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San Francisco 2018

Public Space + Public Life in Civic Center Public Space Public Life Survey Key Findings and a Framework for Public Life 1


Gehl in collaboration with San Francisco Planning conducted a Public Space + Public Life Study of Civic Center in Summer 2017. John Rahaim, Planning Director Neil Hrushowy, Manager, City Design Group Nick Perry, Plan Manager Patrick Race, Assistant Plan Manager Ben Caldwell, Urban Designer Carla Wietgrefe, Intern

The Study sets a baseline for life and space in the Civic Center district. This baseline allows the City to identify challenges and opportunities to amplify public life in Civic Center. It also allows the City to measure progress towards target public life outcomes during interim activation events and future phases of physical improvements. A strategic framework for amplifying public life in Civic Center also accompanies this document.

John Bela, Partner, Director Blaine Merker, Partner, Director Anna Muessig, Project Manager Alex Schuknecht, Designer Celsa Dockstadar, Designer Tyler Jones, Designer Mario Rodas, Designer

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

You can find more information about the Civic Center Public Space design here civiccentersf.org You can find this document, and other Gehl projects here issuu.com/gehlarchitects/

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Survey Volunteers

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

Robin Abad Christy Alexander Svetha Ambati Sirichon Boonprakob Ryan Booth Anne Brask Iman Bright Ben Caldwell Joan Campos Jenni Cen Joanna Chan Natalie Chyba Liene Cikanovica Jorgen Cleemann Rucha Dande Maria De Alva Donna Dessart Debbie Eng Jackson Eng Chris Escobedo Lisa Fisher John Francis Julie Fukunaga Manuela Galindo Max Gara Joan Gerigk Ian Griffiths Chris Guillard Lauren Hackney Jordan Harrison

Radha Hayagreev Micah Hilt Wendy Ho Cassie Hoeprich Ashley Hong Seung Yen Hong Maya Hovey Neil Hrushowy Bjorn Hubert-Wallander Claude Imbault Kyle James Joann Kuo Michelle Langlie Lily Langlois Kevin Lenhart Kenneth Levy Diane Livia Jessica Look Casey Lowdermilk Bettina Mateo Phoebe Meixner Spencer Michael Anna Misharina Ella Morgulis Willett Moss Andrea Nelson Jennifer Norris Nineveh O’Connell Claire Padien-Havens Satyajit Pande

Sneha Parmar Jeremy Patfield Joe Peltier Nick Perry Jessica Prasad Patrick Race lana Rainero-de Haan Susannah Raub Molly Riddle Ilaria Salvadori Emilie Schattman Sibylle Scholz Meg Wall Shui Valentina Simi Tara Singh Brian Stokle Mimi Tam Rachael Tanner Aileen Tat Kansai Uchida Kevin Utschig Anush Venkatesan Syd Wayman Carla Wietgrefe Peter Winch Nico Wright Melanie Yee Yosef Yip 3


Executive Summary

Public Life in Civic Center isn’t living up to its potential. The District’s grand architecture and ceremonial public spaces were designed to inspire awe and serve as ceremonial gathering spaces, not meet the needs of people who live or work nearby. Over decades, the few human-scale elements have been removed. There is too much empty public space in Civic Center, and too few invitations to be there. Today, many of the people spending time in Civic Center’s public spaces have nowhere else to go. The effects of larger social issues like homelessness and drug use have become synonymous with the space. We can’t wait for these complex issues to be solved before we do something to improve public life. Design alone cannot solve the challenges in Civic Center - but it can help. Civic Center’s public spaces deserve unique, compelling invitations that give more people a reason to be there. Programming, food, appealing landscape elements, and recreation facilities encourage people to come, and make people passing through feel welcome to stay. Progress is only possible through a coordinated effort towards a common vision. Design, programming, social services, stewardship, and communications must work together for the kind of life we want to see in Civic Center. It starts with a Framework for Public Life.

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Is Civic Center living up to its name?

Civic Center \ ‘si-vik \ Adjective 1. Relating to a city or town, especially its administration; municipal. 2. Relating to the duties or activities of people in relation to their town, city, or local area.

Origin: Mid 16th century: from French civique or Latin civicus, from civis ‘citizen’. The original use was in civic garland, crown, etc., translating Latin corona civica, denoting a garland of oak leaves and acorns given in ancient Rome to a person who saved a fellow citizen’s life.

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Is Civic Center living up to its name?

Civic Center /’sen-ter/ Noun 1. The point that is equally distant from every point on the circumference of a circle or sphere. 2. The point from which an activity or process is directed, or on which it is focused. 3. A place or group of buildings where a specified activity is concentrated. Origin: Late Middle English: from Old French, or from Latin centrum, from Greek kentron ‘sharp point, stationary point of a pair of compasses’, related to kentein ‘to prick’.

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Contents

8 Background + Context 29 Key Findings 121 Framework for Public Life 173 Evaluation Matrix

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Background + Context Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Background + Context

Civic Center is ready for a change The Civic Center district’s public realm is overdue for an update. Adjacent neighborhoods like the Tenderloin lack public space. The existing neighborhood’s need for high quality public space will only grow as people continue to move to the district, and as the area continues to grow as an arts and culture hub. The City has identified the transit-rich Hub district near Civic Center as a strategic area for more people to live in San Francisco.

The most recent plan for the Civic Center’s public realm is nearly 20 years old. Public Works-led “Civic Center Historic District Improvement Project” by SMWM and Olin Partnership.

Since the 1990s, the area has grown as both an arts and culture district and a residential neighborhood.

These forces, past and present, have changed and will continue to change the demands people have on the public realm. ACT Strand Theater

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

New construction

New growth at Market/ VanNess 9


Background + Context

Civic Center Public Realm Plan Components The Civic Center Public Realm Plan will create a unified vision for long-term improvements to Civic Center’s plazas, streets, and other public spaces. The Plan is an inter-agency effort managed by San Francisco Planning and is part of the City’s ongoing efforts to improve the area as both a neighborhood gathering space and common area for everyone who lives in, works in and visits San Francisco. More information about the plan can be found at www.civiccentersf.org

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Background + Context

Guiding Question:

How can Civic Center continue to serve as one of the city’s primary civic and ceremonial gathering places while also providing a safe, comfortable and welcoming environment for everyday users? Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Background + Context

Public Life Study: Putting people at the center of urban change

San Francisco uses public life surveys to inform the neighborhood planning process. Learn more here: sf-planning.org/public-space-and-public-life-studies

Public Life surveys have been performed around the globe by Gehl and partner cities. In some places, like Sydney and Copenhagen, Public Life data is an integrated part of the city planning process and is used to gauge success according to public life benchmarks. It is no coincidence that these cities are ranked as some of the world’s most liveable places. When cities use public life data to guide their design and policies, the outcome is better for people. Download the Public Life Data Protocol: www.gehlinstitute.com

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Background + Context Background + Context

Decode the Everyday Why a Public Space Public Life (PSPL) study? To find human stories To inform strategy and design To provide evidence on which to base objective choices To benchmark progress To discover new opportunities To create urgency for change

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

We come here for the opera - but we rush through Civic Center.

This is my neighborhood open space - Why are there so few public benches?

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Background + Context

How and when to measure

M e a s u re

M e a s u re

M e a s u re

st

Te

st

Te

ne

Te

R e fi

• Evaluate indicators during interim activation events, compare against baseline, and use to adjust strategic vision

ne

ne

• The Public Space Public Life study of Civic Center informs an Evaluation Matrix that benchmarks key public life indicators (see part 4)

R e fi

R e fi

A data-driven approach to amplifying public life in Civic Center

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0238

Strategic Vision Pilot

e fin e R

Pilot

e fin e R

Pilot

• Perform spot-counts every 2-3 years • Perform full public life study every 3-5years

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

Pilot

The measure-test-refine approach to Civic Center’s design

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Background + Context

The Civic Center Commons Initiative can pilot concepts from the Public Realm Plan Civic Center Commons has been bringing life to Civic Center’s key public spaces with free music, art, and activities. This study did not occur during a planned event, but these interim activations can test concepts from the Public Realm Plan, evaluate outcomes, and make recommendations for the long-term vision. More information about Civic Center Commons at: www.civiccentercommons.org

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

Photos c/o Civic Center Commons + Groundplay SF

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Background + Context

A city observes itself Nearly 100 volunteers collected the data that makes up this report. Numerous city agencies, budding urbanists, interested citizens, the Department of Public Health, Another Planet Entertainment, volunteers from the Opera, Stanford, Berkeley, and other educational institutions all participated. It was a citywide affair!

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Background + Context

4 Snapshot Days + 2 spot-counts There is no typical day at Civic Center. We selected four days that represented different common activity profiles and supplemented these counts with two spot-counts to capture specific conditions.

“Quiet” Weekday

“Quiet” Weekend

“Busy” Weekday

“Busy” Weekend

Thursday, May 25 Cloudy until around noon Min 54°F Max 61°F Wind 2m/s

Saturday, June 10 Min 54°F Max 63°F Wind 4m/s

The survey ran from 8:00am to 8:00pm on each day unless noted.

Playgrounds Pre-construction

Night-time Counts 7pm-11pm

Saturday, February 11 Tuesday, February 13

Friday, September 22

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

Thursday, June 7 Farmers’ Market @ UN Plaza, Warriors game at Civic Center Min 52°F Max 59°F Wind 4m/s

Saturday, May 27 Concert @ Bill Graham + Prom Min 54°F Max 61°F Wind 2m/s

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Background + Context

There is no typical day in Civic Center

Women’s March

From daily weddings and civic business to weekly farmer’s markets to annual regional gatherings like Pride and protests, Civic Center has many facets of its public life, impacted by events with varying character, size, and frequency. The Public Life Study focused on events that happen in the daily and weekly rhythm. The Civic Center Commons initiative activates Civic Center’s public realm with free music, art, and activities. This study did not occur during a planned event.

The Opera

Small protest or vigil

Farmers’ Market

Wedding

PSPL Survey Measured everyday and weekly activities, as well as some monthly events

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

Peoplewatching at lunch

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Background + Context

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nter Civic Ce Plaza

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

oin Tenderl

IN

Gehl — Making Cities for People

L FRANK

“The Commons” is used throughout this document to refer to the three public spaces that make up Civic Center’s grand axis.

GOUGH

The Public Space and Public Life survey looked at the entire Civic Center District, which borders neighboring Hayes Valley, SoMa, Mid-market, Tenderloin, and Little Saigon neighborhoods. Findings and recommendations focus on five areas and the streets that connect them.

TURK

VAN NE

Defining Civic Center

LARKIN

trict s i D r e t n Civic Ce

aigon S e l t t i L

a UN Plaz

Study Focus Areas Civic Center Commons “The Commons”

FELL

19


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KE S BI HU CK

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4B

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PLAZA

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EA TE

TH AC T R EA TE TH

#A

Pedestrian Age and Gender Counts

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#A

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Pedestrian + Bike Counts

TC OM

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Stationary Stationary Mapping Mapping / Age Gender Age and+Gender

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HI W L HO TE

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Pedestrian Pedestrian + Bike+ Counts Counts

Plan Area

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locations were selected to capture the 1C ebb and flow of the public life of Civic Center, focused around its central public spaces.

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Survey Locations

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1D The Public Life survey count

LISTER

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VAN NE

Background + Context

GATE

L SCHOO

#A

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9t

Pedestrian Age Pedestrian Age and Gender Counts + Gender Counts

HAYES FELL Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

TE TW IT

OUND PLAYGR

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Plan Plan AreaArea

and Public Space analysis focus area 20


Background + Context

Survey Methods Age and Gender Measuring people moving + spending time

Age & Gender (Pedestrians, 10 minutes) Surveyor #7

NAME:

DATE:

LOCATION:

TIME:

HOUR 4 AGE

MALE

FEMALE

0-4

Total

4-14

Total

strollers

kids

15-19

Total

teens high schoolers

Total

7B

20-29

Total

Total

30-64

Total

Total

65+

Total

Total

college young adults

adults

seniors

PROCEDURE:

Count pedestrians moving across the indicated line, noting age and gender for 100 people or 10 minutes, whichever comes first.

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Background + Context

Survey Methods People Moving Volumes of people walking and cycling

Pedestrian and Cyclist Counts (10 min each)

DATE:

NAME:

TIME:

LOCATION C

HOUR 1

HOUR 2

PEDESTRIANS

Total

CYCLISTS

Total Wheelchair

Stroller

HOUR 3

CYCLISTS

Total Stroller

HOUR 1

Total Stroller

HOUR 2 Total

CYCLISTS

Total Stroller

Total Total Wheelchair

HOUR 3

Stroller

HOUR 4

PEDESTRIANS

Total

CYCLISTS

Total

PROCEDURE:

3C

Total

Wheelchair

PEDESTRIANS

Wheelchair

Stroller

HOUR 4 Total

Wheelchair

Total Wheelchair

PEDESTRIANS

Wheelchair

Total

Stroller

Total Total Wheelchair

Stroller

Count pedestrians and cyclists moving across the indicated line for 10 minutes each

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Mark Jaywalkers with a line on the map

If there are obstructions, adjust the location of your line as necessary to maintain a clear sightline from end to end.

