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Teaming up for animal health

Determination of bacterial flora of udder cleft dermatitis in cows Engelen, Erik van DVM PhD; Gonggrijp, Maaike DVM; Dijkstra, Thomas DVM PhD; Roos, Lotte MSc; Velthuis, Annet PhD GD Animal Health, Deventer, The Netherlands

Aim The aim of this study was to determine which bacteria might be involved in Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) by aerobic and anaerobic culture.

Introduction ACD is characterized by ulceration in the area between the udder and the hindleg. Previous research showed that in the Netherlands UCD is present on 80% of the farms and 6% of the cows contract this painful lesion. Based on the macroscopic wet appearance of UCD, it was supposed that specific bacteria might be involved in the pathogenesis.

Table 1.

Summary of UCD category compared with histology score: normal, acute inflammation, acute/subacute, subacute, chronic en chronic active dermatitis normal

acute

subacute

chronic

0

acute/ subacute 0

no lesion (score 0)

43

0

Materials and Methods

mild (score 1-2)

15

1

3

To determine which bacteria might be involved in UCD, the following procedure was used: From slaughter house, udders were sampled with no (n=40), mild (n=41) or severe UCD(n=42). From the affected udder skins, biopsies were taken for bacteriology and histology. Superficial and deep layer of the tissue were cultured separately under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic culture was done on sheep blood agar plates, anaerobic culture on columbia sheep blood agar with gram negative supplement. Also 15 udder skins of live cows, 5 of each category UCD, were sampled with use of swabbing and cultured. Cultured bacteria were identified with MALDI-TOF MS.

severe (score 3-5)

2

1

total

60

2

UCD category

Table 2.

1

21

1

42

1

1

20

17

42

4

2

42

18

128

44

UCD samples from the slaughterhouse in which the respective species were cultured from deep dermis with use of anaerobic culture on specific medium (columbia agar with gram negative supplement) UCD category

Results Trueperella pyogenes and Bacteroides pyogenes were significantly more observed in severe UCD than in the other categories. The numbers of S. aureus, E. coli, yeasts and moulds were low. Histology: in the mild and severe cases of UCD, the numbers of acute and sub/ acute lesions were low compared to the chronic lesions. UCD seems to be a chronic process. With histology, no yeasts, moulds or Treponemes could be found, invading the tissue.

total

1

chronic active 0

numbers

no lesion

mild

severe

total

28

33

26

87

Bactero誰des fragilis

1

1

Bactero誰des ovatus

1

1

4

3

14

21

Fusobacterium necrophorum (sp.)

1

1

2

Lactobacillus curvatus

1

Bactero誰des pyogenes

total

4

7

1 15

26

Conclusion We suggest that UCD has an non-infectious origin after which T. pyogenes and B. pyogenes can invade the tissue and worsen the process. We had no indication that E. coli, S. aureus, Treponemes, yeasts or moulds were implicated in this chronic process.

Table 3.

Numbers of UCD samples from the slaughterhouse in which the respective species were cultured from deep dermis with use of aerobic culture on sheep blood agar bacterium species

Category UCD

T. pyogenes

E. coli

S. aureus

samples

no lesion

0

0

3

28

mild

4

1

0

33

severe

16

4

3

26

Total

20

5

6

87

Tabel 4.

Numbers of clinical samples from which the respective species were culture with anaerobic culture on specific medium (columbia agar with gram negative supplement) UCD category no lesion

mild

severe

total

5

5

5

15

Bactero誰des pyogenes

1

4

5

Campylobacter sputorum

2

samples

Figure 1. Typical appearance of udder cleft dermatitis category: severe. Figure 2. Plates and jar for anaerobic culture, as used in the project. Figure 3. The MALDI-TOF instrument that is used for identification of the cultured bacteria.

2

Fusobacterium gonidiaformans

2

2

Fusobacterium necrophorum (sp.)

2

2

Lactobacillus brevis

1

total

4

1 8

12

Acknowledgement

The authors thank the farmers for participation in the study.This study was funded by the Dutch Product Board for Livestock and Meat (PVV) and the Dutch Dairy Commodity board (PZ).

GD, P.O. Box 9, 7400 AA Deventer, the Netherlands, T. +31 (0)570-63 33 91, F. +31 (0)570-63 41 04 www.gdanimalhealth.com, info@gdanimalhealth.com

GDOV0933/10-16

contact: e.v.engelen@gdanimalhealth.com

Poster Van Engelen: Determination of bacterial flora  

Poster presentation at the EAVLD congress on veterinary diagnostics 2016