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Final Project Presentation Design and Development of Rubber Tapping Machine

George T Jose K1139a140022, BN-010 Post Diploma In Product Design

Proposed Academic Guides : Mr Vivek Sasiandran / Mr Rajeev Nair Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Aim of the Project This project is based on developing and improving the existing model of the rubber tapping equipment which can be used by a common man.

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Aim of the Project • To research on rubber tapping methods and positions of the tapping knife. • The cutting angles of the tapping knife. • Flow of the latex from the rubber tree and the cutting direction while tapping • User study of an expert in rubber tapping.

• To investigate on the existing rubber tapping models and its technology. • To carry out parametric study to meet the product design specifications (PDS).

• Less time consumption and easy to operate Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Methods Methodology Methods and Methodology Rubber Tapping Machine

Data collection

Data analysis

Concept generation

Final concept selection

Patents, Books and Internet

Customer voice

Problem solving methods

Evaluation of all concepts

Product Study

QFD

Ideation

Ranking of Concepts

User study/ customer study

PDS

Concept sketching

Final concept

Rendering

Digital Modeling

Benchmarking Concept Detailing Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Methods and Methodology • • • • • •

The methodology describes the way to reach the final concept selection. Firstly, the research is based on the data collection by the standard patents, books and internet. Secondly, by using the data analysis and survey of the customers that leads to QFD & PDS. Third, it then leads to concept generation by problem solving methods by 6-3-5 method, concept sketching and 3D modelling by using Alias and also rendering the model by Key Shot. Fourth, it is the final concept selection, by Pugh's method. The planning process followed by selection of material and 3D model is the final step.

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Introduction Rubber had been a historical plant in the ancient era when Columbus discovered rubber latex in the year 1495 and in the ancient it was called ‘Caoutchoue’ means ‘Crying Tree’. The latex is extracted from the tree by using a sharp tools or a special knife. In 1839 Charles Goodyear accidentally dropped rubber and sulphur on a hot stovetop, causing it to char like leather yet remain plastic and elastic. Vulcanization, a refined version of this process, transformed the white sap from the bark of the Hevea tree into an essential product for the industrial age.

Tapping lines Hevea Brasiliensis Tree Latex Drop Latex Cup

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Product History Rubber tapping knife was found during the early years, which required skills for cutting the tree to extract the latex. The design of the knife and the cutting pattern varies from one place to other.

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Product Study Manufacturing Process The process for making the knife is forging.

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Product Study Tree Examination and Cutting Angles

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Product Study

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Product Study Bark Cork Cambium

Latex Vessels

Phloem

If you cut through a trunk, you see several layers. • On the outside is the bark, which is about 6 millimetres thick. • In the centre is the wood, • Between the wood and the bark there is a layer which cannot be seen with the naked eye, because it is very thin. This is the cambium layer.

Cambium

Zylem Pitch

The cambium makes the tree grow, by producing wood and bark. It must precise not to damage it; if the tree has to grow normally.

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Product Study

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Product Study Latex Flow from Tree

:-

20°C to 28 °C (68 °F to 83 °F)

Tapping time

:-

Early Morning appox. 2am

26 ° C – 30 ° C

Morning

30 ° C – 32 ° C

Noon

32 ° C – 36 ° C

Diameter of Tree

:-

Ø280mm to Ø500mm (appox.)

Bark thickness

:-

6mm thickness

Depth of cut

:-

1mm (min) to 4.5mm (max)

Why do tappers go early in the morning for tapping? 1. The amount of water content is more 2. Temperature for the latex to flow 3. Atmospheric pressure During the summer seasons the yield of the rubber is less compared to the other climates

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Product Study Material Wood

Material Metal 3. Flange

2. Knife Tip (Sharp) 130째

5. Handle

4. Collar

Mfg Process Turning

1. Clearance

Fix / Remove blade from Handle

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Mfg Process Forging

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Key Findings of Product Study • • • • • • • • • •

The cut should not reach till cambium of the tree Each time the knife needs to be sharpened Requires skilled person Ergonomic problems (Handle) Cutting tip and clearance along with rake angles are important Rusting of knife No Proper grips for the knife Chances of accidents are more No safety involved in tool To be careful with the sharp tip of the knife

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Market Study

Product details General use : Plantation (Agriculture)

Including knife cover.

Material : Steel

Enhanced latex.

Suitable for all kind of rubber tree.

More sharp.

Sharpen by craftsman

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Market Study

Product details General use : Plantation (Agriculture) Material : Steel Made of quality steel. Sharpen by craftsman More sharp.