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Background + Context

Survey Methods People Spending Time Body posture, activity, age, gender of people spending time Stationary Activity and Age and Gender Mapping

DATE:

NAME:

TIME:

RE CR EA OT TIO CA N MP IN G) E /C G UL FO TU R CO R TR AL MM AN ER SIT CE CIV (“I” IC IN WO FO RM RK AC AL CO ) MP AN IE HA D BY RD PE DR T(S UG IN ) S TO XIC AT ED CA /A MP GG IN RE G OU SS PA IVE T/ NH SL AN EE DL PIN IN G G NC

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NOTES

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 TOTALS: Walk through the area indicated in red above to capture a PROCEDURE: snapshot of the stationary activities and age / gender of the people present in the public space.

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Mark exact locations of people on the map using a number for each, starting with 1

For each person, quickly ‘X’ the box that fits best in each category (age, gender, posture, activities)

If you reach 30, continue on to a new sheet and begin where you left off, starting with 1 again

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Background + Context

Standing

Lying

Sitting - Improvised

Sitting - Public

Survey Methods People Spending Time Measuring how the space invites different body postures

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Eating / Drinking

Background + Context

Exercise / Play / Recreation

Cultural / Performance Including music, dance, weddings, celebration

Survey Methods People Spending Time Measuring how the space invites different activities

Waiting for Transit

Commerce

Civic Work Including police, maintenance, and stewards

Accompanied by Pets

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

Political / Religious Activity

Smoking

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Sleeping

Background + Context

Measuring how the space invites activities like sleeping, drug use, and encampments

Sleeping can be positive, but it can also be a manifestation of larger societal issues.

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Aggressive

Panhandling

Shouting, confrontation, or other aggressive behavior

Asking for money or donations

Encamped

Hard Drugs / Intoxicated

Accompanied by numerous personal belongings

Actively using drugs, or clearly incapacitated by them

Working with SF Planning, Gehl created activity categories to capture less socially acceptable and illicit behaviors that are part of the area’s public life profile. These activities were measured as a way of creating a common understanding of where, when, and how often these activities take place in the space. Activity categories were standardized for ease of comparison, but do not capture all nuanced behavior observed in the spaces.

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Background + Context

Survey Methods Intercept Survey Asking questions about sentiment, habits of use, demographics, and other elements not captured with observation. The Intercept Survey was taken by 419 people, from a total of 966 people who were approached.

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Background + Context

Survey Methods Public Space Analysis To understand the relationship between public life and public space we performed the following analysis: • 12 Urban Quality Criteria analysis • Facade Quality Analysis • Land use Analysis • Neighborhood Amenity Mapping • Public Space Amenity Mapping • Test walks

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Key Findings for Public Space Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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1

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center is a  powerful symbol of San Francisco

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Key Findings

Striking architecture makes Civic Center a successful San Francisco Icon Civic Center, like the Ferry Building, Twin Peaks, Lombard Street, Golden Gate Bridge, and other destinations, are central associations with the image of San Francisco.

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Key Findings

all ity H nC ge

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Civic Center is among the great squares and civic spaces of the world, including: the Campo de Sienna in Italy, Trafalger Square in London, Rittenhouse Square in Philadelphia, Place de la République and Place des Voges in Paris, Copenhagen’s City Hall Plaza, Bryant Park in New York, and the Zócalo in Mexico City. Our Civic Center’s iconic buildings deserve an iconic public realm.

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Key Findings

With a public life profile centered around the seasons of life Civic Center hosts all rhythms of civic, public, and private life: weddings, war memorial, world-class arts, daily civic and neighborhood business, moments of civic togetherness and civic unrest. People move to San Francisco to celebrate the dignity and diversity of human life. It is the place where the passions of our city are manifested in public space.

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Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Key Findings

2

Gehl — Making Cities for People

There’s no  Center in Civic Center

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Key Findings

Convenience or Liquor Store

FO OD

Bar

ERVING RETAIL S D HOO R BO H G I NE

Restaurant or Café

Book Store

Grocery Store Cultural Arts Facility

Sidewalk /Outdoor Dining

Movie Theater

Community or Recreation Center

Community or Artist Workshops

Shared Workplaces

Hair Care

Public Library

Museum

Live Music Venue

Bank

Laundry or Dry Cleaner

Health Club

Playground <12 yrs Social Services Center

Clothing Store Pharmacy

Government Office that serves Public On-Site

Sports Field / Active Rec.

Child Care

Hardware Store

Other Retail

ES LITI ACI EF UR LT CU

&

BE

Coffee

Bakery

AR T

Food Store with Produce

&

Ephemeral events and programming add life intermittently, but are the everyday activities of a neighborhood district supported by permanent amenities?

Farmers’ Market

GE A R VE

S

Civic Center has many elements of a complete neighborhood...

GROCERY

Family Entertainment Venue Medical Clinic

Adult or Senior Care

Religious Facility Educational Facility Post Office

Police or Fire Station

S E I T ILI C A YF T I UN CIVIC & COMM Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Key Findings

...But they are clustered on the periphery

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Civic Center has most of the amenities of a complete neighborhood - but they are clustered on the periphery.

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Many of the opening hours of these amenities cater strictly to office workers, not neighborhood patrons or visitors.

Arts & Culture Facilities

Civic & Community Facilities

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Neighborhood Serving Retail

Food & Beverage

Book Store

Social Services Center

Hair Care

Coffee

Grocery Store

Live Music Venue

Adult or Senior Care

Health Club

Bar

Movie Theater

Child Care

Bank

Bakery

Cultural Arts Facility

Educational Facility

Laundry or Dry Cleaner

Restaurant or Café

Museum

Religious Facility

Clothing Store

Government Office that serves Public On-Site

Pharmacy

Post Office

Hardware Store

Police or Fire Station

Other Retail

TH

10

Convenience or Liquor Store

. ST

Medical Clinic

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017 Sports

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Key Findings

Large Institutions at the core of Civic Center.

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Civic Center is dominated by institutional uses

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IT

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Mixed Residential Residential Medical Production / Distribution / Repair Management / Information / Professional Services Visitor

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Vacant

37


Key Findings

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. POLK ST

S AVE. VAN NES

HOUSE

FRANK

LIN ST.

ST.

GOUGH

. ST

L

CITY HAL

OPERA

. ST

M

E

THEATR

. ASH ST

FULTON

ET

K AR

H

HERBST

ST.

R

GARAGE

T MUSE ASIAN AR

FULTON

A

N

IN

. ST

M

ONY

PH SF SYM

HAYES

A

ST.

OM AT

LB Y

The pedestrian experience in Civic Center is defined by long, inactive façades with few openings and very little transparency. Vibrant and active façades are only experienced at the periphery.

HU

OF CA

MCALL

D ST. REDWOO

NK

BA VACANT

BE R

E. GATE AV

LEAVEN

GOLDEN

CHURCH

CK LE

. ELM ST

ST. JONES

ST. WORTH

SCHOOL

7T

Monofunction buildings create a dull core

Facade Quality

N

DO

IVY ST.

. ST

D

AR OW

. ST

H

R

H

BL DG

THEATE

9T

TE R

. ST

NOURSE

TW

IT

OUND PLAYGR

SF JAZZ

E

. ST

N

H

T 10

EM

A

I SS JE

. ST

Vibrant

• Small units with many doors • High transparency • No vacant or passive units • Lots of character • Good articulation, materials and details Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Active

• Relatively small units • Some transparency • Few passive units • Some articulation and detail

Dull

• Large units with few doors • Low transparency • Some Passive Units • Few or no details

Inactive

• Large units with few doors • Very little or no transparency • Uniform facades with no details or nothing to look at • Parking or vacant lot 38


Key Findings

Key Findings

Ground floors within the Civic Center District Facade Quality Ranking:

Vibrant

Active

Dull

Inactive

• Small units with many doors • High transparency • No vacant or passive units • Lots of character • Good articulation, materials and details

• Large units with few doors • Low transparency • Some Passive Units • Few or no details Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

• Relatively small units • Some transparency • Few passive units • Some articulation and detail

• Large units with few doors • Very little or no transparency • Uniform facades with no details or nothing to look at • Parking or vacant lot

39


3

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

The civic axis  is broken

Civic Center PSPL 2017

40


Key Findings

Strong visual axis

Dull public realm

773

m) 1143 (4p

(8am)

(12pm) City Hall

2,616 Hyde St .

Ave.

Civic Center PSPL 2017

t. Larkin S

t Polk S

ss Van Ne

Weekday peak hour pedestrian and traffic counts Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

m) 1,152 (1p

m) 1,554 (5p

St re e

t

n/a

m) 1430 (8a

M ar ke t

The strong visual axis from Market Street to City Hall is disconnected by high-traffic streets and a dull public realm.

More people than cars cross Polk Street at Peak 41


Key Findings

4

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Fragmented  stewardship and governance

Civic Center PSPL 2017

42


Key Findings

Disconnected public realm is mirrored in jurisdictional boundaries Many jurisdictional boundaries overlap in Civic Centerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s iconic public spaces. Split by two police districts, two business improvement districts, and other management and programming entities, the only entity that encompasses all of The Commons is the Downtown Streets Team.

ors bassad m A A I OCE

Judicial Council

D nter CB e C ic v i C

D loin CB Tender General Services Admin Asian Art Museum

orks ublic W P f o . t p De arks n and P io t a e r c Re City Hall

SHN SF Library

orthern SFPD N

nderloin SFPD Te

Bill Graham

Map of stewardship boundaries

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

wn Downto Streets Team

*All public streets under maintenance supervision of Public Works 43 unless noted otherwise


Key Findings

5

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Look but don’t touch:  the space is unfriendly to the human scale

Civic Center PSPL 2017

44


Key Findings

12 Urban Quality Criteria in Civic Center

Missing the basics The 12 Urban Quality Criteria are a way to discuss a hierarchy of needs in a space. Without basic protection from cars, noise, rain, and wind, people will avoid spending time in a space. Without elements that make walking, standing, sitting, seeing, and conversing comfortable, a place won’t invite people to spend time there. Finally, a great place distinguishes itself by including elements that invite people to be active and make use of the positive aspects of microclimate and human scale. This assessment is a snapshot in time based on existing conditions. While improvements are on the way, some fundamental challenges exist. Scale

Poor Gehl — Making Cities for People

Protection Protection against traffic & crashes — feeling safe

Protection against crime & violence — feeling secure

Protection against unpleasant sensory experiences

Opportunities to walk/cycle

Opportunities to stop & stay

Opportunities to sit

Comfort

movable tables + chairs not present during study

Opportunities to see

Opportunities for play & exercise Playgrounds not open during study

Enjoyment Dimensioned at human scale

Fair

Opportunities to talk & listen

Opportunities to enjoy the positive aspects of climate

Aesthetic qualities + positive sensory experience

Good

Civic Center PSPL 2017

45


Key Findings

Civic Center We analyzed the Civic Center district as a whole according to the 12 Urban Quality Criteria. Qualities of seeing and looking are strong in Civic Center, as is aesthetic beauty. But it is falling short on fundamental qualities that make a space inviting for people.

Protection

Comfort

Enjoyment

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

46


Key Findings

Great view, but not safe to stand in the street

Protection Without basic protection from cars, noise, rain, and wind, people will avoid spending time in a space. Protection from these things is mandatory for a place to be used.

Protection against traffic & crashes — feeling safe

Protection against crime & violence — feeling secure

Fair

Poor

Some places are very protected

Protection against unpleasant sensory experiences

Poor

I’ve heard of a bulb-out but never a bulb-in...

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

47


Key Findings

Comfort Without elements that make walking, standing, sitting, seeing, and conversing comfortable, a place does not invite people to spend time there.

Opportunities to walk/cycle

Opportunities to stop & stay

Good

Poor

Opportunities to see

Opportunities to talk & listen

Good

Poor

Opportunities to sit

Poor

Opportunities for play & exercise

Fair Playgrounds were under construction during this study. Assessment based on interim design

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

48


Key Findings

Brr Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m happy to be in the sun! I just got married..but where do I go now?

Enjoyment A great place distinguishes itself from a good place by including elements that invite people to be active and make use of the positive aspects of microclimate and human scale.

Dimensioned at human scale

Opportunities to enjoy the positive aspects of climate

Aesthetic qualities + positive sensory experience

Poor

Poor

Good The Asian Art Museum is beautiful, but people are walled off from Fulton Street

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Beautiful architecture and art is one of the reasons people come to Civic Center

49


Key Findings

Little to delight the 5 senses Successful public spaces appeal to all the senses - not only the delight of beautiful architecture, but also touch, smell, and taste. At the time of this survey, there were few positive invitations to delight the senses in Civic Centerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 730,000 square feet of public open space. The Civic Center Commons Initiative is making things better. Movable tables and chairs, a permanent kiosk, and two new world-class playgrounds are a step in the right direction, but there is still much to do.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

00 3 3 410 Drinking Fountains

Wayfinding

Chairs/benches movable tables + chairs not present during study

Restrooms

Play Areas

Public Art

50


Key Findings

Public Space 25 ft (7.6m)

Scale comparisons

Social Space 12 ft (3.6m)

Personal Space

Humans feel more safe when we can recognize other people and their emotions. The following scale comparisons demonstrate public space designs that function both as a civic gathering place as well as a place that honors the human scale.

