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On 30 June 2014, the transitional period for the establishment of factory production control as well as for the related certification for steel and aluminium-processsing companies came to an end. Effective immediately, load-bearing members fabricated of metal can no longer be put on the market without a CE conformity marking. The present technical reference work is the direct result of daily practice and has been structured in such a way that even busy managers of small enterprises can quickly and easily get an overview of the complex assortment of applicable standards. They will be able to work through the relevant points for the coming certification according to EN ISO 3834 and EN 1090 step by step to achieve implementation in their own companies. We have a special desire to assist smaller companies and to point out ways in which utilizing certain in-house capacities can keep costs down for the implementation of EN 1090. Once you have read this reference work, you will no longer believe everything that external consultants try to sell you. You will be able to intelligently scrutinize services you are offered and, of special importance, you will be able to do a good deal yourself. On the following pages, we have given you many tips and instructions on how to best prepare yourself and your company for the coming certification.

Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing. (FH) Ulrich Maurer , diplomaed industrial engineer, graduated from the Polytechnic Institute for Mechanical Engineering and Automation Technology (HĂśhere Technische Lehranstalt fĂźr Maschinenbau und Automatisierungstechnik) in Wolfsberg, Austria. He gained initial professional experience working as an installer in the area of machinery and plant construction at construction sites throughout Europe. In 2005, he moved to the project department of a well-known Austrian firm that constructs industrial plants. Here, he manged projects in the petrochemical industry from tendering through to invoicing and accounting. In 2008 he began training as an international welding engineer (IWE) and was subsequently responsible for quality management and welding technology for both domestic and foreign projects at the previously-mentioned company. Parallel to this challenging career, Ulrich Maurer also completed a part-time postgraduate course of studies in industrial engineering at the University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule Mittweida) in Germany, for which he received his diploma in 2010. After this, he received training as a non-destructive tester, VT, PT and MT, Level 2 in 2012. During this time, he also began writing this guide with a very specific goal in mind. From the very beginning, it was important to him that this book be rooted directly in everyday practice. The style and content and structure were to be easy to understand as well as comprehensible for non-specialists.


The original edition appeared under the title “LEITFADEN zur Erstellung einer werkseigenen Produktionskontrolle inklusive Musterhandbuch gemäß EN ISO 3834 und EN 1090” from the publisher GETWORX Buch- und Kunstverlag, St. Gertraud, Austria. Information about the publisher and further contact information can be found in our webshop at shop.getworx.at or on our website at www.getworx.at. This book was set using Myriad Pro (10.5 pt) in Adobe InDesign CS6. The cover was printed on chlorine-free bleached coated woodfree paper (350 g/m²), the book block on chlorine-free bleached volume paper (120 g/m²). Photo credits: The photographs in this book are from the private archive of Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing. (FH) Ulrich Maurer. The sketches and drawings were made using the software Solid Edge 2D Drafting from Siemens in accordance with the respective standards. ISBN 978-3-9503-0044-4 © of the original edition, 2013 © of the English language edition, 2014 by GETWORX GmbH, St. Gertraud Printed in Austria Concept, idea, manufacture & production: GETWORX GmbH, Buch- und Kunstverlag Editing, proofreading: Mag.a (FH) Nicole Fritzl

All parts of this work are protected by copyright. All rights reserved, in particular the rights for translation, lecturing, reproduction, duplication by photomechanical or other means and storage using electronic media. The Sample Manual contained in this reference work including all of its texts may be adapted once in all its parts for use by the buyer in his/her own company without regard to the aforementioned rights. Irrespective of the care with which the translation, the preparation of the text, the illustrations and the tables has been carried out, neither the publisher, the translator nor the author shall assume legal responsibility or any liability whatsoever for any possible errors or consequences thereof. We have primarily used male pronouns in an effort to improve the readability of the texts. This is in no way intended to be discriminatory against the female gender. Popular names, trade names, product designations, etc. used in this document may be brand names, even without special marking, and, as such, are subject to the provisions of applicable laws.


Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing. (FH) Ulrich Maurer

GUIDE To the Establishment of Factory Production Control Including a Sample Manual in Accordance with EN ISO 3834 and EN 1090 Technical Reference Work Translated from the German by Meinrad.CC Technical Translations


Dear reader, The effort put in to this reference work has proved to be a very interesting and informative experience for all involved, especially for me as the managing director of the GETWORX company. We have been offering a comprehensive package of services already since the middle of 2013 including a book and art publishing house, among other things. I am very proud of the fact that our first published work is almost 100% the result of our own efforts. In addition to the author himself, my business partner and co-founder, Ulrich Maurer, we have succeeded in producing the entire book virtually on our own. Of course, this includes close cooperation with our printer as well as the help of friends and acquaintances for the overall process from the initial design through the design of the layout, the editing, proofreading as well as the associated advertising and marketing measures. As you will see on the following pages, we have spared no effort to make the standards referenced easily understandable even though they often use cumbersome language making them difficult to grasp. We are convinced that the use of a clear layout as well as many graphics, figures and tables sets this technical manual apart from others and that it will prove to be very useful for you on your way to successful certification according to EN ISO 3834 and EN 1090. The production of this book was indeed a challenge for me as a layman in the area of welding technology. I had been unaware of what an important role the CE conformity marking, which is ultimately the point of the certification, will play for manufacturers of metal products in the future. Sooner or later, companies that do not have the authorization to mark their products in this way will very simply have no opportunity whatsoever to continue bringing their products to the market. And this applies not only in Austria, but also throughout Europe and ultimately, it will apply for the rest of the world as well. However, instead of seeing the certification process as a burden, we encourage you, the reader, to view it as a blessing, especially with respect to the enterprise that you have developed or in which you are privileged to be influential and which you wish to equip for the future. Undoubtedly you will first seek to examine your work processes, train your staff and, perhaps, identify weaknesses and/or strengths of which you were previously unaware. The route to successful certification and the authorization to use the CE conformity marking on your products will require endurance, willpower and especially conscientiousness on your part. The sooner you begin with the preparations, the sooner you will be able to distinguish yourself from the competition and fabricate products of higher quality in your company. With this in mind, I wish you great pleasure with this Guide and every manner of success in the creation of your own in-house Quality Management Manual! Thomas Stocker Managing director, GETWORX GmbH www.getworx.at GETWORX GmbH  ♦  Zellach 7b/3  ♦  9413 St. Gertraud  ♦  AUSTRIA


PART A GUIDE


Contents

Contents List of Tables  .........................................................................................................................................................................................  A9 List of Figures  .......................................................................................................................................................................................  A9 List of Abbreviations  ........................................................................................................................................................................ A10 Introduction  ....................................................................................................................................................................................... A11

1

Quality Management

1.1

Definition of Terms  .......................................................................................................................... A12

1.1.1 Standards  ............................................................................................................................................................................... A12 1.1.2 Laws  ......................................................................................................................................................................................... A14 1.1.3 Technical Regulations  ....................................................................................................................................................... A14 1.1.4 EU Regulations  ..................................................................................................................................................................... A14 1.1.5 EU Directives  ......................................................................................................................................................................... A14 1.2

Relevant Standards and Regulations  ............................................................................................. A15