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Market Study

Product details General use : Plantation (Agriculture) Material : Steel Suitable for all kind of rubber tree. Blade Inserts Easy to use. Wooden Handle Enhanced latex. More sharp.

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Market Study Trend analysis The rubber tapping knife are of different type in which all the tools have a straight handle which is made out of wood or metal pipe. The common problems that these knifes have are, 1. Ergonomics Problems 2. Stress full for the person to tap for long hours

3. Requires good skill for tapping. Material The knifes are made out of good quality of steels which require sharp ends which helps in cutting the tree to abstract the latex from the tree. The handle is made out of wood or steel or rubber.

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Market Study Market Specification According to the current market research done by experts have derived a market specification for achieving an improved rubber tapping tool: 1. Cost: Plantation management would buy the tool at 50% above the current tool price if it is safer and allows workers to be more productive 2. Features/Reliability: The tool must increase employer profitability by either increasing productivity or by lower labor costs in allowing skilled labor to tap 3. Ease of use: Ease of use can improve productivity by reducing fatigue. The availability of potential laborers including women choose not to work as rubber tappers because it involves lot of hard work 4. Durability : The tool must last for 5 years 5. Maintenance: The tool must be maintained with only basic sharpening of tools.

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Market Study

In the Indian rubber tapping industry Kerala produces 92% of India's natural rubber. The secondary lies to other tropical regions that have substantial rubber tapping industries, including Southeast Asia, South America and Africa

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Bench Marked

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Key Findings • • • • • • •

The handle is given an altered shape Blade inserts are used Blade shape has been changed A small portion of the blade comes into contact Handle cross section is rectangle – clamping is by riveting The clamping of blade is screw nut mechanism No other equipments does not exists in market for tapping

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Daily Function of a Tapping Labour

Latex Flowing

Starts in early morning

Rubber Sheet Storage

Cutting the path on tree

Sheet kept for drying Keltron Advanced Design Centre

Collected rubber rolled 24


Ergonomic Study

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Ergonomic Study

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Ergonomic Study Movements of the Hand Neutral

Neutral

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Ergonomic Study

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Ergonomic Study

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User Study No

Questionnaire

Yes

No

1

Is the knife too stressful?

2

Would like to have an automatic tapping machine?

3

Does it take lot of time for tapping?

4

Are there chances of damaging the tree?

6

Is there a problem in cutting at the lower portion of the tree?

7

Is it safe to handle?

8

Is the life of the knife last more?

9

Do you require a proper grip for the handle?

10

Do you require expert skills?

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User study Product users

: Skilled Labours

User age category : Both men and women (22 +) or Illiterate Working area

: Rubber plantation (Rubber)

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User Study1 Holding Knife One hand knife Other support

Latex Flow

Cutting Direction Bottom to Top Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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User Study 2 Cutting Direction Top to Bottom

Latex Flow

Holding Knife Two hand with Knife

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Ergonomics Study of Users Chance of an accident Eye sight

Requires support

Shoulder pain Wrist pain

Back Pain Leg Pain

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Ergonomic Study Design Principles Factors to Minimize

1. Soft tissue, artery, and nerve compression 2. Grip/Finger/Torque/Push/Pull strength required to perform task successfully 3. Vibration levels 4. Temperature changes (+/- 2 degrees)

5. Repetitive motion 6. Prolonged performance of task 7. Prolonged maintenance of “fixed position” 8. Angle deviation away from “neutral” hand position

9. Pinching, sharp corners, edges 10. Cost

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Ergonomic Factors to be Considered Factors to Maximize 1. General feeling of “Comfort” 2. Adjustability of design 3. Ease of use

Factors to Consider Depending on Use 1. Weight of tool 2. Texturing, gloves, bracing/support, padding 3. Size of tool and hand anthropometrics 4. Subgroups: Lefthanders, women, physically impaired, young, elderly 5. Safety and protection features (e.g. flange, safety, latch, plastic guard, etc.) 6. Material selection – What’s it made of? Reason?