4 ft (1.2m)

Intimate Space 1.5 ft (.45 m)

25 ft (7.6m)

65 ft (20m)

Public distance, Reckognizing faces & emotions

Recognising individuals & one-way communication

Social Distance

12 ft (3.6m)

Social distance, Contact & interacting

Recognizing emotions, potential for interaction

4 ft (1.2m)

Personal distance, Talking

1.5 ft (.45m)

Intimate distance, Strong impressions

Intimate Distance Personal Distance

Public Distance

Recognizing individuals and activities

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

51


Center Key Findings

Civic Center

Superior Court

Supreme Court of CA

Mcallister St.

Asian Art Museum Herbst Theatre

Fulton St.

City Hall

et rk

.

St

Sf Public Library

Hyde St.

Larkin St.

Opera House

Polk St.

Van Ness Ave.

Ma

Grove St.

Bill Graham Auditorium

SF Symphony

and Str No

rth

um

be

rla

nd

Av e

Bryant Park

Charing Cross Rd

ll

Whitehall

100ft

Coc

ksp u

rS

t

a Pall M

Traf Squaalgar re

Trafalgar Square

Civic Plaz Center ai than s bigger the w some o f o succ rld’s mo essfu s l larg t publ e ic sp aces

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

0

100

500 ft

52


Center Key Findings

Civic Center

Superior Court

Supreme Court of CA

Mcallister St.

Asian Art Museum Herbst Theatre

Fulton St.

City Hall

et rk

.

St

Sf Public Library

Hyde St.

Larkin St.

Polk St.

Opera House

Van Ness Ave.

Ma

Grove St.

Bill Graham Auditorium

SF Symphony

Bryant Park

100ft

Traf Squaalgar re

Trafalgar Square

Larg bord e featu e r scale red by h es uma elem sens e nts a ne of e nd a nclos thes u e sl re spac ightly sm make es su cces aller sful

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

0

100

500 ft

53


Key Findings

Civic Center Plaza

Vast open spaces that lack hierarchy and enclosure

Bryant Park

A primary open space framed by a strong axis and human-scale “rooms”

Green Water Decomposed Granite Monument Kiosk Seating / Furnishings Secondary Seating

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

54


Key Findings

Bryant Park

Big trees provide comfortable enclosure

This space struggled with issues like drug use that currently challenge Civic Center. Through design, programming, and a robust financing model, Bryant Park is now a beloved place. It succeeds in hosting a wide variety of activities, from movie nights to a cafe to a lending library to games, by subdividing the exterior of the park into humanscale rooms, framing a central lawn.

The edges are prime real estate

Furnishings make this lawn inviting

Branded furnishings

Monuments and trees make great company

This is a great place for a lunch break

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

55


Key Findings

6

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

The limited ability of  the Beaux-Arts plan to support public life has been eroded over time

Civic Center PSPL 2017

56


Key Findings

The Beaux-Arts plan is focused around grand architecture, large public spaces, and clustering institutional uses. This squeezes out the life of the city by limiting active building edges, everyday retail and commerce, and informal cultural uses.

1942*

1960 plan*

1938 aerial*

*source: Civic Center Historic District Cultural Landscape Inventory, 2014

Today

Over time, even human-scale elements of this design such as planting, seating, water features and monuments have been removed, creating a public realm that only invites people to pass through, except during large, infrequent events.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Open space + building footprints in Civic 57 Center highlights large public spaces


Key Findings

Public Space Key Findings 1  2

3  4

Civic Center is a powerful symbol of San Francisco

The civic axis is broken

Gehl — Making Cities for People

There’s no center in Civic Center

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Fragmented stewardship and governance

5

6

Look but don’t touch: the space is unfriendly to the human scale

The limited ability of the BeauxArts plan to support public life has been eroded over time

58


Key Findings for Public Life Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

59


Key Findings

1

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Lots of people  are moving through Civic Center

Civic Center PSPL 2017

60


Key Findings

In 2016 there were: 15,120

268,800

14,148

269,261

44,240

1.7 million

weddings at City Hall

people on City Hall tours

people living in the district

people visiting Davies Symphony Hall

people visiting the Opera House

visiting the Main Library

850,000

people celebrating PRIDE (600-850k estimated over 2 days)

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

61


Key Findings

Special-event activation Dozens of permits are distributed each year that include large special events that program the entire space like SF Pride, and small events that activate Civic Center Plaza three times a week during a season like America Scores Soccer and food trucks.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

62


Chapter Key Findings â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Where are we

There are some outstanding peaks

Wednesday, June 7 Pedestrians Hourly Average: 2,959

4,000 people per hour at evening rush hour!

5000

4500

4000

The Heart of the City Farmers Market in UN Plaza is one of the largest in the city.

3500

3000

Market Day

2500

2000

1500

1000

Typical Wednesday

500

0 8a

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

63


Key Findings

The existing public life makes for some of the best peoplewatching in San Francisco.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

64


Key Findings

Still, overall numbers of people moving are relatively low

Average Pedestrians Moving per Hour Average Pedestrians Moving per Hour 9000

9000

9500

5972

(avg/hr)

9500

8000

Fisherman’s Wharf Fisherman’s Wharf

8000

5972(avg/hr) Fisherman’s Fisherman’s Wharf Wharf Summer Weekend

7500

7500

7000

1621

(avg/hr)

Rittenhouse 1621 Sq (avg/hr) Rittenhouse Sq Philadelphia

7000

6500

6500

6000

Fall Weekend

6000

5500

Summer Weekend

1565

5500

(avg/hr)

Philadelphia Fall Weekend

1565

Swanston St Swanston St Melbourne (avg/hr)

5000

5000

Summer Weekend

4500

4500

4000

4000

713

(avg/hr)

3500

Weekend

3000

2500

619

(avg/hr)

2000

1500

1000

500

8a

9a 0

Swanston St

Rittenhouse Sq Rittenhouse Sq Patricia’s Green CC at Hyde/Hamilton Crowd - avg 734 Patricia’s Green CC at Hyde/Hamilton Crowd - avg 734 Market St CC Plaza at Larkin - avg 428 Market St CC Plaza at Larkin - avg 428 Civic Center Average Civic Center Average

1000

0

619

(avg/hr)

Swanston St

1500

Spring Weekend

Market St Market St

2000

500

Civic Center PSPL 2017

713

(avg/hr)

2500

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Summer Weekend

Patricia’s Green Patricia’s Green Spring

3500

3000

Average Pedestrians Moving per Hour on the Weekend

Melbourne

10a 8a

11a 12p 1p 9a 10a 11a

12p

2p

1p

3p

2p

4p

3p

5p

4p

6p

5p

7p

(@ Polk) Spring Weekend

285 285 Civic Center Civic Center (avg/hr)

(avg/hr)

Summer Weekend

6p

7p

(@ Polk) Spring Weekend

Summer Weekend

65


Chapter Key Findings — Where are we

A normal weekday is busier than a ‘busy’ weekend This pattern of public life tells us that people don’t choose to come here in their free time.

Average Pedestrian Counts 1000

Market

800

Weekday Busy Weekday

Wed, June 7 - Busy

600

Concert + Prom

Thurs, 25 - Quiet Weekday Slow May

Weekend

400

Weekend Busy Sat, June 10 - Busy Weekend Slow Sat, May 27 - Quiet

200

0 8a

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Average number of people walking on a street in the Civic Center District, by hour

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

66


Key Findings

2

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Peaks in activity  do not generate ‘spillover’ impacts

Civic Center PSPL 2017

67


Key Findings

Total Daily Stationary Activities by Space

There are lots of people coming to the market - but they don’t explore or stay longer

Memorial Court City Hall Civic Center Plaza Fulton Street UN Plaza

In a connected public realm network we might expect to see all public spaces in the District following a similar pattern of activity. In Civic Center, events do not tend to spill over into adjacent spaces.

6/7/2017 Total Staying Activities by Space

Total Stationary Activities

Busy Weekday Busy Weekday 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Farmers’ Market

Civic Center Plaza

8a

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

If there were spillover effects, Fulton Street, Memorial Court and Civic Center Plaza would see a corresponding increase in public life.

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

Memorial Ct. City Hall

2p

3p

4p

5p

UN Plaza Fulton Street

6p

7p

68


Key Findings

Civic Center Plaza is mostly used as a OF space CA COURT SUPREME for exercise/recreation, eating, drinking

Activity clusters near City SUPERIOR COURTHall steps

MCALLISTER Civic WorkST.

Stationary activity mapping Date: 06-07-2017 Time: 12:00pm Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

VA

Few people spend time on Leavenworth Street

Civic Work

GARAGE

Eating/Drinking

ASIAN ART MUSEUM

Eating/Drinking

Commerce

Commerce

Sleeping

Sleeping

Cultural/Performance

Cultural/Performance Waiting for Transport

FULTON ST.

Waiting for Transport Political/Religious Advocacy Political/Religious Advocacy Passive Recreation Passive Recreation

Accompanied by Pets

Accompanied by Pets Smoking Smoking

SF PUBLIC LIBRARY

MA

R

E AT

T AC

E TH

Intoxicated & encamped ST. people around the SON EN UN Plaza fountain EV T S

Hard Drugs/Intoxicated

catedEncamped Hard ST. GROVEDrugs/Intoxi Encamped

. ST T E

RK

ORPHEUM THEATER

HYDE ST.

POLK ST.

Spaces with seating, shade, active ground floors and entrances, interesting buildings, and other humanscaled elements invite more people to spend time, such as near Asian Art Museum entrance.

UC HASTINGS

People cluster by active entrances & use any seating, especially seat walls

Exercise/Play/ Recreation

Exercise/Play/ Recreation

CITY HALL

Even during big, regular events like the Farmers Market, activity in one space does not flow to adjacent spaces.

LEAVENWORTH ST.

REDWOOD ST.

LARKIN ST.

Spaces do not function as one

Huge concentrations of people at UN Plaza (farmers market), but activity is interrupted by Hyde Street

One dot = One person

Slightly more encamped people person One dot = One

on the South side, many of these people were also eating/drinking BILL GRAHAM AUDITORIUM

Activities One dot = One person Civic Work Exercise/Play/ Recreation

B

OM ITC

One dot = One person Civic Work ing Eating/Drinky/ Exercise/Pla Recreation Commerce Sleeping

Eating/Drinking

WH EL T Cultural/Performance HO

Recreation Passive Cultural/Per Commerce formance Waiting for Transport

Passive Recreation

Hard Drugs/Intoxicated

catedEncamped HarddDrugs/Intoxi by Pets Accompanie

Accompanie for Transport Political/Rel Waiting igiousd by Pets Smoking Encamped Sleeping Advocacy Political/Religious Smoking Advocacy

69


SUPREME COURT OF CA

SUPERIOR COURT Key Findings

MCALLISTER ST.

Findings • Latent desire for diagonal movement across Civic Center Plaza • Given East/West configuration of the Plaza there is a surprising amount of North/ South movement and diagonal movement that is not supported by the current HALLdesign. CITY • Jaywalking across Larkin Street

LARKIN ST.

FULTON ST.

POLK ST.

Pedestrian movement tracing Date: 05-26-2017 Time: Morning commute - 6:00am - 10:00am Observed via timelapse camera mounted on City Hall dome with narrow view.

ASIAN ART MUSEUM

GARAGE

Pedestrian Tracing

Tracing view-shed SF PUBLIC

LIBRARY

GROVE ST. Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

70


Key Findings

A City Hall wedding is an SF tradition!

Happy wedding!

City Hall steps are doing double-duty.

Happy Graduation!

Each year there are over 15,000 weddings that take place at City Hall - That’s about 41 every day! ...But this generates little activity in Civic Center Plaza

Fighting traffic in my wedding gown isn’t exactly what I pictured

Not many photo-ops in Civic Center Plaza!

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

71


Key Findings

3

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Few people choose to  spend time in Civic Center

Civic Center PSPL 2017

72


Key Findings

685

Overall stationary activity numbers are relatively low 700

685

700

650

650

600

600

550

550

490

500

490

500

450 450

400

685(avg/hr)

400

350

250

250

490(avg/hr) Trafalfar Sq

200

200

London Summer Weekday

150

150

100

100

49

50

Average People Staying per Hour on a 0Weekday Civic Center

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Summer Weekday

300

300

50

Fisherman’s Wharf

350

49(avg/hr) Civic Center

49

Summer Weekday

0 Trafalgar Sq Fisherman’s Wharf

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Civic Center

Trafalgar Sq Fisherman’s Wharf

73


67%

Chapter Key Findings â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Where are we

of people were standing

When there are few places to sit, people can only stand, or they do not come at all. Healthy pubic spaces allow approximately 50% of all people spending time to sit. If there were more generous invitations to spend time, would more people spend time in Civic Center?

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

22% of people were sitting on an improvised seat

74


LEAVENWORTH ST.

REDWOOD Key Findings

ST. UC HASTINGS

SUPREME COURT OF CA There is no seating here, so people sit or lie on the ground

SUPERIOR COURT

When seating is provided, people use it - the seatwalls are well-used around the Asian Art Museum

MCALLISTER ST.

V

CITY HALL

GARAGE

ASIAN ART MUSEUM

FULTON ST.

