - is typically 30 seconds automatically a background up to approximately t wo measurement is carried out minutes. without sample material. With the new particle sizer, Afterwards a vibratory feeder particle size analyses are a simple transports the previously added task – for professionals as well as to the sample compartment for newcomers – and this in all material per fectly to the fields of application. measuring cell, whereas the Written by Mr Klabunde with material is accelerated with support of Dr Crolly, Fritsch pneumatic forces. The software product manager particle sizers, automatically adjusts the needed published in the trade publication sample amount. Mühle + Mischfutter, issue 12 of Additionally, the software 17.06.2010 controls the pressure of the used air current, which influences the More information: dispersion, i.e. the degradation of Fritsch GmbH agglomerates in single particles, Website: www.fritsch-laser.com
&feed milling technology
November - December 2010
NKS speed up transport operations with RDS on-board weighing
or t h K illingholme Storage (NKS) provide onestop storage and logistical solutions, including Customsapproved warehousing for bulk products including agricultural feed and grain. Based in North Lincolnshire, near Immingham docks, numerous products are received from across t he world, stored and then screened or blended to the c u s t o m e r ’s re q u i re m e n t s
before being sent out again. Total capacity of the NKS site is over 250,000ft² and around a million tonnes of different produc t is turned around each year. To help speed up this oper ation, N KS have invested in two Loadmaster 90 0 0i onboard weighing systems from RDS Nor th Eastern Ltd for use on their t wo Volvo L120 F wheeled loaders. The Loadm a ster 9 0 0 0 i is trade -approved for the
&feed milling technology
commercial sale of goods to MID Class Y(b) and OIML Class R51 & R76 standards a n d at N K S i s c u r re n t l y u sed in conjunc tion w it h a we ighbridge , t o e nsure accurate loading, reducing the time truck s spend on site, increasing accountability and to speed up the complete operation. T h ro u g h u se o f t h e telemetr y link option in the Loadmaster, NKS are looking to phase ou t t he we ighbridge and simply send load data direct from the loader to the office where a printed ticket will be automatically produced. This is due to go live later in the year and will fur ther im prove o pe r at io n al productivity. N KS have used RDS weighing systems for over 20 years as Shaun Dannat t , Warehouse Manager at NKS e x p l a i n s , “ We h ave received nothing but excellent ser vice and product support from R DS N or t h E a stern , who have always
responded quickly and effectively to any question or support issue. “The loader operators get on well with the RDS system and in such an operation as we have here it certainly helps our aim of achieving a quick vehicle turn around.”
Sheila Diaz RDS Technology Ltd Cirencester Rd, Minchinhampton, Stroud, GL6 9BH, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1453 733300 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.rdstec.com
November - December 2010 | 5
November - December 2010
Animal feed manufacturer bucks UK’s automation trend
or some years now, many UK manufacturers have lagged behind the rest of the world when it comes to the
adoption of automation. Not so for premier animal feedstuffs manufacturer, I’Anson Bros Ltd, who has bucked the trend with the recent installation of Pacepacker bag ging and robotic palletising equipment.
Pacepacker’s Total Bag Control System supports and guides the bag from filling to sealing
The M410 FANUC is the ultimate in robot palletising for tall stacks and/or high speeds 6 | November - December 2010
This decision has vir tually eliminated sack wastage, reduced packing staff by 40 percent and assisted the company’s growth, which now outputs t wo m i l l i o n sacks of animal feed per year. I’Anson’s North Yorkshire automated pro duction plant manufactures
and packs 50,000 tonnes of farm feeds, Micronized ingredients for feed manufacturers and horse feeds a year. “Our portfolio of products is packed into four different bag sizes weighing between 15-25kg and sold to 28 countries worldwide. “In recent years, we have found that consistent, high quality pack presentation has become increasingly important to our customers, and we have looked to Pacepacker to provide new technological advances in bag handling and palletising to give us greater consistency in how a bag was stitched, where the label was positioned, and ultimately how the sack was stacked on a pallet.” says Chairman and fourth family generation owner Chris I’Anson. Over the last five years I’Anson have steadily introduced new bagging and palletising lines to achieve premium pack presentation and in doing so have enjoyed a multitude of other
benefits that fully automated modern technology brings. T h re e re ce n t l y i n s t a l l e d Pacepacker Total Bag Control Systems now provide I’Anson with superior product presentation and eliminate virtually all bag waste. “Due to an increase in the price of paper and oil over the last 10 years, packaging prices have risen considerably and our sack wastage amounted to around UK£10,000 per year. With the introduction of Pacepacker’s
I’Anson’s newly designed Speedi-Beet bags filled and sealed to meet palletising requirements
&feed milling technology
November - December 2010
“ T h e To t a l B a g Co n t ro l System has proven to be highly efficient and, coupled with the installation of three Pacepacker palletiser robots, we have been able to reduce our packing staff by 40 percent, relocating them elsewhere within the operation,” adds Mr I’Anson.
Dennis Allison, Pacepacker Managing Director
no human intervention. “The robots provide a perfectly presented pallet every time and have minimal moving parts, which reduces the room for error and the likelihood of breakdowns. Subsequently I’Anson’s operator and maintenance intervention has been reduced by 90 percent,” he adds.
Paul Wilkinson Business Development Manager Pacepacker Services Ltd Tel: +44 1371 811544 Fax: +44 1371 811621 Email: paul.wilkinson @pacepackerservices.com Website: www.pacepacker.com
An automated solution
new Total Bag Control System we have been able to virtually eliminate sack waste and totally eliminate customer complaints regarding product presentation,” says Mr I’Anson. Pacepacker have overcome the problem of heat sealing or stitching difficult to handle sacks with a system which supports and guides the bag throughout the process so that a perfect seal is achieved every time, the Total Bag Control System. The system’s motorised grip arms move around the bag as it is released from the spout clamp, where a pair of fingers either stretch or reform the gussets of the bag, to close it and hold it in its formed state. These arms are then driven toward the sealer, transferring the bag into a powered twin-belt feeder, making it possible to handle even the most unstable products and thin flimsy bags with ease as the bag top is held at all times prior to sealing. The consistency of product presentation that the system achieves eliminates the need for operator supervision.
Pacepacker, a robotics systems integrator who has installed 400 palletising systems over the past 15 years, now use the latest FANUC robots as part of their automated solution. Installed at the I’Anson plant is a FANUC M-410iB series robot, which offers four axes and payloads ranging from 140 to 700kg, as well as a high performance R-2000iB series robot with a payload from 100 to 250kg. “A s a FAN UC str ategic par t ner wit h a 15 ye ar relationship, P acepacker brings unrivalled specialist application experience, which only a system integrator can, to devise a solution from an initial layout to one which includes purpose built end-effectors and control programs,” explains Dennis Allison, Pacepacker Managing Director. “The new Pacepacker robotic palletising solution provides accurate and reliable sack stacking on a pallet to within 0.1mm with
Simple pushbutton for digital results!
R-Biopharm Rhône Ltd. Block 10 Todd Campus West of Scotland Science Park Acre Road, Glasgow Scotland G20 0XA
Phone: +44 (0) 141 945 2924 Fax: +44 (0) 141 945 2925 email@example.com www.r-biopharm.com
Jiangsu Hualiang Machinery Co., Ltd
We manufacture a comprehensive range of quality machinery suitable for all areas of the Grain, Feed and Milling industries.
Using advanced technology the Jiangsu Hualing Machinery Co uses state of the art computer assisted design technologies to build bespoke engineering systems. Working through from conception to completion we also provide long term training and back up facilities.
With over 30 years experience we have the knowledge to produce turnkey solutions for companies and organisations of any size.
Indented Cylinder Separator
Tel:+86-515-85315666 • +8613905110028 • Fax:+86-515-85314485 • firstname.lastname@example.org Conveyor
12 Weiyi Rd, Economy Development District Dongtai, Jiangsu Prov., China, 224200
Rice Selecting Grader (Length Grader)
&feed milling technology
November - December 2010 | 7
November - December 2010
Dosing unit provides highest plant efficiency
hroughput measuring and dosing of the material f low are critically important subjects especially in the food and beverage industry. Wherever cereals, additives or other bulky materials are to be discharged from silos, conveyed or filled, and dosing are necessary to provide the optimum material throughput and thus highest plant efficiency. In standard cases, the discharge unit after the silo determines the throughput rates of all the following machines. The choice of the equipment depends on the conveyed material and the plant itself. Oftentimes, a slider is the most effective alternative. Friedrich electronic GmbH & Co KG, from Lollar in Germany, is offering the FC3 measuring and dosing unit, solving diverse problems within the material flow process in a both cost-
8 | November - December 2010
efficient and reliable way. Starting at silo discharge, where FC3 provides optimum feeding of the following systems by means of precise throughput measuring. Equipped with a pre-selection mode, the system is able to discharge cer tain amounts of material at specified time intervals, always controlling the target performance and thus assuring a continuous material flow.
The integrated alarm device informs the operator via alarm signal, whenever a silo is about to empty or the performance decreases for a different reason. To avoid unwanted mixing proportions, the dosing can be interrupted automatically in those cases. Bridging, which happens to appear from time-to-time while the material flow measuring and dosing of pellets, flakes as well as grain-shaped and roughtextured products, is detected by the FC3 and automatically terminated by means of slider opening, until the clogging is released.
Thanks to its low assembling size of only 22-30cm and standardized pipe connections, the system can easily be implemented in any production process. It is equipped with a special booster, which makes it work with a minimum amount of vibrations. Therefore, it can be mounted directly to a screw or chain conveyor in standard applications. Another important
point is the machines’ low energy consumption, resulting from its reduced demand for air due to a hydro pneumatic slider control. The gravimetric dosing unit only needs power and compressed air supply to be fully operable. A welcome side effect of this technique is that the slider closes completely whenever the compressor stops working, for example in case of an electrical power outage. Thus, the slider allows for a trouble-free re-activation of the plant after the problem has been fixed. T he m a nu f ac t ure r of fe r s dif ferent FC3 versions per forming up to 80m³/h,
acco rd i n g t o c u s t o m e r s’ choice with internal or external electronics. Units with internal electronics can be bus controlled, so that a userdefined amount of systems is controlled simultaneously. They have to be programmed manually only once at start-up. If the customer prefers external electronics, the simultaneous control option is limited to four systems. These parameters and configuration characteristics are of special importance, if different bulky materials are to be mixed either within the material flow or in course of the loading procedure. Ad d i t i o n a l l y, t h e F C3 provides different functions for monitoring and documentation of the conveying process, making low-level indicators become redundant. Therefore , equipping and reequipping of plants with FC3 measuring and dosing unit is in many ways an economically advantageous decision for diverse production, loading and conveying applications of the food, beverage and bulk materials industry. More
Friedrich electronic GmbH & Co KG Holzmühlerweg 100 D 35457 Lollar Germany Tel: +49 6406 1509 Fax: +49 6406 6602 Website: http://en.friedrichelectronic.de/index.php
&feed milling technology
November - December 2010
– A review of 2010 The UK Flour & Grain Milling industry
s we approach the end of a turbulent 2010 for the ‘UK Flour & Grain Milling Industry’, Plimsoll have taken a look back at the highs and lows of the last 12 months and looked forward to the threats and opportunities facing the market in 2011. 40 companies in the market are finishing the year in financial difficulty. David Pat tison, author of the new study of the top 182 companies in the UK Flour & Grain Milling Industry explains, “Having clung on through the bad times many of these st r ug gling comp anie s are running out of time and will fail unless a sustained recovery takes hold. “Sadly, some of them are just too weak to carry on and there will be a spike of failures in the New Year. On the flipside, their demise will bring a welcome reduc tion in com pe titive pressure for those left.” However, there are still some
&feed milling technology
good stories in the market despite the persistent gloom. “We have picked 92 strong companies that prove success can still be achieved in the Flour & Grain Milling industry despite difficult trading conditions. They also prove that bad companies fail in a recession; good companies simply do not. These companies will lead the industry out of recession with some smart acquisitions to help maintain their recent success,” says Mr Pattison. Pattison is also convinced the market is due fur ther consolidation with the number of companies in trouble leading to heightened takeover activity. He explains, “With too many companies chasing weakened demand it is inevitable that there are likely to be a number of high profile mergers and takeovers. Further consolidation is needed to sort out the remaining dead wood. “ We h a v e n a m e d n i n e companies as the best acquisition prospects in the
market.” He also reser ves special mention for those reckless companies that continue to chase sales despite mounting losses. “There are a group of nine serial loss makers still operating in the market. “For the 2nd and even 3rd year running these companies have made a loss. While the rest have taken painful but necessary decisions to refocus on the bottom line, these reckless companies have continued to chase sale regardless. These companies have to cut their cloth accordingly or face the consequences.” Summing up, the new edition of the Plimsoll Analysis shows a buffeted market emerging from recession with a third of companies making a loss and one in five companies in financial difficulty but as Pattison insists: “If you are going to make a success of 2011, you need to learn the lesson of the last 12 months.