7. Power Specs: Manual vs. powered, Battery vs. plug-in Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Key Findings of User • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Stressful work Problems in different positions while tapping Body pains by continuous work Takes more time Requires excellent skills Rusting of knifes Chances of tree damage is more in the beginning of the tapping process The tapping has to be started by morning for achieving more amount of latex No fixed pattern in cutting the rubber Life of the knife is less or needs to the sharpened Requires proper supports while tapping Easy to carry Less space to place in the tool box The comfort level of holding the knife is too low To cut the path at higher positions requires a Log(wood) to stand Different tapper has different methods of holding, positioning of knife and cutting style varies from other

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QFD QFD – Quality Function Deployment

25

3

15

Depth of cut

525

25

Life of tool

412

Safety

5

25

Automatic

3

15

Damage of tree

9 5

25

Aesthetics

Size

15

25

15

25 25

9

Strong Positive Positive Negative Weak Relationship Medium Relationship Strong Relationship

25

12

15

20

12

Function 25

25

Support on tree

12

Product Structure

Material

Mechanism

RIR

Customer Requirements

Customer Requirements

Technical Descriptions

25

5

25

9

15

25

25

25

-1 -3 -5

9

25

Grip for Handle

3

Aesthetics

2

25

Time Consumption

4

1212

Total Percentage

25

3

3

9

25 10

12

4

25 12

95

34

90 2567

24

19

329

30

10

28

7

5

100%

20

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PDS PDS – Product Design Specification Performance The equipment must be easy to handle and must be quicker and accessed by a common man. Maintenance The product has to be designed in such a way that it can be easily repaired. Size The size of the product should be minimum in size. Weight The weight should be brought to the least not more than 6kilos. Aesthetics, appearance and finish The product can be remodelled by giving good aesthetics and appearance.

Materials The materials that can be used are for blade is carbon steel and for handles can be of rubber or wood.

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PDS PDS – Product Design Specification Environment The working of the product is in moist environment which has more water content. Customer The common buyers would be the rubber tappers and for a common man. Ergonomics The ergonomics issues should be erected by bringing changes in the tool. Mechanism The mechanism should be easy to develop and shouldn’t affect the tapping function. Process The process that involves in manufacturing are moulding and forging

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Problem Solving Method Brainstorming Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which a group tries to find a solution for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by the members.

6 – 3 – 5 Method 6 people were sitting together in 5 minutes each of them will give 3 ideas. Then the paper will be circulated to each people so that the idea generation will be continued as many as good ideas were born

from this method.

Morphological Analysis Morphological analysis or General morphological analysis is a method developed by Fritz Zwiky (1967 - 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a multi – dimensional, non – quantified, problem complex.

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Generation of concepts 1. Developing an Ergonomic Knife / Mini Motor Knife 2. To Develop a Belt Strap Knife or with Motorised Cutter

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1st Concept Ideations Ergonomic Knife / Mini Motor Knife

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2nd Concept Ideations Belt Strap Knife or With Motorised Cutter

4

Inspiration

3

2 1 Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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2nd Concept Ideation Belt Strap Knife or With Motorised Cutter

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2nd Concept Ideation

Belt Strap Knife or With Motorised Cutter Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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2nd Concept Ideation Belt Strap Knife or With Motorised Cutter

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2nd Concept Ideation Belt Strap Knife or With Motorised Cutter

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Selection of First Concept

Ergonomic Mini Motor Knife Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Selection of Second Concept

Belt Strap Knife or With Motorised Cutter Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Pugh's Selection Sl. No

Description

2

1

Automatic

Manual

+

S

2

Economical

Economical

+

3

Doesn't Require Skills

Skilled

S

+

4

Handy

Handy

S

5

Durability Without Charging

No Charge

S

6

Maintenance

Only Sharpening

+

+

7

Similar Cutting Angle

Varies

S

+

8

Guides

No Guide

+

+

Total Ʃ +

3

5

Total Ʃ –

2

1

Total Ʃ S

3

2

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Final Concept

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Final Concept

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Final Concept

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Project Schedule Activity days Pre-Project presentation

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

36

38

40

42

44

46

48

50

52

54

Literature review documentation user study/market study

Interim Presentation

data analysis brain storming Cconcept generation ideation concept detail sketching concept selection digital modeling preparation for final presentation Final presentation final concept selection, iterationf the selected concept Final presentation

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Literature Review Project of Mechanical Engineering Students 2007 – 2011 – Newspaper Rubber tapping is the process of extraction of latex from the rubber trees. Latex is a white or slightly yellowish liquid composed of rubber, protein, sugar, water etc. This latex is concentrated, compounded and then used in different forms for the manufacture of various goods like the commonly seen rubber bands, gloves, condoms, foam beds, tyres etc. For the manufacturing of these above given products we have all necessary mechanisms, from the manually operated machines to the highly sophisticate automated machines which can produce large tones in few seconds. But the primary level procedure, i.e. the tapping operation is still carried out manually and requires skilled labour. It is done with the help of specially made knifes. Malaysian knifes and Indian knifes are mainly used. In the coming future the world is going to face a great shortage in availability in labours.