T. S T

R

SF PUBLIC LIBRARY

H

TT C A

M

ORPHEUM THEATER

HYDE ST.

POLK ST.

LARKIN ST.

E

K AR

N

BILL GRAHAM AUDITORIUM

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

O NS

. ST

VE

E ST

GROVE ST.

People sit on seats when they are provided

TE EA

Most people in Civic Center are standing. They sit wherever there is an invitation - like on the seatwalls around the Asian Art Museum and Library. Movable tables + chairs not present during study. Stationary activity mapping Date: 06-07-2017 Time: 12:00pm

MB

O TC

HI

LW

TE O H

Postures Standing Sitting - Improvised Sitting - Private/Cafe Sitting - Public Seating Lying One dot = One person

75


Key Findings

An ode to improvised seating Improvised seating is part of the delight of city life - finding your own space within a space is part of a human-scaled city. However, when informal seating is the only available seating option many people - especially older people - will not choose to come to this space. Civic Center has a lot of improvised sitting - how can we make more formal invitations to spend time?

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

76


20%

38% Key Findings

34%

Rarely (once per year or less)

5 min.

First time here

Bike

13% 48%

Walking through

Taxi / Rideshare

5%

36% of people are just passing through

8%

11% 14%

scribes your relationship to Civic Center

What brings you to the space today? 25%

What Brings you to this space today? Just passing through (skip to #5)

Neighbor/Resident

Sightseeing

Neighbor/Resident, Employee

Employee (of nearby institution/business) Attendee (cultural event or institution) Tourist

Cultural Event/Performance

7%

Neighbor/Resident, Attendee

Shopping/Market

3% 3%

36%

5%

Spending time by myself Recreation/Sports/Exercise

6%

Walking my pet

Student (of nearby school) Other

8%

Spending time with my family 8% 8%

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Meeting up with friends

*Intercept Survey

11%

Political Event/Protest Multiple

If just passing through, are you headed anywhere in particular?

77


Key Findings

Few people choose to stay Civic Center has relatively few people moving through the space compared to similar sites. Compounding this emptiness, only a small fraction of those moving through decided to stop and stay. “Stickiness” is a measure of how many people are spending time in a space, compared to who is moving through. A “sticky” space that encourages people to spend time often has a healthy public life profile.

Out of 44 people moving through Civic Center, only 1 stays. Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

78


S” STICKINESS” of Civic Center of Civic - Center Key Findings

SLOW WEEKEND SLOW DAY -WEEKEND SAT. 6/10/2017 DAY - SAT. 6/10/2017 1:30 1:30

WEEKDAY SLOW - 5/25/2017 WEEKDAY - 5/25/2017 1:58

‘Stickiness’ compared

WEEKLY AVG. 1:44

WEEKDAY BUSY - WED. WEEKDAY 6/7/17 - WED. 6/7/17 1:52

COMPARISON -COMPARISON DENVER 16TH- DENVER STREET WEEKEND 16TH STREET WEEKEND Civic Center Weekdays Civic Center Weekends 1:36 1:36 — WEEKDAY AVG. WEEKDAY AVG. WEEKLY AVG. WEEKEND — AVG. WEEKEND AVG. NYC TIMES SQUARE NYC TIME Out of every 55 passers Out of every 28 passers 1:5 by, 1:55 1:55 by, 1:44 1:28 1:28 1:5

1 stays

1 stays

COMPARISON -COMPARISON DENVER 16TH- DENVER STREET WEEKDAY 16TH STREET WEEKDAY 1:125 1:125

Civic Center holds the potential to be the vibrant heart of San Francisco it was envisioned to be. In order to support WEEKEND BUSY DAYWEEKEND - SAT. 5/27/2017 DAY - SAT. 5/27/2017 1:26 the type of public life found in other vibrant spaces, the area will need many more invitations for people to stay.

COMPARISON -COMPARISON NYC TIMES SQUARE - NYC TIMES SQUARE 1:5 1:5

WEEKEND SLOW DAYWEEKEND - SAT. 6/10/2017 DAY - SAT. 6/10/2017 1:30

WEEKLY AVG. 1:44

WEEKDAY AVG.WEEKDAY AVG. 1:55 1:55

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

In Times Square, NY On Swanston Street, Melbourne — NYC TIMES SQUARE — MELBOURNE WEEKEND AVG.WEEKEND AVG. NYC TIMES SQUARE MELBOURNE SWANSON ST. SWANSON ST. Out of every 5 passers by, Out of every 4 passers by, 1:28 1:28 1:5 1:5 1:4 1:4 1 stays 1 stays

79


Key Findings

Civic Center Civic+/Center 4 per 10k +/-~4 sf4per sf Civic Center per10k 10ksf

Civic Center Civic 1000 Center per 10k 1000 sfper 10k sf 10k Patricia’s Patricia’s Green +/Green 18 per +/10k 18 sfper Patricia’s Green ~ 18 per 10ksf

TrafalgarTrafalgar Square Trafalgar +/Square 39 per+/10k39sf 10k10ksf sf Square ~ per 39 per

Pier 39 Pier 88per 39per10ksf +/10k88sfper 10k sf Pier 39+/~ 88

On a non-event day, Civic Center feels empty, compared to places around the People per 10,000sf corner and around the world Scale comparison: two basketball courts 100’

sf

Patricia’s Patricia’s Green +/Green 18 per+/10k18sfper 10k sf

100’

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

80


Key Findings

Average Weekday

The design works well a few times per year

Patricia’s Green +/- 18 per 10k sf

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

~ 4 per 10ksf

Civic Center +/- 4 per 10k sf

Major Civic Event ~ 1,000 per 10ksf *

Civic Center 1000 per 10k sf +/- 18 per 10k Patricia’s Green

100’

100’

Trafalgar Square +/- 39 per 10k sf

* estimate of density

Pier 39 +/- 88 per 10k sf

81


Key Findings

The design works well a few times per year

Watching the Warriors in Civic Center

â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and when actively programmed

Soccer in Civic Center

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

82


Key Findings

4

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Each space  in Civic Center has a unique public life heartbeat

Civic Center PSPL 2017

83


Key Findings

Each space has a unique public life heartbeat. Method for analysis: To analyze the profile of people spending time in each major space within the Civic Center District, we averaged public life volumes each hour from 8am to 8pm over four survey days, and then normalized them by square foot to arrive at activities per square foot for each hour of the survey.

Memorial Court

City Hall Fulton Street

UN Plaza

Civic Center Plaza Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

84


Key Findings

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

City Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Van Ness between McAllister and Grove is a major transportation corridor, 10a 11a and 12pmost1ppublic 2plife happening 3p 4p here 5p 6p throughout the day is people waiting City Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked for transit. The sidewalk in front of the Opera and Herbst Theater is periodically bustling with concert and special-event goers, but they 10a 11a 12p 1p 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t host much activity when the are Memorial vic Center Plaza Average stages Hourly Activities Per dark. 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Court is little-used - neither for memorial activities nor for other activities.

7p

7p

Seating 12p 1p 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p Provided: 10 seats at bus stops Civic Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Demand: 21 people waiting at bus stops at 4pm weekday peak, on average 10a

10a

11a

11a

12p

1p

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

2p

3p

4p

Civic Center PSPL 2017

5p

6p

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Fulton Street Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

10 9 8 7 8a 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

7p

2.5 people 9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

Spending time per feet7p 5p 10,000 square 6p

4p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

8a

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Memorial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

10 5 9 8 4 7 8a 6 3 5 4 2 3 2 1 1 0

9a

5 4 3 2 1

10a

11a

12p

Hourly avg. 2.5 people per 10,000SF

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Transit Rules!

Hourly avg. 32 people in Memorial Ct.

*a small percentage of people registered multiple activities

8a

7p

le per 10,000 Square Feet

West Side of Van Ness + Memorial Court

Memorial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet Peopleper per10,000 10,000Square SquareFeet Feet People People per 10,000 Square Feet

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

9a

10a

Eating/Drinking

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

City Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Waiting for Transport

Commerce

Civic Work

Accompanied by Pets

Political/Religious Advocacy

Other Activities (drug use, encampments, sleeping, aggressive behavior)

Passive - Sitting or Standing

6p

7p

32 people spending time per hour, on average

Hourly avg. 2.6 people per 10,000SF Hourly avg. 28 people in City Hall Area

Eating/Drinking

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Waiting for Transport

Commerce

Civic Work

85


Key Findings

West Side of Van Ness + Memorial Court Key Takeaways • Area used most regularly by bus riders • Seating insufficient for peak demand • Memorial Court is little-used Design Challenge • Enhance transit stops by providing transit- and city-provided seating incorporated into a high-quality public realm - leverage Van Ness Bus Rapid Transit • Test new uses in Memorial Court by adding seating and programming.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

86


City Hall

Memorial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

The steps of2pCity Hall are4pone of5pthe most 0a 11a 12p 1p 3p 6p successful places in the Civic Center City Hall Average Hourly Activities Perbut 10,000this Square Feet, Stacked mostly dissipates district, energy at Polk Street. At the same time, despite being designed to be primarily decorative, the grassy edges of City Hall, 10a 11a 12p 1p 2p 3p 5p 6p ringed with seat-walls, are 4p very well used by dog-walkers in the morning, City Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked commuters at all hours, for lunch in the sunny areas in the afternoon, as spillover areas for people doing business, and activities around 0a 11a 12p 1p 2p for civic 3p 4p 5p 6p the east-facing entrance of City Hall. c Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked The north edge is used occasionally by children making use of the playground, and on the south edge for smokers and people loading and unloading. 10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

7p

7p

7p

6p

7p

People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet People per per 10,000 10,000 Square Square Feet Feet People per 10,000 Square People People per 10,000 Square FeetFeet

Key Findings

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 5 3 10 2 9 8 1 4 0 7 6 3 8a 5 4 2 10 3 2 9 1 8 1 7 0

8a 6 5 4 3 10 5 2 9 8 1 4 0 7 6 8a 3 5 4 2 3 2 1 1 0 8a

Civic Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

11a

12p

1p

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

2p

3p

4p

Civic Center PSPL 2017

2.6 people 9a

10a

11a

12p

Hourly avg. 2.5 people per 10,000SF

1p

2p

3p

Spending time per 5p 10,0006psquare feet 7p

4p

Un in Plaza Average Hourly avg. 32 people Memorial Ct.Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

5p

6p

7p

5 4

6p

7p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked City Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Prom

9aavg. 2.6 10a 11a Hourly people per 10,000SF

12p

Mid-day 1p Weddings 2p

Transit Rules! 5p 4p

3p

6p

7p

Hourly avg. 28 people in City Hall Area

*a small percentage of people registered multiple activities

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

Civic Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

le per 10,000 Square Feet

0a

Fulton Street Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Memorial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Eating/Drinking

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Waiting for Transport

Commerce

Civic Work

Accompanied by Pets

Political/Religious Advocacy

Other Activities (drug use, encampments, sleeping, aggressive behavior)

Passive - Sitting or Standing

6p

7p

28 people spending time per hour, on average

3 Hourly avg. 2.3 people per 10,000SF

2

Hourly avg. 53 people in Civic Center Plaza Eating/Drinking Exercise/Play/Recreation

Waiting for Transport

1

Commerce

Cultural/Performance Civic Work

87


Key Findings

City Hall Key Takeaways • The steps of City Hall and the grassy area that surrounds them are surprisingly well-used. Despite not being designed for active use, they are one the most powerful generators of life and activity in the District. Design Challenge • Connect the activity on City Hall steps to Civic Center Plaza, which could benefit from life and activity. • Cultivate similar energy on the west steps.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

88


Key Findings

Civic Center Plaza

Memorial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Although it is designed as a public space, 1p 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p Civic Center Plaza has no more public lifeActivities density per square foot than the area City Hall Average Hourly Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked around City Hall (designed to be decorative), or around Memorial Court and Van Ness (used mostly as a through-way). This may be12pbecause at 2p key times in4pthe morning 10a 11a 1p 3p 5p 6p and evening activities like sleeping and City Hall Average encampments Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stackedthe public life dominate profile and discourage others from using it.

10a

11a

12p

The lack of spatial definition of Civic Center makes 1pits public life Because 10a 11a 12p 2p 3p fragile. 4p 5p 6pit is so wide open, one person or group can vic Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked overwhelm and break the integrity of the entire space, compromising the experiences of everyone else.