1.2.1 EN 1090  .................................................................................................................................................................................. A15 1.2.2 EN ISO 3834  ........................................................................................................................................................................... A21 1.2.3 EU Construction Products Regulation  ......................................................................................................................... A22 1.2.4 EN ISO 9001  ........................................................................................................................................................................... A22 1.2.5 SCC Safety Management System  .................................................................................................................................. A23 1.3

Overview of Various Types of Training for Employees  .................................................................. A24

1.3.1 Responsible Welding Coordinator (RWC)  .................................................................................................................. A24 1.3.2 NDT Tester  .............................................................................................................................................................................. A25 1.3.3 Welder  ..................................................................................................................................................................................... A27 1.3.4 Continuing Education in the Area of Safety  .............................................................................................................. A28 1.4

Procedural Sequence for a Certification in Accordance with EN ISO 3834 and EN 1090  ........... A29

2

Welding Technology

2.1

Welding Procedures  ......................................................................................................................... A30

2.1.1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)  ........................................................................................................................... A31 2.1.2 Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG)  ................................................................................................................................. A35 2.1.3 Metal Active Gas Welding (MAG)  .................................................................................................................................. A39 2.1.4 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Welding  .................................................................................................. A42 2.2

Overview of Welding Positions  ....................................................................................................... A43

2.2.1 Overview of the Main Welding Positions  ................................................................................................................... A43

A7


PART A GUIDE 2.3

Qualification of Welding Procedures (WPQR)  ............................................................................... A46

2.3.1 Methods for Qualification  ................................................................................................................................................ A46 2.3.2 Documents for Welding Procedure Qualification According to EN ISO 15614-1  ........................................ A48 2.3.3 Procedure for the Development and Qualification of a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)  ........ A49 2.3.4 List of Standards  .................................................................................................................................................................. A50 2.4

Qualification of Welders  .................................................................................................................. A51

2.4.1 Who may Conduct Testing?  ............................................................................................................................................ A51 2.4.2 The Test Piece  ....................................................................................................................................................................... A51 2.5

Designation of Materials  ................................................................................................................. A54

2.5.1 Classification of Materials According to CE ISO/TR 15608  ................................................................................... A56 2.5.2 Explanation of Material Designations  ......................................................................................................................... A57 2.5.3 Explanation of the Material Numbering System  ..................................................................................................... A59 2.5.4 Inspection Certificate for Material or Materials Certificate  .................................................................................. A60 2.6

Overview of Weld Testing  ................................................................................................................ A61

2.6.1 Non-Destructive Test Methods for Weld Joints  ........................................................................................................ A62 2.6.2 Destructive Test Methods for Weld Joints  .................................................................................................................. A78 2.7

Representation and Execution of Weld Joints  ............................................................................... A80

Index  ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... A82

A8


Contents

List of Tables ▲  Table 01 | EN 1090 Requirements with respect to the execution classes of EN ISO 3834  .............................................................. A20 ▲  Table 02 | Requirements of the individual qualification levels (EN ISO 3834-1)  ................................................................................ A21 ▲  Table 03 | Qualification levels for responsible welding coordinators  .................................................................................................... A25 ▲  Table 04 | Non-destructive test methods according to EN ISO 9712  ..................................................................................................... A26 ▲  Table 05 | Qualification of welders  ..................................................................................................................................................................... A27 ▲  Table 06 | Reference numbers for frequently used welding processes (EN ISO 4063)  .................................................................... A31 ▲  Table 07 | Typical weld joint defects in manual arc welding  ..................................................................................................................... A32 ▲  Table 08 | Explanation of the norm designations for a stick electrode (EN ISO 2560)  ..................................................................... A34 ▲  Table 09 | Typical weld joint defects in TIG welding  .................................................................................................................................... A36 ▲  Table 10 | Explanation of the norm designations for a TIG welding rod (EN ISO 14343)  ................................................................ A36 ▲  Table 11 | Marking of tungsten electrodes (excerpt from EN ISO 6848)  ............................................................................................... A37 ▲  Table 12 | Current range for electrodes (excerpt from EN ISO 6848)  ..................................................................................................... A38 ▲  Table 13 | Typical weld joint defects in MAG welding  ................................................................................................................................. A40 ▲  Table 14 | Explanation of the norm designations for MAG solid wire (EN ISO 14341)  ..................................................................... A41 ▲  Table 15 | Main welding positions for plates....................................................................................................................................................... A44 ▲  Table 16 | Main welding positions for pipes   .................................................................................................................................................. A45 ▲  Table 17 | Overview of qualification methods for welding procedures  ............................................................................................... A47 ▲  Table 18 | Classification of material groups according to CE ISO/TR 15608  ........................................................................................ A56 ▲  Table 19 | Explanation and classification of material groups 1 and 8  .................................................................................................... A57 ▲  Table 20 | Explanation of the code designations for steels with a description of the mech./physical properties  ................ A58 ▲  Table 21 | Explanation of the code designations for steels with a description of the chemical composition  ........................ A59 ▲  Table 22 | Prescribed inspection certificate for material according to EN 1090-2  ............................................................................ A61 ▲  Table 23 | Techniques and typical setup for the through-transmission technique  .......................................................................... A71 ▲  Table 24 | Symbols for types of weld joints acc. to EN 22553 and weld joint preparation acc. to EN ISO 9692-1  ................. A81 ▲  Table 25 | Representation of weld joint symbols according to EN 22553  ............................................................................................ A81

List of Figures ▲  Figure 01 | Main welding positions  .................................................................................................................................................................... A43 ▲  Figure 02 | Representation of welding position H-L045  ............................................................................................................................. A43 ▲  Figure 03 | Representation of welding position J-L060  .............................................................................................................................. A43 ▲  Figure 04 | Flowchart for the proper creation of a welding procedure specification for fabrication/assembly work  ......... A49 ▲  Figure 05 | Test piece dimensions, butt joint in plate  .................................................................................................................................. A52 ▲  Figure 06 | Test piece dimensions, fillet joint in plate  .................................................................................................................................. A52 ▲  Figure 07 | Test piece dimensions, butt joint with a pipe  .......................................................................................................................... A52 ▲  Figure 08 | Test piece dimensions, fillet joint with a pipe  .......................................................................................................................... A52 ▲  Figure 09 | Accessibility for direct visual testing  ........................................................................................................................................... A64 ▲  Figure 10 | Example of contrast penetrant testing with no indications  ............................................................................................... A67 ▲  Figure 11 | Example 1 of contrast penetrant testing with indications  .................................................................................................. A67 ▲  Figure 12 | Example 2 of contrast penetrant testing with indications  .................................................................................................. A67 ▲  Figure 13 | Example of testing using a magnetic yoke  ............................................................................................................................... A68 ▲  Figure 14 | Example of testing using prods  ..................................................................................................................................................... A68 ▲  Figure 15 | Example of testing using the coil technique  ............................................................................................................................ A68 ▲  Figure 16 | Example of a central or external conductor.................................................................................................................................. A68 ▲  Figure 17 | Example of test steps for a fillet joint using a magnetic yoke  ............................................................................................ A69 ▲  Figure 18 | Example of test steps for a butt joint using a magnetic yoke  ............................................................................................ A69 ▲  Figure 19 | Example of an indication in magnetic particle testing (cracks in the component)  ................................................... A70 ▲  Figure 20 | Example of ultrasonic testing  ........................................................................................................................................................ A73 ▲  Figure 21 | Example of the extent of testing required when testing for indications in the longitudinal direction  .............. A74 ▲  Figure 22 | Sketch of setup for X-ray inspection of butt joints in plate  ................................................................................................. A75