“There are going to be big changes in the UK Flour & Grain Milling industry with lots of takeovers, a number of high profile failures and even the odd surprise or two along the way.” The 2011 edition of the Plimsoll Industry Analysis, individually assessing every company in the UK Flour & Grain Milling Industry, is available now.
Readers of Grain & Feed Milling Technology will get a UK£50 discount if they call +44 1642 626400 and quote reference PR/AA10.
Christopher Evans Plimsoll Publishing Ltd Scotswood House Teesdale South Stockton on Tees TS17 5EF United Kingdom Tel: +44 1642 626400 Fax: +44 1642 626410 Email: email@example.com Website: www.plimsoll.co.uk
November - December 2010 | 9
November - December 2010
New product - RLI ‘Shaker’ rotary level indicator
B Braime have launched a new type of rotary level indicator; the RLI ‘Shaker’. A rotary paddle switch, to detect high/low levels of bulk granular solids in bins, tanks and silos, the RLI ‘Shaker’ can also be used to detect plug conditions in spouts, where long life and failsafe detection is required. Utilizing a unique stepper motor drive, the RLI ‘Shaker’ rotates
clock wise , t hen counterclockwise and then shakes to shed any excess material build up. If the paddle rotation is impeded at any time by the bulk material then the e l e c t ro n i c c i rc u i t provides a signal for level indication or control. The RLI ‘Shaker’ uses fewer mechanical parts compared with standard rotary level indicators. No gearbox or
clutch is required as the stepper motor drive is directly coupled to the output shaft and is practically indestructible and cannot be damaged by forced or backwards rotation. Also, an adjustable torque control allows one unit to cover
many different densities of material, and provides easy on site calibration without having to change paddles. The RLI Shaker is ATE X certified. More
4B Braime Elevator Components Hunslet Road, Leeds LS10 1JZ United Kingdom Tel: +44 113 2461800 Fax: +44 113 2435021 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.go4b.com
Employee & Product Transportation Safety Webinar scheduled for end of November
o plan in a manufacturing facility is of greater importance than the accident prevention plan. T h e d e g re e o f s a f e t y a n d the results accomplished a re d i re c t l y p ro p o r t i o n a l to the effort expended to control the conditions, practices and human actions that are responsible for accidents. For these reasons, AFIA will host a webinar on November 30, 2010 from 14:00 – 15:30 EST on employee and product transportation.
AFIA’s Equipment Manufacturers’ Committee and Integrator Committee recently completed a guidance document on Transportation Safety and how it relates to the feed industry. This webinar will go in-depth on a number of issues that are covered in the guidance document and participants will receive a copy of the document after the webinar. Presenters include: • D r C h a r l e s S t a r k , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r, Extension Specialist – Feed Milling, NC State University • Terry Medemblik, sales manager, Walinga Inc.
• Jack Lyle, vice-president and general manager, Warren Manufacturing, Inc. • Keith Epperson, vicepresident, American Feed Industry Association Some of the topics that will be addressed include: • Truck flushing guidance • General rules and safety • Safety symbols and labels • Confined space • P e r s o n a l p r o t e c t i v e equipment • Loading and unloading • Coupling and uncoupling truck to trailer • I n s p e c t i o n and
maintenance • Working around overhead power lines • Pre-trip inspection • Driver’s vehicle inspection report • Drug and alcohol policy More
Sarah Novak American Feed Industry Association 2101 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 916 Arlington VA 22201 USA Tel: +1 703 5240810 Fax: +1 703 5241921 Email: email@example.com Website: www.afia.org
Are you a Perendale bookworm? Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishers of Grain & Feed mIlling Technology, has set up an online Amazon-based ‘Book Shop’ that lets you browse a wide range of recently-published reports and books on Grain & Feed relaed topics. You will soon be able to read an extended review before making your selection and purchasing directly from Amazon. We will undertake to put forward for your consideration the most recent publications and as a result become a reference point for your reading and research.
Of course you will be charged for any books purchased, but you will be dealing directly with Amazon, which has a world-class ordering/payment gateway, packaging and mailing service.
www.perendale.com/books 10 | November - December 2010
&feed milling technology
November - December 2010
New investments made at UK’s first dedicated organic mill
itrition, part of Kiotech International, which operates the longest established dedicated organic feed mill in the UK, has made a significant investment in a new cooler and crumbler at its Boroughbridge facility. The new cooler, will continue to support the mill’s excellent biosecurity record, and has been introduced in order to increase capacity and keep pace
with the busier mill. The new crumbler will enable Vitrition to offer customers a "crumbed" product for starter feeds to table birds and turkeys. It will also be used to provide layer feeds in crumble form as an alternative to mash or pellets, supporting feed intake in difficult flocks. “ We f u l l y recognise the importance of ensuring young birds are supported with adequate nutrition to
farm requirements. meet their growth The company is requirements,” said accredited through Vitrition’s Claire both the Soil Holton. Association and “The high nutrient Organic Farmers density organic and Growers and ration we supply offers full technical will have better support including a uptake in a crumb Claire Holton dedicated organic form which will nutritionist. ensure the key nutrients are provided to the “This investment in a new growing bird, thus optimal FCR crumbler allows us to offer and weight out of the brooder our customers greater choice of product form alongside the are maximised.” Vitrition has been in organic feeds excellent nutrient levels in all our since 1968 and has a product feeds,” explained Claire Holton. range designed to cater for all “We will certainly be striving to classes of livestock. It also offers produce the best quality organic custom mixes to meet individual crumb on the market.”
New effervescent product restores electrolyte balance in heat-stressed poultry
igh temperatures c a n p u t p o u l t r y, including game birds, under great stress, increasing respiration rates and resulting in loss of body fluids. While water is regarded as the most important tool in combating stress, it does not replace important electrolytes. AviPro ® Granule Anilyte, from Lohmann Animal Health, has been developed to counteract this problem by replenishing essential electrolytes. It is a watersoluble effervesce nt gr anul ated product designed to be added to the drinking water over short periods of 3-10 days. Its use is especially recommended during pe ak s in performance, before transpor t and when the bird’s
12 | November - December 2010
system loses balance due to reduced water uptake. This can be the result of disease, change of housing or transportation. Supplementation is also advised during times of increased fluid excretion – from diarrhoea as well as prolonged periods of high temperatures resulting in heat stress. Anilyte provides sodium chloride, pot a ssium c hlo ride, magnesium sulphate and citric acid. Sodium chlo ride is important for water distribution in t he bod y, potassium chloride is necessary for nerve cells and the cardiac conduction system while magnesium sulphate has an osmotic
ef fect in the intestine and supports renal function. This combination of electrolytes is especially indicated to restore the body’s acid imbalance during hyperventilation (alkalosis) in birds caused by heat stress. The free -f lowing white granules are added to the drinking system at the rate of 300g (one bottle) per 500 litres of water. Produced by an innovative technique developed by Lohmann Animal Health they dissolve very rapidly and leave no sediment. Anilyte has an aniseed flavour which stimulates water uptake, par ticularly in game birds, broilers and turkeys and during convalescent periods. More
Marika Ayecke-Thun Product Manager Lohmann Animal Health Heinz-Lohmann-Str 4 D-27472 Cuxhaven Germany Tel: +49 4721 747226 Fax: +49 4721 747188 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.lohmann.de
&feed milling technology
November - December 2010
Top safety accreditation for Game
ame Engineering Ltd is one of the latest group of successful companies to join a leading edge scheme, designed to help industry improve its safety record. The Lincoln based f irm recently received accreditation f ro m S A F E - c o n t r ac t o r, a programme which recognises very high standards of health and safety practice amongst UK contractors. Employing over 70 people, Game Engineering is principally involved in s te e lwor k f abr ic at ions in the materials processing and handling industry. Specialising in the Animal Fe ed , Pe t Food , B iom a ss Handling and Grain & Seed industries and with a UK£12plus million turnover, Game Engineering’s most recent clients have included major players such as Wagg Foods and Drax Power Station. The company’s application for SAFEcontractor accreditation was driven by the need for a uniform standard across the business, and goes hand in hand with the CHAS accreditation, awarded in 2009. Peter Stow, Health & Safety Advisor at Game commented, "SAFE-contractor is one of the flagship safety accreditation programmes and allows G ame E ngineering Ltd to demonstrate our commitment to maintaining the highest standards in our approach to and management of health and safety within the business. “This gives our clients the peace of mind and reassurance that they seek when appointing contractors for their projects, and s ave s t he m t he time and effort that they would normally take in pre approving us through their own audit or competence questionnaire.
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“I am very pleased t hat we have ac h ieve d t h i s accreditation and look forward to further developing our health, safety and environmental credentials so that our clients can rest assured, they are in a safe pair of hands with Game Engineering Ltd." SAFE-contractor accreditation is expected to enhance the company’s ability to attract new contracts and its insurers will view its commitment to safety positively when the company liability policy is up for renewal. SAFE-contractor is applicable to most sectors although it is particularly relevant to food manufacture, p r o p e r t y, f a c i l i t i e s management, retail and leisure sectors, all of which are big users of contract services. John Kinge, Head of Risk at SAFE-contractor said, "Major organisations can no longer run the risk of employing contractors who are not able to prove that they have sound health and safety policies. "More companies n e e d t o u nd e r s t a nd the impor tance of adopting good risk management in the way that Game Engineering Ltd has done. The f ir m s’ high s t and ard h a s set an example , w hic h hope fully will be followed by other companies within the sector.” U n d e r t h e SAFEcontractor system, businesses undergo a vetting process, which
examines health and safety procedures and their track record for safe practice. Those companies meeting the high standard are included on a database, which is accessible to registered users only via a website, www.safecontractor. com. Employer-organisations who sign up to the scheme can access the database, which enables them to vet potential c o n t r a c t o r s b e f o r e t h ey even set foot on site. These e mployer s agree t h at , a s users of the scheme, they will engage only those who have
received accreditation. Over one hundred and twenty major nation-wide businesses, from several key sectors, have signed up to use the scheme when selecting contractors for services such as building, cleaning, maintenance, refurbishment or electrical and mechanical work. More
Karen Jacklin Marketing Manager GAME Engineering Ltd Witham St Hughs Business Park Witham St Hughs Lincoln LN6 9TW United Kingdom Tel: +44 1522 868021 Fax: +44 1522 868027 Email: kjacklin @game-engineering.com Website: www.game-engineering.com
November - December 2010 | 13
New dimension in the production of hygienised feed meal
by Stefan Hoh, Buhler Group, Switzerland
athogenic bacteria in feed meal are a major risk factor for animal health and performance.
Thermal meal treatment significantly reduces microorganisms in feed, but requires a subsequent cooler after the hygienising section. Difficult to clean, conventional meal coolers can be a potential source for crossand re-contamination. A new process solution has been developed by Buhler Group, Switzerland, utilizing thermopneumatic conveying for drying and cooling as a smart alternative to meal coolers.
and the season. Whereas, most of the microorganisms are harmless, some species like enterobacteriaceae show pathogenic potential, with salmonella being the most common subspecies of enterobacteriaceae in animal feed. Infection doses for salmonella are comparatively low, with an incubation period of a few hours to two days, depending on animal species and age. Salmonella can cause serious animal disease like diarrhea, reducing feed digestibility and conversion, impairing animal growth and performance.
Contaminated raw materials
Hygienising by heat treatment
Agricultural products are a natural source of microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and molds. The degree of contamination is subject to parameters such as type of raw material, origin, transport and storage conditions
Sensitive to heat, salmonella are usually killed at temperatures above 55째C. However, high concentrations of fat, protein or starch in formulated feed may form a protective colloid layer and thus increase the heat resistance of bacteria.
14 | November - December 2010
Hence, a hygienising temperature of about 85째C has become common practice in the feed industry to ensure that virtually all pathogenic bacteria are destroyed. The temperature is achieved by the addition of steam into the conditioner and retained for a certain dwell time in the subsequent retentioner to guarantee a reliable decontamination process.