7p

7p

7p

However, the area 12p 1pwhen 2p 3p is activated 4p 5p with6p special events, seating, food trucks, and Civic Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked other activities, people walking through the space are drawn in to spend time and stay. 10a

10a

11a

7p

People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet Peopleper per10,000 10,000Square SquareFeet Feet People per 10,000 Square People p People People per 10,000 Square Feet Feet

10 9 1 8 7 0 8a 6 5 4 5 3 10 2 9 1 4 8

0 7 3 8a 6 5 2 4 10 3 9 1 2 8 1 7 0 0 8a 6 8a 5 4 3 10 5 2 9 1 4 8 0 7 8a 6 3 5 4 2 3 2 1 1 0

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

12p

1p

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

2p

3p

4p

Civic Center PSPL 2017

5p

6p

7p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Fulton Street Average Hourly Activities 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked City Hall Average Hourly Activities PerPer 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

2.3 people 9aavg. 2.6 people 10a per 10,000SF 11a Hourly

12p

1p

2p

3p

Spending time per 5p10,000 square 6p feet 7p

4p

Hourly avg. 28 people City Hall AreaHourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Unin Plaza Average

9a 9a

10a 10a

11a 11a

12p 12p

1p 1p

2p 2p

3p 3p

4p 4p

5p 5p

6p 6p

7p 7p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities PerPer 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Civic Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Evening sleeping 9a

10a

11a

12p

Hourly avg. 2.3 people per 10,000SF

1p 2p Mixed Activities

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Hourly avg. 53 people in Civic Center Plaza

*a small percentage of people registered multiple activities

8a

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

Eating/Drinking

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Waiting for Transport

Commerce

Civic Work

Accompanied by Pets

Political/Religious Advocacy

Other Activities (drug use, encampments, sleeping, aggressive behavior)

Passive - Sitting or Standing

11a

3p

6p

7p

53 people spending time per hour, on average

*Note: playgrounds under construction during survey. For data from playgrounds, see following slides. Eating/Drinking

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Waiting for Transport

Commerce

Civic Work

89


Key Findings

Civic Center Plaza Key Takeaways • Density of people spending time in Civic Center Plaza is very low. • Active edges and spatial definition are important life generators and without them, Civic Center Plaza suffers. Design Challenge • G  enerate the type of life and activity that occurs at the edges of the buildings that surround Civic Center Plaza by introducing new “edges”, human scale design features, and daily programming and activities.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

90


Standing

Children Playing

Physical Activity

Civic Work Key Findings Cultural Activity

Commercial Activity Waiting for Transport

Civic Center Playgrounds Civic Center Feb 11th (with playgrounds) Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

A spot-survey of Civic Center while the playgrounds were open was conducted in February 2017 prior to construction.

People per 10,000 Square Feet

Negative Activities (drug use, etc.)

10

10

9

9

8

8

7

7

6

6

5

Weekday 13 February Civic Center Plaza

People per 10,000 Square Feet

San-Francisco Age & Gender Winter 2017

Saturday, February 11 Civic Center Feb 13th (with playgrounds) Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Stationary Activity

4 10 3

10a

12p

2p

Gehl — Making Cities for People

15

17

19

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Moveable Seating

16.1%

Secondary Seating

Lying Down

45.7%

Standing

9.1%

Physical Activity

8 1

1.9%

Civic Work

0.0%

Commercial Activity

0.9%

Cultural Activity

0.0%

Waiting for Transport

7.3%

Negative Activities (drug use, etc.)

7 0 8a

10a

12p

Clear throughout the day. Monday, February 13 Min 8°C Stationary Activity Max 15°C Wind 0m/s

5 4 3 2

8a

10a

12p

70.1%

3

2

1

0

Bench Seating

0.6%

18.2% Secondary Seating MoveableCivic Seating Center Feb 11th (with playgrounds) Average Hourly Activiti

9.6%

Lying Down

37.2%

Standing

Children Playing

10.2%

Physical Activity

4.4%

1

29.9%

4

3.3%

10 8.3%

0

5

2p

9 0.8%

W

8 4p

M 2p

7 65+

52.0%

30-64

32.8%

20-29

3.3%

15-19

0.7%

05-14

6.1%

00-04

5.0%

Civic Work

0.0%

0.8%

Cafe Seating

Commercial Activity

Clear throughout theforday. Waiting Transport Cultural Activity 1.7% Min 8°C Negative Activities (drug use, etc.) Max 15°C Wind 0m/s

Gender

6 People per 10,000 Square Feet

13

Cafe Seating

Children Playing

5.2%

11

0.0%

0.0%

4.4%

Age

7 AM 9

Bench Seating

13.2%

San-Francisco Age & Gender Winter 2017 Weekday 13 February Civic Center Plaza

1.3%

9 2

6

People per 10,000 Square Feet

Lying Down

5 4

W Average Hourly Activiti Civic Center Feb 11th29.9% (with playgrounds)

70.1%

M

10 3 9 2 8 1 7 0

5.2%

65+

52.0%

30-64

32.8%

20-29

3.3%

15-19

91


Key Findings

Civic Center Playgrounds Key Takeaways • The survey did not reveal a higher volume of public life in the plaza on average when the playgrounds were installed. • Although play was a component of the public life when the playgrounds were installed, most of the people spending time in the plaza were adult men and activities like drug use comprised as much as 7% of all activities. Design Challenge • Ensure proper stewardship to allow safe access for children, the intended users of the playground.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

92


Key Findings

Fulton Street + Library + Asian Art Museum Plazas

Memorial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

City Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Fulton Street and the plazas in front of the Library and Asian Art Museum had some of the highest density of 10a 11a 12p 1p 2p per3psquare 4p foot in 5p 6p staying activities the Civic Center District, especially ial Court Average Hourly Activities Per Per 10,000 Square Feet,Feet, Stacked City Hall Average Hourly Activities 10,000 Square Stacked when accounting for the fact that they were either activated by modest programming, or not formally activated at all.1pThe presence of the only5pthree 6p a 11a 12p 2p 3p 4p ple per 10,000SF public benches as well as humanple in Memorial Ct. Center Plaza Average Hourly Activitiesplazas, Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked and shade scaled seatwalls, reinforce the fact that people spend time in areas that honor the human scale.

12p 1p 2p 3p 4p 5p Seating Provided: 10 seats at bus stops City Hall Average Hourly Activities PerPer 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked vic Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked (not including seatwalls) Demand: 21 people waiting at bus stops at 10am weekday peak

10a

11a

aple per 10,000SF 11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

7p

7p

6p

7p

People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet People People per 10,000 Square Feet Peopleper per10,000 10,000Square SquareFeet Feet

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 10 2 9 1 8 0 7 8a 6

Fulton Street Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

3.7 people 9a

10a

5 4 3 2 1 0

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

Spending time per

4p

5p10,000 square 6p feet 7p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

10 9 8 7 6 8a 5 4 3 10 5 2 9 1 8 4 0 7 8a 6 3

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Fulton Street Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Hourly avg. 3.7 people per 10,000SF Hourly avg. 45 people in Fulton St.

9a

10a

5 4 2 3 2 1 1 0

11a

12p

1p 2p Book Fair

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Tour Buses

*a small percentage of people registered multiple activities

8a

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Eating/Drinking

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Waiting for Transport

Commerce

Civic Work

Accompanied by Pets

Political/Religious Advocacy

Other Activities (drug use, encampments, sleeping, aggressive behavior)

Eating/Drinking

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Waiting for Transport

Commerce

Civic Work

Passive - Sitting or Standing

6p

45 people spending time per hour, on average

7p

ple in City Hall Area

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

93


Key Findings

Fulton Street + Library + Asian Art Museum Plazas Key Takeaways • High density of people spending time in this area, especially considering little to no programming during survey. • Sunny, protected, active edges are well-used. Design Challenge • Enhance active edges and experiment with bringing life and activity to the center of Fulton Street. • Consider removing vehicular traffic and parking • Provide access to historic monument • Re-orient main entries of Asian Art Museum and Library towards enhanced public space

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

94


Fulton Street Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

ial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

UN Plaza (Market Day)

morial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

UN Plaza is crowded and active 1p 2p 3p 4p 5p on market days, especially during lunch timeSquare when commerce Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Feet, Stacked dominates all activities. 11a

12p

6p

7p

Yet compared to all the people buying and selling, a relatively low amount of 11a 12ppeople 1p are eating 2p 3p drinking. 4p 5p 6p or Perhaps this is because seating is limited, and ity Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked the moveable seats provided during lunchtime are often placed in an exposed place with no shade on a sunny day. 11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

7p

The number of people engaged in er Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked “other activities” is high, but their presence is overwhelmed by the life of the market. The rest of the Civic Center Commons could learn from this of “diluting” impact5pof illegal 11a 12pinstance 1p 2p 3p the 4p 6p activities with robust programming.

7p

enter Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 1 9 0 8 8a 7

Key Findings

6 10 5 4 10 9 9 3 2 8 8 7 1 0 6 7 8a 5 4 6 3 2 10 5 1 9 0 4 8 8a 7 6 3 5 4 2 3 2 1 1 0 0

Fulton Street Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Spending time per 10,000 square feet

9a

10a

11a

Civic Center PSPL 2017

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Hourly avg. 7.8 people per 10,000SF Hourly avg. 110 people in UN Plaza

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

Lunch! 3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Farmer’s Market! 9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

*a small percentage of people registered multiple activities

8a 8a

9a 9a

10a 10a

11a 11a

12p 12p

1p 1p

2p 2p

3p 3p

4p 4p

5p 5p

Eating/Drinking

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Waiting for Transport

Commerce

Civic Work

Accompanied by Pets

Political/Religious Advocacy

Other Activities (drug use, encampments, sleeping, aggressive behavior)

Passive - Sitting or Standing for People 11aGehl — Making 12p Cities1p 2p

7.8 people

6p 6p

7p 7p

110 people spending time per hour, on average 95


Key Findings

UN Plaza (Market Day) Key Takeaways • UN plaza bursts with activity on Market days - but limited seating with no shade limits the number of people staying to eat lunch. • Number of activities like drug use and encampments remains high, yet it does not dominate because of the number of other people in the space. Design Challenge • Fulfill latent demand for seating by adding a variety of highquality, flexible invitations to sit and stay during market days.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

96


Fulton Street Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Memorial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Key Findings

UN Plaza (Non-Market Day)

Memorial Court Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

Even on non-market days more people 0a 11a 12p 2p 3p in UN 4p Plaza 5p 6p choose1pto spend time than in the other public spaces of City Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Civic Center Commons. Yet, it is still much less active than comparable public spaces outside the District. Activities and are 12p 1plike eating 2p 3p drinking 4p 5p as high on non-market days as on City Hall Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked market days, suggesting that there is even more demand for seating at lunch on market days and demand 11a 12p 1p amenities 2p 3p 4p 5p for these on a daily basis.

10a

0a

11a

7p

6p

6p

7p

7p

c Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

10a 12p

1p11a

The number of people engaged in “other activities” is equal to market days, but because of lower total volumes of people in the space, there are times throughout the day3pwhen activities like6pdrug use and6p 1p 4p 2p12p 4p2p 5p3p 7p5p encampments dominate the space.

7p

Civic Center Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

0a

People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet People per 10,000 Square Feet

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 1 9 0 8 8a 7

Spending time per 10,000 square feet

9a

6 10 5 10 49 9 3 8 28 7 1 6 07 8a 5 4 6 3 2 105 1 9 0 84 8a 7 63 5 42 3 21 1 00

10a

11a

2p

Civic Center 2017 3p PSPL 4p

5p

6p

7p

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

9a

10a

11a

12p

1p

2p

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

Hourly avg. 6 people per 10,000SF Un Plaza Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked Hourly avg. 84 people in UN Plaza

Other Activities more visible ~50% of all people in the space 9a

10a

11a

12p

1p 2p Lunch!

3p

4p

5p

6p

7p

*a small percentage of people registered multiple activities

8a 8a

9a 9a

10a 10a

11a 11a

12p 12p

1p 1p

2p 2p

3p 3p

4p 4p

5p 5p

Eating/Drinking

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Waiting for Transport

Commerce

Civic Work

Accompanied by Pets

Political/Religious Advocacy

Other Activities (drug use, encampments, sleeping, aggressive behavior)

Passive - Sitting or Standing Gehl — Making12p Cities for People 11a 1p

6 people

Fulton Street Average Hourly Activities Per 10,000 Square Feet, Stacked

6p 6p

7p 7p

97


Key Findings

UN Plaza (Non-Market Day) Key Takeaways • UN plaza remains active on non-market days. • The amount of sleeping, encampments, and drug use remains high on non-market days and is more visible because of the lower volume of people on these days. Design Challenge • Build on existing demand for market activities by expanding the daily availability of amenities in the space and providing opportunities to sit and stay. • Build on success of market by adding daily commercial activity. • Create space for culture and commerce on blank facade at back of Orpheum Theater.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

98


Key Findings

5

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Activities like sleeping  and encampments can be overwhelming, and even when they are not, have a ripple effect Civic Center PSPL 2017

99


Key Findings

Day

Cultural/Performance

Activities change depending on time of day

6%

7%

Civic Work

4%

NGS

-

15%

NDI

NGS

NAR Y FI

9%

Accompanied by Pets Political/Religious Activity 3% Smoking

Passive: Just sittingOverall or Stationary Evening Activities standing

5%

Sleeping

2%

Encamped

2%

NEW

STA TIO

Eating/Drinking

5%

Commerce

NDI

Exercise/play/recreation

5%

45%

NEW

STA TIO

NAR Y FI

The number of people sleeping, encamped, doing drugs, intoxicated in public, panhandling or exhibiting aggressive behavior doubled at night.