A9


PART A GUIDE

List of Abbreviations Abbr.  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  abbreviation acc. to  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  according to approx.  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� approximately CE  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  Communautés Européennes (European Community) Cf.  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   compare with e.g.  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  for example etc.  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   et cetera EXC  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  Execution class i.e.  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  that is IWE  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   International Welding Engineer IWS  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   International Welding Specialist IWT  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  International Welding Technologist lx  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   lux (light intensity) MAG  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   Metal Active Gas welding mm  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  millimetre NA  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   not applicable n. a.  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   not applicable NDT  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  non-destructive testing Pt.  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  point pWPS  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification PWHT  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   Post weld heat treatment resp.  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� respectively Rev.  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  revision SMAW  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  Shielded Metal Arc welding TIG  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  Tungsten Inert Gas welding WPQR  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  Welding Procedure Qualification Record WPS  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  Welding Procedure Specification

A10


Introduction

Introduction The following 70 pages provide you with an overview of important and relevant points that will play a role for you in the context of certification according to EN ISO 3834 and EN 1090. We have structured this guide simply and understandably to make your work with the required standards, rules and regulations easier. The numerous tables and graphics we have created are designed to give you with a better overview and improved understanding of the contents of this reference work. Moreover, you will find infoboxes on almost every page that provide further helpful information or explanations. The first chapter, “Quality Management”, introduces terms, standards and regulations as well as provides an overview of various types of training for your employees. It also contains a detailed procedural sequence for you to follow for successful certification and to help you find out more clearly where your company stands at the present. This puts you in a position to accurately map out which tasks you can handle in-house and which you will need to outsource. The second chapter, “Welding Technology”, then explains the types of qualification for welders that are so important for certification. For example, there you will learn what a WPQR or WPS is. The clear and insightful tables showing typical weld joint defects and how to remedy them make this a valuable reference work that will prove be a great aid to you. After working through our Guide, you will also be able to better understand the subsequent Sample Manual as well as the measures, rules and regulations that are so important for certification. What’s more, you will be trained to read the quotations from external consultants with a discerning eye and consequently only purchase what you really need. Please bear in mind that this translation into English is strictly a translation of the original version. That includes the page references in the footnotes. Please be aware that these page references are from the German versions of the respective European standard. In the English version or in the version of your country, the referenced points may be on different pages, but the points itselves are the same. Certain terms that only exist in German-speaking regions have, of course, been adapted accordingly. The standards and regulations, however, have already been treated generally in the original version so that they correspond to the standards applicable in your country. All that remains for you to do is address any variations from these standards in the national foreword. The Sample Manual contained in these pages can be handled in the same manner, and if you do not wish to write your in-house Quality Management Manual from the ground up yourself but instead wish to use our templates, an English-language version is available for this purpose in our webshop. Should you require any translation work into your national language, we warmly recommend our translation services partner, Meinrad.CC, a specialist in technical translations that has also produced the English language text of this reference work.

A11


PART A GUIDE

1 Quality Management Quality management plays a key role in the free-market economy and is continually gaining in importance. Its aim is the prevention of product and manufacturing errors. The introduction of the EN 1090 series of standards has now brought a pan-European, uniform quality standard to the market for the steel and aluminium construction sector.

1.1 Definition of Terms NOTE  ►

1.1.1 Standards

Standards can be obtained from the respective national standards institute subject to a charge.

A standard can be considered a document that reflects the state-ofthe-art practice for defined processes within a standards organization. Standards define general and recurring applications that govern the manufacture of products as well as procedural sequences.1 A standard is a technical description or other type of document that is publicly available and has been created cooperatively and by the mutual agreement or with the general consent of all interested groups. It is based on the coordinated results arising from science, technology and practice and has been approved by a recognized standards organization at a national (e.g., ÖNORM in Austria, DIN in Germany), broader regional (e.g. EN in Europe) or international (ISO) level. A standard can be allocated to one or more types of standards, such as service standards, delivery standards, planning standards or process standards.

NOTE  ► The validity of any standard should always be checked before it is applied.

In and of themselves, standards have no legal force whatsoever. They can be seen as recommendations that are used on a voluntary basis. They only become mandatory when laws, ordinances or contracts make reference to them. In the event of legal disputes, no damage compensation is generally granted if the applicable technical standards were complied with.2

What is a harmonized standard? Technical documents often contain the term “harmonized standard”. A harmonized standard is simply a specially developed technical specification that, while not compulsory, can lead to legal consequences if it is not complied with. The EN 1090 series of standards is a harmonized standard in this sense and it should already be in use now because in the

1 Cf. http://www.din.de/cmd?level=tpl-rubrik&cmsrubid=47513; 22/07/13 2 Cf. http://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/Definition/norm.html; 22/07/13

A12


1 Quality Management event of a damage claim, it would serve as a reference for current engineering practice in the steel construction sector.

The meaning of important abbreviations for standards National standards National standards are represented by country-specific abbreviations. In Germany, for example, DIN3, in Austria, ÖNORM4, in Switzerland SN, etc. The country-specific abbreviations for these national standards can also be preceded by an additional EN or an EN ISO standard.

◄ NOTE Suppliers and customers often have differing viewpoints when it comes to product quality and it is not at all unknown for disputes during product acceptance procedures to end up in court. If the requirements are clearly specified in advance based on standards, the quality requirements for acceptance are defined allowing many discrepancies during product acceptance to be avoided.

EN (European Norm) European standards are developed in the technical bodies of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN).5 ISO (International Organization for Standardization) The ISO is a worldwide, independent association of the official standards institutes from a total of 162 countries which develops international standards.6 [Country Abbreviation] EN The respective country-specific edition of a European standard that must be adopted without modification. Regional requirements can be defined additionally in a national foreword7 (e.g. ÖNORM EN, DIN EN, etc.). [Country Abbreviation] EN ISO As is the case for the EN standards, the adoption of the international standards as national standards is mandatory8 (e.g. ÖNORM EN ISO, DIN EN ISO, etc.). EUROCODES Eurocodes are a group of European standards for the construction industry.9

3 Cf. http://www.din.de/cmd?level=tpl-rubrik&cmsrubid=47513; 22/07/13 4 Cf. https://www.austrian-standards.at/infopedia-themencenter/infopedia-artikel/oenorm/; 22-07-13 5 Cf. https://www.austrian-standards.at/infopedia-themencenter/infopedia-artikel/europaeische-normen-en/; 22-07-13 6 Cf. https://www.austrian-standards.at/infopedia-themencenter/infopedia-artikel/iso/ 7 Cf. http://www.din.de/cmd?level=tpl-rubrik&cmsrubid=47513; 22/07/13 8 Cf. http://www.din.de/cmd?level=tpl-rubrik&cmsrubid=47513; 22/07/13 9 Cf. https://www.austrian-standards.at/de/infopedia-themencenter/infopedia-artikel/eurocodes/#c1075; 23/07/13

◄ NOTE There are different designations for the country-specific rules of the individual standards institutes. In Austria, rules are designated as ON Rules or ONR.