Taking these problems into consideration engineers all around the world are trying to develop alternative ways for the tapping process. But till date no good design has been brought up except from a Malaysian company. Due to many defects and drawback of this machine, tapping sector is still on the same traditional path. We have studied about the various situations of tapping and other required data and have come with a design for rubber tapping machine. This has helped us in developing a prototype of a mechanized system. Experiments carried out with this machine have revealed that it will be the best possible alternative to traditional tapping. This can help even the unskilled ones to carry out operation. We also expect it could make a great revolutionary change in the field of tapping.

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Literature Review

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Literature Review New Straits Times – April 8, 1991- Newspaper Review

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Future Concept For Development Generated Future Concept from the Final Belt Concept

Combination of laser and maglev train technology

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Technology Review - Future Concept Laser Refractive Surgery in India Laser refractive surgery is an eye surgery that is used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease or eliminate dependency on spectacles or lenses. This surgery is becoming progressively popular as people are turning to alternatives to traditional spectacles and lenses for correcting vision. Laser refractive surgery has successfully been performed on millions of patients worldwide. However, many people are not good candidates for laser refractive surgery. The evolution of laser refractive surgery technology has led to additional method used to treat refractive errors. Nowadays eye patients have a range of vision correction treatments available to them from the insertion of implantable contact lenses to several variations of the laser technique.

Laser refractive surgery: Laser refractive surgery includes any procedure designed to treat the refractive errors myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism. There are many types of laser refractive surgery in the market. Laser refractive surgery is a procedure that permanently changes the shape of the cornea, the clear covering of the front of the eye, using an excimer laser. Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Technology Review - Future Concept Laser refractive surgery: Laser refractive surgery includes any procedure designed to treat the refractive errors myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism. There are many types of laser refractive surgery in the market. Laser refractive surgery is a procedure that permanently changes the shape of the cornea, the clear covering of the front of the eye, using an excimer laser. Structure of cornea: The transparent cornea has five distinct layers and is about one - half millimetres thick. The most exterior layer of cornea, called epithelium provides the smooth refractive surface and barrier against infection. The role of bowman's membrane and its basement membrane is unclear. The stroma provides structure and accounts for ninety percent of the corneal thickness. Endothelium cells are responsible for the natural corneal dehydration that is important for corneal clarity. Other types of refractive surgery: The other refractive surgeries used to reshape the cornea are Radial keratotomy (RK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). In radial keratotomy a very sharp knife is used to cut slits in the cornea to change its shape. Photorefractive keratectomy is the first the first surgical method developed to reshape the cornea using a laser. Later, lasik surgery was developed to reshape cornea. Lasik and photorefractive surgery involve the use of same type of laser. The major difference between the photorefractive and lasik surgery is the way that the stroma, the middle layer of the cornea is exposed before it is vaporized with the laser treatment. In photorefractive surgery, the top layer of the cornea, epithelium is scraped away to expose the stromal layer underneath. In lasik surgery, a flap is cut in the stromal layer and the flap is folded back. Another type refractive surgery is thermokeratoplasty. In this surgery heat is used to reshape the cornea. The source of the heat can be a laser; however this laser is different from the one that is used for lasik and PRK. Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Technology Review - Future Concept Hospitals for laser refractive surgery in India: • Max eye care hospital, New Delhi • Shroff eye hospital, Mumbai • Chaudhary eye centre and laser vision, New Delhi • Ojas laser eye surgery centre, Mumbai • Laser Rx hi tech eye surgery clinic, Alkapuri

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Technology Review - Future Concept