Recontamination after hygienising After the hygienising process, the hot and moist feed has to be cooled and dried to prevent recontamination and growth of microorganisms. This usually takes place in conventional meal coolers utilizing the principle of fluid bed cooling. Ambient air enters the cooler at the bottom side, flows through the perforation and fluidizes the meal. Even though providing efficient cooling,
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meal coolers are often described as a ‘five star hotel’ for microorganisms: The handling of hot and moist feed meal can cause condensation in the meal cooler, with free water being a major growth factor for bacteria which has resist the hygienising process or airborne bacteria from the high air volumes applied. Furthermore, cross- and re-contamination can occur due to product residues in the system, which are difficult to remove and require tremendous cleaning effort.
Thermal meal treatment The Buhler Group has developed a new process solution utilising thermopneumatic conveying for drying and cooling of hygienised feed meal. The thermal meal treatment process is divided into the sub-processes of hygienising and thermopneumatic drying/ cooling. Hygienising is carried out by the HYMIX and HYTHERM modules. In the HYMIX, the compound feed particles can be heated to a temperature of 80 to 90 degrees C by the addition
of steam. The heated formulated feed is then retained in one or optionally two HYTHERM modules. This allows retention times between 60 and 240 seconds to be achieved as a function of the throughput rate. In addition, the HYTHERM system is characterised by its very narrow dwell time distribution, thus getting very close to the ‘first in – first out’ principle, which ensures reliable hygienisation. In a second process step, the hygienised
feed enters the Triple Air Control (TAC) system for drying and cooling. In the first stage, pre-heated air is applied for drying and cooling, utilising the effect of evaporation. Final product temperature is achieved in the subsequent two pneumatic conveying lines, utilizing ambient air for cooling. The optimised concept of HYMIX and Hytherm ensures low product residues and easy cleaning. Thanks to the high air velocities applied,
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the TAC system is self-cleaning, which prevents product deposits. Cooling by a thermopneumatic conveyor greatly reduces the risk of cross-contamination and recontamination in comparison to conventional meal coolers. Thanks to its flexible design, the new thermal meal treatment system has a small installation footprint. This enables the space available in existing feed production plants to be utilised in the best possible way. The system was installed at the Amrein Futtermühle AG, Switzerland, which produces hygienised swine feed. Operation of the new facility is fully automated and is controlled exclusively from the control room. This cuts labour costs and allows just-in-time production. The new process increases the uptime of the processing lines thanks to reduced downtimes when formulations are changed in comparison with hygienising systems consisting of pellet mills and conventional meal coolers. The new thermal meal treatment system can be easily tailored to specific customer
needs or adjusted to feed recipes for other animal species, e.g. layer and breeder feed. This is made possible by the following options: microfiltration of the air for top sanitation standards; addition of solid and liquid microingredients; post-mixing application for unsurpassed product homogeneity; and monitoring of the steam quality and/or of the moisture content.
Improved feed The pig feed produced by the new process is characterized by its extremely low count of microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, and yeast fungi. Pathogenic bacteria such as salmonella are virtually destroyed, which significantly reduces the incidence and severity of diarrhea disorders in the animals. Besides improving the animals’ health, this also enhances feed digestibility, which in turn has a positive impact on the weight increase of the animals. The Maillard reaction occurring during the thermal treatment process creates a bundle of roast flavours, which improve the palat-
ability of the feed. Thermally treated swine feed may thus have a positive influence on the animal’s appetite and – according to feedback Amrein received from its customers – results in outstanding feed acceptance. Moreover, thermal meal treatment improves the water solubility of the feed. Product lumps in the feed slurry are effectively prevented, as well as deposits of high-density particles in the feed trough. Last, the heat and steam treatment causes fines to agglomerate on coarser particles, which reduces dust generation and improves flowability. Choke-ups during discharge from storage bins and silos are greatly reduced compared to untreated feed meal.
Buhler Group Uzwil, CH-9240 SWITZERLAND Website: www.buhlergroup.com
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‘PROFILING’ FLOURS AND THEIR VALUE TO END USERS
by Charles Loubersac D’hotel, Chopin Technologies SAS, France
lour quality control is not an easy task. Many parameters have an influence, starting from the protein (quantity, quality …), the starch (damaged or not…), the enzymes (amylases, proteases…) and many other components.
Chopin Technologies has been working on the quality control of cereals and flours for more than 80 years, providing solutions for cereal chemistry with the help of international association such as AACC, ICC. You may be familiar with the Chopin Technologies’ Alveo-consistograph, SDmatic for damaged starch determination, laboratory mills for flour (CD1 & CD1 Auto), the new NIR Infraneo and much more. The company launched recently the revolutionary ‘Profiler’, based on the Mixolab system, that both creates a new scoring system and inverse the QC as it currently exists by scoring the raw material in function of product end value and the processing consistency rather than the raw material alone. Mixolab measures the consistency of the dough during mixing and submitted to a gradual increase and decrease of the mixer temperature. With just one single test, the operator has information concerning the protein and gluten quality (water absorption, dough stability during mixing, mixing time, strength of 18 | November - December 2010
the dough), but also concerning the starch (gelatinisation temperature, retrogradation, diastasic activity …) and some enzymatic activities (proteases on the first part of the test, amylases on the second). This tool is interesting for the all grainflour-bread chain thanks to its 50g mixing bowl. It also gives interesting and fast results from whole meal flour (obtain by grinding the wheat). Pure gluten or pure starch has also been successfully tested.
Successful testing After a six years successful life and a wide acceptance over customers such as
additives manufacturers, breeders, universities, industrial bakeries and millers, the company has improved the software facility of the device. The repeatability and reproducibility of the Mixolab allows users to manage the three-part software (all included) package with the device called Mixolab System. It is composed of the Mixolab Standard (ICC173), comprehensive tool for the R&D where the curve interpretation remains free, but requires cereal chemistry-skilled users; the Mixolab Simulator, that simulates the Farinograph® values and the Mixolab Profiler which is the perfect tool for daily QC purposes for it helps the millers and bakers scoring their flours on six very comprehensive indexes.
Fundamental rheology: ‘The cereal chemistry minded tool’
Figure 1: The Profiler software facility
The Mixolab senses, in real time, the torque in Nm produced by the dough between the two mixing blades. All information is transmitted to the computer for data treatment and visualisation. The Mixolab can work either at constant hydration or at constant consistency. For constant consistency, the Chopin standard target is 1.1Nm: it is adaptable to other targets as needed. Once the dough is formed, the device measures its behaviour
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as a function of time, mixing development and temperature. This allows for: • The analysis of the quality of the protein network: hydration, stability, elasticity, mixing power • The analysis of starch behaviour: gelatinisation and gelation temperatures, modification of consistency by additives, etc • The analysis of enzymatic activity: proteolitic, amylasic and other In order to be assured of getting a good analysis of temperature influence on the dough, a sensor is located at the dough/ mixer interface (dough temperature): this complements the information given by a second temperature sensor situated near the heating element (mixer temperature). Dough development: Starting at constant temperature, the beginning of the test checks the water absorption level of flours and measures the characteristics of dough during mixing: stability, elasticity, water absorption Protein breakdown: As the dough temperature increases, the consistency decreases. This part of the curve shows that the weakening depends on protein/gluten quality Starch gelatinisation: When a certain temperature is reached, starch gelatinization begins. Additives can influence this gelatinization temperature and/or the maximum consistency of gelatinized flour Measure of amylase activity: The consistency value at the end of heating depends on the naturally occurring and/or added amylase activity Cooling the dough down, beginning of starch gelling: When cooling, starch retrogrades and the product consistency increases. Some additives have an effect on this phenomenon and can modify its behaviour. These additives can help avoid early staling, and increase the softness of the end product, and their effect can be measured The Mixolab is very flexible and can adapt itself to every single problematics. The user can choose between the Chopin protocol proposed as a standard method or can create its own test. In this last case, he will be able to set different temperature cycles,
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play with mixing speed (from 55 to 250rpm), modify the target torque, etc. This in order to be the closest of industrial use conditions of his flour. The Mixolab is very simple to use. The analysis is completely automated. Figure 2 The only steps are to weigh the flour, put it in the dough mixer and position the necessary amount of water for hydration and water injector. The device is completely injects it. A conrtol menu allows the adjustment driven from a PC thanks to user-friendly software working on Windows 98, 2000, NT, and monitoring of all the Mixolab features XP, Vista, 7. It is possible to get all the results under Excel sheets. The Mixolab design has been optimised in order to guaranty to the end-user maximum safety. Before each test, the Mixolab checks that all test conditions are respected. Once all set values are reached, the system takes the +1 515-254-1260 • Email: firstname.lastname@example.org • www.insta-pro.com
November - December 2010 | 19
“The revolutionary Profiler creates a new scoring system and inverses the QC as it exists actually. It scores the raw material in its function at the end product and the process itself rather than just the raw material” and particularly calibration of the different sensors: temperature, torque, etc. The Mixolab is particularly adapted for a wide range of applications in Research laboratories.
However, in the end, few tools are available that help them to assess not just the quality but the functionality of their flours as well.
Then there is the Profiler on the Mixolab. The quality parameters mentioned above are most of the time focusing on gluten, few are considering the starch fraction. Most the trouble shooting is coming from starch ‘miscontrol’. For example, if you just consider the water absorption you can obtain using common rheological methods, they don’t translate precisely into what is the actual water absorption in an industrial mixer. Again, Mixolab is measuring the consistency on a dough, a real dough, not a slurry or batter, where interaction between gluten and starch are critical with a limited amount of water available, where the quality of the gluten can influence the starch behaviour during the warming phase. This is actually a very good way to mimic the actual process. And this is the reason why the Mixolab is so valuable for bakers, as there is no other such device that is close to their processes. The standard curve from the Mixolab requires a pretty good knowledge of dough rheology; the baker needs fast and simple method in one test. The aim of the Profiler is to translate this raw curve into a comprehensive and understandable test. Six indexes are ranked from 0 to 9 (see Figure 2), an absorption index, a mixing index, a gluten quality index, a viscosity
Functional rheology is the ultimate tool for Industrial baker. The cereal chemistry-minded tool translates into a daily use, routine and functional control all the flours tested. This is typically the kind of requirement industrial bakers, having various suppliers, are asking for. This what Chopin technology achieved with its software facility on the Mixolab. Millers, suppliers of bakeries, are giving quality parameters, such as protein, ash, starch damage, sedimentation, Hagberg, water absorption (from the Farinograph) or even Alveograph values such as W&P/L, that most of the time complies with bakers requirements. Still, some trouble shooting is possible. In a world where customers requirements are moving fast, new products developments are a critical competitive point for industrial bakers who are following new trends such as gluten-free, high-fiber, digestibility, whole grain, enriched flours etc.
Figure 3: The Mixolab device
20 | November - December 2010
Trouble shooting with the Profiler
index, an amylases index and a retrogradation index. Flour tested shall be identified such as, for example, 352-345. This Index, thanks to the reproducibility and the repeatability of the device, becomes the flour fingerprint.
Designing your own profiles Based on that, the bakers will be able to design their own profiles for each of their end products with tolerances values on the Chopin Index. They need, like a calibration, to process on the Mixolab 12 to 20 samples of well performing flours for a dedicated end product. That includes the process used for that end product. They will design, like this, the Profiler they need. From that preliminary work you shall be able to ensure 100 percent consistency in your production line. As soon as you have the profile, you can make it easy, whatever the skills of the user: you know if the flour is “in” the Profile or “out”. If in, no worries, if out, the profiler shows where the problem comes from, on which index and how it can be fixed with your supplier. Indeed, that provides the bakers, in one single test, a better understanding, avoid trouble shootings from arising and allow communications with suppliers to be accurate and precise. The revolutionary Profiler creates a new scoring system and inverses the QC as it exists actually. It scores the raw material in its function at the end product and the process itself rather than just the raw material.
Chopin Technologies 20 avenue Marcelin Berthelot Villeneuve-la-Garenne Cedex, 92396 France Website: www.chopin.fr
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Low-cost Near Infrared Transmission grain analysers for farmers by Phillip Clancy, NIR Technology Systems, Australia
easuring the protein, oil and moisture of grains at the farm gate is not a necessity in all countries. However, where farmers are paid based on the protein and oil content of their grains, then a simple, low-cost NIT (Near Infrared Transmission) analyser can be of significant benefit.
In Australia, South Africa, Canada and some European countries, grain is bought and sold based on protein and oil. Specifically in Australia and Canada where farms can be producing many thousands of tonnes of wheat, barley and canola per year, and the distances to silos can be as much as 100km, then on-farm grain analysers are becoming a more common investment.