◄ TERM At the time if this writing, there are 10 Eurocodes numbered from 0 to 9. Eurocode 3, for example, deals with the load-bearing capacity, durability, and fire resistance of steel structures and applies in conjunction with the technical standards EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1090-1 and EN 1090-2. Eurocode 9 deals with the design of aluminium structures.

A13


PART A GUIDE 1.1.2 Laws A law is a legally binding regulation defined by a legal body (e.g. nations, states). A law can include many individual legal norms or only a few. New laws can be made or existing laws can be changed.10

1.1.3 Technical Regulations A technical regulation is a document that defines the characteristics of the product, such as levels of quality, fitness for use, safety, testing and testing methods that must be complied with in the marketing or use of the product in the member states in which the technical regulation has validity. Technical regulations established by local authorities are excepted from this.11 NOTE  ►

1.1.4 EU Regulations

More information on EU Regulations can be found under www. eur-lex.europa.eu.

The designation EU Regulation refers to a form of European secondary law that is made by community institutions and is directly binding for the addressee of the norm. In contrast to an EU directive, a regulation has general validity and is binding.12 For example, the Construction Products Regulation (EU Regulation No. 305/2011) is applicable in the steel construction sector. This regulation applies not only for steel construction work, but also for all manufactured construction products marketed in Europe. When the manufacturer applies the CE conformity marking to the construction product, he confirms that all of the requirements of this regulation have been met.13

NOTE  ►

1.1.5 EU Directives

The EU Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC, for example, sets forth the requirements for placing pressure equipment on the market in the EU and was presented to the EU member states for implementation in May 1997. In Austria, EU Directive 97/23/EC was not introduced until November 1999 through the creation of the Pressure Equipment Directive (Druckgeräteverordnung, DGVO), with Federal Law Gazette (BGBl.) II No. 426/1999. As a result, the implementation and consequently the requirement of compliance for all companies dealing with pressure equipment took 2 1/2 years in Austria.

In contrast to EU regulations, EU directives do not take effect directly, but only once they have been implemented in a national law. This means that a directive issued by the Council of the European Union only becomes binding in Austria when it is adopted in Austrian law.14

A14

10 Cf. http://www.rechtslexikon.net/d/gesetz/gesetz.htm; 06/08/13 11 Cf. http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10011971; 06/08/13 12 Cf. http://www.lexexakt.de/glossar/euverordnung.php; 22/07/13 13 Cf. Regulation (EU) No. 305/2011 of the European Parliament and of the European Council of 09/03/11 14 Cf. http://www.juraforum.de/lexikon/eu-richtlinie; 06/08/13


1.2 Relevant Standards and Regulations

1.2 Relevant Standards and Regulations 1.2.1 EN 1090 The EN 1090 series of standards specifies the requirements for the certificate of conformity as well as for the quality of the execution and/ or manufacture of steel and aluminium construction components. It is divided into three parts: EN 1090-1 Execution of steel and aluminium structures – Part 1 Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components EN 1090-2 Execution of steel and aluminium structures – Part 2 Technical requirements for steel structures

◄ TERM A certificate of conformity is a confirmation of the compliance of construction products with harmonized and recognized standards or European technical approvals The conformity marking is made using the CE mark and is governed by the Construction Products Act.

EN 1090-3 Execution of steel and aluminium structures – Part 3 Technical requirements for aluminium structures As of 1 July 2014, all companies that manufacture steel and aluminium structural parts must be certified according to EN 1090 because the transitional period that began in 2008, allowing companies to move toward the new directive, ended on 30 June 2014. During the certification, the factory production control (FPC) of a company is inspected by an notified body. If the assessment is positive, an EC certificate is issued that defines the scope of application for the marketing of steel and/or aluminium supporting structures. This certificate authorizes a company to apply the CE conformity marking that is prescribed mandatorily as of 1 July 2014 to its manufactured products.

Factory production control (FPC) As mentioned above, the certification audit calls for the factory production control to be inspected by an notified body. A company’s factory production control is intended to ensure that the steel and aluminium construction products manufactured and put on the market comply with the requirements of EN 1090 Parts 2 and 3. In the context of the FPC, regular internal inspections of the manufacture of the product according to a prescribed system must be carried out and documented. This prescribed system is generally described in a quality management manual with which compliance must be ensured throughout the entire company – from purchasing to final assembly.

◄ TERM Accreditation as used here refers to ISO/IEC 17011:2004 and means the confirmation by a third-party body that formally states that a conformity assessment body is competent to carry out certain conformity assessment activities. Source: Wikipedia Examples of notified bodies: Austria

TÜV Austria Services Ltd. TÜV SÜD SZA Austria GmbH Quality Austria GmbH SystemCERT Zertifizierungs Ges.m.b.H.

Germany

TÜV Nord Systems GmbH & Co. KG Germanischer Lloyd SE TÜV Rheinland LGA Bautechnik GmbH

Switzerland

SVS Schweizer Verein für Schweißtechnik

A15


PART A GUIDE The FPC must define the following points, among others:15 ◆◆

Responsibility, authorization and qualification of personnel

◆◆

Execution of the planning and dimensioning of steel and aluminium construction products

◆◆

The use of the correct structural materials

◆◆

Procedures in the event of non-conformance

◆◆

Test procedures for products

Division into execution classes One of four possible execution classes (EXC) is defined for the certification, depending on the products a metalworking company manufactures. The higher the execution class, the higher the requirements are which the company must fulfill: ◆◆

EXC1 ► LOW requirements according to EN1090-2/3

◆◆

EXC2 ► MEDIUM requirements according to EN1090-2/3

◆◆

EXC3 ► HIGH requirements according to EN1090-2/3

◆◆

EXC4 ► VERY HIGH requirements according to EN1090-2/3

The following are some of the points of differentiation between the execution classes:

TERM  ► NDT means non-destructive testing (► for more information, see Pt. 1.3.2 NDT Tester and 2.6.1 Non-Destructive Test Methods for Weld Joints)

◆◆

Requirements for the structural material

◆◆

Qualification requirements for the responsible welding coordinator

◆◆

Qualification of the welding procedures

◆◆

Scope of NDT and NDT acceptance criteria for weld joints

◆◆

Scope of the manufacturer’s documentation

◆◆

Quality requirements for mechanical processing mechanisms (such as stamping, cutting with oxy-acetylene cutting torches, etc.)

◆◆

Requirements for bolted connections

◆◆

Manufacturing tolerances

NOTE  ►

Requirements with respect to the execution classes

The designation of individual parts of standards can either be indicated using a hyphen followed by the number or using “Part” and the number. In the example here, Part 2 refers to EN 1090-2. Accordingly, a reference to the standard EN 1090-1 would mean the 1st part of this standard. (► see page A15)

The following table briefly summarizes the specific requirements for the individual execution classes. The first column indicates the individual sections of EN 1090 Part 2 (►Execution of steel structures) in which detailed descriptions of the requirements demanded by the standard can be found.

15 Cf. EN 1090-1:2009; p. 18 ff

A16


1.2 Relevant Standards and Regulations

Pt.