Waiting for Transit

At right: number of people doing each activity during daytime counts, all spaces, all days

Cultural/Performance 1% Exercise/Play/Recreation Eating/Drinking

4%

Night

4%

Hard Drugs/ Intoxicated Panhandling/ Aggressive (0%)

Waiting for Transport Commerce 6% Civic Work 5% Accompanied by Pets 2% 3% Smoking

3%

Passive: Just sitting or standing

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

53%

19%

5% 2% 12%

Sleeping Hard Drugs/ Intoxicated Encamped

100


eet Stationary Evening Activities Key Findings

Fulton Street, nighttime

Activities change depending on location 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Smoking

Accompanied by Pets Commerce 1% Waiting for Transport 3% Exercise/Play/Recreation 2%

The number of people sleeping, encamped, doing drugs, intoxicated in public, panhandling or exhibiting aggressive behavior on Fulton Street between 7-10pm was 50%

Eating/Drinking

8PM

9PM

Passive: Just sitting or standing

15%

1% Aggressive

50% 34%

Encamped

10PM

Exercise/Play/Recreation

Cultural/Performance

Sleeping

nsport

Commerce

Civic Work

Hard Drugs/Intoxicated

y Pets

Political/Religious Advocacy

Passive Recreation

Encamped

Panhandling

Undesired Activities

Aggressive

Civic Center PSPL 2017

6%

6%

g

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Sleeping

2%

30% 7PM

0% Hard Drugs/Intoxicated/Panhandling

101


Public life impact of sleeping, encampments, and drug use

Our city’s central common space should feel welcoming to people from all walks of life - from tourists to patrons of the arts, to people experiencing homelessness and those living in SROs. Some activities measured here, such as public sleeping, are not necessarily negative unto themselves. Others, like public drug use, are illegal and clearly have a negative impact on other potential users of the space. The undefined, wide-open nature of Civic Center’s public spaces, combined with the associations that many people have with homelessness and drug use, means that some activities like encampments, have unintended consequences of deterring other people from spending time in the space. How might Civic Center productively discourage illegal activities while also providing more reasons to be there? Design Challenge • Create more invitations for more people to come more often and stay longer • Support and enhance district stewardship activities like the Downtown Streets Team and Hunters Point Family • Pursue thoughtful design to create more activity that discourages illegal uses.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

102


Key Findings

6

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Different users of Civic Center experience the same spaces differently Civic Center PSPL 2017

103


Key Findings

tionship to Civic Center

Perceptions Neighbor/Resident of the Civic Center Neighbor/Resident, Public Employee Realm by its Neighbor/Resident, users Attendee

What best describes your relationship to Civic Center?

What best describes your relationship to Civic Center

Different users of Civic Center Attendee (cultural event or institution) experience the same spaces differently and want different things from the space.

Neighbor/Resident, Employee Neighbor/Resident, Employee Neighbor/Resident, AttendeeAttendee Neighbor/Resident,

35%

22%

Employee (of nearby institution/business)

Employee (of nearby institution/business) Attendee (cultural event or institution) Tourist

Attendee (cultural event or institution) Student (of nearby school)

Tourist

9%

In some cases, we found Student (of nearby school) statistically significant differences in the way people perceived the Other public spaces of Civic Center. The following pages highlight findings by user group from the intercept survey which had 419 responses.

Neighbor/Resident

8% 2%

Employee (of nearby institution/business)

Neighbor/Resident

19%

2% 3%

Other

Tourist Student (of nearby school) Other

What best describes your relationship to Civic Center

8% 2%

Neighbor

35%

22%

9%

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Tourist

Civic Center PSPL 2017

tionship to Civic Center

Woman

Employee

19%

2% 3%

Special EventGoer 104


Key Findings

Civic Center as experienced by an

Employee

beautiful but a magnet for drug D irnot ty so use; I am much neutral but conflicted

Employees rated Civic Center most negatively compared to other groups. They tended to want more ways to spend time in Civic Center during the day, especially a place to sit at lunch. They focused on positive architectural qualities of the space and often associated homelessness with “dirty,” “drugs,” and “unsafe.”

A. What things would you like to do in the public spaces of Civic Center that you can’t do now?

Mixed, Microcosm, Public

less drugs

community, lost souls, platform for change

eat lunch Drink wine, sit

less homeless

cleaner

Activity

g in te n or u m mm co

From survey: Describe Civic Center in three words

Activity

Morning

Civic Center PSPL 2017

hang out

B. What would make you feel more safe in this place?

Open

Design Challenge • Meet employee needs for lunch and after-work food and drink

Gehl — Making Cities for People

sit in peace

Conceptual existing public life profile

lunch break!

hap hou py r! go in’ ho m e

Afternoon

Evening Conceptual future public life profile

105


Key Findings

Civic Center as experienced by a

Neighbor

A. What things would you like to do in the public spaces of Civic Center that you can’t do now?

play basketball

B. What would make you feel more safe in this place?

art show

Neighbors, including unhoused people, tended to want more recreational activities. They mentioned the words clean and ‘homeless’ but not as much in association with ‘drugs’ or ‘unsafe’. Neighbors of Civic Center tended to rate the space more positively. 1/4 recognized a person they did not plan to meet.

bring activities

lots more reasons to visit!

Activity

Morning

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

drugs off the street

more people

Activity

Design Challenge • Serve neighborhood needs for open space and active recreation without limiting large civic gatherings

picnic

Conceptual existing public life profile

Afternoon

Evening Conceptual future public life profile

106


Key Findings

Civic Center as experienced by a

Tourist

By day, resplendent; by night, unnerving; architecturally stimulating.

Tourists felt the most positively about Civic Center compared to other user groups. They had more positive than negative comments. Special events attract 58% tourists.*

Bathroom More culture

A. What things would you like to do in the public spaces of Civic Center that you can’t do now?

Design Challenge • More photo-ops and other activities (including food and drink) that invites tourists to stay longer at different times of the day.

tour bus

Activity

great photo-ops!

Activity Civic Center PSPL 2017

Sit with wind break

see more green, have food carts

stop for lunch

tour bus enjoy sunset and Dome lights

Morning

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Festival

Conceptual existing public life profile

Afternoon

Evening Conceptual future public life profile * Study: Economic Impact of SF’s Outdoor Events 107


Overall and Anomalies Key Findings

Civic Center as experienced by a

Woman Women have a more negative perception of Civic Center compared to men. Although 50% of the people moving through Civic Center are women, few of them stop and stay. This may be because women tend to be sensitive to issues of safety in public and are deterred from spending time in Civic Center’s public spaces because of the ratio of undesirable activities to desirable activities. Design Challenge • Women are invited to spend time in Civic Center’s public spaces.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Men and women moving and OVERALL AGE AND GENDER staying in the district MOVING

STA

How do you feel about the Civic Center Area?GENDER AGE AND

49%

Overall and Anomalies

Moving

51%

Negative Perception

30%

63.8%

18%

OVERALL AGE AND GENDER

U

20%

Neutral Perception

MOVING

STAYING

25%

M

CITY HALL MOVING

STA 36.2%

49%

51%

Positive Perception

62%

63.8%

45%

Staying

50%

50%

Women

CITY HALL

70.8%

12

Men

Data from Intercept Survey MOVING

STAYING

50%

Women

U

Men

M

29.2%

108


Key Findings

creating opportunities for eating and drinking in the District. • Enhance the experience of walking to and from transit and parking garages by improving pedestrian lighting and adding daily programming and activities.

Civic Center as experienced by a:

Special- event-goer Cultural institutions in Civic Center draw thousands of patrons every year. But, these events have a modest impact on Civic Center’s public life. Theatre-goers dash to their cars or transportation to go home after shows. On average, there are 41 weddings every day at Civic Center, yet time for a ceremony and photographs in the Rotunda is limited. The steps are crowded as couples take photos there, but few extend their experience to Civic Center Plaza.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Activity

rush back to parking garage from show nice stroll after a show

dinner before the show Morning Activity

Design Challenge • Special-event-goers bring their celebration to the public spaces of Civic Center and use these spaces to gather before and after events. • Create invitations for this group to come more often and stay longer by

rush from parking garage to show

Conceptual existing public life profile

Afternoon

Evening Conceptual future public life profile

109


Key Findings

Civic Center as experienced by a

Potential User Most of the potential users of Civic Center are already in the district - they just need targeted invitations spend more time. Low income people making between $10-25k were under-represented in the intercept survey, as were Asian-Americans and students.

Potential for expanded public life at Civic Center

Activity

How can the design and programming of Civic Center extend genuine invitations to these user groups?

Activity

Morning

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Conceptual existing public life profile

Afternoon

Evening Conceptual future public life profile

110


Key Findings

Public Life Key Findings 1  2

3  4

Lots of people are moving through Civic Center

Few people choose to spend time in Civic Center

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Peaks in activity do not generate ‘spillover’ impactsr

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Each space in Civic Center has a unique public life heartbeate

5

6

Activities like sleeping and encampments can be overwhelming in number, and even when they are not, have a ripple effect

Different users of Civic Center experience the same spaces differently

111


Framework for public life


Framework for Public Life

This section of the document proposes a series of principles and strategies from amplifying and improving public life in the Civic Center District.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

122


Civic Center Framework for Public Life Key Findings Public Space 1 Civic Center is a powerful symbol of San Francisco 2 There’s no center in Civic Center 3 The civic axis is broken 4 Fragmented stewardship 5 Look but don’t touch: the space is unfriendly to the human scale and governance 6 The limited ability of the Beaux Arts plan to support public life has been eroded over time

1. Civic Center exemplifies San Francisco’s ideals of tolerance, generosity, and diversity

2. Civic Center is generous at the human scale, where everyday public life of the city unfolds

3. Civic Center is a destination for celebration and culture that inspires pride in the unique identity of San Francisco

4. Civic Center’s public realm encourages democratic participation by providing space for large civic gatherings as well as smaller acts of civic life

5. The Civic Center District has a strong identity, expressed and anchored by a connected public realm

Big Moves

Public Life 1 Lots of people are moving through Civic Center 2 Peaks in activity do not generate ‘spillover’ impacts 3 Few people choosing to spend time in Civic Center 4 Each space in Civic Center has a unique public life heartbeat 5 Activities like sleeping and encampments can be overwhelming in number , and even when they are not, have a ripple effect 6 Different users of Civic Center experience the same spaces differently

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Vision for Public Life + Public Space

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Connect to Neighborhoods

Enhance Ceremonial Axis

Focal Points

Active Entrances

Edges + Enclosure

Coordinated Stewardship

Genuine Invitations to Stay

123


A Vision  for Public Life + Public Space

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

124


Framework for Public Life

Civic Center is for everybody. It exemplifies San Francisco’s ideals of tolerance, generosity, and diversity • Civic Center welcomes diverse people - People move to San Francisco from around the world to experience diversity and tolerance, and Civic Center celebrates these values at their best. • Civic Center fosters coexistence between diverse people and cultures face-to-face - Programming that appeals to different cultures and income groups is held at the same time, in the same space. • Genuine invitations are present for all users of the space, regardless of background or income. The design makes “just being here” a dignified experience. A genuine invitation can be as simple as a dignified bench or a coffee shop, or as complex as a march or wedding. • The public life of Civic Center is resilient - The space limits the invitations for illegal activity like drug use and drug dealing, and limits the negative impacts of activities like personal encampments without banishing them.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

© Eric Parker Union Square, New York

125


Framework for Public Life

Civic Center is generous at the human scale and supports everyday public life • Basic amenities - Seating, shade, human-scale lighting, bathrooms, drinking fountains, and wayfinding are sufficient for this large public space. • The urban quality of the space provides safety, comfort, and enjoyment and supports everyday moments of rest - Civic Center invites people to have lunch in the fresh air, meet with fellow students, relax in the evening, and spend time with family and friends on the weekend. Great public spaces are also a good place to spend an hour - a place to be between A + B. • Play and recreation are supported in Civic Center - Playgrounds and facilities for recreation complement the neighborhood public realm network.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Trafalgar Square, England

126


Framework for Public Life

Civic Center is a destination for celebration and culture that inspires pride in the unique identity of San Francisco • Cultural events in institutions spill out into the public spaces adjacent to them performances, book sales, and other events take place in the public realm of Civic Center, and audiences before and after formal shows and events linger and spend time in the public realm - especially after dark. • Civic Center’s public realm hosts its own cultural events. Spaces host formal and informal performances. • Permanent and ephemeral public art reflects the unique identity of San Francisco

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

127


Framework for Public Life

Civic Center’s public realm encourages democratic participation by providing space for large civic gatherings as well as smaller acts of civic life • Major moments to debate and reaffirm our civic values continue to have a home in San Francisco’s Civic Center. • Daily civic acts central to our democracy take place in Civic Center’s public spaces as appropriate, certain civic activities such as graduations, volunteering, and elements of the voting process should be invited to occur in the public realm around Civic Center.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

@LydiaPantazes 128


Framework for Public Life — Where are we

The Civic Center district has a strong identity, expressed and anchored by a connected public realm. • Physically connected - It is easy to walk and cycle through the district and connect to adjacent neighborhoods with clear gateways. • Programmatically and culturally unified Coordinated programming, public art, operating hours, wayfinding, and branding. • Stewardship and enforcement - Law enforcement, ambassadors, cleaning, and other stewardship operates as one or in close coordination with one another.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Strøget, Copenhagen 129


Framework for Public Life

7 Big Moves The big moves are a set of proposals for both tactical and strategic spatial interventions, as well as recommendations for programming and stewardship

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

130


Framework for Public Life

Western Addition

1

Boeddeker Park

orth Leavenw

er St. Mcallist

Market Street BART & Muni

h 7t

Buchanan St. Mall

St

Hayes Valley

St

Gateways

Muni hub

St

Patricia’s Green

SoMa

h 8t

t. Hayes S

Hayes Valley Playground

M ar ke tS t.