The theory of NIT spectroscopy Near Infrared Transmission spectroscopy measures protein, oil and moisture in grains by passing light through a 16mm thick cell containing the whole grains. Infrared energy is absorbed by the chemical bonds that make up the protein, moisture and oil in the grains. Protein is measured from the N-H bonds present in peptide bonds that join together to make long protein molecules. 22 | November - December 2010
Moisture, that is water, is measured from the O-H bonds. And Oil is measured from the C-H bonds that exist in long chain fatty acids which are the building blocks for oils and fats. N-H, O-H and C-H molecules absorb at specific resonant frequencies of light. So by passing infrared light through the sample of grain, energy gets absorbed at the three resonant frequencies in proportion to the concentration of each component. Mathematical models are developed using linear regression statistical software that relate the amount of energy absorbed at each frequency to the concentration levels. These models Above - Figure 1: The CropScan are downloaded Loren 1000G On-Farm Analyser into the analyser as calibration files. To analyse a
Figure 2: schematic of the diode array spectrometer
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sample of grain, the sample is poured into the analyser and the NIT spectra is collected. The calibrations are applied and the protein, moisture and oil results are predicted.
Table 1: Comparison of 2 CropScan 1000G Analysers vs. the Reference Laboratory (SEP = Standard Error of Prediction)
Protein Protein Ref Sample CropScan CropScan Protein ID - 004 - 015
Description of the instrument
Diff Ref - 004
Diff Ref - 015
Moisture Moisture Ref CropScan CropScan Moisture - 004 - 015 9
Diff Ref - 015
W4 12.4 12.5 12.7 -0.3 -0.2 The CropScan Loren W5 13.6 13.8 13.7 -0.1 0.1 1000G On-Farm Analyser (see Figure 1), is a diode B1 8.3 8.4 8.7 -0.4 -0.3 array spectrometer designed B2 9.8 9.7 9.6 0.2 0.1 to measure protein, moisture B3 10.5 10.5 10.3 0.2 0.2 and oil in wheat, barley and B4 11.3 10.9 11.6 0.1 -0.7 canola. Other grains and oil B5 12.6 12.6 12.8 -0.2 -0.2 seeds can be measured; however these three seeds make SEP 0.22 0.28 up the bulk of the market in Australia and Canada. Accuracy and precision The CropScan 1000G uses a pour A recent in house study to validate the through sampling system that allows up to 10 performance of the CropScan 1000G demsub samples to be scanned and the average onstrates the accuracy and precision of the of the protein and moisture or oil and mois- analyser. Table 1 shows the results of analysing five wheat and five barley samples in duplicate and
Diff Ref - 004
Table 2 shows the results of analysing the same five wheat and five barley samples on three consecutive days. This test is indicative of the stability of the analyser.
Calibrations Calibration models for protein, moisture
CropScan 1000 Series Grain Analysers Figure 3: Plot of predicted protein vs reference protein
ture are presented on the screen in around 45 seconds. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the diode array spectrometer. The advent of low-cost diode array spectrometers, such as the CropScan 1000G, make on-farm grain measurement possible. The CropScan 1000G has no moving parts except for the sampling brush wheel motor to meter the grain through the sample chamber. This solid state optical system means that the CropScan 1000G is unaffected by orientation and vibration. As such the analyser can be placed in a combine, in a tractor or any vehicle and moved from paddock to paddock. Running from a 12 volt DC vehicle power adapter or from a 12 volt battery, the CropScan 1000G can be used virtually anywhere.
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compares the results with the laboratory reference values for each sample. Figure 3 shows the plots for predicted protein vs. the reference protein values while Figure 4 shows the plots for the predicted moisture vs. the reference moisture values.
CropScan 1000B Whole Grain Analyser
Protein and Moisture in Whole Wheat and Barley
Oil and Moisture in Canola Test Weight Module Printer Option Network
CropScan Loren 1000B On Farm Analyser
Protein and Moisture in Whole Wheat and Barley
Oil and Moisture in Canola
For an information pack, please contact: NIR Technology Systems Tel: 612 9771 5444 Fax: 612 9771 5255 Emial: email@example.com
November - December 2010 | 23
and oil are developed using a mium for oil content Table 2: Results of analysing the same five wheat and five barley samples on three chemometrics software package greater than 40 perconsecutive days.This test is indicative of the stability of the analyser called NTAS (NIR Technology cent. By measuring Sample Protein Protein Protein Moisture Moisture Moisture Range Range Analysis Software). the protein and oil ID Day 1 Day 2 Day2 Day1 Day2 Day 3 Hundreds and even thoufor grains and oil sands of samples of various seeds, the crop can W1 9.9 9.9 10 0.1 9 9 8.8 0.2 grains are scanned, that is the be segregate into difW2 10.2 10.6 10.3 0.4 10.9 10.8 10.7 0.2 NIT spectra are collected using ferent silos or bins. W3 12 12.1 12.1 0.1 12.2 11.8 11.8 0.4 the CropScan 1000G. A Partial By blending higher Least Squares (PLS) regression protein wheat and W4 12.5 12.5 12.4 0.1 9.6 9.5 9.4 0.2 analysis is used to develop a barley with low proW5 13.7 13.7 13.8 0.1 11.3 11.2 11.1 0.2 mathematical model that relates tein grains and higher B1 8.3 8.9 8.6 0.6 10.8 10.7 10.7 0.1 the NIT spectra to each of the oil canola with lower B2 10.1 10.2 10.2 0.1 11.1 11 11.1 0.1 protein, moisture and oil in the oil seeds, then it is B3 10.7 10.4 10.5 0.3 10.9 11.1 11 0.2 samples. possible to get more B4 11.4 11.8 11.4 0.4 12.5 12.6 12.5 0.1 Separate calibration models of the farmer’s crop are developed for each grain. into the premium B5 12.5 13.1 12.8 0.6 10.1 10 10.1 0.1 The master calibration modgrades and thereby SDD 0.21 0.09 els provided with the CropScan increase their pay1000G have been developed ments for their Table 3: Return on investment analysis over many years based on samcrops. ples of wheat, barley and canola Wheat 2000 tonne collected from many countries. Summary Grains grown and These calibrations are downWith the price of Barley 1500 tonne tonnage: loaded into each CropScan chemicals, fuel and Canola 1000 tonne 1000G and a set of reference capital equipment Wheat $5 per percent per tonne samples are analysed to make increasing annually, Premiums paid for Barley $30 per tonne between 9.5 and 11.5 percent protein and oil: slope and bias adjustments to the profitability of Canola $10 per tonne over 40 percent oil the calibrations so that the farming is decreasing. Wheat 15 percent = 300 tonne instruments is setup to accuTechnology is the Estimated additional rately and reproducibly analyses only option for farmtonnage delivered into Barley 30 percent = 500 tonne premium grades: new samples of each grain. ers to improve their Canola 25 percent = 250 tonne The CropScan 1000G profitability through Wheat $4500 includes means of adjusting the improving efficiency. Additional Profit Barley $15000 generated: slope and bias for each calibraAs such, farmers Canola $2500 tion. are buying more Investment: $12500 This is important in order automated tractors, to align the predicted results seeders and comReturn per year: $21000 with an external laboratory or bines and sprayers another instrument’s results. with weed indentifyFor farmers there is an Autocalibration mode Instrument investment payback ing sensors are becoming more common. All in the instrument’s software that prompts Although different countries have differ- these devices offer the possibility of reducing the operator to analyse a reference sample ent marketing options which will affect the the costs of farming; however they do not and then adjust the results to align the instru- investment payback, the following scenario provide a means of increasing the price ment to reference sample. has been chosen for a typical board acre received for the farmer’s crops. The CropScan 1000G is a relatively farm in Australia. Wheat with pro- low-cost instrument that has the potential tein above 10.5 per- of reaching a payback of less than one year. cent protein attracts a premium of Aus$5 per percent per tonne. More information: Wheat with protein Phillip Clancy above 13 percent an NIR Technology Systems additional premium is B1, 366 Edgar Street, Condell Park paid. Barley falls into NSW, Australia Tel: +61 2 97715444 malting grade if the Email: firstname.lastname@example.org protein is between Website: www.nirtech.net 9 and 12 percent. Figure 4: Plot or predicted moisture vs reference moisture Canola attracts a pre24 | November - December 2010
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COMPANIES OPERATING IN THE MILLING INDUSTRY
Company profiles 2010/11
Perfection in grain milling – a highly demanding task. Antares sets new standards for round-the-clock milling. The self-contained roll pack and reliable product feed ensure precise and consistent flour. Maximum hygiene is guaranteed thanks to clever insulation, integrated product inlet aspiration and stainless steel lining. Antares – The New Art of Milling. www.buhlergroup.com
150 Years Buhler - from the local iron foundry founded in 1860 to the global corporation. Buhler delivers leading technology and solutions for processing grain into safe and healthy finished products. Buhler stands for straight forward and cutting-edge solutions. State-of-the-art process technology, innovative plant engineering and a deep knowledge of the related processes maximize both quality and product yields. But there is even more to it: Buhler know-how also enables customers to create the most cost - and energy-efficient process solutions from standalone machines to complete plants. Innovation. One of the key terms in this connection is innovation based on the art of engineering. Without an additional healthy dose of enthusiasm and persistence, the spirit of discovery so typical of Buhler would never have thrived. Time and again, this spirit has enabled the organization to roll out firsts in the global marketplace, for example in the field of roller mill development. Quality leadership. This attribute is manifested in quantifiable and transparent quality targets which are defined in an open dialog with our customers so that promised performance is achieved and the edge in confidence can be further increased. Focus on solutions. Focus on solutions means to center all efforts on our customers’ profitability. This requires an understanding of and a capability to improve their complete value chains and thus to offer our customers an edge in performance over pure equipment manufacturers. Global reach. Buhler has been a global player for many decades, with a multicultural team and a local presence extending across all the major markets of the world. This edge in availability, whose significance will further increase in the future, pays off in the results it allows to be achieved.
The solution behind the solution.
Final Chief adverts:Final Chief adverts
Chief Industries UK Ltd
Quality grain handling Chief dryers
Supplied to European DIN or ASAE/ASTM Standards
Grain. It’s your business. Which is why we never underestimate the importance of how it is handled.
If you need a partner with the expertise, technology and manufacturing methods to ensure that your storage plant is second-to-none in terms of quality and processes, then look no further.
Marot rotary cleaners and You can trust in Chief. spares Beckingham Business Park, Tolleshunt Major Maldon, Essex CM9 8LZ, UK
Tel +44 (0)1621 868944 Fax +44 (0)1621 868955 E-mail email@example.com www.chief.co.uk
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Chief Industries UK Ltd, and Phénix Rousies Industries in France, are part of the Chief Industries Inc. Group based in Nebraska, USA. Together, the Chief companies manufacture and supply a comprehensive range of top quality grain storage silos, grain dryers, grain cleaners, conveyors and ventilation systems for worldwide distribution. Chief Industries has over 50 years experience in grain handling systems, incorporating state-ofthe-art design and manufacturing, supplying flat floor silos with capacities ranging from 30 to 30,000 tons, hopper bins with capacities ranging from 2.5 to 1,400 tons, and grain dryers capable of drying up to300 tons per hour. By designing complexes of a number of silos, the grain storage and drying possibilities are infinite. Manufactured from high quality galvanized steel, Chief’s storage installations last for many years. Market activity has remained buoyant in 2010 with continuing worldwide demand for storage and drying facilities. In addition, a major port storage project in Pakistan has added further to the company profile. With it’s modern manufacturing facilities Chief has continued to take advantage of the market conditions. That, together with the company’s reputation as a trusted, no-nonsense, technically competent supplier, has placed Chief UK in a healthy position to look forward to further success in 2011.