Description

EXC1 requirements

EXC2 requirements

EXC3 requirements

EXC4 requirements

Quality documentation

No requirements

Yes, contents of the documentation: ◆◆ Project organizational chart, work processes used, procedures and work instructions ◆◆ Inspection plan for the steel structure ◆◆ Procedures in the event of deviations and modifications, non-conformance, complaints, disputes with respect to quality ◆◆ Tests and acceptance of the component ◆◆ Quality management plan ► see EN 1090-2 Annex C

as EXC2

as EXC2

5.2

Materials certificates Pt. 5.2 Table 1

Test certificate according to EN 10204 ◆◆ Structural steel ► 2.2 ◆◆ Stainless steel ► 3.1 ◆◆ Welding consumables ► 2.2 ◆◆ Bolt assemblies ► 2.1

Test certificate according to EN 10204 ◆◆ Structural steel < S355 ► 2.2 ◆◆ Structural steel ≥ S355 ► 3.1 ◆◆ Stainless steel ► 3.1 ◆◆ Welding consumables ► 2.2 ◆◆ Bolt assemblies ► 2.1

as EXC2

as EXC2

5.2

Traceability

No requirements

Yes (with restrictions) Allocation of the materials certificates to the project only and not to the individual components

Yes (complete) Traceability from delivery to installation ►at the component level

as EXC3

5.2 + 6.2

Marking

No requirements

Yes Yes ◆◆ Test certificates must be traceable Marking in the case of different to the individual components. steel grades or quality groups (e.g. (Details ► see EN 1090-2 Pt. 6.2 when S235 and S355 are used in the Identification by means of punch same project ► e.g. by means of stamp, forming, etc.) colour coding) ◆◆ Application, enter batches on drawings or bills of materials

5.3.2

Thickness tolerances for flat products of structural steel

Class A (tolerances – limit dimensions as EXC1 for thickness) excerpt from standard EN 10029: s ≥ 3 < 5    ► - 0.4 mm / + 0.8 mm s ≥ 5 < 8    ► - 0.4 mm / + 1.1 mm s ≥ 8 < 15   ► - 0.5 mm / + 1.2 mm s ≥ 15 < 25 ► - 0.6 mm / + 1.3 mm s ≥ 25 < 40 ► - 0.8 mm / + 1.4 mm

as EXC1

Class B (tolerances – limit dimensions for thickness) excerpt from standard EN 10029: s ≥ 3 < 5    ► - 0.3 mm / + 0.9 mm s ≥ 5 < 8    ► - 0.3 mm / + 1.2 mm s ≥ 8 < 15   ► - 0.3 mm / + 1.4 mm s ≥ 15 < 25 ► - 0.3 mm / + 1.6 mm s ≥ 25 < 40 ► - 0.3 mm / + 1.9 mm

5.3.3

Surface conditions

Flat products ► Class A2 (► see EN 10163-2) ◆◆ Maximum depth of surface imperfections: •  s ≥ 3 < 8    ► 0.4 mm •  s ≥ 8 < 25   ► 0.5 mm •  s ≥ 25 < 40 ► 0.6 mm •  s ≥ 40 < 80 ► 0.8 mm ◆◆ Correction through welding and grinding possible

as EXC1

Increased requirements, if specified, otherwise the requirements as for EXC1 apply

as EXC3

No requirements

Quality class S1 for internal inhomogeneity in welded cross butt joints (quality class S1 lays down the permissible limits for “defects” for ultrasonic testing ► see EN 10160)

as EXC3

4.2.1 + Annex C

as EXC3

Long products ► Class C1 (► see EN 10163-3) 5.3.4

Special properties

No requirements

Additional test must be defined by the designer/structural engineer

6.2

Identification

No requirements

No requirements

Finished components/test certificates:

as EXC3

◆◆ The test certificate (inspection certificate for material) must be identifiable for every component; components must be marked. ◆◆ Punch stamping only permissible up to S355. ◆◆ Stainless steels as well as materials of higher quality than S355 must not be stamped.

A17


PART A GUIDE

2 Welding Technology Welding technology is a frequently overlooked area in small and medium-sized enterprises. In the past, steel structures have often been assembled or installed with the words, “Just weld that together real quick!” or “Oh, that’ll hold!”. Great damage has resulted from this approach at times. Therefore, the introduction of the EN 1090 series of standards is intended to create a broadly applicable standard for the construction of steel and aluminium structures. These standards set forth basic provisions dealing with questions such as “Who may weld what under the supervision of whom?” Moreover, companies are required to qualify the welding procedures used in-house. In other words, the company needs a certificate confirming that it can handle the required welding procedure properly and is authorized to use it. A number of welding technology topics will be addressed below that are usually more or less known in small and medium-sized enterprises, but with which hardly anyone has had the opportunity to become sufficiently familiar.

2.1 Welding Procedures No.

Welding Procedures

111

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

114

Flux-cored metal-arc welding without shielding gas

121

Submerged arc welding with a solid wire electrode

125

Submerged arc welding with a cored-wire electrode

131

Metal inert gas welding (MIG welding) with a solid wire electrode

135

Metal active gas welding (MAG welding) with a solid wire electrode

136

Metal active gas welding (MAG welding) with a flux-cored electrode

138

Metal active gas welding (MAG welding) with a metal cored electrode

TERM  ►

141

Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG welding) with a solid wire or solid rod filler metal

In the german language TIG is known as WIG (Wolfram Inert-Gaswelding).

142

Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG welding) with no filler metal

143

Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG welding) with a flux-cored wire or flux-cored rod

A30


2.1 Welding Procedures

No.

Welding Procedures

Tungsten gas-shielded welding with reduced gas concentrations 145 in the otherwise inert shielding gas and solid wire or solid rod consumables 15

Plasma welding

21

Resistance spot welding

311 Oxy-acetylene gas welding ▲  Table 06 | Reference numbers for frequently used welding processes (EN ISO 4063)

The three most common welding processes used in the metal construction sector in small and medium-sized enterprises are described briefly below. An explanation of the fundamentals of the welding process is omitted here because it can be assumed that the reader of this book is an experienced practitioner. However, common weld joint defects, welding consumables and recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) are covered.

2.1.1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Shielded metal arc welding, often also referred to as manual metal arc welding, or stick welding, is employed at construction sites primarily for assembly welds. Manual arc welding offers advantages as compared to gas-shielded welding in that it involves less preparatory work (e.g. extensive wind protection measures for the welding area can be omitted) and the welding equipment is easier to handle (e.g. no gas bottles, less weight).

◄ NOTE In addition to relevant technical books, the Fronius company offers basic information on welding on their website www. fronius.com. If you would like more information on the topic of welding consumables, we recommend the Welding Guide offered by Böhler which is available for download at http:// www.boehler-welding.com/ welding/brand-en/content/ download/6438/132922/file/ Joing-Bestseller_VS2.pdf.

Typical weld joint defects Of course, there are numerous types of defects that can result from incorrect handling of the welding process, the consumables or the parent material. In Table 7 which follows, a number of examples of typical weld joint defects that can occur in manual arc welding are explained.