. Grove St

th 10

Bicy Net cle wor k

Turk & Hyde Mini Park

Hyde St.

Design Tools:

Jefferson Square Park

t. Larkin S

These walkable streets should be safe, consistent, convenient, and delightful with world-class sidewalks, intersections and gateways.

Tenderloin Polk St.

The pedestrian network moving to and through Civic Center should exemplify the best of the city and highlight the city’s commitment to people-first mobility.

Tenderloin Wellness Trail

Little Saigon

s Ave. Van Nes

Connect Civic Center to the neighborhoods that surround it

Ped ns ectio n n o C

Tenderloin Children’s Playground

Sergeant John Macaulay Park

McCoppin Park

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Mission

131


Framework for Public Life

Consistent and high quality pedestrian connections Civic Centerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s feeder streets should be of high quality and notify people they are in the district through consistent furnishings and district branding.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Oxford Circus, London

132


Framework for Public Life

The bicycle network moving to and through Civic Center should exemplify the best of the city Grove and Polk Streets have been identified as priorities for the city’s cyling plan. Highlight the city’s commitment to advancing people-powered, non-motorized transportation by making these showcase facilities that are consistent, connected, and convenient.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Seattle

133


Framework for Public Life

A special focus on gateway intersections approaching Civic Center’s key public spaces A gateway can be a welcome mat or a barrier to people entering into the Civic Center district. Emphasize these key hinges with high quality crossings, short crossing distances, short crossing times, and improved crosswalks that ease movement to and through the district. Create inviting gateways by incentivizing active street edges along key streets like Larkin Street.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Madrid

© Daderot Buenos Hayes Valley

© Allan Ferguson Castro Street

© MIG Placemaking Sacramento

134


Framework for Public Life

t. worth S

St.

Art Institute

rt Asian A Museum

St. allister McA

l Federa

g

Buildin

ll

Theatre

Improved at-grade crossing

Study potential future connection

ouse

Opera H

lic SF Pub Library

United Cafe Nations ege it C y Coll of SF m Orpheu Theater

Muni / B A

RT

SF ny Sympho

Performing Arts Walk

St ke t

New midblock crossing

Study potential future connection

ar

ham Bill Gra ium Auditor

.

. St

t. Grove S

M

Herbst

h 8t

Create a Civic Mall

UC s Hasting

r

t. SF Dep h lt a e H f o

Mid Cro block ssin gs

of CA

Relocate parking garage kiosk, reconfigure garage entry

Superio Court

t.

ade At-Gr gs sin Cros

e Court

Suprem

Hyde St.

Larkin

Polk St.

Ave.

Design Tools:

e. Gate Av

City Ha

nS Frankli

The grand Beaux-Arts axis is the defining feature of Civic Center - let the public realm mirror the architectural significance of this big move by creating a new enhanced civic and ceremonial axes from the steps of City Hall to Market Street.

Golden

s Van Nes

Enhance prominent civic + ceremonial axes with pedestrianpriority street crossings

Leaven

2

t. Hayes S

h 9t . St

ter

Thea Nourse

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

135


Framework for Public Life

Create a civic mall The Civic Center ceremonial axis is modeled after other major ceremonial axis and was once a bold connection from the City Hall Steps to Market street. Create a bold axis and corridor for major civic events that aligns the visual axis with strong pedestrian connection and mass gathering space.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

National Mall during Obamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s innauguration

136


Framework for Public Life

Connect key public spaces along the main civic axis with at-grade crossings Connecting grand civic buildings to grand public spaces can have a dramatic positive impact on both. Street crossings along this axis should prioritize pedestrians with wide at-grade crossings and pedestrian-priority signal timing along the axis emanating east from City Hall. Before, Trafalger Square

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

After, Trafalger Square

137


Framework for Public Life

New mid-block crossings Respond to existing pedestrian desire lines and create new mid-block crossings.

Š Nacto NYC

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Mid-block crossing at SF City Hall

Caption 138


Framework for Public Life

Theatre

Hyde St.

St.

e Court

Suprem

New focal point

UC s Hasting

Civic + Ceremonial Axis Asian Art

of CA

r

Superio Court

Museum

l Federa

Art Institute

g

Buildin

ll

City Ha

Pioneer ent Monum

lic SF Pub Library

SF ny Sympho

New focal point

t.

ham Bill Gra ium Auditor

ar ke tS

City Hall dome, ept. SF D existing focal h of Healt point

Pioneer Monument, existing focal point . St

t. Grove S

m Orpheu Theater

M

ouse

Opera H

United Cafe Nations ege City Coll of SF

h 8t

n St. Frankli

t. Hayes S

h 9t . St

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Relocate parking garage kiosk, reconfigure garage entry Larkin

Herbst

Quiet Axis

Create a sense of enclosure and entry into the ‘quiet axis’ of Memorial Court through a soft threshold, like a grove of trees.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

e. Gate Av

St. allister McA

Enhance central Beaux-Arts City Hall / Market Street axis by placing a focal point at the east terminus in UN Plaza. Focal point should be a center of activity that relates to the commercial character of this space.

Enhance existing North/South connections on Fulton Street

Polk St.

Ave.

Focal points act as magnets in a space, and draw people to them. They enhance existing views, add interest and provide an important sense of orientation for users of the space. Focal points can be low to preserve views.

Establish a new focal point in Civic Center Plaza between the iconic architecture of Supreme Court and Bill Graham Auditorium. Introduce a new focal point monument, public art piece, pavilion, or other feature at the center of this new, reinforced axis.

Golden

s Van Nes

Enhance visual axes with new focal points

t. worth S Leaven

3

Nourse

Theater

139


Framework for Public Life

New focal points Spaces around the world that share Civic Center’s Beaux-Arts style have found a way to delight all five senses at the human scale - from mobile book libraries, climbable statues, to splashparks.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Trafalger Square

Place de la Republique, Paris

Poul Gernes, Denmark

Temple at Patricia’s Green © Hoodline

Crown Fountain, Chicago

Movement Cafe, London

TKTS Steps, New York

Historic focal points Civic Center Plaza 1942

Brooklyn

140


Framework for Public Life

4

Leaven t. worth S

Larkin

UC s Hasting

St.

Polk St.

Ave.

The quality of space in Civic Center is highly influenced by the quality of the building edges that surround it. Add new entrances where possible and activate edges and entrances to promote and support healthy public life.

e. Gate Av

Hyde St.

Golden

s Van Nes

Celebrate and re-orient active entrances

Experiment with non-commercial, outdoor active edge

Activate building entries from Fulton Street

A urt of C

e Co Suprem

r

Superio Court

rt Asian A m u e s u M

St. allister McA

l Federa

Art Institute

g

Buildin

ll

City Ha Herbst

Theatre

New entrance

lic SF Pub Library

United Cafe Nations ege City Coll of SF m Orpheu Theater

Existing entrance New active edge

Add Ent New ran ces

t. Hayes S

. St ke t Redevelop existing corner parking lot with a hotel or other complementary use with an active ground floor

. St

Theater

Activate during the day with more frequent and evening use not always associated with shows

h 9t

Civic Center PSPL 2017

ar

SF ny m y S pho

Nourse

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

ham Bill Gra ium r o Audit

M

t. SF Dep h lt a e H of

Design Tools: lif y Amp es nc Entra

t. Grove S

. St

Publicly-accessible interior space

h 8t

n St. Frankli

Existing active edge

ouse

Opera H

141


Framework for Public Life

Amplify existing entrances Seating, seatwalls, planting, shade, transparency and human-scale elements at the entrance of a building make it a more active edge. Re-orient entries of the Asian Art Museum and Library towards Fulton Plaza.

SF Public Library during a book sale

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

PĂŠrez Art Museum, Miami

142


Framework for Public Life

Add new entrances UN Plaza and Van Ness can be activated by adding new entrances to existing Beaux-Arts facades. In Europe for example, it is common to find a beer hall or restaurant in the cellar of the town hall, even in areas with traditional architecture.

Munich City Hall Includes a restaurant and beer garden in the basement

Consider a liner building on the blank corner facade of SHN Orpheum Theatre

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

UN Plaza at Hyde St.

143


Framework for Public Life

Existing playgrounds

Hyde St.

e Court

Suprem

St.

Pavilions complete street enclosure

More flexible seating to complement existing shade + enclosure Art

UC s Hasting

of CA

Institute

r

Superio Court

rt Asian A Museum

St. allister McA

l Federa

g

Buildin

ll

City Ha

Spaces with active edges promote robust public life. By introducing human-scale rooms and complete street corridors, more people will feel invited to stay.

Herbst

Theatre

United Cafe Nations ege City Coll of SF

lic SF Pub y r a r ib L

m Orpheu Theater

Late hours kiosk or cart + more integrated BART entries

Occupiable green area ouse

Opera H

h 8t

More seating in Memorial Court t. Hayes S

Pavilions to complete street enclosure

t.

Retail liner / entrances

Increase seating for staying and waiting for transit

Green edge zones for people watching h 9t

Active perimeter entrance and edge zone

M

SF ny m y S pho

ke tS

t. t. SF Dep h of Healt

ham Bill Gra ium Auditor

ar

t. Grove S

. St

nS Frankli

1. I ntroduce new built edges along McAllister Street and Grove Street 2. Introduce a new landscape edge to define human-scale rooms on the edge of City Hall 3. Design for socially resilient space

Transit plazas

e. Gate Av Larkin

Ave.

Spatial organization creates a framework for life to unfold, and should be designed to support the desired public life profile of Civic Center.

Golden

Polk St.

s Van Nes

Edges and enclosure

Major building entrances in Fulton corridor

t. worth S Leaven

5

. St

Landscape edge zone

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

ter

Thea Nourse

144


Framework for Public Life

A new, built edge to complete the street wall Pavilion-type structures could provide spatial definition to Civic Center Plaza and create new nodes of activity and opportunities for programming and activation during the day and at night. Consider introducing new built, edges along McAllister Street and Grove Street to complete the street wall with an active edge.

Civic Center Plaza Birite Kiosk, forthcoming

Mission Flores, SF

From Civic Center Plaza, looking Southeast

23

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Torvehallerne, Copenhagen

Bryant Park Kiosks create enclosure, NYC Š Colin Miller

145


Framework for Public Life

A new landscape edge to define human-scale rooms on the edge of Civic Center Plaza Landscape rooms create human-scale spaces for people to spend time. These edges also minimize the negative effects of San Francisco’s windy and foggy microclimate

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Lurie Garden, Chicago

Bryant Park, NYC

Rose Kennedy Greenway, Boston

Rittenhouse Square, Philadelphpia

146


Framework for Public Life

A socially resilient space through design As we discovered in our Public Life study, activities like drug use and encampments have ripple effects in a space - deterring people from spending time there. When designed with care at the humanscale, spaces that act like outdoor ‘rooms’ can create conditions for disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged people to coexist side-by-side. The social effect of landscape ‘rooms’ are highlighted in the example at right by a public life study from spaces in Copenhagen, DK.

Boligudvalget 2010-11 BOU alm. del Bilag 49 Offentligt

byfornyelse

Byen som dagligstue? byfornyelse med plads tIl socIalt udsatte

intro Indledning

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Side 1

“The City as a Living Room? City renewal with space for vulnerable people.”

Civic Center PSPL 2017

In this space, people drinking and using drugs (red) spend time within a circular barrier or to the east of it, while others (blue) spend time outside of the barrier, and in the western edge of the space, effectively sharing the space.

Two cafes with different clientèles, one low-income and the other moderate income, exist side by side.

147


Framework for Public Life

A socially resilient space through program Many successful civic and neighborhood spaces contain a wide spectrum of public life. One user group should never dominate use of a large public space like Civic Center - whether they are dog walkers, wedding guests, or people experiencing homelessness. Through unique, active invitations to be in the space, people who are engaged in less socially acceptable behaviors can continue to be there, alongside people there for other reasons.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Times Square

148


Framework for Public Life

Hyde St.

S Larkin t.

Art Institute

A urt of C

e Co Suprem

r rt Asian A Museum

ing

l Build Federa

ll

City Ha Herbst

Theatre

lic SF Pub y r a r ib L

ouse Opera H

United Cafe Nations ege City Coll of SF m Orpheu Theater

h 8t

ke t

St

.

ham Bill Gra ium Auditor

M

ar

t. Grove S

. St

n St. Frankli

SF ny Sympho

t. Hayes S

h 9t

Car e

UC s Hasting

Superio Court

t. SF Dep h of Healt

Programs for Social Mixing

e. Gate Av

St. allister McA

Design Tools: ed dinat Coor rdship a Stew

Polk St.

Ave.

Civic Center should have a coordinated strategy for district stewardship. This could take the form of an interdepartmental working group, a “friends of” group, and/or a single maintenance or management entity. Stewardship, district identity, ambassador programs, programming, and other positive elements of stewardship should be coordinated with enforcement, police, cleaning, and other necessary activities.