November - December 2010 | 25
Company profiles 2010/11
Twin-screw extrusion plants & equipment for the food & feed industries
Expert Twin-screw extrusion and drying technologies for the food & feed industries In introducing twin-screw cooking-extrusion technology in the 70s, Clextral has been playing a major role in the food and feed processing. To serve both pet food and fish feed booming markets, Clextral answers with higher capacities extruders to meet mass production requirements for mature core markets, and with small and medium flexible production lines dedicated to high added-value products for niche production. Value added pet food products such as treats, bi-colored, co-extruded, moist and semi-moist, premium and super premium, nutritional, functional and so on, can all be extruded in Clextral compact lines ranging from 300 to 1000kg/h. High capacities can be achieved together with high flexibility and the guarantee of consistent product characteristics: quality nutritional value, higher starch gelatinization for increased digestibility, large variety of raw materials to increase the levels and values of recipes. High capacity lines for pet food are now standardized for “standard“ pet food (10 to more than 16T/h output). For micro & macro fish feed processing, Clextral has developed an expertise in production at high capacities. Clextral upgraded BC 160 twin-screw extruder represents the most performing tool with up to 30 T/h final fish feed which is the highest capacity ever reached on this type of production. This expertise and process skill has been transferred to the production of large range of products from micro to macro pellets (diameters ranging from 0.5 mm diameter to over 35 mm). In addition to the perfect mastering of this twin-screw technology for animal feed, Clextral’s unique designed Rotante dryer achieves complete homogeneity of drying with less energy consumption.Clextral designs and supplies turn-key lines, advanced process solutions and the services associated to twin-screw extrusion and drying technologies for the food and feed processing industries as well as for the pulp paper, plastic & chemicals and bio-sourced materials. Clextral SAS – 1 rue du Colonel Riez – F-42700 Firminy – France Phone : 33 4 77 40 31 31 – Fax : 33 4 77 40 31 23 – firstname.lastname@example.org
Consergra CONSERGRA, S.L. is a specialist in grain conservation, and manufactures the CONSERFRÍO® grain chiller. It’s a modern, highly energy-efficiency cooler which helps to conserve a wide variety of grains, seeds, oily and granulated perishable items stored in silos and warehouses. Its use, independently of climatic conditions, prevents shrinkages of weight, rotting, insects damage and toxin build up. The conservation with the CONSERFRÍO® is natural and highly cost-effective, the pay-back on the investment is extremely fast. Our units, installed all over the world preserve millions of tons of grain every season. Our product range covers from 40 up to 500 ton per day, per machine. CONSERGRA, S.L. puts their 40 years experience at your service!
26 | November - December 2010
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Company profiles 2010/11
Feed Management Systems Feed Management Systems® Inc. a leader in providing integrated software solutions and services for the animal feed manufacturing industry to manage their nutrition, feed formulation and production needs. We offer real-time, integrated, scalable solutions leveraging the Microsoft® technology you are familiar with today. Ensure the safety, quality and affordability of your feed supply by integrating your data and managing costs. Our products Brill Formulation® and Feed Ration Balancer® are used in over 67 countries by multi-national food conglomerates, mid-size feed manufacturers, universities, consultants, large producers, integrators, and micronutrient premixers. Our global team provides the expertise and service you need locally to understand your challenges, assess your business needs and guide you through the process of applying the right technology to achieve your goals and drive productivity and profits. Learn more about our new enhancements to Feed Ration Balancer™ and Brill Formulation® including new tools such as Smartlists, SQL Data Bridge and Microsoft Excel Interface, helping manufacturers analyze and extend data across your organization. Our software solutions help thousands of users everyday by: • Increasing employee productivity • Integrating data and formulation, production and financial operations • Optimizing ingredients for profitable purchasing decisions • Tracking and storing information for compliance needs • Developing custom rations for multiple species for animal performance • Responding to changing demands of business and supply chain • Gaining visibility of real-time data to make decisions Contact us today at email@example.com
Hydronix - Moisture Measurement
Measure Moisture & Reduce Cost
The Hydro-Probe digital microwave sensor provides accurate, cost effective moisture control in feed meals, pellets, grain, cereal and pulses. Suitable for bins, silos, conveyors and chutes. Monitor and adjust moisture levels
affected by dust or colour.
Increase profitability with Hydronix Moisture Measurement Controlling moisture at the correct level throughout all stages of processing can be one of the biggest problems for feed and grain manufacturers. Too wet, and the raw material can become mouldy during storage or sticky during processing. Too dry and it will become brittle and turn to ‘flour’ or dust. Either circumstance leads to waste and therefore directly impacts on profit. Microwave moisture sensors are not affected by dust, colour or vapour arising from processing and have proved to be the most cost effective, reliable and easy to use method of controlling moisture in grain and feed manufacturing. Raw materials are passed across the ceramic faceplate of the sensor which radiates an extremely low powered electromagnetic microwave field. The resonant frequency of the material changes with variations in moisture content, and with 25 readings taken per second, the sensor detects changes in moisture levels almost instantaneously. This allows adjustments to the water addition process to be automatic and in real time. A perfect system would have sensors positioned throughout all of the various elements of the processing plant. Hydronix have a range of sensors that can be positioned in a variety of different locations depending upon specific requirements. The Hydro-Probe is designed to be located in the neck of a bin, underneath the gate, or in the material on a conveyor, and takes readings as the material flows around the sensor. For applications with a high ambient temperature, the Hydro-Probe Orbiter can be mounted above belt conveyors. Finally for applications that use a screw conveyor, chute or mixer, the Hydro-Mix is a flush mounted sensor that enables the material to pass across the faceplate. Hydronix has over 25 years experience in moisture measurement, and is the original developer of the digital microwave moisture measurement method.
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GFMT eighth page vertical 58 x 90.indd 1
November - December 2010 | 27
Company profiles 2010/11
Perry of Oakley Ltd
- continuous mixed-ﬂow driers - chain & ﬂight conveyors - screw conveyors - bucket elevators - belt conveyors - aspirator pre-cleaners
Perry of Oakley Ltd is a family owned designer/manufacturer of grain dryers and materials handling equipment. Everything available from Perry of Oakley is manufactured in their UK based purpose built factory. The grain driers are suitable for drying all cereal crops including maize, wheat, barley, oats and oil seed rape. The driers come in capacities of 10 tph to 150 tph and are in use worldwide. The ranges of handling equipment offer specifications and capacities to suit on farm use to heavy duty commercial grain store applications and are not only limited to the handling of arable crops. Perry of Oakley can supply machines that will cope with any free flowing or partially free flowing product for any industry in any capacity required. A full list of accessories including ducting, valves, cleaners and hoppers is available to make sure Perry of Oakley is a one stop shop for all your handling/drying needs. Usually products are supplied through an extensive list of dealers, Perry of Oakley are happy to be contacted directly. Their team of engineers can provide information, advice and guidance from day 1 of your project. Tel/Fax. +44 1404 891400/402 Email. firstname.lastname@example.org
www.perryengineering.com Dunkeswell Airﬁeld, Dunkeswell, Devon, England, EX14 4LF Tel/Fax. +44 (0) 1404 891 400/402 Email. email@example.com
Schmidt-Seeger About Schmidt-Seeger - Schmidt-Seeger GmbH –a member of the Buhler Group- ranks among the world’s leading suppliers of professional technologies for the management of bulk products. Our customers include predominantly the grain and seeds industry, breweries and maltsters. However, our engineering and machines have also a good reputation in the building- and chemical industry, at mash plants or at the storage of fertilizers. Furthermore we have clients within the biomass processing and recycling business. About Buhler - Buhler is a global leader in the field of process engineering, especially production technologies for making foods and engineering materials. Buhler operates in over 140 countries and has some 7500 employees worldwide. In fiscal 2009, the Group generated sales revenue of CHF 1.7 billion.
28 | November - December 2010
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Company profiles 2010/11
Sizer....The future of pelleting since 1899
Whether you are looking for a pelleting press, a full production line or just spare parts, Sizer Pelleting Solutions makes a positive difference financially and environmentally.
The Orbit pellet presses were first produced by Richard Sizer, a pioneering British company, founded in 1899. The simple, robust designs have been continually improved to this day to meet modern industry's demands for cost effective quality and efficiency. Our comprehensive range of pelleting equipment along with our extensive range of spares, makes us the obvious choice for any company looking to develop a robust, cost effective pelleting operation Our efficient and robust Orbit pelleting presses are easy to install and adaptable for bespoke applications. The full range of Orbit Pelleting presses are used in industries as diverse as animal feed, maltings industry, biomass, charcoal briquetting and flour milling. The range has machines capable of producing between 200kg/hr and 10000kg/hr, depending on material. With extensive knowledge of Orbit, CPM and Simon Baron presses, you know you're in safe hands with Sizer. Our refurbishment service is available on or off site allowing you the flexibility needed to keep you process running smoothly.
Telephone: +44(0)1709 724279 or email us: Suzanne Birley: firstname.lastname@example.org
www.sizer-pelleting.co.uk The parent company of Richard Sizer Ltd. Established 1899
A BIG THANK YOU TO ALL OF OUR ADVERTISERS IN 2010 Addcon Europe GmbH Agora Services Ltd Agromatic AG Alapala MACHINE Industry and Trade Inc Almex b.v. Andritz Feed & Biofuel Arodo BVBA Baker Perkins Ltd Biomin Holding GmbH Braime Elevator Components Ltd Buhler Buhler Sortex Ltd Calibre Control Campden BRI CB Packaging Ltd Cenzone Tech Inc Chief Industries UK Ltd Cimbria A/S Clextral Consergra CPM Europe B V Croston Engineering Ltd Danisco (UK) Limited Detia Degesch GmbH Dinnissen BV Ehcolo A/S Extru-Tech Feed Management Systems FES Consultants Ltd Forberg International
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FrigorTec GmbH FRITSCH GmbH Hydronix Ltd Imas Insta-Pro International IntelScan InVivo NSA Jacob Sohne GmbH & Co JCB Consulting Ltd JEFO Nutrition Inc Jiangsu Hualiang Machinery John Staniar & Co JSConwell Ltd Kiotechagil Lambton Conveyor Ltd Leonhard Breitenbach GmbH Mathews Company Maywal Limited Muhlenchemie GmbH & Co KG Muyang NABIM Obial Ottevanger Milling Engineers B.V Palm View Trade Perry Bulk Handling Perstorp Performance Additives Perten Instruments AB R-Biopharm Rhone Ltd RDS Technology Ltd Reclame Adviesbureau
Reinhard R端eter Maschinenbau Romer Labs UK Limited Sanderson Weatherall Satake Australia Pty Ltd Satake Corporation Satake Europe Ltd SCE Schmidt-Seeger GmbH Shandong Yingchun Steel & Silo Manufacturing Co Ltd Shanghai ZhengChang International Machinery and Engineering Co., Ltd Silos Cordoba Sizer Ltd Stewart Inglis Limited Suffolk Automation Ltd Suncue Company Ltd Symaga SA Tapco Inc TekPro Ltd Tornum AB Tramco Europe TSC B.V UNORMAK VEGA Controls Ltd Vigan Engineering Vortex Valves Europe Ltd Wenger Manufacturing Inc Westeel Wynveen International B.V November - December 2010 | 29
Insects Limited Inc. 2010
The last line of defense T
he cereal that I poured into my breakfast bowl this morning underwent a long and perilous journey. From the day it got harvested and stored into a grain bin, it was under attack from primary pests such as the granary or rice weevils (Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae).
The grains were possibly fumigated to keep unwanted grain insects from infesting this valuable commodity. Weeks to months later, the grains were processed into perhaps rolled oats, corn flakes or flour. These processed products were then stored in interior bins made of steel for a period of time until it was ready to be combined with a variety of ingredients, including sugar, nuts, fruits and other enrichments. During all this time stored product pests (SPP) may have been discretely hidden somewhere in the facility ready and waiting for spillage or easy access to the foods. They include the Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella), grain beetles, (Oryzaephilus spp.), flour beetles (Tribolium spp.) and warehouse beetles (Trogoderma sp.). The final product was at last placed into 30 | November - December 2010
a package designed to display the food item enclosed within. The package was also made in such a way as to help preserve the freshness and flavour of the contents, to withstand transportation and long term storage (possibly six months) before being put out onto the retail shelves. The warehouse and retail store are additional locations where the invading hoards wait to claim their next meals.
Beetle bits I am sure that box of cereal I purchased remained on the shelf for a few days to a couple of weeks before I was lured by its
seductive appearance and promise of fulfilling foods. I have had this box open and in my cupboards now for about a week. All was well until, this morning as I emptied the last remaining bits of cereal into the bowl and began filling the empty spaces with milk. Stuff floated to the top…and it was not good stuff; it was beetle bits and to my trained entomological eye, the most common stored food pest in the world … an adult Indianmeal moth. There was a lot of time, material and money spent throughout this journey to get that wholesome food product into my
Table 1: Common stored product pests that penetrate and invade food packaging
Red flour beetle
Confused flour beetle Saw-toothed grain beetle
Invader Larva Adult, Larva
Merchant grain beetle
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hands, the consumer, pest free; but they did not succeed.
Did I eat any bug bits? I didn’t get violently sick, although I had intestinal grumblings this week. Will I buy this product again? Who is responsible for this? I don’t have any other live or dead insects in my cupboard. So that means they were dead when I got them. How did they get in there? Well, I happen to have a lot of experience in this area. Let us investigate this ‘consumer complaint’.