A31


PART A GUIDE

Weld joint defects

Cracks in the weld metal or weld joint transition

Undercutting

Interpass slag inclusions

Bonding defects (Lack of fusion)

Gas inclusions (pores)

Open end crater pipe (End of weld joint open)

Root defects (e.g. shrinkage grooves)

Examples of possible causes

Examples of corrective measures

1. Incorrect filler material 2. Damp coating of the stick electrode 3. Weld joint executed too weakly when welding was interrupted 4. Restraint too high 5. Rate of cooling too great

re 1. Use a basic coated stick electrode re 2. Re-drying electrode re 3. Ensure sufficient tack welding as well as root and filler pass welding re 4. Change welding sequence re 5. Cover or postheat the finished weld

1. Current too high

re 1. Adjust current or reduce

2. Electric arc too large 3. Electric arc guided too much to one side

re 2. Adjust electric arc length re 3. Guide electrode at right angles to the workpiece surface

1. Inadequate cleaning between passes

re 1. Remove residual slag from previous bead

2. Current too low 3. Coating of the stick electrode has too little backing effect 4. Overlap of previously welded bead is too great

re 2. Increase current re 3. Change the type of coating on the stick electrode re 4. Grind off overlap

1. Poor or incorrect weld preparation 2. Current too low 3. Arc blow

re 1. Change weld preparation re 2. Change welding parameters re 3. Change the way the earth cable is connected

1. Incorrect handling of a basic coated electrode 2. Handling errors when building up layers

re 1. Improve handling

1. Improper breaking of the electric arc

re 1. Lingering at the end of the bead and breaking the electric arc in the direction of the welded bead

2. Welding over open end crater pipes 3. Improper technique when propagating the weld

re 2. Grind the open end crater before welding re 3. Change technique for propagating the weld

1. Welding speed too great 2. Air gap too small or too large 3. Tack sites not completely melted

re 1. Decrease welding speed re 2. Change weld preparation re 3. Grind off tack sites

re 2. Improve handling

▲  Table 07 | Typical weld joint defects in manual arc welding including possible causes and corrective measures26

26 Cf. Bulletin DVS0703:2008; p. 3 ff

A32


2.1 Welding Procedures Welding consumables Only welding consumables that are marketed in compliance with a European standard should be used. Storage and handling should always be done according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Stick electrodes (welding rods) are used for all types of metal materials and play an important role in assembly work at construction sites. In practice, the following types of coatings are most common: Basic coated stick electrodes Advantages ◆◆ Useable for all wall thicknesses ◆◆ Also suitable for welding higher-carbon steels (Carbon content > 0.2 %)

Disadvantages ◆◆ More difficult handling for the welder ◆◆ In part, can only be welded using direct current ◆◆ Slag is more difficult to remove and rougher weld joint surface ◆◆ Susceptible to the absorption of moisture (re-drying required)

Rutile coated stick electrodes Advantages ◆◆ Easier handling for the welder ◆◆ Can be welded with AC or DC ◆◆ Good ignition and re-ignition properties ◆◆ Suitable for all welding positions in dependence on the type of coating and coating thickness ◆◆ Slag can be removed easily ◆◆ Not sensitive to humidity (no re-drying required)

◆◆ Rapid welding speed ◆◆ High rate of deposition

Basic coatings consist of iron oxides, iron alloys, calcium carbonates and magnesium. When using basic coated electrodes, it is of special importance that the re-drying requirement be complied with before use. There are special electric ovens for re-drying electrodes that reach a maximum temperature of approx. 400 °C. The duration of re-drying (at least 2 hours) and the re-drying temperature (from 120–350 °C) are dependent on the type of electrode.

Disadvantages ◆◆ Cannot be used for thick-walled components (over 20–25 mm) ◆◆ Low impact toughness at temperatures below freezing ◆◆ Cannot be used for higher-carbon steels (carbon content < 0.2 %)

Cellulose coated stick electrodes Advantages

◄ NOTE

Disadvantages ◆◆ Can only be used for vertical-down welds ◆◆ Limited application range

◄ NOTE Rutile, with its metal content of about 60%, is the most significant titanium mineral after ilmenite. Rutile is acid insoluble and does not melt under the action of a blowpipe. Source: Wikipedia

◄ NOTE Cellulose coatings consist of a high proportion of cellulose with ferroalloys. This combination ensures that the coating burns away almost entirely during welding, thereby forming less slag. Cellulose-coated stick electrodes are used primarily for vertical down welding in pipeline construction.

A33


PART A GUIDE ◆◆

Pipe diameter? ► optional

◆◆

Single or multi-pass weld?

◆◆

Welding positions A test piece can only be selected after all of these factors are known.

Example: Test piece dimensions from EN 287-1 The minimum test piece dimensions must be complied with (length and width). The material thickness and the pipe diameter are dependent on the test piece that has been defined. LEGEND  ► t   ...Test piece thickness D ...Pipe outside diameter l1 ...Length of the test piece

▲  Figure 05 | Test piece dimensions, butt joint in plate

▲  Figure 06 | Test piece dimensions, fillet joint in plate

▲  Figure 07 | Test piece dimensions, butt joint with a pipe

▲  Figure 08 | Test piece dimensions, fillet joint with a pipe

Chronological sequence of a welder test

A52

◆◆

Creation of the welding procedure specification (WPS)

◆◆

Proof of identity of the welder (e.g. driver licence, passport)

◆◆

Marking of the test pieces by the tester (initials of the tester and the welder)

◆◆

Welding of the test piece under the supervision of the tester or the testing agency

◆◆

Technical knowledge examination of the welder

◆◆

Inspection and testing of the test piece

◆◆

Assessment of the inspection and examination

◆◆

Issuance of a test certificate according to EN 287-1 by the tester or the testing agency


2.4 Qualification of Welders Examples of designations for the welder test The welder test certificate (welding qualifications) must always include an abbreviated designation indicating the test piece welding that was performed. You must know the meaning of the abbreviations in order to understand the designations. The following examples explain the meaning of the designations. EN 287-1 135 P FW 1.1 S t10 PB ml Explanation

Area of application or validity for the welder

EN 287-1

Test standard

NA

135

Welding process (MAG welding)

Welding processes 135 and 138

P

Plate test piece

Welding of plates and pipes, D ≥ 150 mm

FW

Fillet joint

Only for fillet joints

1.1

Material group of the test piece according to CE ISO/ TR 15608 (Material group 1.1 includes, for example, S235 construction steel)

All material of material groups 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4

S

Solid wire filler material (e.g. Böhler EMK6)

Welding with solid wire (S) and metal cored wire (M)

t10

Test piece thickness of 10 mm

All components with a material thickness ≥ 3 mm

PB

Welding position horizontal vertical position

Welding positions PA and PB

ml

Multi-pass weld joint

Single-pass and multi-pass welding

◄  EXAMPLE 1 MAG welding

A53


PART A GUIDE

EXAMPLE 2  ►

EN 287-1 141 T BW 8 S t3,6 D60 H-L045 ss nb

TIG welding

Explanation

Area of application or validity for the welder

EN 287-1

Test standard

NA

141

Welding process (TIG welding)

Welding processes 141, 142, 143 and 145

T

Pipe test piece

Welding of plates and pipes

BW

Butt weld joint

Only for butt joints

8

Material group of the test piece according to CE ISO/ TR 15608 (Material group 8 includes, for example, 1.4301 stainless steel)

All material of material groups 8, 9.2 9.3 and 10

S

Solid wire filler material (for example, Böhler SAS2-IG)