Golden

s Van Nes

Coordinated Stewardship and Enforcement

t. worth S Leaven

6

. St

Nourse

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Theater

149


Framework for Public Life

District-wide coordinated stewardship and safety Stewardship and safety organizations should coordinate within the Civic Center district to to work towards common goals, including creating a safe environment for all that limits the impact of illegal activities.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Civic Center, San Francisco

150


Framework for Public Life

Care City agencies and non profit organizations devoted to care and services for at-risk people in Civic Center should be empowered to boost efforts in the district. Programs that are coordinated with stewardship and maintenance agencies over common goals will have larger, synergistic impacts. The goal should not be to banish vulnerable people from Civic Center, but to provide services and dignified care. Civic Center, San Francisco

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Lava Mae, San Francisco Š Adrian Pintor

151


Framework for Public Life

Programs for social mixing Civic Center should offer a wide variety of activities that appeal to a diversity of people so everyone feels welcome. Public events should be planned such that different types of people interact in Civic Center. For example, a paid event should occur alongside a free one. A pop-up care village should occur alongside free games and music. Civic Center should use its unique large scale to meet neighborhood public space needs that are unmet by the area public space network. The spaces should meet the needs of more vulnerable neighborhood residents such as seniors, teens, and kids.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

First Fridays Block Party, Oakland Š Oaklandfirstfridays.org

152


Framework for Public Life

Encourage small acts of democracy Look for ways to encourage smaller acts of democracy such as voting, immigration ceremonies, graduations, or specific-issue demonstrations.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

San Francisco voter

Immigration ceremony

Simon Bolivar Statue

San Francisco highschool graduation

153


Framework for Public Life

Reduce barriers to small-scale user-generated programming Small-scale events, artwork and commercial activity can provide a more consistent and neighborhoodscaled activation of the public spaces of Civic Center. The current permitting process favors large events, as reflected in the use patterns of the Commons. To encourage daily and neighborhood-scale use, permitting for small-scale programming should be streamlined, providing fewer barriers to entry than large events.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

154


Civic Gathering

Framework for Public Life

t. worth S

. Hyde St

St.

M ar ke tS t. h 8t . St

t. Hayes S

Nighttime Theater + Entertainment

ar

Green Edge Zones

M

Activate City Hall West Steps

ke t

St .

Transit Plazas

t.

Playgrounds

Market Street Neighborhood Commerce

h 9t . St

Civic Center PSPL 2017

. Polk St

Ave.

nS Frankli

t. Grove S

Pre- and PostEvent Gathering, small-scale acoustics + Quiet Reflection/ Remembrance Gehl — Making Cities for People

e. Gate Av

St. allister McA

Civic Center’s public spaces should provide genuine invitations to stay. Unique program areas can create moments that are just as special, symbolic, and iconic as the district’s architecture. Spaces can be brought to life by giving them distinct and visible programmatic identity. Program areas and description at right. Design precedents for each major space in the pages to follow.

Neighborhood Green

Larkin

s Van Nes

Genuine invitations to stay

Golden

Daytime office + lunch

Leaven

7

Civic + Celebration

• Grand civic axis is clear of obstructions or barriers to large mass events or rallies

155


Framework for Public Life

Invitations for Public Life in

UN Plaza More flexible seating with shade and enclosure during markets Commerce in UN plaza every day of the week, not only Farmerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Market Integrate BART into the public realm while improving a sense of safety by positioning a late-hours vendor like a flower kiosk or a newspaper stand near the BART entrance.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

156


Framework for Public Life

UN Plaza

Encourage 24/7 commerce Civic Center needs a diverse ecology of commerce its major public spaces. Consider encouraging a flower stand or news kiosk to open directly adjacent to the BART portal in UN Plaza to create passive eyes on the street and make BART riders and people departing from Civic Center entertainment feel more safe. Consider coinciding a night market on evenings when the theaters are active. In addition to brick-and-mortar activation, UN Plaza should have regular ephemeral events such as the Farmerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Market as well as smaller ephemeral programs like street vending. These active uses, when commercial, should not overshadow the civic nature of the space.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

A flower market open provides eyes on the street

A night market greets people leaving theaters at night

Kiosk space for rotating vendors in Pernstejn Square, Czech Republic

157


Framework for Public Life

UN Plaza

Celebrate transit stops 25% of users of this space use public transportation to get here. Dignify their journey by making transit connections part of the public realm experience. Emphasize BART plazas as part of the public realm; Celebrate transit stops in front of Asian Art Museum + Library, and along McAllister and Van Ness.

Montreal

Paris

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Alicante Tram Stop, Spain

158


Framework for Public Life

Invitations for Public Life in

Fulton Street Neighborhood Green Leverage active edges to support a pedestrianized center of Fulton Street. Remove vehicular traffic and parking. Asian Art Museum and Library locate a major entrance or exit onto Fulton Street. Create neighbourhood green space. Transit Plazas Increase seating and incorporate adjacent cultural identity into bus stops to serve transit riders and activate public spaces

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

159


Framework for Public Life

Fulton Street

A green plaza Fulton Street can be a new neighborhood green space, framed by the Library and Asian Art Museum, with events and activities at the edges which spill out into the space.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Bryant Park

160


Framework for Public Life

Invitations for Public Life in

Civic Center Plaza Civic + Celebration New focal points along the way encourage walking and staying activities. Gardens, restaurants, or cafes for wedding and graduation ceremonies. Cater to small to medium-sized groups ~20 people who come here to celebrate. Enhance parking entry and combine with other attractions such as daytime lunch location. Connected public realm allows for moments of protest to occur in all spaces at once. Spaces should delight the 5 senses. Daytime office + lunch Leverage sunny time of the day in the NE corner and host lunch and cafe activities. Theater + Entertainment Pre- and post-event invitations to spend time. Major new retail and commercial spaces to encourage activity. Nightlife spine - inviting to people walking home from shows Activate Brooks Hall with cultural or commercial anchor. Green Edge Zones. Smaller edge spaces for people-watching. Playgrounds Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

161


Framework for Public Life

Civic Center Plaza

Celebrate Views Design of the Civic Center Plaza should reinforce the Beaux Arts symmetry and celebrate its grand architecture. Views should be emphasized along secondary axes (e.g. between Bill Graham Civic Auditorium and the Courthouse, and between the Library and the Asian Art Museum), as well as the primary grand axis from City Hall to Market Street.

View along grand axis

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

View of the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium - blocked by trees

162


Framework for Public Life

Civic Center Plaza

Pavilions + Kiosks Consider a series of small or large pavilions or kiosks to bring life and activity to Civic Center Plaza.

Nørreport Station, Copenhagen

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Chicago Apple Store, Foster Partners

Small pavilions

Lincoln Center, Diller Scofidio + Renfro

163


Framework for Public Life

Civic Center Plaza

Install basic public space amenities Install basic public space amenities such as trash cans, water fountains, bathrooms and human-scale lighting to create a safe and pleasant walk at all times of the day. Wayfinding that highlights common routes and the civic center axis and encourages people to explore the district. Basic public amenities should be visible and accessible from key entry points to Civic Center.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

164


Framework for Public Life

Civic Center Plaza

Dramatically increase opportunities to sit, lean and stay Civic Center should have many more invitations to sit, lean, and stay. Healthy public spaces invite approximately 50% of all people spending time in a space to sit. In the past, too modest increases in the amount and variety of opportunities to sit and stay in Civic Center have communicated to the public that seating is a rare commodity, and private “encampments” in the few seats available have compounded on this perception. With proper stewardship to guard against the “privatization” of public seating, Civic Center can provide opportunities for everyone to stay.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

165


Key Findings

Civic Center Plaza

Take advantage of microclimate In San Franciscoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s notoriously foggy, windy, and chilly climate, Civic Center has corners that are in sun for most of the day year-round, especially the northeast corner of Civic Center Plaza. However, anyone walking out of City Hall in the afternoon will be in shadow. Creating comfortable places to sit down relax that take advantage of the positive microclimate in Civic Center Plaza will enhance enjoyment of this space.

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Summer Solstice 6.21 3pm

The dramatic steps of City Hall are in shadow when many special events take place

166


Framework for Public Life

Civic Center Plaza

Delight the senses The visual delight in Civic Center’s Beaux Arts architecture should be matched by delight to the senses of touch, sound, smell, and taste. Water features, aromatic gardens, and other sensoriallyrich features offer intrigue and connect people to the landscape. Opportunities to connect to San Francisco’s history through the senses, like a Dahlia garden, should be explored.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Civic Center Commons

Cumberland Park, Nashville

Civic Center Farmer’s Market

Golden Gate Park Dhalia Garden, © SFGate

167


Framework for Public Life

Sergeant John Macaulay Park

Civic Center Plaza

Recreational uses in Civic Center District supports gaps in the neighborhood public realm network Civic Center sits at the center of several neighborhoods, each of which have their own network of public spaces. Civic Center Plaza should support but not duplicate the existing public realm network. Recreational uses should not overshadow the civic nature of the space. How can Civic Center pick up the slack where neighborhood open space networks are lacking to better serve people in these neighborhoods? We recommend a comprehensive assessment of existing recreational amenities.

Open Spaces within 15 minutes walk of Civic Center Plaza Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Tenderloin Children’s Playground

Boeddeker Park

Turk & Hyde Mini Park

Jefferson Square Park

5 min Walking

10 min Walking

Buchanan St. Mall

15 min Walking

Gene Friend Recreation Center

Hayes Valley Playground

Howard & Langton Mini Park

Victoria Manalo Draves Park

Patricia’s Green

Page & Laguna Mini Park McCoppin Park 168


Framework for Public Life

Invitations for Public Life in

City Hall West Pre- and Post-Event Gathering and Quiet Reflection + Remembrance in Memorial Court Develop stronger identity of Memorial Court by testing seating Experiment with small-scale performances City Hall West Steps Activate west-side City Hall steps in combination with study with a mid-block crossing on Van Ness. Take advantage of afternoon sun. Transit Plazas Increase seating and incorporate adjacent cultural identity into bus stops to serve transit riders and activate public spaces

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

169


Framework for Public Life

City Hall West

Programming in the “Front Porch” of cultural institutions Use the public spaces adjacent to cultural institutions to bring cultural programming into the public realm.

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Opera Ball

Opera Neighborhood Night

Sydney Opera

Opera Neighborhood Night

Civic Center Commons 170


Framework for Public Life

te Ave.

Lie in the sun

St.

Intermittent event activities

e Suprem

Hyde St.

Larkin

Ave.

Bringing life to these dead zones is a key priority for the public realm plan.

Polk St.

s Van Nes

Even on a market day, when UN Plaza is bustling with activity, the rest of the Civic Center Commons are pocked with ‘dead zones’ where there is little to no staying activity throughout the day.

Ga Golden

t. worth S Leaven

Existing zones of public life Play

f CA

Court o

UC s Hasting Art Institute

Hangout Sit in the sun

r Superio Court

rt Asian A Museum

St. allister McA

Market commerce l Federa

g

Buildin

ll

City Ha Herbst

Theatre

lic SF Pub y r a r ib L

United Cafe Nations ege City Coll of SF m Orpheu Theater

h 8t

SF ny m y S pho

t. Hayes S

t. ke tS

Nightlife / entertainment

ar

t. t. SF Dep h of Healt

Tourists taking photos ham Bill Gra ium Auditor

M

t. Grove S

. St

nS Frankli

ouse

Opera H

Weddings / tourism h 9t . St

ter

Thea Nourse

Gehl — Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

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Framework for Public Life

Desired zones of public life Wait for transit in dignity

Design of Civic Centerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s public realm should prioritize the type of life that we want to create in its public spaces; spacial and programmatic organization supports the desired public life profile and invites a density of activities.

Eat lunch in the sun

Sit in the sun Wait for the bus

Relax and celebrate the arts

Existing conditions including spatial characteristics, microclimatic differences and zones of active use, should be harnessed to invite a broad range of staying activities. Day and night commerce throughout the week

Play and recreation Celebration Tourism Protest Sit on the steps Small-scale shows Pre- and post-event gathering Quiet reflection and leisure Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Nightlife zone Arts and entertainment

172


Evaluation Matrix


Evaluation Matrix

A data-driven approach to amplifying public life in Civic Center

Evaluation of public life indicators Based on the findings described above and in discussion with the planning team and various stakeholder groups, Gehl prepared a custom evaluation matrix for the Civic Center public realm. This tool identifies targeted public life outcomes for each space and specific user groups. This tool should be used to evaluate progress toward desired life outcomes for both short term, temporary interventions (such as those initiated by the Civic Center Commons project) and for evaluating long term design proposals. Following a period of review and vetting, agency stakeholders should agree on indicators and frequency of evaluation and use this matrix to asses progress towards key public life goals moving forward. Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Draft 174


Follow the project and get involved at www.civiccentersf.org

Gehl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Making Cities for People

Civic Center PSPL 2017

Profile for Gehl - Making Cities for People

San Francisco Civic Center Public Life Framework  

Gehl in collaboration with San Francisco Planning and nearly 100 volunteers conducted a Public Space + Public Life Study of Civic Center. Th...

San Francisco Civic Center Public Life Framework  

Gehl in collaboration with San Francisco Planning and nearly 100 volunteers conducted a Public Space + Public Life Study of Civic Center. Th...