Start with the insects We should start with the insects first. There are a number of common pests that will attack food products. We could call these the ‘Evil Eight’ of food packaging (Table 1). ‘Penetrators’ are insects that have a stage that actively attempt to destroy or damage packaging materials to gain entry. ‘Invaders’ on the other hand attempt entry by navigating through existing openings and
channels or those created by ‘penetrators’ or other factors such as damage from handling. Packages designed to prevent penetration by insects must be robust with thick layers or made of resilient materials. To thwart the invaders from gaining access, packages must be made free from sealing defects or design flaws as well as surviving harsh handling.
Packaging materials There are many types of materials that can be used for consumer packaging. They can be graded into five categories according to levels of protection from penetrating insect pests: Modern packaging incorporates multiple layers and thickness of mixed materials such as those listed in Table 2.
Steel Silo Manufacturing TRUTH - INNOVATION - PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCE - QUALITY - PEOPLE ORIENTED - PROFOUND KNOWLEDGE
“With over 50 years of experience in the industry, we have built a solid reputation for “Yingchun”. This reputation is based on our scientific management, advanced processing, strict quality control and excellent after sales service. We will stick to our tenet of “Quality first, credit uppermost, customer guided, common development” and provide the best products and services for you”
Shandong Yingchun Steel Silo Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Address: No.101, Beiyi Road, Dongying City, Shandong Province Tel: +86 546 8313068 Email: email@example.com
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November - December 2010 | 31
The purpose of these packaging materials include better preservation, longer shelf life, enhanced graphics, resealable closures, and user convenience. There are however, many food packages that still have nothing more than dry food product in a single layer Kraft paper box or cellophane wrapper. Why would food manufacturers still do this kind of thing? Once the food package leaves the warehouse of the food manufacturer, a significant degree of control is lost over that product. It cannot accurately gauge the level of sanitation in a distribution center or retail store. The manufacturer cannot foresee a retail-
er’s improper product rotation or lack of pest control services, or its placement next to other infested materials. The manufacturer must however, satisfy the consumer’s expectation of pest free food. That manufacturer has a branded name product and if a consumer cannot feel confident in that product they will remember that brand as one to avoid rather than one to purchase. To that end, the retail package that a manufacturer uses to proudly sell its product is the ‘Last Line of Defense’. The difference between profit and loss (from recall) can literally be the thickness of the Euro bill (100 microns).
Table 2: Common packaging materials and the level of protection they provide from insect penetrators
Level of Protection from Penetrators Impervious to attack Insect proof
Examples of packaging materials
Vacuum sealed jars and tin cans Polycarbonate; Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) Polyester; nylon plastics Cellulose Acetate Polyamide Polyethylene (250 microns = 10 mil) Polypropylene Polyvinyl chloride
Susceptible to attack
Acrylonitrile Polylactic acid (new biodegradable plastics) Polyethylene (125 microns)
No protection from attack
Ethylene vinyl acetate Kraft Paper Corrugated paperboard Paper/foil/polyethylene Polyethylene (25-100 microns =1- 4 mil) Polyvinylidene chloride (Saran)
32 | November - December 2010
Odor Why does an insect attack one package over another made of the same material and containing the same food products? The answer is odor; insects live in a world of odors and the escape of food odors from a puncture, loose seal or badly design package is the main reason they choose one package over another. The majority of consumer complaints come from
products that have been invaded by a food pest; much fewer cases are from active penetration of insects through packages. It is a rare occurrence that food products are actually manufactured or packaged with active and viable insects. The risk of infestations come post production and packaging. This is why the packaging material is critical; it is the last line of defense to keep the food pest free.
Compromised by design Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for the manufacturer to use a package that is compromised by design during the filling process. Stitched paper bags have readymade holes that allow flour beetle and Indianmeal moth larvae to enter the package (see Figure 1). Some conveyor belts have ‘gripping teeth’ to move polyethylene bags of heavy product along the system. These leave openings that often are greater than 100 microns (0.1mm) in diameter. This is the minimum diameter for easy invasion of first instar larvae and egg deposition by female beetles and moths. It has been discovered, that freshly hatched eggs of flour beetles (Tribolium) can penetrate the stationary 150 mesh screens in a sifter; that is a 50 micron hole. Adult flour beetle require openings at least 1.35mm and adult grain beetles only require openings 1.0mm in diameter to invade packages.
Moth larvae can grip Recently the author has seen a trend
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to perforating the sides of 25kg bags with hundreds of holes ‘approximately 50 microns wide’ to allow venting. While the small diameter (some seemed bigger than others) may prevent easy invasion of most stages of insects, these holes provide an opening for ‘penetrators’ to use their mandibles on and increase the size of the hole. With thin polythene bags late instar Indianmeal moth larvae can grip the edges and pull at the plastic until the opening is large enough to penetrate with its head (Figure 2). The majority of people are physically limited in their ability to see package defects less than 50 microns in size, but they are like broken windows to young and delinquent insect larvae. The author recently spoke with a manager of a corn flour mill who had been receiving dozens of complaints from distribution centers stating that they were shipping bags of corn flour with ‘weevils and flour beetles’. I asked him if all his packaged products and production lots had complaints. He said that he eliminated the small paper bags for flour in retail grocery stores and replaced them with PET coated Polyethylene reclosable bags and had not received one complaint of insects from them. It suddenly dawned on him that his product was being milled pest free; it was the perforated paper bags with the cotton stitches that were the problem. They were attracting insects from the surroundings in the warehouse and of course being in storage for several weeks became infested. The solution to this packaging problem
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was education of the warehouse manager and the requirement for sanitation. The miller withheld the products from distribution until it was cleaned up. There was no value in attempting to use that distributor if all he received was complaints and infested products that had to be disposed of. Cheap paper packaging was costing this small miller more in lost product and clients than if they chose a better /more costly package. The long term benefits of costlier packaging out weighted the cost of long term losses. The reputation of the miller was at stake; the prospects of finding new and more valuable clients would disappear with one more bad summer.
I checked the ‘expiration date’ on the box and noted about one week left. I guess that box at the back of the retail shelf finally made it to the front of the shelf the day I walked in. So who is to blame? Well obviously me for not checking the age of the product. There was an issue with proper product rotation at the retail store; and possibly a light infestation of insects in this row of food products. We do not know how long this box was at the retailer however; it may have been stored at a distribution center for most of its time. The longer a package sits in an environment before it gets purchased for consumption, the greater risk becomes that it will get infested by invaders or penetrators.
Back to the breakfast cereal
Now that you have an idea of what these insects are capable of, let us go back to that bag of cereal I encountered. Close examination with a microscope showed a few punctures and stretched scratches that were most likely a result of the nut pieces or ‘crunchy’ components being pushed down into the bag. One of the punctures clearly showed the characteristic scraping and stretching that Indianmeal moth larva can create. The single moth suggests a male had developed and died without finding another moth to spend some time with. The small hole most likely was the pathway for the small saw-toothed grain beetle to enter, enjoy some food and eventually experience lonely death as well.
A food manufacturer must have good stewardship for its brand; it must protect the product beyond its own walls. The manufacturer should envision long storage, poor sanitation, rough handling, and even invasions from the ‘evil insect hoards’. Great food in great packaging develops a great reputation; which can only lead to great profits.
Alain Vanryckeghem Insects Limited Inc 16950 Westfield Park Road Westfield, IN 46074 USA Tel: +1 317 8969300 Email: insecthelp@InsectsLimited.com Website: www.insectslimited.com
November - December 2010 | 33
GLOBAL GRAIN & FEED MARKETS Every issue GFMT’s market analyst John Buckley reviews world trading conditions which are impacting the full range of commodities used in food and feed production. His observations will influence your decision-making.
US crop setbacks revive bull market The quality factor has kept prices of North American hard wheats fairly strong in the past month with Dark Northern Spring 14% offered fob Gulf as high as $376/tonne at one stage, its most expensive since August 2008 and Canadian Western Red Spring wheat prices also near two-year highs.
34 | November - December 2010
HE PAST year looks likely to go down as an unlucky one in terms of crop weather – for northern hemisphere grain producers at least. Barely had markets begun to start settling down after the past summer’s crop shocks in the former Soviet Union, Canada and Europe than a fresh drought worry emerged to threaten recently-planted US winter wheat crops for harvest in 2011. There is still time for rains to improve this situation – but a shaky start for a much-needed bumper crop from the world’s largest wheat exporter is the last thing anxious consumers want to hear about. Fortunately, the offsetting factor we have highlighted in recent issues still applies: the US has a huge carryover stock of wheat to take into the next season, for a second year running. US farmers are also thought to be planting a lot more winter wheat this year which may help offset any yield penalty from poor crop establishment. However, this hasn’t stopped speculative buyers, egged on by a weakening dollar and constant talk of food price inflation, renewing their investment in rising wheat prices. As well as the US crop situation, the wheat market still faces a highly uncertain outlook for next year’s winter wheat
crops in the FSU, recently planted late and in some areas under dry conditions. Concerns also persist about the adequacy of better quality milling wheat supplies after this year’s wet harvest problems in Canada, Germany and, in the last few weeks, Australia too. On the bright side, EU autumn wheat planting appears to have gone well with adequate moisture on an expected larger area. The odds might also be on the side of a better growing season here in 2011 after two years of weather challenges. India also has a big wheat surplus from a record crop, some of which it might want to export at the best world prices seen for years. The Indian government is torn between taking advantage of the best world wheat prices seen for years and a temptation to keep stockpiling staples like wheat and rice to combat its own rising food price inflation. But while world wheat stocks are likely to remain large when the next season starts in mid-2011, markets are already looking further ahead, to the possible scenarios for 2011/12. If next year’s world crop again under-shoots targets, stocks will clearly be much tighter by mid-2012 and less able to supplement supply for a third year. This concern is already reflected in a recent 12% premium on Chicago new crop (September 2011) futures over the current delivery month. Clearly US, FSU and European crops will have to demonstrate that they are up and running under reasonably normal conditions before the wheat market can begin to relax over forward supplies. In fact, wheat prices may not fully settle down until mid-2011 when the harvests start to come in. In the meantime, weather will take on even more importance than usual and speculators will be watching like hawks for any problems in a major producing country, guaranteeing a swift upward response from prices.
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Wheat bulls are also being driven by events in the maize market where what was once expected to be a record US crop has been repeatedly revised down, threatening a much tighter than expected end-season balance – for US and world maize markets. This situation takes on added importance in a year when maize among other feed grains – has been expected to help fill gaps left by the absence of millions of tonnes of Russian and Ukrainian feed wheat, not to mention tight world barley supplies too. Even the prospect of bigger maize crops in Argentina and China and a decent Ukrainian harvest have been overshadowed by the US crop outcome which was all the more surprising after a year of supposedly ideal growing conditions. Ironically, last year’s weather-plagued harvest – and consequent long growing season – actually turned out the highest US maize yields ever seen. The response of markets to this shock has been dramatic with the leading Chicago futures exchange soaring by up to 80% from its summer lows recently, pushing up prices across the global feed grain sector, including the European feed and even milling wheat markets. Possibly there is an element of over-reaction to the US maize supply equation as these high prices do appear to be causing a sharp cutback in import demand, especially from the big Asian feed consumers. However, total US feed, ethanol, food and industrial demand, which accounts for 85% of crop disposal, is showing no signs yet of ‘price-rationing’ as processors push up prices of their products to compensate – so the stock/use ratio will likely drop to historical lows of under 8% – equal to just four weeks supply. Given the pre-eminence of the US in export trade for this grain, the world maize markets will also be tightly balanced in the
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year ahead, despite an apparently looser (than the US) stock/use ratio of about 15%. The problem is that, outside of the US , most of these supposedly ‘surplus’ maize stocks are held in China’s strategic reserves and so inaccessible to the global market. On top of that, many analysts think China’s crop and stock estimates are considerably over-rated and that the world’s second largest maize producer and consumer will become a big importer of this grain in the not too distant future. More encouragingly, under present forward prices of maize versus other crops like soyabeans and cot ton – the US will plant a lot more of its main coarse grain for har vest in 2 0 11 .
However, without the stock cushion available to wheat consumers next summer, the maize market may remain sensitive to upward pressures until it has some firm pointers to a significantly bigger world crop on the way. The interesting anomaly here is that forward maize futures are actually showing a discount to current months (the reverse of the situation for wheat). Does this suggest that the markets think the US crop can come to the rescue next year?