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Technology Review - Future Concept Electrodynamic suspension In electrodynamic suspension (EDS), both the guide way and the train exert a magnetic field, and the train is levitated by the repulsive and attractive force between these magnetic fields. In some configurations, the train can be levitated only by repulsive force. In the early stages of JR-Maglev development in Miyazaki test track, a repulsive system was used, instead. This fact sometimes causes conception that the EDS system is a repulsive one, but that is not true. The magnetic field in the train is produced by either superconducting magnets (as in JR– Maglev) or by an array of permanent magnets (as in Inductrack). The repulsive and attractive force in the track is created by an induced magnetic field in wires or other conducting strips in the track. A major advantage of the EDS maglev systems is that they are naturally stable – minor narrowing in distance between the track and the magnets creates strong forces to repel the magnets back to their original position, while a slight increase in distance greatly reduces the repulsive force and again returns the vehicle to the right separation. In addition, the attractive force varies in the opposite manner, providing the same adjustment effects. No feedback control is needed. EDS systems have a major downside as well. At slow speeds, the current induced in these coils and the resultant magnetic flux is not large enough to support the weight of the train. For this reason, the train must have wheels or some other form of landing gear to support the train until it reaches a speed that can sustain levitation. Since a train may stop at any location, due to equipment problems for instance, the entire track must be able to support both low-speed and high-speed operation. Another downside is that the EDS system naturally creates a field in the track in front and to the rear of the lift magnets, which acts against the magnets and creates a form of drag. This is generally only a concern at low speeds (This is one of the reasons why JR abandoned repulsive system and adopted sidewall levitation system); at higher speeds the effect does not have time to build to its full potential and other forms of drag dominate. Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Technology Review - Future Concept The drag force can be used to the electrodynamic system's advantage, however, as it creates a varying force in the rails that can be used as a reactionary system to drive the train, without the need for a separate reaction plate, as in most linear motor systems. Laithwaite led development of such "traverse-flux" systems at his Imperial College laboratory. Alternatively, propulsion coils on the guide way are used to exert a force on the magnets in the train and make the train move forward. The propulsion coils that exert a force on the train are effectively a linear motor: an alternating current through the coils generates a continuously varying magnetic field that moves forward along the track. The frequency of the alternating current is synchronized to match the speed of the train. The offset between the field exerted by magnets on the train and the applied field creates a force moving the train forward.

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Reference 1. http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/print/volume-41/issue-3/departments/tree-felling-with-lasers-a-big-idea-in-1965.html 2. http://www.quantel-laser.com/laser-damage-testing.html 3. http://www.buildlog.net/cnc_laser/cnc_build_research.htm 4. http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/maglev-train.htm

5. http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://ninpope-physics.comuv.com/maglev/images/howitworks/eds_detailed.jpg&imgrefurl=http://ninpopephysics.comuv.com/maglev/howitworks.php&h=300&w=415&sz=46&tbnid=_vE2kSbnsW1e6M:&tbnh=90&tbnw=125&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dm agnetic%2Btrains%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=magnetic+trains&usg=__66TidKMxYmFMY2TD4WaYNzALC84=&hl=enIN&sa=X&ei=Nj1EUIzzI4jtrQfT1oCoDw&ved=0CCUQ9QEwAg 6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VO8b2Zp_aW8 7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qi1kPRfnos0 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_cutting 9. http://spikenzielabs.com/SpikenzieLabs/Laser_How_To.html 10. http://www.lexellaser.com/techinfo_wavelengths.htm 11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latex#cite_note-3 12. http://rubberboard.org.in/rubbercultivation.asp 13. http://rubberboard.org.in/ 14. http://www.healthaidindia.com/Eye-Care-in-India/Laser-Refractive-Surgery-in-India.html 15. http://sarawak-rubbertapper.tripod.com/process.htm 16. http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2101 Keltron Advanced Design Centre

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Reference 1. http://www.hiwtc.com/products/rubber-tapping-knife-394277-16339.htm 2. http://www.ghumakkar.com/2008/06/19/palakkad-and-the-story-of-rubber-making/ 3. http://japanontop.com/index.php?key=rubber+tapping+knife 4. http://www.murickens.com/realestate/HistoryOfRubber.asp 5. http://www.sayaanakbangsamalaysia.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=223:iron-forged&catid=40:tale-in-ten&Itemid=76 6. http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/rubber-tapping-knife.html 7. http://keralafarmeronline.com/taping-to-extract-food-storage/lang/en/ 8. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/AD221E/AD221E06.htm 9. http://www.dericsimmonsod.com/images/eye-diagram-anatomy-condition-treatment.jpg?nxg_versionuid=published 10. http://nursingcrib.com/wp-content/uploads/lasik-eye-surgery.jpg?9d7bd4 11. http://www.lasereyeturkey.com/www.LaserEyeTurkey.com/images/LASIK-32.jpg 12. http://www.lasereyeturkey.com/www.LaserEyeTurkey.com/images/LASIK-21.jpg 13. http://www.lasereyeturkey.com/www.LaserEyeTurkey.com/images/LASIK-11.jpg 14. http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ-k3GJxXCYdyR_0IgF_UnhZudVBGrw8JCj2AB_mW1p7oCajeLiPA 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maglev

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Special Thanks • Rubber Research Institute, Kottayam • FCI O/E/N Connectors, Ernakulam

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