Root: with solid wire (S) Filler pass: no filler material or metal core wire (M) in addition to solid wire (S) possible

t3.6

Pipe wall thickness of the test piece is 3.6 mm

All components with a material thickness of 3–7.2 mm

D60

Pipe diameter of the test piece is 60 mm

Pipe diameter ≥ 30 mm

H-L045

Welding position upwards and test piece clamped at an angle of 45°

Welding positions PA, PB, PC, PD, PE, PF, PH and H-L045

ss

Single-sided welding

Single-sided (ss) or double-sided (bs) welding

nb

Welding without backing

Welding with backing (mb) or without backing (nb)

2.5 Designation of Materials According to the official Register of European Steels, there are more than 2,400 different grades of steel that are classified according to EN 10020. These include: ◆◆

over 600 unalloyed and alloyed quality steels,

◆◆

over 500 stainless steels, heat-resistant and high-temperature resistant materials,

◆◆

over 200 unalloyed high-quality steels and

◆◆

over 1,100 other alloyed high-quality steels.40

40 Cf. http://www.stahldaten.de/de/inhalte/stahl-eisen-liste/; 30/07/13

A54


2.5 Designation of Materials The steels are classified according to various characteristics – by chemical composition on the one hand, and by the main quality classes on the other. The various designations used result from this, such as unalloyed steels, stainless steels and quality steels.41 Classification according to chemical composition42

◄ NOTE

In this category, the steels are differentiated as shown below according to the chemical analysis that is carried out during manufacturing:

Chemical abbreviations

◆◆

Unalloyed steels: This includes all steels for which the content of defined chemical elements (e.g. chromium ≤ 0.3 %, molybdenum ≤ 0.08 %) does not exceed a certain value (for a table of limit values ► see EN 10020).

◆◆

Stainless steels: These include all steels with a chromium content of ≥ 10.5 % and a carbon content of ≤ 1.2 %.

◆◆

Alloyed steels:All steels which exceed the limit values for unalloyed steels and do not correspond to the definition of stainless steels.

Classification according to main quality classes43 ◆◆

Unalloyed quality steels:Steels that meet higher and additional demands as compared to alloyed steels, such as ductility, grain size, and/or formability. Unalloyed quality steels are used primarily as structural material in the steel construction industry (e.g. S235J0) and in machine construction (e.g. C60).

◆◆

Unalloyed special steels: Steels with a higher degree of purity than quality steels. Moreover, they must also meet additional requirements.

◆◆

Stainless steels:Definition ► see “Chemical Classification”. These are then also subdivided according to their main properties as corrosion-resistant, heat-resistant and creep-resistant steels as well as according to their nickel content (divided into greater than or less than 2.5 %).

◆◆

Alloyed quality steels: All steels that do not fall into the category of unalloyed quality steels and do not exceed certain limit values for alloying components (e.g. chromium ≤ 0.5 % and molybdenum ≤ 0.1 %). The alloyed quality steels include fine-grained structural steels suitable for welding and steels for pressure vessels and pipelines.

◆◆

Alloyed special steels: All grades of steel except for stainless steels and steels that do not fall into the previously mentioned classes.

C Cr Cu H Mn Mo N Nb Ni O P S Si Sn Ti V W

… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …

Carbon Chromium Copper Hydrogen Manganese Molybdenum Nitrogen Niobium Nickel Oxygen Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Tin Titanium Vanadium Tungsten

41 Cf. EN 10020:2006; p. 4 ff 42 Cf. EN 10020:2006; p. 4 ff 43 Cf. EN 10020:2007; p. 6 ff

A55


PART A GUIDE

Index

G

A

Gas inclusions A32, A77 Gas, oxidizing A41 Gas, reducing A41

Accreditation A15, A51 Austenitic A57, A65, A74

B Back echo A71 Black-white test A68 Böhler A31, A34, A36, A41, A53

C Calibration block A72 Capillary action A66 CE conformity marking A4, A14, A15, A22 CE mark A15 Certificate of conformity A15 Chemical abbreviations A55 Cluster porosity A77 Construction Products Regulation A14, A22 Contrast penetrant  ► See Penetrant Crane operator licence A28

H Harmonized standard A12, A15, A22 Hazards A42 H-L045 A43

I Inert A38 Inspection certificate A61 Instruction for testing A63 Interpass slag inclusions A76 ISO A13

J Japan A56 J-L060 A43

K D Declaration of compliance with the order A61 Discontinuity A71

E EN A13 End crater pipe A32, A40 Endoscope A64 Eurocode A13 EXC  ► See Execution classes Execution classes A16, A20, A29, A61

F Factory production control A15 Factory test report A61 Flaring A38 Fluorescent A65, A66, A68, A70 FPC  ► See Factory production control Fronius A31

A82

Kilonewton A28

L Liability A27 Lux A64

M Magnetic particle testing A62, A68, A69 Manufacturing monitoring A24 Material groups A56 Mismatch A76 MT  ► See Magnetic particle testing

N NDT A16, A19, A26, A48, A63 NDT tester A25, A63 Non-destructive materials testing  ► See NDT


Index

O

T

ÖNORM EN A13 ONR A13 ON Rule  ► See ONR

Technical knowledge test A51 Test certificate A51 Tester authorization A63 Test report A63 TIG A30, A35 Transducer A72, A73 Transverse cracks A77 Tungsten electrodes A37 Tungsten inclusions A77

P Penetrant A65, A67 Penetrant testing A62, A65, A67, A68 Personal protective equipment  ► See PPE Personal protective equipment for a welder A42 Personnel qualifications A63 Pipeline construction A74 PPE A31, A42 Preliminary welding procedure specification A48 PT  ► See Penetrant testing Purging gases A38 pWPS  ► See Preliminary welding procedure specification

Q Qualification levels A21 Qualification of the welding procedures A18, A46 Quality Management Manual A15

R Radiographic testing A62, A70, A74, A76 Rebaking A33, A34 Red-white test A65 Reference block A72 Reflector A72 Register of European Steels A54 Root defects A32, A76 RT  ► See Radiographic testing

S

U Ultrasonic couplant A72 Ultrasonic testing A62, A70, A73, A74 Undercutting A19, A32 USA A56 UT  ► See Ultrasonic testing

V Visual testing A62, A63, A64 VT  ► See Visual testing

W Welding procedure specification A19, A21, A46, A49, A52, A56 Welding symbols A80 Weld joint defects A31, A35, A39 WPQR  ► See Qualification of the welding procedures WPS  ► See Welding procedure specification

X X-ray film A74, A76 X-ray inspection  ► See Radiographic testing

Safety expert A28 Safety representative A28 SCC A23, A24, A28 SCP A23 SHE A23 Shielding gases A38 SR  ► See Safety representative Standards A12 Stick electrodes, alkaline coated A33 Stick electrodes, cellulose coated A33 Stick electrodes, rutile coated A33 Symbols used in drawings A81

A83


PART B SAMPLE MANUAL


Introduction

Introduction The Sample Manual contained in this technical reference work can be used as a basis for successful certification according to EN ISO 3834-3 and for the factory production control according to EN 1090-1 for the execution of steel structures according to EN 1090-2 up to execution class 2 (EXC2). It is specially directed to small and medium-sized metalworking firms that produce and install steel structures. The Sample Manual contains the procedural requirements and the course of action for fulfilling the specifications laid down in standards EN ISO 3834 Part 3 and EN 1090 Part 1 and Part 2. In addition to the Sample Manual, various forms, work instructions, job descriptions and further documents that are also a part of this book can be found here. This Sample Manual cannot be adopted for a company word-for-word, but instead must be adapted to the operating conditions within a company. It may also need to be supplemented by adding a few individual points. The present Sample Manual is directed toward companies that match the following profile: ◆◆