November - December 2010 | 35
Commodity highlights Wheat needs a weather break
As recently as the start of October, world wheat prices had dropped by about 20% from the two-year highs of August when the full extent of Russia’s crop problem was driven home by its total ban on exports. Since then, however, uncertainty over 2011 crop prospects has not only dragged prices most of the way back but pushed forward prices to even higher levels. Will wheat go higher still, or is this an over-reaction fed partly by renewed speculative buying?
Looking at the key factors on the supply side as we go to press, there is positive and negative news. Dry weather has raised the risk of lower US winter wheat yields but rain in the forecast might just get enough crops established before dormancy, allowing this year’s higher planted area to still turn in a decent harvest. Europe’s crops have mostly gone in on time under favourably moist conditions on
a probable larger area. Stocks will be much tighter than usual at the close of the season but, given more normal weather in 2011, supplies could still be more comfortable in the following season when Germany, hopefully may return to its role of top EU quality wheat supplier. (Though France seems to have done much better with both crop quality and quantity this year than early reports suggested, helping to keep domestic millers supplied as well as backing a strong
36 | November - December 2010
export campaign to non-EU countries). Russian winter grain planting has undoubtedly got off to a difficult start in some, but not all, regions under frequently dry conditions. Final wheat harvest area may struggle to reach last year’s level, or even dip well below. Ukraine and Kazakhstan have fared better with winter planting while all three might be expected to raise spring wheat area – although the latter crops will yield less than winter wheat. Overall, it might be reasonable to expect, that with better yields than last year, the ‘Black Sea’ producers could yet get reasonable 2011 crops. However, their stocks will be low after this year’s crop failures so export prospects for the region remain highly problematical for 2011/12. Russia has implied that it might extend its export ban well into next season but this message – aimed partly at cooling its domestic market - could be taken with a pinch of salt at this early stage, especially if weather does improve in the main growing season. Readers will also recollect that prior to this year’s crop disasters, the Black Sea producers were gearing up for a major, long-term expansion in their export programmes, targeting markets around the world traditionally held by the US, Canada, Europe, Australia and Argentina. A lot of investment has gone into these plans and after this year’s sales cancellations, the Black Sea countries need to demonstrate as soon as possible that they can be reliable suppliers. It would not be surprising, then, to see at least the start of a significant comeback from these suppliers in 2011/12 if the weather favours them between now and mid-2011, especially from Ukraine – but not at last year’s low, low prices. Among other key suppliers, Australia has had drought problems in its Western half offset by a terrific crop in the southeast, resulting a big national harvest estimated around 22.5/23.5m tonnes for the third year running. With comfortable starting stocks that suggests a probable rise in export availability. However, there are
some nagging concerns as we go to press about rain spoiling quality for the successful eastern harvest. Argentina is meanwhile enjoying a significant crop recovery from last year’s drought spoiled crop and latest official estimates suggest it will raise wheat exports by several million tonnes. Both Australia and Argentina are already selling their crops forward and helping to keep world wheat export costs under control. So too is Canada, despite its smaller 2010 crop and a lower proportion of high quality milling wheat after a damp summer. Recent Canadian Wheat Board reports suggest only 38% of spring wheat made the top two grades although some miller customers are reported to be accepting the different mix without major problems. The quality factor has kept prices of North American hard wheats fairly strong in the past month with Dark Northern Spring 14% offered fob Gulf as high as $376/tonne at one stage, its most expensive since August 2008 and Canadian Western Red Spring wheat prices also near two-year highs. The search for cheaper alternatives has also seen US Hard Red Winter wheat dragged up to as much as $305/tonne fob Gulf although soft milling wheat prices have been more erratic, absorbing the volatile trend in Chicago soft wheat futures with the ebb and flow of speculative money and other ‘outside’ influences. Currently soft wheat is enjoying some support from the poor start to next year’s US crop, pulling export prices up close to those of HRW wheats – despite a lack of interest in US soft wheat from the world’s buyers and ample stocks of these. EU prices have meanwhile come well off their Aug/Sep highs but with exports rapidly eating into stocks and months of weather uncertainty ahead, a prolonged price fall looks less likely at this stage.
Key factors influencing the wheat market in the months ahead will include: Weather in the US, Europe and the former Soviet Union Wheat importers’ response to high prices The level of speculative demand, linked to currency and broader ‘macro-economic’ trends
Maize balance tightens again A smaller than expected US crop has been driving the maize market sharply
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higher in recent months along with renewed concerns about the strength of demand from the corn ethanol industry and, not least, a resurgence in speculative buying on the futures markets caused by renewed, strong downward pressure on the US dollar. The latter trend accelerated in November after the US government decided to print another $600bn to try to kick start its ailing economy, stoking fresh fears – on US and global markets – that this would trigger hyperinflation. In predictable fashion, managed funds and other speculators responded to the latest influx of ‘cheap money’ by rushing to invest in commodities – metals, coffee, sugar and, not least, agricultural markets as an inflation hedge, leading to huge swings
in day-to-day prices on both futures and physical markets. Naturally, any commodity with a firm physical backdrop – and maize is one of them – becomes a star attraction to these ‘outside’ interests. That firm backdrop for maize has tightened further in the past two months as the US
crop – usually expected to supply over half the world’s maize exports – has shrunk from an estimated 334m to just 319m tonnes, leaving the domestic market in a 22.4m tonne deficit. US carry-out stocks (at September 30 next year) will halve to a tight 21m tonnes – about three weeks’ supply for domestic/export use. This is the main factor in a tight world maize balance with global ending stocks currently seen at about eight weeks supply next September. Not all the
38 | November - December 2010
news is gloomy though. Second largest maize exporter Argentina is expected to raise output to 25m tonnes and could increase exports by 5m. Exports are also seen rising from Brazil, Serbia, South Africa and Ukraine. Less encouragingly for other consumers, some analysts still think estimates of China’s crop at 168/169m tonnes are far too high and that record prices for corn on its domestic market are a sign that significant imports will be made in coming months with potential firming effect on world maize prices. World import trade for maize has actually not grown much this season, despite the shortages of Black Sea feed wheat as most of this season’s 23.6m tonnes increase in world maize consumption is taking place in countries producing it. The biggest increase of all is in the US (+10m tonnes), over half of that in the still expanding ethanol industry. The food versus fuel debate simmers on in the US where the government energy agency recently recommended a higher ethanol blending rate for newer vehicles although US food manufacturers and livestock producers are currently mounting a legal challenge to this. There is also a question over whether tax breaks should continue to for ethanol blenders, enabling them to use maize bio-fuel even when it is more expensive than petrol. To the surprise of many in the industry, soya bio-diesel tax breaks were not renewed when they expired last year, leading to a huge drop in usage of soya for this purpose. However, most in the ethanol and grain industries regard the renewal of the corn ethanol blending subsidy at the end of 2010 as a foregone conclusion, despite its unpopularity in these straitened economic times.
Key factors influencing the maize market in the months ahead will include: The price relationship between maize and soyabeans and its effect on next year’s planted area. Maize has vastly increased its
value in recent months, suggesting to some observers that it could gain up to 5m more acres next spring, opening the way for a potential 355/360m tonne crop next summer – even if this year’s rather disappointing yields were repeated (far more if the high 2009 yields were achieved). That could feed higher demand and still raise those low US ending stocks by at least 50% during 2011/12. But it’s all a long way off at this stage with a world of weather – and soya pricing – possibilities in between. The progress of US ethanol demand for corn, related to the rate of blending, legal challenges and the relative price of ethanol v convential fuel, all of which will affect producers/blenders profit margins and consumption of maize. Import demand for US maize has slackened markedly in recent weeks with buyers turned off by these sky-high prices. Will that continue, freeing up a little more endseason stocks? Latin American crop outcomes and planting weather in the Northern Hemisphere. The trajectory of the US dollar. Further weakness will spur more speculative demand for commodities including grains and soyabeans – on both sides of the Atlantic. 2989w
Oilmeals – prices up with grains, China demand but no shortage Oilmeal prices have risen sharply since our last review, partly in response to strength in cereal markets but mainly due to voracious demand from one outstanding importer. The top world soyameal consumer China has been buying up US soyabeans as if there were no tomorrow, putting the latter’s sales to all destinations far ahead of the pace needed to meet seasonal forecasts. Some traders even suggest this could leave the USA’s own crushers and meal users short before the next crop arrives in September 2011. USDA data shows this is the second season running that Chinese soya meal consumption will show growth approaching 20% , accounting for a quarter of all world demand. Some analysts think China may be stockpiling soyabeans along with other commodities amid fears that record internal food price inflation will accelerate.
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COMMODITIES Others that livestock and poultry demand there is simply growing much faster than expected and a fast expanding Chinese crushing industry wants to benefit from good margins. Whatever, the real reasons – probably a combination of the above -
traders have been rattled by the fact that Chinese demand has shown little sign of slowing down even as soyabean prices have reached their highest level in over two years. However, a third view is that China is deliberately contracting for more US soyabeans than it actually intends to take delivery of, as insurance against any problems occurring with recently-sown Latin American crops. Some think China could cancel some of these shipments if the South Americans get normal weather into the New Year, as it has done in past years. Oilseed and meal markets have also been lifted by this year’s rather disappointing world oilseed crops which have resulted in zero growth in supply for 2010/11 – a season when global crush demand for oilseeds is still expected to rise by at least 17m tonnes. The good news is that the oilseed market in total is still in ample supply in 2010/11 after last season’s output exceeded crush by a well-above trend 50m tonnes. Although a lot of this has gone to direct food use in Asia, it has still added at least 16m tonnes to world carryover stocks which reached a hefty 72m tonnes at the start of the new season on September 1. Most of this carryover is soyabeans, but about 7.5m is rapeseed. Even with flat growth in total oilseed supply, these mammoth stocks are not expected to dip appreciably in 2010/11. However, this this hasn’t stopped oilmeal prices joining the renewed upturn in grain markets. In the past two months alone, Chicago soya meal futures have increased in value by almost a quarter, spurred on not only by Chinese demand but by fears that a surge in maize acres next spring may
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take US farmland away from soya. In effect, soyabean prices have to rise, regardless of their own supply and demand, simply to defend their share of acreage. Soya prices have also been driven higher by a smaller than expected crop US crop estimate from the USDA in November at 91.9m tonnes – still a record high but at this stage seen inadequate to cover foreseen domestic and export demand without taking stocks down by about two million tonnes. Even then, at some five tonnes, these will not be tight unless China keeps up its frenetic buying pace. Other importers, it might be noted, are not expanding their soya demand much. The EU is seen shipping in 600,000 more beans than last year with much smaller gains spread across a number of Asian and Latin American countries. That said, the immediate onus is now heav y on South America t o prod u ce another large soya harvest in the spring of 2011. So far the news from this region is encouraging w i t h l ar ge r than expected are a s being sown and rains coming just in time to break drought s in Brazil and Argentina. Europe, the former Soviet Union and Canada may also need to come up
with better crops of rapeseed and/or sunflowerseed next summer - under strong competition from lucrative cereal crops – to help keep frisky oilmeal prices in check. Like the cereals, oilmeals will be very weathersensitive markets in the months ahead.
Key factors influencing the oilmeal markets in the months ahead will include: Chinese demand – can it continue at record levels? Latin American crop weather – will it stay favourable in a normally drier ‘La Nina’ year? Estimates of EU winter sowings for rapeseed – a crop rebound would help, in the FSU too The relative value of maize and soyabeans at US planting time next Apr/May and, no less important, spring weather – raindelayed maize planting can often lead to higher soyabean areas. The level of speculative activity in commodity markets in general, linked to the dollar, global economic trends
November - December 2010 | 39
Book review Biofuels prospects, risk and opportunities
his report was prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations in June 2008, on the state of food and agriculture of the world. This report looks at the implications of rapid recent growth in the production of biofuels based on agricultural commodities. Chapter one, contains the introduction and some key messages, it then goes on to deal with agriculture and energy looking at the opportunities and risks for biofuels. Also covered are the policies and objectives. Chapter two, give a technical overview of biofuels and agriculture. Looking at the different types of biofuel and the types for transport. It also covers the lifecycle of biofuel, and second generation liquid biofuels, and the potential for bioenergy. Chapter three, looks at the economic and policy drivers of liquid biofuels, along with market polices. Policy measures affecting biofuels development the economic cost of biofuels and the viability. Also the underlying objectives of biofuel policies. Chapter four, looks at the policy impacts and biofuels markets, it covers recent biofuel and commodity market development, long term projections and medium term outlook for biofuels. It also covers the impacts of biofuels policies.