Metalworking shops with up to 20 employees

◆◆

In-house design and planning without static calculation

◆◆

Fabrication of steel structures in their own shop

◆◆

Construction site assembly of steel structures

◆◆

Structural material: Structural steel (e.g. S235 to S355), stainless steel (e.g. 1.4301, 1.4571)

◆◆

Products: steel structures subject to static loading, such as flying roofs, warehouses, railings, stairways

◆◆

Subcontracting of the following tasks to external vendors: >>

Design and planning

>>

Dimensioning of steel structures (static calculation)

>>

Corrosion protection, such as galvanizing, powder coating

>>

Non-destructive materials testing

>>

Heat treatment of components

>>

Possibly an external responsible welding coordinator

Of course, the Sample Manual can also serve as a basis for certification at a higher quality level because the initial requirements are the same. In this case, however, it would then need to be supplemented by the addition of the respective points. If certification according to EN ISO 3834-2 is desired for a company, the Sample Manual would need to be supplemented by the following points: ◆◆

Work instructions / procedural instructions for the procurement of new fabrication equipment (such as welding machines, autogenous cutting unit)

◆◆

Work instructions / procedural instructions for the maintenance of fabrication equipment

◆◆

Maintenance plan for quality-relevant fabrication equipment III


PART B  SAMPLE MANUAL ◆◆

Work instructions / procedural instructions for the preparation and control of quality-relevant documents

◆◆

Supplementation of the work instruction “Handling and Storage of Welding Consumables” by the addition of the point “Identification and batch testing of welding consumables”

◆◆

Supplementation of the work instruction “Handling and storage of structural material” by the addition of the point “Identification and traceability of parent materials”

For a certification of the factory production control according to EN 1090-2 execution class 3 (EXC3), the following points could also be necessary in addition to those previously mentioned: ◆◆

Work instruction / procedural instruction for the performance of welding tests

◆◆

Work instruction / procedural instruction for bolted connections

◆◆

Work instruction / procedural instruction for the measurement of geometric positions

◆◆

Adaptation of the ordering templates to reflect the higher requirements

◆◆

Special requirements for the structural material, for example for cross butt joints

◆◆

Work instruction / procedural instruction for flame straightening

◆◆

Work instruction / procedural instruction for punching holes

◆◆

Limited qualification options for welding procedures; here, only the use of EN ISO 15613 and EN ISO 15614-1 is permitted

◆◆

Modify the profile of requirements for the responsible welding coordinator to reflect the higher level of qualification for this position (here, only IWT and IWE permitted)

◆◆

Work instruction / procedural instruction for the welding of butt joints

◆◆

Work instruction / procedural instruction for the handling of packing plates

IV


Introduction The structure of the in-house Quality Manual A ring binder accommodating at least 35 mm of contents is ideal for the in-house Quality Manual. Label the spine appropriately based on the standards to be used by your company, for example as shown below:

QUALITY MANUAL in fulfillment of the quality requirements according to EN ISO 3834-3, EN 1090-1 and EN 1090-2 EXC2 (depending on the requirements profile)

Rev. no. XX LOGO

Tabs Next, set up a tab system with at least 10 tab sheets that can be labelled according to your needs. Initially, these should be labelled in pencil and after completion of the manual the labels can be converted to clean copy form. Examples for labelling of the tab sheets: ◆◆

Quality Manual

◆◆

Forms

◆◆

Work instructions

◆◆

Documents

◆◆

Welding procedure qualification records (WPQR)

◆◆

Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS)

◆◆

Welders

◆◆

Active documentation

◆◆

Miscellaneous

◆◆

etc.

V


PART B  SAMPLE MANUAL Text templates Before you begin compiling your manual, you must first create your text templates. Quality manuals and their documents must comply with precise requirements to ensure the comprehensibility and traceability of the internal documentation. Special emphasis is placed here on the header and footer:

VERSION 1  ▼

Header:

QUALITY MANUAL

LOGO

in accordance with EN ISO 3834 and EN 1090 Footer:

Page 1 of 1

VERSION 2  ▼

Header:

QUALITY MANUAL

LOGO

in accordance with EN ISO 3834 and EN 1090 Footer: PAGE 1 OF 1

VERSION 3  ▼

Header:

QUALITY MANUAL

LOGO

in accordance with EN ISO 3834 and EN 1090

Footer: Page 1 of 1

VI


Introduction The header and/or footer of all documents must also contain the current revision number as well as the document number. We have also prepared three examples of this for you which you can use to assemble your own text template. Ideally, you should also design the templates for the manual and those of the individual documents so that they match. This indicates to the accredited tester that you have also paid attention to the appearance and form of your documentation:

  ▼  VERSION 1

Header:

JOB DESCRIPTION Project Manager Doc. no.:  DO-01

Rev. no.:  0

LOGO

Footer: Page 1 of 1

  ▼  VERSION 2

Header:

JOB DESCRIPTION

LOGO

Project Manager Footer: DOC. NO.:  DO-01 REV. NO.:  0 PAGE 1 OF 1

  ▼  VERSION 3

Header:

LOGO

JOB DESCRIPTION Project Manager Doc. no.:  DO-01      Rev. no.:  0

Footer: Page 1 of 1

VII


PART B  SAMPLE MANUAL Working with the Sample Manual Please bear in mind that the Sample Manual that begins on the next page has been designed for a theoretical sample company according to the requirements that were discussed at the beginning of this introduction. The official page numbering begins on the following cover page so that you can orient yourself more easily in Part B. In the interest of clarity, please remember to provide your Quality Manual with a table of contents and correct page numbering. First, however, you must work through the manual and mark the sections that are not relevant for your company. As you read, observe which text passages will need to be completely or partially reworked and which can be adopted as is. Everywhere where SAMPLE Company appears, you will need to insert your company name. Obviously, all of the company data, such as lists of machinery and vehicles in the fleet must also be adapted to suit your company. All of the forms and documents referred to in the Sample Manual can be found starting on page B29. They, too, must be checked for relevance and then adapted to suit your company. Pay special attention to the correct numbering of your documents and make sure that only documents with the status “active” are in force in your company. In the interest of a clear, understandable design, we have placed infoboxes in the margin of the page listing all further applicable documentation as well as the standards to which reference is made. The infoboxes are not intended for inclusion in the quality manual, but only serve informational and reference purposes. STANDARDS REFERENCED

APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS

We wish to point out once more the extreme importance of using a uniform design for both the manual and your other forms and documents. Take special care to ensure that the processes and work procedures you list can be practically implemented in your company and that they do not entail an unmanageable amount of additional effort. Involve your employees in the certification process and, together, attempt to find a way to ensure that your company can carry out all relevant points in an uncomplicated manner.

In closing, we wish you success and all the best in the creation of your Quality Manual and the certification of your company!

VIII


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Guide to the Establishment of Factory Production Control (Excerpt)  

This guide was carefully created and designed while nearly 1,000 hours of work so that even busy small business owners get a clear view in t...

Guide to the Establishment of Factory Production Control (Excerpt)  

This guide was carefully created and designed while nearly 1,000 hours of work so that even busy small business owners get a clear view in t...

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