Chapter five deals with the environmental impacts of biofuels and if they will help to mitigate climate change?. It also looks at weather biofuels will cause an effect on water, soil and biodiversity? and if biofuels can be produced on marginal lands? ensuring environmentally sustainable biofuel production. Chapter six deals with the impact on poverty and food security at national levels and household levels. It also looks at biofuel crop production as an impetus for agricultural growth and development, and the equity and gender concerns. Chapter seven covers the policy challenges, such as questions addressed by this report, the framework for better biofuel policies and areas for policy action. Part two of this report reviews world food and agriculture, looking at agricultural commodities, production and stock trade. Food aid and emergency needs along with the key factors driving future prices. It also contains a list of tables, and figures with a comprehensive list of references. This report covers a complex and interesting issue, looking at all aspects of biofuels and the effects on agriculture and the environment. In my opinion a valuable source of information, for anyone interested in biofuels and would be useful to future students studying environmental science as well as a good source material for any teachers, one for the bookshelf.
Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals: Chemistry, Nutritional Value, and Stability
t is estimated that one third of the cancer cases and up to half of cardiovascular disease cases are thought to be diet relatedâ€? (Goldberg 1994). In this 2010 publication, Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals - Chemistry, Nutritional Value and Stability written by Laura A. de la Rosa, Emiio Alvarez-Parrilla and Gustavo A. Gonzalez-Aguilar it states, that Some studies have shown that little or no fruit and vegetables in the diet of humans have lead to an increase in some types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This awareness has lead to increased studies and research into the different components, that are contained within the fruit and vegetables that benefits the health and reduces the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Phytochemicals found in fruit and vegetables, which are naturally occurring, contain anticar-cinogenic components and are referred to as chemopreventers. Known chemopreventers that have been studied are plant polyphenols, pigments such as carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains and some vitamins. Chapter 2 deals with the Phenolic compounds looking at the chemistry and classification of Polyphenols. The Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diet, and they are the secondary metabolites of plants. They are designed with an aromatic ring carrying one or more hydroxyl moieties.
Chapter 5 and 6 covers the subject of Flavonoids chemistry and their relationship to human health and some evidence that they contribute significantly to lower risks of cardiovascular diseases and cancer in humans. Based on this reason the US food and drug Administration and Health Canada has allowed health claims for fruit and vegetables that they contribute to lower levels of cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. The importance of Antioxidants and dietary fiber in fruits and vegetables are discussed in chapter 8. It has long been understood that fruit and vegetables are a good healthy option in the diet of humans, due to the fact that they contain high water and are low in fat, also containing vitamins and minerals and a significant amounts of dietary fiber. Chapter 9 discusses the emerging technologies that are being used to extract Phytochemicals, from fruit and vegetables since the old methods of extraction are not efficient. Also it reviews the recent findings on the health benefits of the Phytochemicals found in fruit and vegetables, nuts, seeds and herbs. This publication has a lot to offer in my opinion it covers the subject and the science as well as the new technologies needed to improve the extraction of Phytochemicals, such as microwave extraction (MWE), ultrasonic extraction (UE). For students and scientist alike this is a well-written book that should be on the bookshelf of all good libraries.
ISBN 978-0-8138-0320-3 40 | November - December 2010
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November - December 2010 | 45
November 9th - 10th November 10 1st Pulses Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Marjolijn Cohen, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Tel: +44 2083 318646 Fax: +44 2083 318647 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.bulksolids.com
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11th - 12th November 10 Buying Soy, Developing Soy, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Marjolijn Cohen, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands
11th - 12th November 10 China Factory Farming & Animal Health Summit 2010, Swissôtel Beijing Hong Kong Macau Center, Beijing, China Contact: Ms. Ciel Qi, 14F, 390 Panyu Road, Shanghai, China 200052 Tel: +86 21 52588005 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.eurotier.de
16th - 18th November 10 Global Grain 2010, President Wilson Hotel, Geneva, Switzerland Contact: Frankie, Suites A & B, 52 – 64 Heath Rd, Twickenham, London, TW1 4BX, UK, 72 blvd. De Saint Georges, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland Tel: +44 2088 924821 Fax: +44 2088 925972 Email: conferences @globalcommoditiesgroup.com Web: www.globalgraingeneva.com
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25th - 26th November 10 Future of Protein Summit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Annelies Osinga, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2252060 Fax: +31 84 8327225 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.bridge2food.com
Tel: +31 30 2252060 Fax: +31 84 8327225 Email: email@example.com Fax: www.bridge2food.com
22nd - 25th November 10 21st Annual IAOM Mideast & Africa District Conference and Expo, Cape Town, South Africa Contact: Eva Mulyana, IAOM MEA PO Box 566 , P.C. 112 , Muscat , Sultanate of Oman
23rd - 24th November 10 Pneumatic Conveying of Bulk Solids, Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich at Medway, Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom Contact: Caroline Chapman, Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich at Medway, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
2nd - 6th May 11 115th IAOM Annual Conference & Expo, Hyatt Regency San Antonio, Henry B. Gonzales Convention Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA Contact: Shannon Henson, 10100 W. 87th Street, Suite 306, Overland Park, Kansas 66212, USA
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27th February 11 - 1st March 11 GEAPS Exchange 2011, Portland, Oregon (USA) Contact: Laura Hietala, 4248 Park Glen Road Minneapolis, MN 55416 USA
3rd - 5th May 11 Victam International, Cologne, Germany Contact: Patricia Heimgartner, Box 197, 3860 Ad Nijkerk, The Netherlands
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9th - 11th March 11 VIV Asia 2011, BITEC, Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre, Bangkok, Thailand Contact: Anneke van Rooijen, P.O. Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The Netherlands
15th - 17th June 11 Indo Livestock 2011 Expo & Forum, Grand City Expo Surabaya, Indonesia Contact: Devi Ardiatne, Jl. Kelapa Sawit XIV Blok M1 No. 10, Kompleks Billy & Moon, Pondok Kelapa, Jakarta 13450, Indonesia
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1st - 2nd December 10 Food Inflation, Security and Price Outlook, NASC Complex New Delhi India Contact: Raj Kapoor, Assocom-India Pvt. Ltd., Flat No. 601, DDA Building District Center, Plot No.4, Laxmi Nagar, Delhi - 110 092, India Tel: +91 11 47675218 Fax: +91 11 47675201 Email: email@example.com Web: www.assocom-india.com
29th - 31st March 11 AGRA Middle East, Dubai International Exhibition Centre, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Contact: Rizwan Mustafa, PO Box 28943, Dubai – UAE
10th - 12th February 11 ISRMAX India 2011, NDRI Karnal, Haryana, ndia Contact: Geetika Malhotra, #923/9, Urban Estate, Karnal, Haryana, India
3rd World Grains Trade summit
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Major buyers and sellers in the industry have confirmed to speak at the 3rd World Grains Trade Summit in Singapore held on 16-17 February 2011. Aptly themed “Managing Price Volatility & Production Risk”, the summit gathers key stakeholders to address global grain trade evolutions resulting from potential mergers, and arising opportunities. Gain renewed perspectives from top speakers including: Interflour Group / ZEN-NOH / Emerald Group Australia Pty Ltd / Barclays Capital / JP Morgan / SGS / Toepfer International Asia ..and many more! Click here to view our program, or better yet email me at email@example.com to reserve your seat. Be sure to ask about our special group rates. I look forward to receiving your registrations!
april 21st - 24th April 11 4th International Flour, Semolina, Rice, Corn, Bulghur, Feed Milling Technologies & Pulse, Pasta, Biscuit Technologies Exhibitio, Istanbul Expo Center, Turkey Contact: Gunes NUKAN, Gülbağ Mh. Cemal Sururi Sk. Halim Meriç İş Merkezi K:7 D: 35 Mecidiyeköy, Istanbul, Turkey
Tel: + 31 33 2464404 Fax: + 31 33 2464706 Email: Expo@victam.com Web: www.victam.com
30th November 10 - 1st December 10 2nd Large Scale Farm Forum, Siem Reap, Cambodia Contact: Hafizah Adam, 80 Marine Parade Road, #13-02 Parkway Parade, Singapore 449269
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16th - 17th February 11 3rd World Grains Trade summit, Singapore Contact: Angelia Lim, Centre for Management Technology, 80 Marine Parade Road, #13-02 Parkway Parade, 449269 Singapore
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&feed milling technology
Grain Elevator and Processing Society www.geaps.com
GEAPS EXCHANGE 2011 The Industry’s Largest Expo Nearly 250 grain-handling industry suppliers showcasing the latest in equipment and innovation
An Outstanding Educational Program • 3 days of educational sessions only found at GEAPS Exchange • 12 small group “pod” sessions focusing on safety in the workplace • 4-hour workshop on bin sweeps
PLUS... The Industry’s Best Networking Opportunities Connect with thousands of dedicated industry professionals, all in one place
Feb. 26-Mar. 1, 2011 Oregon Convention Center Portland, Oregon, USA The 82nd Annual International Technical Conference and Exposition of the Grain Elevator and Processing Society For Details on Attending and Exhibiting: Visit www.geaps.com Or Contact Us: email@example.com or (952) 928-4640 The Knowledge Resource for the World of Grain Handling Industry Operations
2010 related links
In every issue of GFMT, we will be providing a list of companies and web links related to key stories and topics within each specific issue. If you would like information on how your company can get involved, please contact our Marketing Manager, Caroline Wearn. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org | Tel: +44 1242 267707
Braime Elevator Components Ltd = www.go4b.com Buhler AG = www.buhlergroup.com Chief Industries UK Ltd = www.chief.co.uk Clextral = www.clextral.com Consergra s.l = www.consergra.com Chopin Technologies = www.chopin.fr Feed Management Systems = www.feedsys.com Hydronix Ltd = www.hydronix.com Insta-Pro International = www.insta-pro.com JEFO Nutrition Inc. = www.jefo.com Jiangsu Hualiang Machinery = www.hualiang.com.cn Muyang Group = www.muyang.com NABIM = www.nabim.org.uk NIR Technology Systems = www.nirtech.net Obial = www.obial.com.tr Perry Bulk Handling = www.perryengineering.com R-Biopharm Rhone Ltd = www.r-biopharm.com Satake Corporation = www.satake-group.com Schmidt-Seeger GmbH = www.scmidt-seeger.com Shandong Yingchun Steel & Silo Manufacturing Co Ltd = www.silo86.com Silos Cordoba = www.siloscordoba.com Sizer Ltd = www.sizer-pelleting.co.uk Symaga SA = www.symaga.com Tapco Inc = www.tapcoinc.com VEGA Controls Ltd = www.vegacontrols.co.uk
grapas International2011 3
The showpiece event for the world’s animal feed, milling & grain processing industries
Everything you need from the raw material to the finished product Visit VICTAM International, the world’s largest event for the production and processing of animal feeds, dry petfood and aquafeed, together with GRAPAS International, a new exhibition and conference for flour & rice milling, grain processing, industrial pasta & noodle processing, extruded snack & breakfast cereal production.
Visitors to the shows will find the world’s foremost companies supplying specialist equipment, technology, ingredients & additives, used in the formulation & production of animal feeds and of grain milled & processed products alongside systems for their handling, storage, packaging & distribution.
Co-located with FIAAP International The only dedicated trade show and conference for the supply, use and formulation of ingredients and additives for animal feeds, aquafeed & dry petfood.
“a partnership in synergy”
Supporting conferences: The IFF Feed Processing Conference The GRAPAS Conference Petfood Forum Europe 2011 Aquafeed Horizons Feed Safety Assurance in a Globalizing Industry
For conference programmes, delegate registration, travel, accommodation and free visitor registration contact: Email: Expo@victam.com Website: www.victam.com Tel: ++31 33 246 4404 Fax: ++31 33 246 4706
A sure eye for top quality. Forget about time-consuming sampling and expensive laboratory analyses. Buhler NIR systems constantly monitor the quality of the raw materials and end products – throughout the production process. A change in quality is sensed within seconds, and the problem corrected without delay. You can look forward to optimal flour yields, uniform quality, and profitable production. We’d be glad to show you some potential applications, ideally during a personal consultation.
Bühler AG, Grain Milling, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 66 11 email@example.com, www.buhlergroup.com
MYRF/MYRB DA NIR online measurement and control units Versatility. Monitors protein, moisture, ash, and other ingredients in grains, semolina, and flour. Real-time monitoring. Introduces corrective measures into the on-going production process with no need to wait for laboratory analyses. Guaranteed product quality. Precisely dispenses glue and other ingredients for uniform product quality. Speck detection. A digital camera identifies and assesses specks.
The solution behind the solution.
Grain & Feed Milling Technology Volume 121 Issue 6. This issue contains: New dimension in the production of hygienised feed meal• ‘Profili...